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Type of natural vegetation

Tropical Rainforest (TRF)

Leaves Evergreen, waxy with drip tips

Adaptation / Explanation
Evergreen: Remains green all year >constant high rainfall throughout the year. Do not shed leaves at the same time. Drip tips: Waxy leaf surfaces (with drip tips) > allow rainwater to drain off easily > preventing harmful bacteria from growing on them> protects the plant from disease (high temperatures & rainfall promote rapid growth of bacteria) Why? No need protection against cold and dry conditions. Adapt to: Lack of sunlight by having branches only on the top 1/3 portion of the trunks. Explain: Trees in the emergent & canopy layers branch out only at the top and spread out like umbrellas > get as much sunlight as possible. Why? Attract insects for pollination & animals for seed dispersal Why? Do not need to reach deep into the soil for water & nutrients. Some tall trees have buttress roots> thick & spread out widely to support the great weight of trees Why? High year-round temperature & rainfall in the tropical equatorial climate are able to support large variety of plants. Explanation: 720 species of trees & 1500 species of other plants (one hectare). Largest diversity of all biomes. Example : Keruing, Kapur, chengal, meranti >furniture and other objects. Explanation: High temperature > Grow very close to each other > dense & abundant vegetation growth

Trunk- Thin, smooth, branch out at the top

Flowers & fruits colourful & sweet smelling Roots Shallow, spread widely ( trees not plants)

Diversity Large variety of plants

Density Extremely dense

Type of natural vegetation

Tropical monsoon forest (TMF)

Leaves deciduous trees, leaves with waxy surface and drip tip

Adaptation / Explanation
Adapt to: Dry season Explanation: Shed leaves during dry season > minimise loss of water. Adapt to: Growth of harmful bacteria Explanation: Leaves have waxy surface & drip tips>water drain off easily (wet season) Adapt to: Heat and dryness (dry season) How? Withstand extreme heat from natural forest fires Explanation: Trees grow less densely than in TRF>branches of trees located around the middle of the trunk>sunlight able to reach lower parts of the forest. Explanation: Bear fruits during dry season while they are leafless. Adapt to: Irregular rainfall How? Deep roots to tap water sources deep under the ground Why? Inconsistent rainfall Explanation: 200 species 1 hectare Examples : Hardwoods-Teak, sandalwood(incenses), sal(fuel wood) Undergrowth Bamboo (& grasses) Explanation: Tress not grown closely together > crowns do not interlock to form continuous canopy > dense undergrowth. Bamboo thickets and grasses thrive > sufficient sunlight Appearances? Wet season Very dense, luxuriant Dry season lose leaves>sparse forest

Trunk- Thick, coarse bark


Flowers & fruits Leafless Roots Deep roots

Diversity Fewer species (compared to TRF)

Density Abundant (albeit less dense than TRF)