Queer Money Author(s): Will Fisher Source: ELH, Vol. 66, No. 1 (Spring, 1999), pp.

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The Oxford Dictionary of Modern Slang lists two definitions for the word "queer": homosexual and counterfeit money.1 Although the slang term "queer" is now generally understood to refer to homosexuals, it has been used in phrases referring to counterfeiting and counterfeit money since at least the seventeenth century.2 The New Dictionary of the terms ... of the canting crew (1699) defines the term "Queere-cole" as "clipt, Counterfeit, or Brass Money."3 It also lists the related words "Queere-cole-maker" and "queer-cole-fencer" which meant "counterfeiters" and "receivers of false coins" respectively. Other phrases such as "queer bit," "queer soft"-and eventually the noun "queer" itself-were used to refer to counterfeit money. This usage apparently continued until well into the nineteenth century. In the Rogue's Lexicon (1859), Mastel lists many of the earlier usages as well as the locution "to shove [the] queer" with the definition "passing counterfeit money."4 For the most part this meaning of the word queer is now archaic. It is still current, however, in phrases such as "queer as a three dollar bill" or "queer money."5 Queer as homosexual appears to grow out of this antecedent coining terminology.6 The modem usage might be traced to early sexological formulations in which homosexuality was seen as an illegitimate, or counterfeit, imitation of heterosexuality. But in the Oxford Dictionary of Modern Slang, queer as homosexual and queer as counterfeit seem to be unrelated-the linguistic conjunction a mere coincidence. In contrast to this perception, I want to argue for the historical overlapping of these seemingly distinct queer discourses.7 In fact, counterfeiting appears to have been linked with homosexuality (or, less anachronistically, sodomy) before the word queer came to mean homosexual. So while we might say that the present meaning of queer derives from coining terminology, sodomy and counterfeiting were also united conceptually long before the linguistic connection was established. Part of my project is thus to explore how terms like counterfeiting and usury fit into the nexus of transgressions that have been associated with sodomy.8 Since the appearance of the first volume of Michel

ELH 66 (1999) 1-23 © 1999 by The Johns Hopkins University


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who analyzes how sodomy and usury are imagined to undermine the system of Renaissancepatronage. we need to interrogatethe very logic that views these activities as discrete and unrelatedforms of exchange which can then be confused. the connection between sodomy and counterfeitingis made explicit.10 By focusingon the economic aspects of sodomy.l6Brayarguesthat relationships between men were often deemed sodomiticalif they transgressedthe conventionsgoverningmale friend- 2 Queer Money This content downloaded from 160.14 The emblem evokes the crime of sodomyby referringto Ganymedeas "the foule Sodomitan" andby depictinghim astridea "cock. but also economic and social. immanently linked to other "sins"such as incest. bestiality.He holds "Meddals. Such a conflation of the sexual and the economic has been proposed by Alan Bray. economic).I continue the work begun by Jody Green. I hope to revise the thinkingthat would see these couplings as categoricalconfusions.9While sodomy was undoubtedly associatedwith these other transgressions because they were all types of subversion (political.45." Peacham's emblem thus echoes James I's Basilikon Doron.13 In Henry Peacham'semblem of Ganymede (figure 1)."The text then explainsthat these objects are meant to refer to Ganymede's crime of "false coine. / With sundry moneyes.152."'5 The "sundrymonies"and "meddals" that Ganymedecarriesindicate that his crime is not only sexual.Foucault's History of Sexuality. there were also specific reasons for linking sodomy with each one of these different crimes. atheism. he is equally a counterfeiter." But if Ganymede is a sodomite. Many early modern texts link counterfeit coins with counterfeit coitus. 17 Apr 2013 04:03:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .In the process. the truth of that system. religious.despite the fact that they are.64 on Wed. I will map out the particularcultural logic that structuresthe connection between sodomy and counterfeiting/usury. in a certain sense. where the king includes both sodomy and false coin among the six sins that his son is "bound by conscience never to forgive. In this essay. Instead. it has been customary to speak of sodomyas an "utterly confused category" because sodomywas a symbol of social disorder. I examinelinks between sodomy and various types of illicit economic activity. counterfeit and nought."2 FollowingGreen. cosmic. and witchcraft.of base mettals wroght.11 Greene'sessaythus begins to map out one areathatJonathan Goldberg's "extremelywide-rangingdiscussion of sodomy [in Sodometries]leaves virtuallyuntouched:the economic.

'7 In Peacham's text. and hence its subversion of legitimate social relations.152. however. They indicate the mercenary nature of Ganymede's friendship.45. economic. Reign. or character. In the image. or social stature. Edward's sodomitical tendencies are figured in terms of counterfeiting." on the other hand. To be a "ganymede" is thus to participate simultaneously in illicit sexual. This image provides a direct analogy for Ganymede's social relations. and a device on the other. They were customarily given to peers as a means of recognizing service or of delineating social alliances. Although Ganymede's alliances might appear to take the same form as legitimate male friendships. the emblem implies that they are illegitimate because Ganymede. comparing Edward's minion to "copper" gives the relationship an explicitly sexual valence on account of the cultural significances of Will Fisher 3 This content downloaded from 160. The monetary and class transgressions that Bray discusses are both represented in Peacham's emblem.18 Elizabeth Cary also uses the trope of false coining to question the legitimacy of a social and sexual alliance. and Death of Edward II. made loose by his example. whom by his Royal stamp he might make currant. the "sundry monies" that Ganymede possesses are emblematic of an illegitimate transfer of wealth. the medal apparently commemorates an alliance that is base rather than noble (the description of the medal puns on the alchemical distinction between the base and noble metals). or Copper metal. The "meddals" that Peacham refers to were coin-like medallions with a portrait in relief on one side. or when the friends were not of roughly the same class standing. Even though Ganymede's medals have the same form as legitimate medals. Here he seeks out some Piece.19 After Gaveston has been sent away from the court.64 on Wed. 17 Apr 2013 04:03:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and social exchanges. or Copper metal.21 Similarly." "Piece" was a generic term for both coins (as in "a piece of eight") and sexual objects (as in the phrase "a piece of flesh"). Cary recounts how his "wandering eyes now ravage through the confines of the great Court. like his medals. symbolize an illegitimate transfer of power. of base mettals wrought. is of base mettle. or illegitimate coining. The "meddals.ship. In Cary's The History of the Life. Edward begins to look for a new minion. they are counterfeit insofar as they are fashioned from base material. male friendship could be labeled sodomy if the relationship was perceived to be too mercenary."20 Cary describes the erotic nature of the favorite's role in numismatic language: Edward's prospective minion is called a "Piece. The word "ganymede" often referred to such a "degenerate" type of friendship. In other words.

This content downloaded from 160.45.Figure 1: Emblem of Ganymede from Henry Peacham's Minerva Britannia (1612). Credit: By permission of the Folger Shakespeare Library. 17 Apr 2013 04:03:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .152.64 on Wed.

social value is also determined in part by the mettle of the person being preferred. The correlation between copper and anality was derived from the fact that the Latin word for copper is aes.26 Edward's actions are imagined as creating disorder because the base (whether metal or man) is given preferment at the expense of the noble. like metals.22 According to the alchemists. are contaminated by this activity. to some extent. aeris. she reminds us that individuals.45."23 Thus Cary's use of numismatic imagery suggests a specifically anal sexual economy.24 Cary's Edward cannot be said to counterfeit coins since his stamp had the power to bestow legitimacy. with the implication that his stamp. the language that Cary uses is significantly different in that it suggests debasement rather than counterfeiting. Instead. In addition. In other words. copper was Venus's metal and hence denoted venery. Edward makes base social and sexual relations current in the court-the court is said to be "made loose by his example"-just as he makes base coins current in the realm. are valued differently within a stratified social system. Edward's mistake is believing that value-whether monetary or social-resides solely in the King's stamp. In addition. the King's transgression here is not so much the stamping itself. As in Marlowe's version of Edward II.the metal itself. Although Edward's "Royal stamp" is. this passage foregrounds the similarities between the way in which coins are given monetary value and the way in which individuals are given social value within court culture. or rank. While the connection between sodomy and illegitimate coining is implicit in Cary's text as it is in Peacham's. For Edward to give his minion as much prestige as he gives his nobles is thus the social equivalent of trying to mint copper coins in the place of gold ones. able to give his minions social legitimacy (and hence value) in the same way as he gives his coins monetary legitimacy. 17 Apr 2013 04:03:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .64 on Wed. According to Cary. and image. and not in the material stamped. When Cary likens Edward's prospective minion to a piece of copper. but rather the fact that the minion is not of the proper mettle. and for "things made of copper" aenus. Edward is putting his mark on a base rather than a noble material. While the King's stamp of approval certainly works to Will Fisher 5 This content downloaded from 160. In addition. In both cases. it was a base metal that was specifically associated with the anus. the Greek word Kopper means "excrement. Cary questions the legitimacy of the royal coinage/desires by suggesting that Edward is stamping a low-grade metal-namely "Copper."25Edward's attempt to satisfy his desire by using a base object (a minion of inappropriate rank) is thus equated with using a base metal (copper) for making coins.152.

On the one hand.29 I would argue that there is a discursive organization underlying the apparent randomness of these accusations. Baines attributes a number of perverse opinions to him-opinions that imply that he was both an atheist and a sodomite. that he vsed him as the sinners of Sodoma. after the linking sentence about the apostles. Richard Baines's testimony about "the opinion[s] of on[e] Christopher Marly" links sodomy and counterfeiting. he "improperly" values the apostles by calling them "base fellowes of neyther wit nor worthe. it would be a fantasy to believe that social currency is simply the result of the King's favor (just as it would be a fantasy to believe that monetary value resides entirely in the King's stamp). 17 Apr 2013 04:03:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Marlowe had argued: That St John the Evangelist was bedfellow to Christ and leaned alwaies in his bosome. The two statements in the list that have homoerotic implications (about Christ and St. They are followed shortly by the statement about counterfeiting. John. implying as they do an improper assignation of value: just as Marlowe "improperly" values tobacco. That all the apostles were fishermen and base fellowes neyther of wit nor worthe . the second is about the transformation of base metal into nobles.152.28 Where the texts of Peacham and Cary use this discursive connection to question relationships between master and servant or King and minion. or rather "Crownes. Even though Marlowe was at one point a government agent. the Baines document employs the same trope to problematize Marlowe's relationship to the state. That all they that loue not Tobacco &amp. boies were fooles.64 on Wed.. boys. According to Baines. That he has as good Right to Coine as the Queen of England. and false money. the languages of sexuality and economics are interchangeable.45.." The statement about the apostles and that about counterfeiting stand in an inverse relation to one another. and about boys and tobacco) are grouped together. and that he was acquainted with one Poole a prisoner in Newgate who hath greate Skill in mixture of mettals and hauing learned some thinges of him he ment through help of a Cunninge stamp maker to Coin ffrench Crownes pistoletes and English shillinges. Whereas the first is about the noble apostles being taken for something base.increase the social value of the individual stamped (and the value of metal that is minted). the items on the list with erotic 6 Queer Money This content downloaded from 160. All of these claims are governed by an economic logic.2" As with Peacham and Cary." Throughout the passage.

buying and smoking tobacco is an expense that provides absolutely no material return: it was. however.30 Just as having sex with boys does not produce any return (or offspring). In the pronouncement attributed to Marlowe.32 Although the connection between boys and tobacco does not appear to have been commonplace in early modern England. this evangelical engendering becomes two "unnatural" forms of procreation: sodomy and usury. money going up in smoke. Moreover. and smoking are similar in that they are all unproductive modes of expenditure that interfere with the economy of legitimate reproduction-in Shakespearean terms they are an "expense of spirit in a waste of shame.31 Boys and tobacco are therefore luxuries-both in the modern economic sense of luxury as something without explicit use value and also in the older sexual sense of luxury as lust. John "as the sinners of Sodoma. In the statement about Christ and St.overtones employ the language of monetary exchange: Christ. quite literally. he breeds new members of the Christian family."34Sodomy. and spoils the seed: / It dulls the spirite. John are involved in a kind of unnatural generation. is said to use St." while in the quip about boys and tobacco. that outlandish weed / It spends the brain. the validity of the social order itself. smoking was figured as a sterile (and sterilizing) habit that impeded the production of legitimate Englishmen. John.152. Similarly. smoking was often compared to other luxurious activities such as frequenting prostitutes. they each represent a particular kind of expenditure-what we might call expenditure without return. / It robs a woman of her right. This is particularly evocative given that St. Pederasty and smoking are comparable types of commerce. economic metaphors are used to mark a "natural"kind of breeding (Christian proselytizing) as "unnatural.64 on Wed. it dims the sight." The discursive connection between sodomy and usury suggests that Christ and St. "unnatural" types of commerce are made to seem logical. Will Fisher 7 This content downloaded from 160. 17 Apr 2013 04:03:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . for example. lasciviousness. whoring.45. the sexual is thus understood in relation to the economic. or even desirable.33 Like whoring. John was-as his epithet reminds us-"the Evangelist. Similarly. Marlowe's claim that "he had as good Right to Coine as the Queen of England" questions the currency of monarchical power and."35 Throughout the Baines document. They recruit. the statement extolling the pleasures of boys and tobacco needs to be understood economically." With Christ. in each case the ideas attributed to Marlowe represent an inversion of cultural norms and values. William Vaughn (1612) wanted smokers to memorize this rhyme: "Tobacco. by extension.

Sometimes. sodomy is conjoined with-or figured as-counterfeiting. sometimes. When Cary and Peacham link these two "sins.. going back to the sense contained within the Greek word oikonomia: pertaining to "management of the household. Du Bartas's account of the destruction of Sodom immediately follows his discussion of the sodomites' attempt to rape the angels who were visiting Lot's house. 17 Apr 2013 04:03:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ."36 As in the Baines accusations. The connection between sodomy and false economics is already implicit in Du Bartas's account of Lot.64 on Wed. In addition. for example. [the] cunning counterfait [that is. The act of sodomy is there figured as an inappropriate form of hospitality.. he recounts how one sodomite leaps in a lake in order to escape the fire and brimstone only to find that the lake itself "began to boyle and bubble. "mints") the official money of the realm ("Princes Coyne") with a "false stamp. but also for a type of coin. Du Bartas's sodomite seems to think that he has as good a right to coin as the Prince: he "beats" (that is. As we have seen in Elizabeth Cary. In each of these texts. but also because they are both considered improper forms of economy. the sodomite is actually accused of making false coins (as in the Baines note and Du Bartas). in other words. sodomy and counterfeiting are coterminous. the language of counterfeiting is used to describe a sodomitical relationship (as in Peacham and Cary). of course. do so in order to signal a correlation between the sexual and economic 8 Queer Money This content downloaded from 160. In all of the examples I have discussed." Sodomy. the sodomite] / That with false stamp some Princes Coyne hath beat. the description also carries with it a set of sexual connotations. one of the rudimentary types of economy. Hospitality is..152." Then.45." they. In Du Bartas'sversion of the destruction of Sodom in the Divine Weeks. I would argue that the image of the sodomite "beating" the "Princes coyne" with a "false stamp" links him with the sodomites who had attempted to rape Christ's (in other words.Like Baines." Although the language here is ostensibly one of coining.. like Baines. to death . Beating the "Princes coyne" is thus equated with sodomitically "stamping"the Prince's angels. the Prince's) angels. and by the fact that beating suggests a violent sexual act. the fiery lake "dooth boyle . the language of stamping and beating was easily eroticized. The symbolic connection between stamping and sodomy is supported by the fact that "angels"is not only the word for Christ's messengers. the narrative context foregrounds the erotic nature of the description. Saluste du Bartas conjoins the sodomite and the counterfeiter. is associated with inhospitality not only because they both involve puportedly improper relations between individuals.

As such. the rules governing hospitality prescribed a particular type of economic relation.38 It is not surprising.64 on Wed. in his Conference of the Civil Law. though he do not vtter it [circulate it]. The alliance between Edward and his minion and that between Ganymede and his master are supposedly counterfeit not only because they involve improper sexual exchange. or between the subject and the state (in Baines).. Like friendship. It is therefore hardly surprising that in Du Bartas's narrative the specter of sodomy arises in conjunction with a breach of the rules governing Christian hospitality. These representations of sodomy support Alan Bray's hypothesis that relationships between men were likely to be deemed sodomitical if they transgressed the economic and social conventions regarding male friendship. the laws about counterfeiting demonstrate that the infraction was not simply economic. He speaks. then. Legal discourse about counterfeiting can provide some insight into the way in which the crime was conceptualized during the early modern period. To understand this insistent connection between sodomy and counterfeiting. First of all.45. the production of false coins is Will Fisher 9 This content downloaded from 160. we should note that a homology had long existed between coining and sexual generation. so the production of false coins was eroticized. Du Bartas's treatment of sodomy in the Divine Weeks suggests that Bray's observations regarding friendship might be extended to include other social relations as well-relations such as hospitality. the charge of sodomy works to regulate social interactions by delineating what constitutes a proper relation-whether between friends (in Cary and Peacham). explains that it is unlawful for a "man . [to] counterfait the Kings money."39 And just as coining was understood in sexual terms. for example. it was similar to the generational act as understood within Aristotelian reproductive biology: the active male form impressing itself on female matter. between strangers (in Du Bartas). Moreover.37 Coining was a process in which a form (often the image of the monarch) was stamped upon a piece of metal. that Rice Vaughan describes the making of coins in his A Brief Essay of Coin and Coinage (1675) in sexualized language.152.transgressions of Edward and Ganymede respectively. Fulbecke. of"manufactures breed[ing] money" and producing new "species. but also because they involve an improper financial exchange and a partner who is not of the appropriate mettle or social class. 17 Apr 2013 04:03:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . In all of these texts.."40 In this formulation.

it also symbolically prevented him from breeding false coins.. In other words. Such an eroticization is vividly manifest.47 10 Queer Money This content downloaded from 160.64 on Wed. "false coyners" were "punished by cutting off . [the] genitals.. counterfeiting and sodomy were to be understood as equivalent perversions of them: just as counterfeiting was considered to be a false imitation of legitimate monetary production. just as only a father could confer legitimacy on his children. When seen from this perspective. 17 Apr 2013 04:03:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . While the punishment would prevent the counterfeiter from sexually reproducing. It was for this reason that counterfeiting was classified as treason."42William Camden notes that under the Normans. and hence the counterfeiters' appropriation of the crown's prerogatives. despite the fact that the economic harm only results from the circulation of the illegitimate coins. they do not necessarily demonstrate the eroticization of counterfeiting.said to be as transgressive as their circulation. both because it was a "counter making" ("feiting" from the French faire: "to make") and because it put the making of the subject on par with the making of the prince. If coining and sexual reproduction were homologous. Fulbecke writes that "Statute of 25. one seventeenthcentury text on sodomy even defines the act as "coition in the preposterous vase. blasphemers their tongues cut out).44 Parker notes that "preposterous" was the "early modem English term for sodomy as the sexually back to front."46 Like sodomy. Edward 3. in the punishments meted out to false coiners. counterfeiting could be classified under the rubric of the preposterous. it is clear that part of the infraction was the very act of stamping false coins. maketh it treason for a common person to coine the kings money without his warrant or authentike."41 The implication is that only the King could confer legitimacy on his money."45Indeed. however. These two activities might therefore be labelled preposterous. While the discussions of false coining clearly demonstrate that the crime was not simply economic. Patricia Parker's recent work on the preposterous argues that the term was used to describe any activity that involved an inversion of the "proper" or "natural" order of things.45. then counterfeiting was classified as a sexual infraction. sodomy was figured as a false imitation of heterosexual generation."43 If punishments acted as a symbolic retribution for the crime committed (thieves would have their hands amputated. counterfeiting and sodomy were linked conceptually because they were both false forms of production-monetary and sexual respectively. Fulbecke reports that the counterfeiter's "privy member" would be "sundered from his body.152.

If Meres makes an analogy between usury and sodomy."52 These "witty invectives" assert again and again that the usurer Will Fisher 11 This content downloaded from 160.. ..64 on Wed. contrarie to the lawe of nature ."49 The argument here works by analogy ("As Paederastie ."51Francis Bacon testifies to the currency of Aristotle's notion of usury in the early modern period when he says that "Many have made witty invectives against usury.45. . In his tract The examination of usury. so usury is an attempt to breed money with itself (to make money from money). because it is against kinde: so usurie and encrease by gold and silver is unlawful. for money to begette money. who argued that usury is "the birth of money from money" and then explains that "of all modes of making money this is the most unnatural. The usurer and the sodomite thus commit the same crime in different forms. I want to insist that illegal monetary practices were always already sexualized."48And both the counterfeiter and the usurer were conflated with the sodomite.. 17 Apr 2013 04:03:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . that it is against nature for money to beget money. . nature hath made them sterill and barren. Henry Smith states that "such as take . The discourses about these two different types of illicit monetary activity were figuratively conflated in early modern Europe as illegitimate means of generating money: counterfeiting by making false coins. usury by making money breed. (in which sense one saide that usurie was YSodomia nauture. describes both sodomy and usury as unnatural attempts to make an infertile thing (boys/money) productive: "As Paederastie is unlawful. Miles Mosse claims. because against nature .I do not mean to reduce sodomy to an economic term. and usurie makes them procreative. a counterfeit as for the best" are "cousins to usurers. a kind of Sodomie in nature).152.. Francis Meres. both counterfeiting and usury were repeatedly figured as unnatural sexual practices. for instance. .. that usury actually is a form of sodomy: usurie is xContra legem nature. in his Palladis Tamia. On the contrary.. so usurie"): just as pederasty could be understood as an attempt to breed two things of the same "kinde" (meaning both "gender" and "nature").50 The usurer's attempt to make barren money breed is the equivalent of the sodomite's attempts to make a non-reproductive sexual object or orifice breed. it is against nature. Renaissance commentators traced the conception of usury as money unnaturally reproducing itself to Aristotle. in his treatise The Arraignment and Conuiction of Usurie. They say . Thus.

.152. and is the use of it. does no good until it is spread. As one early modem proverb puts it: "muck and money go together. After comparing the usurer's money to "a filthy heape of dung.. exchange) in the same way that the sodomite perverts sex from its proper use (that is. which is . . Thomas Pie makes this connection in his tract Usuries Spright conjured: the Usurer perverteth that end and use of money." the usurer himself is described as having his "mouth . The contempt for money is most vividly illustrated by the fact that money is often compared to excrement.perverts money from its proper use (that is. An almost identical characterization of the usurer appears in The Ballad of Gernutus.64 on Wed. a devil literally excretes gold coins into the mouth of a usurer. but Pie focuses on the proper use of money. dung in the ground.45. nor so much. According to this logic. for . Pie insists that money is naturally nonproductive-it is simply a medium of exchange without any inherent value. money is not supposed to be desirable in itself. . for commutation was the end wherefore money was ordained in humane societie. the usurer turns money away from (perverts) its natural use-"commutation.58 In one part of the fresco (figure 2). 17 Apr 2013 04:03:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . almost full of mucke. Therefore it is called a kind of Sodomie.."55 Associating money with feces serves to denigrate money as an object."54 This willful perversion of what nature has supposedly ordained makes the usurer a kind of sodomite.. The fresco of Hell in Collegiate Church of San Gimignano provides a striking visualization of the link between money and feces in its representation of the usurer. one of the sources for The Merchant of Venice. like dung.. agreeable to nature: namely commutation."56Roger Fenton articulates these ideas in his tract on usury: "there is no manner of vse to be made of [money]. yet still he gapes for more. .. it is simply a means to an end.53 This is essentially the same argument that Mosse makes in The Arraignment.. but only parting from it. By trying to make money produce more money. procreation). which naturall use the Usurer turneth into that which is against nature ."59The usurer's purported sin is that he tries to make excrement into aliment: the usurer preposterously inverts the relationship between excrement and aliment by trying to feed himself- 12 Queer Money This content downloaded from 160. no more [use of it] than of durt [excrement] in the streete. but it also suggests money's proper use: exchange."'57 Both the proverb and the passage from Fenton reinforce the idea that money is simply a barren medium of exchange. Another proverb states that "Money.

17 Apr 2013 04:03:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .64 on Wed.Figure 2: The Usurer.152.45. Figure 3: The Sodomite. detail from the fresco of hell in Collegiate Church of San Gimignano. detail from the fresco of hell in Collegiate Church of San Gimignano. Will Fisher 13 This content downloaded from 160.

where the sodomites and the usurers are placed together in the third round of the seventh circle of hell.64 on Wed."62 The two cities alluded to stand in for the sins that flourished in them: Sodom figures unnatural sexual practices while Cahors figures the unnatural economic practices of its usurers. symbolizes two different modes of "unnatural" penetration. The spit running through the anus to the mouth of one sodomite and into the mouth of another. the instrument of transportation. Dante had mentioned that "the smallest round brands with its mark both Sodom and Cahors. and devoure. thereby making it barren. while the sodomite unnaturally consumes seed with the anus or mouth. Whereas the usurer attempts to consume a barren thing (money) and thus make it nourishing."60In short.to gain his subsistence-with a barren substance (money/excrement). to gnawe. occupying adjacent spots on the same level of Hell. they simply consume. visualizes their supposed sin. the sodomite consumes a potentially productive thing (semen). Roger Fenton articulates this point in his treatise on usury. saue onely in consuming and deuouring it. Neither the sodomite nor the usurer produces as ordained by nature. The usurer consumes gold unnaturally (as in the fresco). The spatial organization of the mural thus recalls Dante's Inferno. The attempts to distinguish between legitimate and illegitimate forms of sexual and economic exchange occurred despite (or perhaps because of) the fact that these distinctions were increasingly untenable."61 Perhaps this unnatural mode of consumption is one of the reasons why the usurer is placed alongside the sodomite in the fresco at San Gimigniano (figure 3). is derived from the word Noschach. The usurer and the sodomite are conflated because they are imagined as inversions of one another. the usurer turns money into productive semen while the sodomite turns semen into unreproductive money. Early modem commentators supported this characterization of usurers by pointing out that the biblical term for usury (Neschech).45. Bray argues that over the course of the early modern period. The spatial proximity of the usurers and sodomites in Dante's Inferno and in the fresco at San Gimignano is indicative of a perceived conceptual affinity. In effect. it became 14 Queer Money This content downloaded from 160. He says that usurers "meddle not with natures increase. "which signifieth to bite. The image of the sodomites in San Gimignano. like that of the usurer. usurers do not produce as ordained by nature.152. Earlier in the Inferno. 17 Apr 2013 04:03:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . but [they] live and inrich themselues by a thing [money] meerely artificiall.

Mario DiGangi. I would like to thank Peter Stallybrass.63 The same might be said about economic exchange. this essay started and ended its circulation with him and bears his imprintin numerousplaces.more difficult to differentiate natural and unnatural types of male friendships because illegitimate social transactions became more common.67 One small but significant consequence of this bourgeois separation has been the obfuscation of the historical connections between sodomy and queer money. which was the counterfeiter. my readers at ELH gave me excellent feedback and suggestions. in that it became increasingly difficult to distinguish between natural and unnatural forms of making money. .Jeff Masten. CUNY NOTES It is a good thing that academic work is not governed by a strict economy as I would never be able to repay all of the debts that I have accumulated in writing this essay.In addition.64 on Wed. free from the privy thief. Jim Shapiro. I have received material or helpful comments from Phyllis Rackin. and Nick Radel. the Act Against Usury was passed in 1571 but was then retracted in 1624."66 What I have argued here is that unnatural sexualities and unnatural economics were coded through each other. 1 These are the definitions of "queer" listed in The Oxford Dictionary of Modern Will Fisher 15 This content downloaded from 160.152.64 Other kinds of usury (like dry exchange) seem to have been widely tolerated throughout the period. First of all. The current slang usage of the term queer to refer to both homosexuals and false coins suggests the persistence of such a conflation. Lehman College. Dan Traister. The fact that two different definitions are listed in the Oxford Dictionary of Modern Slang is symptomatic of (and contributes to) a more general dissociation of the sexual and the economic. . though the bifurcation of the dictionary definition tends to obscure the connections that are explicit in the early modern material.45. Margretade Grazia.65 Similarly. and the participants at the SAA seminar where it was presented. counterfeiting and clipping coins were thought to have become so widespread that Elizabeth I issued a series of proclamations on coinage which were intended to make "every man's purse or coffer . the essay is much stronger for their careful attention. For example. Dympna Callahan. The shift from viewing erotic and economic exchange as interrelated to viewing them as increasingly incompatible might be understood in relation to changing conceptions of marriage: the bourgeois model of affective relations superseding the dynastic model of marriage in which desire and economic considerations were explicitly linked. and ValerieTrauball read earlydraftsand providedinvaluablesuggestions. Finally. especially Greg Bredbeck. 17 Apr 2013 04:03:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .

Ireland and of English Books Printed Abroad." See Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick. Press. in A Short Title Catalogue of Books Printed in England. 2nd ed. 1990). H. &amp. under the word "queer")." 5 Although the three-dollar bill is the quintessential form of counterfeit money. 1990]. notes that she uses the term primarily to denote same-sex sexual object choice. she only seems to acknowledge the derogatory uses of the term. this particular citation is useful insofar as it indicates that queer was not simply a derogatory term as is often assumed. (2nd ed. but I think that it is important that we recognize that queer was simultaneously a term of derision and a term of self-identification. In citing this evidence I do not mean to erase the pejorative connotations that the word has undeniably had. Auden's use of the word demonstrates that it was also an identificatory term within a gay male context: his reference to "an underground cottage" suggests a specific subcultural location as well as a specific idiom (implied by the use of the word queer). 1641-1700. "Private Lives/Public Theater: Noel Coward and the Politics of Homosexual Representation. 4 Mastel. my argument parallels the argument made by Alan Sinfield about the use of the term gay. 17 Apr 2013 04:03:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . I map out the history of the word queer becayse. In 1932. for example. STC II (Wing) microfilm catalogue #1460: p.. as Judith Butler points out in her chapter "Critically Queer.. 2nd ed. E. By 1860 there were more than sixty-five hundred varieties of legitimate private notes in circulation along with a near equal amount of worthless 16 Queer Money This content downloaded from 160.. 1993).152. Auden was the first writer to use queer to mean homosexual (quoted in OED. ed. when the United States issued its first paper money." She writes this while simultaneously acknowledging that "a lot of the most exciting recent work around 'queer' spins the term outward along dimensions that can't be subsumed under gender and sexuality at all. it is still generally associated with homosexuality. W. 1699). ed. Microfilms. numerous privately-issued bank notes were printed-sometimes including a three dollar denomination. Although Butler brilliantly explores the ramifications of using a term like queer as an organizing rubric for contemporary political activism. Press. Scotland. Eve Sedgwick." Representations 36 (1991): 43-63. "Queer and Now. he wrote of "an underground cottage frequented by the queer.Slang. (Ann Arbor: Univ.45." Although the OED is a suspect source for historicizing the language used by marginalized groups. See Alan Sinfield. quoted in the OED. 1091). 1993).64 on Wed. John Ayto and John Simpson (Oxford: Oxford Univ." in Tendencies (Durham: Duke Univ. A new dictionary of the terms ancient and modern of the canting crew (London: Printed for W. Hawes . See Butler's chapter "Critically Queer" in Bodies that Matter: On the Discursive Limits of "Sex" (New York: Routledge. 8. 8-9. I am arguing that queer may have had a coded significance that was recognizable to a group of dissident readers. and W. 1992). 3 B. Wayne Dynes [New York: Garland." the labels that we use to fashion our identities bring with them a history that inevitably effects their current usage. From this perspective.) under the word "shove. Hereafter all subsequent references to this volume of the Short Title Catalogue will be abbreviated STC II and followed by the microfilm catalogue and page number. Davis.. From the mid-1830s until 1861. it states that "some older English homosexuals prefer the term" (Encyclopedia of Homosexuality. 2 Although queer is a contested term that has come to encompass a wide range of meanings and identities. According to the OED. esp. and that to "displace [these meanings] from the term's definitional center would be to dematerialize any possibility of queerness itself. there were apparently legitimate three-dollar bills circulating in mid-nineteenth century America. The Encyclopedia of Homosexuality corroborates this point.

One exception to the rule about noting. Miller puts it. Miller's "Open Secrets/Secret Subjects. I look to examine the logic structuring this connection as well as to situate it alongside other such linkages-like that between sodomy and counterfeiting-that have not heretofore been recognized. 17 Apr 2013 04:03:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1972]. This circulation is governed by the logic of the open secret: as D. Eric Gustafson for sending me this article. 2nd ed. Impotence. Although Bergler never uses the word queer in his book. "sodomy ." trans. . trans. Others." in The Dyer's Hand [New York: Random House. counterfeiting is mentioned only briefly in it. is concentrated upon a member of his own sex" ("Brothers &amp. A. Auden's discussion of The Merchant of Venice. 22). but he must have been familiar with the association of usury with sodomy of which Dante speaks in the Ninth Canto of the Inferno. for example." See Bergler.152. of California Press. 1973)." despite the fact that "more othodoxly. October 22. Press. Although one might expect the book's title to announce its subject. though his conduct may be chaste. " San Francisco Chronicle. . Leslie A. is 'a debauched playing that knows no Will Fisher 17 This content downloaded from 160. Fieldler claims that Shakespeare uses the trope of usury to refer to "the carnal love of [men for] women. H. 7 One prominent literary example of this conjunction is Andr6 Gide's homo-crypted novel The Counterfeiters. Dorothy Bussy and Justin O'Brien (1926. 1961). and psychoanalysis that Goux began in Symbolic Economies: After Marx and Freud. Les Monnayeurs du langage extends the work on the relations between economics and the various fields of semiotics. The title might therefore be read as a coded term for the counterfeit sexual relations that the novel incessantly explores. Toland. The Counterfeiters with Journal of "The Counterfeiters. Frigidity." Auden goes on to say that it can "hardly be an accident that Shylock the usurer has as his antagonist a man [Antonio] whose emotional life. Greene examines how sodomy and usury are conflated within the economy of Renaissance patronage. 1990). caused so many problems that some states actually outlawed banking. 192-220. 1976. there are a number of male-male relationships which seem to be homoerotic. In many ways. and D. achieving its currency at the cost of never actually exposing itself. it has been just that-noted. See Andre Gide. (New York: Grove Press. it is homosexuality which is associated with usury" (The Stranger in Shakespeare [New York: Stein and Day. even if the exact nature of the interactions remains uncertain. In the text. 29 and the following. "Not-SoPhony $3 Bill. instead it circulates (and even proliferates) as connotation. 231). Goux does not so much discover the connections between these seemingly diverse fields as he recovers a set of correlations that had a long cultural history. 1948]. I thank W. Charles Gide. homoeroticism circulates throughout the novel. 1984). Counterfeit-Sex: Homosexuality. linguistics. 8 Although the connection between sodomy and usury has long been noted. for the most part. Like a false coin. Jennifer Curtiss Gage (Ithaca: Cornell Univ. As she puts it. New York: Vintage Books. Goux's detailed historical reading of the novel is structured by a set of monetary distinctions that he credits to Gide's uncle. and their counterfeit doubles. 1984). he classifies homosexuality as a kind of "counterfeit sex.45. homosexuality is hardly ever openly denoted. In W. but not examining the relationship between sodomy and usury is Jody Greene's recent article on Shakespeare's Timon of Athens." in The Novel and the Police (Berkeley: Univ. See James R. See also Jean-Joseph Goux's discussion of Gide in Les Monnayeurs du langage (Paris: Galil6e. 6 One sexological monograph-Edmund Bergler's Counterfeit-Sex-discusses homosexuality in precisely these terms. and the shift occasioned by the demise of the gold standard.64 on Wed. A. he writes that "there is no reason to suppose that Shakespeare had read Dante. The prevalence of these notes.currency.

In both Measure for Measure and Cymbeline. for Foucault discusses the "confus[ion]" about the "uncertain status of sodomy. On this subject. 18 Queer Money This content downloaded from 160.' Early modern legal. trans. Press. 37.limit. Sodometries: Renaissance texts/modern sexualities [Stanford: Stanford Univ. 13 Although I will focus on the connection between counterfeiting and sodomy. 14 I am grateful to Mario DiGangi for sharing this reference with me. see Seymour Klienberg." in Money. 1612) in A Short Title Catalogue of Books Printed in England. he acknowledges that others have seen him in this manner. 1-26. and cultural discourses viewed usury in remarkably similar terms. "The Merchant of Venice: The Homosexual as Anti-Semite in Nascent Capitalism." GLQ 1 [1994]: 170). "The Wether and the Ewe: Verbal Usury in The Merchant of Venice. Hereafter all subsequent references to this volume of the Short Title Catalogue will be abbreviated STC I and followed by the microfilm catalogue and page number. and Michel Foucault's The History of Sexuality: Volume 1: An Introduction. (London: The Bibliographic Society. 17 Apr 2013 04:03:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . but that it is actually considered a form of sodomy. 1983). Stuart Kellogg (New York: Haworth. 2nd ed. ed. Whereas Goldberg focuses on how sodomy's relationalityfunctions. 1982].64 on Wed. 1992). 199)." Yearbook of English Studies 23 (1993): 270-92. of California Press.152. the language of false coining was also used to describe other types of unauthorized sexual commerce (such as illegitimate male/female relations and prostitution)." See Goldberg's Sodometries: Renaissance Texts/ Modern Sexualities (Stanford: Stanford Univ. 170. see Michael Neill's "'In Everything Illegitimate': Imagining the Bastard in Renaissance Drama." in Literary Visions of Homosexuality. 9 This phrase is used as the title for the introduction to Jonathan Goldberg's Sodometries. I am especially indebted to Jonathan Goldberg's formative work in Sodometries. 14-15). Goldberg's analysis of these intersections allows us to recognize "the work that the term [sodomy] has been able to do-and continues to do-precisely because the term remains incapable of exact definition" (Jonathan Goldberg. I have chosen a slightly different focus: I want to explore the cultural logic that structures that relationality. for example. 1986). "The Two Antonios and Same-Sex Love in Twelfth Night and The Merchant of Venice. and Marc Shell. &amp. 48. Ireland and of English Books Printed Abroad. where he traces and maps the categorical confusions associated with sodomy-a project which my own essay seeks to extend. 12Greene. religious. See also Joseph Pequigney. Scotland. Goldberg follows Foucault here. Minerva Britannia. 1992]. 11Greene. and Thought: Literary and Philosophical Economies from the Medieval to the Modern Era (Berkeley: Univ. 10 The work of Alan Bray and Jonathan Goldberg anticipates this project insofar as they both attempt to show sodomy's logics. an illegitimate child is described as a counterfeit coin. Although Shell insists that Antonio is "more like a sterile wether than a sodomite" (73). Henry Peacham. My own essay expands on Greene's groundbreaking work. 18).45." English Literary Renaissance 22 (1992): 201-21. Alan Bray notes that sodomy is not synonymous with homosexuality because sodomy was also "closely associated with other sexual sins" (Homosexuality in Renaissance England [London: Gay Men's Press. 1475-1640. Language. Robert Hurley (New York: Random House. or a garden of historical devices (London. arguing that usury is not simply like sodomy. as what we might term a debauched paying that knows no limit" ("'You Must Eat Men': The Sodomitic Economy of Renaissance Patronage. For further examination of the topics of sodomy and usury in The Merchant of Venice. STC microfilm catalogue #19511: p. 1982). Press. 163-97. Similarly.

ed. According to J. ed. 1985). the purity and weight of coins was drastically reduced by mixing the precious metals with large amounts of a less valuable metal such as copper. Barry Weller and Margaret W. 16 Alan Bray. second edition [New York: St. under the word "copper"). Part I. 1613." they rehearse the arguments and evidence presented by both sides (Elizabeth Cary. the great debasement was a unique event in English history: it was the only time that the quality of English coins was diminished for fiscal ends (John Will Fisher 19 This content downloaded from 160. (London. 1994). Martin's Press. The Tragedy of Miriam: The Fair Queen of Jewry with The Lady of Falkland: Her Life by one of her daughters. The project of restoring the coinage to its original purity continued throughout the reigns of Elizabeth and James. in Henry IV. Part I the ring imagery seems to be used within a specifically anal economy. N. King Edward II. Abrams in association with the Frick Collection. E. The ring. xv-xvi). During this period. ed. 2nd edition. A Dictionary of Shakespeare's Sexual Puns and their Significance. Berkeley: Univ. the exchange between Falstaff and the Prince is replete with anal images and puns.15James I. Ferguson [London. D. 12-17). ed. revised and enlarged edition by Graham Pollard (London: British Museum Publications." Ganymede. 23Frankie Rubinstein argues for the currency of these associations in the Renaissance in her analysis of Falstaffs "copper ring" in Shakespeare's Henry IV. Scher (New York: H. the term "meddle" is used to refer to sexual relations between men: "more by custome than by nature doe men meddle and abuse themselves with other men" (The Essays of Montaigne." in Queering the Renaissance. 1995].64 on Wed. microfilm #14351: 31. While they ultimately choose to "remain agnostic on the question. 19 The authorship of this text is still a matter of debate. for example. 24 The great debasement refers to the adulteration of English coinage in the last years of the reign of Henry VIII and under Edward VI and Mary. of Delaware Press. [New York: AMS Press." the text intimates that they may have been "gotten" by base "meddling"-that is to say by base sexual intimacies. 17 The cultural use and significance of medals in the early modern period is discussed briefly in Sir George Francis Hill's Medals of the Renaissance. Cary's use of the word in reference to Edward's minion might therefore hint at a relationship with the King that mirrors the relationship between Jove and his "copper. "Homosexuality and the Signs of Male Friendship in Elizabethan England. In Florio's translation of Montaigne's Essays. Barry Weller and Margaret W. 17 Apr 2013 04:03:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 40-61. by saying that Ganymede's medals are "wrought" of "base metal. 1994]. Fischer discusses the various meanings of the word in her entry for "piece" in Econolingua: A Glossary of Coins and Economic Language in Renaissance Drama (Newark: Univ. Press. Ferguson discuss the question at length in their introduction to The Tragedy of Miriam. of California Press. 3 vols. is stolen while Falstaff is sleeping "behind the arras [arse]" (Frankie Rubinstein. 1:112. Lady Falkland. 20 Elizabeth Cary. Although rings are generally taken to refer to the female genitalia (as in the quip about Nerrissa's ring at the end of The Merchant of Venice). 1967]. 22"Copper" was also a slang term for a cupbearer (OED. Gould.45. Stephen K. W. Henley. 1978) and in The Currency of fame: portrait medals of the Renaissance. 18In addition. in STC I. Basilikon Doron (1603). Jonathan Goldberg (Durham: Duke Univ. 21 Sandra K. done into English by John Florio. 47-48. The History of the most Unfortunate Prince. As Rubinstein points out. 1680). 1993).152. anno 1603.

"Sex. 26Bray's "Homosexuality and the Signs of Male Friendship" analyzes the language of friendship in Edward II. however. that the value adheres in the material used to make the coin either. 30 See Jacques Derrida's "From Restricted to General Economy: A Hegelianism without Reserve. 36-38. Peggy Kamuf [1991. According to John Aubrey's life of Raleigh (1669). David Scott Kastan and Peter Stallybrass [New York: Routledge. On related issues. as it is frequently called. see Walter Benn Michaels. 1978). We do not know. the value of the precious metals used in making coins varied significantly over the course of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries as a result of the massive influx of precious metals from the new world. there was not any simple relationship between the changes in the price of precious metals and the changes in the value of coinage. ed. see Jonathan Goldberg's "Sodomy and Society: The Case of Christopher Marlowe" (in Staging the Renaissance: Reinterpretations of Elizabethan and Jacobean Drama. 29 The entire Baines note is reprinted in Marlowe: The Critical Heritage. Kuriyama (New York: AMS Press. trans. of California Press. I would argue that the debate about whether a coin's value derives from the material or the stamp is ultimately misguided. Claude J. as value cannot be attributed to either one of these sources. 1987). 17 Apr 2013 04:03:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Like Goldberg. tobacco "was sold then [at the beginning of the seventeenth century] for its weight in silver. Chicago: Univ. 1986). 1970]). political and economic aspects of the Edward/ Gaveston dyad have been discussed by a number of different critics. Politics and Self-Realization in Edward II. though his reading differs from mine. 1979). For an extended discussion of Baines's testimony. nor if the nineteen charges presented in it were in any way related to the events leading up to Marlowe's death. 1992]). however. Counterfeit Money. trans. of Chicago Press. Kenneth Friedenreich. and James Voss. Alan Bass (1967. why it was written. 1988). was sent to the queen two days after Marlowe's mysterious death. especially his discussion of the fact that Baudelaire's "Counterfeit Money" begins in a tobacco shop. The Great Debasement. 75-82)." in "A Poet and a filthy Play-maker": new essays on Christopher Marlowe." in Sodometries. Chicago: Univ. ed. the reference to copper resonates with the events of the great debasement (near the time of composition). While this caused problems with the value of the coinage. 1991]. I am arguing that the Baines document reveals "the constitution of homosexuality within the social text" (75). The great debasement: currency and the economy in mid-Tudor England [Oxford: Clarendon Press. coins were exchanged for their equivalent weight in tobacco. See my note 23 and Gould. 27 I do not mean to imply. As a matter of fact. and Constance B. The sexual. 1588-1896.Dennis Gould. ed.64 on Wed. and Goldberg's chapter "The Transvestite Stage: More on the Case of Christopher Marlowe. But see also. Roma Gill. where the crown included copper in gold and silver coins in order to conserve funds. 251-77. especially Simon Shepherd's Marlowe and the Politics of Elizabethan Theater (Brighton: Harvester Press. Summers. 25 Although this passage is ostensibly about Edward II." in Writing and Difference. The Gold Standard and the Logic of Naturalism (Berkeley: Univ. "Edward II: Marlowe's Historical Tragedy.152. 28The Baines libel. Millar Maclure (London: Routledge.45. 31At the turn of the sixteenth century. I have heard 20 Queer Money This content downloaded from 160. I am also indebted to Derrida's reading of Baudelaire's story "Counterfeit Money" (in Given Time: I. 105-44. of Chicago Press." English Studies 63 (1982): 517-30.

Smith. Similarly. 1578-1660 [1908. . Fischer also maps out the intersection of minting and sexual vocabulary. The Origins of the British Colonial System. 38 Phyllis Rackin discusses the Aristotelian explanation of procreation and its early modern equivalents in her article "Historical Difference/Sexual Difference" (in Privileging Gender in Early Modern England." (Knapp. 63-94) discusses the gendered and (hetero)sexualized vocabulary used to describe the printing press. Sandra K. 60). Jeffrey Knapp explains that "the most common way to represent fears about tobacco's ill effect on the English character is to personify tobacco as a . Oxford: Oxford Univ. ed. Stephen Booth (New Haven: Yale Univ. that is to say that they are seen as coming from elsewhere: tobacco from the new world through Spain (at this historical moment) and sodomy from Italy. a wife complains that her husband feels greater affection for tobacco than for her: "Why dost thou so vainly prefer a vanishing filthy fume before my permanent virtues" (quoted in Knapp. 49). 2 vols. In the text.some of our old yeoman neighbors say. Sodometries. In addition to being luxuries. that when they went to Malmesbury or Chippenham Market. ed. The fact that both of these threats-or pleasures-are seen as something imported into England supports Goldberg's observation about the tendency of the Europeans to other their own desires. 1979). Press. 1959]. See Goldberg. those that had not been clipped very much and hence weighed more] to lay in the scales against the tobacco" (quoted in Jeffrey Knapp." Representations 21 (1988). and a whore" (quoted in Knapp. in 1604 James had issued his own A Counter-Blaste to Tobacco (London. 19. 110-11. Joshuah Sylvester. Her argument provides a fascinating complement to my own insofar as printing and coining were similar mechanical processes. 2:525." (quoted in George Louis Beer. see Fischer. The information on tobacco in Renaissance England in this essay is taken from Jeffrey Knapp's foundational article "Elizabethan Tobacco. they culled out their best shillings [that is. and Descartes" (in Alternative Shakespeare. 82). 60). Susan Snyder. . "Elizabethan Tobacco. Gutenberg." 32 See John Sekora's Luxury: the concept in Western thought. 36). from Eden to Smollett (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Univ.: Sixteenth Century Journal Publications. 17 Apr 2013 04:03:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1977)." See Shakespeare's Sonnets. Thomas Lacqueur also acknowledges the Aristotelian influence on early modern medical theory. 1977). 37Margreta De Grazia's essay "Imprints: Shakespeare. 1993]. In 1631 Charles I issued a proclamation prohibiting the importation of foreign tobacco so that "our Subjects may not unthriftily vent the solid Commodities of our own Kingdom. Terrence Hawkes [London: Routledge. Brink [Kirksville. since the English did not even begin to cultivate tobacco in Virginia until after 1611. Mo. (1605. and return the proceed thereof in Smoke. both sodomy and smoking are exorbitant. 60). Press. 34 John Deacon's Tobacco Tortured (1616) also imagines tobacco as inhibiting heterosexual generation. As the nationalistic overtones of these proclamations indicate.64 on Wed. although he concentrates on the Will Fisher 21 This content downloaded from 160. In 1614 John Taylor writes that "It is a thing his soul doth most adore / To live and love Tobacco. ed. tobacco's status as expenditure without return was undoubtedly exacerbated by the historical situation: England was forced to import its tobacco for over twenty years from its enemy Spain.45. 33 The connection between tobacco and unauthorized sexual practice made in the Baines libel was apparently a commonplace in the discourses condemning the use of tobacco. Gloucester: P. 35 This formulation comes from Shakespeare's "Sonnet 129.152. Press. Volume 2. Jean R. 36 The Divine Weeks and Works of Guillaume de Saluste Sieur du Bartas. whore. ed. 1996]. 223-46. reprint. trans. 1604) which denounced the toy as England's ruination.

Interestingly. Remaines of a greater worke. in two sermons (London. 44 Patricia Parker. or.152. 49 Francis Meres. the inhabitants thereof . 1598). n. 1990). Politics. 1636). in STC I. 17 Apr 2013 04:03:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Press. or by 22 Queer Money This content downloaded from 160. Sodometries. 88. 1595). 1675). counterfeiters were imagined to be male. in STC I. 1921). 1-30. According to Dollimore. 1966). See Goldberg. ed. De Sodomia (Paris: Biblioteque des Curieux. 42 As the punishment demonstrates. and trans. forms. 1591). and differences ancient and modern.64 on Wed. See his Making Sex: Body and Gender From the Greeks to Freud." 479. Wits Treasury Being the Second Part of Wits Commonwealth (London. in STC I. but it also problematizes the patriarchal fantasy of sexual generation that is based on this model. 180 and the following. (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. sodomy) as it is presented in Richard Eden's translation of Peter Martyr's Decades. undoubtedly because the stamping involved in producing coins was itself considered to be analogous to male penetration. See Luigi Sinistrari. (London. proportions. use." Modern Language Quarterly 54 (1993): 435-482. female stamping (and hence a female counterfeiter) is virtually unthinkable. 1604). the counterfeit calls into question the patriarch's ability to bestow social legitimacy and value on his offspring. Elizabeth's coins seem to bear her image much less frequently than those of her male predecessors and successors. This intervention might be labeled queer on account of the parallels between coining and sexual generation: by extension. Palladis Tamia. If a false coin can pass as a real coin. and "Preposterous Events. 163-97.45. it turns out that the path that "we thought we were on naturally. 43 William Camden. concerning Britaine. Usuries spright conjured. "Preposterous Reversals. 47 The queerness of counterfeiting also inheres in the way in which the false coin questions the ability of the stamped head to transmit value. According to this logic. 51Aristotle.Galenic influence. microfilm #4525: 184. 54 See Jonathan Dollimore's analysis of "perversion's lost histories" in Sexual Dissidence. and 279. "Preposterous Reversals: Love's Labor's Lost. microfilm #11415a: 89. (London. in STC I. B. microfilm #1242: 31. microfilm #18207: 110. 45Parker. 4. a scholasticall determination of usury (London. in STC I. 41 Fulbecke. See Jody Greene's insightful discussion of the relationship between usury and sodomy. A discourse of coin and coinage the first invention. 39 Rice Vaughan. In other words. 52Francis Bacon. 48 Henry Smith. Press. 61. Dollimore explores the way in which perversion-an erring from the prescribed path understood as natural and right-works to reveal both the "coercive 'nature' of the prescribed path" and the functioning of the ideology of the natural. The Arraignment and Conuiction of Usurie. in six sermons (London. (London. 1601). 322. 46 The "preposterous vase" refers to the anus. 50Miles Mosse. Goldberg also discusses the crime of "preposterous venus" (that is. then the monarch's stamp cannot be said to confer value and legitimacy in and of itself. matter." Shakespeare Quarterly 43 (1992): 186-213. the introduction of the possibility of the counterfeit not only questions the ability of the stamped head to transmit value. microfilm #19901: 19. 40 William Fulbecke. "Of Usury. 1885). in STC II. Jowett (Oxford: Claredon Press. 53 Thomas Pie. The second part of the parallel or conference of the civil law. microfilm #22660: 22." in Essays (London: Oxford Univ. . The examination of usury.

for example." the antiquated cultural assumptions about these relations continued to hold sway. intro.64 on Wed. 1954). in STC I. 55Oxford Dictionary of English Proverbs. See Agnew. and Co.. under the words "dry exchange"). 1924). 1985). Tawney and Eilleen Power. 2:196.. and in straying we discover alternative futures" (Sexual Dissidence: Augustine to Wilde. 1550-1750 (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. 2nd ed. Adams (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. 4. 1970). 63. 64 See Norman Jones. 1578). Will Fisher 23 This content downloaded from 160. Press. trans. esp. 1989). microfilm #10806: 94. microfilm #4342: 5.. ed. Jean-Cristophe Agnew also argues for the dissolution of traditional modes of exchange that he sees as accompanying the dissolution of the geographical boundaries of the market. ed. 1984). "Sodomy in Dante's Inferno and Purgatorio. God and the Moneylenders: Usury and Law in Early Modern England (Oxford: Basil Blackwell. 67 Mary Beth Rose. see her The Expense of Spirit: Love and Sexuality in English Renaissance Drama. in STC I. but also demonstrates that marriage itself (or rather how it is defined) is an important cultural arena where changing social relations get mapped out. he claims that the people of Utopia make their "chamber pots and all their humblest vessels" from gold and silver in order to hold them up "to scorn in every conceivable way" (Utopia. not only charts the emergence of a new conception of marriage. Heaven and Hell in Western Art (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. 93. 1968). (Ithaca: Cornell Univ. eds. 60 Fenton. one and two. In Thomas More's Utopia. 214. 66 R. Press. 59 The Ballad of Gernutus is reproduced in Appendix II of the Arden edition of The Merchant of Venice. we are in fact on by arrangement.105. See his "Homosexuality and the Signs of Male Friendship. 17 Apr 2013 04:03:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1986). 57 Roger Fenton. George M. M1071. 1988). 1989). 58The images of the usurer and sodomite from the fourteenth century Italian fresco are reproduced in Robert Hughes. 63 Bray argues that despite the fact that the "social form of personal service of early Tudor England was in decay by the end of the sixteenth century. H. 3 vols. 65 "Dry exchange" is a means of evading the laws against usury by using fictitious bills of exchange (OED. Press. The Inferno." Representations 36 (1991): 22-42. 61 Caesar Philippus. 153. Tudor Economic Documents.152. A general discourse against the damnable sect of Usurers (London. Joanna Wilson (Oxford: Oxford Univ. 1991]. (London: Longmans. John Ciardi (New York: New American Library." 53. 106). Worlds Apart: The Market and the Theater in Anglo-American Thought. 1611). Freud to Foucault [Oxford: Oxford Univ. Green. See also Joseph Pequigney's article. A Dictionary of the Proverbs in English of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries (New York: AMS Press. John Russell Brown (New York: Routledge.45. 3rd edition. 11. Logan and Robert M. 62 Dante Alighieri. divided into three bookes (London.choice. 56 Morris Palmer Tilley. Press. chaps. 550. Press. A treatise of usurie.

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