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Classification and external resources

G 20.0 [1] -G 21.0



332 [3]

24212 [4]

000759 [5]

D020734 [6]

Parkinsonism (also known as Parkinson's syndrome, atypical Parkinson's, or secondary Parkinson's) is a neurological syndrome characterized by tremor, hypokinesia, rigidity, and postural instability. [7] The underlying causes of parkinsonism are numerous, and diagnosis can be complex. [8] While the neurodegenerative condition Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common cause of parkinsonism, a wide-range of other etiologies can lead to a similar set of symptoms, including some toxins, a few metabolic diseases, and a handful of non-PD neurological conditions. [9] Its most common cause is as a side effect of medications, mainly neuroleptic antipsychotics especially the phenothiazines (such as perphenazine and chlorpromazine), thioxanthenes (such as flupenthixol and zuclopenthixol) and butyrophenones (such as haloperidol (Haldol)), piperazines (such as ziprasidone), and rarely, antidepressants.


If PD has been excluded, the differential diagnosis or list of potential causes for this syndrome includes:

AIDS can sometimes lead to the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, due to commonly causing dopaminergic dysfunction. [10]

• Drug-induced parkinsonism (due to drugs such as antipsychotics, metoclopramide, MPTP [12] ) [7]

Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome) [14]

• Toxicity due to substances such as carbon monoxide, [15] carbon disulfide, [15] manganese, [15] paraquat, [16] , mercury [17] , hexane, rotenone, and toluene.

• Vascular parkinsonism [18]

Wilson's disease is a genetic disorder in which there is an abnormal accumulation of copper. The excess copper can lead to the formation of a copper-dopamine complex, which leads to the oxidation of dopamine to aminochrome. [19]

Paraneoplastic syndrome. Neurological symptoms caused by antibodies associated with various cancers.

Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation (NBIA), A.K.A. Hallervorden-Spatz disease [20]

• Genetic

• Rapid onset dystonia parkinsonism (DYT12)



• Parkin mutation

• X-linked dystonia parkinsonism (DYT3)

• Autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (ARJP)

External links

• GeneReview/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on X-Linked Dystonia-Parkinsonism [21]


[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] Aminoff MJ, Greenberg DA, Simon RP (2005). Clinical Neurology (6th ed.). Lange: McGraw-Hill Medical. pp. 2415. ISBN 0071423605. [8] Tuite PJ, Krawczewski K (2007). "Parkinsonism: a review-of-systems approach to diagnosis". Seminars in neurology 27 (2): 11322. doi:10.1055/s-2007-971174. PMID 17390256. [9] Christine CW, Aminoff MJ (2004). "Clinical differentiation of parkinsonian syndromes: prognostic and therapeutic relevance". Am. J. Med. 117 (6): 4129. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2004.03.032. PMID 15380498. [10] Tse W, Cersosimo MG, Gracies JM, et al. (2004). "Movement disorders and AIDS: a review". Parkinsonism Relat. Disord. 10 (6): 32334. doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2004.03.001. PMID 15261874. [11] Maltête D, Guyant-Maréchal L, Mihout B, Hannequin D (2006). "Movement disorders and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a review". Parkinsonism Relat. Disord. 12 (2): 6571. doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2005.10.004. PMID 16364674. [12] Watanabe Y, Himeda T, Araki T (2005). "Mechanisms of MPTP toxicity and their implications for therapy of Parkinson's disease" (http:// (PDF). Med. Sci. Monit. 11 (1): RA1723. PMID [13] Wenning GK, Geser F (2003). "Multiple system atrophy". Rev. Neurol. (Paris) 159 (5 Pt 2): 3S318. PMID 12773886. [14] Uc EY, Rodnitzky RL (2003). "Childhood dystonia". Seminars in pediatric neurology 10 (1): 5261. doi:10.1016/S1071-9091(02)00010-4. PMID 12785748. [15] DeLong MR, Juncos JL (2004). Parkinson's Disease and Other Movement Disorders. In: Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine (16th ed.). McGraw-Hill Professional. pp. 2414. ISBN 0-07-140235-7. [16] Dinis-Oliveira RJ, Remião F, Carmo H, et al. (2006). "Paraquat exposure as an etiological factor of Parkinson's disease". Neurotoxicology 27 (6): 111022. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2006.05.012. PMID 16815551. [17] Tremor/InvoluntaryMovements: Excerpt from Field Guide to Bedside Diagnosis (

[18] Thanvi B, Lo N, Robinson T (2005). "Vascular Parkinsonism--an important cause of parkinsonism in older people" (http://ageing. (PDF). Age and ageing 34 (2): 1149. doi:10.1093/ageing/afi025. PMID [19] Członkowska A, Tarnacka B, Möller JC, et al. (2007). "Unified Wilson's Disease Rating Scale a proposal for the neurological scoring of Wilson's disease patients". Neurol. Neurochir. Pol. 41 (1): 112. PMID 17330175. [20] NEURODEGENERATION WITH BRAIN IRON ACCUMULATION 1; NBIA1 (

Article Sources and Contributors


Article Sources and Contributors

Parkinsonism Source: Contributors: 210835a, Adam McMaster, Amanda Cadwallider, Andrew73, Ansell, Arcadian, ArkadiuszBokowy, Bonadea, Buhta, Cholerashot, Chris 73, Codc, CopperKettle, CostaCurtis, DanielCD, Dr CareBear, DrBruce 67, El3ctr0nika, FishGreen, Fnielsen, General Tojo, GladstoneR, Grace Matthys, Halladay.jeffrey, Husond, Icairns, Introvert, James Pardew, Jenny Railto Joe, Jfdwolff, Jwestbrook, Laxboy08, Leevanjackson, LenJ54, Lilly Brooks, MacDaid, MarcoTolo, Mav, Metalhead94, Netsnipe, NewEnglandYankee, Nmg20, Probios, Professor Rizzo Naudi, Redfarmer, Rhcastilhos, Rich Farmbrough, RonHarlow, Severinus, The1exile, Wouterstomp, XX7, Yterew, ZadTak, דוד55, 春秋君, 41 anonymous edits