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Chapter 4

The Laws of Motion



Quick Quizzes
1. (a) True. Motion requires no force. Newtons first law says an object in motion continues
to move by itself in the absence of external forces.
(b) False. It is possible for forces to act on an object with no resulting motion if the forces
are balanced.
2. (a) True. If a single force acts on an object, it must accelerate. From Newton's second law,
= m a F
G
G
, and a single force must represent a non-zero net force.
(b) True. If an object accelerates, at least one force must act on it.
(c) False. If an object has no acceleration, you cannot conclude that no forces act on it. In
this case, you can only say that the net force on the object is zero.
3. False. If the object begins at rest or is moving with a velocity with only an x component,
the net force in the x direction causes the object to move in the x direction. In any other
case, however, the motion of the object involves velocity components in directions other
than x. Thus, the direction of the velocity vector is not generally along the x axis. What we
can say with confidence is that a net force in the x direction causes the object to accelerate in
the x direction.
4. (a). Because the value of g is smaller on the Moon than on the Earth, more mass of gold
would be required to represent 1 newton of weight on the Moon. Thus, your friend on the
Moon is richer, by about a factor of 6!
5. (c) and (d). Newtons third law states that the car and truck will experience equal
magnitude (but oppositely directed) forces. Newtons second law states that acceleration
is inversely proportional to mass when the force is constant. Thus, the lower mass vehicle
(the car) will experience the greater acceleration.
6. (c). The scale is in equilibrium in both situations, so it experiences a net force of zero.
Because each person pulls with a force F and there is no acceleration, each person is in
equilibrium. Therefore, the tension in the ropes must be equal to F. In case (i), the person
on the right pulls with force F on a spring mounted rigidly to a brick wall. The resulting
tension F in the rope causes the scale to read a force F. In case (ii), the person on the left
can be modeled as simply holding the rope tightly while the person on the right pulls.
Thus, the person on the left is doing the same thing that the wall does in case (i). The
resulting scale reading is the same whether there is a wall or a person holding the left side
of the scale.
99
100 CHAPTER 4
7. (c). The tension in the rope has a vertical component that supports part of the total weight
of the child and sled. Thus, the upward normal force exerted by the ground is less than the
total weight.
8. (b). Friction forces are always parallel to the surfaces in contact, which, in this case, are the
wall and the cover of the book. This tells us that the friction force is either upward or
downward. Because the tendency of the book is to fall due to gravity, the friction force
must be in the upward direction.
9. (b). The static friction force between the bottom surface of the crate and the surface of the
truck bed is the net horizontal force on the crate that causes it to accelerate. It is in the
same direction as the acceleration, to the east.
10. (b). It is easier to attach the rope and pull. In this case, there is a component of your
applied force that is upward. This reduces the normal force between the sled and the
snow. In turn, this reduces the friction force between the sled and the snow, making it
easier to move. If you push from behind, with a force with a downward component, the
normal force is larger, the friction force is larger, and the sled is harder to move.

The Laws of Motion 101
Answers to Even Numbered Conceptual Questions
2. If the car is traveling at constant velocity, it has zero acceleration. Hence, the resultant
force acting on it is zero.
4. The force causing the ball to rebound upward is the normal force exerted on the ball by
the floor.
6. w = mg and g decreases with altitude. Thus, to get a good buy, purchase it in Denver. If
gold was sold by mass, it would not matter where you bought it.
8. If it has a large mass, it will take a large force to alter its motion even when floating in
space. Thus, to avoid injuring himself, he should push it gently toward the storage
compartment.
10. The net force acting on the object decreases as the resistive force increases. Eventually, the
resistive force becomes equal to the weight of the object, and the net force goes to zero. In
this condition, the object stops accelerating, and the velocity stays constant. The rock has
reached its terminal velocity.
12. The barbell always exerts a downward force on the lifter equal in magnitude to the
upward force that she exerts on the barbell. Since the lifter is in equilibrium, the
magnitude of the upward force exerted on her by the scale (that is, the scale reading)
equals the sum of her weight and the downward force exerted by the barbell. As the
barbell goes through the bottom of the cycle and is being lifted upward, the scale reading
exceeds the combined weights of the lifter and the barbell. At the top of the motion and as
the barbell is allowed to move back downward, the scale reading is less than the combined
weights. If the barbell is moving upward, the lifter can declare she has thrown it just by
letting go of it for a moment. Thus, the case is included in the previous answer.
14. While the engines operate, their total upward thrust exceeds the weight of the rocket, and
the rocket experiences a net upward force. This net force causes the upward velocity of the
rocket to increase in magnitude (speed). The upward thrust of the engines is constant, but
the remaining mass of the rocket (and hence, the downward gravitational force or weight)
decreases as the rocket consumes its fuel. Thus, there is an increasing net upward force
acting on a diminishing mass. This yields an acceleration that increases in time.
16. The trucks skidding distance can be shown to be
2
0
2
k
v
x
g
= where
k
is the coefficient of
kinetic friction and is the initial velocity of the truck. This equation demonstrates that
the mass of the truck does not affect the skidding distance, but halving the velocity will
decrease the skidding distance by a factor of four.
0
v
18. Because the mass of the truck is decreasing, the acceleration will increase.
102 CHAPTER 4
20.
(a)
R
ur
ur
mg
ur
mg
f
ur
R
ur
ur
n
(c)
T
ur
(b)
ur
mg
R
ur

In the free-body diagrams give above, R
JG
represents a force due to air resistance, T
JG
is a
force due to the thrust of the rocket engine, n
JG
is a normal force, f
G
is a friction force, and
the forces labeled are gravitational forces. mg
G

The Laws of Motion 103
Answers to Even Numbered Problems
2. 25 N
4.
2
1.7 10 N
6. 7.4 min
8.
2
3.1 10 N
10. (a) The gravitational force for S is greater than F
(b) The time of fall for S is less than F
(c) The times are equal (d) The total force on S is greater than F
12. (a) 799 N at 8.77 to the right of forward direction
(b)
2
0.266 m s in the direction of the resultant force
14.
2
1.59 m s at 65.2 N of E
16. 77.8 N in each wire
18. , 61
2
1.7 10 N
20.
3
1.04 10 N rearward
22. (a)
sin
mg
T

= (b) 1.79 N
24. (a) 1.5 m (b) 1.4 m
26.
2
4.43 m s up the incline, 53.7 N
28. 13 N down the incline
30.
2
6.53 m s , 32.7 N
32. (a) (b) T w > T w = (c) T w <
(d) , Yes (e) 1. , Yes (f) , Yes
4
1.85 10 N
4
47 10 N
4
1.25 10 N
34. (a) 36.8 N (b)
2
2.45 m s (c) 1.23 m
36. (a) 0 (b)
2
0.70 m s
38. (a)
2
1.20 m s (b) 0.122 (c) 45.0 m
40. (a) 55.2 (b) 167 N
104 CHAPTER 4
42. 3.17 s
44. (a)
2
0.366 m s (b)
2
1.29 m s down the incline
46. (a) 98.6 m (b) 16.4 m
48. (a)
2
0.125 m s (b) (c) 0.235 39.7 N
50. (a) 18.5 N (b) 25.8 N
52. (a) 2.13 s (b) 1.67 m
54.
2
2.6 m s
56. 21.5 N
58. (a) 50.0 N (b) 0.500 (c) 25.0 N
60. 0.814
62. (a)
2
1.63 m s
(b) 57.2 N tension in string connecting 5-kg and 4-kg, 24.5 N tension in string
connecting 4-kg and 3-kg
64. (b) 9.8 N (c)
2
0.58 m s
66. upward
3
1.18 10 N
68.
2
0.69 m s
70. 173 lb
72. 23 m s
74. (a) (b)
3
7.25 10 N
2
4.57 m s
76. 104 N
78. 6.00 cm
80.
3
5.10 10 N

The Laws of Motion 105
Problem Solutions
4.1 (a) ( ) ( )
2
6.0 kg 2.0 m s 12 N
x x
F ma = = =
(b)
2
12 N
3.0 m s
4.0 kg
x
x
F
m

= a = =
4.2 From v v , the acceleration given to the football is


0
at = +
2 0
10 m s 0
50 m s
0.20 s
av
v v
a
t

= = =
nd
2
(


Then, from Newtons law, we find

) ( )
2
g 50 m s 25 N a = = =
av av
F m 0.50 k
4.3 ( )
4
2000 lbs 4.448 N
2 tons 2 10 N
1 ton 1 lb
w
| | | |
= =
| |
\ . \ .

4.4 ( )
2
4.448 N
38 lbs 1.7 10 N
1 lb
w
| |
= =
|
\ .

4.5 The weight of the bag of sugar on Earth is ( )
4.448 N
5.00 lbs 22.2 N
1 lb
E E
w mg
| |
= = =
|
\ .
. If
M
g is the free-fall acceleration on the surface of the Moon, the ratio of the weight of an
object on the Moon to its weight when on Earth is
M M M
E E E
mg g w
w mg g
= = , so
M
M E
E
g
w w
g
| |
=
|
\ .
.
Hence, the weight of the bag of sugar on the Moon is ( )
1
3.71 N
6
| |
=
|
\ .
22.2 N
M
w = . On
Jupiter, its weight would be ( ) ( ) 22.2
J
J E
E
g
g
| |
= =
|
\ .
N 2.64 58.7 N = w w

The mass is the same at all three locations, and is given by


( ) ( )
2
5.00 lb 4.448 N lb
2.27 kg
9.80 m s
E
E
w
m
g
= = =
106 CHAPTER 4
4.6
5
2
7
7.5 10 N
5.0 10 m s
1.5 10 kg
F
a
m


= = =

0
v v at = +
2
, and

gives


0
2 2
80 km h 0 0.278 m s 1 min
7.4 min
5.0 10 m s 1 km h 60 s
v v
a

| |
| |
= = =
|
|
\ .
\ .
t
4.7 Summing the forces on the plane shown gives


( ) ( )
2
10 N 0.20 kg 2.0 m s
x
F F f f = = =

From which, 9.6 N f =
f
a = 2.0 m/s
2
F = 10 N
ur
4.8 The acceleration of the bullet is given by
( )
( )
( )
2
2 2
0
320 m s 0
2 2 0.82 m
v v
a
x

= =



Then,
( )
( )
( )
2
3 2
320 m s
5.0 10 kg 3.1 10 N
2 0.82 m
F ma

(
( = = =
(


4.9 The vertical acceleration of the salmon as it goes from
0
3.0 m s
y
v = (underwater) to
6.0 m s
y
v = (after moving upward 1.0 m or 2/3 of its body length) is


( ) ( )
( )
2 2
2 2
0
2
6.0 m s 3.0 m s
13.5 m s
2 2 1.00 m
y y
y
v v
a
y

= = =




Applying Newtons second law to the vertical leap of this salmon having a mass of
, we find


61 kg
y y y
F ma F mg ma = =
( ) ( )


or
3
2 2
m m
9.8 1.4 10 N
s s
| |
+ =
|
\ .
61 kg 13.5
y
F m a g = + =

The Laws of Motion 107
4.10 (a) The sphere has a larger mass than the feather. Hence, the sphere experiences a
larger gravitational force
g
F mg = than does the feather.
(b) The time of fall is less for the sphere than for the feather. This is because air
resistance affects the motion of the feather more than that of the sphere.
(c) In a vacuum, the time of fall is the same for the sphere and the feather. In the
absence of air resistance, both objects have the free-fall acceleration g.
(d) In a vacuum, the total force on the sphere is greater than that on the feather. In the
absence of air resistance, the total force is just the gravitational force, and the sphere
weighs more than the feather.
4.11 (a) From the second law, the acceleration of the
boat is


2
2 000 N 1800 N
0.200 m s
1000 kg
F
a
m

= = =
(b) The distance moved is


( ) ( )
2
2 2
0
1 1
0 0.200 m s 10.0 s 10.0 m
2 2
x v t at = + = + =
(c) The final velocity is
( ) ( )
2
0
0 0.200 m s 10.0 s 2.00 m s v v at = + = + =
4.12 (a) Choose the positive y-axis in the forward direction. We
resolve the forces into their components as
Force x-component y-component
400 N 200 N 346 N
450 N 78.1 N 443 N
Resultant 122 N
x
F = 790 N
y
F =
30
10
F
2


=

4
5
0

N
F
1


=

4
0
0

N
+x
+y
f = 1 800 N
F = 2 000 N
+y
+x
F
ur
f
ur

The magnitude and direction of the resultant force is

( )
( )
2
2
799 N
R x y
F F F = + = ,
1
tan 8.77
x
y
F
F


| |

= = |
|

\ .
to right of y-axis.

Thus, 799 N at 8.77 to the right of the forward direction
R
= F
G

108 CHAPTER 4
(b) The acceleration is in the same direction as F
R
G
and has magnitude


2
799 N
0.266 m s
3 000 kg
R
F
a
m
= = =
4.13 Starting with v and falling 30 m to the ground, the velocity of the ball just before it
hits is


0
0
y
=
( ) ( )
2 2
0 2 9.80 m s 30 m 24 m s
y y
a y = = + =
0
y
v
1 0
2 v v +

On the rebound, the ball has = after a displacement 20 m y = + . Its velocity as it
left the ground must have been


( ) ( )
2 2
2
0 2 9.80 m s 20 m 20 m s
y y
a y = + = + = + 2 v v

Thus, the average acceleration of the ball during the 2.0-ms contact with the ground was


( )
4 2
av 3
20 m s 24 m s
2.2 10 m s
2.0 10 s
a

+
= +

2 1
v v
t

= =
(


The resultant force acting on the ball during this time interval must have been


) ( )
4 2 4
kg 2.2 10 m s 1.1 10 N F m + = + 0.50 a = =

or
4
1.1 10 = N upward F
G

4.14 Since the two forces are perpendicular to each other, their resultant is:

( ) ( )
2 2
180 N 390 N 430 N
R
F = + = , at
1
390 N
tan 65.2 N of E
180 N

| |
= =
|
\ .


Thus,
2
430 N
1.59 m s
270 kg
R
F
a
m
= = = or
2
1.59 m s at 65.2 N of E = a
G


The Laws of Motion 109
4.15 Since the burglar is held in equilibrium, the tension in the
vertical cable equals the burglars weight of 600 N
0


Now, consider the junction in the three cables:

, giving

or
0
y
F =
2
sin37.0 600 N T =
2
997 T =
0
x
F =
(
N in the inclined cable
2 1
cos37.0 0 =


Also, which yields T T

or )
1
99 T 7 N cos rizontal cable 37.0 796 N in the ho = =
4.16 From , T T

or


Then, gives
0
x
F =
1 2
T T =
0
y
F =
1 2
cos 40.0 cos 40.0 0 =
( )
1
2 sin40.0 100 N T 0 =

yielding
1 2
77.8 N = = T T
4.17 From , T T

or
0
x
F =
(
1 2
cos30.0 cos60.0 0 =
)
2 1
3 T T
(
1.7 =
0
y
F =

(1)

Then becomes

)
1 1
30.0 1.73 sin60.0 150 T T + sin N 0 =

which gives
1
75.0 N in the right side = cable T

Finally, Equation (1) above gives
2
130 T = N in the left side cable
x
37.0 T
1
w = 600 N
y
T
2
ur
ur
100 N
T
2
x
y
40.0
T
1
40.0
ur ur
150 N
T
2
x
y
60.0
T
1
30.0
ur
ur
110 CHAPTER 4
4.18 If the hip exerts no force on the leg, the system must be
in equilibrium with the three forces shown in the free-
body diagram.

Thus becomes


0
x
F =
( )
2
cos w 110 N cos 40 =
(
(1)

From , we find


0
y
F =
)
2
sin w 220 N 110 N sin40 =
( )
(2)

Dividing Equation (2) by Equation (1) yields


( )
1
220 N 110 N
n
110 N cos

sin40
61
40
| |
= =
|
|

\ .
ta

Then, from either Equation (1) or (2),
2
2
1.7 10 N w =
4.19 Free-body diagrams of the two blocks are shown
at the right. Note that each block experiences a
downward gravitational force 98.0 N
g
F mg = = .
Also, each has the same upward acceleration as
the elevator,
2
2.00 m s
y
a = +



Applying Newtons 2
nd
law to the lower block :


y y lower g y
F ma T F ma = =

or ( ) ( )
2
m s 118 N = 98.0
lower g y
T F ma = + =

N+ 10.0 kg 2.00 +

Then, applying the 2
nd
law to the upper block

y y upper lower g y
F m = a T T F ma =

or ( ) ( )
2
10.0 kg 2.00 m s 236 N + = 118 N 98.0 N+ a = +
upper lower g y
T T F m = + +
220 N
1
1
0

N
40
w
2
a
x
y
ur
ur
T
lower
Upper Block
m = 10.00 kg
ur
T
upper
ur
F
g
Lower Block
m = 10.00 kg
ur
T
lower
ur
F
g

The Laws of Motion 111
4.20 The resultant force exerted on the boat by the people is
( )
3
2 600 N cos30.0 1.04 10 N = (

in the forward direction. If the boat moves with
constant velocity, the total force acting on it must be zero. Hence, the resistive force
exerted on the boat by the water must be


3
1.04 10 N in the rear = f
G
ward direction
4.21 and


1.00 kg m = 9.80 N mg =
1
tan 0.458

y
F
in
0.200 m
25.0 m
| |
= =
|
\ .
0 =
T mg

2 s


Require that ,

=


9.80 N
613 N
2sin
= = T
4.22 (a) An explanation proceeding from fundamental physical
principles will be best for the parents and for you.
Consider forces on the bit of string touching the weight
hanger as shown in the free-body diagram:

Horizontal Forces: 0 cos 0
x
F F T = + =
0 sin 0
y
F mg T


Vertical Forces: = + =
T T
a a
0.200 m
25.0 m 25.0 m
ur ur
mg
ur
T
F
mg
q
ur
ur
ur
You need only the equation for the vertical forces to find that the tension in the
string is given by
sin
mg
T

= . The force the child feels gets smaller, changing from T


to T cos , while the counterweight hangs on the string. On the other hand, the kite
does not notice what you are doing and the tension in the main part of the string
stays constant. You do not need a level, since you learned in physics lab to sight to a
horizontal line in a building. Share with the parents your estimate of the
experimental uncertainty, which you make by thinking critically about the
measurement, by repeating trials, practicing in advance and looking for variations
and improvements in technique, including using other observers. You will then be
glad to have the parents themselves repeat your measurements.
(b)
( ) ( )
2
0.132 kg 9.80 m s
1.79 N
sin sin46.3
mg

T = =
112 CHAPTER 4
4.23 The forces on the bucket are the tension in the rope and the weight
of the bucket,
( ) ( )
2
5.0 kg 9.80 m s 49 N mg = = . Choose the positive
direction upward and use the second law:


y y
F = ma
(



) ( )
2
N 5.0 kg 3.0 m s = 49 T

64 N T =
mg
T
a
ur
ur
ur
F = 10 N
4.24 (a) From the second law, we find the acceleration as


2
10 N
0.33 m s
30 kg
F
a
m
= = =

To find the distance moved, we use


( ) ( )
2
2 2
0
1 1
0 0.33 m s 3.0 s 1.5 m
2 2
x v t at = + = + =
(b) If the shopper places her
( )
30 N 3.1 kg child in the cart, the new acceleration will be
2
s
10 N
0.30 m
33 kg
total
F
a
m
= = = , and the new distance traveled in 3.0 s will be


( ) ( )
2
3.0 s 1.4 =
2
1
0 0.30 m s m
2
x = +
4.25 (a) The average acceleration is given by


2 0
av
5.00 m s 20.0 m s
3.75 m s
4.00 s
v v
a
t

= = =

(


The average force is found from the second law as

) ( )
2 3
av av
2000 kg 3.75 m s 7.50 10 N F ma = = =
(b) The distance traveled is:

( ) ( )
av
5.00 m s 20.0 m s
4.00 s 50.0 m
2
x v t
+
| |
= = =
|
\ .


The Laws of Motion 113
4.26 Let m , , and
1
10.0 kg =
2
5.00 kg m = 40.0 = .
Applying the second law to each object gives

(1)

and
1 1
m a m g =
2
m a T
T
2
sin m g = (2)

Adding these equations yields


1 2
1 2
sin
a g
m m
| |
|
+ \ .
(
m m
= , or


)
( )
2 2
in40
m s 4.43 m s = =
|
10.0
a
(
kg 5.00 kg s
15.0 kg

.0
9.80
| |
\ .


Then, Equation (1) yields

) ( ) ( )
2
9. m s 53.7 N ( =

1
T m g = 10.0 kg a = 80 4.43
q
T
ur
m
1
T
a
m
1
g
ur
ur
ur
a
m
2
g
n
m
2
ur
ur
ur
4.27 (a) The resultant external force acting on this system having a total mass of 6.0 kg is
42 N directed horizontally toward the right. Thus, the acceleration produced is


2
42 N
7.0 m s horizontally to the right
6.0 kg
F
a
m

= = =
(b) Draw a free body diagram of the 3.0-kg block and apply Newtons second law to
the horizontal forces acting on this block:


x x
F ma =
( ) ( )
2
42 N 3.0 kg 7.0 m s T = , and therefore 21 N T =
(c) The force accelerating the 2.0-kg block is the force exerted on it by the 1.0-kg block.
Therefore, this force is given by:


( ) ( )
2
2.0 kg 7.0 m s F ma = = , or 14 N horizontally to the right = F
G

114 CHAPTER 4
4.28 The acceleration of the mass down the incline is given by


2
0
1
2
x v t at = + , or ( )
2 1
0.80 m 0 0.50 s
2
a = +

This gives
2
6.4 m s a =

Thus, the force down the incline is ( ) ( )
2
2.0 kg 6.4 m s 13 N F ma = = =
4.29 Choose the positive x axis to be up the incline.

Then,



which gives


( )sin18.5
x x
F ma T mg ma = =
x
( ) ( )
2 2
140 N
sin18.5 9.80 m s sin18.5 0.390 m s
40.0 kg
x
T
a g
m
= = =
( )


The velocity after moving 80.0 m up the incline is given by


( ) ( )
2 2
0
= 2 = 0+2 0.390 m s 80.0 m 7.90 m s
x
v v a x + =
4.30 First consider the block moving along the
horizontal. The only force in the direction
of movement is T. Thus,


x x
F ma =
( )
5.00 kg T =
(
a (1)

Next consider the block which moves
vertically. The forces on it are the tension
T and its weight, 98.0 N.

y y
F ma = )
98.0 N 10.0 = kg T a (2)
+y
T
mg = 98.0 N
(b)
10.0 kg
ur
(a)
T
+x
5.00 kg
ur
Note that both blocks must have the same magnitude of acceleration. Equations (1) and
(2) can be solved simultaneously to give.


2
6.53 m s a = , and 32.7 N T =

The Laws of Motion 115
4.31 Taking forward as the positive direction, the acceleration that the braking force gives the
train is


6
2
6
1.87 10 N
0.358 m s
5.22 10 kg
F
a
m

= = =


(a) The velocity of the train at 30.0 s t = is then


0.447 m
h 1.61 km

( ) ( )
2
0
s km
90.0 0.358 m s 30.0 s 14.2 m s
h
v v at
| |
| |
= + = + =
|
|
\ .
\ .
(b) During this time, the displacement of the train is

( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 2 1 1
0 2 2
0.447 m s km
90.0 30.0 s 0.358 m s 30.0 s
h 1.61 km h
x v t at
| |
| |
= + = +
|
|
\ .
\ .


or 588 m x =
4.32 (a) When the acceleration is upward, the total upward force T must exceed the total
downward force
( ) ( )
2 4
1 500 kg 9.80 m s 1.47 10 N g = = = w m
(b) When the velocity is constant, the acceleration is zero. The total upward force T and
the total downward force w must be equal in magnitude .
(c) If the acceleration is directed downward, the total downward force w must
exceed the total upward force T.
(d) ( ) ( )
2 2
1 500 kg 9.80 m s 2.50 m s 1.85 10 N
y y y
F ma T mg ma = + = + =
4
=

Yes T w > , .
(e) ( ) ( )
2 4
1 500 kg 9.80 m s 0 1.47 10 N
y y y
F ma T mg ma = + = + = =

Yes T w = , .
(f) ( ) ( )
2 2
1 500 kg 9.80 m s 1.50 m s 1.25 10 N
y y y
F ma T mg ma = + = =
4
=

Yes T w < , .
116 CHAPTER 4
4.33
Trailer
300 kg
T
Car
1000 kg
F
n
T
w
T
T
n
c
w
c
q
R
car
F
n
c
ur ur
ur ur ur
ur
ur
ur
ur ur

Choose the +x direction to be horizontal and forward with the +y vertical and upward.
The common acceleration of the car and trailer then has components of
2
2.15 m s and 0
x y
a a = + = .
(a) The net force on the car is horizontal and given by

( ) ( ) ( )
2 3
1000 kg 2.15 m s 2.15 10 N forward
x car x
car
F F T m a = = = =
(b) The net force on the trailer is also horizontal and given by

( ) ( ) ( )
2
300 kg 2.15 m s 645 N forward
x trailer x
trailer
F T m a = + = = =
(c) Consider the free-body diagrams of the car and trailer. The only horizontal force
acting on the trailer is 645 N forward T = , and this is exerted on the trailer by the
car. Newtons third law then states that the force the trailer exerts on the car is
645 N toward the rear
(d) The road exerts two forces on the car. These are and
c
F n
3 3
10 N
shown in the free-body
diagram of the car.

From part (a),

Also,
2.15 10 N 2.80 F T = + = +
( )
0
c car y
w m a = =
c c
n w = =
y c
car
F n = , so

The resultant force exerted on the car by the road is then


3
10 N 9.80
car
m g =
( ) ( )
2
3
2.80 10 N 9.80 10 n = +
2
4
10 N
2 2
car c
R F = +
3
N 1.02 =

at ( )
1 1
tan tan 3.51 74.1
c
n
F


| |
= = =
|
\ .
above the horizontal and forward. Newtons
third law then states that the resultant force exerted on the road by the car is

4
.02 10 N at 74.1 below the hori 1 zontal and rearward

The Laws of Motion 117
4.34 First, consider the 3.00-kg rising mass.
The forces on it are the tension, T, and
its weight, 29.4 N. With the upward
direction as positive, the second law
becomes


( )
29.4 N 3.00 kg T a =
(
(1)

The forces on the falling 5.00-kg mass
are its weight and T, and its
acceleration has the same magnitude as
that of the rising mass. Choosing the
positive direction down for this mass,
gives


)
49 N 5.00 kg T = a (2)

Equations (1) and (2) can be solved simultaneously to give
w
2
= 49.0 N
T
+
Falling
Mass
m
2
= 5.00 kg
ur
Rising
Mass
T
w
1
= 29.4 N
+
m
1
= 3.00 kg
ur
(a) the tension as 36.8 N T =
(b) and the acceleration as
2
2.45 m s a =
(c) Consider the 3.00-kg mass. We have


( )( )
2
2 2
0
1 1
0 2.45 m s 1.00 s 1.23 m
2 2
y y
y v t a t = + = + =
4.35 When the block is on the verge of moving, the static friction force has a magnitude
( )
max
s s s
f f n = =
75
.

Since equilibrium still exists and the applied force is 75 N, we have

or N 0
x s
F f = =
( )
max
75 N
s
f =

In this case, the normal force is just the weight of the crate, or n mg = . Thus, the
coefficient of static friction is


( ) ( )
( ) ( )
max
s

max
2
0.38
m s
s s
f f
n mg
= = = =
75 N
20 kg 9.80

118 CHAPTER 4
After motion exists, the friction force is that of kinetic friction,
k k
f n =

Since the crate moves with constant velocity when the applied force is 60 N, we find that
or . Therefore, the coefficient of kinetic friction is


60 N 0
x k
F f = = 60 N
k
f =
( ) ( )
2
N
0.31
0 m s g
=
60
20 kg 9.8
=
k k
k
f f
n m
= =
4.36 (a) The static friction force attempting to prevent motion may reach a maximum value
of


( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
1 1
max
0.50 10 kg 9.80 m s 49 N
s s s
f n m g = = = =

This exceeds the force attempting to move the system, the weight of . Hence, the
system remains at rest and the acceleration is
2
m
0 a =
(b) Once motion begins, the friction force retarding the motion is
1 1 k k k
f n m g = =
2
.
This is less than the force trying to move the system, weight of m . Hence, the
system gains speed at the rate


( ) ( )
2
2 1
1 2
4.0 kg 0.30 10 kg 9.80 m s
4.0 kg 10 kg
k net
total
m g m g F
a
m m m


= = =
+ +
2
0.70 m s =
4.37 (a) Since the crate has constant velocity, 0
x y
a a = = .

Applying Newtons second law:

, or cos20.0 0
x k
F F f ma = = =
x
( ) 300 N
k
f cos20.0 282 N = =

and , or


sin20.0 0
y
F n F w = =
( )
3
10 N = 300 N sin20.0 1000 N n = + 1.10

The coefficient of friction is then
3
N
0.256
10 N
=
282
1.10
k
f
n
= =

k


The Laws of Motion 119
(b) In this case,

so

The friction force now becomes
sin20.0 0
y
F n F w = + =
sin20.0 897 N F = n w =
( ) ( ) 0.256 897 N 230 N
k k
f n = = =

Therefore, cos20.0
x k
F F f ma = =
x x
w
a
g
| |
=
|
\ .
and the acceleration is


( )
( ) ( )
2
2
30 N 9.80 m s co
0.509 m s
N
a
(

=
300 N cos s20.0
k
F f g
w

= =
20.0 2
1000


4.38 (a)
2 0
6.00 m s 12.0 m s
1.20 m s
5.00 s
x x
x
v v
a
t

= = =
(b) From Newtons second law, , or
x k x k x
F f ma f ma = = =
mg
.

The normal force exerted on the puck by the ice is n = , so the coefficient of
friction is


( )
( )
2
2
1.20 m s
9.80 m s
k
k
m
f
n m


= = 0.122 =
(c) ( ) ( )
0
av
6.00 m s 12.0 m s
5.00 s 45.0 m
2 2
x x
x
v v
x v t t
+ + | | | |
= = =
| |
\ . \ .
=
4.39 When the load on the verge of sliding
forward on the bed of the slowing
truck, the static friction force has its
maximum value


( )
max
=
s s s lo
f n m =

x x s loa
F ma
ad
g

This single horizontal force must give the load an acceleration equal to that the truck.

Thus,
d load truck
m g m a =
truck s
a g
=

If slipping is to be avoided, the maximum allowable rearward acceleration of the truck is
seen to be =
( )
( )
and the minimum stopping distance will be


2 2
0 0 x x
s
v v
a g
min
max
0
2 2
truck
x

= =
f
s
ur
ur
m
load
g
n
ur
120 CHAPTER 4
(a) If
0
12 m s and 0.500
x s
v = = , then ( )
( )
( ) ( )
2
min 2
12.0 m s
14.7 m
2 0.500 9.80 m s
x = =
(b) Examining the calculation of Part (a) shows that neither mass is necessary
4.40 20.0 kg, 35.0 N, 196 N m F mg = = =
(a) Since the velocity is constant,

cos 0
x
F F f = = , or


20.0 N
cos
35.0 N
f
F
= = 0.571 = , 55.2 =
(b) sin 0
y
F n F mg = + = , so

( ) sin 196 n mg F = = 35.0sin 55.2 N 167 N = (


4.41 The normal force acting on the crate is given by
cos n F mg = +
mg
. The net force tending to move the crate down
the incline is sin
s
f
sin mg
, where

is the force of static
friction between the crate and the incline. If the crate is in
equilibrium, then
s
f
0
s
f = , so that sin
s g
f F =

But, we also know
( )
cos mg
s s s
f n F = +

Therefore, we may write
( )
sin mg cos mg
s
F + , or

( ) ( )
2
00 kg 9.80 m s 32.1 N =
sin
s

sin3
0.30
g =
5.0
0

cos F m


| |

|
\ .
cos35.0 3.
| |

|
\ .

q
n
F
f
mg
ur
ur
ur
ur
mg
F
n
f
s
q = 35.0
ur
ur
ur
ur

The Laws of Motion 121
4.42 In the vertical direction, we have



from which, n

Therefore,
300 N (400 N)sin 35.2 0 n
531 N =
(
=
) ( ) = 0.570 531 N
k
f n 302 N = =
(


From applying the second law to the horizontal motion, we have

) ( )
400 N cos35.2 302 N 30.6 = kg
x
a , yielding
2
0.798 m s
x
a =

Then, from
2
0
1
2
x x
x v t a t = + , we have
(
2 2
1
0 0.798 m s
2
t = +
)
4.00 m , which gives
3. t = 17 s
4.43 (a) The object will fall so that
( )
, or
mg bv
ma mg bv a
m

= =
where the downward direction is taken as positive.

Equilibrium ( ) 0 a = is reached when


( ) ( )
2
50 kg 9.80 m s
33 m s
15 kg s
terminal
mg
v v
b
= = = =
35.2
4
0
0

N
300 N
n
f
m = 30.6 kg
ur
ur
m
f = bv
mg
v
ur
ur
ur
ur
(b) If the initial velocity is less than 33 m/s, then a 0 and 33 m/s is the largest
velocity attained by the object. On the other hand, if the initial velocity is greater
than 33 m/s, then a 0 and 33 m/s is the smallest velocity attained by the object.
Note also that if the initial velocity is 33 m/s, then a = 0 and the object continues
falling with a constant speed of 33 m/s.
122 CHAPTER 4
4.44 (a) Find the normal force on the 25.0 kg box:


n
JG
( ) 80.0 N s 25.0 245 N 0
y
F n = + =
211 N n =
(
in

or

Now find the friction force, f, as

) 0.300 211 63.4 N
k
f n N = = =
x


From the second law, we have F ma =
(
, or

) ( )
80.0 N cos25.0 N= 25.0 kg a 63.4 which yields
2
0.366 m s a =
(b) When the box is on the incline,

( ) ( ) 80.0 N sin25.0 245 N cos10.0 0
y
F n = + =
207 N n =
(


giving

The friction force is

) 0.300 207 N 62.2 N
k
f n = = =
(


The net force parallel to the incline is

) ( ) 80.0 N cos25.0 245 N sin10.0 62.2 N
x
F = =-32.3 N

Thus,
2
32.3 N
1.29 m s
25.0 kg
x
F
a
m

= = = , or
2
1.29 m s down the incline
x
y
F

=

8
0
.
0

N
25.0
mg = 245 N
n
f
ur
ur
x
y
F

=

8
0
.
0

N
25.0
2
4
5

N
n
f
10.0
ur
ur
f
T
m
1
g
n = m
1
g
a
m
1
ur
ur ur
ur
ur
ur
T
a
m
2
g
m
2
ur
ur
ur
4.45 The acceleration of the system is found from


2
0
1
2
y
y v t at = + , or ( )
2 1
00 m 0 1.20 s
2
a = + 1.

which gives
2
1.39 m s a =

The Laws of Motion 123
Using the free body diagram of m , the second law gives


2
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
5.00 kg 9.80 m s .00 kg 1.39 m s T
42.1 N T =
(
5 =

or

Then applying the second law to the horizontal motion of m


1
) ( )
2
42.1 N 10.0 kg 1. m s f = 28.2 N f 39 , or =

Since , we have
1
98.0 N n m g = =
28.2 N
0.28
N
= 7
98.0
k

f
n
= =
4.46 (a) The force of friction is found as
( )
k k
f n mg = =
Choose the positive direction of the x-axis in the direction of motion and apply the
second law. We have , or
x x
f
a
m
k
f ma g

= = =

From ( )
2 2
0
2a = + v v , with x
0
0, 50.0 km h v v 13.9 m s = = = , we find


( ) ( ) ( ) 2
k
g x
2
0 13.9 m s = + , or
( )
2
s
g
13.9 m
2
k
x

= (1)

With 0.100
k
= , this gives 98.6 m x =
(b) With 0.600
k
= , Equation (1) above gives 16.4 m x =
124 CHAPTER 4
4.47 (a)
2 2
0
1 1
0
2 2
x x
x v t a t a t = + = + gives:
( ) ( )
( )
2
2 2
2 2.00 m
2
1.78 m s
1.50 s
x
x
a
t

= = =
(b) Considering forces parallel to the incline, the second
law yields

( ) ( ) ( )
2
29.4 N sin30.0 3.00 kg 1.78 m s
x k
F f = =
9.37 N
k
f =
(


or

Perpendicular to the plane, we have equilibrium, so

) 29.4 N cos30.0 0
y
F n = = 25.5 N n , or =

Then,
k
9.37 N
= = = 0.368
25.5 N
k
f
n

(c) From part (b) above, 9.37 N
k
f =
(d) Finally, ( )
2 2
0
2
x
a x v v = +
( )
gives


( ) ( )
2 2
2 1.78 m s 2.00 m 2.67 m s + =
0
2 0
x
v v a x = + =
4.48 (a) Both objects start from rest and have accelerations of the same magnitude, a. This
magnitude can be determined by applying
2 1
0 2 y y
y v t a t = + to the motion of :


1
m
( )
( )
2
2 2
2 1.00 m 2
0.125 m s
4.00s
y
a
t

= = =
(b) Consider the free-body diagram of and apply Newtons 2nd law:


1
m
( )
1 1

y y
F ma T m g m = = +
(
a

or ) ( ) (
1
4.00 kg 9.80 m T m g a = + = s
)
2 2
0.125 m s 39.7 N + =
30.0
30.0
w = mg = 29.4 N
n
f k

=

mk
n
+y
+x
ur
T
m
1
g
m
1
ur
ur

The Laws of Motion 125
(c) Considering the free-body diagram of :

2
m
2
cos 0
y y
F ma n m g = = or n m
2
cos g =

so
( ) ( )
2
cos 9.00 kg 9.8 n 0 67.6 N m s 40.0 = =

( )
2 2
m sin
x x
F ma m g T f =
(
k
= a +

Then
)
2
sin
k
f m g =
(
a T

or ) ( )
2 2
s 39.7 N 15.9 N
(


9.00 kg 9.80
k
f m sin40.0 0.125 m = s =

The coefficient of kinetic friction is
15.9 N
0.235
67.6 N
= = =
k
f
n
k

T
w = 118 N
+y
12.0 kg
ur
37.0
w = 68.6 N
T
f
n
+x
7.00 kg
ur
ur
ur
T
ur
m
2
+
y
+
x
m
2
g
ur
n
ur
f
k
ur
q
4.49 First, taking downward as positive, apply
the second law to the 12.0 kg block:


( )
118 N 12.0 kg
y
F T = =
(
a (1)

For the 7.00 kg block, we have

) 68.6 N cos37.0 54.8 N n =
(
= , and

) ( ) 0.250 54.8 N 1
k
f n 3.7 N = = =
Taking up the incline as the positive direction and applying the second law to the 7.00
kg block gives ( ) ( )
68.6 N sin37.0 7.00 kg
x
F T f = = a , or


( )
13.7 N 41.3 N 7.00 kg T a = + + (2)

Solving Equations (1) and (2) simultaneously yields
2
3.30 m s a . =
126 CHAPTER 4
4.50 When the minimum force F is used, the block tends to
slide down the incline so the friction force,
G
s
f
G
is directed
up the incline.

While the block is in equilibrium, we have

( ) cos60.0 19.6 N sin60 0 F F = + = .0
x s
f (1)

and

( ) sin60.0 19.6 N cos60 0
y
F n F = = .0 (2)
f
s
F
mg = 19.6 N
n
60.0
60.0
+x
+y
m
ur
ur
ur
For minimum F (impending motion),
( ) ( )
max
0.300
s s s
f f n = = = n (3)

Equation (2) gives (4) 0.866 9.80 N n F = +
(a) Equation (3) becomes: 0.260 2.94 N
s
f F = +
94 N 17.0 N 0 =
, so Equation (1) gives

, or 0.500 0.260 2. F F + + 18.5 N F =
(b) Finally, Equation (4) gives the normal force 25.8 N n =
4.51
n
ground
= w/2 = 85.0 lb
F
2
+x
+y
w = 170 lb
Free-Body Diagram of Person
22.0 22.0
F
1
ur ur
n
tip
f
F

=

4
5
.
8

l
b
Free-Body Diagram of Crutch Tip
22.0
+y
+x
ur
ur
(


From the free-body diagram of the person,


) ( )
1 2
sin 22.0 sin 22.0 0
x
F F F = =
1 2
, which gives or F F F = =
2 cos22.0 85.0 lbs 170 lbs 0
y
F F = + = 45.8 lb


Then, yields F =

The Laws of Motion 127
(a) Now consider the free-body diagram of a crutch tip.

( ) 45.8 lb sin22.0 0
x
F f = = , or 17.2 lb f =

( ) 45.8 lb cos22.0
y tip
F n = 0 = , which gives 42.5 lb
tip
n =

For minimum coefficient of friction, the crutch tip will be on the verge of slipping,
so
( )
max
s s tip
f f n = = and
17.2
42.5
lb
0.404
lb
=
s
tip
f
n
= =
(b) As found above, the compression force in each crutch is


1 2
45.8 lb F F F = = =
4.52 (a) First, draw a free-body diagram (Fig. 1) of the top
block. Since and,


1
0, 19.6 N
y
a n = =
( ) ( )
1
.88 N
k
f n 0.300 19.6 N 5 = =
x
F m =
=
T
a


gives
( )
10.0

or
N 5.88 N = 2.00 kg
T
a
2
m s 2.06
T
a = (for top block)
Top Block
2.00 kg
n
1
= 19.6 N
mg = 19.6 N
F
f = m
k
n
1
Figure 1
ur
Figure 2
Bottom Block
8.00 kg
Mg
f
n
1
n
2
ur
ur ur
ur
Now draw a free-body diagram (Fig. 2) of the bottom
block and observe that
x B
F Ma = gives


( )
5.88 N 8.00 kg = =
B
f a , or


2
0.735 m s
B
a = . (for the bottom block)

In time t, the distance each block moves (starting from
rest) is


( )
2 2
s t
2
1
1.03 m
2
T T
d a t = = , and


( )
2 2
s t
2
1
0.368 m
2
B B
d a t = =
128 CHAPTER 4
For the top block to reach the right
edge of the bottom block, it is necessary
(See Fig. 3.) that

, or


T B
d d = + L
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
1.03 m s 0.368 m s 3.00 m t t = + which gives 2.13 s t =
Figure 3
L
d
T
d
B
(b) From above,
( )( )
2
2 2
1
0.368 m s 2.13 s
2
B B
t = = d a = 1.67 m
4.53 (a)
2.0 kg
a
x
= a
20 N
ur
T
1
n
1
ur
f
k
ur
3.0 kg
a
x
= +a
f
k
ur
ur
T
1
ur
T
2
30 N
n
1
ur
n
2
ur
10 kg a
y
= a
ur
T
2
98 N

(b) For the 10-kg object:

( ) ( )
2
98 N 10 kg
y y
F ma T a = = or
( )
2
98 N 10 kg =
1
20 N n
T a (1)

For the 2.0-kg object: or
1
20 N
y y
F ma n = 0 = =

so ( ) ( )
1
0.30 20 N 6.0 N
k k
f n = = =

Also, ( )( )
1
6.0 N 2.0 kg
x x
F ma T a = = or ( )
1
6.0 N 2.0 kg = + T a (2)

Finally, for the 3.0-kg object:

( )( )
2 1
6.0 N 3.0 kg
x x
F ma T T a = = + or ( )
2 1
6.0 N 3.0 = + kg T T (3)

Substituting Equations (1) and (2) into Equation (3) yields:

a
( ) ( ) ( )
98 N 10 kg 6.0 N 2.0 kg 6.0 N a a = 3.0 + kg a or
2
s
86 N
5.7 m
15 kg
a = =
(c) Substituting the computed value for the magnitude of the acceleration into
Equations (1) and (2) gives: ( ) ( )
2
1
6.0 N 2.0 kg 5.7 m s 17 N = + = T
and ( ) ( )
2
m s 41 N =
2
98 N 10 kg 5.7 = T

The Laws of Motion 129
4.54 The sketch at the right gives an edge view of the sail (heavy
line) as seen from above. The velocity of the wind,
wind
v
JG
, is
directed to the east and the force the wind exerts on the sail
is perpendicular to the sail. The magnitude of this force is
N
550
m s
wind sail
F

| |
=
|
\ .
v
JG
where
wind

v
JG
is the component of
the wind velocity perpendicular to the sail.

When the sail is oriented at 30 from the north-south line and the wind speed is
, we have

17 knots
wind
v =
( )
3
s N N
550 550 17 knots cos30 4.2 10 N
m s m s ot
wind sail
F

| | | | ( | |
= = =
| ( | |
\ .
\ . \ .

v
JG
sail F
G
0.514 m
1 kn


The eastward component of this force will be counterbalanced by the force of the water
on the keel of the boat. Before the sailboat has significant speed (that is, before the drag
force develops), its acceleration is provided by the northward component of . Thus,
the initial acceleration is


( )
3
4.2 10 N sin30
2.6 m
800 kg
sail
north
a
m

= = =
F
G
2
s
+x
+y
45.0
6
0
.
0

N
6
0
.
0

N
45.0
north
east
30
v
wind
ur
F
sail
ur
30
4.55 (a) The horizontal component of the resultant force exerted
on the light by the cables is

( ) ( ) 60.0 N cos 45.0 60.0 N cos 45.0 0
x x
R F = = =
(


The resultant y component is:

) ( ) 60.0 N sin45.0 60.0 N sin45.0 84.9
y y
R F = = + = N

Hence, the resultant force is 84.9 N vertically upward
(b) The forces on the traffic light are the weight, directed downward, and the 84.9 N
vertically upward force exerted by the cables. Since the light is in equilibrium, the
resultant of these forces must be zero. Thus, 84.9 N = w
130 CHAPTER 4
4.56 The acceleration of the ball is found from


( )
( )
( )
2
2 2
2 0
20.0 m s 0
133 m s
2 1.50 m 2
v v
a
y

= = =



From the second law,
y y
F F w ma = = , so

( ) ( )
2
133 m s 21.5 N
y
F w ma = + = = 1.47 N 0.150 kg +
F
w = 1.47 N
m = 0.150 kg
ur
4.57 On the level surface, the normal force exerted on the sled by the ice equals the total
weight, or n = 600 N. Thus, the friction force is

( ) ( ) 0.050 600 N 30 N
k
f n = = =

Hence, the second law yields
x x
F f ma = = , or


( ) ( )
2
2
30 N 9.80 m s
0.49 m s
600 N
x
f f
a
m w g


= = = =

The distance the sled travels on the level surface before coming to rest is


( )
( )
2
2 2
0
2
0 7.0 m s
50 m
2 2 0.49 m s
x x
x
v v
x
a

= = =


4.58 (a) For the suspended block, 50.0 N 0
y
F T = = , so the tension in the rope is
. Then, considering the horizontal forces on the 100-N block, we find

, or
50.0 N T =
x
F T = 0
s
f = 50.0 N f T = =
s

(b) If the system is on the verge of slipping,
( )
max
s s s
f f n = = . Therefore,

the required coefficient of friction is
50.0 N
0.500
100 N
s
s
f
n
= = =

The Laws of Motion 131
(c) If 0.250
k
= , then the friction force acting on the 100-N block is

( ) ( ) 0.250 100 N 25.0 N
k k
f n = = =
F T


Since the system is to move with constant velocity, the net horizontal force on the
100-N block must be zero, or 25.0 N 0
x k
f T =
25.0 N =
= =
0
y
. The required tension in
the rope is . Now, considering the forces acting on the suspended block
when it moves with constant velocity,
T
F T w = = , giving the required weight of
this block as 25.0 N w T = =
4.59 (a) The force that accelerates the box is the friction force between the box and the
truck bed.
(b) The maximum acceleration the truck can have before the box slides is found by
considering the maximum static friction force the truck bed can exert on the box:


( ) ( )
max
s s s
f n = =
(
mg

Thus, from the second law,


) ( )
( ) ( )
2 2 max
max
0.300 9.80 m s 2.94 m s
s s
s
f mg
a g
m m

= = = = =
4.60 Consider the vertical forces acting on the block:

( ) 85.0 N sin55.0 39.2 N 0
y y
F n = = =
30.4 N n =
(
ma ,

so the normal force is

Now, consider the horizontal forces:

) ( ) ( )
2
6.00 m s 85.0 N cos55.0 4.00 kg
x k x
F f ma = = =
(


or ) 85.0 N cos55.0 24.0 N 24.8 N
k
f = =

The coefficient of kinetic friction is then
24.
k
k
f
n
= =
8 N
0.814
30.4 N
=
4.00 kg
n
mg = 39.2 N 55.0
85.0 N
f
k
ur
ur
132 CHAPTER 4
4.61 When an object of mass m is on this frictionless incline, the only force acting parallel to
the incline is the parallel component of weight, sin mg directed down the incline. The
acceleration is then


( )
2 2
sin
sin 9.80 m s si 5.62 m s
mg F
a g
m m
n35.0

= = = = =

directed down the incline.
(a) The time for the sled projected up the incline to come to rest is given by


0
2
0 5.00 m s
0.890 s
5.62 m s
v v
t
a

= = =



The distance the sled travels up the incline in this time is

( )
0
av
0 5.00 m s
0.890 s 2.22 m
2 2
v v
s v t t
+ + | | | |
= = = =
| |
\ . \ .

(b) The time required for the first sled to return to the bottom of the incline is the same
as the time needed to go up, that is, t 0.890 s = . In this time, the second sled must
travel down the entire 10.0 m length of the incline. The needed initial velocity is
found from
2
0
1
2
s v t at = + as


( ) ( )
2
s 0.890
2
0
5.62 m s
10.0 m
8.74 m s
2 0.890 s
s at
v
t


= = =

or 8.74 m s down the incline
4.62 Let m m . Let T be the tension in the string
between , and the tension in the string between .
1 2 3
5.00 kg, 4.00 kg, and 3.00 kg m = = =
1 2
and m m
2
T
1
2 3
and m m

The Laws of Motion 133
(a) We may apply Newtons second law to each of the masses.

for m
1
: (1)

for m : (2)

for m : (3)

Adding these equations yields
1 1 1
m a T m g =
2 2
m a T m g = +
3 3
m a m g T =
2
3
2
T
2
1
( ) ( )
1 2 3 1 2 3
m a m m m g + + = + + m m , so


( )
2 2
9.80 m s 1.63 m s =
1 2
1 2
m m
m m
+
+ +
3
3
2.00
12.0 kg
m
a g
m
| | +
= =
|
\ .
kg | |
|
\ .

(b) From Equation (1), ( ) ( ) ( )
2
1 1
5.00 kg 11.4 m s 57.2 N a g = + = = T m , and

from Equation (3), ( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 3
3.00 kg 8.17 m s 24.5 N T m g a = = =
4.63 (a) Free-body diagrams for the two blocks are given at
the right. The coefficient of kinetic friction for
aluminum on steel is
1
0.47 = while that for copper
on steel is
2
0.36 = . Since 0
y
a = for each block,
and . Thus,

1
n w =
1 2 2
n w cos30.0 =
( )
1 1 1
0.47 f n 19.6 N 9.21 N = = =
and ( )
2 2 2
0.36 f n 58.8 N cos30.0 18.3 N = = =

For the aluminum block:
( )
1 1

x x
a T = T
(
or f m a = + F m = f ma +
giving
)
9.21 N 2 = +
(
.00 kg T (1)

For the copper block:
a
) ( )
18.
x x
a T 58.8
(
N sin30.0 3 N 6 = .00 kg F m = a
or
)
11.1 a N 6 =
(
.00 kg T (2)

Substituting Equation (1) into Equation (2) gives

) ( )
11.1 N 6.00 kg = 9.21 N 2.00 kg a a or
2
0.232 m s = =
1.86 N
8.00 kg
a
Aluminum
2.00 kg
ur
T
n
1
ur
a
ur
f
1
ur
w
1
= 19.6 N
ur
T
n
2
ur
a
ur
f
2
ur
w
2
= 58.8 N
30
C
o
p
p
e
r
6
.
0
0

k
g
+x
(b) From Equation (1) above, ( ) ( )
2
9.21 N 2.00 kg 0.232 m s 9.68 N = + = T
134 CHAPTER 4
4.64 (a) Force diagrams for penguin and sled are shown. The primed forces are reaction
forces for the corresponding unprimed forces.

(force
on Pulling
Agent)
Earth
w = 49 N
w
2
= 98 N
Earth
n
1
T
F
f
1
f
1

f
2
n
1
n
2
f
2

n
2

w w
2

T
W
A
L
L
F = 45 N
ur
ur
ur
ur
ur ur
ur
ur ur
ur
ur
ur
ur

(b) The weight of the penguin is 49 N, and hence the normal force exerted on him by
the sled, , is also 49 N. Thus, the friction force acting on the penguin is:
1
n
( )
1 1
0.20 49 N 9.8 N
k
f n = = =
1
f


Since the penguin is in equilibrium, the tension in the cord attached to the wall and
the friction force must be equal: 9.8 N T =
(c) The normal force exerted on the sled by the Earth is the weight of the penguin
(49 N) plus the weight of the sled (98 N). Thus, the net normal force, n equals
147 N, and the friction force between sled and ground is:
2
( )
2 2
0.20 147 N 29.4 N
k
f n = = =
(


Applying the second law to the horizontal motion of the sled gives:


)
1 2
45 N 10 kg f f a

= or
2
0.58 m s a =
f
1
ur
Figure 1
a
50 N
m
1
n
1
m
1
g
m
2
n
2
f
2
m
2
g
ur
ur ur
ur ur
ur
4.65 Figure 1 is a free-body diagram for the system
consisting of both blocks. The friction forces are
( )
1 1 1 k k
f n m = = g and
( )
2 k
f m =
2
g . For this
system, the tension in the connecting rope is an
internal force and is not included in second
law calculations. The second law gives
( )
1 2
50 N
x
F f =
1 2
m m a + f = , which reduces to


1 2
50 N
a
m m
k
g =
+
(1)

The Laws of Motion 135
Figure 2 gives a free-body diagram of alone. For
this system, the tension is an external force and
must be included in the second law. We find:
, or


1
m
1 1 x
F T f m = =
(
a
)
1
T m a = +
k
g (2)
m
1
n
1
m
1
g
T
Figure 2
ur
ur
ur
ur
a
(a) If the surface is frictionless, 0
k
= . Then, Equation (1) gives


2
1 2
50 N 50 N
.7 m
30 kg
a
m m
= =
+
0 1 = s

and Equation (2) yields ( ) ( )
2
1.7 m s 0 17 N = + 10 kg T =
(b) If 0.10
k
= , Equation (1) gives the acceleration as

( ) ( )
2 2
0.10 9.80 m s 0.69 m s = =
50 N
30 kg
a
(


while Equation (2) gives the tension as

) ( ) ( )
2 2
0.69 m s 0.10 9.80 m s 17 N
(
= +

10 kg T =
4.66 Before he enters the water, the diver is in free-fall with an acceleration of
2
9.80 m s
downward. Taking downward as the positive direction, his velocity when he reaches the
water is given by

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
0
2 0 2 9.80 m s 10.0 m 14.0 m s v v a y = + = + =

His average acceleration during the 2.00 s after he enters the water is


( )
2 0
av
0 14.0 m s
7.00 m s
2.00 s
v v
a
t

= = =
av av
, or
y
F F mg ma = + =
(


Continuing to take downward as the positive direction, the average upward force by the
water is found as

) ( ) ( )
2 2
av av
70.0 kg 7.00 m s 9.80 m s F m a g
(
= =

3
1.18 10 N =

or
3
av
1.18 10 N upward F =
136 CHAPTER 4
4.67 We shall choose the positive direction to be to the right and call the forces exerted by
each of the people F
G
and F
G
. Thus, when pulling in the same direction, Newtons
second law becomes


1 2
( ) ( )
2
1 2
kg 1 m s F F + = 200 .52 , or
1 2
304 N F F + = (1)

When pulling in opposite directions,


( ) ( )
2
1 2
kg 18 m s F F = 200 0.5 , or
1 2
104 N F F = (2)

Solving simultaneously, we find:
1
F 100 = N , and
2
F = 204 N
4.68 In the vertical direction, we have

, or cos 4.0 0
y
F T mg = =
cos 4.0
mg
T =



In the horizontal direction, the second law becomes:

, so


sin4.0
x
F T ma = =
2
0.69 m s =
sin4.0
tan4.0
T
a g
m

= =
T
4.0
+y
+x
mg
ur
ur
4.69 The magnitude of the acceleration is
2
2.00 m s = a for all three blocks and applying
Newtons second law to the 10.0-kg block gives


( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
1
10.0 kg 9.80 m s 10.0 kg 2.00 m s T = , or
1
78.0 N T =

Applying the second law to the 5.00-kg block gives:

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
m s
1 2
5.00 kg 9.80 m s 5.00 kg 2.00
k
T T
(
=

1
78.0 N =


With , this simplifies to: T ( )
2
68.0 N- 49.0 N T
k
=

(1)

The Laws of Motion 137
For the 3.00-kg block, the second law gives

With
2
sin25.0
k
T n mg ma = (

2 2
s , and cos25.0 n mg = 3.00 kg, 2.00 m s , 9.80 m m a g = = =
(
, this reduces to:

)
2
26.6 N 18.4 N
k
T = (2)

Solving Equations (1) and (2) simultaneously, and using the value of T from above, we
find that
1
(a)
1
N 78.0 T = ,
2
35.9 N T = , and (b) 0.656
k
=
4.70 The scale simply reads the magnitude of the normal force exerted on the student by the
seat. The seat is parallel to the track, and hence inclined at 30.0 to the horizontal. Thus,
the magnitude of this normal force and the scale reading is
( ) cos 200 lb cos30.0 173 lb n mg = = =
q
T
m
+x
+y
a
mg
q
ur
ur
ur
4.71 Choose the positive x axis to be down the incline and the y
axis perpendicular to this as shown in the free-body
diagram of the toy. The acceleration of the toy then has
components of


2
30.0 m s
0, and 5.00 m s
6.00 s
x
y x
v
a a
t
+
= = = = +



Applying the second law to the toy gives:
(a) sin
x x
F mg ma = , =
2
1 1
2
5.00 m s
sin sin 30.7
9.80 m s
x
a
g


| | | |
= = =
| |
\ . \ .


and
(b) cos 0
y y
F T mg ma = , or


= =
( ) ( )
2
9.80 m s cos30.7 0.843 N = cos 0.100 kg T mg = =
138 CHAPTER 4
4.72 Taking the downward direction as positive, applying the second law to the falling
person yields
y y
F mg f ma = = , or


2 2
100 N
8.6 m s
80 kg
y
a g
| |
=
|
\ .
9.80 m s
f
m
= =
(


Then,
)
2 2
0 y y
v v 2
y
a y = +
(
gives the velocity just before hitting the net as

) ( ) ( )
2 2
2 8.6 m s 30 m 23 + =
0
2 0
y y y
a y = + = m s v v
4.73 The acceleration the car has as it is coming to a stop is


( )
( )
( )
2
2 2
2 0
0 35 m s
0.61 m s
2 2 1000 m
v v
a
x

= = =



Thus, the magnitude of the total retarding force acting on the car is


( )
2 2
2
8800 N
0.61 m s 5.5 10 N
9.80 m s
w
F m a a
g
| | | |
= = = =
| |
\ . \ .

4.74 (a) In the vertical direction, we have

( ) 8000 N sin65.0 0
y y
F w = = =
( )
ma

so
3
8000 N sin65.0 7.25 10 N w = = w = mg
8000 N
65.0
ur ur
(b) Along the horizontal, the second law yields

( ) 8000 N cos65.0
x x
w
F m
g
| |
= = =
|
\ .
(
x
a a , or


) ( ) ( )
2
2
3
9.80 m s 8000 N cos65.0 8000 N cos65.0
4.57m s
7.25 10 N
x
g
a
w
(

= = =



The Laws of Motion 139
4.75 First, we will compute the needed accelerations:
(1) Before it starts to move: 0
y
a =
(2) During the first 0.80 s:
0
2
1.2 m s 0
1.5 m s
0.80 s
y y
y
v v
a
t


= = =
(3) While moving at constant velocity: 0
y
a =
(4) During the last 1.5 s:
0
2
0 1.2 m s
0.80 m s
1.5 s
y y
y
v v
a
t


= = =
Applying Newtons second law to the vertical motion of the man gives:


y y
F n mg ma = = , or
( ) y
n m g a = +
(a) When 0 a = ,
y
( ) ( )
2 2
72 kg 9.80 m s 0 7.1 10 N n = + =
(b) When
2
m s
y
1.5 a = ,
2
8.1 10 N n =
(c) When 0 a = ,
y
2
7.1 10 N n =
(d) When
2
0.80 m s
y
a = ,
2
6.5 10 N n =
4.76 Consider the two free-body
diagrams, one of the penguin alone
and one of the combined system
consisting of penguin plus sled.

The normal force exerted on the
penguin by the sled is



and the normal force exerted on the combined system by the ground is



The penguin is accelerated forward by the static friction force exerted on it by the sled.
When the penguin is on the verge of slipping, this acceleration is


1 1 1
n w m g = =
2 total tot
n w m = =
(
130 N
al
g =
) ( )
( ) ( )
1 1 2 2 max
max
1 1
0.700 9.80 m s 6.86 m s
s
s
f m g
a g
m m

= = = = =
n
1
w
1
= 70.0 N
F
f
1
f
2
w
total
= 130 N
n
2
ur ur
ur
ur
ur
140 CHAPTER 4
Since the penguin does not slip on the sled, the combined system must have the same
acceleration as the penguin. Hence, applying the second law to the combined system
gives , or


2 m x tot
F F f m a = =
ax al
( )
2 max total k
F f m a = + =
( ) (
max
total
total
w
w a
g
| |
+
|
\ .
)


This yields
( )
2
2
130 N
6.86 m s 104 N
9.80 m s
| |
= + =
|
\ .
0.100 130 N F
4.77 Since the board is in equilibrium, 0
x
F = and we see that
the normal forces must have the same magnitudes on both
sides of the board. Also, if the minimum normal forces
(compression forces) are being applied, the board is on the
verge of slipping and the friction force on each side is
( )
s s
max
f f n = =

The board is also in equilibrium in the vertical direction,
so

2 0, or
2
w
w f = =
y
F f =

The minimum compression force needed is then


( )
95.
72.0 N
2 2
s s
f w

= = =
5 N
0.663
= n
w = 95.5 N
f f
n n
ur ur
ur ur
4.78 The friction force exerted on the mug by the moving tablecloth is the only horizontal
force the mug experiences during this process. Thus, the horizontal acceleration of the
mug will be

2
0.100 N
0.500 m s
0.200 kg
k
mug
mug
f
a
m
= = =

The cloth and the mug both start from rest (
0
0
x
v = ) at time 0 t = . Then, at time , the
horizontal displacements of the mug and cloth are given by
0 t >
2 1
0 2 x x
x v t a t + = as:

( ) ( )
2 2 2 1
2
0 0.500 m s 0.250
mug
x t = + =
2
m s t
and
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 1
2
0 3.00 m s 1.50 m s
cloth
x t = + = t

The Laws of Motion 141
In order for the edge of the cloth to slip under the mug, it is
necessary that , or

0.300 m
cloth mug
x x = +
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
s 0.250 m s t t = +
( )
1.50 m 0.300 m

The elapsed time when this occurs is

2
0.300 m
0.490s
1.50 0.250 m s
t = =


At this time, the mug has moved a distance of

( ) ( )
2
0.250 m s 0.490 s 6
mug
x = =
2 2
.00 10 m 6.00 cm

=
4.79 (a) Consider the first free-body
diagram in which Chris and the
chair treated as a combined system.
The weight of this system is
, and its mass is 480 N
total
w =
49.0 kg
total
total
w
m
g
= =
2


Taking upward as positive, the
acceleration of this system is found
from the second law as


y total total y
F T = w = m a

Thus,
2
0.408 m s = +
500 N 480
49.0 kg
y
a

=
N
or
2
0.408 m s upward
w
total
= 320 N + 160 N
T = 250 N
T = 250 N
a
n
w
Chris
= 320 N
T = 250 N
ur
ur
(b) The downward force that Chris exerts on the chair has the same magnitude as the
upward normal force exerted on Chris by the chair. This is found from the free-
body diagram of Chris alone as



Hence,
,
y Chris Chris y Chris y Chris
F T n w m a n m a w T = + = = +
( )
2
2
320 N
0.408 m s 320 N 250 N 83.3 N
9.80 m s
n
| |
= + =
|
\ .

142 CHAPTER 4

4.80 Let R represent the horizontal force of air resistance. Since the
helicopter and bucket move at constant velocity,
JG
0
x y
a a = = .
The second law then gives:

cos 40.0 0
y
F T mg = = , or
cos 40.0
mg
=
sin40.0 R T
T

Also, , or

sin40.0 0
x
F T R = = =

Thus, ( ) ( )
2 3
4 10 N tan40.0 620 kg R mg = = 9.80 m s tan 0.0 5.10 =
4.81 Consider two free-body diagrams, one of the
cement bag and one of the junction of the three
wires as given at the right.

Using the first diagram:

(1)

Then, using the second free-body diagram:

3
0
y
F T = = w
1
1 1 2
2
cos
cos 0 or
cos
T
T T
1
2 2
0 cos
x
F T

=
2 2
0 sin
y
F T
= =
1 1 3 2 2
sin 0 or sin T T T
(2)
and
1 1
sin T
3
T + = + = = (3)
w
T
R
w = mg
40.0
+y
+x
ur
ur
ur ur
q
1
ur
T
3
ur
T
1
q
2
ur
T
2
Cement
ur
T
3
ur
(a) Substituting Equations (1) and (2) into Equation (3) yields

( )
1 2 1 1 2
sin cos sin cos cos T w
2
+ =

Making use of the trigonometric identity ( )
1 2 2 1 1
sin sin cos sin cos
2
+ = +
( )
, the
above expression reduces to:
2
1
1 2
cos
sin
w
T


=
+

(b) If w
1 2
325 N, while 10.0 and 25.0 ,
( )
= = we find that:

=
( )
( )
2
1
1 2
325 N cos25.0 cos
514 N
sin sin 10.0 25.0
w
T



= = =
+ +


( )
1 1
2
2
514 N cos10.0 cos
558 N
cos cos25.0
T
T


= = =


and
3
325 T w = =