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Type of natural vegetation

Tropical Rainforest (TRF)

Characteristics
Leaves Evergreen, waxy with drip tips

Adaptation / Explanation
Evergreen: Remains green all year >constant high rainfall throughout the year. Do not shed leaves at the same time. Drip tips: Waxy leaf surfaces (with drip tips) > allow rainwater to drain off easily > preventing harmful bacteria from growing on them> protects the plant from disease (high temperatures & rainfall promote rapid growth of bacteria) Why? No need protection against cold and dry conditions. Adapt to: Lack of sunlight by having branches only on the top 1/3 portion of the trunks. Explain: Trees in the emergent & canopy layers branch out only at the top and spread out like umbrellas > get as much sunlight as possible. Why? Attract insects for pollination & animals for seed dispersal Why? Do not need to reach deep into the soil for water & nutrients. Some tall trees have buttress roots> thick & spread out widely to support the great weight of trees Why? High year-round temperature & rainfall in the tropical equatorial climate are able to support large variety of plants. Explanation: 720 species of trees & 1500 species of other plants (one hectare). Largest diversity of all biomes. Example : Keruing, Kapur, chengal, meranti >furniture and other objects. Explanation: High temperature > Grow very close to each other > dense & abundant vegetation growth

Trunk- Thin, smooth, branch out at the top

Flowers & fruits colourful & sweet smelling Roots Shallow, spread widely ( trees not plants)

Diversity Large variety of plants

Density Extremely dense

Type of natural vegetation


Tropical monsoon forest (TMF)

Characteristics
Leaves deciduous trees, leaves with waxy surface and drip tip

Adaptation / Explanation
Adapt to: Dry season Explanation: Shed leaves during dry season > minimise loss of water. Adapt to: Growth of harmful bacteria Explanation: Leaves have waxy surface & drip tips>water drain off easily (wet season) Adapt to: Heat and dryness (dry season) How? Withstand extreme heat from natural forest fires Explanation: Trees grow less densely than in TRF>branches of trees located around the middle of the trunk>sunlight able to reach lower parts of the forest. Explanation: Bear fruits during dry season while they are leafless. Adapt to: Irregular rainfall How? Deep roots to tap water sources deep under the ground Why? Inconsistent rainfall Explanation: 200 species 1 hectare Examples : Hardwoods-Teak, sandalwood(incenses), sal(fuel wood) Undergrowth Bamboo (& grasses) Explanation: Tress not grown closely together > crowns do not interlock to form continuous canopy > dense undergrowth. Bamboo thickets and grasses thrive > sufficient sunlight Appearances? Wet season Very dense, luxuriant Dry season lose leaves>sparse forest

Trunk- Thick, coarse bark

Branches

Flowers & fruits Leafless Roots Deep roots

Diversity Fewer species (compared to TRF)

Density Abundant (albeit less dense than TRF)