Reservoir engineering is that part of petroleum engineering which deals with transfer of fluids to, from, or within natural underground reservoirs. Over the years, it has evolved as it became apparent that maximum recovery could be achieved only by controlling reservoir behaviour as a whole. The individual wells were relegated to a more or less secondary role as they came to be regarded as mechanical devices for controlling reservoir behaviour. A comprehensive understanding of the reservoir in terms of rock, fluids and their interrelationship is a must to predict its future behaviour under the various producing mechanisms which are, or may become available. The economics of various operating plans is an integral part of any reservoir engineering study. A study of the recovery to be expected from various operating plans, along with an economic analysis of these plans, will determine the need for pressure maintenance, secondary recovery, cycling or other operations. Since the E&P companies are in business to make profits, the usual objective is the realization of maximum profit, and not necessarily the maximum recovery from the reservoir. Reservoir engineering thus may be defined as art of developing and producing hydrocarbon fluids in such a manner as to obtain a high economic recovery. The various tools of reservoir engineer are: • Sub-surface Geology • Applied Mathematics • Basic laws of Physics & Chemistry governing behaviour of liquid and vapour phases of crude oil, natural gas and water in reservoir rocks. • Ultimately reservoir engineering concerns all petroleum engineers from drilling engineer with mud program to completion engineer designing tubing string for life of well. This part of the manual deals with introduction to reservoir rocks, fluids and various operating drive mechanisms which result in expulsion of hydrocarbons from reservoirs. EOR methods involving various efforts to achieve additional recoveries under technoeconomical scenarios are also discussed

A. Reservoir Rock Properties
The three most important concepts in reservoir engineering concern certain physical properties of the reservoir rock and the distribution of fluids within the pores of the reservoir rock. These properties are; • Porosity • Permeability • Fluid saturation


It can be expressed as: Interconnected Pore Volume Øe = -----------------------------------------..X 100 Total Bulk Volume or Pore Volume Øa = -------------------------------. effective porosity is used as only interconnected pores are responsible for holding the reservoir fluids. ' " .X 100 Total Bulk Volume where Øe = Effective Porosity. percent In all engineering calculations. As the rocks have been formed during past geologic time. Both absolute as well as effective permeabilities are determined through laboratory studies carried out on cores of the reservoirs. This can be expressed as: (Total Bulk Volume – Volume Occupied by Solids) Øa = -----------------------------------------------------------------------.X 100 Total Bulk Volume where Øa = Porosity. This leads to two distinct types of porosity.Porosity: Porosity is a measure of the space in a reservoir rock which is not occupied by the solid framework of the rock. percent Øa is called Absolute porosity and is generally expressed in %. depending upon which pore spaces are measured in determining the volume of these pore spaces . some of the void spaces which developed became isolated from the other void spaces by excessive cementation. It is defined as the fraction of the total bulk volume of the rock not occupied by solids. Effective porosity refers only to the interconnected pore spaces in the rock. However. ' . 53 . Absolute porosity thus refers to the total volume of void spaces in the reservoir rock.

Thus when a reservoir is discovered. For example. K is proportionality constant.Permeability: Permeability is a measure of the ease of flow of a fluid through a porous medium. for not only is the actual volume of in place hydrocarbons important. but the rate at which fluids will flow through the reservoir is equally important. u is the viscosity of the fluid in Dentipoises. as the permeabilities of most reservoir rocks are less than one darcy. The term fluid saturation is used to define the extent of occupancy of the pore spaces by any particular fluid.X 100 Total Pore Volume where So = Oil saturation. When only one phase is flowing through the medium i. percent Thus. The smaller unit millidarcy is commonly used which is one thousandth of one darcy. there may be oil. and not gross reservoir volume. A is area of cross section in cm2. This is independent of the nature of the fluid and thus is termed as rock property. since most petroleum-bearing formations are believed to be of marine origin. It is as important as the porosity. all saturation values are based on pore volume. or percent. Fluid saturation i$ defined as that fraction.e the fluid is 100% saturated with one component. 54 . rate at which a fluid flows through a porous medium is expressed as below: KA q = ---. gas and water distributed in some manner throughout the reservoir. atm/cm. saturation of oil in a reservoir is expressed as: Oil Volume So = -------------------------------.(dP/dL) µ Where q is flow rate in cm3/ sec. Darcy is a relatively high permeability. or permeability expressed in Darcies. According to Henry Darcy. The oil and / or gas then moved into the reservoir. Saturation: History of the formation of petroleum reservoirs shows that the pores of the rock were initially filled with water. resultant permeability is called Absolute Permeability. displacing the water to some minimum residual saturation. dP/dL is the pressure drop per unit length. of the total pore space occupied by that fluid.

so they will be flowing and will have their own permeability values which are defined as effective permeability w.(dP/dL) µo and KwA qw = ---.t that particular fluid. in nature as most of the time more than one phase are present. Where two fluids are present. oil & water respectively.t. or KoA ----. It can be written as: Ko Kro = -------K And Kw Krw = -------K The flowing oil-water ratio will depend upon the viscosity ratio and the effective permeability ratio. effective permeability is the permeability of a rock to a particular fluid when that fluid has a pore saturation of less than 100%. However. Relative permeability is the ratio of effective permeability to absolute permeability.(dP/dL) qo µo µw 55 . it is observed that the sum of the effective permeabilities is always less than the absolute permeability. i. Thus.= λo/λw qw Kw A (Kw/µw) -------. it will be observed that KoA qo = ----.Relative Permeability: As mentioned above.= -------. if both oil & water are flowing together.(dP/dL) (Ko/µo) --. their relative rates of flow are determined by their relative permeabilities. Therefore.r.(dP/dL) µw Ko & Kw are called effective permeabilities w. such as oil & water.e.r. upon the mobility ratio.= -----------------------------.

This also gives idea about water-cut behaviour as the saturations change over the period of time.Fig 5-1 shows typical oil & water relative permeability curves for a particular rock as a function of water saturation.4 0.3 0. Starting at 100% S w . These curves are exhaustively used for predicting reservoir performance as well as in the simulation. The value of So in this case is called Critical saturation.2 0. Further. TYPICAL RELATIVE PERMEABILITY CURVE Fig-5-01 O. the curve. This is also called the residual oil saturation or SOjrr. These curves can be generated for gas & water systems as well.I 0. The Kr0 remains almost zero.7 0.6 O.8 O.5 O.9 56 . shows that a decrease in water saturation to around 90% sharply reduces the relative permeability to water.This explains why oil recovery by water injection is not 100% efficient. EOR processes make use of this data which plays a very critical role in deciding about their implementation. the saturation above which oil will first begin to flow.

The low shrinkage oil reservoirs are called as black oil reservoirs. their variation with pressure arid temperature. flash point.5/ Sp. Based on fluid nature. density. The specific gravity of crude is expressed in terms of API scale as given below: Sp. In volatile reservoirs. viscosity. Volatile Oil Reservoirs: High shrinkage oil reservoirs are called as volatile reservoirs. they are classified according to their physical properties. =141.Gr. pressure. The gas-liquid ratio also helps in classification of the reservoir fluid. These are the most commonly occurring oil reservoirs and thus widely studied. Black oil Volatile oil Wet gas Retrograde gas Dry gas Black Oil Reservoirs: Hydrocarbon mixtures which exist in the liquid state at reservoir conditions are classified as oils and sub-divided as low shrinkage or high shrinkage oil reservoirs. 5. the fluid remaining in the reservoir at any stage of depletion undergoes physical changes as the pressure is reduced by producing quantities of oil or gas from that reservoir. They are characterised through high GOR ( more than 500 v/v) and high API values ( more than 45° . namely. specific gravity.) -131. significant volumes of liquid may be obtained from 57 . 3. etc.5/(131. Furthermore. 4. 2.B.5 at 60° F and 1 atm. Reservoir Fluids Behaviour Oil & gas are naturally occurring hydrocarbon mixtures quite complex in chemical composition and existing at elevated temperatures and pressures in the refractive index. Out of these. reservoirs are characterised into following types: 1. most important properties are the specific gravity and viscosity.5+ °API) or °API = (141. These data are required in estimating the performance of the reservoir. The state of the hydrocarbons at the surface conditions depends upon the composition of the mixture as produced from the well and upon the temperature and pressure at which they are captured. It is necessary to study the physical properties of these naturally existing hydrocarbons and in particular. Because of the difficulty in obtaining complete chemical analysis of crude oil. The initial GOR normally varies from 20 to 500 v/v with API ranging between 30 to 40° .

Thus. Hydrocarbons do not get condensed from this mixture either in the reservoir or at the surface. The net result is low ultimate recovery from the reservoir. Thus. These data are to be considered typical but not necessarily characteristic of the classes. in the reservoir. it is called Retrograde Condensation. If it was not the fact that substantial quantities of liquid are recoverable from the reservoir gas phase. Wet Gas Reservoirs: A wet gas reservoir is a gas reservoir which normally comprises of lesser percentage of heavy components. They further help in optimizing ultimate recovery. Such reservoirs are produced by keeping the pressure always above the pressure at which condensation occurs by recycling the lean gas back into the reservoir. Retrograde Gas Reservoirs: Retrograde gas reservoirs are those gas reservoirs which initially occur as single phase gas reservoirs. However. 'dry' in this stance means free of hydrocarbon liquids. These fluid properties are studied in the laboratory after collection of representative samples of reservoir fluids. A wide range of possible compositions and reservoir conditions exist for naturally occurring hydrocarbon accumulations. The term wet is derived from the fact that the separator conditions lie in the two-phase region and a liquid phase is condensed in the separator. These parameters are very frequently used for prediction of future performances and implementation of EOR processes. dry gases may contain water vapours which will condense. Due to high shrinkage factors of volatile oils. over the production period. This results in an early high permeability to gas which in turn causes further decrease in reservoir pressure. On the other hand condensate reservoirs are those which either contain condensate under in-situ conditions or give more liquid volumes at surface as compared to wet reservoirs. condensation of liquid occurs under reduced pressure conditions. most of the time. Dry Gas Reservoirs: A dry gas is mostly comprised of methane and ethane with very small percentages of heavy components. General characteristics of various reservoir fluids are given in Table below. each reservoir fluid presents a unique system in analysis and classification. The behaviour of reservoir fluids playa a very important role in the whole life of any reservoir. a reduction in reservoir pressure is as a result of oil production will cause an abnormally high reduction in reservoir liquid volume with a consequent rapid increase in gas saturation. 58 . fluid remains in a single gaseous state. However. not necessarily free of water. Since this process is reverse compared with the normal one.the reservoir gas phase as well and thus performance of these reservoirs are not evaluated like black oil reservoirs. Therefore. ultimate liquid recovery would be even less.

Cricondenbar: The highest pressure at which the liquid and vapours can coexist in equilibrium.Important Definitions: Critical Point: It is defined as the set of highest temperature & pressure above which two phases can no longer exist in equilibrium. (i ) Amount of oil & gas which can be ultimately produced from a reservoir 59 . It is normally abbreviated as FVF. it is always more than one and in case of gas. of 1m3 of reservoir fluid at STP In case of oil. C. All reservoirs having pressure above Pb. occupied under reservoir conditions of temp. & pressure FVF = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Vol. Formation Volume Factor: It is defined as the ratio of the volume occupied under reservoir conditions of temperature & pressure equivalent to volume of 1 m of reservoir fluid at STP. Cricondentherm: The highest temperature at which the liquid and vapours can coexist in equilibrium. Bubble-Point Pressure: It is the pressure at which the first bubble of gas comes out of the liquid on lowering of pressure. those below this pressure will have both liquid & vapour phases coexisting and are called Saturated Reservoirs. For oil it can be written as: Vol. It is generally represented by Pb. will exist in single liquid phase and are called Undersaturated reservoirs. Saturation Pressure: It is the pressure at which the first drop of liquid comes out of the gaseous state by increase of pressure. Whereas. Reservoir Drive Mechanisms Reservoir engineers are primarily concerned about two aspects. it is much less than one. The corresponding temperature & pressure are called critical temperature & critical pressure respectively.

This is basically a displacement type drive. as the gas cap size increases. The driving force is the gas dissolved in the solution. where reservoir pressure is below bubble point pressure. There is not much decline in pressure over the period of production and thus no appreciable increase in produced GOR. Recovery from a water drive reservoir is dependent upon the activity of the water drive. This is also called the strength of the gas cap. However. This type of driving energy is the result of an expanding gas cap. this is characterized by rapid reservoir pressure decline with fast increase in produced GOR. This is due to the more favourable mobility characteristics of the water-oil displacement processes. the gas displacing the oil ahead as it expands because of pressure reduction. This recovery mechanism is a result of gas liberation from solution in the reservoir oil. Generally 15r 20% recovery is achieved in these types of reservoirs. This mechanism is also called depletion drive. Therefore. Water drive also is a displacing type drive and the efficiency of water displacement is usually greater than gas displacement. This is usually the least efficient driving force and results in a very small percentage of the total oil in place. water production at the later stage of exploitation is a problem. The recovery efficiency of an external gas drive reservoir is dependent upon the displacing efficiency of the gas and the size of the gas cap. These reservoirs have a gas cap associated the oil. Water Drive: Water drive is usually the most efficient natural reservoir driving force.e. the" re are five distinct forces which can contribute to oil recoveries. Various Drive Mechanisms in Oil Reservoirs: • • • • • Solution Gas Drive Gas Cap Gas Drive Water Drive Combination Drive Gravity Drainage Drive Solution Gas Drive: This drive is applicable to undersaturated reservoirs i. Gas Cap Gas Drive: This drive is applicable to saturated reservoirs i. Further. Generally more than 40% recovery is achieved in these types of reservoirs. where reservoir pressure is above bubble point pressure. Both of these factors are directly related to forces in the reservoir which contribute to the expulsion of hydrocarbons from the reservoir. For oil reservoirs. 60 . a smaller pressure drop will be required to produce the oil to economic depletion.e. Generally 20-30% recovery is achieved in these types of reservoirs.(ii) Rate at which oil & gas will be produced.

61 . Gravity Drinage Drive: In high relief reservoirs. in order to define the surface recovery. or a secondary gas cap. either a primary gas cap. More than 40-50 % recovery can be achieved in these types of reservoirs. oil recovery by gravitational segregation may be quite substantial. the permeability in the direction of dip and the viscosities of the fluids. such as ware. However. Some pressure reduction must occur before the reservoir oil can be produced as no external fluids. These reservoirs will yield maximum recovery and may achieve 50 to 60%. or dip of the reservoir. a reservoir producing under this type of drive must always have a gas cap. where the producing wells are located structurally low. recoveries can be achieved up to 80% as the abandonment pressures can be very low. are entering the reservoir to take the place of the produced oil. production is not rate sensitive. there must be a good amount of gas moving upstructure.Combination Drive: Production from most reservoirs is accomplished as a result of a combination of one or more of the previously mentioned forces. The most favourable combination drive could be with both a gas cap at top and water below. Thus. Various Drive Mechanisms in Gas Reservoirs: • • Volumetric Drive Water Drive Volumetric Drive: This is also called gas expansion drive. once the gas has entered the well bore and flows to the surface. Thua a reservoir will be referred to as a combination drive reservoir. Therefore. In order to take the maximum advantage of gravity segregation. Oil recovery in this case will be dependent upon the relief. Further. the temperatures as well as pressure get reduced. Production from the reservoir occurs by a reduction in pressure under isothermal conditions. the surface temperature and pressure must be defined. In such type of reservoirs.

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