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Ministry of education and science, youth and sports of Ukraine Rivne State Humanitarian University

Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society


Collection of scientific works of the RSHU

2nd Issue
Established in 2011

Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. Rivne 2012

22012

Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society.

22012

UDC 1+37+316.3 BB 87+74+60 F-561 Reviewers: M. M. Zakovych Doctor of Sciences (Philosophy), professor of the culture studies department of National Teacher Training University named after M. Drahomanov; S. V. Lisova Doctor of Sciences (Pedagogics), professor, director of the Institute of Pedagogical Education of International Economics and Humanitarian University named by academician Stepan Demyanchuk, actual member of APSS S. S. Troyan Doctor of Sciences (History), professor, the head of the International Relations and country studies department of Rivne Institute of Slavonic Studies of Kyiv Slavic University. F-561 Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society: Collection of scientific works of the Rivne state humanitarian university. Rivne : publisher O. Zen, 2012. 347 s.

ISBN 978-617-601-024-1 Conception of the collection is based on scientific actualization of methodological principles of humanitarian knowledge and illumination of inner-practical potential of sciences about a man and society. Created for the specialists of humanitarian and socio-political sciences. UDC 1+37+316.3 BB 87+74+60 ISBN 978-617-601-024-1
Rivne State Humanitarian University, 2012

Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society.

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Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society.

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Editor in Chief: L. M. Shugaeva Doctor of Sciences (Philosophy), Professor, Head of Philosophy Department of Rivne State Humanitarian University Editorial Board: I. I. Bulyha Candidate of Philosophy, assistant professor of philosophy of Rivne State Humanitarian University (Executive Editor). V. V. Verbets Doctor f Sciences (Pedagogy), Professor, Head of Arts and Pedagogics Department of Rivne State Humanitarian University M. M. Hon Doctor of Sciences (Political Sciences), Professor, Head of of Political Sciences Department of Rivne State Humanitarian University. V.I. Dokash Doctor of Sciences (Philosophy), Professor, Head of Sociology Department of Chernivtsi National University named after Yuriy Fedkovych T. D. Demjaniuk Candidate of Pedagogy, Professor, Head of Theory and methods of education Department of Rivne State Humanitarian University, Honored Worker of Education of Ukraine. I. M. Dychkivska Candidate of Pedagogy, Associate Professor of the Department of Pedagogy and Psychology (preschool) of Rivne State Humanitarian University, corresponding member of APSS (executive editor). S. I. Zhyliuk Doctor of Sciences (History), Professor, Head of the Department of Religious Studies of National University "Ostrog Academy" S. A. Lytvynenko Doctor f Sciences (Pedagogy), Professor, Professor of Applied Psychology and Psychotherapy Department of Rivne State Humanitarian University. I. V. Malafiyik Doctor f Sciences (Pedagogy), Professor, Head of Department of General an Social Pedagogy and acmeology of Rivne State Humanitarian University, corresponding member of APSN. R. V. Pavelkiv Doctor f Sciences (Psychology), Professor, academician of the Academy of Sciences of Higher School of Ukraine, Director of the Institute of Psychology and Education, the head of the age and pedagogical psychology department of Rivne State Humanitarian University, honored Educator of Ukraine. 5

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S. S. Palchevsky Doctor f Sciences (Pedagogy), Professor, Professor of general education and acmeology Department of Rivne State Humanitarian University, honored teacher of Ukraine. O. B. Petrenko Doctor f Sciences (Pedagogy), Professor, Professor of age and educational psychology Department of Rivne State Humanitarian University. T. I. Ponimanska Candidate of Pedagogy, Professor, Vice-Rector, Head of Department of Pedagogy and Psychology (preschool) of Rivne State Humanitarian University, corresponding member of APSS, excellent public educator of Ukraine. R. M. Postolovsky Candidate of History, Professor, Rector, Head of World History Department of Rivne State Humanitarian University, Honored Scientist of Ukraine, Corresponding member of International Slavic Academy of Sciences, corresponding member of APSS. P. Y. Sauh Doctor of Sciences (Philosophy), professor, academician of the Academy of Sciences of High School of Ukraine, Honored Academician of the International Academy of Personnel, Rector, Head of the Philosophy Department of Zhytomyr State Ivan Franko University named after I. Franko, honored educator of Ukraine. N. H. Stokolos Doctor of Sciences (History), Professor, Head of Philosophy and Social Sciences Department of Rivne Institute of Slavonic Studies of Kyiv Slavic University. G. M. Shvetsova-Vodka Doctor of Sciences (History), Professor, Professor of library and bibliography sciences Department of Rivne State Humanitarian University. P. L. Yarotsky Doctor of Sciences (Philosophy), Professor, Chief Research Specialist of Religious Studies Department of the Institute of Philosophy named after H. Skovoroda of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Published under decision of the Academic Council of Rivne State Humanitarian University Protocol 7 dated 27 January 2012. Editorial address: Department of Philosophy of Rivne State Humanitarian University, Ostafov Str., 29, Rivne, 33027 6

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CONTENT
Philosophy Babak I. V. 9 Phenomenology of national and ethnic identity in the context of individual self-awareness development Predestinational Eschatology Believers Existential Motives of Confessional Membership Option in the Content of Modern Religious Life Transformation Philosophical and religious analysis of modernization trends in the Protestantisms art Orthodox sermon as a socio-cultural achievement of the Ukrainian nation Old Believers polemical literature of the 18th century and its philosophical meaning Social-cultural factors influencing the worldview formation of cyril and methodius Problem of non-violence in Christianity The main trends of religious development in global world Modern relations of men and women in Islam 7

Dokash V. I. Lishchuk N. D.

17 24

Melnychuk M. S.

33

Melnychuk Y. I. Myshkov V. Y.

42 52

Kobernik N. I.

62

Rudenko N. M. Sugayeva L. M. ShamsutdynovaLebediuk T. N.

71 77 86

Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. 96

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Shevchuk K. S.

The main problems of Georgii Chelpanov creative work in his Kyiv period Pedagogics

Verbets V. V. Dziubyshyna N. B.

109 119

Phenomenological principles of students spiritual world Reformation of education in the context of Czech national revival (the end of 18th the first half of 19th century) Forms of work of preschool educational establishment and family on issue of social development of preschool children in the theory and practice of preschool education On the Problem of the Peculiarities of Educational Process Organization according to the Credit Module Training Technology Formation of reflexive culture in the professional training of future teachers The peculiarities of the Institute of Continuing Education in Ukraine Organizational basis of the orthodox societies in Western Ukraine in the interwar period (1921-1939) Dialogue in the personality communicative activities as a social requirement of the 21 century 8

Domanyuk O. M.

128

Kokareva A. M.

135

Lytvynenko S. A., Pavelkiv K. M. Mysyk I. H. Myshkariova S. V.

141 149 162

Nechyporuk L. I.

169

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Palchevsky S. S.

The problems of the educational content in the light of its modern philosophy Thinking-speech culture formation for specialists for humanities in the course of rhetoric studies Pedagogical reflection of culture under the educational globalization Tests as a vital part of methodological system in evaluation of educational standards Principles of moral culture formation of Soviet for teachers in Rivne pedagogical institutions (19391950): historical and pedagogical discourse Qualities education in talented junior schoolchildren Creating of public libraries and reading rooms as one of educational and civic activities of the Volyn braternities (second half of the XIX beginning of the XX centure) Society

Petruk L. P.

185

Rudenko V. M. Smolinchuk L. S.

192 201

Sorochynska T. A.

207

Tadeyeva I. M. Tymochko I. B.

215 225

Hon M. M.

234

Peculiarities of the Ukrainian historical memory formation during the democratic transit Informatization of modern society: state, problems, prospects 9

Hrypych S. N.

246

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Desyatnychuk I. O.

Freedom of speech and influence of public opinion in Czechoslovakia in the period of "Prague Spring" State regulation levers of banking investment activity in Ukraine Understanding of individual moral development in line with psychological paradigm Social solidarity as a factor of consolidation of Ukrainian society Philosophy of TV leisure as a reflection of the Ukrainian economy Religious education in Ukraine: state and prospectives Historiosophical analysis of archival sources about the role and place of secular element in social and religious processes of Berestechko and post-Berestechko period Spirituality of a personality: psychological approach

Lukomska O. I. Pavelkiv R. V.

267 280

Perzhun V. V. Stupnytska N. I., Stupnytsky V. V. Phylypovych L. O., Havrilova N. S. Shkriblyak M. V.

292 302 311 321

Yamnytsky V. M.

337

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PHILOSOPHY
UDC:37.013.44:159.923.2 I. V. Babak PHENOMENOLOGY OF NATIONAL AND ETHNIC IDENTITY IN THE CONTEXT OF INDIVIDUAL SELF-AWARENESS DEVELOPMENT n this article, the interpretation issue of ethnical and national identity as main factors of self-consciousness formation is being examined, for identification of national and ethnical identity takes place when the notion of nation is being interpreted as ethnical nation and when national and ethnical identity denote different notions when the idea of nation-state is considered. Key concepts: identity, nation, ethnos, national identity, ethnical identity. Determination of the problem. The late XX early XXI centuries saw the growing interest to the phenomenon of identity, the origins of ones nation and ethnicity observed in Ukraine and other country with the general change of outlook. This is what makes such research up-to-date. Very often when looking into the issue of national and ethnic identity as the key factors of conscious personality formation these notions are taken to be the same or used interchangeably. Thus, the objective of the research is to discern the idea of the category of "identity" and consider the categories of both ethnic and national identities. State of the scientific research of the problem. The categories of identity and identification are relatively new for psychology and sociology. Zigmund Freud was the first to point out the need of a child to identify oneself with a particular outward object in that allows it to grow cognizant of what it is itself. E. Ericsson was among the first who pioneered the theory of identification. The academic stressed that an indetity of an individual originates from personal association with ceaseless existence in time and space dimensions and comes from the acceptance of such association by others. Studying the human life cycle 11

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he arrived at the conclusion that identity is "mechanisms of individual integration into groups of different levels be it a family, work team, people and general public". This way, the focus was on the social aspect that validates idea of individual identity. Psychologists Adler, Allport, Kettel, Rodgers and others look upon the category of identity as a certain interpretive system that enables cognizance of similarity and difference of separate objects as well as awareness of homogeneity of an individual personality. In other words what is emphasized here is individual an social aspects of identity formation. With all the factors that condition the personal development it makes sense to discern psycho-phisological, personal and social identities. The former one assumes cognizant acceptance of an own organism, unity of psychological and physiological processes that take place within. The second one finds its ground in the agreement of aims, motives and value objectives. As the Ethnic reference book states the personal identity takes in ones attitude to ones own past, present and future. At the same time this category is characterized by agreement of certain social norms, roles, statuses, and involves ones understanding of personal belonging to the certain social group or category. It finds its expression thru such main sorts of social identity as national and ethnic identities. The notion of ethnos comes from Greek (a stranger, a pagan) and etymologically defines a herd, a group, a crowd of people, a people, a tribe, a kin etc. The Dictionary of terms for intercultural communication defines the term as "a category of evelotionary chain of genesis and build-up of an ethnos in its broadest meaning". It entails the category of ethnic identity the definition of which Ethnic dictionary gives as "a sense of belonging to a certain ethnic community, and ones uniformity with other members that comes from the shared historical memory, remembrances about the ancestors that binds one to their fatherland". There are several conceptual percpectives of how to regard the category of ethnic indentity. One of those considers the latter as "development of processes of genetic selection and accommodation to environment". Such ethnic identity is looked upon as a combination of historic and cultural attributes, namely group self-title, common historic memory, a sense of Fatherhood, etc. 12

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Depending on the levels of individual self-consciousness and homogeneity one observes either relaxation or reinforcement of one of those components. Thus, some scholars like B. Andersen, F. Bart, D. Gorovets and others consider the ethnic identity as a variable thing that has a situational character. The difference in this respect accounts for different typologies of ethnic identities. American scholars J. Mackey, and F. Lewins define four types of it. The first type is the one of minimum identity that takes in accommodated indivudials with low ethnic self-awareness. The second one is about the ones of relative ethnicity, these are those who retain touch with the members of their ethnic group though their own ethnic identity is developed inconsiderably. The third type involves the marginal ethnicity that is attributed to so-called ethnic orphans who have a clearly formed ethnic self-awareness yet have no touch with their own ethnic group. The 4th type of maximum ethnicity goes for individuals with the high level of strong ethnic self-awareness who actively contribute to the group activities and guard its interests. Canadian ethnosociologist R. Breton comes up with a slightly different typology based on the factors that unify an ethnic group. The scholar defines the first type as the one of the identity based on the specific objects of symbolic meaning (food, clothes, artwork). The second type takes in individuals whose identity relates to traditions and cultural life of the ethnic group. Identity that comes for the ethnicity native tongue is the one of the third type while the fourth type derivates from "friends" of own ethnos. The fifth type, according to R.Breton, relates to identity formation of which takes place on the grounds of needs and objectives of a certain ethnic group. The nature of thnic indentity makes it multilevel. This way individuals can be self-conscious of their belonging to ethnic groups of different planes, for instance, a Ukrainian comes as an ethnos, while a gutzul and a Slav stand for subethnos and meta~ethnic unity respectively. In our view it is reasonable to apply this sort of typological approach in regard to the caterogy of national ethnicity as well. When evolving ethnic identification comes in few stages which as the Jean Piazhe concept of a child development has it are correlated with the stages of a child psychological formation that build up the idea of belonging to the certain ethnic group. A 6~or 7 year old child gets 13

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only fragmentary and unsystematic of its ethnic belonging. In 2 years time a native tongue and home location makes a child be clearly aware of its ethnic origins. The age of 1011 years forms understanding of ethnic identity that comes from ones unique history of a people, specific cultural conventions that put one apart from other peoples or ethnic groups. Consequently it leads to emotional and assessing awareness of ones belonging to a certain ethnic group in the time of adolescence. Though J. Piazhe makes the notions of ethnic and national identities equal, in our view these two are different in some respects. The idea of national identity is derivative of an idea of the nation where the latter comes as social and political category that outlines the relations between a people and a state that takes in the citizens of this very state. Arrival of a nation is defined by longtime processes that establish interpersonal bonds within the group through a buildup of social communication and mobility, and transformation of a political system. Ernest Renan who came forth with the psychological theory of nations claimed that a nation is, above of all, a great group of people bonded with a spiritual principle, great solidarity and moral awareness. He found a proponent of the theory in the American academic Walker Connor who presumed that one of the main attributes of a nation is their intuitive perceptions of common kinship and uniqueness. And individual objectively at his birth comes to belong to a certain nation he takes himself to be a part of the latter and identifies himself wit it. The primitive society saw belonging to your kin or a tribe regarded as ones ethnos as a critical attribute of self-identification. With a growth of the numbers of tribes initially and locally tied another factor came to matter. It was culture that took in a native tongue and religion. Once a national state emerged cultural attributes of selfidentification gave way to social and political ones. Establishment of national states saw a simultaneous formation of national self-awareness of an individual that consolidated people and made them more mobile socially. The category of "national" implies cultural attributes of a people (language, religion, philosophy, genera outlook) while the category of "ethnic" evolved through kinship relations that defined a belonging of an individual to a certain group. This is can be regarded as the most obvious difference between these two categories. 14

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Thus, a national self-conscience forms in a particular period of state history as a consequence of political, economic and social processes that drive a society at this very moment. L. Zaliznyak believes that Ukrainian ethnic nation formed throughout the period of 16-17th c.c. as a result of social and cultural processes of the epoch. J. Piagei identifies the notion of ethnic and national identity, although, in our opinion, there existed a significant difference. Definitions of national identity stems from the concept of "nation", which refers to the socio-political category that indicates relationships with people of a certain country and combines the citizens of this state. Because of nations is the result of a long process of developing interpersonal relationships between group members through the development of social communication and mobility, transformation of the political system. Founder psychological theory of nations, Ernest Renan, noted that the nation "is, above all, a large group of people united by a spiritual principle, great solidarity and moral consciousness" [1, p. 223]. Similar opinion has American scientist Walker Connor. He noted that one of the main features of the nation is intuitive sense of kinship and uniqueness" [1, p. 223]. Individual objectively from birth belongs to a nation, he considers himself a part of it, that identifies itself with it. So in primitive society was the main feature of identification belonging to a tribal group, means ethnicity. With an increasing number of communities of the same type and their relatives from each location to the forefront another unifying factor the culture, the basis of which at the time was the language, religion. With the emergence of the nation-state cultural factors identify changing socio-political. Simultaneously with the formation of national states to consolidate population and its social mobility emerging national consciousness of the individual. Category indicates the national cultural characteristics of the people (language, religion, philosophy, and worldview). While the term "ethnic" arose from blood ties, that indicates the individual belonging to a particular ethnic group. This is what we think is the difference between national and ethnic categories. Thus, national identity is formed in a specific historical period of development of the state as a result of political, economic and social 15

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processes that prevail in society. According to L. Zaliznjak [4] Ukrainian nation was formed during the XVI-XIX centuries. Influenced by social and cultural processes of the time. With XVII century and nineteenth centuries ethnic consciousness was transformed into a national liberation wars as a result, the common market, the formation of language, national culture, which led to the formation of national identity. In turn, the basis of national identity is national identity. It follows the definition of national identity as "forms and processes in which there is self-identification of individuals with a certain national community" (with M. Makhniy) [5, p. 60]. At the same time, a sense of national unity does not arise spontaneously, and, largely, is formed as a result of purposeful activity of parents, caregivers, teachers, and public policy. According to surveys conducted by the Kiev International Institute of Sociology, the determining factors of the nation 51.1% of respondents indicated the language [8, p. 8]. But there is a contradiction in one state citizens can communicate with two or more languages. In Ukraine, for example, during the Soviet era Ukrainian language was demeaning, optional for study. In the independent state of the Ukrainian language enshrined constitutionally, but in spite of this, as noted above, a significant percentage of native Ukrainian consider Russian language as their native language. So, the question, "What language do you think native?" 60.64% chose the Ukrainian language, 36.63% consider Russian their native, and the remaining respondents chose another language [8, p. 6]. Also, the main feature of the nations 41.06% of the respondents called culture. And at different stages of its development, as a consolidating factor, stopped, there was destruction of the achievements of the nation. Today the situation has improved though, but due to the difficult economic situation, not enough support for the rehabilitation and further development. Simultaneously a significant role in the formation of the Ukrainian nation plays a religion. But in Soviet times, there were no new religious formations, and the Orthodox Church was in decline. Lack of religious education, we believe contribute to the moral degeneration of the nation. Therefore, at the present stage of development of the state focuses on the restoration of religious traditions as a source of renewal and memory consolidation. 16

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However, national identity includes and political identity that is formed in the process of formation of separate states, and as a result the creation of political and social institutions, the main task the constitution of political community and distinguish among other communities. It follows that the concept of national identity synthesizes how cultural factors and socio-political. In the book "National identity" Anthony D. Smith identifies five key elements of national identity: 1) historic territory, or homeland; 2) historical memory; 3) a common mass culture; 4) common legal rights and duties of all members of the national community; 5) a common economy with the ability to move within the national territory [3]. M. Ihnatyef identifies the following elements of national identity: - Community of equal citizens; - Patriotism, which is shared by all representatives of political practices and beliefs [2]. Ethnic identities as a scientist examines a set of language, religion, traditions, simultaneously, are integral elements of the national identity [2]. Thus, the phenomenon of national identity lies in recognizing individual a part of the community and because of the existence in it. The formation of national identity is a series of stages in its formation. For example, A. Volkogonov and I. Tatarenko identified three main phases: 1. Phase of ethnic differentiation. At this stage, the awareness of their own group, the differences between we and they. 2. Phase of development of auto-and hetero-stereotypes. Formed national character, knowledge of psychological features not only their ethnic group, but also other ethnic groups. Ethnic stereotypes create a system that collects standardized collective experience and is part of the mass consciousness. 3. Phase of formulating national ideal. This stage is a kind of combination of the previous two, because the idea of combining their own ethnic group and its social and historical value orientation. At this 17

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stage, emerging model of the future, the foundation of which is the partial or complete change in the established order of things [2]. The organization of national identity mainly distinguishes two components [2]: cognitive and affective components. Such as knowledge, understanding of the peculiarities of their own group and an awareness of it that have motivated ethnic differentiation signs, and a sense of belonging to the community, assessment of its own position in the union. Conclusions. Thus guided by research of Anthony D. Smith and O. Volkogonov, I. Tatarenko the national identity is seen as belonging to a particular individual national community based on certain spiritual and psychological characteristics of the individual, which are formed in the process of socialization in a historic environment and manifest lifestyle of the individual. Meanwhile, as the ethnic identity of the individual is the awareness of being part of a particular ethnic community. Accordingly, awareness of their own national identity and perception of themselves as members of ethnic groups not only provides optimum socialization of the individual, but also allows for personal fulfillment in the process of matching their own attitudes, beliefs, values, norms of one national community to which a person identifies himself. Therefore, in our opinion, that the identification of the concepts of "ethnic identity" and "national identity" is possible only when the concept of nation is treated as an "ethnic nation", and have different meanings when talking about "nation-state." List of sources and literature 1. . . / . . . . : , 2007. 205 . 2. ., . [ ]. : http://www.hse.Ru/journals/wrldross/vol01_2/volkogonova.htm. 3. . : [ ]. : http://www.zipsites.ru/psy/psylib/info. 4. . [ ]. : 18

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http://militaryhistory.narod.ru/natiota4yn.html. 5. . . : - / . . . : , 1999. 300 . 6. . [ ]. : http://etno.uaweb.org/glossary/i.html. 7. . / . . . : , 1994. 224 . 8. . - : / . // . . . 32. 2004. . 315. UDC: 9274.38-175(492) 15/16 V. I. Dokash PREDESTINATIONAL ESCHATOLOGY The article examines the predestinatsion eschatology of Jacob Arminius, it shows the position regarding the theory of predetermination of Calvinism. Displayed specific doctrine of arminianism the concept of universalism, which will be saved for all, not just selected ones. Keywords: predetermination, infrasupralapsarism, supralapsarism, salvation, grace, soteriology, universal redemption, free will. When it goes about Reformation in modern scientific literature, it is all about such personalities, as Luter, Calvin, Tsvinger, and sometimes Muntser. One forgets about the fact, that all of them used to have opponents. Thats why, it should be pointed out, that there is an opinion among the Protestant theologians, which originated from the XVI century, when two traditions came into being Calvinism and Arminianism: it seems impossible to imagine the Reformation period in the history of Protestantism without John Calvin and Jacob Arminian. Both of them are considered to be the founders of Reformation movement, since they created the fundamental principles of 19

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Protestantism. Thus, in terms of our study we will deal with the analysis of the eschatological ideas of these theologians, in particular the debatable problems, arising among them. Its should be pointed out that there were a lot of discussions between these theologians primarily about the doctrine of predefinition, which they called predestination (the concept, created by J. Calvin to name the theory dealing with the human fate, destined before the world creation. He rejected the opportunity for the human to deserve salvation by himself or to change his fate; he promised salvation only for the chosen ones, absolutized the principle of inevitability of mercy (guarantees the salvation for the chosen ones). Calvin understands it as undoubted double choice of some people for salvation, others for elimination. Protestant theologian A. Negrov considers that basically, the dispute concerned 5 points of the theory of predestination as an eschatological program of salvation: a) the humans Fall; b) the Gods work to choose the human for salvation; c) the global salvation of mankind through Christs death; d) the nature of Gods mercy; e) the possibility to loe salvation [3, p. 67]. According to A. Negrov, neither Arminius nor Calvin had created 5 points of predestination, which define the dogmas of Calvinism and Arminianism [3, p. 69]. Taking into account the fact, that the problem of correlation of predestination theory and Calvins doctrine of predestination lacks detailed study, it seems logical to analyze these opposing definitions and to conduct the comparative analysis of these approaches in terms of salvation problem. The aim of this article is to define the peculiarities of Jacob Arminius predestination eschatology and its difference from Calvins theory of predestination. The aim defines the following tasks: 1.To analyze the doctrine about predestinational theology; 2.To conduct a research on the theory of freedom of humans will in choice of salvation; 3.To conduct a comparative analysis of basic principles of predestinational eschatology and Calvins theory of predestination. The problem under investigation is not studied enough. Few scientists and theologians have investigated it, among them: D. Korner, T. Lein, A. Negrov, S. Sannikov, S. Golovaschenko, B. Hegglund and 20

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others. Determination of the problem. Theologians have different points of view on the problem of predestination the choice according to the realization of eschatological principles of salvation. It was mostly criticized by Arminians, whose leader, the Danish theologian Jacob Harmandzon (15601609), took the Latin name of Arminius. The basic feature of Arminius theory is the idea of predestination (predefinition), which, though, is understood in a different way than by Calvin, and which in this way gave birth to an alternative direction. According to this, Arminianism can be considered a reaction to the Calvins doctrine of predestination. In his work "Announcement of opinions" (1608) Arminius rejected the idea of Augustine Calvin the idea of undoubted choice that God chooses people before salvation in spite of their virtues [2, p. 195]. However, Arminius agreed with the fact, that the ability of doing something good depends on accepting God mercy. Besides, Arminius gave a man freedom to accept or to refuse from this mercy or salvation correspondingly. Thus, Gods choice (predestination) of people, according to Arminius, isnt founded on Gods separate choice, but on the preknowledge of humans choice [2, p. 86]. Rejecting ultra-predestinational ideas, Arminius suggested new understanding of eschato-soteriological ideas of Calvin, emphasizing the incompatibility of Calvins statements about the fact that God can be the initiator of sin and also about the fact that a human is always manipulated by Gods power [3, p. 69]. It should be pointed out that only after a year on Arminius death (1610) his followers formulated their theory of predestinational theology and explicably reflected their ideas in a number of works, first of all in the document, called "Remonstrance" (Latin Remonstro refuse), which was presented to the Danish government (Calvinism was an official religion those days). That document looked like a systematized answers to the Calvins dogmas [3, p. 69-70}. Thus, there is an opinion, that Arminianism started with Remonstrance, in other words, with the application from the 14 th of January 1610, which revealed 5 articles, representing disagreement with the predestination doctrine. Remonstrance was signed by 46 church preachers of the Dutch 21

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Reformational Church. The first part of Remonstrance included the protest against supralapsarism (Calvins theory about the fact, that predefinition on salvation existed before the Fall, and it was exactly it, which led to the Fall) and infrasupralapsarism (Calvins theory which confirms the fault of a human in his Fall, and only after the Fall Gods predestination revealed itself, choosing some people for elimination and others for salvation) and also against the idea of limited expiation (Protestant theory about the fact that only predestined chosen humans have the right to be saved, which is traditional for Calvinists) and the theory of eternal safety of a Christian, the idea of which lies in the fact, that predestined and saved people would under no circumstances lose salvation. The second part of Remonstrance dealt with understanding the doctrine of choosing: a)predestination is determined by faith, condemnation by unfaith; b) Jesus Christ redeemed everybody through his death, but only believers will receive forgiveness; c)faith doesnt come from human, but from God; d) mercy is beyond everything; e)it helps to stay in faith till the end and to save oneself [2, p. 186]. As you can see, everything in the five articles of Remonstrance clearly points to human free will and its part in the process of salvation. Arminius, similarly to Calvin, considered the man absolutely sinful, and he didnt believe that people could choose the side of God of their own free will. However, when Calvin went much further and stated that Salvation was inevitable (meaning that it didnt depend on the sinners personal desire to be saved), Arminius claimed that Gods mercy could merely provide balance for the sinful elements in our souls, so that we could decided on our own whether or not we wanted to be saved. We ought to note that unfortunately most of Calvinists consciously or without thinking accused Arminianism of pardoning the man for his righteous merits or good deeds [1, p. 5455]. Accordingly, in return, Arminians often deliberately distorted the teachings of Calvinism, stating that its followers allowed people to live irresponsibly, since they were already pardoned for every misdeed ever committed. It should be stressed that the dispute between Arminianism and 22

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Calvinism continued during the entire history of Christianity and had reached its culmination in the XX century [4, p. 301302]. Arminius distrusted the eschatological fate of the principle of predestination when he created the teaching of the all-embracing mercy (which was reserved only for the chosen in Calvinism). On the ground of this belief Arminius also rejected the teaching of eternal damnation [1, p. 5455] that was a characteristic part of Calvinism. Arminian positions in defense of human free will, as opposed to the teaching of predestination, were listed in the following five articles of Remonstrance: 1.Predestination is not absolute but conditional (since the final salvation depends on human free will). 2.The ultimate redemption (salvation is offered to everyone, but only those who truly believe can receive it). 3.The man has the right of free will, but only his faith can bring salvation (as he cannot achieve it and be redeemed without Gods mercy in Christ through the Holy Spirit). 4.Overcoming of salvation (Gods mercy is all-embracing, but not everyone is willing to accept it). 5.Lack of confidence in the inevitability of salvation for the chosen (because the Gospels do not declare that salvation, once achieved, cannot be lost again) [1, p. 499500; 3, p. 7071].` When we examine the eschatological functionality of the doctrine of predestination in the scope of these articles, we can clearly see the essential difference when comparing it with the Calvinistic approach. First of all, if Calvin brings out predestination of salvation and places it ahead of the predefined will of God, Arminius talks about Gods sovereignty. Secondly, Arminius, unlike Calvin, raises the question of salvation for everyone who is willing to accept Christs mercy. Thirdly, even if he relates salvation to Gods mercy, Arminius never stops taking into consideration human free will, when Calvin rejects it completely. And fourthly, if Calvin declares the inevitability of predestination for the chosen, Arminius assumes the possibility of the loss of salvation. Revisiting the five principles of predestination which disagree with Calvinistic dogma, we can discover numerous interpretational differences, provided by Arminiuss followers. For instance, if they do not reject Calvins idea of the sinful, Jacob Arminius considers the "sin" 23

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more like a "necessity" than a "loss". Yet he also finds human will extremely weak and not worthy of salvation without Gods mercy. In common opinion, the followers of Calvin accused Arminius of being biased when he correlated salvation and human deeds or human free will, since in his teachings the human couldnt accept God without his mercy, and yet people were able to resist Gods intentions by voluntarily committing evil acts. At that Arminians believed that not only the chosen ones, but all people were capable of answering the Gospel calling (it was another cardinal disagreement with Calvinism). Arminians claimed that without Gods mercy there could be no salvation. The degree of sinfulness or righteousness had little to no effect on human ability to choose "good" by turning to God, or "evil" by rejecting presented salvation. According to their doctrine, God in his mercy, through the sacrifice of Jesus Christ, had opened to all men the possibility to be saved from eternal damnation (Jhn. 3:16), but the ultimate decision to accept salvation remained entirely in the hands of the human [3, p. 74 75]. There is yet another contradictory matter of "unconditional atonement" which Arminians did not discard, but reinterpreted in a radically new way: 1) Christ was predestined to be the savior on mankind; 2) those who believed in Christ were consequently predetermined to salvation, and the unbelievers were fated to go to hell; the acceptance or refusal of Christ had no connection to Gods divine plans; 3)God ruled over people wisely and justly by offering them the means of faith and repentance; 4) the enactment of salvation or damnation of a particular person was based on Gods predestination for those who would accept his forgiveness and be saved, as well as for those who refused it and consequently were doomed. Taking it all into account, the general conclusion was such that the believers in Christ were fated to be saved, but the acceptance or refusal alone was not predestined by God. Acknowledging Gods sovereignty, without endowing it with absolute power, Arminians believed that Gods spirit or his divine will always remained an inseparable part of his heavenly character, and thus it was equally righteous, loving and just when dealing with sinners as well as with those who deserved to be saved. Appealing to the principle of justice, Arminians, unlike 24

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Calvinists, supposed that all people not only the chosen ones were capable of accepting the gift of salvation which was universally offered by Jesus Christ [3, p. 7678]. In the context of the discussion of Christs redemptive sacrifice, there were several points of view on the subject of atonement for human sins; one of the was the so-called "unlimited universalism" (Christs sacrifice allowed everyone to be saved, that idea was supported by the Universal church and Arminiuss followers); "inconsistent universalism" (the protestant doctrine, according to it, God had premeditated salvation, but not everyone was fated to be saved) accepted by a number of liberal theologians, Lutherans and certain Arminians; and, finally, "restricted salvation" of Calvinists, who supposed that Gods will as a means of deliverance was directed towards everyone, however, only those who accepted the Gospels, or the good news of salvations, were predestined to be saved that idea also became an integral part of the theory of "limited universalism" [3, p. 7981]. The central point that unites the theological theories of Arminius and Calvin is that salvation cannot be achieved without mercy, since the consequences of the Fall make it impossible for the man to save himself alone. However, Arminius denied the principle of inevitable salvation. According to his conviction, the human can accept or deny not only the good news of salvation in faith, but the salvation itself (freedom of human will makes it possible). Since this gift is offered as a free choice, it is considered "acceptable by all" in Arminianism (Calvinists consider it an act of human will, without the consequences of potential acceptance or refusal) [3, p. 8283]. Calvinists and Arminians also disagree on their interpretations of the principles of the insistency (or firmness) of saints. If Calvinists claim that the chosen ones remain firm to the end, Arminians, without rejecting the possibility of the saints to keep firm in their convictions and ultimately be saved, suppose that any believer in Christ is capable of loosing his faith which leads to damnation. They also accept the possibility of consequential forgiveness and redemption which they consider "repeated conversion" or a renewal of the very first, original repentance [3, p. 8485]. Conclusions. Summing up our analytical studies, we can say that 25

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the eschatological views of Jacob Arminius are more realistic and positive than those of John Calvin. Predestinational eschatology of Arminius has a strong propensity toward anthropocentrism, while the one of Calvinism is absolutely christocentric. If Calvin offers the man only the faith in the potentiality of salvation, Arminius makes everything depend entirely on human free will. Arminius, realistically considering the phenomena of faith, rejects the Calvinistic principle of inevitable predestination and accepts not only the loss of faith, but also the possibility of the right to accept salvation once again through repentance. The predestinational eschatology of Jacob Arminius doesnt limit the number of those people who can be saved; it anticipates the possibility of salvation of everyone on the basis of consistent faith and Gods mercy. 1. 2. 3. 4. List of sources and literature , . / , . Title Verlag, 2003. 588 . . : . . / . ., 1997. 352 . . . / . // . . 6. , 1997. . 67788. . . . / . . . : 2- . , 2001. . 2. 700 .

UDC: 291.4 N. D. Lishchuk BELIEVERS EXISTENTIAL MOTIVES OF CONFESSIONAL MEMBERSHP OPTION IN THE CONTENT OF MODERN RELIGIOUS LIFE TRANSFORMATION The article deals with the modern persons motivation of choice of belief as the search of way out from the "unreal existence". Humanism based on the principles of Christianity causes the necessity 26

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of independent responsibility for the fullness of life. The perspective of constructive religious life transformations in Ukraine is connected with the growth of influence of the directions that accent belief as selfdetermination of a person. Key words: social interaction, an active activity, personal faith, salvation, freedom, responsibility, evangelical Protestantism . Determination of the problem. After political declaration of exit from totalitarian forms of social organization and the proclamation of Ukraines European choice the biggest challenge of the present stage of national history is the formation of a new way of life with a new outlook and behavior. Recreation of old forms of social interaction is impossible because of the loss of their system background. Hence, it is appropriately to identify new incentive factors of effective social cooperation. In a totalitarian country different means of individual activity, constructive initiative and enterprise of its citizens are of particular importance. New social ideology requires support in such forms of social consciousness, which have the most widespread impact and admittance. The combination of these elements are inherent in religion. The Soviet regime artificially restrained deployment of self religious communities, thus overcoming ideological alternative and recognizing its effectiveness veiledly. As since religion can become a driving force of positive social changes in Ukraine the impact on the organization of individual and social life, which is carried out by associations of evangelical Protestants should be examined. First, these areas of modern Christianity do not have internal church status differences resolved by Ukrainian Orthodoxy that prevent the unification of society. Secondly, the successful development of European countries of the modern epoch and the USA is associated with the influence of Protestantism. General analyses of studies of the problem. Ukrainian scholars have resorted to a comparative analysis of the Protestant communities abroad and Ukraine, and they apply the method of historical analogy, investigating a question of the social transformation and the emergence of civil society in Ukraine. Various aspects of these issues are examined by such authors as P. Yarotsky, V. Liubaschenko, M. Cherenkov, O. Spys and others. The articles and monographs reflect methodological principles of philosophical and religious studies of Protestantism and its 27

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main directions. The position of consideration of Protestant denominations as a phenomenon of culture is perspective one. A universal side of culture comes forward as an alternative to ideological monologism of the previous position of opposition to some historical forms of Christianity. These aspects, in particular, are examined in the works of V. Litvinov and S. Shkil. A position of consideration of the modern protestantism as a factor of religious freedom has a constructive content. Ukrainian scholars - P. Yarotsky, V. Liubaschenko, V. Nichyk analyze the issue of religious freedom in the context of existential aspects of sacred life. In these works the authors draw a reasoned conclusion as for general trends of Ukrainian classical philosophy to examine religious ideas in connection with existential questions. The a im of the article. In spite of the specific historical differences of the content of life different epochs and generations the problem of realization of an individual of himself as a subject of being is still urgent because of the constant reproduction of its fundamental attributes. In the philosophy of the twentieth century this problem was considered from positions that are different from the methodological requirements of the paradigm of postmodernism of the XXI century, and it encourages the establishment of dialogic communication and pluralism. In this approach, not a single ideological position can be the only correct one, and the one that exhausts the true meaning of any of the issue. In this connection, it is expedient to analyze whether the direction of modern Christianity offer constructive guidance on the challenges of freedom, or offer "escape from freedom" through the entire external regulation of lifestyle. In this subject any direction of modern Protestantism should be investigated, and especially Pentecostalism should be investigated which is the most common in Ukraine. The main material. Pentecostalism as a direction of the evangelical Protestantism is based on the belief in personal salvation through personal faith. Emphasis on a personal content here is not defined by anthropocentric self-sufficiency, as it has happened in various historical forms of ideological paradigms. Stressing allocation of a persons position in formation of his life behavior, evangelical Protestantism is based on Christian theology. Defining principles of human existence are submitted beyond the human world here. Personal 28

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nature of faith relates to revealing to subjectivity of a believers behavioral orientations. Since a believer is a conscious subject in the acts of faith, and not a passive object of ritual manipulations, the measure of his freedom and responsibility is increasing. Protestant evangelical movement essence as representatives of a radical reformation is found in declaring their independence from government and politics. The evangelical community is not focused on isolation from public life, but distinguishable from the subordination of social hierarchy. Not a single person, following a status or economic grounds of ambitious claims to dispose lives of others, can not reach the level of capabilities of the Trinity. This basic idea of Christian teaching is an essential element of conservative evangelical faith content that defines the limits of human identification. An underlined difference of God and human nature characterizes the essence of theocentrical outlook which Protestantism does not change. Man is not equal to God in the possibilities, so man is not able to obtain salvation. Protestantism advocates this study of Christian soteriology by teaching people not to go wrong by life choices. What combination of radical and conservative elements of evangelical movement does contribute to their rapid spread in different continents? Why is evangelical Christianity growing more dynamically than historical churches, if, in pertinent remark of M. Cherenkov: "In todays world, people do not inherited religion, they choose it?" [1, p.66]. In the case of spiritual searching, selecting areas for development and communication modern man first shows interest to those forms of communication that are different from the known and familiar ways of social interaction. Having a choice in the search for faith, the individual is trying to compensate the absence or lack of severity of response to his requests known for him by social institutions. Institutionalized form of organized interaction of programmed functions that minimizes the importance of personal manifestations of the individual, is one of the definitions of "unreal being" in the philosophy of existentialism. If the experience a previous relationship is suffering due to lack of disinterested attention, sympathy from others, a person, keeping hope for positive changes, looks for fundamentally different basis for communication. When a persons loneliness is associated with a permanent impression of undervaluing of his merits and possibilities, he 29

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finds the need to go beyond the limits of previous ideological orientations, including religious. Exploring religious experience in its diversity, William James opposes the church and evangelical faith as a social institution and as the appointment and status of spiritual life. Identification of evangelical Christians as members of the spiritual movement determines V. Haradzha determines in such way: "Not as a public authority, not as a church organized force, but primarily as a spiritual and moral force, religion now has the opportunity to enter into dialogue with the world, whose fate now depends on the moral capacity of society, from the solution of global problems" [3, p. 215]. After an initial refusal to focus on the materiality of the hierarchical division of social and religious life, as well as qualitative heterogeneity of the late Protestantism as a spiritual movement it is open to representatives of any social strata. Dynamic spread of this movement is associated with openness to finding new forms of relations between subjects of social structure. Membership in the Protestant community with its social and theological position encourages the individual to activity. Activity as a normal everyday behavior is part of media rights as a subject of individual and social life. Subjective activity is not considered to be a prerogative of some famous people. Isolation of a human from mass does not provide for its opposition to others. The essence of this change in the relationship that stop the practice of dissolving the individual nature of the mass. Understanding of being chosen becomes different from previous corporate traditionalist norms of justification. In a previous history of Christianity religious institutions allocated just for themselves a closeness to God and brokering the appointment of its own mission to determine the mass form of communication with the Creator. With the appearence of Protestantism faith had to awaken in man different way of orientation of behavior, because there was a public demand of capitalism, which began to emerge at a greater measure of autonomy of the individual. So "human dignity which was often neglected by historic churches through denial of human rights for direct communication with God was restored" [6, p. 37]. Immediacy implement human tasks in harmony with religion at this time and with similar demands turn to self-responsibility in all these spheres. As since 30

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modern civilization has not departed from this set orientation, and has reasons to deepen it, should further consider the relationship of renewed Protestant religion with renewed dignity. Can this renewal be a basis for overcoming the alienation between people and leaving the "unreal life"? Human dignity in the context of its direct relationship with God means to determine its capacity to a level of communication, and that it is worth it. Gods perfection requires improvement from man himself who is a direct participant of communication. A removal initiates changes intermediaries and former static image of man. Activity is a basis of the dynamic transformation of the individual and his relationship. A negative motivation of alienation changes "I do it for someone, but not for myself. "The level of freedom that opens to believers the later Protestantism is not only a present, but also it is a test. This is particularly evident when considering the history of the Evangelical Church during the totalitarian state. Freed from what it did before the church, the believer gets rid of guaranteed care, a choice made by others. Responsibility of permanent search for solutions lies on a believer. Protestant author V. Karpunin observes: "Freedom could give people "a burden "because its implementation is often associated with overcoming of doubts and hesitations, with sustained resistance to suffering, with worthy endurance to carry a cross, which God put on each of us" [ 4, p. 30]. The difference between religious and secular understanding of freedom is explained by comparing of their results. Proclamation of complete independence of free personality, which is itself a support often leads to rampant acts of tyranny. Christian authors explain the importance of the principle of solidarity (subsidiarity) that balances self-determination of a person. H. Neuhaus justifies it this way: "The principle of subsidiarity puts the human person at the center of making any decisions, so that the community becomes closer to the man and his problems and thus proclaims priority of small living environments to large anonymous community" [5, p. 51]. Restriction of personality in teaching of modern evangelical Protestants is determined not by control of other people, but by the objective correlation of elements of a being that in religious interpretations is expressed as a lack of comparability of God and man. Freedom of the life process as an indefinite flow reflects the irrationality of the human dimensions of existence. Manifestation of superhuman irrationality in expression of 31

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freedom the evangelical Protestantism examines through the idea of being chosen. Exclusivity does not come from causation available to a human thinking and it does not subject to their unambiguous simplicity. Only God as the determining basis of the laws of existance is its source. Human freedom can not be absolute, because a person does not have the characteristics and capabilities of the absolute. Thus, the guide and support of human freedom is God. "God speaks to a personality, to the individual, and therefore you can not hide behind the other, you can not dissolve in a meeting of people but you have to bear personal responsibility before Him" [6, p. 33] explains the representative of evangelical Protestantism I. Podberezkyi. Issues that go beyond human capabilities of salvation and eternal life, go beyond human freedom. The Bible directly expresses these boundaries through Christs answer to the question of desciples "Who can be saved?": "It is not possible for a man." History and purpose of God coming to the earth is connected with the inability for the person to solve the question of salvation. The idea of a primary human sinfulness is defined by real limitations of the human race. The humanity cant solve the problem of sin, therefore, the humanity can not be guided by the principle of internal self-determination of tribal life. Thus stating the sinfulness of a man, his connectedness with the evil the Protestant doctrine does not permit freedom of evil and sin in any case. Evil is something that exists and is inherent in man, but it is not what it should be, as an acceptable norm. Since the determination of a human being is beyond the possibilities of a human race, and the norms of moral goodness in their biblical meaning reflect the ontological significance of constructively creative orientation of behavior. In moral prescriptions of the doctrine of evangelical Protestantism our contemporary in search of a new faith, finds a support of ones hope for the best, because one is convinced in the lack of necessary character of evil. At the same time the required content is proved by not only correlation of the worlds existential definitions, but also by the understanding of life as formation. On the human level, this creates a demand for fair labor, which stands out among the most visible signs of evangelical Christianity and stems from their content. Protestantism in general has changed the previous value orientation of religious activities. In medieval times the religiosity expressed through mystical contemplation; Protestantism has 32

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established a norm of activities both in church and in everyday life. A demand for active relation to reality, which is the only way to convert and save the world, connects other parts of evangelical faith of its eschatology. The definition of finitude of human existence orientates the problem of the sense of life on limitation of personal consumption and waste, motivates charity and enterprise. Charity or stimulation of enterprise is not essential for understanding the motivation of commitment to late Protestant directions. The combination of these behavioral requirements is important, because none of these elements in this system of belief is not the goal in itself. Activity of abeliever in its directions foresees an achievement of well-being with a social result, but not with individual or collective result. By focusing on the allocation of the individual as a subject of forming of his own views and behavior the same individual is accostomed not to oppose his needs and desires of others, and to act on the basis of solidarity. The emphasis on the necessity of solidarity in conjunction with the requirements of the general welfare attracts to evangelical Protestants those citizens for whom the outlook is a significant issue of patriotism. The idea of necessity of achievement a welfare by the individual not for everyone, but for himself this idea meets the objectives of a market economy. The combination of a market and private property, as the real history shows,can make extremely dehumanizuyuchyy impact on the individual, on the one hand, or it can lead to situations of loss of the meaning of existence on the other. Both extremes are closely linked with the forms and manifestations of alienation of "unreal being." Therefore, the behavioral system of recommendations as for directions of evangelical Protestantism continues to rely on a combination of moral and economic values which is mentioned M. Webers work "The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism." A source of problems facing the man, are not the type of economic relationship itself. The later Protestant doctrine proposes the organization of life, based on entry of a human in the real world as it is. According to biblical teaching, private ownership is the right for a persons trust of management of things that ultimately belong to the Creator. Through the work a man can not only be approved by the Executive functions, but also to create, to manifest himself.. Self-expression in creation as 33

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the ability is considered a reflection of human Godlikeness. They argue that the work expresses a human nature, so it is a vocation of a man, and an entreprise as a creative approach to labor is connected with the desire to make a profit that exceeds the required measure of family support. The growth of profit doesnt have a sel consumer aim,it is not a sign of higher values of some people over others. Human talents are Gods gifts, they are presented possibilities of individual origin and destination. Charity through internally motivated intentions must reflect a believers assimilation of a moral duty, his grateful understanding of Gods grace, the origin of life success from the Creators suppor. In this connection we can emphasize on key element of Pentecostalism- the doctrine of one of the most common denominations of evangelical Protestantism. Here, more than in other directions, the stress is laid on arguments that human capabilities which are higher than natural average level and are determined by the manifestation of grace through receiving spiritual gifts because of the baptism of the Holy Spirit. Conclusions. A modern globalized society despite of the considerable impact of scientific and technological achievements show a great interest in matters of religion. In particular, a confessional dynamics is the element of social transformations in the world and in Ukraine. The question of motivation of choice of a belief as a persons ideologically behavioral orientation is essential because of its practical implications. A content of modern correlation of individual and general social factors of social changes finds its expression in terms and ideas of existential philosophy of "real" and "unreal" life, liberty and responsibility. A change of social communications goes from orientation that is necessary to ensure their liability to the motivation of a subjective expression as a condition of constructive cooperation in all spheres of life. To such needs are close social and religious movements that in their structure and orientation express these current positions. The most dynamic prospects are the denominations that provide a constant dialogue with their followers and promote their creative selfexpression actualization. Freedom of self-expression provided by the believers in evangelical directions of Protestantism, creats one of the essential basis of the large spread of these directions in the world and Ukraine. As a caution on conversion of human freedom on the element of arbitrary nihilism in the content of the Protestant belief is a number 34

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of requirements on the orientation of lifestyle adherence to moral obligations. A system of life behavior has to accustom a believer to combine the principle of individual activity with a norm not to contrast himselfnot contrasting with another Gods creation. Studies of contemporary evangelical Protestantism in the future should be more related to aspects of philosophical anthropology, sociology and because of Religious interpretation of this phenomenon in the Soviet literature presented extensively. 1. List of sources and literature . . : : / . . : , 2008. 566 . . . / . . // . . ., 2006. . 171186. . . : . / . . . : , 1996. 239 . . . / . . . . : , 2002. . 3031. . / . . : , 2005. 192 . . . // / . . . 2000. .6. .33-44.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

UDC 291.1 .S. elnychuk PHILOSOPHICAL AND RELIGIOUS ANALYSIS OF MODERNIZATION TRENDS IN THE PROTESTANTISMS ART The article describes features of the modernization of the art 35

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system in modern Protestantism. Key words: protestantism, art, modernization, suggestiveness. Problem statement. Protestantism, which originated and was formed during the Reformation radically redefined institutions, ideas and practices of the Western Christian church. General analyses of studies of the problem. This phenomenon, and the value of art in it devoted his work as a Soviet researchers (L. Uspensky, A. Chanyshev, E. Yakovlev), and modern Ukrainian scientists (I. Bohachevsky, V. Bodak, V. Lyubaschenko etc.). Even before the XVI century became clear that the Protestant church requires fundamental reforms. "It seems that the blood ceased to flow through the vessels of the Church. Their legal system required changes, and incapacity and corruption of the church bureaucracy was generally known. Moral clergy often been disbanded, causing embarrassment flock. Clergy (even at the highest levels) was often absent in the parishes and dioceses. Appointment to the highest ecclesiastical position was questionable means, attention is mainly paid to political or financial position of the candidates, not their spiritual qualities. " So the overall picture depicted the decline of contemporary Catholicism prominent Protestant theologian A. Mahrat [2, p. 1213]. Thus the purpose of our study is to analyze the modernization trends in the art of modern Protestantism Speaking of harsh criticism all the basic principles of Catholicism, Protestantism proposed variant of "cheap" Christian church, which has to abandon many external attributes and focus on "organizations" direct "communication with God". Thus, the first Protestant churches modest architecture, which differed simple arrangement without icons, crucifixes and lamps and professional priests. The main element of worship here was the sermon, which was to help believers to comprehend the truth of Scripture and charged with the responsibility for instilling and deepening the believers cornerstone doctrine salvation by faith. So from the very beginning in Protestantism diverted most important place "ministry of the word" or the art of words. Exploring the history of this type of service, Protestant theologians emphasize that in the first centuries of Christianity have begun to recognize the need for careful attention to the sermon and 36

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improve this type of service to the Church. This was the desire to preserve the best of sermons. Therefore, the first books on homiletics (the study of preaching) were collected best sermons. Concern for quality content and form of the Protestant sermon ever got bigger. Leading centers of Protestant churches and denominations issued annually for elders and preachers of all its communities advice and tips for worship every day of the year. In the journals that published religious centers continuously printed instructional materials to help those who preach in the community. Thus, in Lutsk for this purpose for Evangelical Christians-Baptists of all Ukraine is printed and published bimonthly magazine "Messenger of Truth" a body of Ukrainian Evangelical Baptist Fellowship (centered in the U.S.). Since the mid 90ies of the last century, in the regions of Ukraine are printed edition of their local communities, experience their evangelistic work ("Candlestick. Journal for the Church and the Church", published in the Rivne). Subjects sermons in each community will be at least one month. In cities topics posted near the houses of prayer, while, besides a general overview, bet on those believers who for some reason can not attend all the prayer meetings, but reading through this plan, everyone will do good to come and listen to those sermons considers particularly useful. When planning than the calendar of religious holidays or biblical events included specific moral or spiritual needs of the community, the response to social events and responses to them co-religionists, etc. that is, the sermon being targeted, theme and content of their defined life-spiritual relevance. According to Protestant theologians, the main advantage is preaching and action that it has on the audience. One interpretation of the sermon is finished speech that pronounced on religious gatherings and aims to call sinners to repentance and faith, teachings or strengthening believers in the virtues and explaining the teachings of Christ. The success of the sermon are important personality preacher, and his attitude toward ministry sermon content, form and methods of expression. All of this requires not only a preacher stresses spiritual effort, but preaching talent. Sometimes, not every priest can match the skill of his preaching of Protestant preachers. In addition, Protestantism is not 37

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necessary to practice the complexity of presentation topics to avoid character "phenomenon lectures" in sermons. For disclosure of religious truths, where possible, advise, except the Holy Scriptures, to examples of life. Prized living example of the power of imagery and words. An example of this would be one of the preachers sermon: "In early spring, I had to go in a birch grove. I went to a beautiful curly birch trees, near which was unknown and a meter from the ground drilled a hole in the trunk. To my remark that bindweed from this dries , the stranger replied: "I do not regret that birch wither and perish I like being with her flowing juice." his work and answer moved me in a domestic situation of believers. How many cases of flesh here is similar to "work" my interlocutor! How many cases family life is only for pleasures of the flesh. This is - debauch passions that unsettles health and prematurely old and wears out the body... " [7, p. 145]. Thus, the touching image of a young birch preacher used for establishing the idea that a person should not be healthy for his earthly happiness, and to serve God. In Protestantism believe the undisputed fact that the preacher must first be very sure of the truth of what preaching because it primarily ensures perception believing that convey to their hearts and minds. It is important not to say, and how to say it. That sermon should come from the depths of the soul, with well matched tone and even, if necessary, with enthusiasm, that in general the success of the sermon. Preacher, usually, not always build the propaganda of religious ideas on rational basis and logical arguments. "A fervent speech speaker teaches ... causing listeners emotional exaltation which inductively hampers and present experiences, and results of past experience. Gradually abolishes man (gast) their previous assessment of events and phenomena ceases to be critical of the words of the speaker, takes it assessment of his views. A inhibition own activity leads to stimulation mechanisms imitative behavior, willingness to follow the speaker. should be emphasized that this is a suggestibility (suggestion), that the imposition of reasoning without logical proof of their truth. Instill not to prove by arguments addressed mental. suggestion in most cases just aimed at overcoming logical arguments, it appeals to the human senses, not her mind "[4, p. 66-67]. Preaching in Protestantism is always based on the interpretation 38

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of Scripture. An experienced preacher on this occasion said: "The theme is contained in the text (Scripture) as the core of nut. Our task not to remain on the periphery and to penetrate into the core ... Only in this way can we get in the intimate meaning of the text. Topic should not be superficial, little substance, many times chutoyu. "Topic Title must be borrowed from the Bible, for example: "Go forth and sin no more!" (John 8, 11), "Repent and believe in the Gospel" (Mk 1, 15), "You - the light of the world" (Mt 5, 14), etc. Theologians are not recommended to define the topic in a word, such as "Love", "Freedom", "good" and so on. This theme hides a danger to spread preacher in the sermon on the different opinions and things unrelated to deprive sermon substantive focus and clarity [3, p. 42]. Preachers, especially late currents of Protestantism, not counting a long time his sermons. According to our observations, in the communities of Rivne region sermon on average lasts about 10 minutes. The fact that the prayer meeting provided two common prayer the initial and final may be common prayer, for any occasion (for example, recovery of patients): execution chants choral, general, and where possible solo songs and declamations , melodeclamations. All these kinds of service interspersed with sermons that happens, depending on the circumstances, from three to seven or eight. Typically, the prayer meeting does not last more than two hours. Incidentally, the liturgical practice of Protestants and acts as a kind of prayer ministry said. Zh. Kalvin in his "teaching the Christian faith" (Institution) emphasized that prayer as defining exercise of faith, "...because we receive daily gifts of God" [1, p. 126]. As follows from the above, Protestants use in their prayer meetings not only the art of speech, but singing both accompanied by musical instruments, so without them. Overall prayer meeting Protestants significantly different from worship in Catholicism and Orthodoxy. In both of these churches liturgical ministry ruled approved by literally scenarios ranks. Since they are provided to all service liturgical year, the faithful have become accustomed to them, they know that now sing the priest and the deacon, and the chorus or klyrosis. This one tradition extinguishes attention to the content of the spoken or sung, for the faithful know in advance their contents, expect this and not something else. Listening and introduction to singing, blending in harmony temple ceremonies Catholics or Orthodox feel of this aesthetic 39

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pleasure that distracts, putting chants and deliver content, because they worship the work of familiar "nothing new" and they did not expect. In Protestant churches is only stable schemes prayer meetings, but every time the course of gathering updated with new psalmsongs, sermons and prayers. This collection has more on the minds of believers, teach them first of all strengthen their religious beliefs. Although aesthetic pleasure not removed, it is much inferior to the influence on the minds of dogmatic, theological dominance worship. In addition, each prayer meeting in the communities of Protestants is subject to certain, predetermined topic. So when should happen break bread, prayers, sermons and hymns on the topic of Golgotha Christ. Clearly and unequivocally held meetings on the occasion of the events in the life of the Son of God on earth or acts of the apostles (eg Pentecost). The various currents of Protestantism has its special holiday as a harvest festival or celebration of unity in Baptist, dates associated with the history and functioning of various Protestant denominations. In Protestantism there is a whole repertoire psalmsongs for worship. In this area there were many religious poets and composers. They created and multiplied for their co-religionists songs, occasionally betrayed their collections that organize the principle of certain needs and opportunities of church life. Numbering works and categorization by content-themed destination providing usability Works on gatherings of believers. In print, many believers in using manuscript collections which rewrote the believers. In Protestantism, however, there is no sustainable repertoire of sacred songs, he filled them neoplasms text and melodic. In communities where there are choirs, their repertoire is almost constantly updated, and what was done before, copied now as common heritage of singing. That is a constant updating of malignancies. Protestants also, in many cases accompanied by singing playing musical instruments. Until recently, the villages often used for this accordion, and even the once very popular accordion "helihonka". However, not all communities have at least a simple musical instrument. In cities were popular piano, harmonium, lately become fashionable synths. For icons in Protestantism, in its prayer houses and churches, even in rooms believers, no place. Against the worship of icons and 40

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their veneration strongly and categorically opposed John Calvin [1, p. 145]. With reference to the Saints Scripture, he proves that lie "offend Gods honor if ascribe to him some pictures. Law of God says:" Do not make for yourself any graven image, or any likeness" (I, 11.1). Immediately recalls the Bible: "You heard the voice, and did not see any figures" (5 M. 4, 2). And if someday God appeared to man, it was a warning of future revelation in Christ. Recalls Calvin and patrystiv. Yes Augustine clearly expressed, not allowed, not only to deal with a prayer to the icon, but even to think of it themselves, as if the image of God, for because of this decrease is subtracted and the fear of God (I, 11). They do not worship the cross, because he was the instrument of suffering and death of Christ. Instead of icons on the walls of Protestant houses of worship and homes of believers only artistically written statements from Scripture: "God is love" (1 Jn. 4, 8), "One Lord, one faith, one baptism" (Eph. 4.6), "We preach Christ crucified" (1 Cor., 1.23) and so on. Transfer Protestantism attention believer of worship and rituals for preaching and personal faith led to some changes in his religious and artistic integrity. Instead Organ music, monumental murals and paintings, lush decor clothes priests and Catholic churches came interior art expressive black-and-white prints (this was confirmed in the early Protestant churches Lutheranism, Calvinism, and Anglicanism), sincere preaching, singing with accompaniment and humble Clothing pastor, elder and preacher [5, p. 236]. Simplification of religion in Protestantism manifested not only in lifting a large number of religious festivals and special services to honor saints and the Virgin, but in abolishing major iconic event, which in Catholicism and Orthodoxy are called sacraments. Of these seven sacraments baptism, anointing, confession, communion, priesthood, marriage and Sick there were two: baptism and communion (break bread). But their action was denied special magical power, because it directly depending on personal faith. Incidentally, all of the above applies to the ideal of Protestantism, which in reality is not. Because Protestantism a large number of relatives while slightly different from each other churches, denominations, sometimes and sects. Reform requirements and principles and are available in various Protestant denominations in different ways, with varying degrees of completeness, and sometimes 41

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with a fairly substantial cult and even dogmatic differences (Pentecostals, Jehovahs Witnesses, Mormons and others.). As late Protestant congregations in Ukraine, then they remain in positions of conservatism and rejection of any innovations in worship. Believers do not use artificial jewelry, considering them unacceptable, sinful. For example, women do not use any makeup or jewelry. Men do not wear badges, some state symbols, icons. Most people avoid family even wearing rings on his hand. That is, a complete ban that can afford Orthodox or Catholic, without risking a cause for condemnation Coreligionists. But some religious innovations, modernization elements of Protestant worship still occur and are usually associated with foreign centers of Protestant ministries for viewers Ukraine. A sample of a Sunday program "Life in the Word", which preaches and sings John Mayer. In it there is a lot of unusual things that do not fit into the traditional Protestant cult that exists in communities throughout Ukraine. Its more like the Christian entertainment talk show. On stage, young girls, dressed in white, each with a microphone in hand, singing spiritual songs. Soloist clearly stands out from among them, a little older than their colleagues with clips in the ears, with expressive makeup on her face. Speaker is indulging openly and clearly to the calculation methods of artistry. She sings beautifully, but obviously an artistic manner walking across the stage, raises his hands. Girls on stage to join in their song structure, but also transcend from foot to foot, clap their hands over their heads. Meanwhile, in the audience all stood wobbling in time to sing and also drive their hands. This can be observed in the transmission of "Good News with Rick Renner". He is in his sermons clearly unable to acute phrases: supposedly preaches extemporaneously, and it allows him to occasionally suspended searching for a word or phrase for which there react hilarious revival, and even laughter. Acknowledge your joke and preacher he did not smile restrains ... This transfer can see every citizen of Ukraine, who watches TV. However, all of these things natural. Life is richer and more complex than any dogma. Various forms of Protestantism is adapting abstract schemes to the needs of a changing life. For all its diversity Protestant denominations have two common features: first, they follow 42

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(albeit with different sequence) of the basic principles of Protestantism, and secondly, have their historical roots in the Reformation, being directly or indirectly its products [6, p. 15]. Finally, the process of "cloning" all the advanced Protestant denomination is not over yet. Under the pressure of life can occur following varieties of Protestantism, which ultimately may go in the opposite direction to the Catholic or Orthodox orthodoxy. Moreover, in the practical life of believers and Protestant communities in Ukraine in general susceptibility to most innovations embodied in the program of their social service. It is, firstly, update Luthers doctrine of "good works". Second, believing it is considered as evidence of meaningfulness of his earthly existence, search the most effective means of practical realization of Christian precepts. Thereby Protestants Ukraine catching up still not implemented its social and ethical potential. Since begging in early Protestantism, especially in reformation and genetically related to him later as a result of trends prohibited laziness, unwillingness to obey the commandments of God, in the program of social service referred mainly moral support. However, Protestants and avoid material philanthropy, such as donating invalids, pensioners, the poor, those who have suffered from natural disasters. "Let it be prosaic work, but realize that it is for the good of man and the people, turning them into something sacred" [3, p. 158]. Conclusions. So with regard to modernization of worship, then it is in Protestantism is taking its first steps. Especially fixed service improvements word as traditional brief sermon on the topic of biblical quotations are outliving itself. To enhance the role of suggestive words in Protestantism stock piled unused potentials that are generated by technical progress in the field of audio and visual media. However, provide any specific scale and pace of innovation rise in the practice of Protestant worship no reason. As for painting, sculpture they Protestantism still remain beyond the need to worship. List of sources and literature 1. . , / . . . ; : [. .], 1986. 239 . 2. . . / . . . : , 1995. 350 . 43

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3. . . : . . -, 1987. . 2. 239, [1] . 4. . . . . / . . . . : - . . , 1962. 139 . 5. . / . , . // . 1988. 11. . 2021. 6. . . / . . . . : , 1962. 216 . 7. . . , / . . : , 1969. 175 . UDC: 281.9:264-74:159.923.2(=161.2) Y.I. Melnychuk ORTHODOX SERMON AS A SOCIO-CULTURAL ACHIEVEMENT OF UKRAINIAN NATION In the article the analysed features of the Ukrainian orthodox sermon as the specific communicative phenomenon which depends on social realities and is the certificate of kulturnogo-dukhovnikh traditions of Ukrainian society. Key words: sermon, communicative system (communication), social conditionality, sociokulturne phenomenon. Problem. Orthodox sermon as centuries of social and cultural heritage of the Ukrainian people, originated and evolved within the Eastern Christian tradition, attracted attention because of its scientific and theoretical understanding. Aspects of the study of this problem is invariant, multifaceted and determined by various factors. Level of development problems. The problem of language related to the issue of linguistic relativity, which consider Edward Sapir and W. von Humboldt, the question of language liturgy T. Gorbachenko, N. Mechkovska, I. James. Investigation of internal inflection seen in the writings O. Potebni, as well as modern scientific achievements of local 44

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researchers, including Slad mention I. Bohachevsku, M. Holyanycha, T. Horbachenka, L. Drotyanka, T. Kyyaka, N. Myhyrina, B. Plotnikova, V. Rusanivskoho et al. Figuring features preaching the word as oratorical genre became an object of scientific interest M. Bahtina, F. Batsevycha, A. Vezhbytskoyi. Analysis of the linguistic-pragmatic features sermons carried N. Arutyunova, Yu. Lotman, Ch. Morris and Ch. Pirs. Finding a new structure in sermons, as works which displays a number vzayemopovyazuyutsya communicative subjective wreath made T. Van Dyke, L. Ivanov, V. Maslovym, Z. Turayevoyu in this context it is worth mentioning and intelligence representatives teolinhvistyky (O. Hadomskyy, H. Hrinenko, N. Mechkovska). Thus, in modern philosophical, cultural and others. studies vidshukovuyemo considerable interest from the sermon as a special type of speech that is endowed with certain symbolic meanings-load, the problems of textual interpretation sermons and preaching activities in the context of the historical realities of society, it updates the specific study of the phenomenon in terms of both theoretical and practical grounds. We aim to characterize features of preaching in the context of the Ukrainian Orthodox apostolic tradition, forming a task of this work: to analyze the features of the role of speech and outline the nature, purpose of preaching, preaching separation as a specific communicative phenomenon and its dependence on social realities, preaching as cultural heritage. The main material. Before turning to direct our coverage stated themes appropriate to describe (in general terms) the specificity of the Ukrainian Orthodox sermon as a religious phenomenon. It reflects the essence of the teachings of a religious nature, which is inextricably linked to that observed semamy sacred content. As a guide to preaching and vyholoshuyetsya oral or recorded in writing, it is a communicative phenomenon which is characterized by the transfer of information as a religious content and its relationship to life followers, ie semantically sermons linking spiritual and earthly life. We can say that in the process of formation and development of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (from the introduction of Christianity in the Ukrainian lands to the present) preaching constantly evolving, and therefore, in essence, this is a dynamic phenomenon that has meaning and performs various functions in the religious and social life of the Ukrainian nation. Yes, I. Ogienko 45

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[12, p. 87] proves the presence of preaching distinct national characteristics, resulting from the isolation of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church in the tenets elections clergy, worship, chynopokladannyah, we should misyatseslovi, holidays ikonomalyarstvi and temple architecture. Indisputable is the fact that the Ukrainian Orthodox sermon typical social significance, as expressed in the relationship of religious canons and social realities that appear in an emotionally filled text through which affects the preacher, feelings and outlook of believers.To preacher could achieve the desired communicative effect, it uses implikatory communicative, emotional and sponukalnist, imagery, belief. Another characteristic feature of preaching the word the presence of a supernatural, on this T. Gavrilyuk [4, p. 278], analyzing the notion, suggested that it is a product of social and human creativity and a subjective objective. Speaking consequences of religious and philosophical reflection on the meaning of life, supernatural means the those aspects of human life that are not verifiable by scientific methods and express a reality that stands on the foundation of natural primary, epistemological embodiment of gods, spirits, souls, etc., and sacred connection connections and properties of real objects and phenomena. It is in the category of the supernatural, says researcher expressed importance not only religious images and ideas, but also the overall certainty existential human condition that is characterized by its spontaneous ontological relation, we notice the following constants in the studied phenomenon. Analyzing Printed text sermon can trace certain trends semantic load, which reflects the moral and ethical issues from the Bible, lives of the saints, but each time it is some new vision of the eternal problems which should be tangent soul worshiper. The believer is filled with confidence to a spiritual leader, a deep faith in God and strive to improve their own souls and dobrochestya [10, p. 54]. According to D. Brala, striving for perfection makes the preacher changed his attitude towards communicative audience, and the subject of his mission is not "herd management, and people management" [2, p. 15]. In theological studies, we find the statement that "the Christian church guideline aims to clarify the audience doctrine of Christ" as a lively, sensual statement becomes essential characteristic of her: "The word priest more than anyones attracting peoples attention. According possible to define 46

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inner world: directing her thoughts, state of mind and feelings. Words anger testifies to the passion of pride, condemnation, rage, rude words indicate discourtesy, promiscuity. On the contrary, the words are clear, restrained, considerate, sometimes with good humor suggests that they are generated disciplined, sharp, thinking mind " [9, p. 50]. Preaching the word is a special communications system, including M. Petrushevych argues that religion forms of communication systems serve to transmit information back to the mandatory understanding of communication systems, ie the ability to decode a specific religious information. According to researcher [13, p. 82], we consider the interaction of existential and dialogical communication, based on Christian love. Note the fact that the Ukrainian Orthodox sermon from the very beginning of its formation appeared in his own identity data information we we find in the writings of I. Ogienko . Thanks Printed texts, we can trace those traditions that are specific to a particular historical period of time becoming orthodoxy. The emphasis on this particular due to the fact that due to language semam cleric can affect the ideological foundations of faith adherents, such as their cultural level and standards of behavior in society. Perceiving the sermon as a communication system, pay attention to the study of L. Vyhovsky "Functionality religion: nature and manifestations", which clarifies the system level functionality religion and its social manifestations, and its evolution. He examines the relationship and the specific operation of the main structural elements of the religious complex in society. In particular, the system identifies four functional religion ideologically-sensotvirnu, value-regulatory, social, organizational and communicative-translationally.In this sense religious communication - a dialogue between believers within the denomination, it means understanding and reproduction of identity and integrity of the person in the religious plane. Religious Communication has a structure that includes various processes of interaction communication, socialization, transmission of religious experience, sharing, learning information, strengthening relationships between individual believers, between believers and religious communities, religious institutions, clergy, religious organizations between different religious . Religious communication is both phenomenon zahalnouniversalnym and individually specific to any particular 47

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religious system [11, p. 124]. The subject of this communication system is a preacher, whose role is to ensure that in the spiritual tension, reflection, report deciphering sacred information that needs to distribute among the people. Around the entity formed by concentric circles of communication, and according Mechkovska N. B., preaching is fundamental, original genre of religious communication and "photo of his time" (Lyekoy where Marsh) [11, p. 210]. And then all of a reflection of social and cultural heritage of the people, including Ukrainian. Word a unit of communication system, understanding the importance of words, according to V. Bychkova, in Christianity influenced three key provisions Christianity. First, more pessimistic, according to which God is the root cause and Creator of the world is one that can not be expressed in words, the other two implement optimistic soul who seeks to understand Christianity. The first is contained in the original words of the Gospel of John: "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God ..." (Iv.1: 1 3). His Word God created the world and man. And if the word is at the beginning, it is vain and human speech. Further strengthens this belief in Christianity position of the Incarnation of Jesus Christ, which is compared with the expression of thought in words. As the divine Logos in Christ became the mediator between God and man, and the human word can be a mediator of truth. Hence believers hope for the possibility of verbal communication between God and man [1, p. 24]. The spiritual life of society is not static integrity of various components combined will of some higher unseen entity that can do everything on their own, self-sufficient entity. Therefore, the spirituality of the Ukrainian society has countless features and a variety of approaches to its analysis, attempts to systematize structural components, the hierarchy, coordination and subordination of parts. In any case, society is unacceptable to identify a set of components that can build up in the chain sequence, identifying causal relationships and anticipation of subsequent events based on analysis of real concrete givens. Man is the creator of the society, it is of its interests to do really desire. Affirm the sovereignty of an independent Ukrainian state leads to increased scientific research language problems of modernity, 48

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pereduvsim native language and its application in the confessional use. In the past she suffered long repression, but remained a reliable source of strength and unity of the people, there is the factor of eye identity of the individual, in particular in the religious environment. To clarify the issue of socio-cultural characteristics of the Ukrainian Orthodox sermon, consider retrospective of his existence. Church sermon delivered in natural language has become a special phenomenon of the Ukrainian people, which in retrospect was oriented on a combination of the spiritual foundations of Orthodoxy with special historical realities, this particular wrote to I. Ogienko [12, p. 110]. As he wrote M.Hrushevsky, even from the beginning of Christianity in Russia. Metropolitan paid attention to the development of religious consciousness and religious exclusivity among believers [5, p. 18]. During the life of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church preaching the word reflects all the realities of the present, which is indicative of their understanding reflected in the outlook of people. All this can be traced from preaching sermons delivered Hilarion to his contemporaries. Lets just do it, but also bring social and historical background of the sermon existed and exist today and have a place of reflection. Since ancient times, we vidshukovuye in preaching social foundations that can tell us about contemporary society its social and cultural, moral, axiological level. For example in his sermon Hilarion "Sermon on Law and Grace" we we find the statement that: "This glorious Vladimir Kagan our vehicles glorious born, noble noble units. And, coming years and vigor, zmuzhnivshy in the power of strength and perfect, courage and intent matured, yedynoderzhtsem was his land, conquering in the surrounding side the peace and unruly sword. So when he was in his days he lived and his ground pass true bravery and thought, hurt his God, looked at him merciful eye good God and vozsiyav mind in his heart" [8, p. 1]. We can analyze this quote in terms of social status of a person, but at the same time, we note that a considerable emphasis is placed on Gods presence in all the actions of the ruler. Preaching the word acquired an acute social stress in the most difficult times of Ukrainian statehood. For example, from the end of the XV to mid-XVII., The views of a man and the earthly world in the society formed a new ideology. It was based not only on the ancient heritage, but the traditions of folk belief. This contributed to the rebuilding of culture, which was based on the feeling of joy of life on 49

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earth, optimism, asserting physical and spiritual beauty of man. Changing attitudes to the category of beauty which is revealed in the person and real earthly world. All these factors contributed to the spiritual transformation of Christian culture, which enriched realistic features, exposed folk influences. Thus we find data realities in sermons L. Baranovych, whose works ("sword of the Spirit," "Pipes of words propovidnyh" and others), delineating the Ukrainian and Polish society of his government and the Catholic Church. Differences L. Baranovych also conducted between the "Little Russians" and "Moscow" [16, p. 7]. A. N. Petruk [14, p. 247] claims that he was always interested in the fate of Ukraine and its people. Lack of harmony in the state (namely "Accord states grow") L. Baranovych explained dimming Ukrainian soul and mind. "Unity of God and separation from evil spirit" he wrote in a letter to F. Sofonovycha (1699), and continues: "It has long been plotting to, to share it and thus weaken" [6, p. 92] . As suggested above mentioned researcher in reasoning L. Baranovycha clearly expressed the need to achieve human solidarity and harmony. These findings it certainly summed frequent conflicts in Ukrainian life, lack of unity and reconciliation, immorality behavior of politicians, relentless struggle for power, arbitrary powers, constant war and strife. The time in which he lived L. Baranovych and contemporary Ukrainian society he called "lyutmy of time" because, in his opinion, people, as required by Jesus Christ, should do everything possible to improve their lives. Reflecting the ideal human community and the principles of its operation, L Baranovych actually offers a new model of the human self [14, p. 247]. In the new socio-historical conditions orthodox sermon takes on a new sound that indicates a new level of existence. At this time dualistic view of human nature, the formation of a hierarchical system of social values, orientation to the human way of reasonable self-terminating and self-conscious this is where a new reading and perception of Christian literature and struggle with low human passions and defend Christian morality. Used in sermons means of natural language suggest-specific human faculty communication, reflection and learning environment, specific and universal means of objectification of both individual consciousness and cultural and religious traditions, complex semiotic system that develops with society constantly enriched and improved. Socio-cultural genesis reproduced in the language, and therefore in its 50

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organic component word that functions as a multivalent always and in every case can be uniquely human characteristics unique feature of human active principles. This multiplicity of words and creative human essence create the conditions for the prospects of understanding and interpretation, efficient communication and behavioral strategies followers. Extremely important is the aspect of speech in a religious cult, it is not just a word, and its use can be productive or lead to devastating effect. Any word uttered preacher in its essence is the result of reflection of a man of the world, the problems that exist at present in society. Language as a treasure of the people (and humanity in general) captures not only the important stages of historical development, but also the subtle nuances of the personal life of the individual who interacts with past and present generations and includes various forms of communication - communication, where there is an exchange of views (sermon built in the form of questions), information (sermon instructive content), etc., is a specific form of interaction between people in the course of their cognitive activity. Then the priest educates, uses guidelines to its members of the religious community and in this case applies for patterns, orthodox traditions and norms of behavior that has guided each of adherents according to Orthodox canons. Individual identity and individuality delivered sermons only possible as the introduction of such rules, which are caused by the needs of the believer. In the socio-cultural process word appears as fixation ethical, religious, aesthetic or other standards of conduct, which reflected the level of understanding of spirituality both in theoretical (or everyday) forms, and in practical application. "For moral velychi person as i for mental endless field of activity and constant development. But moral greatness is broader because it is available to everyone, while the top is a lot of mental development talent. In this moral velychi zaklykani all we in Hrysti Isusi. For the development of moral virtues, to help substantially larger Natural nemochi as sumniy legacy grave sin, podarovani us blahodatni power of the Holy Spirit. The word on the day of St. Troytsi So the moral is that which corresponds to the law of conscience. Why? Because the human conscience the voice of God in the human being. Ap. Paul says that the Gentiles without the law of God, doing good from nature, ie velinnyam conscience (Romans 2:15). 51

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I an. Peter said that everyone who does good pleasing to God "(" Christ is our life ") [15, p. 2]. Since culture has different grades, it is important to address the problem of human interaction that is the bearer of a society and the role of speech presented word priest. Here interacting two levels of reality that are relations of part and whole: the worshiper (the person who is the representative of a society and a representative of the Orthodox community) and semantic load preacher speech presented words. On this Filaret stressed in his sermon on such variety: "Many in our society bid exists from tiyeyi reason that leaders are not crazy. Some hook or by crook i seek public office, and state of mind are not. From the State of the benefit of such nachalnykiv will not some do confusion. Other leaders have mind i know how to manage but do not have a good conscience. The lack of it leads to abuse of power. When someone who nadilenyy power no deterrent principle that conscience, he could easily take the path of crime "and" For a Christian any government not the prosperity and honor, and heavy cross, coupled with large i numerous labors and cares. Want to have power over others - be prepared for difficulties i naberysya terpinnya "(" Against ambition ") [15, p. 3]. Conclusions. Thus, summarizing the above, we express the belief that the Ukrainian Orthodox preaching the word, like religion in general, are inherently social phenomenon and historical nature. This realization provides prerequisites objective interpretation of the phenomenon regular and repeater-old heir to the socio-cultural and spiritual traditions, reflecting all social transformations of the Ukrainian ethnos in difficult conditions of its formation. Considerable attention to the problems of preaching and preaching the word in church life, is understandable. She explained above the main function of the sermon as a special genre of oratorical prose and variety arts communication, explaining its symbolic and sacred meaning. 1. 2. 3. List of sources and literature Bychkova V. Aesthetisa ratrum. Aesthetics fathers of the Church [Text] / V. Bychkova. - M.: Ladomir, 1995 Braga D. How to prepare a sermon bybleyskuyu [Text] / D. Braga. - St. Petersburg., 2000. - 171s. Vigovsky LA Functionality religion: nature and manifestations 52

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4.

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

14. 15.

[Text] / L. Vigovsky. - National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Department of Religious Philosophy Institute. GSSkovoroda; Khmelnitsky University of Management and Law. - K.; Khmelnytsky, 2004.-340 p. Gavrilyuk T.V. Supernatural as a source of building laws of human society [Text] / T. Hawryluk / / Scientific Bulletin of Chernivtsi University. Philosophy. Sciences. collection. - Chernivtsi, 2004. Vyp.203-204. - S. 276-280. Hrushevsky M. History of Religious Thought in Ukraine [Text] / Hrushevsky. - K., 1992.-145s. Selected letters Lazarus Baranovych [Text] / / Chernihiv Athens. K., 2002. - P.58-173, 92 Ivano IV On the Ukrainian literary Baroque [Text] / I. Ivano / / Ukrainian literary Baroque: Proc. Sciences. prats.-K.: Scientific thought, 1987.-P.30-302s. Hilarion, Metropolitan. Sermon on Law and vlahodat [electronic resource] / http://litopys.org.ua/oldukr/ilarion.htm Marusyak M. Pastoral Theology [Text] / M. Marusyak. -Chernivtsi, 2006., P.50-51 Matsko LI Matsko A. Rhetoric: Training. important among. - 2nd ed., Sr. [Text] / L. Matsko, O.Matsko - K.: Higher HQ., 2006. -311 P. Mechkovskaya NB Language and religion. Lectures on the philosophy of history and religion [Text] / N. Mechkovskaya. Moscow, 1998.-352p. Ogienko I. Ukrainian Church: Essays on the history of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church: In 2 volumes: T. 1-2. [Text] / I.Ogienko : Ukraine, 1993.-284s. Petrushkevich MS Elements Orthodox communication system [Text] / M. Petrushkevich / / Ukrainian religious studies. Bulletin of the Ukrainian Association of Religious Studies Department of Religious Studies and Philosophy Institute. GSSkovoroda National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. - K., 2006. - 39. - S. 79 92. Petruk NK Informal fellowship and formation principles of selforganization of society (based on the history of Ukrainian Baroque) [text] / N. Petruk / / Ukrainian Studies. - 2006. - 1. - P.245-249 Filaret Sermons [electronic resource] / Filaret / 53

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http://www.hram.kiev.ua/index.php?mode=books&cat=14 16. Black L.Problema update Ukrainian society in philosophy Lazarus Baranovych [Text] Abstract. dis. kand.filos.nauk ...: 09.00.05 / L. Black, Dnipropetrovsk National universytet.-D., 2011.-18C. UDC 1:82-9217 V. Y. Myshkov OLD BELIEVERS POLEMICAL LITERATURE OF THE 18TH CENTURY AND ITS PHILOSOPHICAL MEANING In this article the author described the development of Old Believer polemicalliterature in the 18th century, reveals its philosophical meaning and influence ofpolemical literature on the formation of Old Believer religious practice. Keywords: polemical iterature, split, Old Believers, old-printed books (books published in Russia before the 17th century), church reform. Introduction. It shall be mentioned that the Rus Old ritualism is a diversified phenomenon of not only Russian, but also Ukrainian culture, a peculiar phenomenon of our history. During more than three centuries of its existence it showed an endless spiritual force and the societal opportunities, lying in its basis. In the XIX century, while speaking about the value of the Old ritualism, philosopher V. G. Senatov noted that "it is a peculiar world, with its own ideas, culture, and its own historical and even universal tasks" [10, p. 17]. It is worth saying that the reform of Muscovite Orthodox church in the 60s of the XVII century, and, as a consequence, a church raskol (schism), gave life to such a complicated and controversial phenomenon as the Rus Old ritualism. It was caused by the activity of Muscovite Patriarch Nicon who made adjustments to liturgical books and conducted reforms of church rites based on the Greek example. However, nonconformity with church reforms of the Muscovite Patriarch was only a superficial expression of social protest. The church reform of Patriarch Nicon has not changed the main dogmas of the Orthodox religion. It was the centralization and reinforcement of church power that caused protests of all society strata. 54

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In her opportune remark L. M. Schugayeva noted that it becomes clear that the fight for "old church" renaissance has united everyone who was unsatisfied: using religious mottos the court nobility (boyars) walked out against autocracy strengthening and oppressions; the merchants were unhappy about economic condition of the Muscovite State; the archers were unsatisfied with being put aside of military actions after creation of regular soldier formations ; the peasants and the poor stood against increasing oppression and taxes; the clergy against authoritarianism and absolute power of Nicon [13, p. 23]. However, the number of believers who joined the Old ritualists allows speaking about religious and clerical importance of the Old ritualists movement. It should be kept in mind that belonging to the Orthodox faith, not nationality or social status had a primary role in Rus: a person who was baptized and joined the Orthodox church could be treated like a person of Rus and be a part of one Orthodox people. From the moment of schism, a part of Muscovite society treated another part, mostly the upper strata and the clergy as heretics, religious apostates i.e. as such that belong to another people, another cultural and religious community. This has created a deep spiritual and outlook crisis. Tries of some people to come out of this ideological and outlook crisis in the society resulted into new spiritual and polemical literature, in which the authors described their own perception of the church schism problem. Research topicality. According to prevailing opinions in historical science of the Russian Empire period, Old ritualism is a sect with an insignificant number of members, most of whom are loweducated and stubborn people, ready to die for one az, who do not have their own outlook priorities, philosophical search and eschatological ideas. This popular opinion which, unfortunately, still enjoys a great popularity, was formed by Russian historians V. Tatyshchev, S. Solovyov, S. Platonov to please the state authorities. During the Soviet period the issue of the Old ritualism philosophic legacy was not covered. Passiveness of the scientists, when it comes to this issue, resulted into the fact that the entire stratum of the Old ritualism literature is not studied, and its philosophical and historical value is not revealed. That is the reason why our work is necessary and 55

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its topicality leaves no doubts. Statement of the research objective. The article is devoted to research of the Old ritualism polemic literature and its role in formation of philosophical views of the Old ritualists. It can be studied in the context of historical science or be treated as an independent object of philosophical cognition. The main purpose of the research is to analyze philosophical aspect of the Old ritualism doctrine; to show that the opinions of the Old ritualism thinkers in ontology, philosophy of history, epistemology, and hermeneutics are genetically and logically connected with previous Orthodox religious and philosophical conceptualizations. Such specific problems are solved in the research in order to achieve the set objective: Determine ontological conceptualizations of the Old ritualists about interrelation of form and content, essence and phenomenon, that are opened in polemics against change of external form of church rite and were later developed in the inner Old ritualists discussion; Show ontological ground of conflict between tradition authority and hierarchy authority, which creates an epistemological task of choice to be made by a person while searching for the verity; Analyze hermeneutic principles and methods which were used by Old ritualism scribes while interpreting and analyzing ancient texts with different grades of plausibility. Our work is aimed at studying philosophical respect of the Old ritualism which is defined above all not by national peculiarity but with a supernational common Orthodox outlook. We shall try to overcome a stereotypic identification of national form of the Old ritualism phenomenon with its essence, and show that the latter, notwithstanding a common opinion, is of the Orthodox, not national nature. Research results. In accordance with the concept which is the basis of our research, the Old ritualism literature, first of all apologetic and polemic, is an adequate spiritual reaction of a traditional Orthodox outlook at external violent infringement which threatened to distort immanent properties of this outlook. Due to peculiarities of its epistemological conceptualizations, Orthodox Christian thought has always been reactionary by its nature: deep philosophic and 56

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dogmatically substantiated presentation of the most important theses of the study was a consequence of necessity to react on external influences refute the heresy and false doctrine which were inadmissible for the Orthodoxy. It can be said that intellectual activity of the Orthodox outlook defenders which found its expression in Old ritualism literature, can be described by a scheme challenge-answer . Toynibi [11, p. 107]. Let us state that before the Patriarch Nicon reform, Rus religious life, social conscious and life of the society in general have not known any spiritual stresses of such a great scale. The church reform has become a "challenge" which required a provable and substantial answer and combined logical correctness of ByzantiumRus Christian tradition. While solving the posed problem, Orthodox traditionalism, which was closed before that, opens up and expresses its opinions of the most important problems. In the course of polemics, in search of argumentation, the parties of the dispute have brought into motion the religious heritage cumulated by BizantiumRus philosophic thought. The dispute made the polemists research and study the notional apparatus of the Orthodox outlook very thoroughly because every category, term and definition, from the most general to the most specific passed a test by discussion. Observing the polemics between the Old ritualists and followers of Nicon, its inner logics, arguments of the parties and ways of the arguments application enables seeing the Orthodox religious and philosophic outlook "in action", define ontological and epistemological conceptualization typical for it. In order to show how these conceptualizations, descending to early Christianity and patristics period were perceived, developed and elaborated by the Old ritualism thinkers we will briefly analyze philosophic and publicistic heritage of the Old ritualism, in particular polemic literature of the VIII century [1, p. 16]. It is worth mentioning that critics of the Old ritualism point out at its narrow religious problematic, absence of famous theological and philosophical figures, and in doing so speak about deficiency of philosophic searches of the Old ritualists. We consider such opinion to be incorrect, because among the Old ritualists there have been thinkers whose spiritual authority was recognized by representatives of not only 57

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secular power, but also of the New ritualism Church. It is enough to mention Archpriest Avvacum, Icon Epiphany, northern Zlatoust the ideologist of non-violent resistance of the Solovki monk Gerontyi (Riazanov), famous polemist Hierodeacon Oleksandr Kerzhenskyi, the author of the theory of Old ritualism substantiation Andrii Denysov. It is also worth mentioning that the most famous philosophic works which unfold religious search of the Old ritualists works of Avvacum [9], "Solovetskaya chelobitnaya (Solovki prayer) ", "Pomorski vidpovidi (Pomorsk answers) " [8], "Shchyt viry (Shield of faith) " [14], "Mech duhovnyi (Spiritual sword)" [7], theological works by Bishop Arsenii Uralskii (Shvetsov), Andrii Denysov, Ivan Kyrylov and many others [1, p. 34]. One of the most popular and honoured works in the Old ritualist community was "Solovetska Cholobytna". The fifth prayer of Solovki monks to Tsar Oleksii Mykhailovych of 22 September 1668 is famous under this name. Monk Gerontii (Grygorii Ivanovych Riazanov) was its author. The work offers a critical analysis of church innovations, points at totalitarian character of the convocation of 1666, which is untypical not only for the Rus church, but also for the worlds Orthodoxy. The authority of New ritualism church and old Orthodox religious tradition are confronted in the prayer. The work is completed by a request to let the monks retain the pre-Nicon liturgy and not make them pass to the New ritualism [11, p. 58]. Andrii Denysov (1674-1730) belongs to the greatest theological figures of the Old ritualism. Being a member of the Bezpopovtsy (priestless) community of Danylo Vikulich, in 1694 he becomes one of the founders of Vygovski desert and gained an authority not only among the Old ritualists, but also among a part of the Nicon clergy. Andrii Denysov was the founder of Vygovski literature-philosophical school which existed till the century and had a considerate influence upon establishing of Old ritualists philosophical opinions. It has been proved that . Denysov was the author of "Deacon (or Kerzhensk) answers", of 1719, written upon the request of abbot Pityrym. The "Answers" present a deep comparative research of Old Rus and New ritualism church norms [3]. As argumentation for his opinion, Denysov gives examples from dozens of old Orthodox 58

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books, Orthodox iconography, church archeology and history. We emphasize that this book does not simply systematize separate facts. The author shows his analytical skills, ability to give logical evidences, use polemic methods, which shows high educational level of Denysov. We would like to draw attention to the fact that the authors theological skills were mostly brightly expressed in his polemics with the New ritualism missionary Neophyte, who concentrated on such notions as "ancientry", "history", "verity", "Orthodox tradition" in his questions. A. Denysov answered these questions in his work "Pomorski vidpovidi (Pomorsk answers) " of 1723 [8]. It was this work to become the first to present the Old ritualism not only with denying Nicon innovations, but also with sufficient historical and theological substantiation of its own outlook ideas. To our mind, this book is the most successful, full and consistent presentation of the main principles of the Old ritualism and their difference from the New ritualism church. That is why it was spread among all the Old ritualists. However, some crucial moments of "Pomorski vidpovidi (Pomorsk answers)" were written from the Bezpopovtsy point of view[8]. In this work . Denysov proved to be not just an education historian, paleograph, but mostly a philosopher with his own deep system of views at fundamental problems of church history philosophy, cognition theory, interaction between the material and the spiritual. Among the most essential outlook, theological and philosophic ideas of "Pomorski vidpovidi (Pomorsk answers)" it is worth placing emphasis on a separate study of truly Orthodox belief as a main characteristics of the Church, which is more important than just a formality. The idea of forced filling of the material side of church rituals with the belief, and of admissible diversity of forms for expressing the church verity [8]. On the whole, "Pomorski vidpovidi (Pomorsk answers)", has become a formally completed work which generalized dogmatic differences between the Old ritualism and the New ritualism. In the middle of the XVIII century the intellectual centre of gravity was shifted to inner polemics between the Popovtsy (priested ones) and the Bezpopovtsy (the priestless). "Shchit viry (shield of faith)" and "Mech duhovnyi (Spiritual sword)" are considered to be the most noted works 59

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of this period. "Shchit viry (shield of faith)" is a polemic work which formulated answers of the Old ritualist-Bezpopovets to 382 questions of the Popovtsy, Tymofei Andreyev is considered to be the author [14]. Therefore, the above mentioned work is a fundamental monument of polemics between the main streams in the Old ritualism. "Mech duhovnyi (Spiritual sword)" is a work by Old-ritualist Bezpopovets Oleksii Samoylovych, and is directed against the religious practice of the Old ritualists-Popovtsy [7]. It could seem that the dispute about whether the New ritualism church has fully lost its blessing, spiritual sense, or it was only damaged by the innovations and whether its bishops and priests who wanted to join the Old ritualism could be accepted, had a very narrow specifics. However, the counter-parties of the polemics, mostly the Bezpopovtsy, referred to the grounds of their own outlook, to the most general principles of the Bizantium-Rus philosophical thought. The polemics raised the following questions: interconnection between the form and the content of the religious being, realization of historical context principles and ways of texts interpretation, eschatological problem of the end of the universal history, study of spiritual communion and spiritual Antichrist. Solving these problems should have correlated dogmatic conclusions with historical reality. The dispute among the Old ritualists has raised the religious-philosophic conscience of the Old ritualism thinkers to a new qualitative level [5, p. 78]. It should be noted that all the members of the Old ritualism community could participate in the discussion, not just the educated elite. The polemics could take place among ordinary readers from different villages with the active participation of the entire population. According to . . Shahov: "It could happen only among the Old ritualists when an entire village, having taken a cart with books, went to a neighbors village to hold a dispute about belief. While the polemics with synod missioners was mostly of self-protection character, the motive power of internal Old ritualism polemics was a striving to get back "the lost lambs" to the Gods truth" [12, p. 107]. We emphasize that a desire to participate in religious discussions demanded a high competence and education, which was generally typical for the Old ritualists. This opinion is confirmed by the works of 60

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pre-revolutionary researches of Old ritualism who state that the educative level of the Old ritualists was much higher than that of the part of population that belonged to the Synod church. Among the Old ritualists, illiteracy was more an exclusion than a rule, even in the most remote settlements, and even among the women. The constant need to protect the ideals of their own belief stimulated the development of mental activity. It was exactly this that was described by M. I. Kostomarov, " a Russian man in a schism received a kind of education, formed his own culture and learned the script more actively. The schismatic outlook was extended as much as reading of the Holy script and spiritual literature favored it. Even if the disputes about hallelujah of supplication and eight pointed cross seemed deprived of sense, they trained an ability of the Russian man to contemplate in order to substantiate and defend his own opinion" [6, p. 94]. Let us note that in spite of the fact that education was mostly of religious direction, it was typical for the Old ritualists to have deep knowledge of secular sciences history, paleography, philology. The polemics between the Bezpopovtsy and the Popovtsy became defined and stabilized in outlook sense at the beginning of the century and was maintained by partial elaborations of historical, church and legal character. Conclusions. Thus, the Old ritualism is a prominent but detached phenomenon in the Russian culture of the XVIII century. In philosophical and ideological sense it stands closer to philosophical searches of the Medieval Rus world, than to the world culture contemporary to it. Let us mention, that the eighteens century was a period of intellectual rise in the Old ritualism. It was exactly that time when the main ideological problems were solved in the Old ritualists environment. Those were the problems that completed and developed the system of the Orthodox study regarding the new historical situation which did not have direct analogues in the past. Leaving the Orthodox dogmatics outside the scope of research, it must be admitted that the conclusions and interpretations, made by the Old ritualism thinkers, descending to the Orthodox ideological axioms, obtained by means of reasoning, are rather well substantiated from the point of view of general laws of thinking. In philosophical respect, one 61

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can trace logical interconnections of ontological, epistemological, historiosophical and text interpretation ideas in the Old ritualism doctrine. These ideas could be substantiated by the way of development which was typical for the intellectual legacy of the Bizantium-Rus religious and philosophical ideas. At the initial period of the schism and during the V century the problem of distortion of the relationships between the God and the man which appeared due to reform of the Patriarch Nicon and the convocation activity of 1666-1667 was in the centre of attention of the Old ritualism theologians. We have analyzed the ontological sense of the conflict between the Old ritualists and the Reformists. The Old ritualism literature contains a detailed discussion of the study about unity of verbal and nonverbal means of verity expression. In accordance with this study, the verity had two forms of expression which were interrelated and could not exist separately. The material form of verity expression is represented by symbols and images which express the ideal sense. The external form is self-exposure, expression of the sense of the acting subject. Thus, the idea of the inseparable connection of the ideal and material form of verity expression was substantiated in philosophical doctrines of the Old ritualism thinkers which stated that distortion of external forms of the church rituals could not influence their ideal internal content. Therefore, the transcendent blissful sense stopped existing in them, and, consequently, the Nicon church became a humanmade organization, deprived of the blessing and connection with the head of the true Church the Christ. The performed analysis of the sense and content of epistemological aspect of polemics between the Old ritualists and the New ritualists enables stating that the Old ritualism works of the XVIII century contain an all-round comprehension of interrelation between the notions "verity authority personality", which is based on ideological and theoretical heritage of the eastern Orthodoxy. The choice between the two sources and two criteria of verity the authority of the church Script and Reproduction, and the authority of the ruling hierarchy was made by the Old ritualist based on methodology which descended to the most general principles of the Christian outlook, historical and philosophical science. This enables speaking about 62

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presence of a system of epistemological conceptualizations, constructed in accordance with the general laws of thinking. The system is usable for deduction of the conclusions which are connected with the estimation of specific historical situations.

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3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

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9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

List of sources and literature . . / . . / . : - , -, 1999. 261 . . . / / . : - 2008 355 . // , . , 1906. 8, XXII. 294 . , , . . : , 1960. 479 . . . . /. . / . : . - , 1916. 546 . . . // / . . / ., 1905. .12. 418 . . [ ]. : http: // starajavera.narod.ru / . : 10.11.2011. ( ) [ ] : http://www.pomorian.org/archives/27. : 23.11.2011. : . . : , 1975. 263 . . . / . . / . : . . 1908. B. 1. 104 ., . 2. 95 . . / . / . : . 1995. 614 . . . / . . / . : , 1998. 207 . . : / . . / , 2007. 190 . . [ ] : http: // starajavera.narod.ru / . : 17.11.2011.

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N. I. Kobernik

UDC 27:140.8 SOCIAL-CULTURAL FACTORS INFLUENCING THE WORLDVIEW FORMATION OF CYRIL AND METHODIUS The article is devoted to the analysis of the essential religious, scientific and cultural factors influencing the worldview formation of Cyril and Methodius. Key words: Byzantine culture, Christianization, iconoclasts, iconodules, Scholasticism, Christianity. Problem Statement. Historical-philosophical process is not just abstract ideas, views, opinions, but also people with their search of truth, doubts, opinions and beliefs. Therefore, an integral part of historical-philosophical research of any thinker and his doctrine, should be research of factors that influenced their formation and development, identifying traditions that had an impact on their conformation. The task of this article is to analyze political, social and cultural factors that had some influence on worldview formation of two brothers Cyril and Methodius, which entered our intellectual culture as Slavic apostles, creators of Slavic writing system and liturgy in Ancient Slavic language, teachers, philosophers, founders of modern intellectual culture of Slavs. In ecclesiastic tradition they are called Saints Cyril and Methodius and in Orthodox tradition they are also equal to apostles. Both brothers were canonized by both Eastern (orthodox) and Western (catholic) church. In 1980 Pope Ioannes Paulus II declared Cyril and Methodius "patrons" of Europe. Summary. Who were they in fact? What is their phenomenon? What ideas inspired and shaped their philosophical views and vision of the world? To answer these questions, let us analyze social and cultural environment in which the future apostles and teachers lived. Constantine (monk name Cyril) (826-869) and his elder brother Methodius (820-855) were from an honorable aristocratic family, which lived in Solon in Macedonia. Solon, in those times, was the second capital of Eastern Roman Empire Byzantine. It was an important center which spread culture among Slavs. Christianity appeared in Solon very early, it was implemented there by apostle Paul. The 65

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population was divided into two classes the upper, city class which consisted of Greeks and the lower, consisting of Slavs. Such social division was influenced by economic and trade relations between different ethnic groups, which lived on the territory of Southern Macedonia and Eastern Roman Empire [4, p. 14]. Byzantine civilization had an exceptional place in the history of world culture. All eastern provinces of Roman Empire were parts of Byzantine: Balkan Peninsula, Asia Minor, part of Transcaucasia, Syria, Palestine, Egypt. The population of Byzantine, which was about 30-50 million people, consisted of different ethnic groups. However the primary role in economics, political life and culture was played by the Greeks; the state language since VII century and till the end of Byzantine was Greek. Byzantine culture is a synthesis of Western and Eastern cultures, intertwinement of European and Asian influences, Greek-Roman and Eastern traditions. GreekRoman, in fact Byzantine culture was enriched by elements of cultures of many Eastern nations. Byzantine culture had a significant impact on culture of Greece, Serbia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Bosnia, Albania, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Russia, Georgia, Armenia. On the other hand, Byzantine contacts with such countries as Georgia and Armenia and also constant constructive contacts with Slavic cultures, which excepted Byzantine model of Christianity, enriched the culture of Byzantine. In IXX centuries Byzantine culture was connected with a new rise of Constantinople and other provincial cities, such as Solon. Byzantine apostles lived and worked in this period [2, p. 153]. The basis of Byzantine culture was Christianity. Ideological conception of Byzantine Christianity was first formulated by Eusebius of Caesarea (265-339) who was a contemporary of Constantine the Great. The conception stated that each conquest of nations by Byzantine empire was an accomplishment of Christianity. Therefore, religion and politics were united in their goals, the main of which was Christianization of Slavs, which populated Central, South-Eastern and Eastern Europe in. IX-X centuries. It was Christianization which played a crucial role in nations establishment, softening of interethnic conflics, consolidation of countries, structuring and sacralization of hierarchical 66

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power. It guaranteed unity of each nation based on their religion, language, culture; it opened ways to enter European culture process. On the other hand Byzantine imposed its diplomatic relations. Byzantine led continuous ideological wars in the North, West, East and South. In order to keep a powerful position in the world, it was important to convince gentile neighbors in advantages of Byzantine orthodox Christianity. It was necessary because new nations that settled next to the Empire faced a choice of different religions that existed in those times and consequently chose the country which would be a guide in their own cultural development. Therefore they had a choice between Muslim Arab caliphate, Judaism or Catholicism of new Roman Empire of Charles the Great. Apart from ideological trend, christianization of nations had its political trend. In the middle of IX century the country with its center in Kyiv gets its political and military power. Byzantine was worried with the development of a new state. Construction of defense walls did not give its results. Byzantine decided to protect its interests by spreading Christianity in the area of Southern Black Sea region because it did not hope to suppress the expansion of Kyiv Prince (Kyivskyi Knyazh). In those times the Southern Black Sea region was under the influence of Khozar country. Islam and Judaism, as well as paganism, had strong positions in Khozar society; but there were Christians there as well. However there was not enough strength to start Christianization. This issue became especially relevant after a successful campaign of Prince Askold on Constantinople in June 860. And as stated by M. Kril a respected historian, professor of Lviv National University named after I. Franko "this political situation was one of the reasons of missionary of Constantine and Methodius to Khozar country, which had, first of all, a diplomatic goal to protect near-border lands of Byzantine from external attacks " [1, p. 2]. Later missionary brothers would nail down their experience in Central Europe, where in the middle of IX century a powerful Slavic state appeared Great Moravia with its center in Velegrad. In Moravian mission the byzantine emperor and patriarch saw a wonderful opportunity to free Great Moravia from the influence of Roman church. Of course, such mission could only be accomplished by very educated 67

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and intelligent preachers. Such were Constantine and Methodius. Even though Christianization came from two centers Constantinople and Rome, flexible policy of Byzantine church turned out to be more effective, since it was led by more diplomatic ways. The heiress of ancient culture Byzantine was striving towards ideological influence through education and instruction, relying on its theological research authority. Byzantine not only helped to translate Sacred Writings into other languages but also create writing systems for nations which did not have it. Thats how Christian Egyptians, Goths, Armenians, and finally Slavs got their writing systems. Special importance in the development of Byzantine Christianity belongs to such phenomenon as confrontation between Iconoclasts and their opponents, iconodules. Iconoclasm is a social-political and religious movement in Byzantine in VIIIX centuries, against the cult of icons. Iconoclasm is the belief that there should not be religious pictures or sacred images or religious monuments because they are seen as a form of idolatry. Iconoclasm condemned the making of any lifeless image (e.g. painting or statue) that was intended to represent Jesus or one of the saints. For iconoclasts, the only real religious image must be an exact likeness of the prototype of the same substance- which they considered impossible, seeing wood and paint as empty of spirit and life. Thus for iconoclasts the only true (and permitted) "icon" of Jesus was the Eucharist, the Body and Blood of Christ, according to Catholic doctrine. Iconodules proved different. They stated that the icon should be viewed as the visible vision of a prototype. Therefore when a person worships an icon, it is not just an image but a prototype. One of the most famous leaders of iconodules was a scholar and a philosopher John of Damascus, a follower Theodore the Studite author of canons, sacred songs, epigrams of monks life. The striving between iconoclasts and iconodules ended with the victory of the later. This period should be considered an important period of Byzantine culture development, when medieval patristics was intensively established and formed [3, p. 155156]. Besides, striving between iconoclasts and iconodules is a confrontation between two views of Greek intellectual conservative and liberal, which influenced the work of Cyril and Methodius. Unlike 68

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conservatives, who were not very educated, did not like science and considered it useless and even harmful for religion, liberals, on the contrary, highly praised education, adjusted to political situation of the time, conformed not only traditions but new achievements of culture as well. Besides they were very open-minded in religion and religious matters, they supported and lobbied the idea of using alive national language, for example, Slavic in a church liturgy. Liberals fought not only against the conservatism of Ignatius, but also maintained their independence from Rome, Western church, which supported three language heresy [3, p. 36-39]. In those times, it was considered that liturgy is legitimate only if it is in one of three languages Latin, Greek and Ancient Hebrew. This ideological fight influenced the views of Constantine and Methodius in a way that they were the first to discuss the issue of a liturgy language. They not only translated the Sacred writings into Slavic language, but also created the writing system of Slavs. Modern writing system was implemented when Christianity was adopted. Moreover Christian apostles Cyril and Methodius are considered the fathers of Slavic literatures, first Slavic scribes and founders of schools. Therefore, Christian religion became a significant source of philosophical ideas and views of Cyril and Methodius, changed their worldview, shaped their way of thinking, directed their intellectual ambitions. Their primary task was to introduce Slavs to Sacred Writing. The worldview formation of Slavic apostles was not only influenced by religion but also by world science. Byzantine science was based on Sacred Writing, on the one hand, and on ancient literature which was widely read and studied, on the other. A famous Russian historian Lebedev A. P., when analyzing Byzantine culture, identified its three primary features: first of all, close connection between science and religion. Such union guaranteed successful development of the later. In schools students studied Law, Maths, Philosophy but also religious studies. Patriarch Photios was a vivid example of such combination; he taught Humanities in Magnaura School in Constantinople. His students were not only scholars but also speakers, philosophers and mathematicians; 69

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second significant feature of Byzantine education is lack of originality. Byzantine was a heiress of Ancient Rome and Greece. Its conservative intellectuals did not strive to expand their knowledge. We find very few unique works in history, poetry, philosophy, literature. Byzantine intellectual activity demonstrated itself in rare compilations. (compilation is a collection of works based on someones achievements without personal input and data processing). The most typical phenomenon in terms of compilation were two works a famous Library written by Photios and no less famous work of Constantine Porphyrogennetos "On Ceremonies of Byzantine Court"; the third distinct feature of Byzantine science is generality of knowledge of each scholar, in other words lack of scientific specialization. However based on all features of Byzantine science we should not make a conclusion that intellectual activity of Byzantine was low. On the contrary, Byzantine was center of literature, philosophy and civilization. Young people from Italy, France, Bulgaria and the East were moving to Byzantine. Byzantine was rather educated. Schools existed not only in Constantinople, but in small towns where Bible was studied and also works of Greek and Roman scholars, poems of Homer, tragedies of Aeschylus and Sophocles. In the family of Byzantine midranking commander Lev, where Cyril and Methodius were born and raised, scholarship was highly valued. Methodius who was older followed his fathers career of a military man. For his courage and bravery the emperor appointed him the governor in one of the conquered Slavic lands. This, apparently, let him get acquainted with language, customs, culture of local population. Having served in military for 10 years and having made quite a prominent career and promoted to the level of a governor in one of Macedonian provinces, Methodius abandoned family life, became a monk and a prior not far from the city Olympus. A younger brother Constantine was distinguished for his capability to learning from early childhood. He received his education together with the young emperor Michael III in one of the best institutions in Medieval Europe, which from the beginning of
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VII century was The School of Constantinople (founded in 425). One of its lecturers was a famous scholar Leo the Mathematician, who travelled a lot and visited different monasteries, studied philosophy and math with a famous teacher Michael Psellos, spent days and nights in the library. His main achievements were in Astronomy and Geometry. Emperor Fiofiy opened for Leo the Mathematician a public school in Magnaura palace, where the scholar taught philosophy. Leo the Mathematician was awarded with honors and privileges and in 839 he received a title of an archbishop. One of his students was a famous Slavic apostle Constantine [3, p. 135]. Of one Constantines most famous teachers was Photios (future patriarch) famous writer, state and religious leader. He gathered a lot of students and turned his own house into an academy. Photios assigned his students to create a huge Lexicon based on previous editions of dictionaries, Ancient and Byzantine literature. The most prominent work of Photios is "Bibliotheka" or "Myriobiblon" which consisted of 28 chapters. It contained information about Greek grammarians, speakers, historians, philosophers, doctors. According to some scholars Byzantine period of the IX century should be called "the area of Photios" because of the influence that he had and the impact of his works on future generations. Photios achieved great success in all sciences poetry and philosophy, medicine and law, philology and rhetoric [3, p. 132133]. The state secretary and Minister of Finances himself was responsible for Constantines education. Constantine studied grammar, rhetoric, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, music, dialectics, showed interest in Homers poems, Sophocles tragedies. He paid significant attention to the works of Gregory the Theologian one of the most prominent religious leaders. It was Constantinople where the future Slavic apostle Cyril formed his mature philosophical orientations on the Christian basis. However spells of philosophical thinking appeared in his young age. Constantine, as a son of rich parents, together with his peers went hunting for hawks. As soon as he let the hawk a strong wind blew and carried the hawk away. The boy was very upset. Thinking about the consolations of life, Constantine said, "What kind of life is that when 71

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happiness soon brings grief. From now on I will follow a different path, better than this one, so that I could escape from vanity of life" [4, p. 328]. During his studies Constantine showed interest in philosophy of Plato and Aristotle. Generally speaking Platonism and Aristotelianism are two trends that had a lot of followers in Byzantine church. As stated by the Russian researcher of the history of church "Aristotle and his philosophy played the primary role in Byzantine church of those times ". This is due to the fact that church doctrines had already been set and justified. The church only had to reveal and understand them. And this is possible with the help of logical, analytical and forms of Aristotle. Any scholastic forms could be built based on Aristotles dialectics without touching upon the content of theologian doctrines. Around IX century "The father of Byzantine scholastic " John Damascus, author of "Fountain of Knowledge" showed a sample of applying Aristotles dialectics to developing religious questions. Photios was also the supporter of Aristotle. In his theologian works he followed the way introduced by Damascus. He allowed together with Aristotle the division of philosophy into natural, ethic and metaphysics [3, p. 140 141]. Constantine himself identified "philosophy as perception of Gods and peoples deeds since the person can approach the God; it teaches the person through some actions to be closer to our creator" [4, p. 330]. Young Constantine studied all sciences, learned languages, wrote poems, was the master of philosophic discussions and debates, read religious works. After finishing his studies he worked as a librarian in a cathedral of St. Sophia in Constantinople. Soon he took the gown and was appointed the first secretary of a patriarch. Later Constantine left the capital and despising the advantages of his status, secretly went to the monastery on the coast of the Black Sea. Around 851 the emperor appointed Photios a state chancellor. Constantine took his position of a philosophy lecturer. Since that time he took part in different discussions in philosophy and theology, which prove Constantines art of speaking, logic of teaching and argumentation of statement. Victories in debates with famous scholars 72

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and theologians won him wide popularity in Byzantines capital. Apparently, thats why he was called a philosopher [1, p. 2]. Since then the emperor together with Photios constantly sent Constantine and Methodius as Byzantine ambassadors to neighboring countries to strengthen and extend Christian doctrines. St. Cyril and Methodius got the right to be called Slavic apostles because they were the first to translate church books into the language understood by wide population, evangelize the culture of Slavic nations. Lead by the idea of Christian love, which they advocated, trying to save the soul of every person through Christian values, Solon brothers Constantine and Methodius carried the source of culture and spirituality, in advance of his time for many centuries. Conclusion. The formation of Slavic apostles Cyril and Methodius as cultural and spiritual leaders happened in religious, Christian, scientific, social and cultural atmosphere of Byzantine in IX century. Their outreach activities were oriented towards transformation into the Slavic world all achievements and Greek-Roman Christian thought. They recognized themselves as descendants and successors of ancient tradition. The main source of their philosophic ideas, the primary factor which formed their ideals to understand the world and the person was the Gospel Book. 1. 2. 3. List of sources and literature . / // . 2003. 13. .. : / . . : , 2005. 584 . . . , , . 842 . 1096 . / . . - : , 1998. 306 . . . / . , 1970. 73

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. / . , 2003. N. M. Rudenko PROBLEM OF NON-VIOLENCE IN CHRISTIANITY

UDC 141.7:128 (043.3)

The basic going is analysed near interpretation of concept unviolence. Philosophical essence opens up as to the major value. Principles of unviolence in christianity, different aspects of non-violent actions are examined. Keywords: unviolence, christianity, culture, civilization. Problem Statement In recent years there has been a significant increase activity in communities of different areas of knowledge (historical, philosophical, cultural, psychological, educational, social, economic, political, legal, etc.) to explore issues of morality. Scientists are increasingly focusing on the study of important aspects of human values, due to the severity of the current global challenges facing the world community: overcoming the ecological crisis, the threat of nuclear war, ethnic conflicts, the fight against hunger, disease and so on. Because of this, mankind faced the necessity of selection and interpretation of moral guidelines that would provide an opportunity civilization progress. These guidelines, which are understood by people irrespective of their social class, place of residence, religious, philosophical or other beliefs, called universal values [10, p. 6]. The concept of "value" was first introduced in the scientific circulation in the 60th years of XIX century. In philosophy and sociology of "value" is interpreted as a term used "to refer to human, social and cultural importance of certain objects and phenomena", which refers "to the proper person, the target, the semantic foundations, to the Absolute" [7, with. 798]. In studies related to the detection of substance, structure, conditions of human values, N.S. Rozov, for example, provides: own values (goodness, beauty, favor, justice, freedom, art, social equality); 74

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ideals that combining different value categories (human ideals, civil government, school, management); principles of consciousness, combining valuable category of mental schemes; specific goals (value category together with a description of the specific characteristics of objects) [9]. By values should include also "non-violence". This is due to several factors. Firstly, non-violence as a value is recognized in many religious concepts: Christianity, Jainism, Buddhism, Islam and others. Second, a similar view is held by representatives of various philosophical and ethical movements (Gandhi, M. Roerich, Tolstoy, Thoreau, Schweitzer et al.) [10]. The concept of "non-violence" not only describes a specific type of relationship between people, but also evaluates it. Often it is opposed to the notion of "evil." The word "violence" in ordinary language means compulsion to anything by force, against their will. According to A. A. Guseinov, "nonviolent rightly assume only those actions that are carried out in the space of free will and are subject to moral sanction. Specialization violence - the relationship of human wills" [3]. In other words, the meaning of violence is to block the free will of individuals and get them to the actions defined by those who exercise violence. In continuation can give a definition of this concept, for example, in the interpretation of teacher-scholars V. A. Sytarova and V. G. Maralova: "Violence a form of coercion by one group of people (individual) in relation to the other groups of people (other individual) to acquire or retain certain privileges, conquest of political, economic or any other rule" [11, p. 7]. Consequently, the resulting analytical survey of opinions of philosophers, sociologists, educators, psychologists can come to the conclusion that the concept of "violence" means coercion to force anything against the will. Modern historical trend shows that at the beginning of the XXI century in the world community there are fewer true defenders force for conflict resolution, life conflicts, as well as those who see the war and violence positive factor or manifestation of civility. It is a mistake to consider the fact that all previous history a history of 75

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violence, that in different culture of past effective last there was only one value-regulatory system, which contained basically the idea of suppression and violence, confrontation. In human history appeared many studies and theories aimed at approving nonviolence. Such valueregulatory system was based on the rejection of violence, the desire to suppress and exploit, manipulate and conquer the warring parties, in recognition of her dignity as equality of partner dialogue. The middle of I millennium BC interesting because almost simultaneously in Persia (Cyrus) and in Greece (Socrates, the Stoics), China (Confucius) and in Judea already formed by the time the unprecedented idea of universal unity, non-violence, compassion for the slave and the enemy, internal self-punishment for indecent act. The idea of non-violence was initially hidden in the concept of love. Even Democritus claimed: "Wish to be loved ... because all who fear itself all fears" [8, p. 71]. Pythagoreans sought out friendship and learning to eliminate competition and rivalry, believing that it promotes coercion and even violence against himself and inappropriate development wise. Caution, restraint, suggestion in soft expressions considered them as the main methods of education. Mayevtyka (method of birth of true knowledge), which is practiced by Socrates, also provided a complete rejection of coercion pet to a certain way of thinking and understanding. Knowledge must arise from a free art student. State of the scientific research of the problem. Wide analysis of theories of non-violence as a subject of philosophical reflection in historical terms and in the context of modern civilization calls made in the thesis V. S. Dudchenko. Author revealed, as in the Renaissance definite problem were elaborated by M. Ficino, P. Pomponazzi, D. Bruno et al. Dreams of a just ordering of social and political life expressed T. Mohr and T. Campanella. It wrote Leibniz, Locke D., D. Berkeley, D. Hume, Kant, S. Kierkegaard, Shestov, Berdyaev, Jean-Paul Sartre, Camus, H. Ortega Gasset, P. Tillich, R. Niebuhr et al. Various aspects of sociophilosophical analysis harmonious society was presented by Soviet philosophical thought (G. Batishchev, V. Belousov, A. Demichev, K. Dzhesku, V. Meshcheryakov etc.) As well as in studies of modern national philosophy (V. Andrushchenko, A. Bychko I. Bychko, V. Ivanov, S. Krimsky, M. Lukaszewicz, M. Mikhalchenko, N. A. Petruk, S. Proleiev 76

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focus Ryabchenko V., V. Tabachkovskyy, V. Shinkaruk, A. Shevchenko, A. Yatsenko et al.) [4]. So, in any culture of the past coexisted two value orientations and two value-regulatory systems: freedom and coercion. Historical socio-economic changes in society have made significant changes to the traditional understanding of nonviolence. It is associated with the names of practitioners and those who acted as a personality that prompted people of the Earth find what permanent that determines the fate of every person and of all humanity. This Emerton, Thoreau, Whitman (New England) ML King (USA), Carlyle, Vordevort, Coleridge (Old England) to Humboldt, Schelling (Germany), Rolland, Flammarion (France); Vyvekananda, Gandhi, Tagore (India), Leo Tolstoy, I. A. Ilyin, E. Trubetskoy, M. Voloshin (Russia), H. Skovoroda, P. Jurkiewicz, K. Ushinskiy, V. A. Sukhomlinsky (Ukraine) and others. According to many philosophers, scientists, writers, nonviolence is a strategy of the relationships between people in the future. History gives us examples of large Hindu, Muslim, Jewish and Christian saints and thinkers who fought against violence in their lives. It should be mentioned that there are differences in understanding non-violence from the point of view of different traditional religions: when in oriental religions (Jainism, Buddhism, Hinduism) the stress is made on creating an internal purpose not to make harm to any alive thing, Christianity sees non-violence as the ideal of social harmony [5]. The most logical decision of the non-violence problem is found in Christianity, especially in its part which is concerned with nonresistance, love to the enemy. Non-violence is introduced as the form of goodness; violence and compulsion are understood as the forms of evil. Let us consider the understanding of non-violence in Christianity. Non-violence is seen as the form which helps the self-destruction of evil, and, at the same time, as the form of strengthening spirituality and faith, which does not humiliate, but praises it. That is why the conditions of the non-violence act are patience and humbleness, which have a very important role. Patience is considered as one of the most important virtues. What is the meaning of humbleness in Christianity? Humbleness is the virtue which is opposed to pride. A humble person bears in his 77

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heart a conviction that he has nothing belonging to him, but owns only those things, which were presented by God; he can not do anything good without Gods help. So a person should set hopes for everything on Gods mercy. In the New Testament we read: "All of you, clothe yourselves with humility toward one another, because,God opposes the proud but shows favor to the humble. Humble yourselves, therefore, under Gods mighty hand, that he may lift you up in due time. Cast all your anxiety on him because he cares for you" [1, Ch. 5, v. 57]. In this respect, as in any other, the human life of the Saviour is the perfect example and model for everybody. Acceptance of humbleness as the value leads to the own nonviolent actions of a human being. At any rate there can be stated three aspects of non-violent actions, which are grounded and developed in Christianity. First of all it is peacefulness as the ability to forgive offences, to solve conflicts in a peaceful way, orientation towards the needs and motivation of the opposed side of interaction, not requiring award for good things: "So in everything, do to others what you would have them do to you" [2, Ch. 7, v. 12]. Second, a non-violent action is directly connected with the idea of non-resistance to evil with violence, because it does not eliminate it, but multiplies it, that is why it is important to restrict yourself, not to fall in anger: "But I tell you, do not resist an evil person. If anyone slaps you on the right cheek, turn to them the other cheek also. And if anyone wants to sue you and take your shirt, hand over your coat as well. If anyone forces you to go one mile, go with them two miles" [2, Ch. 5, v. 3941]. Third, a non-violent action is not limited by passive nonresistance, it is active, especially in respect of those who make evil. Non-resistance to evil is not enough, a human being must answer it with good things: "But I tell you, love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you" [2, Ch. 5, v. 44]. So, in Christianity we find the characteristics of non-violence which full enough, comparing to other religions, it differs from them by grounded and integral representation, the stress is made on the moral side. Conclusions. Nobody denies the fact that peace is better than 78

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war, non-violent forms of solving conflicts are better than compulsion. Non-violence can be understood as a specific ideological "field", a neutral territory, where the opinions of quite different people can coincide. But the culture of non-violence does not form itself on its own. It requires long and slow work on creating the conditions for its development. The culture of non-violence must be formed from early childhood, and to reach this end the process of education and upbringing must be build on the non-violent foundation [6]. A school teacher must have the ability to form life activity of children on the Christian principles of love, patience and non-violence, which can be the basis of humane pedagogics. List of sources and literature . . . 2. . . . 3. .. // . 1992 3. . 2-81. 4. .. : . ... . . . ., 2008. 20 . 5. . . . ., 1997. 372 . 6. .. .. (18831973): . . . ., 2008. 17 . 7. / . . . . , 1999. 896 . 8. : , , , // . / .-. . . . : , 2005. 9. . . , / . . . ., 1992. 10. . ., . . / . . . . ., 2000. 216 . 1. 79

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11. .., .. . ., 1990. 92 . 12. .. // : - . 1991. ., 1992. . 5673. UDC 2:316.32 L.M. Shugayeva THE MAIN TRENDS OF RELIGIOUS DEVELOPMENT IN GLOBAL WORLD The author analyzes the main tendencies of development of religions in a modern globalized world. The focus in on changes, that happened at the of the XX century beginning of the XXI century, and also on the perspectives of development of world religions. Key words: globalization, secularization. Problem Statement. Discussions around the term "globalization", its application to the whole range of social-political and economic issues, which became reality on the edge of centuries, convince us that the problem of globalization has not acquired the exact definition. As a rule it implies both universal problems and the consequences of integration processes in the form of establishment of the world market, free flow of goods and capital and also information distribution. The debates are also about information revolution and the birth in the near future of a completely new person and a global form of community megasociety, megaculture, superethnicity. In this sense we agree with a famous Russian scientist F. Kessidi, who thinks that globalization, Internet and other sources of information can contribute to revealing best or worst sides of a humans nature. But they are not able to bear a new person, that is a new person outside the specific ethnicity and the primary civilization, and also outside powerful ethnicities, history and culture of which are thousands of years old [2, p. 76]. Therefore hope for integration of cultures, that is creation of united (world) culture and even "fusion" in the near future of ethnicities (nations and peoples) in some planetary "superethnicity" or "megasociety" seems very and very problematic and questionable. Among norms and ideals, which are mostly offered as 80

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alternatives for maximization of profit and consumerism, there are norms and ideals that are related to religions. Religious norms and ideals are often considered as the least approachable out of all cultural phenomenon of the real dialogue and they come to mind since the time of attacks on the World Trade Center in New York which were in the name of militant Islamic fundamentalism. And therefore we think that religions can be considered as possible blind corners invincible barriers, which remain even after all blocks are removed on the way to intercultural dialogue. In that sense comments of V. Makbraid seem to be quite fair. He states that there is very little difference in how two religious people understand the same religion and what it means for them [5, p. 82]. Religion as the fundamental and autonomous system has always been closely connected with ethnic cultural tradition, which she defined. This tradition, formed by early religious beliefs, which relied on the experience and ideas of hundreds of generations, gave the religious norm its sacral holiness. Moreover, national-cultural tradition with its powerful conservative inertness created the power of internal firmness and opposition to external influences, which tells religion as a system (religion in a broad sense); the tradition created a protective layer, which defended the structure from destruction under the influence of external forces. And even though the definition of the term "globalization", methodological approaches towards this phenomenon are still at the stage of debates, only the blind can be opposed to globalization processes. Globalization today influences all aspects of social and cultural life, changes stable beliefs and values (not always for the best), engages representatives of different cultures in a constant dialogue, destroys boundaries among national economies, states and cultural worlds, and on the other hand, promotes drawing new borders and boundaries. Expansion of world religions, first of all Christianity and Islam, was an important step towards overcome of tribal and ethnic restraint. It furthered formation of a definite cultural sociability of nations, which follow these religions. However, neither political nor religious factors have not led to the creation of the "new world", "unitary civilization". The real basis for this was laid by economy development, and also 81

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advance of technology. Never has humanity used so many natural resources and the waste into natural environment has never been so huge. The world has never known such enormous integration of world economy, sole information system. On the other hand the humanity has never been so close to self-destruction. The modern state of civilization is completely different from all previous stages of its development. G. Kruglova emphasizes that in modern conditions the more evident is "an obvious unsteadiness of the world situation. We observe an enormous and unexpected of its results drift of meanings, beliefs about humans, society, civilization" [3, p. 12]. And such reconsideration of reality seems to be the most difficult today. State of the scientific research of the problem. In the 70-s of the XX century representatives of Christian churches, who realized the difficulty and the menace of the situation, engaged in development of their own framework of global problems. The milestone is that "catholic global studies" are based on encyclic of Pope John XXIII "Pacem in terries" (1963) (Peace on Earth), which for the first time in history was addressed not only to catholics but "all people of good will". Its biggest development "catholic global studies" received in works of Pope John Paul II, who puts forward "the principle of solidarity" as a source of inspiration "which leads to mind transformation and soul and formation of "sole Christian world" [1, p. 58]. The necessity of a detailed development of global modern problems is also mentioned by bishops of Russian Orthodox church. This is proved by the Orthodox development of ecological ethics" and "orthodox mirologia (science about the world)" in the middle of 70-s XX c., and the idea of orthodox ideologists" that "the biggest problems of humanity are spiritual" testifies about quite high positions of orthodox church in terms of production of the concept of global problems of the modern world. By introducing their concepts, the ideologists of Christianity are trying to strengthen their positions in society and expend the influence of religious ideology. The interest of theologians to global problems of modernity is determined by a whole range of serious reasons: striving to develop a generalized religious approach to important problems of human existence; an attempt to form attractive directives for religious people; an attempt to establish connection between religious views and 82

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direction of social development and therefore strengthen positions of church in society; desire to strengthen the church influence on state ideology and politics. To justify such social-political trends within Christianity in the 60s-70s XX c. we find such notions and concepts as "theology of reconciliation", "theology of peace", "new Christian ascetism", "evangelization of the world", etc. Based on such theories (concepts) in the 80-s of the XX c. a common trend "Christian global studies" was formed as a separated trend within Christian philosophy. Theologians develop their own new specific projects of solving global problems by elaborating on general thesis. Globalization implies engaging different countries and continents in common world (global) economic, social, political and cultural scope. Globalization is particularly active in the last years of the XX century, when as a result of transport and communication means development the boundaries between states and cultures became "more transparent" and religions: each person got a chance to choose religion according to own taste and not by birth. Globalization influences all aspect of social and cultural sphere, changes stable values, destroys usual lifestyle, engages representatives of different cultures in a constant dialogue, at the same time building other bounds between them. At the same time, the global cultural scope is quite far away from ideologic, axiological and normative drab existence. The cooperation of different cultures often leads to conflicts. While researching the essence of global problems we cannot talk about ideologic-political unity of different doctrines even within the limits of one country. An unusual number of parties, non-governmental organizations and movements, interested in solving these problems, develop their own solution programs and suggest social policies and perceptions in global studies, which correspond with their political goals and tasks. A significant position in this sense belongs to the so called social theology, different movements of which are trying to propose their own understanding of current (first of all global) problems. Among the most important trends are: theology of labor, peace theology, ecotheology, theology of politics, theology of culture, theology of revolution, etc. Special attention should be paid to "Christian global studies". 83

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The world-historical indicators of epochal change of paradigms are: the change of modern Eurocentrism into postmodern global polycentrism and the first time there is a possibility of human selfdestruction. We agree with the opinion of Hans Kung that with the end of World War II started the break-up of homogeneous affiliated environment [4, p. 225]. During the First World War the basis of the old system of modern values was shaken and the world ruling of European countries (new powerful forces such as the USA and the USSR appeared on the world arena), and the result of WWII was that the system was completely destroyed. The third and global and this time nuclear war would mean the end of humanity. The cultural-political indicator of epochal change of paradigms is the lost of ruling, dominating forces and values of modern European culture. Postmodernism in the light of global processes opens new possibilities for religions. Modernistic process of Enlightenment and secularization cannot be and should not be reverse. During the paradigm change religion should not become neither secularized nor clerical. Revival of religious culture is not identical to revival of churches, which all have one drawback decreasing of readiness of ministers to become responsible for the fate of humanity. Partially this happens because of liberal adaptation and the lost of own independent position, and partially because of Roman integrality of Catholic church. A modern person which follows religious beliefs, does not see the necessity to speak against modern achievements, against freedom, equality, brotherhood, against democracy, human rights and social justice. Modern religious world view and scientific views to a not so great extend exclude each other. The modern model of postmodernism can be identified as ecumenic paradigm, which purpose is to unite Christian church, peace between religions and commonwealth of nations. Transfer towards the era of transcultural multireligious postmodernism is related, first of all, to solving problems which face world religions. Changes of the last decades, which are connected to the loss of religious influence, expansion of the role of science, education, new technologies and nanotechnologies, and also society secularization lead to the spreading of ateism and religious indifference, the 84

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necessity to address the global problems of the modern world (ecological, the problem of famine, the threat of hydrogen war, etc.) could not but cause any response on the behalf of religious people and institutions. Many representatives of different religions have come to the conclusion that it is necessary to create some changes in religious life, which, on the one hand, would lead to better understanding by modern people of the mission that is implemented by those religions, and on the other wont distort the essence of this mission. This double task of adaptation to new conditions without changing of the internal essence of any religion was not brand new in the history of world religions: religions faced a similar task every time the society faced some radical changes. The task of adaptation obliged religious thinkers and theologians to separate elements of religion that should be preserved from elements that should be and have to be changed. In this context it is necessary to distinguish conservative religious movements directed at full preservation of immunity of forms of religious life which developed earlier. And movements which advocate for rather radical renewal. In the first century of the XX century many people believed that the process of secularization is inconvertible and that religiosity in the moder world is gradually fading. However, the second half of the XX century can be called a period when religions tried to win back their previous role in the life of society and state. In the 80-s of the XX century the influence of protestants in the USA has risen, with the president having to take into account religious values of his voters. At the same time in Europe the number of people who call themselves Christians as well as the number of people who regularly attend church is decreasing: in countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa the number of Christians is increasing. The collapse of "communist block" after the revolution of 1989 in Easter Europe, and the following collapse of the Soviet Union strengthened the role of religions even more since the atheist propaganda diluted. In the former Soviet republics, and todays independent states, in the countries of Eastern Europe religion is coming back to public life. However, Christianity remains the most powerful world religion which is believed in by around the third of world population. 85

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The second religion is Islam the part of which is one fifth of the worlds population. An interesting fact is that unlike Christianity the number of Islam followers has risen over the last one hundred years and is constantly increasing. This is caused by high birth rate in Muslim countries and also by newcomers. The third biggest religion is Hinduism. The reason of its growth is also in extremely high birth rate in XX century. Unlike world religions that are popular on big territories, Hinduism is concentrated in one country not including diaspora (communities that live in other countries) which appeared quite recently in Europe, America and Australia. The fourth position among powerful world religions is taken by Buddhism which unites sometimes quite different schools. Chinese ethnic religions is a special category, which is on the fifth place because of a huge population in China: it includes Taoism, the cult of local gods and the cult of ancestors. Besides, the sixth of worlds population are ateists or non religious people. It is necessary to keep in mind that the radical renewal of religious life does not necessarily mean "compromise" with the ideas and values of nonreligious, secularized world: on the contrary, it often persecutes the goal of returning to the initial essence of such religion. In the modern era, as claimed by many theologians, the church can be itself as in early Christian times: it does not need the union with the state which is connected to state control and the duty to sanctify the state policy. Now Christianity can attract people just like Christianity and not based on the fact that only Christians have full rights, such as the right to vote and occupy government positions, etc. At the same time other groups of Christians can appraise secularization, only negatively and insist that expansion of Christianity is only possible under the full support of the government for example, lessons at school, and policy of mass media. Changes which occur in different groups of Christians due to the changes in modern world can be quite different. Representatives of different religious affiliations started using modern means of communication exclusively to broadcasting religious services on TV and the Internet. Some religious groups started using new technical 86

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devices in missionary work. In Catholic church, starting with the II Vatican convocation (19621965) the new era started adjournment, which implies the dialogue with the modern world. In different groups of protestants, catholics and orthodox modern music is popularly used during the church service. Different religions show interest to contingency, to searching common source of spirituality. Christianity bore a new ecumenic movement aimed at uniting all Christians. The term fundamentalism is used to representatives of different religious movements, which try to resume the genuine grounds of religion; but such use of the term is being discussed among scientists. As a rule, fundamentalism is related to urge to radically reform society according to the principles, which are considered to be basic for each religion in this sense it counters secularization. A vivid example is Islamic revolution in Iran in 1979 which proclaimed return to genuine fundamental values of Islam and differs by warlike attitude to secularized Western world as a whole. The second example is Taliban movement in Afghanistan, some countries have groups of Wahhabi, etc. Part of the religious life of XX beginning of XXI century were example of political radicalism, which sometimes seemed like terrorism. This relates first of all to conflicts between groups of representatives of different religions (for example, between Muslims and Hindus in India, between Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland, between Buddhists and and Hindus in Sri Lanka, between Hebrews and Muslims in Palestine, between Christians and Muslims in Sudan, Bosnia and Kosovo). It is necessary to keep in mind that in religious radicalism the key role is often played not by religious differences but conflict political interests. The most terrible events of such case happened at the beginning of the XXI century on September 2, 2001 when people who called themselves Shakhids directed four airplanes on several crowded buildings. In the result of explosion about 3000 people died and two New York twin-skyscrapers (USA) of the Center of International Trade were destroyed. Later there were explosions in Madrid, London, Moscow and other cities of the world. There is constant discussion whether terrorism is born by religion 87

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or terrorists just use religious ideas and symbols to justify "in Gods name" their ideas. Most theologians of all religions firmly demure violence and terrorism. Religious conservatism does not always call for violence. Conservatism is first of all firm return to purity of religion, its sources. Such processes as secularization, governments and globalization influence the development of religions in modern world. Globalization that is including different countries and continents in unique, world (global) economic, social, political and cultural space. More often globalization is connected to the last decades of XX century, when during the development of transport and communication borders between states and cultures became more "transparent", when a huge number of people are have moved either in reality or virtually from one part of the planet to another. Together with the population religions also started "travelling": people got a chance to "choose religions according to their taste", unlike previous times when people belonged to a particular religion "by birth". Globalization touched upon all world religions. In this sense not only the dialogue with Christian churches (where controversial questions, which led to church separation, are solved only on theory and in practice it is far from solution) but also the dialogue with with other world religions will show whether Christian churches are able to react challenges of globalization. Deep devotion to ones religious beliefs and full openness to other religious traditions do not exclude one another. This is a way which leads to understanding, which allows not to create one religion but encourages real reconciliation between religions. 1. 2. 3. List of sources and literature . . / . . // . 2000. 2. . 5461. . . / . . . . 2003. 1. . 76 79. . . 88


4.

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/ . . . : , 2003. . 123. . . / . . 1990. 11. . 223229. 5. . / . . . 2003. 1. . 8086. UDK 282 T. N. Shamsutdynova-Lebediuk MODERN RELATIONS OF MEN AND WOMEN IN ISLAM In the article the analysis of modern model of mutual relations of man and woman is given in the conditions of globalization. Keywords: Islam, family, woman, marriage,khidzhab, polygamy, segregation. Problem Statement. European Christian world actually from the very beginning of Islam had a contact with representatives of this religion. Contacts were different both negative (military conquests) and positive (trade, cultural exchange). The Europeans, getting acquainted with the Muslim world, could not but pay attention to the fact that in Islam a woman is not in the same position as in European society, much different relationships are between man and woman in Islam and Christianity, particularly in sense of family relations. State of the scientific research of the problem. The literature in which this problem has been examined is quite diverse varied in its conceptual directivity. European authors writing about the problem of the relationships of a man and woman, for the most part (and it is in its own course) have a Eurocentric approach. The situation of a woman in Islam, the specifics of her relations with her husband in the context of the Muslim way of life are perceived by European authors mostly as "abnormal" and "uncivilized". A monograph of a German author M. Koch "Is there violence in Islam? The struggle for the Islamic world community" is indicative in this sense. It was written in tendentious spirit, it focuses attention on issues of violence against women in Islam. "Violence, oppression and restriction of womens rights we read in the monograph pierce through the entire history of Islam, beginning from the Prophet Muhammads sayings and until today, when Islamists 89

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try to justify similar situation" [8, p. 88]. Actually, the author tries to hold the view that the relationship of a man and a woman in Islam is a continuous chain of violence of men over women. The main material. As a contrast to Eurocentric Islamic literature in the Muslim, especially Arabian world, a lot of works of literature have appeared that try to protect traditional Islamic values, including the peculiarities of the relationship between a man and a woman, which have arised in Muslim practice. The most interesting in this context are such authors as Mohammed Zikiria Al Bardisi, Jamal ad-Din, Shahada alKhoury,Ibrahim Abdo, Shafiq Durriya and others. An issue of a place of a woman in Islamic society had been examined in generalized works of Soviet authors such as L. Klymovych, D. Yeremieyeva, T. Sayidbayeva. Analysis of the ideology and practice of Islam shows that in its doctrine, ethics and law, this religion is somehow idealizes and perpetuates patriarchal family relations. Describing the relationship between a man and a woman in a patriarchal society, sociologist A. H. Harchev rightly observes that "a man linked to a woman as a man, the owner, as a part of such of social force that put itself into a privileged position in relation to all women, jealously protecting their privileges that become habits at the end [10, p. 87]. "The mans habit of patriarchal family, in fact, has reflected and fixed in Islam". In general, Islam has put a woman in comparison with a man into unequal position. French islamologist Anry Massey, proceeding from some remarks of the Prophet Muhammad, concludes that "Koran" does not show any affection towards woman."The academician V. Bartold noticed that "Koran looks at a woman almost exclusively from the point of view of a jealous man" [3, p. 36]. Although the Eurocentric approach is felt in these reflections, they should not be so easy to ignore. If Muslim means "obedient to Allah", so a Muslim woman, according to Islamic beliefs has to be submissive not only to Allah, but also to her husband. "The feeling of superiority in relation to a woman which had been cultivating for centuries in the male half of the population had been inculcating in a boy, teenager since childhood and, vice versa, the sense of inferiority which had been implanting among the female all these things had consolidated a Muslim tradition: a man is God and the king of the family" wrote D. Yeremeyev [4, p. 169]. A popular hadith tells how Muhammad spoke of his first wife, Khadizha, 90

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"Oh, Omar (second Khaliph. T. SH. L.)the most precious thing to a man is a virtuous wife who acts according to the commandments of God, who is obedient and brings joy to her husband. When he orders she obeys, and when he is absent, she protects his rights for property and honor" [6, p. 112]. In an Islamic family a woman is considered to be an inviolable property. Based on patriarchal points of view Islam sought to restrict the activities of a woman by the sphere of household chores. Expansion of these activities outside these areas, according to many Muslim theologists would threaten to family relations, as long as a Muslim woman in the first and foremost "must be a keeper of hearth, an educator for children .... This is a natural element of the application of her innate abilities and a display of feminine nature" [16]. Some Islamic theologists say that since nature of a man and a woman is different, a certain special role in society is assigned for each of them. These roles complement each other and each of them is equally basic and necessary for the functioning of society. Some believe that the participation of a woman in social work is not required, because the only decent place for a woman is a family home. "Man and woman complement each other. Allah has defined to each of them such sphere of activity in which each of them can show their best abilities. On this basis, the sphere of a woman is a house which she has to keep so that man could find peace and quiet in it," claimed one of the ideologues of Islam Attyiya Sakr [11, p. 51]. However, most modern theologists do not oppose a womans desire to work. Muslim woman with the consent of her husband or caretaker relative may engage by social work, her own business or participate in social and political life of society, to work for the benefit of the Muslim community (umma) in permissible occupation for her. Women, in terms of Muslim theologists "can contribute to society according to their skills and interests, but on condition that they do not neglect their household duties and their activities do not threaten their dignity and modesty" [9, p. 176]. As an example, The activities Khadizha, Muhammads wife are given as an example who successfully led commercial matters and thus was a loving wife and mother. According to these points of view, women "can occupy different positions in society with which they cope better or at least no worse 91

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than men, for example, in some areas of medicine, nursing, education, social work, etc." [9, p. 176]. Today, most of the ideologists of Islam do not oppose a womans desire to engage in socially useful work. They argue that Islam respects the right of a woman to have a work creative work for the benefit of the family and society. However, taking into account the specific nature of a woman, shariat identifies several conditions that must be provided with a woman engaged in socially useful work. First, a woman should work separately from men, as since common work with men is harmful for both women and men. Secondly, a woman who wants to work must obtain permission from the hand of her husband, father, brother or guardian. Thirdly, the work should not adversely affect the physical and mental condition of a woman. Women are recommended to make their efforts in those fields in which all these things would be most effective. These fieldsa, in terms of Muslim ideologists are: a field of upbringing, education (especially maiden education), health care (especially gynecology), the production of womens apparel, consulting services in the field of psychology, design, literary activities, the call to Islam. Thus women should not take too much time outside the home. After all, it is necessary to pay attention to themselves, children and husband. Not accidentally Islamic theorists pay attention to some undesirable consequences of the situation when women are busy at work outside the home. First, they note that the crowded daily traffic problems specific to the industrial cities, adversely affect on the appearance and inner spiritual condition of women. Secondly, excessive employment at work distracts a woman from housekeeping, upbringing of children. Nevertheless a man wants to see in his wife not a first-class worker but a beloved wife and good mother of his children. Thirdly, often business relations of men and women who are members of the same office, enterprise, grow into intimate relationships, and this eventually leads to the breakdown of family ties. Fourth, the fear of losing their jobs, mothers are forced to leave their children alone without care, and this leads to all kinds of cases 92

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such as fire and others. On the other hand, children who are left without mothering care and kindness, can replenish the ranks of socially dangerous criminals. In the fifth, the woman who runs for the strained freedom, removing the man from the work heaps burdens on their shoulders. You can not say that these arguments are unfounded. Indeed, industrial development, urbanization led to a number of problems that have a negative impact on family life and parenting. And although today the Muslim women are becoming more socially active, yet many of them are focused on family values. Family, parenting, housekeeping are priorities for them. This is not the last factor of survavility and dynamism of Islamic civilization. The meaning of life of the Muslim woman by creed of Islam, is to prepare ourselves for the future eternal life. Those women who are humble with their men and perform all the requirements of faith will enter paradise, those who were not obedient would find their place in hell, where they would be punished by eternal torment. Muslim scholars defined the qualities which a woman who wants to enter the gates of heaven must have. First, she must be obedient to God and his Prophet. According to one hadith, Ibn Hibban conveyed that the Prophet said: "If a woman prayed five (required) times a day, fasted in the month of Ramadan, guarded her honor and was submissive to the husband, then on a Judgment Day it will be said: "Come to paradise through any gate" [15]. Second, she has to obey her husband unless he asks her to do something against the law of Allah. An-Nasann conveyed that when the Prophet was asked about what kind of women were considered to be the best, he replied: "Those who satisfy men and those who are obedient." Muhammad also said: "If I could order a creature to make a profound bow to someone other except Allah, I would have ordered a woman to do it for her husband. I swear on Him in Whose hands is my soul, if a woman does not fulfill her obligations as to her husband, then she does not fulfill her obligations to Allah" [13]. Thirdly, if a wife has enraged her husband, she must hurry to do everything so that he could forgive her. Ibn Ribbani mentioned in a hadith: "If a husband is angry with his wife then her prayers are not accepted and her good actions do not rise to heaven. However, when a 93

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wife does not agree to fulfil husbands desire which is not allowed by Shariat, then it is not a sin. "In another Hadith the Prophet has attributed the following words: "Those of your wives will go to paradise who treated well their husbands, gave birth to children (if they were able) and always checked her husbands needs. If a man of this woman was angry with her, she took his hand and said: "I swear by Allah, I will not go to sleep as long as you do not forgive me" [13]. Fourth, a woman has to protect the honor and property when her husband is absent. In support of this thesis the following words from Koran are used: "So decent women obey Allah and men and in their absence protect everything that God commanded them to keep" [1, 4:34]. Fifth, a woman has to be gentle with her husband and to satisfy his desires. In the Hadith, that was send by Muslim, the following words are attributed to Muhammad: "If a man calls his wife to bed and she refuses, and he goes to sleep angry, the angels curse her until morning" [15]. Sixth, one of the main functions of a woman is to give birth to children and to upbring them. Seventh, a decent woman doesnt ask for divorce for no reason. Muhammad in one of the hadith has warned women: "Any woman who asks for a divorce for no reason, wont feel the sweet heaven" [13]. Eighth, a woman should not do any harm to her husband, she shouldnt be shrewish, she shouldnt blame him, tell words which may hurt mans self-esteem. In a Hadith is mentioned that when a woman hurts a man, then his huria, that is his future wife in Heavens, says her not to make evil thing to him, because she is temporary for him and soon she will come to Heavens [1 7]. Ninth, the woman doesnt carry an additional fast without the permission of her husband. The exception here is, of course, only the fast in a month of Ramadan. Tenth, she should not tell others about the intimate side of family life. "And decent women are devout, they keep the secret that keeps Allah" says the Koran [1, 4:34]. Generally a private life, family secrets should not be the subject of gossip among friends and wives. Muhammad has said in a hadith, " He who went to his family and came out of it, closed the door and forgot, and then he tells other people what 94

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he did with his family, he made haram" [13]. In this respect, quite remarkable is the fact that in the Islamic world, as a rule, an intimate life has never been the subject of public discussion, the same thing can not be said about secular countries where a Christianity was dominated till recently. Tenth, a woman should not leave the house without her husband, even when she is going to relatives. In the eleventh, she has to realize and appreciate that her husband is good to her, and to express her gratitude to him. Hakim sends a Hadith: The Prophet said, "When I looked into Hell and saw that there are many women." He was asked: "Oh, Messanger of Allah, why were they there?" "Because they didnt understand the importance of good that did a man for them ," said the Prophet" [13]. In the twelfth, a woman should not require more than it is necessary to meet the needs for food, cloth and furniture in the house. In a Hadith it is said that man at the end of the world would lose his mind in his actions because of his wife and children. They would ask him for mundane things, and he would lose both mundane things and faith because of this search [13]. In the thirteenth, she should be well-wishing, friendly, she should not contradict, do not raise her voice at her husband even if he is somehow wrong, to try to direct him to the right way not with the help of shouting, but only with the help of the power of belief, asking for the help of Allah. In the fourteenth, the woman should also be sad when a man is far away, to enjoy his return, she has to be able to lay the table quickly, to take care of his clothes, to take available household duties to help her husband, even if the Shariat law does not require that from her. Islam, having defined an ideal of a respectable woman it has oriented men on the humane treatment towards their women. Thus, in the Koran we can read the following words: "Treat your women well as if they are your captives, they themselves have no freedom in anything that concerns them" [1, 4:39]. The Hadith, which Abu Daud gives, referring to Omar Abdullah, we can meet the following words of the Prophet: "...Woman is created from the rib and the rib is curved on top. If you want to straighten it, it will break, and if you left it alone, it will remain distorted. Treat women well" [5, p. 9]. 95

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Islam defines a set of rules that a male Muslim should follow in relations with his wife [2, pp. .76101]. First, he should find in his wife only the best traits, he has to be friendly, he has to forgive her weakness, even if she says or does something offensive (in a condition that she doesnt break the laws of Shariat). The woman is also has to be treated with compassion, especially taking into account the peculiarities of the female character. In this case, Muslim ideologists often refer to the words of the Koran: "Through all the good build your relations with your wives" [1, 4:21]. The Muslim who is well behaved with his wife, is declared an exemplary member of the religious community. "He who possesses the best traits of character has the most perfect and absolute faith, and the best of you are those who shows good attitude towards the their wives" said Muhammad according to Tirmiza [14]. Secondly, the male Muslim should keep good relations with his wife even if he finds something unpleasant in her. In this case there is also a reference to the Koran, in which it is said: "And live with them (showing them) good deeds, but if it happens so that they are unpleasant for you then Allah will put blessing in things you dont like" [1, 4:19] According to Muslim theologists, this "aiat" keeps marriage from any vagaries arising from changable feelings and inclinations. Thirdly, a Muslim man must keep the "golden mean" in relations with his wife. He doesnt have to agree with everything that she wants to do, but he can not severely restrict her desires. Fourth, he must be fair in order not to arouse in his wife her worst traits of character as, because craftiness of a woman can be boundless. Fifth, a man should not have his doubts as to the faithfulness of his wife, he shouldnt make scenes of jealousy because of different trifles. Sixth, a man shouldnt restrict his wifes personal expenses and expenses on house keeping . However, he shouldnt allow her to spend costs. Seventh, it is forbidden to keep his wife on the funds received from the sale of alcoholic drinks and credits with interest. Eighth, Islam encourages man to pay more attention to communicating with his wife and children. In particular, it is recommended for him to consume food together with the members of 96

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his family, and not separately. Ninth, the man should watch that a woman wouldnt leave home in seductive clothes. Tenth, man must be a mentor for his wife in matters of faith, he has to explain her the principles of Islam, to talk about the things that are allowed and forbidden. He can not forbid his wife to ask the scholars for getting knowledge, if he can not give them. In the eleventh, the one who has more than one wife has to divide the means and nights between them equally. If he spent the night with one wife, then the next day he should spend the night with another. To go to one of the wives out of turn is possible only in case of her illness. He can not go to her during the day without particular necessity. Not valid is a permission, which gives one of the wives who is afraid of divorce, that the time allotted for her, husband would spend with another wife. In the twelfth, a husband should not limit the rights of a wife, pointing to the fact that he is stronger. In thirteenth-Muslim man should not put his wife in an awkward situation in public when he wants to express his condemnation, make comments about her behavior or to correct any of her fault. For this, he has to find an appropriate place and time. In the fourteenth, a husband should avoid insult of family members of his wife, her family, because it might put her in an awkward situation and hurt, and as a result she can also insult her husband. In modern Islam, as it is mentioned a gender segregation persists. A set of principles that reflect the value system of the Islamic society and its position in relation to the duties and responsibilities of man has been defined [9, p. 78]. The first principle is a prohibition of free communication with men and women. It has been always condemned, except the circumstances when legal and important object is persued. For this reason, in many Muslim countries, schools, colleges, hospitals,in public transport there are special sections for women and men. Houses are planned so that the male visitor would meet a man. Women also have friends of their own, and when they come for a visit they do not meet men. The second principle is that when communicating both men and 97

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women should to stick to decency in language, attitudes and behavior. They must be reserved, to prevent any physical contact, not to look with interest at each other. The third principle does not allow a man and a woman to stay alone man if they are not married or are not in relatives. Even if the couple is officially engaged, they can talk and look at each other only in the presence of close relatives (harems) to avoid a temptation and an opportunity for bad behavior. The fourth principle is that the Muslim woman should hide her body with a strict clothing in order that everybody could understand that she is decent, modest, honest woman who does not want to demonstrate her sexuality in case. As we can see in Islam today there is an attempt to save a patriarchal model of relations between a man and a woman. According to this model a man is regarded to be as an undisputed head of the family. A woman should respect her husband and obey him. In Muslim society emancipation by European women is not perceived. There is an understanding that emancipation can lead to the destruction of traditional Muslim families, which is an important factor in this situation that helps Muslim civilization to compete with the Western world due to demographic factors. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. List of sources and literature / . . . .,1990. 727 . - . . ., 2003. 414 . . . .- ., 1918. 98 . . . : . . : , 1990. 288 . / - .. . , 2003. 283 . . . : , 1992. 297 . ( ). : , 1990. 252 . . ? 98


9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

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. /. . , 2002. 272 . . . / . . ., 1998. 240 . .. . ., 1979. 367 . ( . . , 1982.) ( ) . . /. . . : - . ., 1959. 142. [ ]. : www.islam.ru/vera/eticka -. - [ ]. : www.kcn.ru/tat_ru/religion/islam/, www.Muslim.ru. . [ ]. : www.Muslim.ru. [ ]. : www.islam.ru .. , [ ]. : www.islam.kiev.ua

14. 15. 16.


17.

UDC 1.(091):159.9:37(082) K. S. Shevchuk THE MAIN PROBLEMS OF GEORGII CHELPANOV CREATIVE WORK IN HIS KYIV PERIOD The article is dedicated to the analysis of main problems in works of Kyiv period of famous philosopher and psychologist Georgiy Chelpanov (18621936). Author investigates the scientific and pedagogical activities of G. Chelpanov and analyzes his main philosophical and psychological ideas. Key words: academic philosophy, materialism, Kantianism, perception of space, psychology, pedagogy, ethics. 99

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Actual problem of the investigation . The present situation in the culture is closely connected to process of the revival of our cultural values and development of the philosophical traditions and ideas. The philosophers pay attentions to the analysis of fundamental philosophical problems, to the reflections on the background of individual and social being, and to the revaluation of the moral norms and ideals. This kind of reflection is providing to the investigation of history of philosophy that gives a possibility to answer a lot of fundamental philosophical, cultural and social questions. The history of philosophy in Ukraine is characterized by necessity to investigate the forgotten names of the domestic philosophy. A positive aspect of this process, in particular, is making the complex studies of academic philosophy XIX early XX century [17]. But still not investigated the scientific heritage of the famous scholar and teacher Georgiy Chelpanov (1862-1936), who takes the important place in the development of domestic philosophy and psychology. For researchers of history of the academic philosophy in Ukraine the name of this scholar is very important because fifteen years of his life (18921907) he had spent in University of St. Volodymyr in Kyiv. In Kyiv, as V. Zenkovsky writes, the philosophical talent of Chelpanov had being developed on high scale [9, p. 235]. In this period of his life Chelpanov had prepared the master and doctoral papers. Also he had published the fundamental works about actual philosophical and psychological problems. These works and numerous articles in scientific journals (for example, " ", " ", " " and others) made Chelpanov acknowledged person in philosophical circles of that time. General review and analysis of publications concerning the problem of present article. Chelpanovs philosophical and psychological heritage was not the subject of integrated research. There is still no thorough analysis of his scientific and educational activities. And it is not defined his place in the development of Ukrainian science. Until recently, the articles and monographs dedicated to the analysis of Chelpanovs ideas were published occasionally. Thats why it was impossible to expect the thorough study of his philosophical and psychological ideas. In the most works about the thinker, we can find only a general review of heritage and 100

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authors are not carried its holistic analysis. The general characteristic of Chelpanovs ideas is presented in "History of Russian philosophy", written by V. V. Zenkovsky [9, p. 235238]. The autor had maden the general presentation of main aspects of Chelpanovs scientific studies and briefly considered the most important works of him "The problems of perception the space" and "Brain and soul". During the Soviet period the Chelpanovs name was concerning with a lot of mistaken assessment and perversion. In single studies dedicated to Chelpanov we can find such characteristic of his conception as "reactionary idealistic" or simply as "obsolete". So, we cannot interpret such studies seriously, because it is only fluctuations in the ideological language, but not in the study of historical facts and scientific heritage. The Chelpanovs name was recalled in negative sense as opponent of materialism and so called "materialistic psychology", which dominated in Soviet science. Only in the 6070-ies of XX century seen some growth the empirical details concerning research Chelpanovs activities (works of O. Budilova [5], . Petrovsky, . Smirnova [15] and others). But any researcher then decided not to go beyond the established ideological schemes in the assessment of Georgiy Chelpanov as a philosopher, psychologist and teacher. Modern historians of philosophy and psychology are acutely aware of the groundlessness of attempts to review the history of thought only through the prism of Marxism. Now it is a time of the holistic and comprehensive reconstruction of the past on the basis of appropriative historical and scientific methodology. We can also state the necessity of rethinking the well-known facts and finding the new ones. Some changes have taken place in the study of Chelpanovs heritage. However, most researchers refers to the analysis of the Moscow period of his life. Highlights of scientific and educational Chelpanovs activities in Moscow discussed in the article by A. Nikolskaya [10]. The author analyzes his teaching at Moscow University, its importance in the foundation of the Moscow Psychological Seminary and Psychological Institute. The Chelpanovs role in the formation of the national psychology is analyzed in the article of O. Zhdan [8]. The researcher exemines the 101

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main aspects of the life and activities of the scientist, focusing on the Moscow period of his activity. The problem of Chelpanovs belonging to Kantianism and Neokantianism is analyzed in the papers of Abramov [1] and E. Vodzinski [6]. The scientific activity of G. Chelpanov in Kyiv period was not the object of special philosophical investigation. The exception is only the paper of S. Bohdanchikov [4]. The author examines the main aspect of scientific and teaching activity of G. Chelpanov in Kyiv: the teaching at University of St. Volodymyr, the organization of Psychological Seminary, the main problems analyzed in Chelpanovs works that had being written in this period. But we dont meet the holistic analysis of important questions. The G. Chelpanovs epistemological issues in Kyiv period works are analyzed in the dissertation of V. Pluzhnik [12]. First of all, the author refers to the work "The problems of perception the space". The Chelpanovs role in incipience of Kyiv academic philosophy is analyzed in monograph of M. Tkachuk [17]. She pays attention to the investigation of teaching activity of G. Chelpanov in University of St. Volodymyr and organization of Psychological Seminary. General review of philosophical ideas of Chelpanov in Kyiv period is presented in the particular articles of psychological and philosophical teaching books (for example, V. Gorskyj [7], . Ogorodnik [11], V. Romenec [14] and others). Generally speaking, the absence of detailed investigation of Kyiv period in life of G. Chepanov causes an necessity to make the fundamental analysis of these problems. The aim of present article is fundamental investigation of Kyiv period of G. Chelpanovs academic and scientific activity, which includes the study of his pedagogical activity, analysis of the main ideas presented in his works and the role of this scientist in development of domestic academic philosophy at the end of XIXth on the beginning of XX th century. Georgiy Chelpanov was born April 16 (28), 1862 in Mariupol, Katerynoslav province. He had got the beginning level of education in the local parochial school and the middle level of education in the Mariupol gymnasium, which he had finished with the gold medal in 102

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1883. After that he entered Novorosijsk University in Odesa. In this university G. Chelpanov studied on the historical and filological faculty where the famous philosopher M. Grot was actually teaching. After finishing studies at university, G. Chelpanov had a possibility to go to Moscow for Ph.D. educational trainings. In 1890 Georgiy Chelpanov had passed the master degree exam (philosophy and psychology) and stayed the private-docent of Moscow university. In 1892 he was enrolled as staff private-docent of Kyiv University of St. Volodymyr. In 1896 G. Chelpanov had prepared the dissertation "The problem of perception the space in connection to the conception of apriority and inherency" (part I) and got the master degree of philosophy. Since 1897 G. Chelpanov was the extraordinary professor of University of St. Volodymyr in Kyiv. In 1904 after defense of doctoral dissertation "The problem of perception the space" (part II), he was nominated as ordinary professor of university. Georgiy Chelpanov is rare example of the successful combination of disjoint scientist and talented teacher. We can notice the Chelpanovs extraordinary talent if we call the names of few dozen domestic philosophers and psychologists, emerged from the his scientific "school" (for example, V. Zenkovski, G. Shpet, K. Kornilov, V. Ekzemplarski, A. Losev, O. Scherbyna and others). Mykola Berdyaev writes that "in philosophy G. Chelpanov was a teacher" [2, p. 114]. If we refer to Chelpanovs teaching activity and his pedagogical ideas, we can find the desire to improve the philosophical and psychological education. This was embodied primarily in organizing the Psychological Seminary at St. Volodymyr University. The organization of such scientific center was a very hard case at that time. But very quickly the Chelpanovs Psychological Seminary evolved into a significant scientific center of academic education. Organization of the Psychological Seminary was extremely well coordinated. For studies here it were selected the most talented students. P. Blonsky recalled about studies at Psychological Seminary: "...To enter at the seminary of Chelpanov was a hard case. He selected the students very scrupulously on the special exam. But if you have entered at the seminary, you can proudly call himself "the member of Psychological seminary". It was a manifestation of affiliation to the 103

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intellectual aristocracy" [3, p. 62]. Thanks to the organizational skills of its leader, Psychological Seminary at St. Volodymyr University played an important role in the development of national psychology. M. Tkachuk rightly notices that G. Chelpanov presented the important step in development of Kyiv academic psychology at the end of XIX th and beginning of XX th century [16, p. 238]. During the Kyiv period Georgiy Chelpanov was perceived as talented scientist. His ideas characterized by originality and actuality for philosophical and psychological science. In Chelpanovs works we can find the analysis of the achievements of domestic and European psychology and philosophy. On the basis of this he presented his own original conceptions. During this period G. Chelpanov demonstrated the extraordinary efficiency. The most important Chelpnanovs works of this period are: "The problem of perception the space", "Introduction to philosophy", "Brain and soul"). Providing the scientific investigations G. Chelpanov paid attention to the problems of different sciences: history of philosophy, logic, ethics, gnoseology, psychology and others. The positive opinion about Chelpanov we can find in works of V. Zenkovsky. He writes: "G. Chelpanov has an deep vein of necessity the philosophical argumentation" [9, p. 236]. For the complex analysis of the Chelpanovs philosophical ideas we should pay attention to his work "Introduction to the philosophy" where had presented his conception of philosophy. In Chelpanovs work we can find the aspiration to show the main types of philosophical theories, to present the history of philosophy and to analyze the actual discussions about the most important philosophical problems. The author emphasizes the importance of studying the history of philosophy, which is "a necessary part of philosophy education" [18, p. 6]. In the first chapter of "Introduction to the philosophy" Chelpanov discusses the problem of philosophy as science. He analyzes the question of the subject of philosophical reflection and gives a definition for philosophy. The ideal aim of philosophy is to be a comprehension of the world which can be the background for comprehension of the life. The difference between the philosophy and science, oh Chelpanovs opinion, can be presented in method of cognition or in subject. 104

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G. Chelpanov states that he cannot agree with idealistic philosophers (such as J. Fichte, F. Schelling) who opposed the philosophical and scientific knowledge. He was inclined to the position of his contemporaries, which based on the belief that the philosophy behind the method of learning was not different from science. The difference between the philosophy and science, according to G. Chelpanov, we find in their subjects. "The subject of philosophy, he writes, is the study of all reality, all existing" [18, p. 6]. No science does not raise questions about the world in general, each study examines only part of the universe. Study of the nature of the universe has a philosophy that studies the whole reality, not just some of its areas. In this sense philosophy should remains the system of sciences. Reproach toward philosophy about her "inaccurate" and incompleteness are false, because the science itself is not complete; what we know for certain is only a fraction of what we would need to know. Reflection on the nature of philosophical investigations was closely connected to the other problems that were presented in Chelpanovs works of Kyiv period. The important place in his scientific heritage took the critical analysis of Kantian philosophy. Few Chelpanovs works (for example, "The study of Kant about apriority", "The review of books about transcendental aesthetics of Kant" (1870 1900), "Philosophy of Kant") were dedicated to these problems. The importance of the appeal to the philosophy of German philosopher, according to G. Chelpanov, not only because it had a significant impact on the philosophy of the nineteenth century in general, but also in the fact that "...the most important modern philosophical doctrine permeated the views of Kant" [22, p. 1]. Chelpanovs appeal the Kantian philosophy caused quite common in modern literature description of his own philosophy as Kantianism [6]. However, defining philosophy of G. Chelpanov as a kind of Kantianism is not quite adequate. Chelpanov never considered himself a Kantian or Neokantian. Nevertheless, in the works of thinker we can see deep involvement in the problems of Kantian philosophy. Chelpanov writes that "unlikely in the modern philosophy was another philosopher who has had a greater impact on next philosophers than Kant, yet hardly any philosophical doctrine distorted more than the Kantian" [22, p. 17]. In the "Philosophy of Kant" Chelpanov analyzed three Kantian 105

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"critiques": "Critique of pure reason", "Critique of practical reason" and "Critique of judgment". He also investigated in details the theoretical and moral philosophy, aesthetics and Kantian conception of expediency. His general intention was to overcome the mistaken interpretations of Kantian philosophy. The main merit of Kant, according to G. Chelpanov, was that he attached particular importance epistemology. We should say that Chelpanov himself paid the great attention to the problems of gnoseology during the Kyiv period. The theory of cognition can be seen as one of important topics presented in the Chelpanovs works. A special place in philosophical studies of Chelpanov takes the problem of perception of the space. In his work "The problem of perception the space in connection to the conception of apriority and inherency" he analyzed the previous conception of perception the space (for example, geometry of M. Lobachevski, G. Riman). This analysis gave him a possibility to develop his own conception. The first part of the Chelpanovs study is devoted to the idea of space "in terms of psychology" [21, p. 2]. Chelpanov concludes that the idea of space consists of several senses: a visual, tactile and muscular [21, p. 140]. It should be noted that the experimental study of W. Wundt confirms this thesis. German scholar argued that the perception of spatial relations is definitely using the so-called muscular sensations associated with accommodative muscle activity and eye muscles. Given that feelings are part of the representation space (visual, tactile) are subjective, G. Chelpanov concludes that "the representation of space also must be subjective" [21, p. 154]. Hence, the space appears to have fully determined the subject of perception. Having examined the problem of space perception from a psychological point of view, G. Chelpanov focuses on the epistemological aspect of the problem the question of the origin of our perception. The basic idea of the study the space from the perspective of the theory of perception Chelpanov presented in the second part of his work "The problem of the perception of space" as well as several articles, in particular, review the latest literature on the theory of cognition in 1900, works "Kants doctrine of a priori" and work "Apriority and empiricism" which comes in response to accusations of professor A. Gilyarov put forward in his review of the second part of 106

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"Problems of the perception of space". It should be noted that, considering the problem of the perception of space in the epistemological sense, Chelpanov defends aprioristic theory. So he considers incorrect statement of empiricism, which is based on idea that our mind is a reflection of the objective world events. According to G. Chelpanov, in perception of the world our minds play "... an active role, it provides some form that it takes" [21, p. 34]. The main property of space, according to the Chelpanov, is overlaying. The term "overlaying" refers to the fact that all phenomena as elements of space relations are laying in some order to each other. Keeping all elements simultaneously, consciousness can easily move from one to another in different directions. The second important problem Chelpanov had being interested during Kyiv period was materialism. His reference to such problems was connected with intention to show the psychology as autonomy science. Chelpanovs views on materialism are presented in his work "The brain and soul". He states that materialistic theory is metaphysical. Its essence lies in the recognition that only substance (or material atoms) is the true reality of the world. These atoms occupy a certain amount of space and have the ability to move from them and create a whole reality. The analysis of main ideas concerning the materialistic conception gives for Chelpanov a possibility to state that argumentation of materialism based on statement about existence of substance as fundamental principle of reality. In other words this statement can be presented as "any existence has only material nature, the existence of substance surely than any other kind of existence". In Chelpanovs opinion, "if possible to doubt the existence of some sort, it seems especially dubious existence of substance that consciousness exists it is directly obvious, and that substance exists, it must prove" [20, p. 163]. The important role in the work of Georgiy Chelpanov during Kyiv period played developing the ethical issues [19]. He stated that ethics often uses empirical method of understanding the reality. It uses the deductive method, displays its own position, points to the relationship between things and proves this relationship through experience. However, the possibility of an empirical scientist condemns 107

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withdrawal of ethics. Chelpanov argued that empirically derived ethics more like hygiene, which can not offer us an ideal which wore to the nature of binding, i.e., forced to perform it. Ethics should have such obligation. Naturally derived moral principles will never cause us to desire their performance. Overall, the analysis of ethical theories and exposition of his views, which is reflected in the writings of G. Chelpanov, is closely linked with his philosophical views. Considering this or that ethical doctrine, he aspired to objectivity in the presentation of its nature, conducted in touch with the views of past and contemporary thinkers. Chelpanovs research interests during Kyiv period is not limited to the analysis of philosophical and ethical conceptions and outlining their arguments on these issues, are also important for him the developing theoretical and experimental psychology. Proclaiming the fundamental principles of his psychology, G. Chelpanov argues that mental phenomena can become known only through introspection or inner experience. Introspection is the foundation of psychology. Objective observation of mental processes must be converted to a subjective ground. Sources of psychological knowledge scientists call living large human communities the subject of the "psychology of ethos" as well as the history of mankind, the development of language, the results of artistic activity. In addition, the thinker adds to this individual human development, abnormal mental phenomena, mental life of animals. In his opinion, this whole huge objective material becomes accessible to man through introspection. It aims to cognition, feelings and will. It should be noted that in the work of G. Chelpanov reflected the contradictions in the process of separation of psychology independent branch of knowledge from the depths of philosophy. In his works, he points to the necessity of distinguishing proper psychological approach of epistemological (philosophical), department of psychology from philosophy into an independent science. In the psychological approach Chelpanov meant nominated by W. Wundt program development of psychology as an independent science. The essence of this program was to bring together introspective interpretation of consciousness by Descartes and John Locke, the principle of association as a passive mechanism functioning minds on 108

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the one hand, an alternative to German philosophy put forward by Leibniz, H. Wolf, J. Kant and Herbart J. in the doctrine of apperception as an internal activity of consciousness on the second, and the positivist interpretation of the subject matter of psychology as a science of the "direct experience" on the third. The evolution of Chelpanovs scientific views in psychology reflected all the changes in historical development and establishment of this scientific sphere of the 19th 20th century. As an "empirical" psychologist G. Chelpanov originally promoted Wundts experiment, then data of psychologists from Warburg that have focused on inner activity and extra-sensual thinking. Ultimately, the main task of the psychologist he saw to "cleanse" the consciousness of the impact of incentives used in the experiments (physical and verbal) in order to contemplate the original essence, that its form. Generally, Chelpanovs philosophical and psychological ideas holds a significant place in the domestic philosophy of 19th20th century. In his works thinker develops problems related to the various branches of the humanities: philosophy, psychology, ethics, logic, etc. Kyiv period of Georgiy Chelpanovs scientific activity plays an important role in the his biography. At this time is its emergence as a scholar and teacher. In Kyiv, he was working on a number of fundamental problems that were developed by him later in Moscow. Consideration of the main issues over which Georgiy Chelpanov worked in Kyiv period of his life, can open up new aspects of his philosophical and psychological heritage, the role of the thinker in the development of the Kyiv academic philosophy, more fully reveal the peculiarities of national historical and philosophical process of the late XIX early XX century. 1. 2. 3. 4. List of sources and literature . . / . . // . . 1998. 1. . 5869. . . / . . . ., 1990. 336 . . . / . . . . : , 1971. 176 . . . - 109

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5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

. . / C. . // . . 1998. 2. . 126135. . . / . . . . : , 1972. 376 . . . -. / . . . .: - . -, 1966. 80 . . . : / . . . . : . , 1997. 287 c. . . / . . // . 14. . 1994. 2. . 7281. . . : 2- . / . . . .: -, 1989. . 2. 544 c. . . / . . // . 14. . 1982. 3. . 3441. . ., . . / . . , . . . . : . , 1999. 471 . . . " ": . . / . . . ., 1998. 180 . . . . . / . . // . 1982. 5. . 3641. . . -. . / . . . . : , 1995. 614 . . . / . . . . : ,1975. 382 . . : / . // . . 1999. 12. . 213241. . -. .: / . . . : 110


18. 19. 20.

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21. 22.

, 2000. 248 . . . / . . . ., 1905. 584 . . . / . . . .: . . . , 1897. 148 . . . . ( , 18981899 .) / . . . .: . . . , 1900. 368 . . . / . . . . . ., 1896. 387 . . . / . . // . 1901. 3. . 123.

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UDC 371.322 V. V. Verbets PHENOMENOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES OF STUDENTS SPIRITUAL WORLD The article analyses the multi-valued problems of the system forming of the spiritual values in the youth environment together with the problems of requirements, necessities and social orientation of students. The process of the escalation of the social and the psychological discomfort in the students environment is represented together with the results of the social monitoring of the youth public activity. Key words: spiritual treasures, requirements, necessities, orientation, spiritual and creative potential, social monitoring, public activity. Statement of the problem. The transformation in the society of traditional structures of social, psychological, spiritual and cultural nature of the problem actualizes study requests, orientations and attitudes of students. We have to note that in the youth environment its occurring the search for a new meaning in life, emerging new needs, interests, mutating motivations intellectual, vocational qualification and socio-cultural activities. In addition with the positive trends free choice of values, effective implementation of socio-artistic, moral and ethical activity and penetration into new socio-cultural space and time the spiritual potential of youth is characterized by crises, instability, inconsistency, lack of newly humanistic, socio-cultural, normative behavior and escalation social and psychological tensions. Incertitude of youth in choosing of the adequate guidelines of the socio-cultural activities, and in some cases, marginality, is resulting in the destruction of spirituality, enhance of pragmatic and cynical attitude toward social and cultural values, moral and ethical life. In youth there is the destruction of the social and cultural traditions, moral and ethical values, lost faith in the justice and humanity of the society, which leads to frustration of outlook and distracts of the youth from social 112

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orientation in life. However, depending on the nature of interaction of subjective and objective factors, purposefulness influence regulatory functions of communication structures, and spiritual potential there may be appropriate (or inappropriate) social and socio-cultural situation with established and socially significant regulatory models. The purpose of this article is to analyze the problems of destruction of spirituality in students and to identify the factors that inhibit the reformation of the social institutions in the fields of education, culture and so on. Level of the development of the problem . Problems of students are represented in the works of M. F. Holovatyi, V. A. Holovenko, E. M. Libanova, L. Sokuryanskaya, S. A. Schudlo, O. O. Yaremenko [4]. It should be noted that the revival of the national consciousness in the Ukrainian society contradictory effects on the moral and psychological atmosphere among the students on the one hand, young people quickly and clearly directing their own interests to the spiritual values of the Ukrainian national culture, on the other hand, some students respond to these processes as a violation of their sovereignty in choosing of the spiritual values, which is especially evident in the marginal spiritual consumption and creation of pseudo normative, and forming of inadequate moral and ethical core requests, needs, interests, guidelines and passive participation in social, creative, socio-cultural, spiritual and creative processes of nowadays. Usually the objective and subjective factors that determine the formation of spiritual culture are interrelated, as a person, changing moral and ethical, social and cultural environment, and modifies himself, deepens his or her horizons, develops the abilities, needs and interests, implementing the gained knowledge and skills in the dynamic social time and space. Meanwhile, todays culture as a social institution represents the level of requests, needs and interests of individuals, social groups and communities in the context of their harassment and initiation of human values in a particular historical situation. However, culture also reflects behaviors, awareness and activity in specific areas of public life work, home, art culture, leisure, etc. [9, p. 292]. Therefore, the interaction between the society and culture must be organic, holistic and have the interconnected nature. 113

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However culture reflects the spiritual life, which is implemented in the field of education, spiritual production, creation and representation of the scientific ideas, theories and concepts through social institutions that provides purposeful activity of the integrated social subsystem. So the spiritual culture is caused by the set of philosophical, political, legal, moral and ethical values of the humanity crested during the spiritual and creative activity. Various kinds of the spiritual culture are associated with the manifold human activities, their abilities, needs and interests. After all, the spiritual life of the individual it is not only the reflection of the dominant social relations, but also the way of the creative activity that is fully manifested in the formation of the spiritual and creative potential. Usually needs, interests and goals of personal life in such circumstances are filled with the new content and therefore the most responsible human nature, taking into account her or his personality, inclinations and abilities. On the other hand, the values of spiritual culture synthesized past and present, public and private, represented the established and new, and is being implemented in the life of the historical development of the subject. However, cultural values represent the unity of material and spiritual levels of their involvement in the livelihoods of personality, being an indicator of a stakeholder. Spiritual culture is also a set of material and spiritual heritage, reflecting historically achieved level of development of the society, embodied in the spiritual production. Notably, spiritual production is the certain way, organized, structured and institutionalized special form of the spiritual activity of individuals, which is focused on the creation of social and cultural relations in the form of ideas, concepts, images, theories and valuenormative samples on the basis of the acquired or inherited status of appropriate implementation of social and creative roles as expected and predicted behavior in a particular social space and social time [8, p. 281]. On the other hand, spiritual production is a complex system of personal-social activities, which represented the social, scientific, spiritual and cultural creativity aimed at the creation and assimilation of human and Christian values in the moral and ethical education of the individual. So, psychologist M. V. Savchyn observes that "spirituality is the highest point of human individuality. It 114

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represents the main goal of life and human development. It is in the spiritual sense to the whole human family and the magnified" [6, p. 81]. The scientist also believes that spirituality is essential to achieving human happiness. Meanwhile, in a philosophical interpretation spirituality a category which is manifested through transcendence and substantiality and represents synthesizing substance. However, the defining characteristic of spirituality in the rational interpretation is thinking, consciousness, the irrational will feeling, imagination, and intuition. It is important to note that today it is updated "the education of the soul, which must make its share to change the rationally pragmatic priorities and self-destruction" [7, p. 150]. It should be noted that the previous accumulated values (scientific theory, spiritual values, moral and artistic standards) are usually discarded and replaced by new ones that meet the needs of time. On the other hand, the evaluation of the objective and the spiritual world is through the prism of artistic and aesthetic development of social phenomena of the social communities. In the development of the spiritual culture is a principle of continuity enriching of new generations by the social and spiritual achievements of the previous generations, with their historical and social experience. Each new generation of selectively perceive heritage, learns values that best fit the needs of the time, new moral and aesthetic requirements. On the other hand, each generation brings its own values, which reflect the past and the present. Each generation also deferrers from others with the different attitude to cultural values. However, this contradiction arises from ambiguous socio-economic and spiritual relationship of different generations; it can reach the conflict forms and should be diagnosed in the parameters and configurations of contemporary socio-cultural situation. It should be noted that each generation differently assesses both past and present. In such assessments there can be traced inadequate judgments about various historical events that have the character of a bias based on age and social status. Thus, among the younger generation as a result of difficulties with employment, lack of adequate funds it is emerging the socio-psychological tension that has manifested in the uncertainty of the future, indifference and inertia on the one 115

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hand, and aggressiveness judgments and behavior on the other. As a result the attitude of young people to the spiritual heritage of previous generations becomes controversial. Among the younger generation it is created the own field values that are dynamic, pragmatic and focused. However, due to lack of proper social experience and ambiguous current socio-political and socio-economic situation among the younger generation the are commonplace sentiments of the "exile" character to travel abroad and "inferiority" to be a socio-demographic groups present. Older generations perceive spiritual heritage as a result of hard work and making cherished dreams and identify these values with the own youth. The younger generation, however, sees socially significant values cautiously and critically. On the basis of values, spreading among young people, its formed the way of spiritual life philosophy, values and normative behaviors of the ethical ways of knowing, communication and entertainment. The way of the spiritual life involves a close relationship between the conditions of life and types of communication, social interaction and psychological stereotyping perception and understanding of wind values. Meanwhile, a person not only learns the spiritual values, but also creates a perception in the new values. Dissatisfaction with existing state-level intellectual production may cause stimulation to improvement. The process of harmonization or mutual negation of values with the existing mechanism creates incentives for the creation of new, matching needs and interests of young people. Sociological studies show that the way of the spiritual awareness, thinking style, values for plants has the social and the psychological significance and becomes a powerful influence potential for other communities. Therefore, as a result of identifying the elements of the spiritual potential of society influence the development of the personality, on deepening its needs and interests. Identification of the conflicts and effective overcoming of the negative phenomena in the field of intellectual production and consumption can be monitored through the social process of production, storage, printing, distribution and perception of cultural values. This will establish the diagnosis of forming requests, needs and interests of young people and promptly 116

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introduce corrections in the processes of the social and the cultural creativity of youth. Therefore, analysis of the effectiveness of the mechanisms of identification and internalization in the realm of spiritual knowledge and communication is an important problem of the spiritual and creative potential. It should be noted that spirituality is the manifestation of youth in social activity, initiative, creativity and effectiveness and it is represented in major areas of public life, as implemented in new forms and types of social practice. Note that social activity is based on the values of the motives and activities of the individual and is realized in the implementation of the social objectives. At the same time social activity is correlated with individual needs, interests and goals of social communities and groups. In general, the social activity of the youth generation depends on the historical and the social situation, socioprofessional status of the individual, creative possibilities and needs of the dominant values. Spiritual creativity of young people extremely complex and ambiguous phenomenon today. After producing new spiritual values, making full use of the historical experience of the previous generations, to realize natural and socially acquired creativity young people are not fully capable of because controversial socio-economic and sociocultural conditions inhibit this process. Quite complex relationship observed between the creative and social activity, which in its turn is based on the relationship between necessity and freedom in the life of the youth. Accordingly, the results are the connecting link not only between the needs of the society and young people, but also between the existing object-cultural environment, new ideas and newly established paradigms of the social and the educational nature. It is extremely difficult and controversial process. After all, stereotypes, values produce marginality in the transition of the social development. Rising spiritual needs of young people is the need of the dynamic development of the socio-cultural sector and harmonization of spiritual life in order to intensify the subject of creativity. However, there is a need dissemination of spiritual and creative activities, their exchange and mutual enrichment. It is worth noting that social activity, creative assimilation of spiritual values and spiritual needs are closely interrelated and interdependent. 117

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When analyzing lifestyles through empirical criteria that it reflects, it is important to consider the overall and single, common for young people, which can vary by age, occupation, as well as individual sociopsychological characteristics. In general, the relationship of spiritual culture and lifestyle should be considered not only as the unity of life and living conditions, but also as a process of active absorption of youth spiritual values, enhance the level of their national identity and ownership of the political, moral, ethical, social and psychological culture to some extent represented in the plane of social activity young people. At the same time social activity as a measure of spiritual personality has characteristics of initiative, creative impact, scale and effectiveness in key areas of the public life. Social activity is expressed as units of value and motivation activities, which enable the social goals. It is extremely important that the social activity, its spiritual motives traceable ties with the needs, interests and goals of different social groups. It is worth considering the interaction between the creative and the social activity, taking into account the relation between necessity and freedom in the life of the youth. On the one hand, the man turns the world through understanding of the natural and the social needs. On the other hand, the transformation of the natural and social environment is not always focused and adequately to major trends and patterns of social development. The result of this activity is the connecting link not only between the needs of society and young people, but also between the existing socio-cultural environment and new ideas that are translated into specific ideas and plans. From that, what forms it will be sold in lifestyle of the material and spiritual needs, as new will meet the demands of practice, it will depend on the degree of activity of the subject of creativity, and hence its spirituality. Today it is important to understand that in the educational process rationally grounded contexts of culture and knowledge systems coexist in unity and contradictions, as well as irrational, spontaneous, intuitive fancy shapes [7, p. 8]. Meanwhile irrational is essential work, because intuition, inner contemplation, inspiration, fantasy of the personality is revealed as a "pure" entity exempt from rational forms of knowledge that are the sure sign of the truth and the essence of life [10, p. 159]. Therefore, observing and 118

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interpreting the results of ones activities, the young man finds himself in the situation of the inadequate expectation that he or she can not overcome, based on the obtained in the existing education system and the cultural baggage of knowledge and skills. Therefore, education has always focused on rational ways of understanding of the reality, mastery of the knowledge system should also focus on the layers being irrational, and ignoring that leads to the inadequate theoretical schemes, which form the false idea ofthe essence of life of youth and phenomenology of their spiritual and creative potential. However, in modern scientific literature it is represented two major trends for the prospects of the spiritual and the creative potential [3, p. 30]. The first approach has the character of "evolutionism" (continuous, gradual development), that the presence of certain progressive tendencies and production assurance versatile the development of personality and full of inexhaustible potential students. This approach has the character euphoria estimation of problems and present attempts to predict the future of the synergetic point of view, that self-sufficiency and enigma, existence and transcendence, innovation and development the natural spiritual and creative potential of students [2, p. 230]. The second, in contrast, finds the dominant the idea of futility, crisis growth trends among young people, the accumulation of negative "conflict" potential, escalation of psychosocial stress, anomie, benevolence, deepening rice conformism, cynicism, inadequate ambition. This approach has the signs of the pessimistic nature, as today, according to the experts in the field of the education and training, is increasing polarization of ethical guidelines in different regions of the country, increasing interdependence between different social groups in the society and building potential for conflict, there is expansion in the representation of surrogate samples of popular culture so is escalating aggression, indifference and uncertainty in the ability of their own spiritual and creative potential [5, p. 13]. The results of the survey conducted by the Institute for Social Research of Rivne State University of Humanities May 2011 among the students are becoming more common sentiment: indifference 41.9%, the best hope for change 28.5%, disappointment - 23.6% certainty only 5.9%. Meanwhile, the processes of "burnout", "deprofessionalization" and the accumulation of "museum image" in the consciousness of 119

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different generations also determine the inadequacy of public perceptions of innovation and produce "escape" from the realities of the life in the cozy world of personal, but misconceptions about the present. Especially it is a manifestation among students and faculty body. After the fall of motivation training, employment difficulties, inadequate wages by level of education; professional qualifications are transformed in the plane of populism on the primacy of patriotism, national pride and generate destructive self-identification. The situation as a challenge is transforming into the situation of aggression under the reorientation of ones personal assessment of "positive" to "negative". To this situation is added the growing noncommunicativeness, mental isolation and alienation of a social cohort from another. It is therefore important to carry out preventive measures to create the positive social and psychological climate at school, preventing mental overload and removing excessive mental stress. The results of the polls conducted by the author of the scientific article, show the increase in youth the aggressive mood of uncertainty propagation, care and social inferiority. On the other hand, considering the potential of the educational institution, it is worth noting that the university is intensifying the social and the educational interaction of the educational process, increasing its innovative capabilities, expanding social field of spiritual and creative activity of students. We believe that the further and the future research can be carried out in two ways: The first is to integrate the local generalizations, based on the empirical material gained in the pedagogical, psychological and cultural studies. This may be the analysis of the process of deepening spirituality, spreading moral and ethical values in youth, optimizing the educational potential of the youth public organizations, analyzing the problems of leisure and filling them with socially significant types of creativity. The second can be realized by differentiating of certain areas of forming phenomenon spiritual potential of students, that surely must be based not only on the empirical research in the field of pedagogy, but also with the involvement of other scientific fields. The long-term problems of analysis include formulating of the appropriate pedagogical, psychological, organizational, leisure culture and study conditions of deepening of the spiritual motivation activities for students in science, culture, education and training [1, p. 65]. In the future 120

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it will not only expand the research field and to develop a conceptual framework of spiritual potential students, but also will focus the research interest concerning the sufficiency of the certain provisions of the concept of modern science. Of course, certain areas do not exclude but rather complement and mutually reinforce various conceptual rules of the scientific theory. It is important to realize that today it is extremely important not only to make the accumulation of the empirical material, but to rethink it theoretically and to go on the conceptual synthesis. In the present special responsibility falls on the education system which, based on the requirements of modernity, should maintain general civilization imperatives that structure reality, transforming the world of chaos into the organized "space", to fill the culture with the ideological orientations. Finally, it should be noted that without analyzing of different aspects allowed accumulated theoretical baggage and without the experimental search for the new conceptual models of the theoretical constructs there can be no question of building of the fundamentals of the scientific theory. Given the current state of youth ambiguous socio-cultural influence on her educational orientation process in the state should be aiming for the spiritual enrichment and effective creative work of the personality, revealing his or her abilities on the basis of self-realization and self-disclosure, creating conditions for others. Not only the level of the education system, namely the quality, character and orientation is relevant in terms of solving the problems of modern culture, spirituality identity in the society that has an undeniable importance for overcoming the contradictions among the youth. 1. List of sources and literature . . / . . // : . . : - " ", 2009. . 6569. . . - / . . / : : : . . . - " ". . VI. , 2002. . 230233. 121

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3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

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. . : / . . . : - , 2005. 383 .; . . / . . . : , 2006. 304 . ., . . . : , 2010. 168 . . . : / : . -, 2005. 134 c. . . . / . . . -, 2001. 203 . . : / . . : , 2004. 348 . . . . : . , 1998. . 681 [736 c.]. . ., 1983. 840 c. . . // .. . . : : -, 1998. 317 .

UDC 37(091) 18/19 N. B. Dzuibyshyna REFORMATION OF EDUCATION IN THE CONTEXT OF CZECH NATIONAL REVIVAL (THE END OF 18TH THE FIRST HALF OF 19TH CENTURY) The article examines the main trends in educational and reform process in the Czech lands in the late XVIII-XIX centuries, and analyzes activity of the first experimental school. Keywords: school reform, the Czech national revival, national schools. 122

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Statement of the problem. Reform of the educational system of the independent Ukrainian state that at the present stage outlined Ukraines integration into the European educational space, requires scientific study of the best achievements of world pedagogy. Development of human values in education can enrich Ukraine analogies with the reform movement in foreign pedagogy, including Czech. The pedagogically reforming process in the Czech lands belonging to different chronological periods of their origin. Some traditions have many centuries, the other half a century or even a few decades. The purpose of this article is to review the main trends pedagogically-reform process in the Czech lands in the XVIII XIX centuries. A series of school reforms that were carried out in the second half of XVIII century during the reign of Maria Theresa and Joseph II, has covered all stages of education. Due to the school reform was introduced compulsory education for children. Teachers launched a range of productive ideas, namely: individual approach to students, disciplining, moral and ethical education, the combination of productive labor with instruction in schools, the use of inductive learning method, the principle of visibility, internal differentiation pedagogical work, the concept of employment (industrial) education as a basis for the formation of the human person [1, p. 8]. Historical Czech and Austrian lands at the end of Joseph II era belonged to the territory with a high level of education in Central Europe, and if here in after evolved reform would have all the prerequisites for building civil society through gradual evolution. But this took time, during which ideas of Joseph ripe and would appropriately "overcooked" primarily in petty environment. Only thus educational efforts of officials of Emperor Joseph II could gain a foothold on the broad social basis and gradually overcome the resistance of the supporters of the old order. But time has not helped this [9, p. 140]. Quite contradictory impact on society in general and education in particular areas in the Habsburg monarchy had Great French Revolution, which gave impetus to the revolutionary movement, but 123

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interrupted sequence of reforms and to some extent stopped her promising spurt. However, despite the coagulation process of reforms, national spokesman of general ideas presented Czech intellectuals who influenced national consciousness linking itself with the interests of national cultural movement that sprang. Certainly, it was for the future of Czech culture and national identity of far going consequences was the major impetus for the reformist influences on education, especially in defense of Germanization. Since the beginning of the nineteenth century there was a series of processes that influence the shape of school in the Czech lands, including the evolution of didactics (content and methods) from the utilitarian teaching philanthropism it is the content of education, built on the text of Scripture, to the new curriculum. So, gradually develops Czech national public school instruction. In the process of the Czech national revival that began in the late XVIII century and lasted until the 60-ies of the XIX century, attempts intellectuals who played a crucial role in it and which historians have traditionally called "adherents" to raise the level of the Czech language and create a full Czech national culture involuntarily acquired political overtones. Obviously, among Czech "adherents" prominently belonged patriotic teaching. Thanks to them, people learned to read, sing, recite, put theatrical performances and quickly filled up the ranks of the new intelligentsia [7, p. 13]. In modernized, democratized Czech national school teachers, "adherents" saw great patriotic testament future free Czechoslovak state. As noted in 1864 by famous Czech historian and educator F. Palacky, high moral potential adherents became moral testament revival of the Czech nation and its independent state [2, p. 94]. However, in the first half of the nineteenth century the situation for the revival of the Czech national school was unfavorable. Austrian absolutism associated with the name of Prince Karl Meternih became closely monitor all attempts to revive Czech national identity and effectively suppressed them. Throughout the first half of the nineteenth century Austrian authorities feared movement. Thoroughly pursued primarily political 124

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activity, however, as the national movement until 1848 in the cultural and public spheres treated largely tolerated, and only the government carefully monitored to make this work did not become political dissent or not promoted [3, p. 49]. With this in mind, Czech teachers patriots "adherents" took an active national educational activities. Thus, the famous Czech master Jan Jakub Fish (1735 1815 years) worked 27 years at a school in Rozhemitale under Prshemshin. Training and education, he believed the only way to transform society [8, p. 70]. In the history of schooling and pedagogy J. Fish represented the type of teacher era of national revival, appeared between teacher "yozefinskym" and teacher-patriot. J. Fish tried to raise the level of school work and emphasized the mandatory training. He applied effective training methods based on an understanding of educational material, rejected mechanical teaching methods and severity of punishment of students. He demanded discipline and set a regular schedule. Under the influence of pedagogical ideas J. Comenius and Rousseau did emphasis on the moral, emotional, and aesthetic education [4, p. 174]. J. Fish was the principal teacher trying to fulfill its educational mission not only to the world but also in front of his consciousness. He never ceased to believe in the educational ideals of education, even at a time when persecuted for it [6, p. 111]. Fate of Jacob John Fish is a typical example of patriotic village teacher, who was under pressure of absolutist bureaucratic state, when feudalism was decomposed, and the new middle class was not yet fully established [7, p. 114]. In the early nineteenth century was another important process in the history of Czech Education changing ideological face teaching, its transition from late educational ideals of the common good to the early liberal. In the 20 years of the nineteenth century came a new ideological orientation forces the welfare of Czech society, nation and homeland. Crystallized type of teacher-patriot who believed education and education only means of transforming society. At the heart of this teacher stood effort means mastering the Czech literary language, literature and other subjects partially awaken and develop the national consciousness, love of their homeland. Such activities of teachers have 125

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enormous social value, was one manifestation of the process of national revival, which turned into 3040 years of the nineteenth century a new phase. To such teachers belonged Jan Nepomuk Filtsik (J. Filck) (17851837), educator and author of cycle teachers Czech textbooks; priest Antonn Jaroslav Puhmayer (A. Puchmayer) (18201869), who founded in January 1, 1818 in Radovanytsi near Pilsen in the Czech Republic readership union, professor of theology at the seminary in Hradec Kralove Liboslav Joseph Ziegler (J. Ziegler) (17821846), who published textbooks of Czech and small educational books for people. Such activities conducted Shebestian Hnyevkovskyy (. Hnvkovsk) (17701847), Vojtech Neyedlyy (V. Nejedl) (17721844), Ian Neyedlyy (J. Nejedl) (17761834), Joseph Miroslav Rautenkrants (J. Rautenkranc) (17761817), Norbert Vanyek (N. Vank) (1781 1835), Joseph dandy Shumavskyy (J. umavsk) (17961857), Joseph Bachkora (J. Bakora) (18031876), Shtyepan Bachkora (. Bakora) (18131 887), Jan Formanyek (J. Formnek) (18091878) and others [8, p. 82]. In March 30, 1830 was issued instructions concerning the organization of shelters for children whose mothers work. The first shelter was established March 1, 1832, following in the Carlin at Hradcany, and in 1835 in the town of Plzen. In 1839 Ian Vlastimil Svoboda (18001844) published work "Appendix, practical, visual, comprehensive training small children to practice polishing and refining the mind of the heart starts reading, counting and drawing." Based on the principles of Comenius and German philanthropist, he developed a technique of pre-school and primary education. At the end of 40 years of the nineteenth century in several European countries ripe conditions for the creation of the modern bourgeois society. The social crisis, which in these years with varying intensity made itself felt in all the countries of Central Europe, was remarkable impetus to the national liberation movement in the Czech Republic. Led by government circles Metternich wanted to keep the old status quo and resisted any reformation. But the revolutionary movement in Austria was impossible to stop. His amplified events in Italy and especially in France. In revolutionary 1848 in the Czech lands forced tumors ministry 126

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of education to their immediate tasks include exactly the reform of secondary schools, for which, besides the Viennese Professor Exner (18021853), was invited by the German Empire, Berlin Rector Herman Bosch (18141888) which since 1849 has held the post of professor of classical philology at the University of Vienna. Within a few months of using experts was compiled "Project of gymnasiums and real schools in Austria", which although was released September 16, 1849, but was finally confirmed by the king only in 1854. This project was considered the greatest contribution to the development of Austrian secondary schools. As a result of the reform was established school realka. Unlike Theresian and post Theresian practice it was designed as a school of general education and was a school opposite. Among the first experimental schools established in the 40-ies of the XIX century, A special place is occupied by the so-called school "Budyech" (Bud), which was opened and operated under the direction of Karel Amerlinha (K. Amerling) in 18421848 years [7, p. 182]. From a historical point of view educational efforts of K. Amerlinh were important because they showed the prospects for economic and educational development. In essence, the experiments summarized by K. Amerlinh education program Ignatz Barna (1742 1791), which was published in the preface of the second volume newsletter Czech Scientific Society in 1775, which clearly emphasized: "Czech Republic, which in the past was determined by many pundits as compared with other lands of the monarchy has become a scientific field model for others, so now we need to gather unselfishly fill many gaps in our history, to develop science in their lands, take on physical and mathematical sciences, and the results of their observations and discoveries inform scientists of the world . This was for us to be compensated for what is still establishing academies and public benefit that would this was around the nation are not considered absolutely necessary" [7, p. 183]. Actually this program K. Amerlinh tried to undertake research in these areas, aimed at practical production and educational activities. To this end, he taught teachers so they know technology and methods of natural science research in chemistry, botany, geology, etc. At the end of 1839 was based society "Budyech Teaching", which contained a 127

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small house in Prague, where teachers gathered at lectures. Among the first of these educational meetings were Jan Svoboda, founders of orphanage brothers Bachkory, teacher of deaf Peter Veselskiy, the first teacher of physical culture Malypetr [7, p. 183184]. Experimental School "Budyech" was built in 1842, has four floors and an observatory. On its facade on the main picture was depicted Komensky, which teaches children the midst of nature. The school was established teacher preparatory institution. Here come the teachers who participated in the creation of teacher training institute and organization of the Czech national school, from kindergarten until high school degree. Meeting in Prague teaching "Budyechi" according to the protocols of 18481852 biennium, which are stored in the pedagogical museum named Comenius in Valdshteyn palace was the organized structure. Their members were both secular and religious educators of different status: honorary members, founding members, current members, free members, corresponding members. The main objectives of the meeting were as follows: 1) create a teachers library; 2) joint mutual education that everyone tried to share knowledge about a particular subject in which he is particularly familiar with other members; 3) collection of exhibits animate and inanimate in the vicinity of schools and organizing for school; 4) discussion of educational issues; 5) study the topography of his school places, villages, towns; 6) to create conditions for continuing education of urban and rural youth after-school age; 7) interviews reading, music, moral and civil; 8) creating shelters. To realize these objectives, adopted a resolution on the establishment of five sections, whose members specialize in the following areas: Section I Natural; Section II educational and historical; Section III Art; IV section industrial and technological; V section Antiquities. 128

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Noting that in all these sections worked K. Amerlinh [6, p. 190]. He drafted a national school, which consisted of two parts: the first outline the appointment of national schools, established general principles of learning and the means to achieve the goal in the second defined types of national schools for children aged 2 to 14 years. Kindergartens small children were divided into maternal school (2 3 years) and kindergarten for children 45 years. In the garden of the main task was visual cognition of things in nature, and that in the parent school was preceded by observation and the name of things in the house and around it. From kindergarten children moved to the "preparatory class" (ppravny), calculated for two academic years. The first was "obvious class" (nzorna), second "hereditary class" (odlkovna) for children aged 67 years. Along with reading, writing and counting children clearly acquainted with science, physical phenomena, the "Crown Class" in the study of geography and history of the region, students acquainted with plants, animals and various products. Training manuals were "World in Pictures" J. A Comenius, "Journey from home to home" Bachkory. The third stage of primary school or "school subject" (vcnice) for children aged 814 years, had six types. The first type of school "Poyemovna" (pojemovna, pojem concept) for an 8-year-olds the task of classification put things in their main features to the system of categorical thinking: classes, digits, units, families, genera, species. It studied the geography and history of the region, science and minerals, plants and animals across the country. The next type of school "Putovna" (putovna, putovat - travel) for children 89 years aimed at knowledge of the world through the comparison of information about their country to other countries (in greenhouses, for example, compared with the local alien flowers). In addition to the usual reading, writing and counting, studied chemistry, physics, geometry, science, astronomy. Next was "Naukovna" (naukovna) school for 910 year old children, which students acquainted with the world of science, the inventions and discoveries. Much attention is paid to the geography, history, homeland chemistry. School for children 1112 years "Promyselna" (prmyslna, prmysln clever) did focus on visual learning sciences (geography, paleontology). 129

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Type of school "Uchetna" or "Spravovna" (ouetna, ouet calculation, sprvovna, sprvovat control) for children 12 13 years had the task of mastering skills in business in various professions, crafts, teaching in a school laboratory. And finally, the school "Vyedovna" (vdovna, vdt know) for children 1314 years goal was to provide in-depth knowledge. Here, studied classical literature, professional works of art, production, etc. [6, p. 190195]. Note that K. Amerlinh found gifted and conscientious educators and practitioners among its supporters, through which managed to combine to practice basic items of visual learning and early geography. His pedagogical ideas he embodied in a series of handbooks for teachers. Thus, the reformist tradition of education of Comenius in the mid-nineteenth century K. Amerlinh established educational institution "Budyech" in Prague as "the peoples university education for a national teachers, industrialists, educated teachers, mothers and housewives" [6, p. 214] and formulated a program of school reform "project of national schools", based on the comprehensive nature of learning and education. During this period, the impact of JA Comenius felt in trying to reform the Czech primary school, and in the differentiation of secondary education in the fields humanities (Gymnasium) and natural-technical (real school) [5, p. 48]. Thus, during the educational reform in the context of the Czech national revival were the dominant ideological trend to change the face of teaching, its transition from late educational ideals of the common good to the early liberal; differentiation of secondary education in the fields: Humanities (school) and the Natural Science and Engineering (real school), creating experimental schools ("Budyech" K. Amerlinha). 1. List of sources and literature .. (19181938 .) : . . . . . : . 13.00.01 / . . . , 2011. 20 . 130


2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

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Idea eskoslovenskeho statu / [red. J. Kapras, B. Nmec, F. Soukup]. Praha, 1936. 184 s. Lnnikova J. esk zem v dob pedbeznov 1792 1848 / J. Lnnikova Praha, 1999. 274 s. Podlahov L. 1 +100 osobnost pedagogiky a kolstv v eskch zemch / L. Podlahov. Olomouc, 2001. 253 s. Somr M. Djiny kolstvi a pedagogiky / M. Somr a kol. Praha, 1987. 186 s. Strnad E. Didaktika koly nrodn v 19. stolet / E. Strnad. Praha, 1975. 253 s. Strnad E. Vlastenecky uitel. Dokumenty a materily k vvoji uitele v dob obrozeni / E. Strnad. Praha, 1955. 279 s. tverak V. Strun prvodce djinami pedagogiky / V. tverak, M. adsk. Praha, 1999. 98 s. Urban O. esk a slovensk djiny / O. Urban. Praha, 1955. 279 s.

UDC 373.21
O. M. Domanyuk FORMS OF WORK OF PRESCHOOL EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENT AND FAMILY ON ISSUE OF SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN IN THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF PRESCHOOL EDUCATION This article analyzes forms of preschool education and family. Forms of work used for social developmentof a child are defined in it. Key words: interaction, preschool educational establishment, family, forms of work, social development Setting and topicality of the problem. To ensure favorable living conditions and upbringing of the child, laying the foundations of a full, harmonious personality, it is necessary to strengthen and develop cooperation of a kindergarten and a family. The basic program of child development of preschool age "I am in the world" states that the modernization of pre-school education cannot touch a modern family; leave a family only to watch the changes occurring in its first link, not to 131

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affect its interests. It is very important to involve parents in the process of updating of the content, forms and methods of education for children. At this time it is topically to renew the strategy and tactics of the teachers interaction with parents, changing its vectors and accents, modernizing the subject of conversation, expanding the range of vital issues of encounters greater sincerity, openness, constructiveness, freedom from excessive formality. Unity of efforts will help to create a wide developing space favorable for the full life of the child in a family and in a preschool establishment, opening out its essential powers, becoming an active person of individual and collective activity [1, p. 325]. Condition of preschool education nowadays requires a holistic approach to the child. This explains the need for pedagogic interaction of family and pre-school establishment based on the unity of educational efforts. Educators and parents act in the interests of the child, make decisions regarding its education and training, creating appropriate conditions for it. The success of the formation of the whole person depends on how these relationships are consistent. Thanks to the close cooperation of a kindergarten with the family members around the children, an atmosphere of trust, understanding and support. is created. This means that parents and other family members should stop being passive, to act as experts or observers and begin to act with educators and children on a partnership basis with the right of initiatives and self-control. They are equal partners and allies. Parents ideas must be appreciated their advice must be followed. But thanks to good communication of educators and parents, their goodwill, impartiality in solutions of different problems, an effective interaction of pre-school family can be achieved. Analysis of recent research and publications. The idea of interdependence of social communication and family education is reflected in a number of legal documents, including the basic programs of childs development of preschool age "I am in the World", the Law of Ukraine "On Pre-school Education" and others. Thus, the Law of Ukraine "On Preschool Education" states that parents are the first teachers. They are obliged to form the foundations of physical, moral and intellectual development of the child at an early age [2, p. 4]. According to this the position of pre-school work with a family is changed. Each pre-school not only educates children but also advises 132

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parents on their education. A pre-school teacher is not only a tutor of children, but also is a parents partner in the process of education. The Researchers of school age (O. Zvereva, O. Kononko, T. Krotova, T. Ponimanska, etc.) stress that a family and a pre-school, performing specific educational functions, cannot replace each other and have to interact for the full development of a child preschooler. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the forms of kindergarten and a family and to identify those forms that are used by teachers for social development of preschool children. The main material. The preschool childhood is a unique period in the life when health is formed, development of personality is realised. At the same time, its a period during which a child is completely dependent on the surrounding adults, parents, and teachers. Therefore, improper care, behavioral, social and emotional problems that arise in this age lead to serious consequences in the future. According to the Law of Ukraine "On Preschool Education", one of the major challenges facing educators is interaction with the family to ensure the full development of the child [2, p. 3]. Therefore, an active policy for creating a common space of childs development, both in a family and in a preschoolsis necessary because today the is on the integration of family and public education, active involvement of families to the educational process is emphasized. To become this interaction possible, it is necessary to use various forms of work with families and consider their features. Study and analysis of the scientists and practicians can identify the following forms of interaction with families of preschool educational institutions: shared (parent meetings, meetings with parents, evenings of questions and answers; discussion of issues, training, joint holidays and entertainment, exhibitions, schools for parents, pedagogic council; meeting, parent conference); individual individual interviews and consultations, visits children at home, parents bringing to life of a pre-school; visual-information an exhibition of childrens work, advertising books, articles in periodicals and the Internet on the problems of family education (by T. Ponimanskf); clearly-written the parent corners, thematic stands , tablets, 133

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folders, classified ads, flyers, exhibitions, questionnaires, box offers, individual notebooks, informal letters, family newspapers, educational library, invitations, greetings, etc. (O. Kononko, T. Alekseenko); verbal parent meetings: general and in groups; pedagogical conversations, both individual and in groups; advice; practical "open door" days, shared holidays and entertainment, demonstrations of lessons, polling, labor shares, joint contest, groups for children and adults, a library for family reading, creating of developmental environment; visual tours on the preschool institution or the group, information centers, folders, written information for parents, wall newspapers with photos, exhibitions (by A. Zvereva, V. Krotov). At present the practicians accumulated many new forms for work of pre-school with a family: design or method of projects (family projects), the creation of parental room, a corner "For the curious children and caring parents", a handwritten journal for parents "Family Page"; involving parents by teachers into the different kind of activity with children (working in the garden or playground, morning exercises, training with art work, building games), organizing and celebrations with families holidays and birthdays, round table with experts in the form of questions and answers, viewing by parents childrens activity in groups, construction of a corner of art for children at home, homework and many others. They are based on traditional forms and help parents to overcome their own authoritarianism, see the world from the perspective of the child, teach to treat a child s an equal, to understand that it was unacceptable to compare it with other children, and should enjoy its personal growth, build a trusting relationship with its. Creative ways of working with parents, involving children, teachers and other staff of pre-school become more popular. Often parents want not only to observe the child during its interaction with adults out of home, but also themselves to act in the new role (theatrical performance, sporting event, meeting, debating) [4, p. 426]. Fot the pedagogical team of a kindergarten is important to teach parents the proper interaction with children. The pedagogisation of families takes place through various approaches: advisory recommendation (parent meetings, oral and written consultations, talks, 134

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workshops, training, etc.), lectures and educational (parental lectures, universal education, conferences, teaching reading) activities involving parents in the educational process ("Days of Open Doors", involving into the preparation and celebrations of holidays, festivals, entertainment, individual training, to equip educational process, ordering facilities, areas together with children and teachers. It is advisably to involveinto activity not individual, but all members of a family, other relatives who are involved into childs upbringing, and also establish friendships with other families which are not indifferent to the development and education of their children. Actualization of parental attention to the problems of prescholl childrens upbringing is assisted by different tasks given to them, such as: to speak about the certain issue at parent meetings; "homework" for observation, participation of parents in work of groups, games, activities, excursions with children, assistance in conducting of roleplaying and business games [4, p. 425]. Combining of different forms of work is rational. Experience shows that in working with parents you should void he judgments about education, help them in ability to observe their own child, open hilds new qualities and traits . On the base of the analysis of the kindergarten cooperation forms with the family, we decided to investigate the forms of the work used by the teachers cooperating with the families. So we analysed ome documents of kindergartens in Kremenets, Ternopil region, in which ome planned and organized events for working with families are represented. These are schedule and protocols of parents meetings. Analysing documents we followed the criterians: 1)variety of planned forms of work about socializing of children under school age; 2) reflection of parents activity in the report; 3) availability of results of the spent arrangements; 4) whether the work of improving is a professional development. Analysis of the documents in this criterion allowed to determine competency-no suitable team preschool first institution to interact with families of pupils, directed to the social development of children: uses different forms of work, takes into account the needs and wishes, fills measures informative and interesting material and aims to continuous capacity building of teachers in action with their parents. 135

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Having studied and analyzed these documents we found out: in preschools monotonues forms of work with the family are planned. This are mainly parent meetings, joint celebrations and open days, personal conversations and consultations. Days of Good Deeds: involvement parents into repairing of fabrication materials, training holidays, the planned meeting "round table" employment-training literature and parents family projects. According to the subject we can say it is also monotonues and concerns to social development and the subject of other forms of work. At parents meetings the problems of providing childrens entering to school,hygiene, school routine, education of respect for the work of adults in the family, the determination of school leaver( subjects: "Preparation for the first of September", "How to play corner," "Example of parents in a childs life", "Pres of health and tempering measures in different seasons," consultation "Games exercises to develop a sound culture language", "Requirements for the child in family and preschool center" for parents of "child hygiene the guarantee of health","How to teach children to express their opinion", "Preventing colds", "What can I do to adapt to the childs school complications","Emotional mating between parent and child" and so on. Regarding socialization preschooler in the analyzed document include the following topics: general parenting with boron "Cooperation PEI and families in forming social communication competence of children","Interaction of family and society", "Education in the socialization of of preschoolers", "How to help your child find their proper place peer group". 2) the minutes of parent meetings were mentioned five and offers parents, but they did not address the problems of social development of preschool children.We found documents respected job: professional competence of the staff on interaction with family (round table relationships of parents and teaching staff, consultations" diverse forms of collaboration with families, "New forms of interaction with parents infants". After discussions with the teachers, we learned that, unfortunately, often planned cooperation arrangements preschool and family are realized. This is a number of reasons: unwillingness intermediaries by their constant: not all parents respond to the attitude of teachers to cooperate, show no interest in the well efforts of their 136

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children, lack of confidence,understanding and cooperation between kindergartens and parents, and lack of teacher competence. Based on these points we have developed recommendations for teachers: Teaching staff should enhance psychological and pedagogical competence of parents to understand patterns of child development and learning and issues, as well as the characteristics of their social development and the conditions that contribute to this process; Should be possible to involve the parents to cooperate in the creation of appropriate conditions for life and development of children, for their successful socialization; Fully explore the situation, status and family patterns of interaction with her for a differentiated approach; Involve parents to actively participate in events held in preschools, build them a sense of belonging to the teaching staff as associates and accomplices process of social development of the child. The important direction of the teaching staff of pre-school must enrich the knowledge of educators and parents on all aspects of the process of socialization of preschool children, deepening educational culture parent. Cation process organization for future according to the credit module training technology. 1. List of sources and literature / - , . . ; . . . . . . . : , 2008. 430. ( 2628 11 2001 ) // . 33. 12 . 2001. . . // . . , . . . .: , 2005. 80. . . : / . . . . : , 2006. 456 . . . 137

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6. 7.

/ . . // , : . . . . 9. : , 2000. .9093. . . - / . . . : , 2006. 364. . . ( ) [ ] : http://osvitacv.com/index.php/doshkillya/8572011061715 1106.

UDC 378.14 A. M. Kokareva ON THE PROBLEM OF THE PECULIARITIES OF EDUCATIONAL PROCESS ORGANIZATION ACCORDING TO THE CREDIT MODULE TRAINING TECHNOLOGY The article deals with the peculiarities of education process organization for future according to the credit module training technology. Key words: credit module technology, education process. Setting and topicality of the problem . The tendencies of the development of higher education in Ukraine are determined by the strategy of its integration into the Bologne process. The introduction of the Bologne principles, which is a factor of Ukraines Eurointegration, as well as a means of a more free access of its citizens to high quality education, calls for a profound reform of the structure and content of education, educational technologies, their logistical support. Thus, the reform of education of both its structure and content is an urgent social necessity. 138

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According to the Law of Ukraine "On Higher Education", one of the main principles of the state policy as to higher education is the integration of the system of higher education into the world system on condition that the achievements and traditions of the Ukrainian higher education are preserved. State of the scientific research of the problem. Ukraines integration into the European Higher Education Area promotes radical changes in higher education. There are a lot of problems in the way of the reforms but the peculiarity of the near future is that Ukraine has already become a member of the Bologne Declaration, which determines the eighth tendency of its innovative educational policy integration into European Higher Education Area and renewal of professional training according to the world standards. We agree with P. I. Sikorskys idea that in order to introduce the credit module technology the following measures should be taken first and foremost: to bring the curricula of higher educational establishments into conformity with the curricula of the countries-participants of the Bologne process and coordinate their variative parts (up to 70%); to ratify unified terms of class-room studies in higher educational establishments; using didactic integration to reduce the number of disciplines up to 5 for each academic year and discriminate the notions "discipline" and "subject": a discipline consists of separate autonomous subjects; to ratify for each course of training an invariant part of curricula and syllabi as well as a concept of the formation of a variant part of the curriculum; to unify the notion "didactic credit" according to the European standards (1credit=36hours); to concretize the state standard of higher education by determining the structure of the elements of knowledge required for complete acquisition of a subject, discipline, course and degree of training; to make transitional structural-logical schemes of teaching disciplines in credits according to the module principle. It is worth while mentioning that the transit to the credit module 139

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technology of education requires not only radical changes in the pedagogical approaches to making curricula, syllabi, to writing essentially different text-books and manuals but to carrying out psychological and pedagogical investigation of the new education technology, its scientific and theoretic substantiation and adjustment to various disciplines, courses and degrees of education; special training and retraining of the teaching staff; bringing their workload and salary to the European standards as well. It is necessary to get rid on the psychological and mental level of such disgraceful realities like entering higher educational establishments or passing examinations without having sufficient knowledge and practical skills necessary for the future professional activities. We think that the main difference between the credit module system and the traditional one consists in the systemic approach to the analysis of a definite profession, its flexibility and capability through the mechanism of feedback and adaptability of curricula to meet the requirements in training specialists. The main material. According to M. S. Kulik, E. V. Luzik, N. V. Ladogudets, our system of higher education is oriented on ECTS while introducing its own credit system. At first this system served as a means to improve the standards of education in order to study abroad making it easier to compare students performance on the basis of a coordinated assessment system (credits and grades) and technology of the interpretation of the national systems of higher education, i.e. ECTS was designated to increase students mobility and enhance the attractiveness of the European system of education. Essentially, ECTS does not envisage any regulation of the content, structure or equivalence of curricula. Credits in this system are numerical equivalents of grades (1-60) which are assigned to different sections of a certain course. They reflect the ratio of the amount of work required by each bloc of a course to the overall amount of work required for the completion of the whole year of academic studies. Credits reflect the overall students load: class work, tests, practice, attestation, etc. ECTS reflects load relatively, not absolutely they determine which part is taken by one bloc of a certain course in a years load. ECTS credits are designated in order to provide recognition of the academic load performed during studies abroad as part of academic load envisaged by the curriculum. 140

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However, at present the aim and task of this system have widened. The system is being transformed into a credit-accumulation system and is defined as Credit Transfer and Accumulation System. For instance, V. S. Zhuravsky interprets ECTS as a credit system of intercredit (inter-recognition) and accumulation. He also points out that this is a system which is based on determining the amount of students work required for the participation in the program. It is oriented on specialized terms of analyzing academic performance and necessary competence. We agree with the view of A. V. Plokhiy and A. V. Kazanovsky on the notion "module system" as a technology of education in higher educational establishments which encompasses the content, forms and methods of educational process, types of controlling the quality of knowledge, skills and academic activities of students according to which a module is a functionally complete part of a unit or theme of a discipline, a number of theoretical and practical tasks of a certain content and structure with an elaborated system of teaching and individual technological maintenance. It is important to note that one of the necessary components of the maintenance are the forms of control such as routine rating and final control. According to the present credit module technology, a certain integrated course or a discipline is divided into separate modules and a professor or a chair are eligible to introduce a module system independently, regardless of the fact whether the other disciplines taken by the students are taught according to this system or not. Such an approach is rather flexible taking into consideration some irregularities of the transit to the credit module system by different disciplines. The General Regulations on the organization of the educational process according to the credit module system read that "the credit module system is such a model of educational process which is based on combining module technologies and credit points". In this context another notion "model" is worth mentioning. It implies: 1) a scheme, image or description of some natural or social phenomenon or process; 2) an analogue of a certain fragment of natural or social reality. In other words, a "model" is a system of objects or signs which reproduces some essential properties of the system-original. The presence of partial similarity (homomorphism) makes it possible to use this model as a 141

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substitute or a representative of the system under consideration. It is necessary to note here that that the use of the notion "model" is justified on some stages of work with a certain complicated system (analysis, elaboration, etc.). The "model" is, to some extent, a means of describing and checking the main features of the system which is modeled, e.g. the truth and completeness of certain theoretical statements. Thus, the introduction of some system of education, the credit module system in particular, cannot be reduced to the introduction of some model of such a system. As for the notion "credit", O. M. Spirin offers a new notion "passfail credit", which implies a unit of measurement of academic load required for the acquisition of thematic modules or a bloc of modules. The term "credit" is described by other normative documents. However, the usage of these terms is ambiguous. For example, in the phrase "accumulation of a number of credits referring to the estimated rate of students fulfillment of academic load", we should deal with "pass-fail credits". There are no commentaries on the phrase "the total number of compulsory and optional thematic modules during an academic year should not amount to more than 44 credits" (no less than 60 pass-fail credits).That is why it is not quite clear how credits and pass-fail credits are discriminated. The transit to the new system makes it necessary to assess every integrated course (discipline) in credit points, elaborate effective methods of conducting classes in and out of the class-room, introduce a module rating system of performance evaluation, elaborate and publish information bulletins for students to familiarize themselves with the new system. Such a system of credit points will require improvement of logistics, a more concrete formulation of academic requirements in a certain discipline. Besides, it will considerably increase the logistics requirements necessary for the independent work of students (which is caused by the increase in the number of hours), establishing permanent performance control. In the Standards ratified by the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine the overall load includes work in and out of the class-room, and, in some courses, examination sessions as well. The ECTS reflects the overall students load including work in the class-room (lectures, 142

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laboratory and practical classes, seminars) and individual work (preparation of module tasks, etc.), all kinds of practices, final attestation and independent work. In 2004, National Aviation University ratified the Regulations on the organization of educational process according to the credit module system. Every student and professor can familiarize themselves with the information on the university website. Conclusions. Analyzing the present state of the problem of the peculiarities of the organization of educational process according to the credit module training technology we can state that there are quite a number of works devoted to the credit module system, credit module technology in particular. We should mention that there are other interpretations of the credit module system. In most cases, the credit module system is interpreted as a teaching technology and such terms as "credit technology" and "credit system" are used in its description. 1. List of sources and literature . . : : .. . / . . , . . ; - i i ; . . - ". i. i-". . : ii, 2003. 195 . . . - : .-. . .- / . . , . . , . . ; . . -. . : , 2004. 96 . - : . . : . / . . (.); . . . - . . . . : . . . . , 2004. 43 . : , , : .-. . .-. / .: . . , . . ; . . . : - 143

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, 2000. 284 . : . . 3 / . . . . : - . . , 2005. 272 . . . - : . . / . . ; . . .. ; . -. . : - . -, 2004. 128 . . . - / . . // . . . . -. 2004. N 15. . 8386. . . - // . . : - . . . -. 2005. .356362. http://www.nau.edu.ua/uk/EduProcess/Organization/

UDC 378.14.011.31:008 S.A. Lytvynenko, K.M. Pavelkiv FORMATION OF REFLEXIVE CULTURE IN THE PROFESSIONAL TRAINING OF FUTURE TEACHERS The article presents an analysis of theoretical approaches to consider reflexive culture of the teacher, who determine the content and methodological foundations of future specialists in modern conditions. Keywords: reflection, pedagogical reflection, reflexive culture of future teachers, vocational and educational training. In keeping with the philosophical and psychological approaches (K. Abulhanova-Slavskaya B. Ananyev, L. Antsyferova, O. Asmolov, I. Beh, O. Orlov, V. Petrovskyy, S. Rubinshteyn, B. Clobodchykov, H. Schedrovytskyy etc.), becoming a person as the subject of life and 144

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professional self-development is considered. In this regard, mechanisms and initial positions of the individual self serve value-semantic and activity areas, goals and plans reflection. Understanding Reflection as a factor in the development of professionalism, which is the ability of the subject to continuous personal and professional self-based mechanisms for introspection and self-certifies its multifunctional nature and provides in system factor. The purpose of the article acted generalization theoretical fit to hear reflexive culture of teacher, that determine the content and organizational and methodological foundations of teaching future professionals in the modern world. Study of philosophical, psychological and educational literature (A. Bizyayeva, K. Vazina, T. Davydenko, H. Dehtyar, V. Yelisyeyev, H. Isayev, Natalya Kuzmina, Yu. Kulyutkin, M. Mamardashvili, A. Markova H. Suhobska, D. Shchedrovitski etc.) proves crucial role of reflection for development of the individual and the social community as reflection: leads to a holistic understanding about the contents, methods and means of action, gives an ability critically reflect upon themselves and their activities in the past, present and future, makes a man (social system) the subject of the activity. The need for reflection is the result of objective development of activities, or as a result of maturation of the internal contradictions in the mind of the individual, which actualizes the need to review and reorient established motivational value system. The range of meanings of contemporary use of the concept of reflection is quite wide: reasoning and reflection, self-esteem, self reflection and self-examination of its own activities in the relations with the world in which personality lives. The term reflection (from the Latin reflexio) preserves the original semantics and means "come back", reflection, self-discovery, a category of consciousness, a form of theoretical activities and principles of thinking. The problem of reflection in philosophy developed in line with the study of consciousness and theoretical thinking, processes of communication and cooperation regarding the necessity of understanding and coordination between participants. In this sense, the reflection appears as a property of the mind to seek inner world, as an observation of the activity or state of mind (soul), as an analysis of knowledge that leads to new knowledge [9]. In the basis of reflexive processes underlying the 145

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operations of comparison of the results with predictable, that is the condition of inclusion accountant mechanisms of mental regulation, provides change management, adjustment and improvement activities, development of personal qualities of the subject. All these processes are carried out by the "logical thinking tools" and by means of mental organization (goal-setting, monitoring and evaluation, comparison, etc.). Describing the nature of reflection, V. Rozin notes that reflective activity aims to bridge the "gap management" to solve problems for which traditional methods and tools do not work [8]. One of the main features of reflection is the orientation on the activity system, elements of which are: the subject of activity endowed with activity, which he directs on the objects, the object of activity; the activity itself. The founders of the Moscow Methodological Circle (V. Lefevr, M. Mamardashvili, H. Schedrovytskyy etc.) conducted an analysis of reflection and developed a methodology of thinking within activity theory, taking into account such aspects of the reflection as process and the special structure of the activity and principles of its deployment patterns. In situations specific activities starting point of reflection for the manifestation is the inability to carry out activities in accordance with applicable rules, difficulties and failures in business, the discrepancy results defined purpose, and so that gives rise to the gap between the components of activity, inhibition of inclusion and awareness mechanisms [8, 10]. Based on the different levels of knowledge reflection on substantive knowledge rises (the subject of reflection becomes mental acts or conditions that accompany activity or result from it); reflection on ways of forming representations (the subject of reflection becomes view of things and expression them in the form of symbols, diagrams, words, etc..), the process of reflection can be considered as the highest level of reflection [10]. The principal was understanding reflection through categories of "turnabout" or "reflexive way out". Reflexive output is necessary to overcome the difficulties in activity through going beyond the situation that arose through thinking. Reflexive way out is in change of look on a situation in which there were difficulties with the internal to the external, in output beyond the situation in a position that allows to understand the situation and find the way to solve it. 146

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When it comes to reflection in pedagogy, the first manifestation of a general revealed in specific activities. Pedagogical reflection in general (B. Vulfov, H. Yermakova, L. Sokolova etc.) understand how the correlation itself features, abilities of ones "I", of his activities with those required by teaching profession. Some authors (Natalya Kuzmina, A. Markova, L. Mitina etc.) consider pedagogical reflection as a special kind of ability. So L.Mitina defines reflection as a set of analytical and evaluative skills to understand oneself, the regulation of ones own behavior and activities, penetration into students individuality, ability to become in his position and see, to understand and evaluate yourself through his eyes, structurally vyrischuvaty their internal personality misunderstandings and conflicts [6]. Most conceptual models of pedagogical reflection (H. Bizyaeva, I. Hutkina, H. Yermakova, M. Karnelovych, A. Furman etc.) present the teacher research position as a focal point of. It is based on the ability to integrate their experience, theoretical knowledge and professional value orientation . Reflection as a mechanism for professional self-improvement and self-development is the ability of the teacher to take an analytical attitude towards yourself and professional activities. According to Yu. Kulyutkina and H. Suhobskoyi, reflexive processes in educational activities are: in the interaction of the teacher with the students as he seeks to adequately understand and purposefully regulate their thoughts, feelings and actions, in the design process of students when he develops learning goals and design schemes to achieve them, taking into account the features and capabilities of students, in the process of introspection and self-evaluation of their own activities as a teacher and himself as its subject. The last aspect of pedagogical reflection is both a holistic understanding of their profession and their place in it, and in particular personal relation to a particular pedagogical decision [7]. Comparison of domestic and foreign approaches to teacher reflection revealed two trends: the supporters of preparation for university study stage (T. Bondarenko, P. Hrimmeh, O. Varlamova, V. Yelisyeyev, V. Slastonin, I. Stetsenko etc.); researchers who believe that to develop pedagogical reflection is necessary in the course of professional activities (Wellington H. Yermakova, Krause, M. Karnelovych, V. Mehayeva, S. Stepanov etc.). According to modern concepts pedagogical reflection performs the following functions: 147

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projecting (design and simulation activities of participants of educational process), organizational (organization of the most effective ways of cooperation in joint activities), communicative (as a condition for productive communication subjects of educational process), semantical (the formation of awareness activities and interaction), motivational (determination of orientation of joint activities result), correction (motivation for change in interaction and activity) [5]. Theoretical models of reflexive culture as a subject of teacher teaching activities (T. Bondarenko, H. Dehtyar, V. Yeliseyev, H. Yermakova, M. Luk Demyanova etc.) are based on theoretical and methodological positions: the unity of consciousness and activity processes, reflective culture is a part of the general culture and its study is based on Culture data, revealing the overall structure, mechanism of functioning of culture, in the anthropological aspect of culture it appearsas a way of human existence, the historical extent lifestyle and includes a specific set of historical and symbolic systems in a way perception, thinking, knowledge, experience and action, as well as knowledge, values, techniques and evaluation criteria, in terms of its structure contents reflexive culture of a teacher is correlated with the overall structure of vocational and educational culture. From the standpoint of cultural approach reflective culture appears as a set of individual and socially constructed ways of understanding and rethinking the subjects own life. However, as part of vocational and educational culture, reflective culture is a qualitative, systematic and dynamic personality formation, characterized by a certain level of professional identity, a set of socially and professionally conditioned ways of understanding and rethinking the content of educational activities. Reflexive culture of a teacher, according to V. Yeliseyeva, is defined as psychological growths, belonging to peculiar nature of creative pedagogical work, as a system factor of professionalism characterized by set of skills, techniques and strategies to ensure understanding and rethinking of the content of educational activities, as a mechanism to overcome stereotypes and personal growth activities through their thinking and innovation nomination, solving problematic situations in the course of performing professional tasks [3] For T.Bondarenko, reflective culture of a teacher - is an 148

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integrative, dynamic personality formation, that is manifested in the assimilation of complex knowledge, skills, ways of self-understanding, self-esteem, forming the "I-position", skills gap solving situations [1, p.45]. The researcher attributes to indicators of formed reflexive culture: theoretical knowledge about reflection, reflective skills, ability to reflexive activity, the presence of motivation for reflexive activity, awareness of the process of formation of reflexive culture [1, p.100]. Reflexive culture of future teachers H.Dehtyar examines as personal and integrative formation that includes a set of knowledge, skills and abilities that are implemented through specific actions aimed at the identification, evaluation, summarizing the most significant features of teaching process to achieve its quality changes, as well as professional and personal improvement. In the structure of reflexive culture researcher identifies cognitive and procedural, personal and evaluative components [2]. Our analysis of theoretical constructs and relationships in considering vocational teacher and reflexive culture allowed to form our own approach to the definition of reflexive culture as essential personal characteristics in the field of vocational and educational activity that combines personal and professional development of teachers. Reflexive culture of future teachers is regarded by us as an integral, dynamic, multipersonality formation, the structure of which holds the personal, cognitive and action-creative components that are implemented through assessment and also summarize the most significant features of the pedagogical process and provide awareness and rethinking of the content of educational activities, problem solving situations in the course of performing professional tasks, professional and personal improvement. A special place in the study of problems reflexive culture of a teacher embraces the problem of its development. The reason for the study is the correlation of reflection with professional and pedagogical functions (V.Kohan, A.Bizyayeva, H.Yermakova, V.Mehayeva etc. ..), when a professional activity is considered as metaactivity. In this regard, importance gets, on the one hand, the problem of interaction (subject - subject relations arising in the process of joint activities), and on the other, reflexive attitude of the teacher to himself as the subject of professional educational activities [3, 4]. The student as the subject of the activity formulates goals of knowledge, chooses how to achieve 149

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them, analyzes and corrects the results, as well as their own qualities as a subject of the activity, showing his attitude to work, to himself and to other participants in activities, being formed as a personality . Reflection of the future specialist, as his internal mental activity aimed at self-knowledge and understanding of his own actions and states, interpersonal relationships and communication with others, because selfknowledge is the initial stage of self-imrovement. Based on the theoretical researches and analysis of ones own experience are the following aspects of reflection of future specialists in educational activities: awareness of oneself as a subject of teaching profession; awareness of peqularities of features teaching profession, the desire for self-knowledge, the ability to self-observation during training activities to self-control and self-regulation further, focus on knowledge of their educational opportunities and abilities and comparing them to the requirements of future professional activity; comparative analysis of the results achieved. Important methodological significance for our study is given to the relationship of creativity and learning of students with the reflection, that aims to develop self-awareness, understanding and guidance on the subject of action (intellectual reflection), the self-organization, movement through self-knowledge, self-examination himself, his state internal mental acts, their forms and conditions, mental activity, integral "I" (personal reflection) and through reflection and analysis of human personality and of partners in joint activities and communication. So reflection and reflective culture are conditions for the formation of subjective qualities and subjectivity as a system quality of the personality. Reflexive mans relation to its own activities serves as a deepper understanding, critical analysis and design improvements. In the broadest sense professional reflection acquires significance as a factor in system development and improvement of professional, personal and quality attribute of professional thinking teacher. In structural terms reflective culture of the teacher appears as a component of vocational and educational culture that reflects the nature of educational work, its performance and quality. Reflexive culture is associated with awareness and regulation of individual ways to operate, and the level of reflexive culture appears as a crucial factor in achieving effective results of the subject. Reflexive culture allows us to plan own work and manage it, creatively interpret 150

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and solve problem situations, acquire new meanings and values. The development of reflective culture of a personality is in the deepness of their experience rethinking and is characterized by a personal contribution to the organization of professional and personal growth, needs of the individual in a free choice of content, ways to expand and deepen it. In the pedagogical aspects the development and formation of reflexive culture of students is an important part of a holistic educational process and serves as one of the conditions for selfdiscovering and professional self-improvement. Objectively, the development and formation of reflexive culture is quite lengthy, beginning in the years since school and continuing in professional and educational activities of teachers and not limited to vocational and educational training. However, despite the expansion of research areas in the field of teacher education, the problem of reflexive culture of future teachers in teaching science has not found a proper reflection. The formation and development of reflexive culture of the future teachers provides training for creative self, that is in departure from patterns and attitudes, awareness of the content of their profession and finding interested, critical attitude to its various aspects, developing a program of personal and professional self-development, consistent enrichment of professional experience and skill. In connection with what sees prospects for further research in the study of organizational and technical foundations of reflexive culture of future teachers in the preparation and professional activities 1. List of sources and literature . . : . . . : 13.00.08 / . . ; -. . -. , 1999. 191 . . . : . . . . . : 13.00.04 . / . . / . . . - . . . . ., 2006. 19 . 151

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. . : / . . . , 2003. 223 . . . : . . . . . . : 13.00.01 / . . ; . . . -. , 1999. 18 . . . : / . . . : , 2009. 67 . . . / . . . . : : . . -, 1998. 200 . : / . . . , . . . . : , 1990. 104 . . . / . . . ., 1993. 204 . / . . . . 2- . . : . , 1989. 815 . . . / . . // . . . ., 2005. . 64125.

UDC 37.012 I. H. Mysyk THE PECULIARITIES OF THE INSTITUTE OF CONTINUNING EDUCATION IN UKRAINE In the article the features of organization of preparation, perfection of knowledge, abilities and skills of teacher are examined in the system of continuous education and integrating of all his stages in 152

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postgraduate pedagogical education. Keywords: post-graduate pedagogical education, competence, continuous education. The modern concept of education in Ukraine associates with learning throughout life, therefore, man gradually takes possession of the teaching profession, first of all consciously chooses it according to own preferences and abilities, and then raising the professional level gaining skills. For choosing and gaining this difficult, but necessary for all people and for all time profession its needed to the most reliable thing to have a calling. Post-qualifying education is a part of the national system of continuous education. This stage should provide specialized perfection, recess, expanding and updating of professional knowledges, abilities, skills. In post-qualifying education combined landline forms and independent work on daily, extramural, evening, distance, combined forms of education, and externship. Post-qualifying pedagogical education is closely related to continuous education, it supposes improving pedagogue during the whole his life, realization his own, personal development programs and self development. Objectives identify conceptual and structural components of postgraduate education in continuing education in Ukraine. Conceptual provisions relative to the content, form and organization of postgraduate pedagogical education are based on the principles of the Constitution of Ukraine, laws of Ukraine "About education", "On joint secondary education", "About higher education", the conceptual foundations of the development of pedagogical education in Ukraine and there is integration into the European educational space, state program "Teacher". The concept of development of postgraduate education in Ukraine defines the purposes and tasks of development of professional staff potential, improvement of functioning of national system of preparation, retraining and professional qualification of experts. Scientists research the various aspects of postgraduate education of teachers: S. Krysyuk considers process of establishment and development of postgraduate education teachers, N. Protasova defines the principles of the system of postgraduate education. O. Marinovskaya explores post-qualifying education in terms of formation of readiness for the project activity. A. Kuzminskiy examines 153

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the theoretical and methodological grounds of post-qualifying teacher training. In the works of pedagogues some problems of postgraduate pedagogical education are considered, which are defined as a part of the continuous pedagogical education (V. Bondar, O. Moroz, R. Hmelyuk and others). The system of post-qualifying teacher education is based on the conception of continuous education, which is taken like a strategy in all world-wide civilized countries. Its main principles are the consistency, continuity, individualized learning, fundamentalization, humanization, and humanization of education. Having formed in Ukraine, the system of post-qualifying teacher education is characterized by organizational structure, streamlined set of schools and teaching institutions whose primary function is the improvement of the scientific-theoretical and methodological training, skills, expanding total. The current system of post-qualifying teacher education in Ukraine as institutional complexes include: the state university, "University of Management Education", 27 regional Teacher Training Institute, 19 advanced training faculties in universities and institutes, self-supporting centers of excellence of teaching and leadership training. Post-qualifying teacher education is the development of general and methodological culture teacher, enrichment of basic teacher training.Specialization is a kind of training teachers to perform certain tasks or duties that have specific features within the profession, expanding professional development the development of pedagogical knowledges and skills for the gradual development of the worker as a person and as a professional, its acquisition of the ability to perform certain duties and tasks within the specialty. Professional development is a training, course preparation, methodical work, self-education. Timing, frequency of training, the amount of training time in the system of post-primary education are establishing by institutions of post-qualifying education in accordance with relevant regulations and national standards of education in consultation with the customer, in accordance with the selected forms and types of learning, as well as the procedure and periodicity of certification of specialists in the field. Post-qualifying teacher education provides alignment with the requirements of time and international standards of professional qualifications of teachers, their individual personality and functional 154

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needs, improvement of scientific and general cultural (general) level of specialists, promotion and development of creativity, innovation and cultural potential of teachers. In the the literature on the problem of continuous pedagogical education is considered the process of formation of the teacher in the course of its "base of multi-level training and overall development of personality during his post-qualifying teacher education. Basic university training is the formation of professional and general culture of the teacher, and postgraduate is the enrichment of its professional and general culture. In such an interpretation postqualifying teacher education has qualitative definition, it is not limited by professional development but closely related to the personal progress. It is organically entered in structure of continuous education, provides realization of principles of a continuity and succession. Such system of development of the personality creates conditions for versatile, professional and general development" [5]. Besides, scientists consider pedagogical education in unity of three components: prevocational, base and postgraduate. Each of them differs by the contents and its corresponding methods and forms of organization [11]. Pre-vocational pedagogical education creates conditions, for professional self-determination, forms readiness for a choice of a pedagogical profession. The content of pedagogical vocational guidance provides formation of a pedagogical orientation of the personality (interests, bents, motives, valuable ideas of a pedagogical profession, pedagogical thinking). Elementary pedagogical skills are formed. The motivational and valuable relation to pedagogical activity is the main criterion of selection on pedagogical professions. Basic pedagogical education provides fundamental, vocational and practical training for pedagogical activity, receiving the appropriate educational and qualifying level. The content of this education is defined by state standards, is formed according to requirements of qualifying characteristics of concrete pedagogical specialties. Post-qualifying pedagogical education provides continuous professional improvement, development of creative potential, professional and personal growth and self-affirmation of the teacher, formation of the teacher which already has experience of work. "It is 155

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possible to change specialty within the previous profession with the corresponding qualification, to change qualification not only vocational training, for example, specializations as mastering by special knowledge within specialty, but also level of readiness for pedagogical activity within specialty. A third option professional development as a process of improving teachers professional knowledge and skills and the acquisition of the ability to perform certain duties and tasks within the profession" [6, p. 13], as the upgrade professional competence of teachers professional. The system of qualification improvment has a number of advantages in comparison with the basic professional education: it is less inertial and able to respond to more social, economic, technical and technological conditions is usually a direct two-way communication with the practice that allows quick learning outcomes, contingent who learns, can critically evaluate proposed innovations, it can directly participate in their testing, development, and implementation [2], that is a conscious approach to improve the professional competence. What does the "professional competence" mean? One can not dwell on this characterization is very important in the field of education concepts. Competence this is knowledge, experience, personality characteristics of fitness to work in a particular area. This, as pointed out by a well-known researcher in the field of philosophy of education C. Klepko, "a new political challenge, which must meet a modern education. The notion of competence accented actual ability of an individual to perform all tasks to which requires his job, position. Technological and organizational changes, the modernization of working conditions made us to focus on the potential of the individual to mobilize his abilities and develop its capacity according to the situation of labor" [3, p. 183]. Competence approach valued by employers as particularly relevant, since it focuses on the individual and his ability to develop, which is a major source of personal motivation I and flexibility. Competence approach moves from the management philosophy in which the individual serves the "system" (qualification, based on the described tasks and requirements) to philosophy in which the "system" serves the individual, taking into account the way in which it develops, mobilizes and increases its potential for solving specific problems. We 156

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are different and, to achieve the certain stage, the time that we need for this is also different. To overcome individual shortcomings, it is important to build consecutive systems of training, estimation and qualification which would deserve mutual trust and would offer sufficient guarantees for individuals and their employers ( Skills versus) [3, p. 184]. The quality of pedagogical activity of a teacher is measured according to level of his professional competence. This integral quality of the personality which has its own structure, that allows the expert to carry out his activity in the most effective way, and also promotes his self-development and self-improvement. "Professional competence has the generalized reference model in the form of a professiogramma. Proceeding from pedagogical abilities and teachers specifics of work, in the structure of his professional competence are allocated such components: designing, information, organizing, communicative, analytical. For these components, there are four levels of professional competence of teachers: a) low receptive and productive, b) medium reproductive, c) enough constructive and variability, d) high creative" [14]. Competence is not limited to the amount of knowledge and education. You can know, but not being able to apply your knowledge. Therefore, the competence is related to a specific conditions of its implementation in a particular activity. Council of Europe has identified five core competencies, among which there is one competence, which is concern to the continuity of education: 1. Political and social: The ability to take responsibility and to participate in a group decisions, to resolve conflicts nonviolently. 2. Life activity in a multicultural society. Control of racism, xenophobia, climate of intolerance. 3. Oral and written communication. Knowing more than one language. 4. Information literacy. Possession of information technology, understanding their nature, strengths and weaknesses of the use of information technology. 5. The ability to learn throughout the active life. List of basic educational competencies is based on the main objectives 157

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of education, structural representation of the social experience of the individual, as well as the main activities of the student, which would enable it to acquire the social experience, the skills and practices of life in modern society. From these positions the basic educational competencies are: 1. Value-sense competence. 2. General cultural competence. 3. Educational and cognitive competence. 4. Informational competence. 5. Communicative competence. 6. Social and Labour competence. 7. Competence of personal self-improvement. Besides the basic competencies that relate to the total content of education, there are general subjected competencies (which the researchers have attributed to a certain range of subjects and educational sectors) and object competencies (which have a specific description and the possibility of formation in the teaching of subjects). Competence in teaching activities is seen as a personality trait that characterizes its ability to assess correctly the teaching situation, to take the necessary and optimal solutions to solve it. The primary assessment of competence is the availability of knowledge and experience, their ability to update and use in the implementation of educational functions. Thus, competence is a feature of the teacher, which is to much wider set of pedagogical knowledge and skills. In addition, this activity with respect to itself, the continuous improvement of the dynamics on the background of the changes that occur constantly in the society, and the requirements that are put forward in relation to the time of educated, and a competent teacher. Self-improvement is a perpetual change of personal uses of her time. In order to achieve the chosen goals, one is free to elect their own algorithm, and therefore the concept of education in a democratic goverment should be set in the constructor, from which the student will construct their concept of life and achieve success in it. The most important elements of the design are the public institutions of postgraduate education. 158

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Summarizing the research of scientists, let the principles of organization of the system of professional training of teachers, the example of training psychologists: 1. The principle of personal orientation system, which includes valuable, cognitive, creative and activity-personal components. 2. The principle consistency, continuity, succession and creative nature of the system. 3. The principle of diagnostic-analytical approach in the implementation of the system. 4. The principle of individualization of the learning process. 5. The principle of active forms of work. 6. The principle of orientation on self-knowledge and personal self-development. 7. The principle of academic support activities. 8. The principle of implementation of humanist position in practice. Personal orientation of post-graduate training in the unity of the principles outlined, gradually forms the teachers willingness to change, and without it its impossible to make people improve their skills. The level of homegrown preparedness of teachers to change, shows studies conducted in 2003 and 2005 in preparation of the "Equal Access to Quality Education", implemented by the Ministry of Education and Science with the support of the World Bank. With a help of a range of questionnaires, were collected data on the quantity and quality of teaching staff of postgraduate teacher education in Ukraine. Analysis of the structure of teaching staff on the voting age has revealed that the largest number (31%), teachers (teachers and trainers) people aged 41 to 51 years; 22% of workers in the regional Teacher Training Institute are in the age of 51 to 55 years; group of teachers in the age over 55 years 17%, 20% of teachers this age group 3040 years, and 10% 20-30 years. The study showed that the majority of teaching staff have the experience of more than 20 years (37% 20-30 years of experience, 18% more than 30 years), 27% have worked for 1020 years, and 13% 310 years, and 5 % of staff worked for less than 3 years, besides this last group is not always present in every Regional Teacher Training Institute. Thus, for the majority of teachers and supervisors of postgraduate teacher education in our country, the actual problem is the rapid aging of their psychopedagogical and subject-methodological knowledge and the need for the obtaining of advanced competencies. However, as witnessed analysis, only 60% of teachers and supervisors of regional institutions are 159

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pleased with the study, which they receive for training and professional development, 33% partially satisfied, 7% not happy at all. (picture 3.3) [9] Considering the opinion of the teachers and practitioners, according to the needs of the time, in the regions of Ukraine, postgraduate teacher education institutions are actively restructuring their activities. Increasing of the volume and variety of the forms of post-graduate teacher training. Becoming more common the form of correspondence and distance learning postgraduate teachers, develop contingency training programs of teachers and practitioners, heads of educational institutions. The system of teaching staff of educational institutions in Ukraine is characterized by organizational structure, in some way ordered set of institutions. What are the characteristic features of operating systems currently in postgraduate teacher education? First, this system is popular. Almost all teachers have the opportunity every 5 years to learn from the training courses. According to the results of sociological studies that were conducted in 2007 by the Institute of Social Technologies, "The educational system in the estimates of the citizens of Ukraine", the greatest demand among teachers have such forms of advanced training like distance training and courses that are close to the listener. "This is due to the fact that the introduction of such forms of training helps to improve professional skills (the teacher does not separate from the main place of work) and the quality of the organization of the educational process" [1]. Under current conditions of education reform in Ukraine is given to significant modernization of postgraduate education, especially teaching, which by definition of UNESCO is a "crown of education", and allows to each specialist constantly renew and deepen the general and professional knowledge and skills. Strategy of the system of postgraduate education is changing: the education of the system faced with the need to work not only on the function of the education system, but rather on its development, which provides for a change of relay assignments for research, to identify educational needs, study of specific educational processes in the system of postgraduate education, participation in the development of regional programs for the development of education and etc [2]. 160

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During the research conducted by public organization "Association of Adult Continuing Education," in the framework of the World Bank project "Equal Access to Quality Education in Ukraine", were found that among 8,400 respondents (including 68% - teachers, 32% methodical workers and managers of schools and educational institutions): 79% point to the need to modernize the current system of postgraduate teacher education, namely the continuing education of teachers [1]. A particular attention has to be implemented into a system (and not just one time in a five years) training managers at all levels, especially of regional and city administrations and departments of education, because they determine the software implementation of innovative educational projects. The problems of the modern system of postgraduate teacher education experts attribute to the lack of evidencebased concept of the education sector, its forecasting models, the gap between actual practice and theoretical studies of its problems, undeveloped content and technology at the present and future needs. In addition, the characteristic feature of this system is the high degree of formality that has developed due to lack of horizontal links between the postgraduate teacher education and the types of educational activities, the development of which it has been organized. System of postgraduate teacher education focuses on the forefront of progressive pedagogy and best practices. At the same time, students received knowledge remains at the level of information rather than practical action. Lack of its impact on the functioning and development of educational institutions, in which graduates are employed. A.Kuzmensky "paraphrasing" an opinion of L. Vygotkogo, argues that "the system of postgraduate teacher education does not provide the" zone of proximal development "institution". The formality of postgraduate teacher education determines compulsory character study, conduct it in the form of campaigns [6, p. 146]. An informative model of study dominates in the postgraduate education of teachers. Mastery of existing knowledge has become ultimate goal, as the result there was a problem of separation of knowledge from the personal experience of the employee. The modern system of postgraduate teachers education, as alleged in his doctoral 161

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dissertation of A. Kuzmensky, "characterized by a lack of choice of alternatives, of specialized centers, which would provide a variety of advisory needs (methodological, pedagogical, psychological, administrative, etc.) and improve the workers level up to the needed, to innovate in a particular school." Despite the fact that the system is working with teachers and guidance staff promptly prepared and trains teachers and managers to work on the new programs, textbooks, the dynamism of social development, fundamental changes in the educational institutions need to modernize and improve the quality of work [p, p. 146, 147]. Modernization is a recognized course of public policy of education in general and a post-graduate education. Modernization should change the following elements of the postgraduate teacher education [2]: development of the regulatory framework (the Law on postgraduate education, the Regulation on establishment of postgraduate education, the Regulation on licensing and accreditation of institutions of postgraduate education); ordering of social guarantees and protection of workers postgraduate institutions (wages, pensions, long vacation and so on); methodological guidance of the educational process in the institutions of postgraduate education; to determine the status of institutions of higher education as a postgraduate institution; improvement of material and technical base of postgraduate education institutions. Conclusions. Learning during the whole life is a construction of a rather difficult nonlinear living space, which depends on the internal mechanisms (value priorities, ideals, motivation, activity, self-esteem, spiritual needs) and external (social, political and socio-economic) factors that are limited by the subjective and objective nature. A government policy have a decisive influence on the formation of the system of postgraduate teacher education institutions in the field of education. Postgraduate teacher education is not so much a functional element in the system of education as developing, aimed at solving problems of projective system of education. In addition to training teachers for the new specialty, training, postgraduate education performs operational, information, consulting, diagnostic functions, 162

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generates an informed approach to improving professional competence, the ability to activate the individual development and self-fulfillment in teaching activities. List of sources and literature 1. . [ ] / // : - . 2010. 1. : http://www.nbuv.gov.ua/portal/Soc_Gum/Npd/2010_1/Androsch. pdf. 2. [ ] / , // - : : : . : http://www.mon.gov.ua/education/higher/topic/pdosv/zgv. . . ( ) : . ... . . : 09.00.10 / C . , 2009. 453 . . . (1917 1995 .) : . . . . . : 13.00.04 / . . . ., 1996. 48 . . . / // : - . 2003. 1 (i-). . 15-21. . . - : . ... . . : 13.00.04 / . . . ., 2003. 481 . 163

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. . - : : [] / . : ; : -, 2009. 500 . . . - / . . // : . 2009. . 4. . 300-305. [ ]. , 2008. 27 . : http://www.twirpx.com/file/314351/. . . : . ... . . : 19.00.07 / . . . ., 2004. 237 . . . , / . ., . . // : , , : . .- . ., 28-31 1996 . : 6. . : . 5 / . . . ; , . - . . . , 1996 . 143146. . . : / . . // . 2000. 7. . 1315. . . : , , / . . ; . . : [..], 1998. 171 . . . : 164

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[ ] / . . // - : , , , . 2010. . 3. 15. Hutmacher Walo. Key competencies for Europe : report of the Symposium (Berne, Switzerland, 27-30 March 1996) / Walo Hutmacher ; Council for Cultural Co-operation (CDCC) : A secondary education for Europe. Strasburg, 1997. 72. p.

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UDC 281.9:255 (477.8) 1921/1939 Myshkariova S. V. ORGANIZATIONAL BASIS OF THE ORTHODOX SOCIETIES IN WESTERN UKRAINE IN THE INTERWAR PERIOD (1921-1939) The manifestations of national and public activity of orthodox brotherhoods of Western Ukraine during the interwar period (1921 1939) are clarified. The activity of Lutsks Chesnohresne Brotherhood, Kremenetz St. Nicholas Epiphany Brotherhood, Volodymyr Spiritual Board, "Active Church of Christ" Brotherhood are characterized. Succession of medieval and orthodox brotherhoods traditions of Western Ukraine in 19211939 is pointed out. Key words: orthodox brotherhoods, educational activity, public activity, traditions. Raising the problem. The issue of Christian moral values revival in the context of modern Ukrainian society humanization is being raised simultaneously with the integration of Ukrainian higher education into the European educational plane. Orthodoxy in Ukraine performs a leading role in the spiritual formation and the comprehensive development of society. As the experience of its institutions isnt studied enough and acquires common cultural values importance in modern society, we are considering, in particular, the activities of orthodox brotherhoods in Western Ukraine during the interwar period of 19211939, taking into account their educational, cultural, social and educational orientation. State of researched problem: Analysis of traditions, specifics of management and features of orthodox brotherhoods activity are treated in the works of such modern scholars as S. Havrylyuk, Y. Isayevych, S. Kvasha, P. Kralyuk, I. Tymochko. However, a systematic analysis of the orthodox brotherhoods activity in Western Ukraine in the interwar period of 19211939 was not conducted. Thus, the task of the given article is to track institutional framework of public, educational and cultural activities of orthodox brotherhoods in Western Ukraine in the interwar period (19211939). Main material of research displaying: Moral, spiritual and 166

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religious education was an important focus of the orthodox brotherhoods activity. Brotherhoods structure was arranged in such a way that strict discipline which also was called "reckless obedience" dominated. This tradition was borrowed from the rules of XVI century brotherhoods. Brotherhood (in XVII) was headed by older brothers head of brotherhood, brother-treasurer (shafar), brother-housekeeper and others. Their every instruction was performed blindly and every failure was punished. This tradition of obedience and respect was preserved in XX century brotherhoods. Here is an example of the structure and management system of Kremenetz St. Nicholas Epiphany Brotherhood [9, p. 241]. Office of the Epiphany Brotherhood belonged to General Brotherhood membership meetings and Brotherhood Council. Control over finance was carried out by Audit Committee. All important decisions were made at a General Meeting of brotherhood members "for the presidency" of Kremenetz Auxiliary Bishop. "Annual meeting" was convened once a year in January, sometimes in the case of urgent matters emergency meetings were convened "at any time of the year". The main functions of the General Assembly included discussion and approval of brotherhood reports, hearing audit reports on the financial condition of brotherhood, selecting three years members of the Board and the Audit Committee, approval of amendments to the Charter, the distribution of basic finance, conferring the title of brotherhood honorary member to people who brought special benefits to brotherhood, etc. Permanent administration of the brotherhood belonged, as already was noted, to the Council of the Brotherhood, which was composed of 12 members among which there were four mandatory and eight which were elected by the General Meeting from among the active members. Brotherhood Council issued orders and "maintained relations within brotherhood affairs". All current issues were also solved by Brotherhood Council but with the consent of the bishop. Annual financial report and its implementation were monitored by Audit Committee. Checking of accounting books, issuing receipts were the main task in the work of the Audit Committee. All members of the brotherhood were divided into active and supporters. The first had the right to vote at the General Meeting, and the second helped to fulfil brotherhood activity as much as they could. "People, who brought brotherhood special benefit by their influence in society, or by their work, or large offerings, may be awarded with the ranks of the 167

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honoured members of Brotherhood" [4, p. 16]. We should emphasize that special brotherhood attention was paid to the education of youth and, of course, of "young" or "youthful" brotherhoods that were part of the Brotherhood and operated under its auspices and under its direct supervision, but embodied a separate component branch. At the Brotherhood General Meeting leader of the youth branch and his assistants who directed brotherhood activity were elected. For example, there is evidence of forming such youth branches in Vilen, Slutsk, Rohatyniv, Lutsk, Kremenetz brotherhoods [8, p. 89]. Respect and obedience to elders were the main virtues of young brothers. Brotherhood particularly closely monitored brothers visiting churches, their behaviour, not only within the church or brotherhood, their spiritual and moral education, private lives were monitored as well. Simultaneously members of Kremenetz St. Nicholas Epiphany Brotherhood aimed to develop religious and moral character of the people, the establishment of orthodoxy and elimination of the consequences of Catholicism and Uniatism planting on the lands of Western Ukraine, bringing up a sense of true patriotism into the people. Their enlightenment work was to conduct religious and moral readings and talks out of church. In 1919 Kremenetz Bishop Dionysiy (Valedynskyi) initiated foundation of Volyn Spiritual Consistory and Orthodox Theological Seminary at the monastery, which got the official name "State Orthodox Theological Seminary" from 1927. "Orthodox Volyn" journal was printed during 19211922 at Volyn Theological Consistory in Kremenetz and also "Spiritual Sower" in 19281931 and "The Church and the Nation" in 1935 - 1938. A diocesan candle factory, a boarding school for acolytes, a shelter for women of Kremenetz Epiphany Fellowship functioned at the monastery in 1937. Thirteen monks inhabited the monastery. In the 2030s of XX century Ukrainian Orthodox movement overcame complex and unique development path from the state of the ingredient of nationwide movement to a new stage of the Ukrainian Church rebirth. In the early 20s Volodymyr Spiritual Board headed by fathers A. Bordyuhovsky, D. Hershtansky, Y. Pashkevych performed role of this movement centre. Volodymyr Spiritual Board, which was Western Volyn 168

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ideological successor of Ukrainian Saint Spas Brotherhood which was opened in Zhytomyr in January of 1918 took over church and administration functions in four counties of western Volyn (Volodymyr, Kovel, Luboml and Gorohiv). This was due to the circumstances of church life in those lands after the war, during the period of revolution devastation and political power changes, but in terms of church canon there wasnt "anarchy". Board began to conduct church administrative functions (appointment, transfer and dismissal of the parish clergy members, church and court cases, marriage permission, divorce cases, etc.) with authorization from their Volodymyr-Volyn bishop Faddey (Uspenskyi) , first vicar of Volyn diocese. Due to the new political circumstances Volodymyr Spiritual Board collaborated with Kremenetz Bishop Dionysiy and in 1921 took an active part in preparing and conducting Pochaiv Congress, where father N. Abramovych was elected as a chairman, and where he also performed church service in Ukrainian. Extremely important was the fact that it was the first church service in Ukrainian on the part of Volyn, which was ruled by Poland. Pochaiv Congress legally consolidated the right to use native Ukrainian language in the liturgy, the principles of democracy at the parish and diocesan levels, the return of local traditions into the church life. The agreement between the leaders of the Orthodox Church in Poland and the Polish authorities allowed first ones to neglect the requirements of Ukrainian people, also it decelerated Moscow influence decreasing on churches in the region. As a result, the national church movement in Volyn which was led by A. Richynsky stood in opposition to ecclesiastical authority and Polish regime policies. The activity of Lutsk Chesnohresne Brotherhood during the Polish occupation of Western Ukraine in 19211939 deserves particular attention. The Brotherhood intended "to clean soil from the harmful effects of Catholicism and Jewry and to strengthen the spirit of Orthodoxy and Russian nationality in the land" as well associating at the same time its origins with Chesnohresne Brotherhood in Lutsk of XVII century, which existed under Polish King Sigismund III ratification, in 1619 and the regulations of 1623, approved by the Constantinople Patriarch Kyrylo Lukaris [4, p. 18]. A claim of this historic relationship was absolutely necessary from the point of view of 169

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the ancient Lutsk Brotherhood estates which were situated in numerous plots of land in the centre of Lutsk. At these sites, which were longstanding leases, houses and crypts were built and their annual rent was respectable amount of Brotherhood profits. With the change of government most of the tenants stopped paying rent, thus for ownership confirmation the necessity of their legitimating by Polish authorities raised. Polish authorities supported opinion that Lutsk Chesnohresne Brotherhood by statute of 1871 was not a historical Brotherhood, which got the charter from Sigismund III in 1619, but new Brotherhood with such honorary members as Governor-General and Procurator of the Synod, established for political purposes [3, p. 107]. Then Brotherhood leaders saw that without Ukrainians they wouldnt be able to save the ancient brotherhood property, and then Brotherhood chairman Evgeniy Yasinsky in May of 1926 invited representatives of Ukrainian citizenship in Lutsk to the meeting. Obviously, at the meeting Ukrainians required decreasing Moscow influence on Brotherhood and implementation of live Ukrainian language in church services and at the same time representatives of Ukrainian citizenship had to be included into the composition of the Brotherhood Council. These conditions were accepted. Evgeniy Yasinsky remained Chairman of the Brotherhood, the composition of Council was replenished with representatives from Lutsk Ukrainian Gymnasium, Lutsk Prosvita and Lutsk Ukrainian Cooperation and after that members of the Brotherhood who remained there from Russian period, actually moved away from the Brotherhood. Superior of Chesnohresne Brotherhood church then was father Ananiy Sagaydakivsky, that a year later moved to Berezhtsi parish, Kremenetz County, while Protopresbyter of UNR troops and participant of Winter campaign in Ukraine father Pavlo Pashevsky was appointed as a prior of Lutsk Chesnohresna church and as a teacher of Lutsk Ukrainian Gymnasium in May of 1927, he remained at this position in Lutsk until the fall of post-Versailles Poland. Lutsk Chesnohresne Brotherhood with their church became Lutsk region centre to support church services in Ukrainian, especially with the arrival of Bishop Polycarp to Lutsk. Ukrainian choir of Lutsk Chesnohresna church, running by such prominent conductors as Peter Kurylenko, Myhailo Telezhynsky, Olexandr Kolesnichenko (in 170

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chronological order) was a model for the Ukrainian church choirs in Lutsk region and beyond its borders [1, p. 462]. With decreasing Moscow influence on Lutsk Chesnohresne Brotherhood the legalization and recognition of its ownership rights as an old Ukrainian Brotherhood by Polish state power took some time to be done. It happened only in 1935 [11, p. 365]. In the history of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the early twentieth century the issue of separation of Kyiv Metropolis from Moscow Patriarchy repeatedly raised (Moscow Patriarchy was restored in 1917) led by Tykhon (Belavin). Thus, much of the patriotic clergy using the change of state political regime was eager to recover autocephalous church with its well-established national characteristics and traditions in Ukraine. In this regard there were tense debates, as the vast majority of conservative religious elements were supporters of the autonomous "status" of the Church. A few years later, namely in October of 1921 "autocephalists" convened nationwide Ukrainian Church meeting which established church canons and where a substantial number of unsolved issues were reviewed in the newly established church institutions, which name was Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church (UAOC). After strengthening organizational positions, UAOC started to seize the Orthodox territories in Ukraine quite rapidly. With time, under the influence of most internal factors so called "cracks" formed in rather strong management structure of Ukrainian Orthodox Church Council that led to the loss of management control by Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church. As a result, the church split into the Brotherhoods, among which "Active Church of Christ" ("ACC") separated; it was "provincial" by nature and consisted of dioceses, which controlled district parishes, including the Volyn region [10, p. 183]. The ideology of the Brotherhood "ACC" was no different from UAOC ideology as members of the brotherhood were its natives, they made canons jointly. That is why the Brotherhood performed almost its "autocephalous" mission without departing from the existing canons and engaging new communities to its composition. But "ACC" arose as a result of internal church competition, struggle for ecclesiastical authority, and therefore stronger side (UAOC) tried all means to destroy its enemy, discrediting it among the believers. Volyn Branch of "ACC" 171

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at the beginning of its activity had the considerable popularity, credibility as Brotherhood at UAOC. Branch "guardians" were people loyal to the Brotherhood ideology; they promoted the branch development and tried to create all the benefits for free confession of the religious society. That is, almost all conditions for normal work in the district were created but ACC wasnt able to compete, thus was forced to incorporate UAOC. Therefore, the analysis of the sources and literature gives us opportunity to make suggestion that during almost all of its historical path, and this is from XVII to mid XX century, Orthodox brotherhoods activity on Western Ukraine territory was of spiritual and educational nature. Brotherhoods were the centres of the whole Orthodox community; they contributed to conduction of active religious, educational, cultural, scientific and ethnographic work as a support of Ukrainian nationality and national Christian traditions. Orthodox Brotherhoods as brotherly union with high moral values directly influenced the Ukrainian national consciousness, and its cultural and educational activities contributed to nation education development. 1. 2. List of sources and literature . . : . . 3- ., . / / . : , 2007. 688 . . - (. . XIX . XX .): . ... . . 13.00.01 / . , 2004. 239 . . XIX XX . - : . ... . . : 07.00.01 / . ., 2003. 208 . . / , . : , 1996. 35 . . . : / . . // . 1997. 30(41). . . 3848. 172

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6. . . 158. . 1. . 377. . 49. 7. . / . . . : , 2008. 190 . 8. . . : : 2 . / . . . . : , 1993. . 2. 1993. 284 . 9. . " : " / . . . : , 2005. 496 c. 10. . . X XX .: - / . . . : , 2002. 280 . 11. . . (8702000): - / . . . : , 2001. 672 . 12. . . - 1905-1938 : . . . : 13.00.01 / . ., 1999. 195 . 13. . . - ( .) / . . . ; . ( ). ., 1995. 66 . UDC 159.9 : 316. 454.52 L. I. Nechyporuk DIALOGUE IN THE PERSONALITY COMMUNICATIVE ACTIVITIES AS A SOCIAL REQUIREMENT OF THE 21 CENTURY The article deals with the importance of dialogue approach in organizing the communicative interactions as a social value of the society in the XXI-st century; some means, forms and methods of its 173

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realization in socio-cultural space are defined. Key words: dialogue approach, socio-cultural approach, communicative culture. Statement of the problem. The clash of humanity with the problems that threaten the existence, prompted to realize that it is connected with all the world and this world is the most important task which has ever been in the human society. The awareness of humanitys being, unity of historical fate, the interdependence of political processes, science, technology, and culture defines the modern world understanding. The perspectives of the further development the human civilization are faced as a result of spiritual and moral evolution, in particular, the culture of communication as a harmonious combination of personal, public, cultural and natural interests. Such harmonization of individual, ethno-cultural and all-humanity levels of communications ensures a dialogue, which is a universal mean of optimal organization and development the life on the Earth from the biological level to social and personal. The modern school is a centre of social space, where graduating to school integration in the modern social system, development of its standards, knowledge, social norms and philosophical values are prepared. It depends on the process of interaction with the surrounding reality, on its relating to the surrounding environment (natural and social), it is governed by the understanding of the implication to global problems in a historically new cultural context and it is closely connected with the life on the planet. Thats why the forming of dialogue style of interaction between pupils, other people, nature, which are oriented on communication and intelligent links on such moral level when their interests would be harmoniously connected with the interests of other people and nature in the context of spiritual and moral integrity, is one of the important tasks of modern school. Analysis of scientific research. As the analysis of the scientific publications shows, the problem of dialogue communication interpersonal, intercultural, inter-civilization a great attention is taken. Such philosophical aspect of the culture of communication are researched by I. Bueva, M. Kagan, A. Razaev and others. Communication as a socio-cultural process is defined in the scientific works by B. Ananeva, A. Bodalova, V. Simichenko, V. Tymchenko, 174

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T. Yatsenko and others. Special researches devoted to the problem of the culture of communication in the information society (N. Bohomolova, V. Zinchenko and others) have great interest for us. The theoretical comprehension personalitys culture communicating as a component of moral culture is found in the scientific works by A. Ananev, A. Bodalev, V. Davydovych, L. Kogan, V. Mezhuyev, V. Sukhomlynsky and others. In the scientific works by K. Apel, K. Cherry, A. Dimer, V. Kulman the main points are made on the necessity to create a new ethic of human relationships, to find such universal values which can be entrenched in the mans "life world", connected with everyday being and at the same time to contribute the humanity understanding. As Y. Habermas says, the moral content of relationships based on the dialogue is able to ensure the unity between a man, a society and the nature which are lost nowadays. The aim of our work is to define forms and methods of formation the dialogue style of communication in the context of "personality -society - nature" in the socio-cultural space of modern school. Summary of the main material. In the social aspect the communicative culture is a certain level of communicative and social properties of a personality and is turned out in ability to solve various living problems by the means of communication, to establish interpersonal relationships at different levels, to carry out an adequate self-realization and adaptation in modern society [6]. As I. OrbanLembrik says, communicative properties in the structure of a personality are its integral characteristics, they are linked with the society, they percept and represent social relationships, ensure contacts between people. They characterize a personality through the prism of its capabilities as a specific and real participant of common peoples activity, determine its social effectiveness [5]. All aspects of its content determines its structures variety of components, which contains of the following components: conscious: the system of views, beliefs, knowledge and values, ethical and aesthetic standards; motivation: the motives of communicative behavior, communication; 175

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actually communication: communicative abilities and skills (verbal and non-verbal), culture and maintenance of broadcasting; emotional: empathy, tact, endurance, tolerance; onstructive: adequate perception and self-esteem, communicative-reflexive abilities, the ability to predict the development of relationships and interactions [7]. Therefore, in the modern model of personalitys culture communicating is observed the expansion and update of conscious understructure, the priority is given to a personal choice of value priorities. It should be noted that the culture of communication widens its functional space from micro-level communication with yourself, meso-level social group to macro-level dialogue of cultures, civilizations, and mega-level the universe, planet, nature, and humanity in the whole. We took into the consideration such scientific positions as: - the necessity in formation of dialogue structures is based on the sense of community the fate of humanity and the preservation the life on the Earth (V.Vernadsky, Ter de Sharden); - personalitys occurrence in the world of moral life senses and creative activities can occur only through understanding, comprehension, experience, empathy and involvement to common activity that forms the true harmonious relationship a man to the world, other people and to yourself (M. Bakhtin, I. Bekh, V. Bbler, M. Heidegger and others). In this context, the importance of socio-cultural space of school as a factor of forming the spiritual and moral potential of personality grows. According to N. Borytko, socio-cultural educational space is specifically organized educational environment, structured system of pedagogical factors and circumstances of a child. There are its typical signs: length, interconnection, interconnection and interdependence of its elements, his differences from the environment that is taken by a student personal. In such surrounding a schoolboy gets spiritual and personal level and method of communicating with the world [1, 10]. The process of formation in schoolchildren the skills of communicative activities is based on the ground of dialogue approach profession in school is grounded in such stages: 176

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dialogue "I am I am another" is the formation of your own image, which is unique, has his personal moral penetrating feelings, aware himself as a unique component of wildlife, he has abilities to his inner dialogue; dialogue "I and other people" is the formation of the moral image of other peoples, with his own emotions, awareness of the values of the other people; dialogue "I and Nature" is the formation of attitude towards nature as an equal partner on communication, transfer of moral norms of coexistence on natural phenomena, objects; dialogue "I and Culture formation of tolerance as the basis of communicative culture in the modern multicultural world"; dialogue "I and Universe" is the realization of philosophical, moral level of communication with Universe which is based on the agreements with the laws of the universe. The mechanisms of forming the culture of understanding include: knowledge and understanding between people, identification, empathy (as introspection or the ability to feel, see, recognize, reproduce and react on the feelings and experiences of other people, to penetrate into the affective states, to involve to the emotional life of others); understanding of your personality (self-reflection); the formation of emotional attitude to a man; prediction of the partners behavior while communicating (casual attribution). The role of a teacher is targeting in pupils orientation at a positive awareness of the your personal values, another person, nature, understanding and acceptance of their emotions and the emotions of others, forming and correction on the moral basis psychological and thinking operations, of communicative character (verbal and nonverbal), a variety of social settings which are necessary for effective communication, active use of their empathy abilities. The process of forming skills of communication in the context of dialogue "I I am another" is forecasting as an inner dialogue, which is ensured by the means of inner language or as a reflection of figurative imaginations, demands schoolchildren to think about themselves as unique personalities, personal moral enduring etc. In such context one of the most important means of forming dialogue culture is 177

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socio-psychological training, which is directed on understanding different kind of personalitys behavior in modern life, which is constantly changes, on the development the skills of inner and external dialogue, forming emotional fortitude. The main training techniques add exercises of theatrical pedagogic, drama, different kinds of dialogues, which ensure mastering new social communicative skill. The technique of psychodrama means the changing of roles during any kinds of actions, method "mirror" etc. help pupils to understand their inner world and inside themselves from the other side, in their inner world. Moral-psychology effect creative spontaneous, catharses (emotional clearness), two-sided emotional stream between the participants, in site ensures new understanding of personality and interpersonal situation [4]. During this process the inner dialogue is defined (the skills to define his inner world, to mark his personal state etc., which ensures his personal communicative process, selfunderstanding and self-accepting. Such individual dialogue changes into external dialogue in the result of which a personality accepts himself, other people, nature as the highest living value. During the process of forming skills of external dialogue the special attention must be taken into consideration on the culture of communication: the skills to build your expressions, to understand and adequately react at other peoples tongue, to state contacts keeping language and ethical rules of communication and the culture of etiquette. It makes possibilities to use different means to organize active activity. For example, the preparing to play the role of "high life" of the XIX and XX centuries (one of the forms) helps pupils to learn the customs and traditions the peoples of these epochs, their language etiquette, helps to model conditions which look reality, to define invariants of behavior and communication, to show themselves in different social roles. Training classes "I others" are directed at forming in pupils the ability to construct harmonious interpersonal relationships which are based on respect and recognition of the values of others, encourages to act actively (participants involve to specially organized actions, playing and discussing situations), observation (for the partners behavior and communication), to the moral choice in the proposed tolerant situations. For example, such activities as "To live in peace with yourself and 178

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others", "I, we and others", "Let Others to be Another" promote awareness and understanding the variety of ethno-cultural groups, introduce with the notion of nationalism, ethnic centrism, chauvinism, racism. Teachers should take into account that negative cultural and ethnic stereotypes mostly are used by youngsters to unite in groups on the basis on extremist targets and emission of age aggression. Thats why a great attention must be paid for understanding the Convention to distinguish people according their social, religious, political and other signs, a tolerant attitude to the beliefs of others. The training is carried out in the following stages: "who are we?", "Who are they?", "We and they". The result is defined as the awareness of schoolchildren the necessity to make a "step towards" to others, acceptance of others, the definition of those qualities that are common for "us" and "them", the perception of the variety of languages, feelings, beliefs, the other on the principle of "reunion" the unity of humanity as Berdiaev says. The main attention must be take into the consideration to form of communicative skills in the context of organizing the dialogue of culture (adequate accepting, understanding, positive relationship and estimation representatives of groups, peoples, their styles of life, moral world, common accepting of values and standards). The dialogue of culture during the educational process is used to reflect multiethnic Ukrainian and world society. It means the culture of inter-understanding as integral personal characteristic which synthesize such personalitys qualities which needs for her life. During training the dialogue "I Culture" the skills of sociocultural competence as the basis of a moral personalitys behavior in modern multicultural world. For example, the training "Meeting with other culture" helps to understand the existence stereotypes of other cultures and peoples, the development of social attention in the process of relations with their participants. In this case it is very important to use projects "Particularities of Ukrainian and "translated" advertising", "Understanding humor in peoples of different countries", in the process of which the conceptions about main differences and features of cultural etiquette are formed and the skills to compare them in the situations of intercultural communication. The development of practical skills of such action can be used in the cycle of "role games" "Meeting at the higher level" that is projected as a dialogue of culture: national, race, 179

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political, economical, ecological, meeting of civilizations etc. Pupils study to understand political, national, conscious particularities the participants of any political, race or ancient society group, to accept the moral position and thoughts of any other person, to understand that we all people, animals, plants are alive and we all live on the planet Earth, we have to understand our common responsibility for Earth. It means that dialogue of culture is directed on communication in the form of dialogue-understanding. The dialogue with the nature as a unique and inimitable personality, as V. Yasvin says should be designed on these principles [8]. Formation of skills of the dialogue of communication with nature as an equal companion in the process of ecologicalpsychological training, which is directed at correcting the moral pupils attitude of the pupils to natural objects, development of perspective opportunities during their contacts with them, the expansion of individual environmental space. Such activities like "Nature and the deed" like "I understand the harmony", "We are earthlings" will help pupils to understand the relationship of nature and the human necessity in harmonious coexistence with nature objects, provoke to aware of their subjective attitude to it. The Organization of the dialogue "I am the universe" is the spiritual level of the dialogue of communication is aimed at formation of pupils abilities to translate the universe of external existence in the inner world "the combination of the image of the world with the moral laws of identity" [3]. As a means of implementing this task A. Dmitrevska offers a dialogue with others, nature, the universe, Eternity, Truth, beauty, that touches all existing in the world. The signs of dialogue is creative but not destructive status; the basis of this model is "addicting" (identification of the thoughts and feelings of an interlocutor) [2, p. 24.] It is important for pupils to understand the importance of problems of humanity, that in such a communicative interaction helps to accept the social reality. philosophical discussions, "round tables" Socrats dialogues can be chosen as forms and methods of its realization. The subjects for discussions are: "We are the children of the Galaxy", "The energy of the universe as a manifestation of the life of the universe", "The good and evil in the universe and the earthly life", "Is the truth more expensive? ", "The dialogue of religion and 180

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science", "Harmony of the universe and the soul" etc. The result is in depth understanding of the social significance of moral manifestation of culture communication as a level of projection, skills of dialogue communications on the universe, planet, nature. One of the indicator of the personalitys focus on dialogical style of communication is tolerance (tolerance to different opinions, positive attitude toward people and events; in the broad sense it means resistance to the world variety, ethnic, social, cultural and philosophical differences) [6]. The education of tolerance nowadays has the planetary values as a condition of functioning of civil society, the survival of everyone in the conditions of global crises and the threat of destruction the life on the planet, the absolute necessity, requirement noosphere formation of civilization. Such scientists as O. Asmolov, S. Bratchenko, V. Lektorskiy, D. Zinoviev, Rerdon Betty and others define the following criteria and indicators of tolerance personality: social perception of partners and subjects, interest to the peculiarities of each other, the willingness to accept another people as he is; recognition of the equality of partners, refusal from dominance and violence, awareness the variety of human culture, norms, believes, customs, traditions, philosophical positions, listening skills and the ability to listen to others, the ability to empathy (empathy, and empathy), to constructive conflict resolution, willingness to practical cooperation on the basis of consent, taking into the consideration as personal interests as the interests of the partners, who have the right to defend those interests. The conclusions. Our world is a single for all of us. The communication on the dialogue basis has special social significance at the beginning of the XX century, it is one of the condition for achieving personality harmony and surrounding world, full co-existence and further societys development that moves on a noosphere way of its development, characterizes his as a citizen of the planet. The problem of dialogue communication society in the XXI century requires the further in-depth elaboration of its theoretical and organizational-methodical basis of its realization in the modern socio-cultural space of modern school. List of sources and literature 181


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3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

8.

. . / . . . . / . . . : , 2001. . . : / . . // . . 2. 2001. . 1933. . XXI / . // . 2003. 8 (). . 4. . / . . / . . . : -, -, 2001. 528 . - . . : / . . -. . : O, 2003. 321 . / . . . . . 6- . . : , 1989. 447. . / . // -: C / . 22. 2007. . 44 50. . . / . . // 1995. 4. . 19-28.

UDC 371.155.001 S. S. Palchevsky THE PROBLEMS OF THE EDUCATIONAL CONTENT IN THE LIGHT OF ITS MODERN PHILOSOPHY The problems of educational content, connect with the requirements of modern philosophy are examined in the article. The ways of their solving are offered. The conditions of this solution are concretized. Key words: educational content, philosophy educational, problem, tendencies of the development. Introduction. Recently, the articles that carry not so much 182

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psychological and pedagogical, as futurological character appear in the educational periodicals from time to time (B. Hershunskyy, C. Korsak, N. Melman, A. Pometun and others). Often they are associated with the global problem of "human emptiness", which consists in people`s lag from those results that provoked her own activities. The speed of social and technological changes in the environment, rapid accumulation of information resources has led to that today the younger generation has to live in the world that is changing four times faster than our schools, as the famous American educator Dr. Willard Dahet noticed [2, p. 122 ]. Given this, it becomes clear desire of people to get their imagination into the future to predict their own fate and the fate of their descendants in advance to prepare to meet it. Social, economic, environmental, informational value forecasts increasing incessantly. Today they must find adequate reflection in the content of all parts of education for their expediant realization. As you know, for a long historical time the content of education changed according to the factors that caused such change. The most important are: 1) the variability of systems of social and personal needs, 2) the dynamics of social and scientific achievements, 3) the strategy of government for the development of education, 4) the achievementof pedagogy that caused the change of methodological positions of scientists. Often these factors act simultaneously in different ways reflected in the dynamics of change. The most famous theories of education, which influenced to change its contents in different times were: the theory of formal education (J. Locke, J. Pestalozzi, J. Herbart and others.), the theory of material education (D. Dewey, G. Kershenshteyner and others), the system of design studing (D. Dewey), the problem-complex pedagogical theory by Polish scientist B. Sukhodolska, the theory of structuralism (K. Sosnytsky) and others. All of them in some way reflected the dynamic of development of the theoretical foundations of education`s content. Today the problem of educational content often associated with the regulatory basis of it`s realization. It found its expression in the known standards of education, which mean the system of key indicators that are part of state education standards. Today the educational standard has become widely studied phenomena in the national educational literature, the subject of philosophical, methodological, sociological analysis. The 183

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creation of it`s bases has the aim: to identify the essential properties of the standard and their modeling (A. Yevdotyuk), to systematize it`s factors, types and kinds according to the basis of ground of appropriate tendencies, connections, etc., to develop communicative function between different educational practices (N. Borisov), to develop a methodology for forecasting (K. Inhelkamp), to describe and to explain the reality of standardization in education. Statutory basis of educational content in general features determines the Law of Ukraine "About Education". But it`s general provisions do not always help to specify social order of modern society, to find the ways of pressing problems. The competence approach extends in Ukrainian educational space now, which associated with increased practical orientation of school education, first of all in determining it`s results. General analysis of the essence of this approach in the educational systems of foreign countries have made on the previous phase of the study Ovcharuk O., A. Pometun, O. Lokshyna. The key competence of school education the ability of students to study explored in detail A. Savchenko, highlighting such aspects as: 1) the condition of reflection in the state`s standard of primary and high school student`s ability to study, 2) ground the content and the structure of skill to study as a key competence, 3 ) recommendations for reflection in the curriculum components of this key competence. It is clear that the problem of the content of modern education multifaceted. Solved at different levels of specificity and the ways of it`srealization. Each of these aspects enriches the general picture of the solution. Given this, we propose another aspect of view associated with the requirements of modern education. The main material. The philosophy of modern education emerged with the aim to solve such difficult problems, which appeared on the intersection of philosophy and pedagogical activity, it must play the role of ideological and methodological foundations of modern education reform. The character of crisis of the latter philosophy of education explaine by that to this day failed to educate in the younger generations such world outlook that would provide solutions of global problems of mankind. Conventionaly they can connect with three directs of human`s relationships: 1) with the world of people, 2) with 184

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the natural world, 3) with the world of his own "I". Despite some differences in understanding the essence of a new type of attitude in various authors, its starting principle famous Ukrainian representative of philosophy of modern education B. Lutay formulated as follows: ".... the solving of global problems should be the major goal (interest, value) for modern humanity and this solution is impossible without submission of all of our activities that aim" [4, p. 21]. Traditionally, three directs of philosophy use for solving the most important pedagogical problems 1) harmonically-piece, 2) pluralistic, relativistic, 3) direction, based on the idea of combining the first and second, that cholism and individual pluralistic education majors. The first one aims to achieve a higher form of unity between people in order to solve global problems. All philosophical systems related to it, the philosopher Karl Popper called cholism philosophy. The ideas of achivement some higher unity between the types of thought, world outlook, education is the principle of the identity of opposites in an endless, open Nicholas of Cusa are in the basis of the methodologyof realization. Avoid certain failures in the direction of the philosophy of modern education tries it`s second direction pluralistic, relativistic, based on the recognition of ideas of pedotsentryzm, relativism and pluralism. But it also notes known sidedness. Thus, recognition of the priority of only one of the two areas of philosophy of modern education does not lead to the solution of major problems including the problems connected with the content of education. So, it becomes reasonable reliance on the third line, based on the idea of combining the achievement of cholism and individual pluralistic directions. According this approach, the minimum basic foundation for the development of the modern education become the system of substantial philosophical principles of unity and dialogue permission. Given this, the formation of a new philosophy of growing person who rushed to resolving disputes on three areas such as "I" and the world of people, "I" and the world of nature, "I" and "I", its proper contribution can bring some ideas of different philosophical systems: existentialism, philosophy of global issues, marxism, philosophy instability I. Prigogine and others. In this regard appears the need for appropriate adjustments of the content of education in it`s different levels. 185

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Briefly consider the following possible adjustments already mentioned directions of contradictions which generated and continue to generate the global problems of humanity. It is known, for example, differences in the fields of "I" and the world of people which are able to generate the main pedagogical contradiction the contradiction between own "want" and the general public "must." They also directly connected with the global problem of war and peace. Therefore, fostering a new type of world outlook future generations should lay the formation of skills to coordinate own personal and general social interests, and to understand the interests not only of individuals but also major social groups: states, nations, classes and more. To generate the same skills beyond the basics of understanding the younger person known in acmeology personal maturity impossible. Because only a mature person with a stable dispositional tolerance can feel not only distant, and, as the famous Russian writer Leonid Andreyev said in his time, to stand the pain and hatred and torment disfigured human dignity at a time when somewhere in the world beat one honest face. That`s why, it is necessary to acquaint in the secondary and higher education at least the basics of the most common personal maturity, developed in the corresponding concept of Russian akmeoloh A. O. Reana [6]. Examples of such acquaintance already appear in the national educational practice. The main features of personal maturity responsibility, tolerance, selfdevelopment, positive attitude towards life it is not only possible, but also should educate the younger person during studing of general education courses. This view, for example, operates a school teacher of Rivne humanitarian gymnasium G. E. Protsyuk. She believes that the lessons of World`s Literature is a reliable pedagogical`s tools of forming mature human personality. At her lessons the teacher successfully finds those fragments of the works of foreign literature, with the help of which it is possible to stimulate the formation of pupils mentioned basic components of personal maturity [5, p. 17]. Contradictions by the direction "I" and the world of nature rise above all a series of global environmental problems. Despite the great efforts of modern science, continued aggravation of these problems. Stsyyentychno-technocratic`s way of solving them without the harmonious combination of humanistic unable to bring this matter to a close. Support the first claim that the current system of education 186

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almost examines future technologies that could eliminate the environmental threats and completely "cure" damaged biosphere. One of them, K. Korsak writes: "Without denying the need for moral improvement of new generations, will try to prove that in the nineteenth century, the highest aim of educational-scientific complex of the world is the creation and use harmless to humans and the biosphere technology" [3, p. 20]. The main "weapon" ofbuilding of the picture in his vision of the future is the term "nootehnologies" which he explains as "wise production" without receiving the slightest damage to the biosphere desired results for the viability of all mankind by food and products. The word "nootehnologies" is closely associated with the famous term "noosphere", which was proposed by French scientists E. Leroy and P. Teilhard de Chardin and Vernadsky established to indicate areas of safe human coexistence with other forms of Earths biosphere. Analyzing the known world nootehnologies, the author of the term speaks critically about the content of national education. In his view, our ruling elite (from business and management) is guilty of continuing decline of scientific awareness among professionals and the general population. To generate the modern outlook and ability to assimilate and use nootehnologies, he argues, should significantly change the content of all natural science components in the education system of Ukraine. Should distribute among people extensive information about the features and laws of the quantum world; the characteristics of photons, phonons and other collective disturbances; wave laws and equations of motion, nonlinear interactions and phenomena. Specifying and summarizing his proposals, C. Korsak writes: "We need to stop the waste of precious training time in high school on a regular repetition of banal dates about rectilinear motion and its variants, the group of laws about ideal gas`s behavior. The compression of such information free nearly a year to familiarize students with the quantum world, the state and prospects of development and use of new technologies capable to save humanity from the threat of collapse and extinction" [3, p. 2425]. But the differences in the direction of "I" and the natural world can not be solved only on the basis of technocratic approaches and in isolation from other conflict areas, particularly the direction of "I" and 187

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"I". The last somehow associated with one of the biggest threats that, by B. Sitarskoyi, called "human emptiness", connecting it with the people`s fall behind the pace and effects of changes that they themselves have provoked. Its about the kind of threat that ".... Arises as a result of a much larger effort invested in technological and economic development than the development of the people themselves" [7, p. 263]. We think to eliminate this threat without akademization of educational activities at all levels impossible. Everyone comes into this world in order to navigate in it, to find your seat and most comprehensive way to realize according to that inner "live intentions" which laid in it from the day of her birth. The higher achievements acme-period of human life, full realization of the potential possibilities can give each inner harmony, peace of mind, the sense of satisfaction. Without special acmeological directed knowledge that rely on deep philosophical ideas of different philosophical systems, the young person to find himself in a colorful, uncertain world is difficult. The ways which are full of such knowledge, formed on the accessible level, educational programs of various degree of education are waiting for their researches. Conclusions. Cherishing the younger generation of a new type ofworld outlook, which will be intended to the solution of global problems of humanity impossible only in harmoniously-integrated direction of philosophy of modern education, or pluralistic, relativistic. Effectively there is the third part, which is based on the idea of combining achivements of cholism and individual pluralistic directions. It already requires some changes in the content of modern education, especially in the secondary and higher levels of it. First of all it connected with the need to: 1) The development of higher levels of thinking of the student. It is intended to be non-linear, multi-valued and paradoxical. Combining opposites and form dyplastiya inherent human consciousness psychological phenomenon of "identifying of two elements that are both mutually exclusive" [1, p. 10]. 2) The strengthening the scientific content of the subjects of natural sciences, especially in the high school. Deep penetration into the world of quantum phenomena, in which science and religion are beginning to find common ground. 3) The development of individual creativity through the 188

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development of specific content, strategies and tactics of strategic organization aof consiciousness and instruction on creativity in various spheres of human activity. 4) Akmeolohization of the educational space at all it`s levels with the aim to eliminating the threat of "human emptiness" and solving pressing social and economic problems. List of sources and literature 1. . . / . . // . . : , 1989. . 143154. 2. . . - / , . . : , 2003. 670 . 3. . : / . // . 2011. 1. . 2025. 4. .. / . . . . : -S, 1996. 256 . 5. .. / . . // . 2008. 11. . 1719. 6. . . / . . // . . . : , 1982. . 88 95. 7. . : . . : , 2005. 364 . UDC 808.5(07) L.P. Petruk THINKING-SPEECH CULTURE FORMATION FOR SPECIALISTS FOR HUMANITIES IN THE COURSE 189

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OF RHETORIC STUDIES The article deals with the theoretico-methodological basis of the process of formation of linguistic culture of the specialists of humanities during the process of studying rhetoric, the ancient classical branch of science, which is the basis of the professionalism of the teacher, lower, politician, diplomat, journalist and manager. Key words: linguistic culture, communicative culture, rhetoric, rhetorical personality, specialists in humanities. Statement of the problem. The process of humanization and democratization of social life in Ukraine amplifies the interest to the problem of formation of the rhetoric personality type, which would possess the mastery of bright independent thinking, communicative culture in different spheres of life. The time of 7090-s of the twentieth century is marked by the appearance of new tendency of coming back of old classical science Rhetoric, the object of studying of which is public speech and rules of mental-speech persons activity management. This tendency is rather obligate because the raise of democratic principles of social life causes the appearance of public need in people of personal composition (politicians, publicists, social teachers, managers). A noticeable step in the renewing of Rhetoric was made by revitalization of such sciences as Stylistics, Linguistics, Psycholinguistics, Social psychology and Culture of speech. It is a very positive factor. But despite of diversity of sciences each studies one of facets of speech identity formation. To solve the complex problem of speech identity formation is not possible without achievements of modern rhetoric, which performs the function of synthesizer and makes a certain speech cycle, which was rethought and renewed on the very level of history. The concept of investigation. The conceptual foundations of rhetoric personality education were laid by such prominent philosophers as Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Cicero and Quintilian. Accordingly they formed rhetoric ideal with the main features such as: the cult of good word, intellect, wisdom, temperance, morality and civic courage of an orator. The notion "rhetorician-orator" means a teacher of practical oratory, qualification of which let him teach the art of oratory in rhetoric schools. 190

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The above mentioned problem got a peculiar interpretation in native psycho-pedagogical science by such scientists as: L. S. Vygotskiy, S. L. Rubinshtein, O. M. Leontiev, K. S. Stanislavskiy. In 2030-s of XX century Ukrainian and other scientists developed the idea of maximum effective performing oratory activity of teachers with the aim of solving educational problems. Such teachers-theorists as V. O. Golubtsov, M. A. Rybnikova combined verbal and educational activities on the level of understanding the art of living word as pedagogical tool in teaching. N. K. Krupska, K. V. Lunacharskiy, A. S. Makarenko, V. O. Sukhomlynsliy widen this interrelation on the level of hierarchy: the art of word creative person education, which correspond to modern views of researches on the education of rhetorical identity of pedagogical and humanitarian specialists of Ukraine that is peculiarly written in researches by A. I. Kapska, O. A. Unina, G. M. Sagach and others. The hypothesis of the study is based on the assumption that the motives, interests and abilities of students to master the culture of thinking and the culture of speech change dynamically and they optimize with qualitative mastering of the course "Rhetoric" in higher educational establishments. The task of investigation is to substantiate the necessity and importance of ancient classical science Rhetoric studying in higher educational establishments the aim of which is formation of personality with a high level of mental, speech and communicative culture development. The system of higher education is one of main forms of personality socialization, because there this process is more accurately determined by involving students in different kinds of educational and public activity. The higher school is aimed at reservation of objective experience of mankind and formation of features of a future citizen. The problem of solving of this strategic objective by higher education establishments is laid on the important integral science Rhetoric, which counts 2,5 thousand years of its written history and which arose in the times of slavery in Ancient Greece and Rome and the only aim of which was to influence on the mind and wish of citizen by the means of living word. But with the course of time Rhetoric has developed in multifaceted and multidisciplinary science, which has born the chain of 191

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other sciences, such as: Logic, Philosophy, Grammar, Poetics, Ethics and Aesthetics. Nowadays Rhetoric is the foundation of future teachers, lawyers, politicians, diplomats, managers and many others experts professionalism. The subject of its studying is "rules of management of mental-speech activity of the person, that is the rules that define the efficiency of this activity" [8, p.5354], says the professor of Rhetoric Sagach M. G. Rhetoric is a linguistic science which is based first of all on the knowledge of language, which raises the man above the world of nature, defines it as an intellectual phenomenon, which is able to recognize and create the world. Only the language enables a person to realize himself as a spiritual person, identify with the personal I, staff, community and nation. Rhetoric is traditionally recognized as a science of oratory. But modern linguistics operates the notion of "discursive" Rhetoric that is rhetoric of discourse as everyday communication in public. Modern rhetoric is not only public speeches but has a wide usage in different situations of verbal communication which gives a prospective of wider usage in modern Ukrainian society. Language is not only a means of communication, language is a gift of mind and heart, which must be used skillfully. Depending on what you say and whom, Rhetoric gives an orator a task: how to speak, what for and where. The best words about the tasks of Rhetoric were said by professor Koshanskiy M. F. in XIX century: "The aim of general rhetoric is while finding the sources of thought creation one should reveal all the abilities of the mind, while demonstrating normal position of thoughts, one should give the mind and moral feeling a certain direction to teach to express the tiny, to awake, strengthen the living love to all noble and beautiful in students thoughts" [6, p. 3]. The main task which Rhetoric as an academic discipline in higher educational establishments which prepare specialists of the humanitarian profile: teachers, political scientists, lawyers, journalists and managers is aimed at solving is preparation of the personality of rhetorical type, the basis of which constitute such components: culture of thinking, culture of speech, techniques of speech and culture of communication with the audience. All these components taken together are identity card of the person if to add here her appearance. The culture of thinking in Rhetoric first of all is based on the 192

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knowledge and skillful usage the main basic rule of Rhetoric conceptional, which forms and develops the ability in a person to analyze the subject of investigation and build the system of knowledge about it. According to this law, the idea and creation of the concept and realization of this action must precede all the preparatory stages for the speech. If the person follows this rule, it teaches him to think rationally, it coordinates him to go to the aim by a rational way; it protects him against rash actions. The development of this concept is very stage needs a sequence of such actions as: 1. Choosing the object of the speech and development of your vision; 2. Problem formation or highlighting of the separate important questions; 3. Careful investigation of the problem in scientific, socialpolitical, special literature, exploration of somebodys experience; 4. Critical analyzing of the personal works on the chosen problem and scientific information about it. The final stage of the development of the concept is the process of comprehension and rethinking of own and others experience, own experience is enriched by others, initial and methodological positions are chosen, theoretical and general positions of the content are formed. It means that there is a concept of the speech. The next stage in the process of speech preparation is text formation that is giving ideas verbal form. In Rhetoric it is called illocutionary work. Such form of own speech can be achieved by knowing communicative functions of language and working on culture of the own speech. The culture of speech rises ascendantly: 1) spelling and punctuation literacy 2) stylistic expressiveness 3) artistic skills. The main peculiarities of communicative speech are: its accuracy, consistency, appropriateness, clarity and aesthetics. The first condition of a logic speech is the logic of thinking and logic of considerations as phases of thoughts development. The ability to discipline own thinking, think consistently, rely on the preliminary stages of thinking, to develop the next ones, to search for sources and reasons of phenomena, to bring forward thesis, to give the grounding and explanation of facts, to motivate conclusions all these are necessary conditions of speech logic, which were mentioned above, and consequently a high culture of speech, because culture of speech is impossible without culture of 193

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thinking. The prominent Ukrainian writer Oles Honchar wrote, "Poor stylistics is the sequel of poor thinking". The condition of effective realization of verbal communication is establishing of contact between the speaker and the audience, namely intellectual and emotional understanding. The contact can be established by its own if the interests of the speaker and the audience coincide. In other situations the speaker needs extra efforts which are connected with the precise leading of the own behavior, correction of the prepared material and management of the audience behavior. The course of Rhetoric has been studied by students of Rivne State Humanitarian University of such specialties as Political Science and "Pedagogy and Methodology of Secondary Education. History" since 20022003. The content of the program consists of such structure: 1) history of rhetoric; 2) scientific basis of rhetoric; 3) practical rhetoric. The material of the program is distributed by the principle of integrality and concentricity which implies increasing, deepening and enlargement of knowledge and skills in general system of developmental education of humanitarian direction. Small experience in teaching the course of Rhetoric on above mentioned specialties gives the reason to affirm that only 10% of students showed proper level of own word mastering. Own observations showed that students need serious rhetoric training, because they not always are able to lead democratic discussion, debates; students are often unconfident, feel uncomfortably then they have to prove their thoughts, especially in nonstandard situations; they try to avoid public speeches, because their skills abilities of spontaneous monological speech are not developed. The task of the teacher of above mentioned course is to teach students: To conduct a detailed monologue (lecture); To conduct effective and constructive conversation on any subject; To master the skills of polemic art (debate, dispute, discussion); To master the ethic of orator; To develop own oratorical style. Practical classes on rhetoric play a significant role in the development of above mentioned skills. Such methods and forms of work are very useful: role and business games, solving situational 194

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problems, creative competitions on the certain subject, improvised speeches, rhetorical analysis and evaluation of their colleagues speeches, method of testing, "round tables", debates and others. In general the system of rhetorical personality training covers such stages as: 1. Mastering of basic requirements to the oratorical art through defining its place in professional activity; 2. Formation of necessary practical skills with the aim of performance of speeches of different genres, types with the usage of elements of pedagogical mastery; 3. Detection of skills of auto-didacticism and self-reflection. It should be noted that motives, interests and abilities of students to master oratorical art, mental-speech culture change dynamically, they optimize with the parallel studying of subjects of psychological and pedagogical orientation, stylistics and culture of speech, expressive reading, methods of teaching of different disciplines etc. Acquired oratorical skills and abilities can be used in the future in such spheres as: educational cognitive, professional pedagogical, socio-political, cultureeducational. Unfortunately, the course of rhetoric is studied by students of not all specialties. The task of the subject is realized to a certain degree during mastering of other disciplines of psycho-pedagogical circle, though adding this subject to the curriculum would be very expedient, that in its turn would create favorable background for personal development easing socialization of young specialists in conditions of market relations formation. Conclusions. As we see re-establishment of classical rhetoric in modern conditions has philosophic pedagogical orientation and is based on the development of mental activity of a person, activisation of independent dialectical and practical thinking, formation of communicative culture skills. It becomes obvious that Rhetoric that studies the problem of thinking and speech influence on mentality of a person has a right to become an important tool in harmonization of human relations and human life in general. List of sources and literature 195


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.. / . . . . : -, 1992. 583 . . . : , 1978. 355 . . . : , 1993. 487 . .. / . . . , 1992. 234 . ., . / . . // . 1995. 2. 252 . .. / . . , 1836. .., .. ./. . ., ., 2003. 311 c. .. / . . . . , 1998. . 1. 285 . ., . / . . . , 1992. 142 .

UDC 378.14(477) V. M. Rudenko PEDAGOGICAL REFLECTION OF CULTURE UNDER THE EDUCATIONAL GLOBALIZATION The article deals with the educational and cultural interrelation in the structural, systemic, casual, procedural and functional aspects. The proposed paradigm promotes the definition vectors to improve education in the context of globalization, using the categories of "civilization", which reflects the socio-technological forms of life and the "culture" that personifies sphere of higher spiritual qualities. Key words: civilization, culture, globalization, education, personality, humanism. The current stage of social development is closely linked with globalization, which covers the most powerful integration processes that have huge advantages, but also fraught with unknown danger to develop public education systems, national cultures and traditions. 196

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The globalization is estimated ambiguously. It causes resentment by hateful forms disastrous not only for the individual, but society as a whole. The results of side effects of globalization undermine the concept of "cultural nation" because they level education and culture, which are the integral parts of the nation-state within the national core values. The academic community as an institution that mostly creates the nation, is not only critical about the globalization, but also often openly opposes it. Therefore, in the context of globalization, the system of national education has a special role as a factor that can fit into these integration trends, to keep up with other countries and, at the same time not to lose the individuality, the ethnic identity and the national characteristics of their culture. Education is a complex cultural phenomenon and this necessitates the application of pedagogy to study education as culture creative act-event, culture broadcasting process, reflecting the fundamental properties of culture. However, in native pedagogy "cultural space of education is not studied enough" [3, p. 27], "the concept of "culture" has not been realized by pedagogy until now. The absence of pedagogical interpretation of culture "[6, p. 19] proved the object of the comprehensive research of scientific and pedagogical reflection. Education is a cultural reflection of the epoch, while the current system of higher education is mainly based on the cultural dominants of the past a rational view on the world, intellectualism and utility. Its civilization limitation is clearly reflected in the content of education, where knowledge about the experience of holistic human activities relegated to a secondary plan in comparison with scientific monoculture. Therefore, the search of education models, adequate to modern type of culture, that simultaneously meet the new stage of civilization, is an urgent problem of modern pedagogy theory, and a teaching practice either. The problem of higher education accordance to the needs of civilization and cultural processes reflects the crisis that is primarily in the methodological basis of the education. It is caused by the pedagogy transition from educational paradigm to culture-creative, from the "educated man" to "human of culture" [3], from the "abstract 197

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understanding" of social order "to the needs and requests of the person" [11]. Its effects are connected with the "lack of culture in education" [6], the "technocratic congestion of education", with the "knowledge translation in detached, impersonal manner that has exhausted itself" [12], with "content saturation with knowledge in the absence of meaning" [9]. In this regard, the need to develop cultural conceptual frameworks of educational systems can be defined as very timely and relevant. Historically complex and multi-dimensional relationship of education and culture, their relevance, some similarities, identity in certain degrees are recognized and the justified by the majority of native and foreign experts in the field of pedagogy (S. I. Hessen, E. V. Bondarevska, O. Y. Danyluk, I. A. Zyazyun, V. V. Krayevskyy, G. G. Filipchuk), psychology (O. M. Leontiev, S. L. Rubinstein, L. S. Vygotsky, G. S. Kostyuk), philosophy (M. O. Berdyaev, H. T. Gadamer, M. A. Danilevskyy, P. O. Sorokin), culture (P. S. Gurevich, O. S. Carmine), sociology (L. M. Kogan and L. I. Mikhailova) and other branches of scientific knowledge. S. I. Hessen defines "the purpose of life of modern cultural society" as "the purpose of education," and notes that "there is an exact match between education and culture" [4, p. 35]. E. V. Bondarevska emphasizes the genetic unity of educational and cultural sources, pointing out that "both educational and cultural processes detect human presence, originate from a single source from human and exist, because they are significant for him" [3, p. 32]. The trend of modern education development makes it, according to V. V. Syerykov, "the central phenomenon of culture" [11, p. 5]. The "personal approach to education is inherently associated with the humanistic tradition in pedagogy that extends its roots in the deep sources of human culture" [11, p. 21]. The relationship of education and culture is one of the key issues of modern didactics, said O. J. Danyluk, noting the fact, that the cultural dominant was uncharacteristic for traditional pedagogy. The transition of education into a new cultural dimension has changed the traditional idea of its significance and functions. "The educational system is congruent with culture in some of its fragments or types of cultural activity" [6, p. 270]. 198

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According to these circumstances, the conceptualization of higher education is proposed, and based on the uncovering cultural patterns of its development. "The words "culture" and "education" are closely related to each other. Education as a training, breeding and forming is a major cultural form of human existence" says V. I. Slobodchikov [12, p. 13]. However the education is designed and implemented as a cultural process, it should not be seen as a temporary stage of studentsand undergraduates "preparation for life", but as a valuable and substantiated in cultural sense, the life of the subject, as its particular shape. After all, "the process of the peoples learning of cultural achievements and historical experience is simultaneously the process of the development of specific skills of the people according to cultural development. It can have various forms. But what is the most important to emphasize now is that this process should always occur" [9, p. 423]. The pedagogic reflection of cultural and educational space becomes much more productive, when it is enriched by using phenomenology that allows belonging of the educational categories to humanistic or forming paradigm. The phenomenological study rescues the scientific knowledge from the classical naturalistic precepts that sharply divide the object and subject, consciousness and being. So one can reach the consciousness reflection of his acts and their sense, identify the initial base of knowledge of human existence, culture and education. This complements the tools of natural and scientific description and the explanation by humanitarian means of understanding, using, for example, the provisions of I.Kant on morality of positive "noumenon" that has a different, distinct from sensitive and imaginive, moral level of knowledge [7]. The unusualness of education display in the context of culture, the disclosure of the nature of the mutual influence of culture and education on each other, the degree of identity of educational and cultural systems, the connection of culture with pedagogical ideas of the past and present requires some consideration of the historical evolution of views on culture, people, education, genetic and logical transitions between them, leading to the emergence of different interpretations of 199

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these phenomena, which were conducted in the study. Historically, the processes related to education, training, professional and personal human development, have always found their reflection in the cultural phenomenon. Without training and education, without the active transmission of the cultural and civilization achievements to the new generations, the movement of history would have been impossible [1]. The development of culture and education development are the processes that largely parallel and interconnect. Therefore, as S. I. Hessen, has written "to understand the educational system of the society is to understand the structure of its life" [4, p. 25]. Moreover, as noted by O. M. Leontiev, "the connection between the historical progress and the progress of education is close to such an extent, that we can have some opinions about the level of education according to the general level of the historical development of the society, and vice versa: about the level of education according to the overall level of economic and cultural development of society "[9, p. 423]. The analysis of historically and genetically predisposed relationships between education and culture, gives an opportunity to discover that they are reached through a person, who is the connectinglink of cultural and educational system. The historical ties are observed through social and cultural determinism of personality type and the ways to achieve it, which are embodied in the specific concepts, principles and technologies of education and training. The cause-effect relationships are that a higher level of culture requires a higher level of education, which, in turn, becomes the source of further development of culture. The substantial ties are derived from the recognition of culture as a general source of education. The material components determine the content of education, social and spiritual components education. The values and meanings form the core, the basic personal structure of consciousness. The procedural links explain the possibility of education as a cultural process, as the human entry in the holistic world of culture, as the unity of his spiritual, moral, professional and personal development, not reducing or limiting this process by the function of socialization. Thus, we can emphasize not only the diverse historical relationship of culture and education, but also the importance of 200

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understanding all the characteristics of this relationship for the theoretical and practical construction of cultural educational paradigms, systems and models. Identity of education and culture is assessed as a prerequisite for a deeper analysis of educational phenomena in the context of culture, which opens new heuristic possibilities for studying of cultural educational space. A study describes the peculiarity of culture, that is found in human activity, in one case generates values, personal meanings, feeling culture (in the narrow sense), in the second "something else" the acts of technical reproduction, forms of sociality, under which the civilization manifestations are commonly understood. The correlation of culture and civilization is evaluated differently in different, sometimes contradictory philosophical positions (M. Montaigne, R. Descartes, D. Diderot, J.-J. Rousseau, von Humboldt, L. Morgan, F. Engels, P. O. Sorokin, M. O. Berdyaev). At least there are three basic points of view. The identification of culture and civilization (Z. Freud) is based on the basis of their similarity: the social nature; artificial result of human activity; the overall thrust to satisfy the material and spiritual needs [13, p. 19]. The opposite position was advocated by Spengler and Berdyaev. Thus, Oswald Spengler, spreading these concepts chronologically, argued that every culture inevitably becomes a civilization that leads to a cultural decadence and degradation. Civilization, according to Spengler, is the depletion of the cultural creative forces. Culture is a national concept, civilization is the international one. Imperialism and socialism are civilization, rather than culture. Culture is a unique creative impulse. This is truly the spirit realm, which is not always led by practical profit needs [14]. In contrast to O. Spengler, M. Berdyaev believed that culture and civilization developed synchronously, but had their own special features. Culture is accentuated on spiritual, personal, qualitative, aesthetic, expressive, aristocratic, stable and durable, sometimes on conservative principle; but civilization is mostly concentrated on financial, social, collective, quantitative, public, democratic, pragmatic and utilitarian, dynamic, progressive phenomena [2, p. 195]. Civilization is not symbolic, not hierarchical and organic. It is realistic, democratic and mechanical. Teamwork replaces individual creativity in 201

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civilization. Civilization denies individuality. Personal qualities reveal only in culture. Philosophy and art exist only in culture; they are impossible and unnecessary in civilization. Culture is based on inequality, on quality. Culture is aristocratic, civilization is democratic [2]. Putting civilization in opposition to the culture, Spengler and Berdyaev admitted that they were interrelated and interdependent. Civilization and culture coexist, they are inalienable and can not exist without one another. Civilization allows person to solve the problem of social organization of the environment, but culture - the spiritual and value orientation in it. Culture is the purpose of the existence of modern man, civilization is only the prerequisite for culture. Culture is the inner spiritual meaning of civilization, while civilization is just a material shell of culture. Culture in the content of education is reflected in a sense of spiritual values, achievements in philosophy, art, but civilization is in the level of technological, economic, social and political development of the society. If human assimilation of cultural achievements is impossible without spiritual self-improvement and personal effort in thinking process, it is not necessary for understanding of the civilization benefits; it is enough to follow the "rules of use" and "manual instructions". Thus, the "civilized man" is not that the "man of culture". An "internal culture" is what makes a personality cultured, but civilized man is a man who has only an "outer culture", that is subject to the rules and proprieties accepted in a civilized society. Therefore "civilized lack of culture" is a phenomenon that often occurs in life "[8, p. 192]. If civilization embodies social and material forms of life and culture is estimated as a sphere of higher spiritual and artistic human actions, then in this ratio, the opposition of civilization and culture form a binary opposition, represent a necessary set of assumptions and evidence for the formation of an appropriate approach "civilized and cultural paradigm" [10]. The approach can adequately create the reflection sense of pedagogical phenomena of reality in terms of culture and civilization; identify confidently civilized and cultural components of pedagogical activity; establish appropriate criteria more clearly (see table.). 202

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Ratio of "civilizationculture"

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Identity

The juxtaposition

developmentSynchronous developmentAsynchronous

Pedagogical evaluation of positions: Conditionally positive Conditionally negative Justifies the Is not sensitive to the understanding of the qualitative distinction unity of the spiritual and between the material culture; manifestations of culture The universality of valueand civilization, which semantic approach to may lead to substitution phenomena and objects of of cultural values by civilization and culture. values of civilization. Promotes the awareness May serve as arguments of negative prospects of of degradation fatality, uneven development of cultural decline, crisis civilization and culture and relevant findings for and one-sided approach the educational activities to education and training. projection.

Justifies the idea of the necessity of a holistic approach to comprehensive human development on the basis of civilization and culture, based on their specific functions.

Blends the terms of "hard" and unambiguous determination regarding to civilization and culture, which development is more complex.

Paradigm, as a result is a consequence of pedagogical reflection of culture, is confirmed by the nature of higher education urgent problems, including the problem of searching of the optimal compliance of education system to the needs of civilization (globalization) and cultural (liberalization) processes. These problems are "permanent", they periodically occur not only in the native but also in the global educational system. The culturological approach includes civil and cultural paradigms, in accordance with which the culturological direction defines a humanitarian vector of education development, maintaining and restoring its integrity. Civil (social and technological) component of cultural contest is more mobile in comparison with cultural (spiritual) 203

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component, which is characterized by greater stability and duration. The problem of education study in the context of culture is predetermined due to its diverse manifestations that define the multiplicity of approaches and aspects of its methodology. The most complete picture can only be given by a comprehensive analysis that integrates both traditional means of inquiry: philosophical, pedagogical and cultural fact, including the ontological and epistemological aspects, and the range of general and concrete scientific means: systematic and structural, axiological, anthropological, information, sociological, psychological, semiotic and others. Thus, the culturological approach in teaching can be interpreted as a the need for a separate educational reflection in the context of culture, viewed as: - The phenomenon of culture; - Means and results of culture; - Part of the culture, its subsystem, which is isomorphic to culture; - Goal of culture in the form of the sample (ideal) education of the cultured man; - Value from the point of view of its subjects (individual, society, state); - The process and the kind of cultural activity (Humanities); - Cultural content (artifacts, meanings, values, sense); - Cultural components (spiritual, social, technological); - Cultural meanings (cognitive, evaluative, regulatory); - Cultural environment (integration); - Cultural assets (support, motivation, dialogue, cooperation); - Cultural foundations of the personality manifestation - subjectivity (freedom, individuality, creativity); - Cultural personality processes (self-development, self-actualization, search and creation of meaning). These characteristics make it possible to reconstruct education in the context of culture in its aspect, object and subject levels of representation, value-semantic, structural-functional content and other components that are lodged in the conceptual idea. Pedagogical reflection of culture has the meaning that goes beyond the theoretical studies. It serves as a real practical problem of not only individual-level of education, but also in the scale of society. Because the cultural nihilism, disregard to the cultural heritage of the past, reducing of the cultural level of the population, the destruction of 204

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the cultural environment, the loss of cultural content, the erosion of cultural identity, may affect the future of humanity adversely. Deformity development of culture in modern society generates an ugly, "ignorant" solutions to many of its pressing problems, related to scientific and technological progress, environmental dangers, interethnic and inter-state conflicts, the rights of the individual. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. List of sources and literature .. / . . . : , 1998. 560 . .. / . . . , 1990. 176 . . . / . . . /., 2000. .. /. . . . : , 1995. 448 . . / . . . : , 1991. .. . /., 2001. . // . . 4. . 1. ., 1965. .. / . . . .: - , 2001. .. . 4- . .: - . -, 1981. .. // . 2004. 1. .. . .: , 1999. .., .. : . .: -, 1995. 3. . . . .: , 1992. . . /.: , 1998.

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UDC 371.279.7:001.891.5 L. S. Smolinchuk

TESTS AS A VITAL PART OF METHODOLOGICAL SYSTEM IN EVALUATION OF EDUCATIONAL STANDARDS


The questions of ensuring of quality of education and the taking of educational measurements are investigated in the article. The problem of necessity of tests method using, particularly the pedagogical tasks in the form of test for the quality of students and pupils knowledge, skills and abilities assessment. Key words: the quality of education, educational measurements, test, pedagogical test, pedagogical tasks in a form of a test Statement of the problem. The study raises the issue of a priority given to education in terms of both modern world hierarchy of merits and national policies of the most states in the world. And improvements of educational standards is surely critical for any country and Ukraine is no exception. The issue is addressed in National Education Development doctrine, which states that "standards of education are the national priority that preconditions security of the State, observation of international norms and Ukrainian laws that grant a person a right to have an education. And to provide the appropriate standards of education the State secures material, financial, academic and human resources of the country where standards of education are provided for by means of interaction between education and science, pedagogical theory and practical application. O. Lyashenko argues that one of the main concerns these days is to secure high standards of education through all its stages as well as to assess its progress and efficiency, and to manage these standards. This objective has pedagogical or academic aspects along with the social, political and managerial ones. Academic perspectives of the issue. Pedagogical theory looks into different aspects of educational standards that involve level of student competence, academic performance and assessment of learning activities. Standards of education assume that the process, results and 206

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the educational system itself meet the objectives, the needs and social standards of education. The system of these standards should address not only the ultimate stage of educational activities but also the process of knowledge and skills` acquisition to embrace all the stages of educational process that help to reach the initial goal.

Progress checks are one of the basic elements for assessment


of educational standards. Inefficient organization of learning assessments may result in lower standards of education. The issue of performance assessment is one of the most instrumental in pedagogical theory and practice. We have made it the object of our study so that it proves essential for assessment of pedagogical innovations and technologies. The main material. The key points of our study. With Ukraine becoming a part the Bologne process club it has become an urgent issue to introduce new policies for students and schoolchildren academic performance that could help further reforms of our educational system. With a shift to self-study activities that are assigned more learning time a teacher finds himself in the position where he should not only give lectures and classes but rather organize students work to provide the methodological background to lean on in learning process as well as to ensure the regular policies of students performance control for both students self-study and general results of teaching activities. What a teacher should provide for is proper conditions for highly motivated self-study of students and tutor them in this regard. The number of tasks to be addressed by a teacher is pretty long. It assumes monitoring of how students come to grips with the taught material, how deep and grounded the acquired knowledge and skills are, what corrective elements should be added to the contents and methods used in students and schoolchildren learning processes. These concerns find realization through pedagogical tests. The traditional ways of assessment like exams, credits and colloquiums still are effective enough with modern technologies of teaching though learning process now makes tests system in all respects even more instrumental. Russian scholar V. Kandenvskiy claims that the modern life has made tests an indivisible part of social activities. Their universal scope, range of application, and high level of objectivity make us regard them as a phenomenon of human civilization. As any other phenomenon, tests get different, sometimes controversial 207

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response that ranges from their acceptance as a unique objective pedagogical tool for competence assessment to their complete rejection. Despite the interest toward testing system and its wide use in schools, universities and newly introduced SAT-like practices for high-school leavers, our national scholars still have no unanimous attitude in its regard. It should be pointed out that the issue of testing system drew attention of different researchers. Among foreign scholars who did the research on tests were R. Dubua, G. Chance, D. Dobbin, D. Anastazi, G. Miller. Urkaine scholars havent attended to this issue much. Yet the last decade saw many Ukrainians scholars studies that came from I. Bulakh, O. Lokshyna, O. Lyashenko, M. Oliynyk, Y. Romanenko and others. There have also been studies conducted by Russian researchers like V. Avanesov,V. Kim, A. Mayroov,V. Kadnevskiy, V. Khlebnikov. Currently scholars remain divided for both the definition of a category and time and place of their origin. Most of them argree that it dates back to older times that are hard to track. Putting one to test came from needs of human community. With our civilizations evolving things made life of a human and a social group more complex, which brought about changes in role functions of an individual within a group. R. Dubua dates back testing to 2200 y.a. locating its origins in China while G. Chance and D. Dobbin find its beginnings in Greek states. A. Anastazi and G. Miller claim it to be 1920th c.c. Russian academic has a different viewpoint claiming it originated in the early epoch of homo sapience evolution. He argues that testing generated for an early times human as an attempt to overcome and harmonize discrepancy about main point of survival that came to stand between teamwork activities and individual aptitude of group members. V. Avanesov points out that talking about history of tests involves much guesswork on a par with geographers looking for an origin of a river formed of numerous brooks and streams. Definition-wise the category of a test is highlighted in many fundamental and special terminology dictionaries. The most of them claim that the word "a test" was borrowed from English that means "a trial, examination" though there are still some discrepancies about its meaning. Russian scholar V. Kim comes up with 5 definitions of the category and points to the differences they represent though all of them 208

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found acceptance among researchers. In his view what accounts for this is wide use tests and testing technologies have in different field of modern sciences. Our main concern about it is its application within modern system of education. What we think to be the most workable definition is the one suggested by V. Avanesov who defines them as a system of specific tasks, certain contents and levels gradation that make it possible to assess the structure and scope of students scholastic aptitude. The modern science literature knows three basic policies to pedagogical tests. The first principle pedagogical discipline oriented finds it important to check the progress made in knowledge acquisition in the specific subject. The test assumes a number of assignments as well as thorough definition of the reach of the discipline contents. The second one called criteria-oriented principle aims to check the extent of knowledge, skills and abilities a student acquired. This principle sets up a standard or criteria of student knowledge that comes through attestation or entrance exams in educational establishments. It takes in a limited number of tasks in the field of study that reflects a standard or level of knowledge assumed. The last one is called norm-oriented principle where you put to test not only an individual knowledge\competence but also rate students in this regard. It requires a relatively short yet sufficient enough list of tasks that enable a good dispersion of results. In terms of pedagogical monitoring and rating of educational standards what matters more is assignments based on criteria-oriented principle though other two also stand as no less valid ones. Most of scholars and researchers point out that test assessment help cut down on curriculum workloads and stimulates students motivation provided it assumes unified criteria of requirements, higher degree of objective evaluation, combined with progress checks and relative and absolute reduction in terms of studying periods. This is what makes tests method more efficient in comparing with traditional forms of learning control: - it enables quantitative evaluation of student knowledge; - it thoroughly covers the knowledge scope at a time of the test; - and it has unified standards of pedagogical control and correct interpretation of test scores. One can observe these advantages fully if they provide for good 209

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quality tests themselves. Test efficiency comes out through its reliability, validity and objectiveness. Reliability assumes that tests secure consistency in terms of due level for knowledge assessment. Reliability is validated through a greater number of task it includes. Validation reflects the idea of agreement of forms and methods for test control. To merit validation one needs expertise of tests material that has to meet requirements of a curricula and concept of knowledge extent that comes from a national state standard. One of the critical criteria of a test efficiency is its objectivity since it reflects a number of aspects that have pedagogical, meritocratic, ethical and psychological character. To reach objectivity in pedagogical regard one should put to use standardized test programs and technical means of control where fair grading reflects meritocratic aspect of test control while psychological aspect finds reflection in acceptance of grading by students and schoolchildren. Pedagogical testing is only 100 years old and all this time they have known much criticism. Scholars point out its objectively weak points though no one has come up with any other sort of an alternative to make us discard the former. Regardless of the on-going polemic tests have become an important part of educational process. Introduction of tests technologies in Ukrainian educational system is both a logical advancement in this sphere globally and a dire need of reforms Ukrainian education wants. Tests helps considerably to overcome conficts between the extent of students knowledge (that doulbes in many spheres of science throughout the period of 510 years and shortage of study time assumed for its transfer and control of its mastery. V. Kadnevskiy claims that the wide practise of tests application aimed only at monitoring students knowledge narrows their benefits as tests can come to be as an key instrument in schooling. V. Kadnevskiy came up with a term "educational test" and suggested thorough testing that in his view makes it possible to update the learing process. Educational tests, for one thing, help to make students knowledge more systematic and also with positioning student knowledge in formalized arranged variant that comes in line with a course book they serve a purpose of organization of self-control of students knowledge mastery. Conclusions. To sum it up, we should say that test cannot be a 210

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universal instrument of control and it does not rule out other forms of pedagogical control either. Well-grounded tests allow a clearer differentiation of student knowledge within a group and provides an objective evaluation of each student knowledge as well as it helps assess educational standards. Optimization of students knowledge control through tests application ensures upgrade of specialists training schemes and getting a real perspective of students attestation. Tests in education are meant for real-time and unbiased assessment of depth, structure, contents and hierarchy of knowledge and skills. Thats why it can answer one of the education tasks that assumes formation of needs and skills for self-analysis and self-control that are the grounds for individualization and humanization of education, and imparting students with the idea of self-education. List of sources and literature 1. . . [ ] / . . : http://www.bimbad.ru 2. . . / ... . : , 1989. 176. 3. . ., . . : . . / .. , . . . .: -, 2006. 160 . 4. . . // : [ ] / .. . . : OIM.RU. : http://www.oim.ru. 5. .. . . : , 2007. 214 .: . 6. [ ]. : http://www.mon.gov.ua 7. .. : / .. . . : , 2002. 432. UDC 37(091)(477.81)"1939/1950"

T. A. Sorochynska
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PRINCIPLES OF MORAL CULTURE FORMATION OF SOVIET FOR TEACHERS IN RIVNE PEDAGOGICAL INSTITUTIONS (1939 -1950): HISTORICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL DISCOURSE In this article the author analyses the peculiarities of formation of students moral culture of the pedagogical colleges of Rivne region (19391950 yy). Key words: Rivne region, the moral education, pedagogical schools pedagogical staff. Problem statement. Problems of moral development, education and personality improvement worried society in all times. According to value concept of modern didactics, the process of education is at the same time the process of directed moral development and education. The content of ethic education is the reflection of the most important dimension of human existence, their relationship and actions in society, moral sphere, education content. Therefore the central problem of nowadays is securing ethic and moral development of personality, formation and improvement of the main moral norms, ideals, principles, values of student youth in the system of pedagogical education. Gaining such social experience by future teachers, achievement of high moral culture is one of the conditions of improving professionalism of the future teacher. Because formed ethic-moral needs stimulate moral activity of the person, their active life position. The big role in this process is devoted to school, which, apart from education function, performs also educative function, educating an active, useful for the society citizen. Educational institutions first of all must be oriented towards creating conditions for formation of a teacher with high moral principles. Because for the future of the country it is important how educated school graduates are as well as their views, social and moral position. The level of problem research. The problem of formation of moral culture of young people in scientific literature has worried researchers all the time. Among them we would like to mention I. Beh, V. Strumanky, A. Zosimivsky, V. Kozur, G.Poltorak, I Kyshtymovy, 212

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I. Gamrezkogo, E. Kozlova, O Parfionova, N. Dudnyk. The aim of the article is to explore the role of moral and ethic factor as a means of professionalism of the future Soviet teacher in pedagogical institutions in Rivne region (19391950). Because, the moral culture of personality identifies existing moral values in society, the level of engagement them to moral aspects of activity, the level of personal moral development. Summary. The historical analysis proves that, general pedagogical preparation in modern pedagogical institutions does not develop from scratch; it does not underestimate progressive past but implies studies and creative development of everything valuable from the history of formation and development of pedagogical school of Ukraine. Therefore, the development of modern pedagogical education is impossible without understanding historical experience. The use of previous experience and its combination with the current achievements allows the unity of historical-pedagogical process. Special interest in this aspect belongs to the period of 19391950 of XX century in Rivne region, which is characterized by intensive social-historical and cultural changes. The educational policy of the Soviet government, which substituted assimilative policy of the Second Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in many cases coincided with the needs of the region, in particular Rivne region, and therefore was welcomed by the population. We mean that on September 30, 1939 the peoples commissariat submitted a documents about the reorganization of system of education in Western Ukraine [3]. The project was approved by the board of the commissariat of the republic. The outcome of the project implementation was opening of schools of Ukrainian language of instruction. State educational authorities created conditions so that all children and teenagers could attend school. And even though the ground for such position were propaganda and ideology factors (all children from the early childhood absorb communist ideas) however the majority of school-age children received a chance to attend school. Such situation in Western lands can be compared to the period of pedagogical rise which comes after crisis and depressions. A rapid rise of the network of schools demanded not only money to improve resources base, but first of all provide qualified teaching staff. With this purpose new pedagogical institutions and teaching 213

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courses were opened in Rivne region. In 1939 the first pedagogical school in Ostroh was opened on the premises of former teaching seminary, and in 1940 two more pedagogical schools in Dubrovytsya and Derman started their work [2, p. 182]. Education of student youth, which in a couple of years will become the basis of Soviet intelligentsia needed special attention because the influence if the teacher on a young person was very important in terms of education. And such influence cannot be substituted with books, or system of punishment or praise. Therefore it was important to lay the necessary moral values which would be the ground of views of the new generation. The level of preparation and moral values of future teachers depended directly on professional and scientific potential of the teaching staff. All efforts were directed towards studying and using pedagogical heritage and experience of Soviet teachers in educational issues, scientific development of the system of educative-instructive activity. Pedagogical teams definitely achieved some success in activating the process of education and instruction. New methods of teaching were used that stimulated independent learning of students [7, p. 205]. Among the existing in those times pedagogical concepts, methods and ideas about teacher training the most relevant to the historical moment were pedagogical ideas of A. S. Makarenko, which the author called "pedagogical mastery". We will cite some statement of a famous teacher, which focus on professional qualities of the future professional. Learning is "... first of all, in organizing the character of the teacher, shaping his behavior, then organizing his special knowledge and skills, without which not any teacher can be a good educator and cannot work because his voice is not trained, he cannot talk to the child and does not know in which situation what is appropriate to say" [11, c. 144]. "Voice training, mimics, skills to stand up or sit down all this is very important for the teacher" [10, p. 42]. Because of that speech culture of the teacher is becoming more important it is the marker of intelligence and general culture of the teacher [12, p. 60]. During the World War II due to some objective circumstances pedagogical institutions of the region were closed. They restarted their work in 1944 after the city was liberated by the Soviet army and the new authority was established. Without any doubts, pedagogical 214

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institutions of the region did a huge and many-sided work fighting the difficulties of the war time. Teams of teachers and students reconstructed buildings: repaired furniture, fixed dormitories, canteens, etc. [7, p. 275276]. The first after-war years were extremely difficult for the schools. There were no enough textbooks and school supplies. Old newspapers and pieces of paper were used for writing. There was little kindling, clothes, children had bad nutrition or sometimes were left hungry. In a such difficult situation the moral factor played a significant role. Therefore, considering the qualities of the future teacher during the revival period we believe that morality was the most important basic personality feature. As it was acknowledged by a famous Ukrainian teacher K. D. Ushynskyi, "In education everything has to be based on the teachers personality, because the educative power only comes from human personality... Only a strong personality can influence the development of another personality, only a character can form another character. The reasons for such moral magnetism are hidden deep in a human nature" [14, p. 265]. Therefore, a Soviet teacher has to be not just a narrator of interesting, patriotic information but be a person with high moral standards. He does not have the moral right to educate children if he himself does not have the necessary qualities. Since according to a great educator Y. A. Komenskyi, "People develop their own basics of moral life love and belief, only if they demonstrate them in practice". Surely, the post-war era set high standards for future teachers who obliged to form moral values of children, their striving towards learning, development of mechanisms of moral self-regulation, developing a sense of liberty and responsibility. A lot of attention was paid to developing the grounds of moral culture, the main task of which was to turn the socially important requirements of society into internal motivation of every single person. During the post-war period in Rivne region, apart from restoring new educational institutions, short-term course were organized to prepare new teachers. On May 20, 1944 there were 488 schools in Rivne region: 415 elementary schools, 70 high schools and 3 middle schools. The number of students was 50010 people, with only 973 teachers [3, p. 12]. Therefore 700 teachers were sent to the region 215

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who finished pedagogical institutions in Eastern and Southern Ukraine [6]. To assure the region with enough teachers three new pedagogical colleges were opened in Ostroh, Kostopol, Dubno. These institutions prepared teachers for elementary schools. In summer 1945 a reconstructed Ostroh pedagogical college restarted its work and continued traditions of pedagogical colleges of pre-war period. First students were teachers who were part time students [6, p. 30]. After World War II this institution prepared 93 teachers for elementary schools, in particular: 1945 12 people, 1946 28 people, 1947 53 people [9]. The staff of Ostroh college consisted of 17 teachers (14 Ukrainians and 3 Russians), most of whom came from Eastern and Central parts of Ukraine. The director was first M. Koziy and then P. Volkov [6, p. 30]. Special attention was paid to supplying pedagogical institutions of education with political, educational, methodical and fiction literature. Therefore the later was the most influential means, available to teachers, which students of pedagogical institutions in Rivne region used to learn the simplest norms of literary language, learnt lexical and grammatical norms, used words considering their semantics. Since, as it was claimed by a Ukrainian educator V. O. Suhomlynskyi, "a persons language is a mirror of his or her moral culture... The deeper the person knows native language, the better the person can feel the colors of each word... " [13, p. 437]. In its turn, the presence of ethical means in language does not guarantee high moral culture it is necessary to activate these means which is best done through the teacher who is an ideal example. The main task which was given to pedagogical colleges to shape a teachers personality who takes part in social life of the country, personality with strong moral values. As it was claimed by Suhomlynkyi, "Moral development is a complicated life of ballasts their birth, development, strengthening and implementation in actions" [12, p. 308]. An important part of preparation of elementary school teacher in educational institutions of the region combination of theoretical knowledge and practical skills. Therefore according to educational plans students had to take up an internship at school. The internship 216

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included observing students during learning and trial lessons. Such organized process involved communication with children in different activities, during which positive moral relationship and ethical qualities were formed. Such internship taught future teachers to be responsible, honest, fostered features of decency, humanism, patriotism, selfdiscipline which are a crucial part of professional preparation. Therefore the process of moral education of a teacher included formation of moral needs of personality, directed towards self-improvement, striving towards ethic ideal and high-moral behavior as strong personality traits. We are talking not just about preparation of a professional but a "carrier of ideology among the workers" [4 p. 25]. The future leader of childrens union had to help pupils pass the way of moral, social and patriotic growth. Because moral values turn into subjective morality only due to perception by a child. Morality is first of all feelings, the real state and experience of deep satisfaction, discomfort or sufferings. Thus moral consciousness, knowing the norms of behavior regular actions obtain moral sense [1]. Despite the difficulties of the post-war era a lot of attention was paid to the quality of preparation of professionals. No wonder that one of the teachers of Rivne teacher institute mentions, "After the renewal of our institute the scientific work was conducted only by a few teachers. Most of them were young professionals, did not have enough experience and demanded from the authority experienced people. Strengthening of teaching staff, improving their qualifications was one of the primary tasks in those years" [8, p. 20]. Because only in a team, in communication the person unfolds for others and for oneself. The Soviet teacher had a task, "... not only to teach but also educate future builders of communism. This is the main task, the pledge of our success. Teachers, this numerous group of Soviet intelligentsia, with honor had to perform all tasks which were forced on them by the party and the government" [2, p. 185]. So high hopes were forced on teachers by the Soviet government, since working with a lot of people there were agitators of communist ideas". Many children were behind in learning and some of them just did not understanding the meaning of schooling when there were other means of getting profit begging, burgling, speculation. Therefore the task of the teacher was to systematically have talks with children the 217

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purpose of which was to explain the aims and benefits of their schooling. By using such talks they tried to educate their sense of duty and responsibility for their education. A great importance in educational process was paid to students behavior both at school and outside, their performance of responsibilities. Discipline, organization, duty, responsibility are the primary features of moral education and culture of a student. Keeping to moral norms of co-life in a group also required self-organization, self-discipline of personality. It is necessary to mention that personal interests had to coincide with the interests of the group. We assume that there was a psychological problem of adaptation to new conditions of life. The peculiarities of organization of educational process in pedagogical colleges, age peculiarities of students give the reason to think that there were specific features of adaptation process and the necessity to create pedagogical conditions, which would optimize this process. Conclusions and future research. Despite difficulties of the post-war period it was possible to restore the system of education in Rivne region. The organization of the educational process took one of the main positions in social policy of the Soviet state and implied educative development of young people. Therefore, the subject of constant attention of party and educational organs was the problem of teaching staff. In difficult social-economic conditions of the post-war renewal it was possible to organize the admission process in pedagogical colleges in Rivne region in Ostroh, Dubrovytsya, Dubno colleges and let the students graduate. Despite the fact that the Soviet system underwent immense ideological pressure and control of forms of education, the process in pedagogical institutions of the region was directed towards not only educating the student but in general shaping his personality. Views, moral issues were always addressed. Therefore the the question of raising and educating a decent citizen of the country, future specialist with formed professional and moral qualities was solved. 1. List of sources and literature . : : . / ... .: , 2006. 272 . 218


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3. 4. 5.

6.

7. 8. 9. 10.

11. 12.

13.

: , . / . .: . . (.) [ .]; . : . . (.) [ .]. .: , 2010. 383 . (: ). . 2. . 2. . 3. . . -2. . 4. . 92. . . / . . // . : . . / . . . . . . 81. ., 2009. . 178-191, . 179-180. . . (1939-1950- ) / . . // . . 2. 2009. . 28-34. (1917 1967). .: . , 1967 484 . . . / . . // (19401965). : , 1966. . . / . , . // (). 1947. 29 . . . 8 1939 / . . // / c. . . : . . . 2- ., . . . : ,1972. . 40-42 . . / . . . . : . 1972. 336 . : / . . , . . , . . . / . . . . 2- ., . . .: , 2004. C .. : 5 ./ .. . : , 1977. .3. 219


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C.437. . . / . . . . : , 1968. 558 .

UDC 159.9 I. M. Tadeyeva QUALITIES EDUCATION IN TALENTED JUNIOR SCHOOLCHILDREN The article analyzed the characteristics of gifted children, specifically mentioned the problem and analyzed the negative personality traits of gifted children; defined and reasonably human equalities of education gifted child as one of the decisive factors harmonious formation of personality; identified the main functional property of human qualities in the education of gifted elementary school children; designed content humane education, defined features educational work with gifted children and developed a method of education of humane qualities of gifted children, based on subject subjective caregiver interaction with gifted child. Key words: gifted children, as a humane, methods of raining, education methods Task formation . Building up of Ukraine statehood stipulated new tendencies in development of education. One of the major tasks of the humane oriented state is assistance to young generation development, satisfaction of its educational and cultural necessities in accordance with UNO Convention about the childs rights, the World declaration about providing of childrens survival, defence and development. Embodiment of these documents requirements into life demands from the state system actions directed on priority effective decision of the problems of every personality development and self-realization. In Ukraine the year 2011, in accordance with the president decree is declared as the Year of Education and Informative Society with the purpose of providing of functioning and education innovative development improvement, increase of its quality and accessibility, integration to European 220

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educational space with conservation of national achievements and traditions. New Ukrainian school must provide comprehensive persons development as personality and the greatest value of society on the basis of its inclinations, abilities, gifts and talents exposure. Creating of educational establishments national network for gifted youth is provided in Ukraine by some laws and programs (in particular Law of Ukraine "About Education", purpose-oriented complex program "Teacher", National program "Children of Ukraine", Conception of the program "Gifted Children" etc.). The system of work with the gifted children obtains considerable actuality in our school due to reformation of the national educational system, raising of the creative personalitys role in society. The perspective way of its decision became organization of such pedagogical process which started the methods of the gifted students search and selection and created conditions for their natural creative potencies development [4, p. 15]. Analysis of scientific research and publications. Idea of research of the gifts nature on the basis of analysis of the persons creative development reflected in creative gifts conceptions of such authors, as O. M. Matiushkin, V. O. Moliako, B. D. Shadrikov, F. Barron, Dzh. Gilford, A. Torrens, K. Teilor and others. Psychologists consider gifts as difficult psychological phenomenon, inseparable from personality, as a presence of capabilities, their original combination which gives possibility of successful activity. In the works of the last years (L. L. Hurova, O. M. Matiushkin, V. O. Moliako) the concept of gifts examined as complete integral system, which includes all personalitys qualities, but not only sphere of its interests or capabilities. A gifted child is a child who differed by bright, evident, sometimes prominent achievements or he has the inherent inclinations for such achievements in the certain type of activity. The problem of the gifted students qualities were in sight of such scientists as: Yu. Z. Gilbukh, Ya. N. Ponomariev, G. S. Kostiuk, V. O. Moliako, N. S. Leites, L. F. Burlachuk and others. Gifted children have high creative potential and high level of their capabilities development. It is considered that the most important characteristics of the gifted children 221

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are: extraordinarily early expression of high cognitive activity and curiosity; speed and exactness of mental activity implementation which stipulated by stability of attention and main memory; formation of logical thought skills; wealth of active vocabulary; speed and originality of verbal associations; students can ability to implement task with creation; they have logical thinking and imagination; possess by the basic components of ability to study. Creativity is an important description of gifts because it means a capacity for creation. According to psychological research the basis of gifts is born creative potential which develops all the life of a man. Such scientists as A. V. Brushlinskyi, V. V. Davydov, D. B. Elkonin, T. V. Kudriavtsev, O. I. Kulchitska, I. Ya. Lerner, R. . Ponomariova, V. Shtern and others devoted their works to gifts development on different age stages. At the same time the Constitution of Ukraine, "Law about Education" and other normative documents among priority directions of educational process reformation determine realization of the peoples morality principles, formation of understanding of interconnection of freedom, peoples rights and civil responsibility, ability of communication. New tasks actualize not only the problems of the gifted youth education but problems of its education. Scientists state that a lot of highly gifted people did not realize their possibilities due to unfavourable education in childhood. The theme of a gifted childs education was elaborated by all teachers and psychologists but in spite of fruitful theoretical and practical researches, considerable methodical studies there are some gaps in this sphere caused by difficulty of the subject of research. Understanding by a man of own outstanding abilities gives certain correctives in interconnection with social surroundings, first of all in formation of the level of pretension and character of expectations concerning environing people. Pedagogical practice testifies that high estimation by the gifted children themselves in combination with negative qualities of the gifted childrens personality is: egocentrism and inability to see from the point of view of other man, especially if he is more weak intellectually; inclination to do everything ones own way, absence of culture of 222

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dialog and desire to finish opinion of an interlocutor; aspiration to interrupt and correct an interlocutor during a talk; aspiration always to be right in discussion because of lack of conformism and ability to make a compromise; aspiration to give orders to others, and as a result, all this can lead to arrest of psychic and emotional development and social immaturity [1, p. 17]. A gifted student, being at ordinary school, irritates other students by high level of knowledge, curiosity, and accumulation of a teacher attention. As a result it is an isolation of a gifted student from a class. Crossing to the higher form on the basis of knowledge of the program causes the break of friendly connections and difficulties of establishing such connections in a new form. That is why, there are many intellectually gifted children at school feel exiles themselves [1, p. 56]. Lack of social experience is one of the gifted childs sharpest problems. Social non-adaptation becomes the reverse side of its gifts. Overestimated level of pretensions in many types of activity and unjustified expectations concerning coevals, removal from yearlings, clumsiness and unwillingness to communicate prevent realization by the gifted children of their own creative potential. According to the decision of the World Organization of Care of Public Health the gifted children included in the risk group and need special education, special curriculums, schools, classes, trained teachers, psychologists. In connection with necessity of creation in Ukraine on the modern stage of the most favourable terms in relation to the gifted childrens development, the problem of their humane qualities formation becomes special significant because it provides their attraction in the different types of joint activity with yearlings. Such activity assists to formation of cognitive, valuation and behaviour aspects of a gifted child positive "I-conception", and allows avoiding positions of contest, conflict and removal. The purpose of our research was to find out the peculiarities of the primary school gifted childrens humane qualities formation. The object of the research: education of the primary school gifted childrens humane qualities. The subject of the research: methods of education of the 223

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primary school gifted childrens humane qualities. Task of the research: 1. to design content of a gifted childs humane education; 2. to define the peculiarities of educational work with gifted children; 3. to develop the methods of the gifted childrens humane qualities education, which based on subject-subjective interpersonal interaction of a teacher and a gifted child. It was used such complex of methods for decision of the research tasks: studying and analysis of psychological, pedagogical and methodical literature; observation, abstraction, analysis and synthesis, comparison and analogy, design. Presentation of the research basic material. On the basis of conducted comparative and contrastive analysis of psychological and pedagogical conceptions we defined that humanity is the system of a personalitys direction on social objects, determined by moral norms and values; this system is presented in consciousness as experiencing of sympathy and it is realized in humane style of communication and humane activity. Empathy, disinterestedness, exactingness to itself, frankness, responsibility, dignity, charity, kindness, friendliness, heartfeltness, humanity, clemency, peaceable disposition, respect to other mans dignity, reflection, experience of sympathy, tact, tolerance, attentiveness, sensitiveness belong to the personalitys humane qualities. Conducted analysis of scientific sources allowed to draw a conclusion that primary school age is the most favorable period for formation of a gifted childs personality humane qualities so far as exactly in this period active socialization performs, evolutional formation of a gifted childs psyche and character is realized. At the same time the results of analysis of educational and upbringing process at primary school testifies about absence of the system approach to formation of the gifted childrens personality humane qualities. As education of humanity is a process of humane social experience learning, which requires formation of new reasons and necessities, their transformation and submission, pupils activity must direct on studying of the system of humane values. 224

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One should design the content of the gifted childrens humane education after such directions: education of humane spiritual necessities; education of humane attitude to itself: development of selfrespect, thrifty attitude to own health, respect to itself, adequate selfappraisal, aspiration for self-perfection, personalitys humane qualities, understanding of own national origin; education of thrifty attitude to animate and inanimate nature: attitude to nature as to joint home, sensation of responsibility for preservation of natural resources, thrifty attitude to animals, understanding of their dependence from people and care about them; education of human attitude to other people: attitude to a man as to the greatest value, confession of dignity and respect to the views and persuasions of any man; formation of active attitude to life; education of conscious discipline, duty, responsibility; education of readiness to help disinterestedly those people who need it. We consider intelligence, independence, active and creative humane activity as the indices of high level of the primary school gifted childrens humane qualities education. It allowed to select basic functional property of the primary school gifted children humanity formation attraction to the emotional world of other people and entering into this world through identification of other students behaviour activity. It is defined that usage of the personal-developing direction methods on the basis of subjectsubjective interaction is reasonable; interactive and playing methods have priority. Analysis of interpretation and evaluation of situations, actions of real people plays the special role in the process of perception and comprehension of humane values. The important factor of the personalitys humane qualities education is artistic and playing design which foresees usage of different playing forms: dramatized (pantomime, imitating puppet dialogues, deployed dramatization, stage or screen versions). Theoretical analysis of the problem allowed to develop the methods of the gifted childrens humane qualities education, which is 225

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based on subject-subjective interpersonal interaction with a pupil and it includes: 1. Knowledge about humanity. 2. Formation of abilities on reproductive level: ) demonstration of humane activity after elements; ) formation of abilities in simplified (standard) terms; ) organization of independent practical humane activity with continuous reverse connection and positive support from the side of a teacher. 3. Passing to the searching productive phase: ) organization of various problem situations (decision of nonstandard tasks of humane direction, imitation design of reality); ) students analysis of their activity, discussion of their activity in a class. There are key factors: 1. Structurisation of the content of education for students humane concepts and beliefs formation that gives possibility to make acquainted a child with the main requirements of humanism, allows to expose essence, contest of moral actions, educate persuasions, related to emotional attitude to own behaviour and behaviour of others. In this case practical realization of the variants of personal approach occurs as: formation of the gifted childs ability and desire to realize himself as a personality, formation of image "good other", cultivation of the other mans value. Usage of the methods of personal-oriented education: persuasion: individual conversations, frank talks, narrations, moral conversations, verbal mini self-presentations, confessions, mini speech concerning defence of humane qualities, transmission of ideas, creative mini monologues, verbal improvisations on free or proposed topic, suggestions, explanations, personal example of a teacher and etc. is reasonable. 2. Making of skills and habits of behaviour for training, taking part in humane education with application of three basic forms: - with the help of imagination, when a child dramatizes in his imagination his possible behaviour in proposed situation; - with the help of the role game, when a child or group of children design their possible reality, dramatize and do different roles; - with the help of reality, when children carry out certain actions 226

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in real terms. Hereby, there is practical realization of the variants of the personal-oriented approach to a gifted child as education of a child to defend itself as a personality, to cultivate experience to make personal decisions, fight with Ego-thirsts, prevention of critical situations in education through the usage of methods of request, trust, advice, hint, approval, "opened tribunes", communication, problem dialogues, competitions of creative projects, trainings, keeping a diaries of selfdevelopment, project drawing. 3. Formation of moral experience in pupils activity and communication with the help of organization of educational influences as a component of the system of educational work with the purpose of the gifted childrens humane relations formation on the basis of knowledge of the norms of humane behaviour and mastering by separate habits. Such variants of the personal-oriented approach are realized on this stage: consolidation of personal-developing selfdimension, approval by a teacher of positive personal pupils nature as an analysis alternative, which exposes their negative lines. Content valued orientation of the personality subject activity, collective as a factor of unique situation of a personalitys education, personality formation in the pupil and the teacher double position, accordance with image "I" of a pupil to the results of its behaviour. Usage of the methods of public opinion, system of social roles, traditions in the collective, regime, order, social and pedagogical exercises, creation of emotional situations, hidden feelings intensification, strengthening of the faith in ones forces, lessons of spirituality, fairs, projects "Care", "Charity" and etc. 4. Stimulation of the gifted children to self-perfection which requires humane feelings. For this purpose it is necessary to provide the possibility to experience valuable feelings from the humane education point of view, combining these feelings with the analysis of a childs personal state. Combination of the pleasant feelings with unpleasant ones through practical realization of such variants of personal-oriented approach to education: satisfaction of the students necessity in personal safety, usage of "effect of generation" and "effect of presence in educative space", cultivation of touching educative space, self emotional experience as a necessary condition 227

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of educative process organization promotes efficiency of this process. Usage of such methods of personal-oriented education as competition, encouragement, approval, game, "brainstorming", "gallery of ideas", "corners", "circles", creations of the "situations of success", "general gladness", "gladness of knowledge", creation, free choice, study and account of personalitys qualities, support of positive tendencies, excitation of interest to the activity result, analysis of consequences and planning of the next actions, group of mutual act is reasonable. 5. Demonstration of examples of a teachers humane behaviour. Proposed methods of formation of the gifted childs personality humane qualities foresees simultaneous influence on the spheres of rational thinking, emotional perception and making of humane behaviour skills. On the initial stage (propaedeutical) the gifted children master the rules of humane behaviour in the process of conversations conduction, understanding of humane concepts and etc. It was created emotional colouring, conditions for experience and beginning of positive emotional attitude to actions was created on the basis of thorough knowledge about the norms of humane behaviour, creation of the concrete situations, dramatization stories, selection of the role plays. Gifted childrens humane feelings were consolidated on the basic stage by means of formation of humane mutual relations with yearlings, persuasions about the necessity of humane behaviour. Formed humane feelings and persuasions predetermined a desire to carry out humane actions. The next step was become armament of the gifted children by abilities and skills of humane activity by the real actions demonstration, exercises, trainings during communication with yearlings and participation in charitable activity. Conclusion. Development of a gifted childs humane qualities is one of decisive factors of a childs harmonious formation as a personality. Favourable terms are usually created for self-actualization of the gifted childrens own abilities and possibilities on the basis of the level of understanding increase. 1. List of sources and literature . . / . . : 228


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5.
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,1962. 157 . . . / .. // . 2006. 1. . 1217. .. / . . // . . 2006. 4. . 522. ( ). .: , 1997. 220 . . . : / . . // . 2007. 1. . 42-44. .. / .. . .: , 2008. 208 .

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UDC [37+027.9(091)]:271.22-737(477.81/.82) I. B. Tymochko CREATING OF PUBLIC LIBRARIES AND READING ROOMS AS ONE OF EDUCATIONAL AND CIVIC ACTIVITIES OF THE VOLYN BRATERNITIES (SECOND HALF OF THE XIX BEGINNING OF THE XX CENTURE) The article is an attempt to trace and analyze the role of Orthodox brotherhoods (sec. half of XX beg. of XX centuries) in realization spiritual enlightment tendencies in Volyn, particularly the usage of one of the directions of organization enlightening social activity by foundation of brotherhood libraries-reading halls. Key words: Orthodox brotherhoods, spiritual enlightment, humanistic ideas of folk, Christian moral values, brotherhood libraries reading-halls. Statement of the problem. Recently there has been a tendency to strengthen the influence of church structures on the development of socio-political and education-cultural processes in the country. Studying, research, reproduction of mission and role of Orthodox church and its structural organizations, socio-religious establishments including Orthodox brotherhoods in the history of Ukrainian society gives us a chance not only to estimate the process of culture-educational and moral-ethic traditions formation, but also using past experience to direct the effectiveness of educative and educational work in modern society. In accord with this the aim of our scientific research is exploration of the specific of foundation and organization of brotherhood libraries-reading rooms as one of the forms of educational activities of Orthodox brotherhoods in Volyn in the second half of XIX beginning of XX century. Categorical-conceptual analysis of the notion "Orthodox brotherhood in the second half of XIX beginning of XX century" lets us define it as the culture-educational organization, which appeared or renewed its activity in that period for charity and culture-educational activity in educational and cultural sphere of the certain region [14, p. 23]. 230

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Having analyzed the category "educational-social activity of Orthodox brotherhoods", we define it as a kind of human activity (professional as well), which is realized by the separate persons or groups according to the aims and content of Orthodox brotherhoods activity as public formation, and is directed on the knowledge propagation among different layers of population, including charity [14, p. 25]. Content characteristics of educational-public activity of Orthodox brotherhoods in Volyn in the second half of XIX beginning of XX century can be studied considering several factors, particularly: Regional specific of Volyn as poly-confessional environment; Accumulated experience of the orthodox brotherhoods in educational activity during previous centuries; Peculiarities of the Russian Empire educational policy [14, p. 98]. Promoting the development of brotherhood schools, facilitating church schools, founding educational establishments of the middle stage, brothers understood that it is important to combine school and after-school forms of work, "Only caring promotion of the seed of the truth and goodness after school studying can prevent children and the youth from bad influences of the life and educate true parishioners, useful members for the society, loving and caring fathers and mothers" [12, p. 864]. Introducing certain forms and methods of work of educationalpublic activity brothers were sure that "this subject is very important, that all possible pious means should be used if only there is a tiny hope for a success" [12, p. 865]. Thus, with the aim of protection of the orthodox from religious mistakes and realization of the tasks of spiritual education brothers took care of organization carrying out folk Sunday readings, interviews and sermons; buying books and brochures, periodical press of religious, moral-ethic, spiritual-educational character, namely directing on "reading good books is a new and effective means of pious influence on the people", and foundation of libraries-reading halls is "the most useful and cheap means of religious-moral influence on country folk" [12, p. 866]. One of the directions of educational-public activity of Orthodox brotherhoods in Volyn in the second half of XIX beginning of XX 231

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century is foundation of brotherhood libraries, as with the lack of literature people "have to read second-rate and even bad books". Folk reading-halls-libraries were founded almost in every Orthodox brotherhood and contained books of educational, historical, religiousmoral and educative character. For instance, suggested by the brothers list of departments of the library: 1) books of spiritual-educative content; 2) books of religious-moral content; 3) historical edition; 4) books on Geography; 5) fiction; 6) natural studies and agriculture; 7) medicine and hygiene; 8) juridical literature; 9) crafts [3, p. 884]. The following factors influenced on the specific of library organization: the place of brotherhood foundation urban or rural perish; social structuring of population; the level of literacy of parishioners; financial support of a brotherhood; initiative of the governors and brotherhood members [14, p. 101]. However, there was the only requirement for books selection: "neither tales, novels, nor stories are for a peasant its not that point to begin his development" [3, p. 883]. Brothers were sure that for cultureeducational development of a person, for moral qualities formation of "true Orthodox" citizen it is necessary to introduce him the books, which "have the value of good science, teach and educate, which depict the examples of pious life, which establish the will, directed on sympathy, the good and truth" [3, p. 884]. For example, the library fund of Kyrylo and Mefodiy brotherhood (founded in 1865) was composed owning to charity and donations of educational-religious literature from private libraries: books, brochures and periodical press. There could be found "Life and deed of St. Cyril and Mephodiy" by prof. I. Platonov, works by eminent philaret Chernihivskiy, "The beginning of Rus" and "Stories from the Russian life" by P. Schebalskiy and many others [4, p. 9]. The most 232

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valuable were contributions of historian M. Pogodin the copy of the Gospel with the Apostle, printed in the printing house of Constantine Ostrozkiy; M. Pohvisnev Ostroh Gospel [6, p. 11]. There was a significant number of "book denotations" of private character from other people they were single brochures, small books, sometimes periodical press. All those who detonated became the members of the Kyrylo and Mephodiy brotherhood [5, p. 87]. The book fund of Ostroh Kyrylo and Mephodiy brotherhood library consisted of 8 departments, which represented in the table 1 [1, p. 203]: Table 1 Quantities of book fund of Ostroh Kyrylo and Mephodiy brotherhood library (the beginning of XX century) Name of library Number of Number of department books copies I. Historical and other 162 286 scientific publications II. Geography and 14 25 travelling III. Maps, schemes, 15 26 drawings IV. Periodical publications 23 101 V. Religious-moral books 303 357 VI. Spiritual journals 9 24 VII Foreign literature 42 87 VIII. Fiction 194 292 Total 762 1198 The library of Orthodox Brotherhood after Princes Ostroh consisted of two departments [15, p. 159]. The first scientifichistorical contained publications on the South-West land history and data about Princes Ostroh activity; the second one folk reading hall was founded for "common people", where one could find religious literature of educative, cognitive character [16, p. 9]. Literature fund of brotherhood libraries was constantly replenished by the periodicals. Journal "Kormchiy", "Guidelines and 233

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Teachings of the Holy Faith", "Pochaiv Bulletin" were the main clerical publications of that time in Volyn, which besides educationaleducative character had introductory one [8, p. 20]. According to the statutory rules of brotherhoods there were posts of the head of the library and the librarian. The post of a librarian was paid from a brotherhood pay office; the post of the head of library was not paid and was taken voluntary by one of the brotherhood members. For example, in 1910 the post of the head of the library of Kyrylo and Mephodiy brotherhood was taken by the Pastor of brotherhood church archpriest I. Balevych, the librarian was a teacher of school M. Nemolovska [1, p. 204]. Brotherhood libraries helped in usage and ordering books by educational establishments. For instance, in 1885 with the help of Orthodox brotherhood library Ostroh school of earl D. M. Bludov got about 500 books of educational, moral-religious, educative and historical character [6, p. 10]. Brotherhood libraries were situated in specially-equipped buildings, for example the library of Kremenets Epiphany St. Nicholas, Zhytomyr St. Volodymyr and Basil, Pochaevo-Uspensk, Ostroh Kyrylo and Mephodiy Orthodox brotherhoods. Separate brotherhoods together with libraries organized some museums, for example Lutsk Cross Exaltation, Volodymyr-Volynsk St. Volodymyr brotherhoods, Brotherhood after Princes Ostrozki [17, p. 7475]. Also libraries were founded with the help of brotherhoods in rural perishes very often in church school buildings, or in the church. Obviously they were not so significant by the size of book fund, but they performed certain role in realization of spiritual-educational aim among the population. For instance, there were notable libraries founded with the help of St.Pokrovske brotherhood in the village of Krychylsk, Rivne county, the Brotherhood of Archangel Michael in St. Michael church in the village of Verbcha, Rivne county, Zabolotse-Bilichesk Orthodox brotherhood. Libraries were special centers of folk education union [17, p. 76]. Brotherhood libraries followed the strict rules. The book fund might be used by anyone, but the user had to be registered: 1) last name, first name; 2) the address of the library visitor; 3) when was the book taken for usage; 4) own signature while taking and giving back a 234

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book. A librarian had a right to check the condition of the book after it was returned by the reader. These strict rules were set not only with the aim "spreading education among people", but with the aim of education of the sense of responsibility, aesthetic taste, ability of careful usage of a book "as an embodiment of wisdom and enlightment" [16, p. 89]. St. Volodymyr brotherhood had its specific of organization of educational-public activity in Volyn, founded in 1888 in VolodymyrVolynsk. The aim of the foundation outlined the main directions of brotherhood activity, which were directed on the development of educational, cultural, moral-educative, national traditions on the territory. Particularly, the regulations provided: "1) searching means for renewing old church monuments and prevention from their destroying; 2) introducing the history of Orthodox church and the history of Volyn region; 3) taking care of spiritual need of local Orthodox population" [10, p. 656]. With the aim of introducing the history of Orthodox Church in Volyn St. Volodymyr-Volynsk brotherhood established brotherhood library in the antiquarium, which contained spiritual books, and also books on Volyn region history. The library fund basis was publication detonated by Kiev Archiographic commission; in 1983 about 300 books and brochures were registered in the library. Besides, there was a department of manuals in this library, which included different historical documents, articles, notes of country study character, collected by the brothers of the brotherhood ( for example, works by Omelian Dvernytskiy the Chairman of the Brotherhood Board) [10, p. 566]. Similar brotherhood libraries were organized by other Orthodox brotherhoods, for example, St. Volodymyr-Basil in Zhytomyr [2, p. 14]. The members of the brotherhood meeting stated to use periodical press only in reading-halls, because the aim of library was not only provide with the material of reading, but to unite educated people and give them a chance to exchange ideas on some political events and also different life situations [2, p. 105]. Brothers of St. Volodymyr-Basil Orthodox brotherhood promoted foundation of libraries not only in Zhytomyr, but in Zhytomyr district. So, in 1904 according to the decision of the Brotherhood a 235

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certain sum of many was detonated to the priest Dmytro Baranovych from the village of Suyemets for the foundation of church library for general use by villagers [9, p. 204]. Brotherhood libraries were founded also in rural perishes. For instance, spreading of education was caused by the foundation of brotherhood library and free distribution of brochures and books of spiritual-religious content with the promotion of St. Pokrov Orthodox brotherhood in Krychylsk, Rivne county. Books and brochures were given by the librarian to the parishioners freely with putting signature in a special journal. The significant part of publications was sent by the honorary Member of the Brotherhood Pavlo Andriyovych Nikolskiy the publisher of books of religious-moral character for common reading from Tambov, who sent 180 copies of brochures (35 titles). Pavlo Andriyovych, the former teacher of Volyn seminary, was acquainted to the chairman of the Brotherhood priest Volodymyr a student of this seminary [7, p. 380381]. Seven historical publications were sent to the library by one more honorary brother M. Teodorovych. Certain number of books and brochures of church and religious character were sent from Pochaiv Lavra to the fund of St. Pokrov brotherhood library. The priest Seletskiy gave the Gospel and books with works by Pushkin, Zhukovskiy and Danylevskiy [11, p. 997998]. Conclusions. Making conclusion it is important to note that humanistic ideas of folk and preservation of Christian national orientations in education were taken as the basis of educational-charity program of Orthodox brotherhoods in Volyn (the second half of XIX the beginning of XX century). Using organizational forms of folk libraries foundation as one of directions of educational activity fulfillment appealing with spiritual-moral ideas of the Orthodox Church, established on the experience of educative potential of Christian values, Orthodox brotherhoods promoted culture-educational traditions development in Volyn. 1. List of sources and literature . . . - . . . 1865 1910 . / 236

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. . . .: . , 1910. 242 . - . : 3928. : V- 647. 2. -. - / - // . 1906. 4. . . 104107. / [..] // . 1900. 26. . . 883-886. . - . : , 1866. 40 . . - 2 1867 . : [...], 1868. 88 . . - 18801884 . / [..] .: [...], 1885. 75 . / .. // . 1905. 11-12. . . 379391. - 1890 . // . 1890. 1-2. . . 20-22. - , 1904 / [..] // . 1905. 13. . . 200209.

3.

4. 5. 6. 7.

8.

9.

10. - . - 1888 . / [..] // . 1889. 23. 237

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11. - - . , , 1901 1- 1902- / [..] // . 1906. 32. . . 997 1013. 12. / [..] // . 1891. 27. . . 864870. 13. . . ( XVIII XIX .) / // . 2007. 3. 155 . . 9297. 14. . . - ( XX XX ) / : . . . .: 13.00.01. . , 2011. 308 . 15. . . // . 1910. 8. . . 159. 16. . , , 1909. 24 . - . -661. 17. 1000- / [ . (. )]. , [...], 1992. 149 .

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SOCIETY
UDC 32.019.51 M. M. Hon PECULIARITIES OF THE UKRAINIAN HISTORICAL MEMORY FORMATION DURING THE DEMOCRATIC TRANSIT The article deals with the particularities of forming of Ukrainian historical memory in time of democratic transition. The author concentrates his attention on particularities of competing for its essence. To his mind, the specificity of the struggle for the content of historical memory in Ukraine is not only the activity of its political actors, but also foreign states. Key words: historical memory, policy of memory, democratic transition. Statement of the problem. The formation and preservation of collective memory is one of the most significant challenges for ethnic communities. This is particularly noticeable in cases when it comes to their being in transit from authoritarian to democratic society. This evolution creates prerequisites for the revision of historical memory, the transfer of accents in it, and even rejection of its structural components and replacing others. Identification of new components of the collective memory, logic reasoning such changes often cause conflicts within groups as well as interference of external political forces in the interaction of political nation. Given this, we try to solve the following problems in the article: to determine the features of the formation of Ukrainian historical memory at this stage, to ascertain the role of different (both internal and external) political actors in this process. Analysis of scientific research. Theoretical aspects of historical memory, particularities of its formation and functioning are covered in the writings of such influential scientists as M. Halbwachs, J. Le Goff, P. Connerton, P. H. Hutton. Among domestic scientists the significant contribution to the development of the problem of politics of memory 240

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on the example of Holodomor was made by G. Kasyanov in the monograph "Danse macabre: the famine of 19321933 in politics, mass consciousness and historiography (1980 early 2000s) ". Scientists-theorists, who explore the issues of historical memory, are unanimous that its defining feature is intentional. This quality differentiates memory and historical memory. Other features of historical memory are artificial, deliberate creation and the ability to adjust. The last is a function of (un) willingness of society to know the historical truth, or vice versa to turn it into abstraction, nothingness [20]. If the desire of subjects that shape the historical memory is to construct and to use it to create the "needed" synthesis of the modern with the past, it is going about "politics of memory" [18]. That is why historical memory is a process of organization, preservation and restoration of peoples or states past for its possible use [22]. The task of the applications of various plots aimed to consolidate the group with common shared emotions causes the problem of achieving the wished goal. It is a result of defining of any social group or nation in a difficult dilemma to construct memory. Actually the same is the defining of its main structural components. It also causes a dilemma what should to forget (so-called amnesia), or vice versa to update. The latter implies a constant reminder, use as one of the distinctive markers of the past. Such permanent applications (for example, the different points of the heroic past), taking into account the often existing ambiguity of evaluation of certain events or historical figures, etc. causes the principle of ambivalence. Thus historical memory appears as the product answers to the dilemma of updating, ambivalence and amnesia [2]. This triad is one of the fundamental methodological principles of construction of historical memory. Last is confirming its bias. In terms of purposeful activity, the use of different instruments of memory policy appears that historical memory, which is selective, desirable from the standpoint of autostereotype, which is formed and based on the cult of suffering and heroism. But in any case, this memory is artificial and constructed. The examples of such selective memory are numerous. Focusing on the study of Ukrainian historical memory, remember the barrage of 241

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criticism and even stoning their national liberation movement in the Soviet times. This is one of the classic elements of the practice of totalitarian regimes. On this occasion P. Connerton concludes: they always resort to the method of "organized forgetting" [8, p. 33]. Sharing this argument of one of the brightest representatives of the world scientific thought in the field of politics of memory, we formulate a hypothesis that the practice of organized forgetting can be used during the so-called Democratic Transition. The other asserted statement, which is illustrated by the events taking place in Ukraine, is obvious: the democratization of public life of post-totalitarian states is often accompanied by a struggle for the content of historical memory. In this context, we can speak not only about Ukraine but also, for example, Estonia. In examples of its revisionism in the evaluation of the Second World War, it is worth to mention the Sinimyae mountain (or Grenadier Hill) where a monument to those Estonians who served in the battalions that were subject to the Waffen SS was erected [13]. At the same time, Ukraine is a bright example of the struggle for the content of the politics of memory. Among the reasons for opposition to what is happening in our country are the controversies in the assessment of interaction with the "elder brother" since at least XVII century. The most resonant problems of early modern period are the consequences of Pereyaslav Council for Ukraine and the value of Ivan Mazepa in the battle of Poltava. Meanwhile, the field of events of recent times has been largely estimates of individual subjects of the Second World War. It is not only as recently assumed about the UPA, but also on the assessment of certain aspects of the fight against Nazi Soviet flow resistance movement, for example spy M. Kuznetsova. Instead modernity expanded "Pandoras box" of Ukraine mutually judgments regarding the nature and socio-political results of "Orange Revolution". The polemics that is going on in our country about the evaluation of certain events, causes obvious conclusion about continuing struggle for historical memory. Numerous subjects are participating in it: in one case Ukrainian ethnicity, in another the representatives of the Ukrainian political nation ("proxies" of titular nation and those spokesmen that speak on behalf of some national minorities). Ukrainian story of the competition for historical memory is complicated by the 242

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foreign factor (in particular, by attempts of Russia and other external forces to construct it). Lets focus primarily on Ukrainian realities. Competition of the participants for the content of historical memory due to difference assessments of certain events depending on the outlook of citizens, handling them or vice versa standardized judgments that produced as Soviet historical science and propaganda, and modern organizational institutionalized political actors, historians, authors of textbooks. What about the assessment of the last, who are the tool of nationalism (it is hyperbolized statement of one of the historians), L. Zashkilnyak says: "No matter how sad it is to understand, the parameters of studying of history, which were set by new standards and program (including 2008 on 12-year school), havent undergone essential methodological changes compared with Soviet. They form ethnocentric, collectivist, mythological view on the past of Ukraine and Ukrainians, contrasting them with the most ethnically and countries my alien, decreasing human dimensions, producing national egoism and national exclusiveness"[5, p. 24]. These considerations of L. Zashkilnyak motivate to name alternative to ethnocentrism in history education. This is so-called multicultural education that includes study of the history of the titular nation combined with the past of ethnic minorities, whose interaction formed or still forming its socio-cultural space [9, p. 11]. Sharing reasoning of L. Zashkilnyak and those scientists who seek to reconstruct on the pages of textbooks (especially for students) the history of "their" and "alien" in ethno-psychological discourse of these categories, which together form a single unit in the political sense of the nation, we consider it is necessary to give consideration of American scientist O. Bartov a scientist who has focused attention on the problem of (not)presence of Jews in social memory in modern Galicia. One of his main thesis is: "This land tries to construct single national narrative of events, people, culture, politics. It is a comprehensive simplification, which not only distorts the past, but also threatens to impoverish future" [1, p. 232]. This assertion is, in our opinion, can be applied with some caution as the Jewish and Polish past in Volhynia. And this is the argument for the claim that, under certain circumstances, "organized forgetting" happens in a democratic transit. 243

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Well try to argue our position on the example of the implementation of policy of memory at the local level in the town of Rivne. The proposed narrowing of the research perspective on one of the regional centers of Western Ukraine is caused by public split in the evaluation of the Second World War, what is widely known fact. Then study the chosen problem throughout the country must take into account the prevailing opinions about events of 19391944 in other regions (and especially in Eastern Ukraine), and therefore must reflect the conflict of the models of policy of memory among political elites and among residents of different regions. Focusing on Western Ukraine, in fact on one of its regional centers, we have to state the specific attitudes of most of its inhabitants: respect for the national idea, its cultivation. The important fact is that this region is entirely Ukrainian-speaking environment, and its ethnic and demographic structure is characterized by the huge dominance of ethnic Ukrainians. An indication of the region is the rapid socio-political reassessment of events of the Second World War, heroization of UPA and national liberation movement as a whole. This rethinking was held on the background if not full flow discredit of Soviet resistance movement, then at least the refusal of local elites, and later much of the former Volynia residents of heroization of guerrilla movement. Evidence of this is the fate of monuments to the commander of Soviet guerrilla group D. Medvedev and known Soviet agent M. Kuznetsov. If at the time of the USSR, they were one of the heroic symbols of Rivne, its visiting card, then shortly after Ukraines independence the situation has changed. May 17, 1994 on the place of the monument to M. Kuznetsov, which was moved to the secondary, unobtrusive street Yasna, a memorial sign to "Died Ukraine" (sculptor Vasyl Dzhabrailov, architect Leonid Zakrevskiy) was established. The square, which in Soviet times was named after scout, renamed as the square of Magdeburg rights [12]. That year the monument to D. Medvedev was dismantled. The role of the memorials, ceremonies etc. in groups consolidation is rather widely described by the scientists-theorists who study the politics of memory. Taking this into account, we give only an example that reflects the contrast of politicized and depoliticized 244

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philosophy of monumental sculptures. The monument to "Baba Katya" is a sculpture, set in Szekesfehervar (Hungary). This is the monument to elderly woman who every morning sell dairy products, and then gradually evolved into one of the symbols of life of local residents. After the death of Kate in 2001, residents of Szekesfehervar found her monument [15]. With such depoliticized and created in everyday discourse philosophy monuments significantly contrasting those, which keep in eternity the participants of the Second World War. Such selectivity in the formation of social memory and involvement in the process of certain agents is illustrated not only by the fate of the above monuments of Soviet era, but also by a monument to the chief commander of UPA-North Klym Saur (D. Klyachkivskiy). It was set in Rivne (sculptor V. Sholudko, architects T. Melnychuk, V. Kovalchuk) in 2002. The establishment of the monument reflects political sympathies of certain regional political elites and their supporters. Because of the high degree of probability could argue that honour of K. Savur in this way in other regions of Ukraine is currently at least unlikely. This is evidenced, for example, by known controversy about President Yushchenko conferring the title of Hero of Ukraine to Bandera and Roman Shukhevych. The problem is not only in ambiguity of the politics of memory, which is implemented in Eastern and Western Ukraine by regional political elites and its other agents, and thus leads to varied managerial in its political content of monumental forms. The issue lies in the fact that those socio-political or military leaders, who were in the turbulent first half of the twentieth century and are seared by contemporaries in marble or granite, often were the participants of sharp and sometimes bloody ethnic conflicts. Such background can be read in some monuments to the national liberation movement during World War II, established in Rivne. The evaluation of the K. Savurs role of in determining of the fate of Poles in Volyn we can determine from the publications of many Polish authors. One of the most qualitative explorations of this kind is work of G. Motyka. Without unnecessary emotions that characterized those historians who analyze the stories of ethnic cleansing or genocide, the scientist investigates anti-Polish campaign in Eastern Galicia and 245

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Volhynia. G. Motyka made a detailed analysis of K. Savurs position on the Polish population. In particular, he notes an official decree that dealt Poles and reflect events that accompanied the action of their extermination ("This carnage says G. Motyka was accompanied by K. Savurs orders, in which was the direction about the partitions of obtained land among peasants and the formation of selfgovernment) [10]. Another example of the evaluation of events in Volynia by our neighbors is the activity of Polish nationwide committee for commemorating the 65th anniversary of the genocide, headed by Vice-Marshal of the Sejm [11]. We think these examples are quite expressive. Despite such categorical assessment of K. Savurs actions by Polish side, a monument to him in Rivne is installed. It was built in the downtown area, and the label on it does not mention a about role in determining the fate of Poles in Volynia. Actually the fact of the appearance of the monument and inscription on it are striking examples of artificial amnesia and conscious actualization. This conclusion was made not only on the assessments of events in 1943 in the region by the Polish side, but taking into account the thoughts of the scientists, who are not afraid to take a non-conformist stance. For example, L. Zashkilniak on the pages of the authoritative journal "Critique" said that the UkrainianPolish ethnic conflict in Volhynia in 1943 was initiated by Ukrainians [5, p. 27]. Speaking about the monument to the regional commander of the UPA-North D. Klyachkivskiy (K. Saur), we must consider that it was built in the town where the functionality of the national idea is undeniable, and the promoter of the appearance of the monument was Ukrainian Peoples Party, headed in Rivne region by V. Chervoniy. For contrast representation of the problem of the UkrainianPolish ambiguity about the construction of this monument, we present arguments of Polish television correspondent in Ukraine V. Romanovsky: "In modern parlance, [K. Saur] ordered the ethnic cleansing and guided it. From the perspective of many Polish historians and victims families, he would have, if he had been alive, to answer in court for the crime of genocide against humanity. He is the criminal from the Polish point of view, from the Ukrainian point of view he is hero" [16]. Amid emotionality of such statements we can 246

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only note that these words were written under the influence of acquaintance with this monument. Such discrepancies in handling of events also characterize the Ukrainian-Jewish perspective. For example, at Theatre Square in Rivne there is a memorial plaque that informs about the work of newspaper "Volyn" in one of the buildings. Opposite is erected the monument to U. Samchuk, famous Ukrainian writer, who edited this periodical. Because "Volyn" had been publishing under Nazi occupation, we assume that the origin of the writer is the only argument of establishing of this memorial. Its presence in the socio-cultural space of the city is an example of deliberate amnesia because the columns of the periodical were full of Semitism. Gazette Volyn was unreasonably forgiven the calls to Ukrainian to go out to work in Germany. However, both the first and second aspects promoting of anti-Semitism (even forced, if indeed that was), as well as calls (again conscious, or due to circumstances) to travel to work in the Third Reich deserve condemnation. We are responsible for memory, and condemnation is also a part of the politics of memory. The cause of minimization of Polish and Jewish subjects in constructing of social memory by some political and intellectual elites of Rivne region lies in the complexity of international relations at different historical stages, in times the Second World War in particular. The museums, erection of monumental forms and installation of memorial plaques should be understated on the background of interaction of Ukrainian, Poles and Jews in different times and during the war in particular. In this context, we see remarkable that at the location of the Jewish ghetto in Rivne there is no memorial plaque (what is dissonant to European practice), but a plaque in downtown informs about "Volyn" office. This is eloquent example of selective of the components of historical memory that formed at the regional level after the collapse of the Soviet Union and the independence of Ukraine. Actualization, ambivalence and amnesia work together as a result of the enormous emotional intensity, functionality of ethical aspects in evaluation of the Volyn tragedy and the Holocaust. Therefrom is selectivity, combined with the position of silence regarding certain events in ethnic triangle "Ukrainians Poles Jews" or attempts to transfer social accents in the interpretation of certain events. 247

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As part of the struggle for historical memory is a confrontation that caused by the rank of Hero of Ukraine to R. Shukhevych and S. Bandera. The polemic about figure of R. Shukhevych evolved into informational confrontation with participation of foreign countries Russia and Israel. Russian media used the ranking of Hero of Ukraine to R. Shukhevych to deploy a powerful critique of the Ukrainian national liberation movement in 2007. 14 December of the same year state spokespersons joined this offensive: Russias representative in the UN expressed deep concern over the attempts of President Yushchenko to rehabilitate the UPA members. Almost a year later, October 28, 2008, Russias representative to the UN V. Churkin publicly named R. Shukhevych Nazi [4]. S. Samuels, the representative of the Simon Wiesenthal Centre (USA), appealed The Council of Europe, and with this reputable organization he tried to induce the President of Ukraine to cancel his decree on awarding R. Shukhevych with the highest award of the state [25]. Meanwhile, the integration of Israel in the informational confrontation began in a visit of V. Yushchenko to this country (November 2009), when the former Minister of Justice, Head of the prestigious Memorial "Yad Vashem" J. Lapid publicly announced about the participation of "Nachtigall", which was led by R. Shukhevych, in the massacre of Jews in Lviv. His statement about the availability of relevant documents in the archives of "Yad Vashem" has become the core of the information attack aimed at discrediting of President Yushchenkos decree on awarding the commander of the UPA with the title of Hero of Ukraine [17]. This statement was a kind of message bomb that rocked not only public opinion in Ukraine and Israel, but in some European countries. Thus, Ukraine was in the grip of information resistance: this factor defines one of the features of formation / adjusting of policy of memory at the beginning of the XXI century in Ukraine. At the core of acute controversy and accusations arose history, actually its interpretation by the various stakeholders of the confrontation. Another example of conflict of memories, including attitudes towards S. Bandera in different regions of Ukraine, is the initiative of some persons (in particular, S. Paladiychuk, Rivne City Council) to erect monument to S. Bandera in the town of Rivne [23]. 248

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The internal conflicts around the figure of S. Bandera accompanied by publicizing of evaluation of President Yushchenkos decree by foreign forces. Thus, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia interpreted the acts of the head of the Ukrainian state as odious event. The official website of Polish President Lech Kaczynski published information that condemned the decree of the President of Ukraine. Leader of Poland stated that the actions of V. Yushchenko "... undermine the historical process of dialogue and reconciliation" of the two nations [7]. The awarding of S. Bandera with the title of Hero of Ukraine was negatively evaluated also by the representatives of the Simon Wiesenthal Centre (USA) [7]. Thus, democratic transit in Ukraine has been accompanied by the defining of major structural components of historical memory. Competition / fight for its content is realized not only in verbal way, but also through the construction of monuments, installation of memorial plaques, orientation signs in cities etc. The particularity of shaping of Ukrainian historical memory is the interference in this process of external forces. Being of Ukraine in epicentre of information counter determines the dilemma of considering or vice versa the positions of subjects of the information attack against it. In this dilemma lies Ukrainian answer on choice of actualization, ambivalence and amnesia as plausible components in forming of historical memory. It is obvious, that public discussion of the contents of Ukrainian historical memory that lasts at present, reflects those massive changes that have occurred in our country in time of Democratic Transition. List of sources and literature 1. . . / ; [. . . ]. . : ; , 2010. 300 . 2. . [ ] / . : http://www.istpravda.com.ua/columns/2010/11/8/3477 3. . ? [ ] / . : 249

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http://www.ukrcenter.com/library/read.asp?id=6819 4. . [ ] / . : http://www.day.kiev.ua/277079/ 5. . / // . 2009. . 910 (). . 2427. 6. : [ ]. : http://newzz.in.ua/main/1148837638-izrail-ukraina-vojjnakompromatov-na-evrejjskojj.html 7. [ ]. : http://lenta.ru/news/2010/02/05/polityczne/ 8. . / ; [. . . ]. . : -, 2004. 184 . 9. . / // . 2008. 1112. . 911. 10. . [ ] / . : http://www.ji.lviv.ua/n28text/motyka1.htm 11. : , [ ]. : http://www.tyahnybok.info/dopysy/zmi/004922/ 12. [ ]. : http://www.poshuk-lviv.org.ua/pomnik/volyn/rivne_zagyblym.htm 13. . [ ] / // . . : http://urokiistorii.ru/1319 14. , ! [ ]. : http://www.pravdapro.org/index.php? option=com_content&view=article&id 15. . , [ ] / 250

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16. 17.

18.

19. 20. 21. 22.

23. 24. 25.

. : http://vika-r.blogspot.com/2011/03/ blog-post_7563.html#more . [ ] / . : http://www.ji-magazine.lviv.ua/dyskusija/volyn/romanowski.htm . ? [ ] / // . 2008, 1117 . : http://cn.com.ua/N495/lesson_history/index.html . : . [ ] / . , . . : http://www.gumer.info/bibliotek_Buks/History/savel/08.php [ ]. : http://shorec.livejournal.com/574421.html [ ]. : http://hedir.openu.ac.il/kurs/skorb_poznaniya-book.html [ ]. : http://www.ogo.ua/articles/view/2011-01-20/25713.html . . . [ ] / . . // . 2000. 4. : http://vivovoco.rsl.ru/VV/JOURNAL/NEWHIST/HIMEM.HTM [ ]. : http://www.ogo.rv.ua/hot_news/32500 . ? / // . 2010. . 78 (153154). . 2021. . : [ ] / // . 2008. 5/168 (). : http://www.jewukr.org/observer/eo2003/page_show_ru.php?id=2370 251

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S. N. Hrypych

UDC [02+008]:316.3 INFORMATIZATION OF MODERN SOCIETY: STATE, PROBLEMS, PROSPECTS This article analyzes the nature of the process of informatization of modern society, characterized by its position in the global and domestic space culture. The attention to historical aspects of information. Defined features of the Information Society, features the information culture in society. Prospects of informatization of modern societies. Keywords. Information, information processes, information culture, community, social and cultural conditions, information society, information needs. Statement of the problem. Since the second half of the 20 th century the value and role of information in the decision of practically all tasks of global world in the civilized world have been increasing. It serves as a strong argument for evolutional transformation from the scientific and technological revolution to the intellectual and informative one. The modern stage of development of civilization is also characterized by the growing role of information and of communication technologies. The researches (Abdeiev [1], H. Vorobiov [4], [5], Y. Demydenko [7], M. oiseiev [16]) view this process as the global information revolution that greatly surpasses industrial (the th century), scientific and technological ( the middle of the th century) revolutions in the scope and effect. The problem of informatization of society( keeping together with safety, ecological security, etc.) became a priority and the value of it in the society grows constantly. Analysis of scientific research. As early as in the 50-70 ss of the XX century it became obvious that humanity enters a new epoch precipitated by rapid development of technique and, first of all, computers. Development of computer technologies allowed the society to approach the global problem of informatization that connected with the rapid integration processes getting to all spheres of our activity: 252

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science, culture, education, production, management. Informatization of the society is a global social process with the special feature. The thing is that the dominant type of activity in the sphere of public production is a collection, accumulation, regulation, maintenance, transmission, use, producting of information, carried out on the basis of modern facilities of microprocessor and calculable technique, and also various facilities of informative co-operation and exchange. In present sociocultural terms information is examined as something independent next to such categories as a matter and energy. . Ursul asserts that information is not simply a property or attribute of the matter and all its systems but it plays a very important role in the "life" of these systems, in the whole environment [22, p. 6]. Many facts and discovered regularities testify to priorities of information over a substance and energy: more and more replacing materially-power resources or substantially complementing them, information helps to change cardinally all structure of social activity. The most common determination of term "information" is given by philosophers who define it as "reflection of variety in any objects and processes of living and lifeless nature" [24, p. 222]. The main material. The history of informatization development began in the USA in the 60 of the XXth century. Later this concept was examined by some countries: Japan in 70 th and the countries of Western Europe since the end of 70 th by. Computers became the panacea in processing of any information, they act as a reinforcer of intellectual possibilities of a man and society on the whole. The appearance and development of computers is the integral part of the process of informatization of society and education. During the informatization of society they pay basic attention to the complex of the measures directed to providing of complete use of reliable, exhaustive and timely knowledge in all types of human activity. For this reason, this concept is wider than "computerization of society", where the basic attention is payed to the development and introduction of the base of computers that provide the operative receipt of information. In the concept "informatization of society" an accent must be done not only on the technical equipments, but on essence and aims of socialtechnical progress. Informatization based on the of introduction of 253

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computer and telecommunication technologies is the reaction of society on a requirement in the substantial increase of the labour productivity in the informative sector of public production, where the more than half of capable of working population is concentrated. In most developed countries people understand that remaining behind in the field of information and communication technologies can become ruinous for their development on the whole. Society with the high level of development and information technologies where developed infrastructures provide the production of informative resources and possibility of access to the information is information society (IS). The "information society" as a collocation first appeared in Japan in a middle of the 60 th of the XX century. The Japanese scientists consider that in the information society a process of computerization will give an access to safe sources of information, will deprive them of routine work. The process will provide the high level of automation of treatment of information in productive and social spheres. The production of informative not material product must become a motive force for the development of society. They determine the following characteristics of information society: - the problem of information crisis has solved; - the priority of information in comparison with other resources; - the informative economy will become a main form of development; - computer-aided generation, storage, processing and use of knowledge with the help of the newest informative technique and technology will be laid in the basis of society; - the information technology will get a global character embracing all spheres of social activity of people; - formation of informative unity of all human civilization; - free access to the informative resources of all civilization for everyone; - in the management of society and in its influence on the environment the humanistic principles are realized. The countries with developed informative industry are the first on the way to the information society. They are: the USA, Japan, England, Germany, countries of Western Europe. For a long time in these 254

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countries the direction related to the investments and support of innovations in informative industry, development of the computer systems and telecommunications is one of the directions of public policy. In the transition period to the information society it is necessary to prepare human to rapid perception and treatment of information, capture by her by modern facilities, methods and technology of work. In addition, the new labour conditions generate dependence a mans knowledge on the information received from other people. Therefore it is not enough to be able to master and accumulate information independently. It is necessary to learn the special technology of work with information when decisions are prepared and accepted on the basis of collective knowledge. It deserves a certain level of culture of handling the information. In order to reflect this fact the term "information culture" was introduced. The information culture is the ability to work with information purposefully and to use computer information technology, modern technical equipments and methods for its receiving, treatment and transmission. Many definitions of information culture in research works they propose. So, V. Militareva and . Yahloma [14] define the information culture as a sum of knowledge about the basic methods of presentation of the information and abilities to apply them in practice for formulation and solution of contents. Semenuk has the other approach: the "Information culture is a degree of perfection of man, society or his certain part in all possible types of works with information: its receiving, accumulation, coding and processing of any kind, in creation on this basis qualitatively new information, her transmission, practical use" [21, p. 3]. B. Semenovker proposes the following definition: the "Information culture is a complex of information possibilities accessible to the specialist in any sphere in the process of development of civilization" [20, p. 1115]. Thus, the most definitions provide for and include the complex of all engaged in the informative activity which directed to the satisfaction of information need. Since no one can exist and form without participating in the 255

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information interaction with other people the question about the origin and development of social need of information or inforneed arises. Researches as V. Kohan, V. Uhanov, H. Scherbytskyi etc. acknowledge the significance of information need. They define it as a "meganeed" because realization of all needs expects first of all providing information. V. Kohan is right asserting the following: "Realization of all other necessities : in labour, education, leisure, cultural and scientific blessing and others like that - as an obligatory condition admits a previous satisfaction of requirement to information" [8, p. 54]. Nowadays a considerable number of definitions exists. For example, some of them: "information needed for the achievement of some aim" [3, p. 57], "characteristics of a person, a group or any system that represent the necessity of receiving of information and agree with the character of actions or works executed" [3, p. 57]. Definition of information needs given by O.Kuznyetsova is much closer for the educational sphere. Information need is a need for knowledge, which is inherent in every society. It expresses its personality and is reflected in the form of specific requests for information [9, p. 23]. V.Polonskyy in his research of information needs of educators, heads of educational institutions, research institutes, senior officials of ministries and agencies, scientists, and teachers, classifies this type of needs as a special field of cognitive and practical activities, of internal human experiences [19, p. 71]. Some psychologists (M. Myrimanova) understand information need as the necessity "to obtain certain portions of information that can be provided by media-area" [15, p. 4]. This definition is focused on the achieving information from general "reserves" and completely ignores the activities of the new information production. But the achieving of fundamentally new information is the result of arisen information need. Several other researchers consider psychological model or image as the main point of formation and development of information needs. Thus, according to D. Blumenau, "information need is an act of awareness of our lack of knowledge for the completion of a psychological model of the object, which reflects the level of our understanding of this object" [2, p. 8]. Scientists of active approach to information (R. Hilyarevsky, V. Markusova, O. Chorny) state that 256

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information need is a perceived need for information to solve the previously developed task according to the plan [6, p. 5]. H. Scherbytsky said that "activity is the starting point of learning needs, and consequently, the starting point of information needs. Activity is the "entrance", through which the personal information needs are implemented" [25, p. 47]. Information need should be considered in a broader sense (N. Markova), "as the need for complex data that complement the original meaning by which an object of informational influence solves the problem that arose before him in the process of interaction with the surrounding and which solution is thought to support his or her operations in the nearest period of time at an optimal level, within society and professional activities" [12, p. 139]. A great number of researchers link information need with the need for scientific or other special information. Thus, information need is (T. Fedorova) the internal state of the subject that reflects the lack of scientific information to be used in research or scientific activity [23, p. 54]. T. Muranivsky believes that "information need should be understood as the ability of a person or a system (e.g. production or administrative process, etc.) to reflect the need of regular receiving and using information that ensures effective operation of the system" [17, p. 4 ]. However, the variety of thoughts about the nature of information need still leaves the major problem of the mechanism of needs formation and functioning. There are already mentioned scientists (R. Hilyarevsky, N. Zynoviev, V. Kohan, V. Markusova, A. Sokolov, O. Chorny, H. Scherbytsky and others) who develop the issue in this aspect. For a free orientation in the information space a person must possess information culture as a component of general culture. Information culture is closely connected with the social nature of man. It is the product of diverse creative human abilities and could be found in the following aspects: - the skills of using various technical devices (from phone to PC and computer networks); - the ability to use computer information technologies and different software; 257

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- the ability to "extract" information from different sources as from periodical press and the electronic communications, to represent it in a clear manner and be able to use it effectively; - the skills of using analytical information processing; - the ability to work with different information; - the knowledge of the informational flows in certain field. Information culture absorbs the knowledge of those sciences that contribute its development and adaptation to a particular activity (cybernetics, computer science, information theory, mathematics, the theory of database design and a number of other disciplines). An integral part of information culture is knowledge of new information technology and the ability to use it for routine operations and in extraordinary situations that require unconventional creativity. The information society demands to begin to acquire information culture since childhood, initially through electronic toys, and engaging personal computer. For higher education the social order of the information society means to ensure the level of students information culture enough for work in a particular field. In the process of information culture formation the high school student should study of theoretical subjects in information much time should be given to computer information technologies, which are the basic components of future scope. In the information society, the focus is on the social production, which significantly increases requirements for training of all participants. Therefore, the informatisation program focuses on informatisation of education that is directly related to the acquisition and development of information culture. This, in turn, understands education as the "object" of information where it is necessary to change the content of the training in order to ensure future specialists not only in general and professional computer knowledge, but also at the necessary level of information culture. Just now we can see further confrontation between the people involved in the information technologies development, and certain categories of people, e.g. villagers of particular age group (it is very difficult or even impossible for them to adapt to modern information society). Sometimes information technologies brazenly interfere in private lives of people and organizations, destroying it. The problem of 258

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selection of quality and reliable information is becoming sharper. Developed information society is an attribute of progress as the role of knowledge as a decisive factor in the society existence and it becomes increasingly apparent. In case of stable development of information technologies, communication facilities and systems, production and services, information should be successful with the support of the rapid development of high-tech engineering and communications. Successful informational development will develop existing and new data and knowledge bases, unlimited access to all means of communication, especially to personal computers. It also will support computerization of retraining and education, industry automation, manufacturing and mining industries, transport and processing of agricultural products, robotics and creating flexible production. This, in turn, could increase the number of employees in the field of information technologies. Conlusion. Thus, the main goal of information processes is to provide the required information level of awareness caused by the objectives of socio-economic development. The main result of information processes will become free timely public access to regional, national and global information fund and formation of needs and necessities of its use. Creation and development of information processing industry is main direction of informatisation, because just this industry, using the latest tools and technology, produces the final product information that fills and supports information fund, provides each persons access to it and use. The information relates to such aspects of scientific progress that cant flourish without broad international cooperation. No country in the world could effectively develop all areas of information. Only active participation in international cooperation and division of labour in the informational fields creates opportunities for providing the necessary pace of information in our society. Computerization should mean an increasing of effective development of countrys potential, realisation of the implementation mechanisms of civilization development in general and be oriented to meet the information needs of all members of society. 259


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

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7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

13.

List of sources and literature . / .. . : , 1994. 336 . . / . // . . . . 2. 1986. 2. . 8. . / . . . : , 1987. . 57. . / . . . : , 1990. 265 . . / .. . : , 1999. 303. . / . , . , . // . . . . 1. 1993. 9. . 5 . : , , / . . . . . , 1994.-192. . / . . : , 1981. . 54. . / . . . : , 1973. . 23. . -, : / . . . . : ..., 2002. 264 . . / . . . : , 1985. . 4. . : . . : 24.00.01 / / . . , 2003. . 139 . / . , . , . . . : 260

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, 1999. . 25. 14. . / ., . . : , 1990. 189 . 15. . / . // .-. . .1. 1987. 4. . 4. 16. . / . . . : , 1990. 351 . 17. . - . : . / . / . . .-. -. ., 1985. . 4. 18. / . . . . . : , 1999. . 127. 19. . - : / . . . : , 1995. . 71. 20. . : / . // . 1994. 1. . 1115. 21. . / . // . .1. 1994. 7. . 3. 22. . : / . // . 2. 1994. 12. . 6. 23. . / . // : . . . / , . ., 1988. .54. 24. . 2- . . : . ., 1989. 25. . / . . : - , 1983. . 47.

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UDC 94 (437) I. O. Desyatnychuk FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND INFLUENCE OF PUBLIC OPINION IN CZECHOSLOVAKIA IN THE PERIOD OF "PRAGUE SPRING" This article analyzed the public opinion in Czechoslovakia from January till August 1968 in distribution of freedom of speech. The main priorities in the work of the MEDIA are detected, the attitude of the leadership of the Communist Party to manifestations of freedom of speech is analysed. The measure of influence of the citizens on policy in conditions of liberalization of the Communist regime was found. Keywords: freedom of speech, public opinion, Czechoslovakia Raising of the problem. Freedom of speech was definitely the biggest achievement of the liberalization process in Czechoslovakia in 1968, but its implementation, ways of impact on public opinion remain the controversial issues of foreign and national historical science. Based on the analysis of opinion polls, media materials and official documents of the period it is possible to draw conclusions about the relevant issues. Already since 1963, primarily in the cultural journals materials aimed at criticizing the remnants of Stalinism in the politics of the party began to appear. Gradually editorial boards have become major centers of opposition to official ideology, and this led to an aggravation of their relations with the authorities. Dissatisfaction of CCP leadership was caused not only by activity of "Literarni noviny", "Culturni zhivot", "Plamen", "Tvarzh", "Slovenske poglyady", but also CCP Central Committee weekly edition "Cultural tvorba", which was mentioned to serve as a contrast with Writers Union journals. As the ideological department of the Central Committee of CCP mentioned in September of 1965, the "problem of "Literarny noviny" was not in individual mistakes, but in editorial positions about our reality" [1, p. 25]. However, in general, public opinion remained identical to official policy, and media which was controlled by censorship acted as a transmitter of thoughts that went down "from above" and were presented as a voice of public. 262

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The change catalyst in this area was the January plenum of the Central Committee of CCP, where A. Novotny lost his post of first secretary in favour of O. Dubchek. However, in the early months of 1968 the citizens of Czechoslovakia could only learn the details from the messages of Western radio stations "enemy voices", but only few people have used this route [2, p. 149]. What was the main cause of awakening of the public in general and the media in particular? Violation of party discipline by some members of the Central Committee of CCP, which began to explain and comment on the results of the January plenum publicly, meant the transfer of internal party conflict outside the CC. This has intensified the media and the February polls showed that about 50% of the respondents heard or read about January plenum, 36.1% of them had some information, 14% never heard of the plenum and its conclusions. However, 31.7% of those who had information could not determine with their assessment of this event [3, p. 534]. Gradually, public trust in the media increased, which was promoted by contradictions in the events evaluation by representatives of different authorities. As Dubchek noted later, "Lack of information and the need to identify the reasons for defining internal party events caused media entering the game before it was possible to prepare the party adequately" [4, p. 219]. In these circumstances, the presidium of the Central Committee of CCP on March 4 th was forced to cancel a government resolution of 1966, which gave the Central Bureau of Information powers as an assistant for ideological control of media. This meant that instead of prior censorship actual censorship was to be introduced. Thus, the abolition of censorship was due to public pressure and correspondent decision of the presidium of the Central Committee CCP only formalized the existing state of things. The possibility for inclusion of most issues of the country in the public discussion appeared. The methods of work of the CCP, trade unions, security and justice authorities were openly criticized in the press, radio and TV [5, p. 126127]. Media started to pay attention to the most painful problems of the people; live with studio guest who answered phone questions, taking into account the fact that it could be criticized became common thing. 263

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The media attention during March was focused mainly on mistakes of CCP in the past. People got the opportunity to discover the facts about abuse of party functionaries by their official position, the truth about the repression and political processes. The culprits names were called; they were mercilessly criticized and were forced to leave their positions under pressure. Ideological dogmas, related with historical heritage of Czechs and Slovaks were rejected. Thus, in Plzen in early May on the spot where was to be a monument to the Army that liberated the city during the Second World War, there was a meeting where the secretary of the Czechoslovak Socialist Party city committee Y. Shpiral said: "It is true that most of our country was liberated by Soviet army, but a definite part of it and Plzen, in particular, was liberated by American troops. So, lets recall ordinary American people with respect and gratitude" [6, p. 159]. For the first time citizens were able to look into previously secret areas, like the army, prosecutors, courts, foreign policy via journals "Reporter", "Student", "Politics", trade publications "Young Front", "Work". The National Assembly, the National Front, the government and other state institutions were sharply criticized. The demands about free elections to the national committees appeared. Weekly edition "Literarni listy" that was released in March of 1968 by the team of "Literarni noviny" which was banned in 1967 performed particular role. The best publicists, writers, scientists like M. Yunhmann, A.-Y. Liehm, L. Vatsulik, P. Vodichka, O. Danyek, D. Hamshik, P. Kohout, B. Klokochka, L. Fischer, B. Hrabal, M. Kundera, K. Kosik, I. Otchenashek and others whose names are true symbols of the "Prague Spring" worked in the office of this edition. The official edition "Rude pravo" which was published daily and had a duty to direct the public and the party in political events was something quite the opposite. Often newspaper only commented on various controversies of development and expressed opinion about democratic change hesitantly. Probably the very first theoretical reflection on what January changes mean was an article by Z. Mlynarzh "Our political system and separation of powers". The author believed that the old system could not be improved, that it should have been changed thoroughly with 264

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restoring the effect of all basic human rights. He believed that two-party system was ideal, but he postponed its implementation for the long term. The task to preserve the unity of the CCP and introduce pluralism by increasing the powers of representative bodies, including the National Assembly, civil and professional organizations in his opinion was more real [7, p. 3]. In early April, an article by V. Havel, "To the theme of the opposition" appeared. The author believed that even if the internal relationships within the CCP would change radically, it could not be considered as a guarantee of democracy because "the power takes into account only the power". Havel proposed to create a new political party of Christian democratic direction, which would lead the rivalry with the CCP during free elections [8, p. 4]. A. I. Liehm expressed the most realistic view on establishing political pluralism in the country, he believed that transformation of existing political parties into independent political entities was possible [9, p. 307]. A series of articles by K. Kosik titled "Our current crisis" was published in "Literarny Listy". Author rejected the leading role of CCP and put the democratic concept of equality of different political forces forward. Kosik put the thesis about the crisis of socialism forward and called the political system in the country symbiosis of hypocrisy and fanaticism. The very title of materials that repeated the title of a famous T.G. Masaryk letter from 1895 spoke for itself, in it the author concluded that the influential party of mladochehs exhausted its historical opportunities and should be replaced by another political force [10, p. 134148]. In his famous report, "Your current crisis" I. Svitak criticised Kosik sharply. He believed that it was only about a crisis of power, which is a matter of CCP. Speaking on behalf of non-party representatives Svitak saw a new model in the free competition of independent parties and did not hide that the ultimate goal of struggle was the overthrow of the communist regime [11, p. 7]. The demonstrative thing was the fact that the basic concept of democratic reforms started to appear out of the influence of the CCP, in media, on radio and television during rallies and gatherings. But by the end of March the party leadership complained that 265

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"neither we nor the public will not long endure the pace, which marked last week" [4, p. 223]. The vast majority of the top party leadership was affected by the fact that the CCP Central Committee actually lost control of the media and, consequently, on the part of the public. These concerns were best expressed by D. Kolder at the meeting of the CCP Central Committee Presidium, when he said: "From the point of view of most media, the current state is just the beginning, some kind of promise, but real changes are too far. Open editions ignore any leading role of the party... Press and publicists became independent agents and reject the role of party politics speaker... Journalists do not feel the responsibility about the party, the government, their leadership, just about their consciousness. Today the party has no authority to control the work of the media ..." [4, p. 403]. Conviction of post January CCP policy in friendly socialist countries and activation of their own conservatives caused reverse radicalism that was a response to provocation or attempts of reform opponents to keep the totalitarian system base and limit the changes by "cosmetic measures." "Student", "Reporter", "Literarni listy " journals were the most radical ones among media. However, as was shown by polls in July 1968, the most popular among the population were newspapers "Pratse", "Mlada Fronta", "Zemnyedyelske noviny" 39% "Rude Pravo" 20%, "Lidova demokratsiye" and "Svobodne Slovo" 13%, all other 28% [3, p. 533, 113, p. 75]. "Rude Pravo" had the largest circulation in the country 1 million copies, "Pratse" 400 thousand, "Mlada Fronta" 300 thousand, "Zemnyedyelske noviny" over 250 thousand, "Svobodne slovo" and "Lidove demokratsiye" about 200 thousand, "Rovnost"(Brno) 130 thousand [12, p. 452]. Therefore, radical newspapers influenced public indirectly. Once the actual material appeared in "Literarny Listy" or "Student", its discussion started on pages of other publications, which created an atmosphere where the reader had freedom of choice and could accept or reject a particular point of view independently. Research of public opinion during 1968 was force and an integral part of democratization itself. The results of survey influenced both the power holders and the public, giving people a sense of influence on the course of events. 266

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Most polls showed a clear polarization of public opinion on various issues that disturbed society [3, p. 532]. Despite the fact that the Programme of CCP Actions proclaimed the principles of basic human rights and civil liberties, the right of the minority to express their beliefs, free thinking, which opened the way to pluralism of philosophical theories, most journalists did not consider it an interesting subject for journalism. And the public could not be satisfied with the program entirely, because it expressed the political and ideological concept, but not the actual program of actions. 10 days after its release 16% of respondents have read it completely, 25% partially, 35% knew about its content from radio and TV [3, p. 532]. Only 22% were confident that the Programme of Actions would be implemented completely, 56% believed that it would be partially implemented, 1% believed that it was impossible to fulfil, and 21% found it difficult to answer [3, p. 537]. As for the most immediate problems that needed solving, public attention was clearly focused on economic issues. In February 72% of respondents considered this issue fundamental. However, in late May 46% of respondents placed solving economic problems in the first place; the same amount of respondents was equally concerned about the economic and political problems, and only 4% considered political problems leading [3, p. 535, 537]. The July survey of public opinion showed that 50% of respondents were in favour of expanding the countrys political pluralism and the formation of new political parties. Most advocated for it had to be Socialist Party of communist direction (48%). On the other hand, 41% were satisfied with the current system. 64% advocated for equality between the CCP and other forces of the National Front. Besides, general survey showed that 59% opposed the recognition of the leading role of the CCP, unless it was won in free competition with other political forces. However, CCP leadership concerns about the possibility of capitalism restoration in the country were supported by 6% of respondents, 82% were confident that this possibility was excluded [3, p. 539559]. In general, support of CCP dominated in a society. At the end of May, 26% of respondents claimed that their credibility of CCP has increased in recent years, credibility of 40% remained at the same level, 267

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20% reported a decrease of trust, while 14% claimed that they distrusted communists as they did before. In the Czech Republic last figure reached 40%, which to some extent reflected the public attitude towards the consolidation direction [13, p. 67]. J. Smrkovsky, who was considered whether the most radical "reformer", convinced that "...most journalists light the fire of hatred to the party and all that it represents from morning to night"[4, p. 408]. At the meeting of the CCP district and regional committees secretaries on May 12, O. Dubchek assessed the situation in the media where the propaganda of Programme of Actions and CCP, the National Front and the government policy positions didnt dominate, but negativists trends did according to which party was responsible for all errors and would no longer be the guiding political force, as such, leading to benefits of anticommunist tendencies [4, p. 470]. In this regard it is interesting to compare the speeches of "conservative" V. Bilyak and "progressive" O. Dubchek at the May CCP Central Committee Plenum. From the Bilyaks speech we learn that "... transition to ... consolidation ... requires a number of concrete steps ", among them - "... ensure that the media do not create anti-party atmosphere, and the election of delegates to the district and regional conferences are not turned into a public matter, and are strictly internal party matter [13, p. 56]. O. Dubchek obtained identical opinion, saying that "... do not believe that the public, radio, TV and press should be provided with all the information for the preparation of the Congress" and goes further "...Congress preparation shall be developed before the eyes of the whole community in the matters of public concern ... but the party organization and the conference must decide about the choice of delegates without any external pressure" [13, p. 9091]. Strengthening influence on intellectuals in the art unions with the help of communists was among the most tested means of restricting freedom of expression. It was the most non-conflict way of reaching agreements with radicals, moreover, that in fact there were many intellectuals CCP members who were ready to accept the recommendations of the Central Committee if they knew exactly what the ultimate goal of these actions was. Member of the Presidium of the Central Committee of CCP Piller explained this opinion: "We need to split information in two parts. Journalists should be informed about 268

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everything but some data had to serve only for the journalists so that they were not writing about it" [13, p. 382]. The practical result of these evaluations was spreading of "temporary" list of Czechoslovakia secret information by Interior Minister J. Pavel on July 29th, which meant increasing commitment in an attempt to establish effective control over the press [14, p. 113]. In late May, attempts to put the media under control were associated with the idea of creating a supervisory board, which mainly concerned the radio, television, Czechoslovak Bureau of Press. They had to be composed of the editorial staff and representatives of the National Front and the government in the ratio of 50 to 50. However, prepared law has not been discussed in the National Assembly. There was no direct evidence of the CCP heads desire to restore censorship but on June 17th the Presidium of the CPC Central Committee evaluated the proposed government law on the press as such that "is politically in conflict with the principles of the Programme of Action ... which clearly implies that the abolition of prior censorship will retain the possibility of state administrative methods to stop distributing certain information ... and that such intervention will be based on conditions that are precisely defined by law, however it will be possible in general" [13, p. 160]. May plenum of the Central Committee of CCP (29.051.06.68) showed that the leadership of the Communist Party refused to find its core support among social movement. Plenum resolution noted that "... communists who work in the media, are responsible before the party that the main interest of the public opinion mustnt concern issues that impede, burden and sometimes makes proactive party offensive impossible in the course of the Programme of Actions ... media is part of the political system and have to comply with the same principles as the whole system including active preventive activities against anticommunist tendencies and attempts to discredit the CCP and the positive effects of previous policy" [13 p. 100]. Thanks to the support of the public May plenum course has been implemented only partially. This was facilitated by the absence of a consolidated position of the Central Committee, where the most irreconcilable opponents of freedom of speech considered that "journalists do not have to degrade to a state of passive party policy 269

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transmitters, but that does not mean they do not have to hold it at all" [4, p. 538]. All this only strengthened intellectuals in their belief that reform came to a dangerous limit, and caused the need for an adequate response. The manifesto "2000 words", which was published on June 27th in several editions, and became one of the most significant documents of "Prague Spring" was that reaction. It was sorted by writer L. Vatsulik and urged citizens to a new outbreak of political activity and support the efforts of all who contributed to the democratic changes in society. The main thesis of this paper was the proposal to shift emphasis of civic activism at the downstream level as there was nothing to expect from the central political authorities. The main task was to dismiss those who slowed democratization. The author called for the transformation of the meetings of national committees into public, to establish committees to protect freedom of speech. One of particular requirements was the transformation of "degenerative local press into the tribune of all progressive political forces" [15, p. 384]. The statement was signed by many of the most prominent artists, scientists, artists, doctors, writers and athletes of the country. The value of manifesto was that it to some extent overcame the main problem of the democratic forces that was lack of programme which could bring them together. Despite the negative assessment of manifesto by the Presidium of the Central Committee of CCP, and even more irritable tone of the letter addressed to party secretariats specifying manifest as "counterrevolutionary platform", resolution supporting the Presidium of the Central Committee of the CCP on the manifesto "2000 words" was accepted by only 1/3 of district conferences [13, p. 169]. At the same time, the editorial board of "Mlada fronta" only has received over 20 thousand resolutions in support of the manifesto. Thus, the main principle of democratic centralism on the obligatory decisions of higher party bodies for the lower party organizations. Moreover, the manifesto has affected spontaneous group and individual initiatives significantly that together created flimsy, but significant structure of civil society. There wasnt a day without minor or nationwide initiative in the press. Such issues as the UN Charter of Human Rights, the issue of 270

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environmental protection from the harmful activities of enterprises, reduction of military costs and military service term, lack of information has caused concern situation dealing with nuclear energy, etc. got into publics attention. The initiative to raise funds for the Republic, which began to come from individuals and organizations, was enthusiastically supported. It was proposed to allocate these funds as loans to small organizations, cooperatives, which supply residential construction. KD-Colin plant workers called to join the action of business and political leaders who "get high wages for unskilled management and led to the current state of the economy" [15, p. 184]. By July 30, 1969 there was 278.807.267 Kronas, 86 kg. 190 g of precious metals at 107.404 Krona exchange contributions on account of the Fund [15, p. 191]. In Special Edition of "Literarny Lysty" from July 26, 1968 by the initiative of P. Kogout "Message of citizens to Presidium of the Central Committee of CCP" was published. It had to express support for the Czechoslovak leadership before its negotiations with the Soviet Political Bureau in Chiyern-upon-Tysa. "Message ..." formulated the slogan "Socialism Alliance Sovereignty Freedom" as an expression of the political situation and platform for Czechoslovak delegation position [16, p. 257]. This was evidence of the unity of all who wished to preserve and develop a new policy that was more and more stubbornly supported by elements of civil society. A manifestation of this support was a spontaneous action to collect signatures for "Message ...", Which became the most massive public action before August of 1968. During negotiations in Chiyern under "Message ..." 85.5 thousand signatures throughout the country were collected [12, p. 467]. Overall, in the national campaign for reform about 4 million Czechoslovak citizens took part. No one of the leaders did not mention the position of the Programme of Actions that "the press has to submit an official point of view of government, party officials and journalism separately" and the duty of state representatives to organize press conferences and to act in the media with actual problems regularly [4, p. 332]. At the end of June "Rude pravo" acted against the "anti-socialist elements" when the materials that discredited I. Svitak and other 271

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opposition figures appeared. Edition finally became the "authority of the party that fights for the partys policies, and not some magazine where everyone writes what he wants" as it was wished by Smrkovsky. Conlusion. Thus, the phenomenon of freedom of speech set in a political system where there were no democratic conditions and pluralism in politics and most measures of democratization remained on paper, where the state remained the same as before, freedom of speech most contributed to the formation of public opinion aimed at establishing the elements of civil society. List of sources and literature

1. Kaplan K. Vechno jste prohrli!(Co prozrazuj archivy o


IV sjezdu Svazu eskoslovenskch spisovatel 1967). Knihovnika Literrnch novin. Praha: Ivo elezny, 1997. 153 s. 2. Hochman J. (vyd.). Nadje umr posledn: Vlastn ivotopis Alexandra Dubeka. Praha: Svoboda-Libertas, 1993. 280 s. 3. Skilling, H. Gordon Czechoslovakias Interpurted Revolution. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1976. 924 p. 4. Vondrov J., Navratil J., Moravec J. Komunistick stran eskoslovenska. Edini ada Prameny k djinm eskoslovensk krize v letech 19671970., dil 9, sv.1: Pokus o reformu (ijen 1967kvten 1968). Praha-Brno: USD-Doplnk, 1999. 547 s. 5. . . .: , 1992. 287 . 6. . (- 1968.) // . ., 2001. 11. C. 153-169. 7. Mlyn Z. Nae politick soustava a dlba moci // Rud pravo. 13 nora 1968. S.3. 8. Havel V. Na tema opozice // Literrn listy. 1968. Ro.1, 6. S. 4. 9. Liehm A.J. Generace. Praha: eskoslovensk spisovatel, 1990. 466 s. 10. Kosk K. Nae nynj krize // Hoppe J. Prask jaro v mdich: vbr z dobov publicistiky. Edini ada Prameny k djinm 272

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eskoslovensk krize v letech 19671970, dil 11. Praha: st. pro soudob djjiny AV R; Brno: Doplnk, 2004. S. 134 148. 11. Svitak I. Vae nynj krize // Student. 1968. Ro.4, 18. S.1,7. 12. Cisa . lovk a politik. Kniha vzpominek a vah. Praha: ETC Publishing Praha, 1998. 618 s. 13. Vondrov J., Navratil J. Komunistick stran eskoslovenska. Edini ada Prameny k djinm eskoslovensk krize v letech 19671970., dil 9, sv. 2: Konsolidace (kvten srpen 1968). Praha-Brno: USD-Doplnk, 2000. 457 s. 14. . 1968. .: , 1991. 317 . 15. Pecka J., Belda J., Hoppe J. Obanska spolenost 1967-1970. Edini ada Prameny k djinm eskoslovensk krize v letech 19671970, dil. 2, sv. 2: Socialn organismy a hnut Praskho jar 1967-1970. Praha-Brno: USD-Doplnk, 1998. 367 s. 16. Kohout L. Poselstv oban pedsednictvu UV KS // Hoppe J. Prask jaro v mdich: vbr z dobov publicistiky. Edini ada Prameny k djinm eskoslovensk krize v letech 19671970, dil 11. Praha: st. pro soudob djiny AV R; Brno: Doplnk, 2004. S. 257258. UDC 336.71(477) O. I. Lukomska STATE REGULATION LEVERS OF BANKING INVESTMENT ACTIVITY IN UKRAINE Mechanism and instruments of state regulations of banking investment activity are considered. Their peculiarities in Ukraines economy are defined. Keywords: banks, the discount rate, monetary policy, and investments, banking regulation, banking supervision, central bank, financial crisis. 273

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Statement of the problem . Under conditions of aggravation of a financial-economic crisis, under conditions of setback in production, growth of unemployment, economic and political uncertainty the only effective bank system can ensure state financial stability. In addition under crisis conditions an especially important task of state bank system must be securing of money mobilization and concentration on priority lines of economic development that favours overcoming of inflationary development and crisis processes, enhancement of credit and investment activity, state economic stabilization in general. Under modern conditions of state economic development the problems of increment and stimulation of investment acquire special urgency. Banking investment activity is connected with the high degree of risk. In this connection there is need to form the regulation mechanism that ensures a proper level of bank system security, protection of depositors and creditors in a practical way. Analysis of the problem investigation. A significant amount of scientific publications of both home and foreign scientists and economists are devoted to the problems of research of the organizational system of banking regulation and supervision, finding effective methods and mechanisms to ensure the stability of the banking system, and regulating banking investment. The research results in the field of bank investment of O. Batura, V. Bocharov, O. Vasiurenko, A. Herasymovych, V. Hrushko, M. Denysenko, O. Dziubliuk, V. Zahorskii, B. Lutsiv, I. Liutyi, V. Matviienko, A. Moroz, V. Mishchenko, A. Peresad, L. Prymostko, S. Reverchuk, M. Savluk, R. Tyrkalo, etc. are deserved attention. In recent years, theoretical and practical aspects of investment and its government regulation are found in scientific papers of home scientists and economists: I. Blank, H. Bashnianyn, A. Halchynskii, V. Geits, B. Hubskii, A. Goiko, A. Zagorodnii, V. Karsekin, M. Krupka, V. Lagutin, T. Maiorova, I. Myhasiuk, S. Mochernyi, A. Poruchnyk, P. Rogozhyn, G. Strokovych, N. Tatarenko. V. Fedorenko, V. Shevchuk, etc. The works of the foreign scholars G. Alexander, S. Barens, L. J. Gitman, M. Jonk, J. Keins, M. Kreinina, O. Mertens, G. Markovits, D. Norkott, P. Rose, D. Sinki, E. Gelfert, R. Holt, U. Sharp, etc. were the great contribution to development of the problems. 274

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Despite the considerable number of publications related mainly to research on optimal system of bank regulation and supervision in Ukraine, investments and investing on the whole, a number of problems concerning the bank investing still requires solving, namely: the financial mechanism of the bank real investing and the formation of a balanced investment portfolio is not studied enough, terminological and methodological differences in the interpretation of the essence of bank investing and its financial instruments, in covering of the classification of investments and investment transactions, as well as state regulators of bank investment do not assist the scientific analysis. It is not found the only point of view in theory and practice both in Ukraine and developed foreign countries on effective approaches to the organizational structure of regulation for banking and finance, as well as supervision. Some aspects of supervisory and regulatory activities of the National Bank of Ukraine are debatable. Functioning of home bank sector in the economy puts forward new requirements on the assessment of banking investment activity with regard to its impact on economic development, identify positive and negative factors of bank investing and the development of methodological basis of measuring efficiency of bank investments taking into account risks. The aim of the article is scientific justification of essence of bank investments and bank investing activity interdependence of the structural factors of economic development, identifying and developing ways to enhance and improve areas of bank investment activities at the present stage of market transformation of Ukraines economy, as well as analysis of the National Banks supervisory and control functions in the period of development of economic crisis and development of proposals for improving the effectiveness of banking regulation and supervision in Ukraine. Exposition of main material. In every country of the world the authorities interfere substantially in a banking sector. There are two main components of the states influence on the functioning of banking institutions. On the one hand, the government is trying to ensure the stability of the banking system and safety of banks, resulting in creation of state insurance system of citizens deposits, maintaining liquidity, continuity of work of the banking system through the proper implementation of the function of "a creditor of the last instance" ("a 275

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lender of the last resort") by the state central bank. On the other hand, the state has impact on some banks and the banking system as a whole through the mechanism of prudential regulation of banks, establishing requirements to maintain the desired level of bank capital, liquidity, maximum risk in a bank activity, and providing supervisory authorities powers of enforcement to the banks which activities are too risky. It is possible to take uncertainty of the main acting person of the banking system to the determinatives that have negative impact on its reliability and stability. In economy that functions properly, such person must be a client whose interests should be protected by the state. Unfortunately, in national practice the state of payment relations between economic partners depends on the state of a correspondent bank account [1, p. 107108]. Therefore, first of all, it is advisable to ensure continuity of settling of clients regardless of the state of a bank resource base and identify sufficient funds available in the account of a payer. Not only clients of banks but also banks are outside the field of state responsibility. Existing legal standards entirely focused on the unilateral responsibility of credit institutions to National Bank and the Ministry of Finance. As a result, there is an urgent need to establish such a legal framework that would ensure fulfillment of the obligations of the state central banking and financial systems for banks. First of all attention to the practice of creating and using reserve funds should be paid. In 2010, the average calculated ratio of bank reservation was 2.2%, while in the EU countries it changed in the range of 1 to 2%. Excessive norms of reservation in Ukraine reduce the bank ability to timeliness of payments to customers. To correct the situation it is necessary to change the procedure for the formation and use of reserve funds, that conflicts with the fundamental bank postulate primary of clients interests. Under such conditions the National Bank of Ukraine using banks money does not share with it its responsibility for the liabilities. Due to "extract" of significant amount of bank resources at certain terms in a bank there is deficiency of payment means for a concrete client at presence money in his/her current account, restricting credit and investment opportunities of the bank. In our view, to solve this problem it is expedient to develop and introduce differentiated reserve ratio 276

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involved in deposits, which will stimulate the creation of investment resources by turns [6, p. 3538]. At the present stage of development of banking system in Ukraine an urgent task is to improve tax law. Forming of long-term financial resources can be realized by reducing the tax burden for a long period. Before the decision of this problem different approaches can be offered. In our opinion to reduce tax rates for those banks that participate in investment activity is the best. An important direction of improvement of bank investment activity is to organize effective banking supervision. The National Bank of Ukraine has regulation and banking supervision in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution of Ukraine, the Law of Ukraine "About Banks and Banking Activity", the Law of Ukraine "About the National Bank of Ukraine" and other legislative acts of Ukraine and regulations of the National Bank of Ukraine. The purpose of banking supervision is stability of the banking system and to protect the interests of depositors and creditors of bank safety deposit customer funds in bank accounts [7, p. 233234]. Supervisory activity of the National Bank of Ukraine covers all banks, their separated units, affiliates and related entities of banks in Ukraine and abroad, offices of foreign banks in Ukraine, as well as other legal and physical persons in observance of the Law of Ukraine "About Banks and Banking Activity" to implement banking activity. To perform its functions the National Bank of Ukraine has the right to receive free of charge information and an explanation of the received information and operations from banks, bank associations and entities licensed by the National Bank of Ukraine, as well as persons on the National Bank of Ukraine carries out supervisory activities in accordance with the Law of Ukraine "About Banks and Banking Activity" [4, p. 3035]. The essence of state banking regulation is that a regulatory mechanism is primarily within the banking system and expressed in the influence of the central bank on commercial ones. The purpose of government regulation of the banking sector is to maintain the stability of the national banking system, preventing the bankruptcy of some banks, maintaining competition in banking, needs of society and bank clients to receive qualitative banking services. 277

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Thus, the main impact of the state as a regulator of macroeconomic processes on the banking system is carried out through the central bank, which is the main body of the state regulation of macroeconomic processes by means of monetary methods. However, to ensure stability of banks and preserve confidence in the state banking system it is necessary not only timely and effective actions of the main regulator of financial markets, the central bank, but also deliberate and coordinated activities of various branches of the government, especially the executive one. Thus, the implementation of banking regulation functions is provided by a few state institutions, the parliament (a legislative body that determines the general legal principles of banking regulation); the government (issues additional regulations on banking activity); directly Banking Supervisors (regulates banking activity by normative documents and verifies the compliance of banks with current legislation). The body of the banking supervision function is usually the only state body [5, p. 315]. The nature of the state regulatory policies of bank activities is related to the mentioned regulatory mechanism in such a way that it operates primarily in the boundaries of the national banking system and transmits the influence of the central bank upon commercial financial institutions. The primary aim of the state regulations of various financial aspects within the bank sphere are: support of stability of the national banking system, prevention of bankruptcy of individual banks as well as stimulation of competitiveness among banks and satisfaction of social and customer demands for quality financial services. Therefore, the primary influence of the State as a regulator of macroeconomic processes inside the bank system is performed through the actions of the central bank that serves as the main body of state regulations of macroeconomic financial activities via monetary means and credit supplies. Nevertheless, in order to maintain stability of banking business and preserve customer loyalty toward the bank system in Ukraine, it is necessary to allow the primary regulatory mechanism of financial markets to perform in timely and effective fashion; moreover, it is essential to balance and coordinate the work of different branches of governmental power, the executive one being the foremost element. 278

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Thus, effective realization of bank regulatory functions is ensured by means of several governmental institutions: the Parliament (the legislative body that defines general legal bases of bank regulations); the government (that publishes additional normative acts for various problems of bank regulations) and the immediate supervisory organization (its main function is to control various forms of bank activities in compliance with the current laws of Ukraine). As a rule, there is only one organization that performs the functions of bank regulations as a governmental controlling agency [5, p. 315]. The current law determines that regulatory and supervisory functions can be performed by the National bank of Ukraine directly as well as remotely via its specially created agency for banking administration. At present, the entire spectrum of supervisoryadministrative and regulatory functions remains in the sole authority of the National bank that acts upon all the above-named functions unaccompanied, realizing the following powers: The National Bank of Ukraine controls the entire range of inspections of banks and other kinds of financial intermediaries in Ukraine; it presents assessment of reliability of information provided for legal agents and natural persons upon the registration of a new bank or licensing of certain banking operations; It obliges banks and other kinds of financial institutions to organize general assemblies of stockholders and defines the questions required to be settled and the ways to achieve that result; It can take part in the work of general assemblies of stockholders, meetings of supervising comities, boards of directors of banks and other financial institutions on the grounds of advisory and deliberative vote; It may present new requirements for mandatory auditory inspections of banks and receive official information from independent auditory organizations concerning the implications of activities of financial institutions etc. [6, p.918]. State regulations over banking activities are a complex system that performs the functions of forming the tactical legal basis for 279

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banking and provides supervision of financial institutions. The means of state control over bank investment activities can be divided into two main categories: legal and economical elements. The first group consists of various legal and normative means of state regulations for bank investments. They are supposed to define the main tendencies of development of bank investment activities. The second group is composed of the means of monetary and credit policies. In this case, the money mass itself becomes the subject of regulations. The primary instruments of monetary and credit policies in Ukraine are the bank rate, operations at the open international financial markets and foreign investments. The bank rate in general presents an influential controlling instrument for investment activities of commercial banks: an increased of the bank rate leads to reduction of credit possibilities due to a corresponding decrease in available foreign currency supplies, and vice versa, any reduction of the bank rate inevitably brings an increase in monetary demand that promotes various investment operations. It must be noted that as the result of the bank rate amplification, and taking into account the nature of international laissez-faire short-term investments, it may also lead to a corresponding increase in appreciation of the national currency and additional stimulation of foreign investments. Such results of regulations of the bank rate are desirable in any national economy since they may significantly rejuvenate investment activities. The National bank of Ukraine upholds an expansionistic monetary and credit policy, decreasing the bank rate and the reserve norms in order to expand production and lower the unemployment rates. However, taking into account the outcome of the world financial crisis which seriously affected the bank sector in Ukraine, this policy in our country requires greater regulations due to its inconsistent enforcement [2, p. 245252]. During the period of financial and economic recession in Ukraine, the bank rate has been showing a tendency to increase. For example, in 2008 it went up by 12%, in comparison with the 8% increase in 2007. It stayed on the same level at the beginning of 2009. The rates of overnight credits dramatically increased as well up to 11.1% in 2007, and up to 16.8% in 2009. Other short-term credit rates had a similar tendency to increase considerably: from 14.1% in 2008 to 280

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17.1% in 2009. The average rate in all bank instrumental areas, beginning from 2008, increased from 15.3% to 17%. Such an increase of the bank rate clearly shows that the National bank institutes a high rate of refinancing, which, in fact, may restrain any substantial support of bank liquidity necessary in the time of economic turmoil. Nevertheless, from the year 2010, the National bank of Ukraine was able to return to the figures of the previous years, decreasing it by 7.75% and sustaining the bank rate on that level before the beginning of 2012. The bank rates in the national currency decreased from 15% to 13.1% annually from the beginning of 2011. In the same period the amount of credits provided for agents of management increased by 3.9%, and decreased by 1.9% for natural persons [8, p. 2]. Another important instruments of monetary and credit policies are foreign investments in the economy of Ukraine. The essential factor that defines all foreign investment activities is the development of the land codex. However, this question remains undecided and it seriously hampers the development of production infrastructures and investment process as a whole. Investments in bank securities and bonds also remain an important device of regulations of foreign investments. The National bank regulates this activity in two ways: normative investments and formation of obligatory monetary reserves for compensation of potential losses as a result of operations with bank securities. The necessity to control this segment of the financial market arose in the early 90s, when Ukrainian commercial banks began to actively participate in the stock market exchange, investing money in join-stock enterprises. In order to lower any resulting negative effects on stability of the national bank system, the government had to regulate such investment operations of banks. Nonetheless, the practical aspect of such regulations has a number of serious disadvantages; one of them being a visible lack of any available national market for stocks exchange and the absence of any regular stock exchange rates. Such a minor shortcoming, as it may seem at first, leads to a very serious result when the value of stocks is measured through the principle of discretion which results in a serious amplification of risk reduction rates for certain categories of stocks and bank securities. Due to this fact, Ukrainian banks are forced to 281

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form large monetary reserves and that process seriously slows down any stock investment operations. In order to resolve this issue effectively, we find it necessary to call for creation of a general system of evaluation of stocks and bonds, a free-for-all access to stock exchange operations and organization and support of a national stock market [3, p. 287299]. Concerning the regulations of financial institutions by the National bank of Ukraine (on the grounds of its legally approved functions), it comes down to its controlled influence on various Ukrainian banking organizations in order to alleviate the results of the world financial crisis, stabilize the national currency and arrangement of market values. The forms of regulations of bank activities represent the fundamental nature of influence of the National bank on other financial and credit institutions as well as the means and techniques of maintaining this regulatory authority. According to the article 66th of the Law of Ukraine "On banks and banking", state regulations of banking are performed through the following forms: 1) administrative regulations; 2) indicative regulations [5, p. 3442] In the foundation of administrative regulations lies the application of organizational means of governmental control. With the help of administrative regulations, normal functioning of the banking system of Ukraine can be achieved; the forms of administrative regulations create a complete organizational subsystem and cover a full administrative cycle. The structure of bank supervision in Ukraine has changed many times, which proves that the National bank has been searching for the optimal form of organizing of bank regulations and supervision under constantly evolving condition in the national financial system. The issue of changing in the organizational structure of bank regulations and supervision in Ukraine has remained an important element of scholarly and practical discussions for a long time. At the base of these discussions lies the thesis on the necessity of releasing Ukrainian banks from any direct supervision of the National bank, and formation of a new effective organization, as a separate structure within the jurisdiction of the Cabinet of ministers of Ukraine, that can perform 282

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all the supervisory and regulatory functions. The partisans of releasing the function of supervision from the direct influence of the National bank use international experience to justify their position; they claim that in the majority of modern European countries, the practice of combining the regulatory and monetary functions within the powers of a major national bank under direct governmental control was abandoned no less than 20-30 years ago. This European experience persuades us that it is essential to thoroughly examine all possibilities for creation of a unified supervisory organization, its terms of reference covering control of activities of financial institutions in different sectors of the national financial system banks, credit unions, and insurance & investment companies and so on. The government is yet to develop a reliable mechanism of protection for the investors of the above named financial institutions; their effective control is also very desirable. Unfortunately, the state regulatory commission, which oversees the market of financial services and holds within the terms of its reference supervision of the above mentioned financial institutions, up to now has been unable to effectively control non-banking organizations; for instance, they do not provide any monthly reports of the results of their performance, there are many legal and normative gaps; as the result, it all leads to insolvency of many third-level institution of the national credit system [6, p. 2735]. It should be remembered that the structure of bank investments has such special features as: principal capital investments into the state securities only; the use of a limited range of financial instruments as the objects of investments; unsatisfactory conditions of investments into the real sector of economy. At the same time, the majority of banks rarely risk to invest their capitals in the real sector of Ukrainian economy which can be described as the result of their insufficient willingness to provide large and long-term credits as well as the lack of any sufficient structural improvements in the national economy, and thus a high level of financial risks. It is equally important to stress that unlike corporate investments, the specifics of bank investment business are largely defined by its base of available capital resources. Our national banks are still unable to 283

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attract large long-term capitals, which consequently slows down their investment activities. The majority of bank investments today are accomplished by means of assorted credits [1, p. 102109]. Recent research has shown that the main reasons of inadequate efficiency of banking and bank investments in Ukraine are directly related to the deficit of capital recourses for such operations and unsatisfactory nationwide motivation of bank owners to lower their credit rates as one of the primary sources of their profits; there are other key reasons, such as high requirements for obtaining investment credits and a comparatively high level of inflation in the national economy; finally, there exists a system of the so-called internal mutual insolvency that are quite common nowadays, "grey", as opposed to completely "black", capital market, lack of customer trust towards commercial banks, numerous gaps in the legal system, little liquidity of the secondary market of bonds and securities as well as low numbers of able-to-pay borrowers. At the current stage of economic development in Ukraine, such traditional instruments of bank investment business as longterm credits can no longer meet the demands of the real sector of economy, thus creating a strong need of alternative financial instruments of investments; one of them being a funding instrument of investments with well-defined aim to stabilize bank profits through capital return. It must be noted that the state regulations of bank investment business are designed to support the growth of this financial sphere and increase the dynamics of bank investments as well as the effectiveness of banking operations at the national stock market. Undoubtedly, such instruments of state regulations of bank investment activities remain within the legal and economically-justified principles. It is obvious that the presently weak potential of the banking system of Ukraine, as well as its apparent lack of long-term stability, seriously hinder any investment operations of banks. The origin of this weak resource foundation, that cannot satisfy the needs of modern Ukrainian banks concerning effective investment activities, can be traced to the problems of insufficiently effective functioning of the national monetary system and a low level of capitalization of Ukrainian economy, which generate a constant outflow of capital into the national grey 284

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markets and financial markets outside of Ukraine [2, p. 433441]. Conclusions. We have analyzed just a small portion of the problem that Ukrainian banks have to deal with, performing their investment activities, and which seriously obstructs any potential stirring up of investment processes in our country. In order to solve this problem efficiently, it is necessary to create and maintain equal-for-all and well-defined conditions for conducting business and investments in the national economy; to ensure clear and civilized foundations for potential investments; to improve the structure of investment sources and so on. We should pay attention to the following priority principles of development of the banking and investment businesses in Ukraine: firstly, commercial banks should be able to increase their capital potentials; secondly, the level of monetary capitalization of the bank system must be improved; thirdly, a dramatic increase in the resource base of Ukrainian commercial banks is desperately needed. moreover, the real available monetary resources of bank investments, for the most part, are currently limited to the bank deposits of ordinary Ukrainian citizens. Summarizing all the above-mentioned information, we may safely conclude that on the bases of European experience of state regulations of bank investment business, it would be prudent to implement the following organizational means of economic development: development of suitable models of organizational work of banks at the potential national stock market; development of investment services within the framework of financial supermarkets and expansion of investment banks in the sector of small to medium private businesses; under the present conditions in Ukraine, the state must perform the role of a competent business partner that shares financial risks and responsibilities with banks, when dealing with long-term investments, and ensures efficiency of the legal system. List of sources and literature 285

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1. : , , / . . .. . .: . . , 2004. 276 . 2. .. / ... , - , 2005. 544 . 3. .. : [. .] / .. . . : , 2003. 338. 4. . // . - 2005. 3. C. 30-35 5. 7 2000 2121 XIV // . 2001. 1. . 347. 6. [ ] // : www.bank.gov.ua 7. .. : / .. , .. . .: , 2005. 388 . 8. 2011 [ ] // : www.banknews.com.ua 159.923.2:159.923.32 R. V. Pavelkiv UNDERSTANDING OF INDIVIDUAL MORAL DEVELOPMENT IN LINE WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL PARADIGM

article deals with the problem of moral development of personality in line with national psychological research. Revealed external and internal
The 286

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determinants, socio-psychological features of moral development. Substantiates the relationship of personal and moral development. Key words: moral development, personality, moral behavior, moral norm, moral consciousness.
The problem of personal moral development keeps its topicality in a long time. The increasing interest to it is observed in particular crisis periods for society that disorganize its social-economic and moral-ethical basis. That is why more attention is dedicated to studying of complicated phenomena of human essence that are at the intersection of psychology and other sciences, especially philosophy. These phenomena can be represented by freedom, truth, lies, conscience, good and evil. Phenomenological approach to studying humans moral experience, orientations and moral concepts is well known these days. As psychology has inherited the problem of morality from ethics and philosophy, this approach is more distinctive to philosophy and existential psychology [3; 6; 7]. According to the approach morality is considered to have common to mankind character as it is the system of value orientations, legislative demands and the ways of forming personality. The approach in general explains the essence, nature and sources of emergence of moral categories as ones common to the mankind. Unlike phenomenological approach pedagogical approach is more focused on the education through evaluation of generalized examples. Though the approach is a valuable one, it is not sufficient as the definite ideas about good and evil, the subjective childs moral experience is not taken into consideration. Psychological approach helps to specify the structure of morality, content of its components, determinants of its development. The works of Bozhovich L. I., Elkonin D. B., Zaporozhets O. V., Leontiev O. M., Mukhina V. S., Rubinstein S. L., Subbotsky E. V., Jacobson S. G. are dedicated to these aspects. Two independent problems are observed in foreign researches. One of them correlates with the revealing of moral development levels, another one with the opportunity to predict real persons behaviour on the basis of information about his/her system of values. 287

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Despitenumerousstudies of personal moral orientations, the problem is still urgent as it has paramount importance for personality development and his/her following socialization. These are moral orientations that determine general humans attitude to the world, himself/herself. The problem of moral development as psychological problem first appears in early XX century as one of the basic problems of social psychology. Foreign psychological researches of morality were started in the late 20s - early 30-ies of XX century. H. Hartshorne and M. May were the authors of the first fundamental research in the sphere of moral behavior. The researches were directed to the finding of explanatory schemes and methods of empirical studying of moral phenomena. The model of the first fundamental research in the sphere of psychology of moral behavior reproduced situations of moral choice. The moral behavior means an action, which correlates with moral norms and simultaneously contradicts immediate personalitys interests. The scholars wrote that none of studies of moral development is possible until the means that let reproduce moral behavior phenomena in concrete conditions are found. The phenomenon of moral behavior was considered by H. Hartshorne and M. May as adherence to moral norms/standards when a child is interested in their violation and knows that he/she can do it without being punished. Fifteen different concrete situations in which children could act honestly or dishonestly (to tell the truth or to lie, etc.) were created. Each of the experiments provided possibility of two actions: meets the immediate childs interests but contradicts moral norms, and meets the norm but contradicts childs moral interests. So the moral development was seen as the formation of generalized persons features or qualities. Later on G. Aisenk theoretically criticized the concept of personal features. He distinguished between socio-ethical and psychological personal features. First attempts of theoretical comprehension of the problem of moral development were nothing more than transferring notions and concepts from other sciences into psychology. In particular, Zh. Piazhe and then L. Cohlberg transferred the theory of mental development into the sphere of moral development [6]. In his works Zh. Piazhe paid great attention to the problems of childrens moral judgments. He focused on the following problems: 288

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stages of moral conscious development, thecontentof each stage, factors of transition from one stage into another. Zh. Piazhe distinguished three stages of moral thinking development: moral realism, morality of cooperation, moral equality. The scholar considers moral judgments of different stages to be correlated with the peculiarities of relations, which a child has with the outer world. The first type of relations (the first stage of moral development) these are the relations of compulsion. The stage lasts till the end of preschool age. The second type these are the relations of cooperation built on the equality and mutual respect of all the members. Transition to the third stage symbolizes the fact that a person acknowledges the necessity of the rules. Zh. Piazhe studies childs moral development on the basis of moral judgments formation analysis. According to the scholar stages of moral consciousness development are parallel to the stages of mental development, as their origin subjects to the same general laws. American psychologist L. Cohlberg created his own theory that demonstrates the correlation of moral and mental development. He denotes that good and evil, fairness and duty do not emerge suddenly in their final form. Moral attitude is a long lasting process consisting of several stages: pre-moral (pre-conventional) level; the level of conventional morality; the level of autonomous morality (post conventional). Each of the levels has definite stages that correspond to the stages of mental development, according to Zh. Piazhe. At the pre-conventional level of childs moral development children obey external rules to avoid punishment or to deserve price. The level of the conventional morality is based on generally excepted, traditional principles. The level of the autonomus morality is the highest one and it is connected with interpersonal approach to moral problems solving. Both authors considered morality to be genetically determined. The inborn potential, realized in honest or dishonest behavior, leads personality to the development of the principle of social fairness. Childs mental development facilitates its mastering. Children with higher level of moral development are, in accordance, at the highest level of moral development (L. Cohlberg). Biological maturing is the motive power of moral development as 289

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well as cognitive (Zh. Piazhe). Moral stage correlates with the calendar age, but in proportion as a personmatures his/her moral development becomes more independent of age. Further research by L.Cohlberg forced him to reconsider his views on biological maturation and connectivity to achieve high levels of morality. Hesuggested that in order to achieve the last, individual needs the necessary experience in dealing with more complex moral dilemmas and contacts [6]. L.Cohlbergs concept, in our opinion, iscloser to teachers who are directly involved in the childs mental development, as they contribute to mastering of rules and norms of socially acceptable behavior. However, it would be wrong to assume the mental development of a person to be a single factor in the formation of the individuals moral consciousness. There is a significant disadvantage in cognitive theory of moral development a gap between the levels of moral development of personality and its actual behavior, because in this theory everyone only thinks about moral issues, but does no tact or make decisions. There is no unambiguous connection between moral judgment and moral behavior. L. Cohlberg believed that moral development is determined by the individual exteriorization of major cultural rules of social action. However, L. Cohlbergs concept does not answer the question, what is the source, the reason for the transition from one stage of moral development to another, does not reveal the mechanism of this process. In national studies of moral development as an independent psychological problem moral development begins to attract the attention of scientists in the 1970s. Many experimental psychological research on this issue have been intensively conducted in the last decade. The works on the problem of individual moral development periodization (V. A. Blyumkin, A. V. Zosymov, B. O. Nikolayevychetc.) appears in this period. So A. V. Zosymovsky attempted to create age periodization of moral development, based on the selection of high-quality tumors in the moral sphere of personality. In his opinion, the whole process of the childs moral development is divided into three phases, each of which, in turn, is represented by two unique periods. The first stage of adaptive-reactive behavior covers childhood 290

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and pre-school childhood. This is the stage of formation in children certain prerequisites form oral action ,it is period of pre-moral development. There are two periods inside the first stage: sensory and generalized-verbal response to the moral demands. The major new formation of the first period is the emergence in the childs behavior of "elements simplest self restriction," which is based on the development of early forms of balance of processes of excitation and inhibition. The major new formation of the second period(from one year to 3 4years)is the emergence and development of elements of internally induced behavior, when the rules of moral behavior sometimes start running in the absence of direct adults influence. The second stageis a stage of reproductive moral activity that encompasses preschool and primary school age. It is characterized by the formation of a childs initial will ingles voluntarily, based on elementary awareness of moral requirements ,put "have to" above "want". Preschool period of the second stage is interesting because the first seeds of arbitrary positive behavior and requirements "required prohibited" begin to appear as the internal requirements of the child to himself/herself and others. The second period is the period of actual childs moral development. At this period moral orientation clarifies, moral consciousness and moral freedom improve, the content of feeling of duty enriches. But in this age period, children are not yet capable of making their own moral beliefs. At this age, according to the author, children are characterized by relative dependence of moral thinking and greater suggestively. The third stage of individual moral development covers teenage and age of youth and it is a stage of personal moral self-activity. At this stage quite conscious dependence of their behavior on moral principles appears. The major new formation of this period is self-consciousness, relatively autonomous moral views. Critical absorption of norms of behavior is the main characteristic for a teenager. The main characteristic for adolescent period is formation of moral philosophy and outlook. In this age moral criticism increases, the need for a critical reassessment and reappraisal of previously perceived arises [7]. This theory suggests that a child is attached to the spiritual and material culture created by society, not passively, but actively in the course of activities. The characteristics of the activities and the features 291

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of relationship, a child has with others, influence largely the formation of his personality. V.A.Blyumkin suggested hypothesis on the main level of development of individual moral consciousness. He pointed that moral development can be divided into pre-moral level and actually moral level, which in turn, consists of three sublevels. Pre-moral level covers the period from birth to the first manifestations of moral consciousness. The main issue of this research area, according to C. C. Jacobson, is that the psychological mechanisms of moral values. is the basis for assessing the moral behavior. The second area of research is the moral relation. According to V. M. Myasishev personality is characterized not only by knowledge, skills and abilities, but relationships. The research presents the relationship for individuality of a person its subject and object relations. They realized or manifested in external factors, but at the same time expressing the internal relations "subjective" world of the individual. The main thing in this area is a psychological study of the nature and origin of moral relations. The next area of research concerns the moral knowledge representations and reasoning. The object of study the mastery of children by various parties public moral consciousness: understanding the moral requirements, formation of concepts of goodness, justice, responsibility, conscience, and moral evaluation criteria assimilation. Kids try to justify the moral evaluation of actions, moral qualities of people. S. G. Jacobson thinks poorly understood stage of development of the cognitive aspects and factors that determine the transition from one stage to another. Special attention is studying the relationship of cognitive and behavioral aspects of moral development [6]. The fourth area of research involves moral experience. Traditionally, these include feelings of guilt in violation of moral norms. Unknown remains the question of the origin of these feelings and experiences as well as their relationship with the actual behavior of the individual. So, with this division is difficult to establish meaningful relationships and dependencies between phenomena studied in various fields of moral development and, therefore, difficult to get a complete picture of moral identity formation. 292

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In Soviet psychology origin functioning structure of moral phenomena studied long enough. In the works of L. Bozovic, D. Elkonin, S. Rubinstein formulated provisions reveals the moral development of the child as a result of internalization of social norms and relationships. In line with the theory of (D. B. Elkonin, A. V. Zaporozhets, A. N. Leontiev, etc.) moral development acts as awarding child moral standards, their synthesis and transformation in the internal "moral authority." Within this theory received development Vygotskys ideas about the social nature of the psychology of the child [3, 7]. According to A. Leontyev, moral norms accepted subject on two levels as important as personal meaning. At that rate control is a real individuals behavior when it is in the context of leadership activities and gets psychologically valid content. Cognitive and motivational aspects of moral development may not be the same as seen in the gap between verbal and actual behavior in situations of moral choice. Ukrainian researchers of games (D. B. Elkonin, A. V. Zaporozhets, S. M. Karpova, L. G. Lysyuk, V. S. Mukhin) found its impact on the moral development of the child. It is essential contents implemented in game relationships. In studies conducted by E. V. Subbotskoho the division of pragmatic and selfless moral behavior is represented. In these same studies have shown that the formation of pragmatic behavior in children through the use of teacher methods of external control. Unselfish, that is indeed a moral childs behavior may arise only in the event of an adult from the methods of external control. In psychology, the question of the moral nature of consciousness is raised recently. Leading researchers of consciousness (L. I.Bozovic, V. V. Stolin, I. I. Chesnokova) emphasized its moral nature. Moral consciousness is seen as a regulator of the relations between individuals and relations of the individual with himself. Self-awareness allows a person to approach the moral feelings, and that makes her personality. However, for this to happen, as thought L. S. Vygotsky, we must admit the norm, to recognize it as a moral principle for her. Norma is understood through the meaning of moral categories with the surrounding people, through their constant care, their love and affection, as well as through the first ban, first lessons of discipline is 293

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laying the foundations of moral consciousness. Then there are actually three levels of moral development and identity formation of moral consciousness. These levels are only conditionally be separated from each other, because they are very similar and are often represented, according to V.A. Bliumkin in the same time interval: the level of basic morality, the level of self-esteem, level of conscience. The level of basic morality is called the level of moral influence and imitation. At this stage, the assimilation of personality that formed elementary basics, basics of moral culture of the society. Implemented by a moral influence, support the system of promotion and punishment, as well as by direct imitation of the behavior of adults. During this period the moral culture is uncritically absorbed child, mechanically stored in its mind. The level of self-esteem is a level orientation to external regulators of behavior. Selfish person is guided in his actions by his own "I", but he realizes it his "I" from the standpoint that formed as a result of moral and cultural development. Selfishness - a love of a person to himself, but as a moral individuality that feels the need for the demanding of public recognition and respect of its own dignity. This transition from selfishness of the individual to the moral consciousness of the individual is able to follow the interests of the people around them. Conscience level means the level of moral self-regulation. But to achieve this level we can talk about the moral consciousness of the individual in the true sense of the word. Here is an organic combination of public and private, the public interest is personal, voluntarily adopted person. B. O. Nikolajevych, exploring the process of moral socialization divides it into several stages. The first stage demoralize this time children follow the behavior of adults. The child is completely dependent on adults, so any negative assessment on their part that gives balance in its relationships with adults, in which it badly needed. Submitting to the requirements of adults, children still do not understand the moral content of the requirements. Following moral standards is completely determined by the need for approval of adults. The second stage the orientation set by external moral claims, 294

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characterized in that instinctive imitation is changing to the conscious compliance with the elders, so that the latter act as a moral standard. Standards of behavior offered by the adults, although come to childs mind from outside, but have motivating force in them, regardless of their source of authority parents, teachers. Now she gives them personal content, perceiving them an end in it, but it can be considered a sign of specific moral regulation. This behavior is observed around high school age. In step of guidance on their moral principles the third stage the degree of morality increases. Self-sufficient for the individual are not separate rules and objectives moral systems that a person chooses their own, relying on advanced outlook and increased capacity. In order the act was considered as a moral conscious, a person must understand not only objective value but subjective personal content of the action. Thus, from the point of view B. O. Nikolajevych we should look for meaning of the action in realization. Awareness allows us to consider this action as a realization of some moral requirements, thus it becomes mandatory for the person internally, normative. Then follow the moral requirements and standards as perceived by the individuals own action, executed fairly freely. In the moral development of the individual, according to S. D. Jacobson, there are four areas of research. The first area concerns the study of moral behavior of the individual. This term S. G. Jacobson defines "voluntary adherence to moral norms (morality), even if their violation of human promises certain benefits and he is confident of impunity for their actions" [6]. As can be seen, the definition of moral behavior inherent concept of moral norms and moral choice. Moral standard defines the requirements of society to the individual in the process of interaction with V. V. Stolin notes that there are a number of important moral categories that are part of human consciousness. He believes that the structure of moral self-serve motivating, aim forming functions determine attitude towards others, determine the style of communication with them, influence the development of personality, its features are a form of self-control. J. I. Chesnokova considers morally mediated forms self-relations: conscience, duty, perfectionism, and pride the central level of the 295

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psychological world of the individual. They create unity and integrity of consciousness, coordinate and regulate the internal value of the individual it has taken with respect to itself [3, 6] In terms of I. D. Behan, moral personality development improved by positive emotional and sensual experience and due to its individual psychological characteristics. The author studied the interaction of emotion and morality. The study examined the emotional mechanisms as regulators and self-evaluations of the individual selected for her moral criteria. The author demonstrates the impact of emotions on the effectiveness of moral personality development [1]. Fundamentally new approach to understanding the moral formation of the individual acts of Christian psychology is that in which spirituality is highlighted as a special subject of study. There are several fundamental levels in the structure of personality that correlate with the degree of its spiritual content. For each level of spiritual growth has their ethical value, especially the notions of good, happiness. [2] L. I. Ruvinsky was proposed concept of value, knowingly and emotional assimilation morality. The mechanism of absorption of the moral norms and principles is based on an emotional relation to them, the unity of knowledge and experience. Moral development is a gradual process aimed at mastering social and adequate samples of moral behavior. Levels of moral upbringing are in terms of the relationship between knowledge and behavior. Moral conviction includes "intellectual and emotional" and his outward practical actions are combined into a coherent structure [6]. In general, the attention to the problem of the genesis of the moral sphere of personality is not accidental, since searching for the origins of morality belongs to general ways of psychological science. This development of moral sphere underlying in personal flourishing who determines the implementation of personal programs as interpsychological and outpsychological direction. Modern decade reflected the fact that in psychological studies of G. 0. Balla, J. D. Behan, M I. Boryshevskoho, I. S. Bulah, S. D. Maksymenko, N. Y. Maksimova, L. E. Orban-Lembryk, M. V. Savchina, H. V. Chehielyevoyi is noticeable increase in interest in the problems of moral identity formation whereby main key strategic position of personal and moral development. Most of these provisions is 296

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developed within the individual approach, which actively promoted by many representatives of psychological science. In particular, perspective innovative ideas of this approach I. D. Behom, I. S. Bulah outlining new ways of personal and moral growth of the individual associated with the provision of moral and spiritual formation of identity and personal values of the younger generation [1, 3]. By us analyze the whole array of psychological research on various aspects of moral identity formation, allowed IIYYAVYTY socio-psychological aspects of moral personality development, the role of internal and external determinants in this process, mechanisms of moral self-regulation of behavior, to trace the logic transition external moral and ethical norm in a category personal rules establish the psychological characteristics of various aspects of this process. Thanks executed research can be traced to many important lines moral development, but still it should be noted that the problem remains open for both theoretical and experimental study. In addition, we are forced to recognize that the social processes of the modern period has not only reduced its relevance, but also rather intensified last. As pointed in many researchers recently held intents of primitivism in moral consciousness of children, there is growing cynicism, brutality, cruelty, and aggressiveness. Naturally, that solving problems should primarily focus on the origins of morality, personality, traced the genesis: moral consciousness and identity. We are deeply convinced that psychological science is designed to improve on the socio-psychological atmosphere of society, follow the basic laws of the process of socialization, formation of the moral values and outline ways to optimize the process. Thus, the moral development of the individual is a process of moral requirements through confrontation between good and evil, and acts as a real moral activity of the individual. Lack elaborated the issue of psychological essence of morality leads to the need to study the structure and key determinants of moral development. Consequently, domestic research moral development is seen as complicated process, within which different problems of moral consciousness, moral behavior, moral relations and moral feelings. List of sources and literature 1. . . : / ... . : 297

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, 2008. 848 . 2. . . / . . // . 2008. 2. . 4957. 3. . . / . . . . : . . . , 2003. 340 . 4. . . , / . . , . . , . . . . : - -, 2010. 320 . 5. . . : / . . . . : , 2011. 469 . 6. . . : , , : / . . . : , 2009. 368 .

7. . . : / . . . : , 2009. 288 .
316.244 (477) V. V. Perzhun SOCIAL SOLIDARITY AS A FACTOR OF CONSOLIDATION OF UKRAINIAN SOCIETY The analysed theory of social solidarity of classic is sociology of Emily Dyurkgeym, the basic criteria of social connections are reflected and social relations which relate and influence on unity and consolidation of modern Ukrainian society. Key words: social solidarity, a society, consolidation, collective consciousness, social communications and relations. Ukrainian society is characterized by destabilizing social processes which take place and have been taking place during many years, which often outgrow in crisis of relationships in social, political, economical, cultural spheres of life of society and country. The years of 298

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independence of Ukraine brought a lot of new as positive and negative in social life of the country. But some aspects have stayed practically unchangeable, especially social Ukrainian integration. The spirits dominated in society during decades and which seem to be slowly changing or going out nowadays were caused by the lost of social unity those values, actions and feelings, which arose social connection solidarity. That is why the studying of important questions of social solidarity, consolidation of Ukrainian society in one political nation now has not only scientific but practical meaning. Thus, social solidarity as a category of social content as a concept, which serves for identifying social solidarity members of society, begins to attract researchers attention but it is necessary to mention that actuality of the problem of solidarity is in Ukrainian environment and doesnt take away the needs in development of conceptions of social connection in scientific circles. Among researchers who are studying such problem can be named: V. Bojkov [1], V. Gorodyanenko [2], O. Zlobina and O. Reznik [3], O. Maiboroda [6], U. Skobelsky [8] and others. The aim of this article is on the base of Durkheims classical studies of social solidarity to determine possible ways of consolidation of Ukrainian society; the task of the article is to analyze Durkheims conception of social solidarity and also social connection and relationship in Ukrainian society which influence on its solidarity and unity. The first who touched the problem of the nature of solidarity that unites people in certain "common view" was a French sociologist Emile Durkheim. In sociology he saw the science that should examine "social facts as things" [3, p. 421] by analyzing them according to certain index and displays just as natural history studies. One of the central Durkheims sociological theories is the problem of the relationship between the individual and society. These relationships should have a real expression. The following expression is solidarity, society in general is impossible without solidarity of people Durkheim insists and teaching it in historical perspective, provides a holistic view of this attitude. According to Durkheim, social solidarity is an equivalent to social status, and lack of social pathology. Moreover, Durkheim believes that the study of social solidarity changes the socio-historical 299

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time, allows solving the problem "as a simultaneous growth of autonomy and strength of personal social communication" [3, p. 42]. Through this approach, the system of relations between the individual and society is presented as a multidimensional, but filled by meaningful and understandable model. In the work "The Division of Labor in Society"[3, p. 5391] Durkheim establishes the idea that later becomes central in his creative heritage. An individual arises from society, not society from the individual this is the basic essence of this idea [3, p. 320]. Society fundamentally can not be reduced to a simple sum of its elements. It is a reality of the present, so it is impossible to explain this social phenomenon as solidarity, based exclusively on the individual himself [3, p. 65]. Society has a historical and logical priority [3, p. 320321], but the advantage of society to the individual should not be considered obviously ontological, speaking philosophically. It primarily should be understood as a methodological principle: person ripens in history and human freedom is an integral part of the entire historical development; the more difference between the individual and society, the greater part of freedom of personality [3, p. 160]. On this basis Durkheim tries to prove that the distribution of labor is one of the main factors of development of human individuality and cause changes in the social solidarity. In the above work "The Division of Labor in Society" the main attention is focused on the specific function of solidarity function of integrating social connection. For E. Durkheim the concept of solidarity and social connection are synonymous. However, according to him, solidarity cannot exist in abstract terms as entity outside the mind. When trying to abstract from the solidarity its real existence, living social interactions, that it forms, we get a kind of balance an abstract category of sociality. E. Durkheim writes: "But this rest is no more than an abstraction, because socialization itself does not happen anywhere else. There are real live forms of solidarity: family, profession, nation, yesterday, today, etc. Each has its personal nature, from here data of abstraction could give only a very incomplete explanation of the phenomenon, as they inevitably leave aside everything that lives in it". And then he continues as the conclusion: "Thus the study of solidarity relates to sociology. This is a social fact 300

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which perhaps enough to learn only through the mediation of its social consequences" [3, p. 68]. The essential moment of social solidarity, and Emily Durkheim focuses attention to this, is not to identify understanding of solidarity with a separate individuality, with psychophysical human characteristics. Solidarity is a social fact, it is also a moral phenomenon. Durkheim suggests studying it, grounding on objective social facts, symbolizing solidarity. He is searching for objective indicator social solidarity, and such indicator to his opinion is a law, in social life just law serves his organization, is the most constantly elaborated main his feature, as the thinker is mentioning is in that it reveals common collective consciousness. The sociologist says: The more members of society are solidary, the more they support different relations as with the one another, so with the group in the whole... From another side, such relations are proportional to the number judicial rules, that determinate them. Really, social life anywhere, where it exists for a long time, always tries to take certain form and to organize, and law is the organization in the most accepted and qualitative expression. So, we can be sure that we will find all significant variations of solidarity in law" [3, p. 66]. Studying variations of solidarity (by Emile Durkheim mechanical and organic solidarity), it is important for a sociologist to draw the analogy between them or how they differ among themselves. Mechanical solidarity reflects the relationship between homogeneous (similar to each other) members of society, it resembles the movement of molecules in a physical body and mechanical bond is stronger, the smaller the degree of movement of individual molecules, so mechanical solidarity "... increases in inverse relation to the individual" [3, p. 126 127]. This type of connection is generated by the collective consciousness and directly connects the individual with society. Mechanical solidarity or type of social communication is inherited by it historically and arises with the beginning of the emergence of societies. From this time we can talk about a collective consciousness which was common for all members of society. Emile Durkheim defines collective consciousness as "the totality of beliefs and feelings common mainly for members of the same society which creates definite system, which has its own life..., collective consciousness doesnt change with every 301

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generation; but inversely, connects other generations one with each other" [3, p. 80]. So, social connection of generations manifested in collective consciousness is historical process. The power of the social communications resulting from mechanical solidarity, expressed in inversely proportional relationship between collective consciousness and individuality. "Solidarity, that arises from similarities, reaches its maximum when collective consciousness accurately covers consciousness and coincides with it in all points; in this time our individuality is zero" [3, p. 126]. Working out the solidarity in interconnection with collective consciousness, E. Durkheim pays attention to social role of religion in appearing of social communities in historical process. Beside these he is interested in problems of social connections, which the religion creates and he comes to the conclusion that with the movement of social-historical time mechanical solidarity gradually substitutes organic one, which expresses the connection between differential members of society. Organic solidarity connects individuals with each other and with society indirectly through the division of labor. The specification of this kind of social connection lies in the concept of cooperation between individuals and society. Such process of reduction of the part of mechanical solidarity in historical development of society is irreversible, because collective type of connection gets little bit another forms and manifestations. Collective type of connection loses its primary social role, it disintegrates and becomes more abstract. New form of connection substitutes, when differentiation causes integration. Moreover, Emile Durkheim insists on the thought that it is not allowed to observe the history as the process, which flows in some groups according one scheme and in another according to another one. The transit form mechanical to organic solidarity, social differentiation and distribution of labor, the change of role of collective consciousness and arising of cooperative forms of connection is confirming social phenomenon, which has the power of historical rule. The main feature of the specific social connection which forms organic solidarity, unlike mechanical solidarity that binds individuals and society directly due to their similarities, organic solidarity creates the conditions for communication between 302

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individuals themselves and society simultaneously. Individual is a person who is aware that it depends on other individuals and that they are all linked in single system of social relations that arise from the division of labor. Under such circumstances, individuals agree among themselves mainly because they are different and mutually feel the need in each other. To understand this connection we can consider the following social phenomena associated with real organic solidarity: the struggle for existence (competition), social differentiation (division of labor) and cooperation. The transition from mechanical to organic solidarity is a process that is difficult to explain without using Durkheims principle of priority of society in the study of social phenomena. Mechanical connection type would be self-sufficient and, at first glance, there are no reasons for its gradual disintegration. The only reason for the collapse of mechanical solidarity, according to Emile Durkheim, is a division of labor. The division of labor is concomitant with the progress of civilization, it is seen in a much broader, not only economic, aspect. This is a global social phenomenon, which performs a number of functions in the society, including economic functions, political functions, cultural functions, social functions and others. The main function of the division of labor is the effect of the moral action which is, according to Emile Durkheim, "to create a feeling of solidarity between two or more persons" [3, p. 58], and also "in the statement of social and moral order sui generis" [3, p. 62]. Using the principle of cause and consequence unity, Emile Durkheim proves that, because the differentiation takes the moral function, its occurrence must be attributed at least involving moral motives and values. The division of labor is caused by specific changes in the social environment. Gradually an environment that corresponds to the collective type of communication a society consisting of individual closed and self-sufficient groups segments is disappearing [3, p. 176], the interaction between members of the society is increasing, the boundaries between segments are destroying. Here Emile Durkheim uses the concepts of volume and density of society, which once Herbert Spencer said about, and with the help of these categories he explains the reasons of destruction segmented society. Volume is the number of individuals within the society. The concept of 303

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density has a double meaning. On the one hand this is a material density, which is expressed in the number of people cohesive in one place, and on the other this is a moral density, the expression of which is the number of interactions between people. When the mechanical solidarity dominated that unites homogeneous individuals, sooner or later a situation arises that in the same place at the same time the density of the material and moral society increases. The volume of the society is a permanent process. Following Herbert Spencer, Emile Durkheim notes that growth in volume and density of the society gives rise to the struggle for existence competition [3, p. 248249]. As members of the archaic societies are homogeneous, similar to each other and are mainly engaged in the same activity, there is a competition between them. Hence there is the threat to the density of the society and peace between people. Social decline or collapse can be avoided in two ways: first to destroy rivals, the second the division of responsibilities between them. So there is the division of labor, which leads to the organic solidarity. "So," Emile Durkheim writes, "the division of labor is the result of the struggle for existence, but it is its softened solution" [3, p. 252253]. This is the social differentiation that enables even infirm individuals to become a full member of society, to get their own social roles, according to their capabilities. Therefore, the division of labor executes also a moral function. After the social differentiation cooperation is needed, which also symbolizes the organic solidarity. The main role of social cooperation is in strengthening feelings of mutual needs and interdependence between people simultaneously with the growth of individual freedom. The essence of collective solidarity is in the distribution of responsibilities between differentiated members of the society, which is fixed by the contract. But Emile Durkheim had his own point of view at the agreements and he considered it not only as a direct contract between people that has natural character, but as a contract that requires a social context and which is possible only if the forces exist which guarantee its implementation. He remarked: "Any contract provides that behind parties that conclude the contract, there is a society that is ready to intervene to compel to respect signed commitments" [3, p. 112]. Thus, summing up some of the essence of social solidarity we can come to the conclusion that the division of labor occurs in 304

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developed societies. Between separate individuals cooperation can not be established, because it will further aggravate the struggle for existence. "It is essential that individuals were already agree and felt it, that is, that they belonged to the same society, " writes Emile Durkheim [3, p. 258]. Then he cites an interesting example that is very typical for modern Ukraine and that suggests some consideration. Where solidarity is very weak, competition, which has resulted from the increase in density, causes the emigration of the population. Hence, the weakness of social solidarity in Ukraine is a real social fact. However, in our opinion, the concept of solidarity of Emile Durkheim is only a theoretical model, which in practice may be applied under certain opportunities and those positive social, economic, political and cultural changes which exist nowadays, but, as the social reality shows, they do not occur in Ukraine. E. Durkheim himself notes that the division of labor does not always cause organic solidarity. Sometimes it can be a simple imitation, an economic repetition of the developed countries structure, and that should be avoided. The division of labor must arise from internal social conditions, because sometimes such imitations can lead to the crisis state of the society. Emile Durkheims theoretical postulates concerning crisis or as he calls anomie societies weaken the ties of the individual and society under conditions of social change, and at the same time, there is a growth of interpersonal consolidation trends, especially in the beginning of social change. According to his definition, "not a crisis generates a preventive effect..., but fighting which was caused by this crisis" [4, p. 243]. However, this solidarity has changeable nature. According to Emile Durkheim, to overcome the painful crisis tendencies of society should not be to resort to artificial reviving of old social forms, or to create entirely new ones. "All you have to do is find in the past the germs of a new life and strongly contribute to the acceleration of its development" [4, p. 505] comes to the conclusion Emile Durkheim. According to Emile Durkheim, professional groups can become such a social form (social groups and social communities, various groups, associations of national direction, etc. should be added V. P.), which is important nowadays, as they can act as a factor of cohesion and consolidation of Ukrainian society today. Comparing societies in different historical periods, we can come 305

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to the conclusion about the complexity of social organization that is growing all the time in the socio-historical development. Archaic homogeneous societies, logically, would be firmer and stronger, but their power of social communication is much weaker, stresses Emile Durkheim [3, p. 143146]. A developed society with a rather unwieldy social structure is relatively stable and more integrated. Despite the complexity of social organization in more developed societies the strength of social ties and the following social phenomena as religion, division of labor, collective consciousness, culture, common historical past work on consolidation and unity of the society [5, p. 180]. Such relationships take different forms and types at different stages of development of the society through their abilities affect the level of consolidation of the society. The attention to the issue of consolidation and unity of Ukraine as a single state is actual again as the differences between different regions, caused by historical circumstances, are regularly used by politicians and create the potential threat even greater social stratification and confusion of Ukrainian society. The presence in one country different "countries", and in one nation different "nations", i.e. segments separated either by severe social abyss, or by cultural and territorial boundaries, is not a unique phenomenon. Social, linguistic, cultural, religious contradictions, different attitudes to their historical past and its evaluation and other circumstances put before testing the unity of various nations and societies. In most cases, these issues were resolved, if their decision passed in a civilized way, with "conservation of the values of the past that have sociocultural leverage on the modernity" [7, p. 53]. In the case of Ukraine, the problem does not end with listed above circumstances. According to our beliefs, social schism in Ukraine is much deeper than just linguistic, cultural and territorial, which really is not as deep as it is considered or wanted to see by some politicians. The problem of social schism of Ukrainian society lies in the historical past, its evaluation and treatment to it by various social strata. If for some members of Ukrainian society this or that historical event, the figure is positive, for others it is negative and vice versa. To find ways of social understanding of the historical past, which is common to the entire Ukrainian society, is a way to consolidate, to merge and to form a 306

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single political nation. Summing up the problems of social solidarity and its transition into the national consolidation, the most optimal ways that will give impetus to the integrating direction are: consolidation of the political elites of various political and ideological positions (now this seems impossible); a joint movement for creating conditions of interpenetration of historical, cultural, social and spiritual values of different regions of Ukraine from east to west and south to north; common to the entire Ukrainian society social and economic challenges and tasks, which can be solved perhaps only showing social solidarity in addressing the pressing issues of socio-economic nature. Acquiescence and compromises with the respect to different views and ideas, mutual respect of citizens of Ukraine of different regions in historical perspective may lead to conditions that will form national consolidating values. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. List of sources and literature .. // .. // . 2002 . - 8 . .85 89. .. / .. // . 2007 . - 2 . . 15 20. . . / . .: , 1991 . 575. . . / . .: , 1998 . 517. ., . : // , // : , , . 2006 . - 2 . . 177 194. . : - / // . .. . . .: , 2007 . . 33 . . 307

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22 32 .. : - / .. // . 2010 . - 2 . . 44 50. 8. . / // . , 2001 . . 3 . . 131 142. UDC 316.1.17 N. I. Stupnitska, V. V. Stupnitsky PHILOSOPHY OF TV LEISURE AS A REFLECTION OF THE UKRAINIAN ECONOMY There are described televisional realities- shows, it is given attempt them economic evaluation, indicated reasons of their popularity and consequences for society. Keywords: sphere of leisure, lottery, participant of drawing, payment, show-reality, teleproject, culture. The problem.Since 70-s years XIX centurythe service sector has taken a dominant positionowing tomeet the thorough needs. This component of public relations begins extremely powerful to evolve with the development and implementation of information and communication technologies. In economic terms, the public was offered unlimited abundance standardized products and a large number of nonstandardized products and services. The openness of national economics also focused on the service sector, which the 80-s of the last century becomes an independent and profitable sector of the economy. In this area begins to stand and intensify direction leisure. Level of development problems.American culturologistA. Toffler proves the existence and potential of the economy so-called "third wave". This economy arisen after the war,was based on the provision of services and use of information technology. 50 years ago it is created a real threat to industrial civilization, followed by the destruction of its institutions and values of the era of industrialism. Later A. Toffler points out that in future rate of changes, apparently, grow and as a result of this process will be profound disorientation people, who do not prepared for the attack events to come. Moreover, 308

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A. Moles, S. Kara-Murza, R. Harris in their works emphasize that the media have become a component of psychosocial habitat humanity, they apply for the role of a very powerful factor in shaping the worldview person and value orientation of society. Subsequently sphere of entertainments also beginning to be study. This problem intensively are engaged and academics. In particular, I. L. Vikentiev enough deeply explains the content and factors of lottery business namely the desire of easy money and rapid enrichment [1]. American researchers Daniel Kahneman and Angus Deaton prove, that entertainment, including lotteries, focusing on risk and need to feel the taste of victory, and that feeling is enough to "instantly" transmit channels, and modern Internet makes the process recurring in endless sensations with the possibility of modeling [6 ]. However, the assessment of leisure activities, including the development of the show and the overall development of the economy hardly explored. In other words, there is not a clear and unequivocal answer in Ukrainian society how the economy and entertainment on TV interrelated and interact. Therefore, the purpose of the study is the demonstration and evaluation of the relationship between the development of these services and the level of economic development. Accordingly objectives of the study are: -finding the main reasons for the popularity of this sector leisure; -evaluation of the economic aspect of the problem of domestic TV leisure; -the ability to manage and control assessment of this area. The main material.The break-up of the Soviet Union in the informational field sharply stepped up changing the television and made priorities accentuated television. With the development of the national economy drastically been strengthened the field of electronic and television entertainment. This is clearly evident in the lottery business. In particular, within last five years the Ukrainian lottery market grew by 27%, and in 2009 its turnover even decreased by 13% and reduced to 87 million dollars. For comparison, in Poland ticket sales reached 500 million dollars per year, and in Germany 6 billion dollars [2]. In the Soviet Union there was only one lottery, then since its 309

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independence of Ukraine, these games are extremely spread. Now on the lottery market in Ukraine are two operators of state lotteries: LLC "MSL" and "Ukrainian National Lottery", which carried a number of different types of lotteries. Since 2002 lottery were transferred to the online mode. Successful marketing step (for the winners of the lottery players that guessed 1 and the results of the 11 proposed in circulation matches were guaranteed prize pool of 20000 hryvnias) wide at first, marketing support, including promotional, significantly increased gaming activity players [2]. Marketing stepensured sales growth and involvement of the general public to games of this type, and provided monetary returns. Lotteries have become extremely profitable business and promising projects. Significant activation lottery business has attracted the attention of the government. Were introduced requirements for minimum authorized capital. This led to the fact that small companies left the market. Overall, this has led to a sharp decrease of the organizers of this business. The market is divided into two parts: almost 90% of sales provided MSL (Lotto-Fun, "Whos there" Megalot) and UNL (Superloto and "Keno"). About 10% of the market divided between Telefortuna and Patriot. Oschadbank also owned licencebut draws financial institution not conducted. Schedule power market remained, however, three players remained. The Ministry of Finance took license in Telefortuna, which occupied about 2% of the market [3]. Introduction of tax incentives and simplified tax system also provided a prosperity of gambling business. Launched mass organization of slot machines. In social terms, it caused significant problems that led to criminal events. Accordingly, in 2009 the government introduced a complete ban on gambling. Realistically, this has led to the fact that the vast majority of gambling went into the shadow activity and reorganized as part of the Internet cafe. The system of payment of winnings includes wins to 1500 USD inclusive, who declared, that can get at any terminal. In fact, business structures, working with MSL rarely have played pay winnings in excess of 200 USD. And the terminals belonging MSL, very rarely amount more than 500 USD. regional MSL, which really amount to 1,500 USD. can be obtained quite easily placed only in regional centers, 310

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but the winnings are paid every day, and according to schedule [2]. Wins over 1500 USD.get much more complicated. They are made at the regional offices MSL, then transferred to the central office where issued by non-cash transfer to their accounts in banking institutions. Moreover, according to the rules of the game, such deposit is made within two months, the term is often not respected. Thus, violated one of the basic psychological principles of any game: wins again invested in the game. Especially noticeable from problems with getting prizes suffering players who, by betting on a significant amount, and thus cutting off circulation hard projected results, and mostly benefit amount more than 1500 USD. Thus, there is leaching of circulating assets of the target audience of players, which, as mentioned, makes the vast amount of rates. Of course, the problem of obtaining gains significantly undermines public confidence in the operator and to the game. Lotteries Sports actually represented in Ukraine just one game, "Sports Prediction" (MSL), sales of which an average of just over 20 thousand hryvnias [3]. This segment fans guessing sports scores selected in lottery bookmakers. Point to the effectiveness of the organizers of the lottery business. Thus, if the terminal network launch new numerical lottery will cost about $ 1 million dollars., while the instant lottery will spend an average of 100 thousand dollars [3]. Organizers say its lottery business low profitability. According to them, 50% of the proceeds are directed to the prize pool, 25% of the sales tax paid as about 15-20% of the revenue goes to the upkeep and maintenance of the registration rates. In 10% of the sales cost advertising and television time, another 5% are implementers. As a result, companies still 5-10% of turnover. About the same receiving foreign companies [3]. The economic basis of lottery business based only on the participants involved in the raffling. For Ukraine, these participants are 15-20% of the adult population, and from time to time playing nearly half the adult population. There are 5 main types of lotteries. On the gain in instant lottery player learns almost immediately after buying the ticket-enough to erase coating or open the envelope and read the results of the game. In Ukraine, played about two dozen lotteries with prizes from 5 to 250 311

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thousand hryvnias.The winner is the average every fourth ticket. Some instant lotteries are combined. For example, players are invited to television, where play a bigger prize [5]. For a prize in a lottery type "Toto" player has to guess the results of no less than 8 different sports. The lottery "Sportprognos MSL, offering participants to guess the results of 11 football matches. Prizes are paid to those who correctly predicted a 9, 10 or 11 results. By guessing of 11 pairs on average pay 10-20 thousandhryvnias., 10 34 thousand hryvnias, 9 2 thousand hryvnias. Biggest win sum of 4658 thousand UAH. was paid for 10 guessed athletic performance [5]. Practically, the amount of winnings in the lottery depends on the number of winners and the complexity of the forecast, which is defined by football experts. Another lottery the so-called bit. It sells tickets with prespecified number. The player wins if the number matches published. In Ukraine, there is no such lottery. In numerical lottery participant has to guess the number. The most popular numerical lotteries in Ukraine, "SUPERLOTO" (Ukrainian National Lottery). Guessing three numbers out of six, the player receives a prize 15 UAH., four-75 USD., Five-three thousand., 5 numbers and the extra ball-300 ths., Six jackpot. Now it is 25.65 millionhryvnias [5]. A player buys a bingo lottery ticket with numbers already printed in the matrices. During the draw, he crosses the table numbers dropped. The winner is the one who has crossed out digits formed a straight line. By lotteries "bingo" refers Lotto-Fun. If players manage to strike a vertical line ticket, he gets a prize of 512 USD., two-line 150800 USD., three 300 thousands hryvnias. Who struck out three lines in which there will be no horseshoes numbers frustrate jackpot that is enough large 3 million hryvnias [5]. Another aspect of the lottery entertainment is pretty weak fight organizers for their customers. In 2013, expires licenses issued by the companies. Given the extremely unstable economic situation caused by the global financial and economic crisis and changes in the system of national taxation, any of the operators is not taken to forecast prospects lottery market. Accordingly, investment in this sector of entertainment coming very limited and carefully 312

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Concerning of lottery entertainment, they become mass through technology Internet, and attractive because of the desire to "earn" at a time when the society does not pay nearly as common value merely money. By its very nature is entertainment that requires only costs out of their own budget. Another aspect of Ukrainian entertainment, which has recently gained much popularity, became a reality show. This suggests a new season in 2011. It is full of all sorts of reality shows. Specificity of his manifested in the fact that the participants are not professional actors and presenters, but representatives of the people. So, on top channels carried dozens of castings in various TV projects. Among them, for example, the "Wife Swap", which is quite popular among the views in the family. Another reality show " The Bachelor", popular with young people, mostly girls, aged 15 to 35 years, which intending to organize a family and at the same time fundamentally solve the financial problem is to provide a comfortable family life. Popularity "Wife Swap" due to social aspects of Ukrainian reality. First of all, it is an opportunity to leave their family everyday, and for participating in the project to relax, or "hang down" by anyone. That is, in social terms an opportunity to visit the best conditions, visit the "fairy tale". After all expence as transportation, accommodation, meals, legal protection rely on the organizers of the show. In addition, the project paid 8 ths USD. The average Ukrainian family this revenue gain for the month is difficult at the same time, the show remains the show, because, as the participant under a scenario to change their behavior, relationships and family morality [4]. Another popular TV show "Without a mandate." Popularity due publicity, exposing some extremely sharp and problematic socio-economic aspects of society. In fact, this picture contrasts to our reality. On the one hand is power and its ability or failure, and the other environment typical Ukrainian survival in the corrupt and resale value system. Transfer show quick be used up. This is not surprising. Ukrainian society such chronic problems are many, but isolated solutions do not change the overall effect. At the same time, "national policy" strain these problems also gain nothing, because while spends his own money, attracts some of the institutional structure (which almost no acting, 313

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although they assigned functions to solve such problems) eventually take responsibility. Budget transfer payments include participants from the crowd size 4 thousand USD., d directed at resolving the urgent needs [4]. As for the TV projects, virtually all shows shot in apartments heroes, or making housing in a TV studio, as in "Play Mobile Trick native" (New Channel). The second type of programs focused on specific contests with a fixed gain. This "X-factor", "Everybody Dance", "Ukraine has talent" and others, this trend involves the efforts of the party: pass casting, training, performance. Show is held in several stages. At the same time, data transfer requires the support of the audience: voting via SMS text messages. Although the actual cost figures do not open, they provide a partial transfer of revenues to mobile operators and payment of VAT. Only popular scandal and the choice of Ukraines Eurovision SMS voting reached sizes up to 2 thousand.USD. As for the rating and the popular TV show "The Bachelor" economy aspects of its launch and implementation are closed, but we can find these patterns. First of all, the conditions of participation in the project. This unjustified risk (skydive, mountain downhill, etc.) associated with various activities and events. And its all spelled out in detail and determined. Health should be perfect and ready to withstand the physical and psychological burden that stated in the contract. In addition, the channel becomes full owner of all information about the participants and their choice may use and publish it. On the other position, the participation of the project. Choosing contenders remains complete mystery. However, analyzing information on approved participants and online reviews of those who do not come through, we can conclude that there are people who are known from within a narrow circle of activity, but not popular. Sasha interpreter accompanied the Italian people, Nadia is a model, Yana is a singer, but they are not known and popular. This does not exclude the possibility of buying is participating in the project. This can only guess biographical aspects of exploring and participating and pretender who did not casting were partially confirm this. Regarding completion of the project, it became clear that the main character takes part only in order to get 314

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money. Organization of filming is very expensive. Thus, episodes meetings with parents Nadia officially recognized by all as a rental unit for passing such a meeting. Thus, all the shows that are on television require considerable resources. There is a purely logical question - who and for what purpose it finances? Definite answer cannot be obtained, but we can clearly assume that all reality is powerful enough capital. Given the international donor flows of currency, which at the beginning of the break-up of the Soviet Union were directed exclusively to individual researchers, so that through them propagandize and implement purely market principles that have no positive effect either in the social aspect, nor the economic potential had. For example, this raid is not a complete solution ownership, as well as the range of municipal issues as total neglect of responsibility to the people. At present, the problem surfaced public organizations that are powered by donor grants. In the cultural sphere, the so-called "humanitarian" aid, resulted in a reality-show which imposed and financed abroad. If three years ago TV shows were pretty tough and aggressive (for example, their very names speak for themselves: "The Last Hero", "Mild link"), the modern record opposing change. On the "outside" if humanity, tolerance, social, humanity, kindness, and in essence all the same "face" associated with greed, profit, bribery, priority is only money. For the vast majority of Ukrainian these telecasts are popular, and then they will remain so, because they give hope to the placement of their lives in a very "aggressive" socio-economic environment. That laysa bit hope that you can solve their daily problems and get extra disposable income, the size of it is insignificant. On another aspect, then, is the possibility of a creative personality to get start-up capital and "lighted" in show business. In strategic terms, this means fundamentally solve their comfortable existence and gain universal acceptance. During the socialist economy, it was impossible to do, because all had a stable, adequate income. And, given that production is reduced, increasing social tension remains seek recognition in show business. Generally, these TV projects reflect imbalance of social production in Ukraine, focusing on their random solution. In other words, artificially created social and production system triggered the development of these TV broadcasts, since, none of 315

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them promotes the work. Another opinion on the development of TV entertainment is that significant resources are redistributed to virtual economy. Because these projects are not actually related to social production. Richness and welfare of the nation in this field does notform. Conclusions.Thus, the culture of society is nothing more than a coherent system with its inherent characteristics. Reality shows have becomeone of the components of culture of modern Ukrainian society. These show reality not arisen spontaneously, as implemented in the socio-cultural aspect to the period of breaking the traditional SovietUkrainian culture through mass implementation of the economic aspects of market. How to market its aim was to profit by exchange through money, through the sale, and in the reality show aim is profit. The only difference between the market and show realities manifested only in entertainment, mass, and popularity. In the market we have to live and work and the reality show where we all take a side, speaking audience, with partial voting rights. It is a myth that exists and develops in reality, and thus binds and encourages him. At the same time, reality shows significantly affect the development of Ukrainian culture in general. This is manifested in the variable values in life where tolerance is replaced by aggression and cruelty, but love is replaced by utility and receiving benefit, and in general, is a manifestation of the ideology of predatory survival now and under any conditions. That is the main danger reality show, which will only lead to further destruction of the nation and the state in fact, not the territory. 1. 2. 3. List of sources and literature . . . [ ]. : http://www. trizri.ru/authors/vikentev_art.asp [ ]. : http://lottery.front.ru/ . [ ]. : http://ping.ua/ 316


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- , . [ ]. : //http:otherside.com.ua/ 5. . [ ]. : http://refs.co.ua// 6. : , . [ ]. : http://lingvoforum.net/ UDC 2:37(477)

L. O. Phylypovych, N. S. Havrilova RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN UCRAINE: STATE AND PROSPECTIVES


In the article, consisting and progress of religious education trends is analysed of Ukraine eywords: religious education, Ukraine, legislation, educational establishments Ukraine is the country of ancient educational traditions from preChristian and early Christian times. Schools of Kyiv Russia and Galycia-Volyn principality already formed the system of education with Christian values dominating. At that time education was definitely religious, and other subjects were included in its structure and content. Without going deeply into the history of school development in Ukraine, into the problem of interaction between spiritual and secular components in it, lets focus on analysis of the current state of religious education in Ukraine, on issues which are vital nowadays. First of all, lets find out such obvious things as what a religious education is, under which conditions it is possible, whether religion education as a system exists in modern Ukraine, its state and perspectives, its problems and there solving. We must realize that religion is really present in the life of all Ukrainian society. The religion presence implies the need of religious education. It is obvious that religious education is possible only in the countries, where religion exists, because there is no sense to talk about religious education without religiosity bearer. So the social background 317

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of education is believers of different faiths, who teach and learn. And as a result they exchange knowledge, information and experience. It is difficult to define the term religious education because understanding of the term education is complex. To begin with, education is the system of training. Secondly, it is a mentally-cognitive process in a human life, during which a person gets knowledge about himself and the world. Thirdly, it is the process of personal development and fourthly, it is acquisition of knowledge, skills and habits. But it goes without saying that religious education is associated with religion and is realized by church or religious organizations through teaching religion and its aspects (moral, ceremonial, ritual, social, etc.) The term religious education often coincides with religion studies. Religious education usually includes teaching the basis of religion, which form the religious beliefs of a person, that are embodied in saintliness and moral behavior. Target direction of religious education can be obvious and hidden, but it is always aimed at the upbringing of a religious person and at growing of religiosity. Religious education is always a kind of activity: generally educative and/or professionally-oriented. The first one is the most massive, directed on all members of society, because it is identical to evangelization and catechesis. It is implemented through religious (Sunday) schools, catechetical courses, associations of sacred books schools, through religious media (special pages in magazines, radio, TV), self education clubs, Internet and so on. It exited at every church and religious organization. The second type of religious education is provided through the acquisition of special theological knowledge, doctrinal training of clergy (priests, pastors), getting secular knowledge through religious axiological position, formation of a highly developed intellectual and moral person capable to live in the selected religious coordinates. If we compared the understanding of religious education a hundred or even fifty years ago with the modern one, we would see that the interpretation of the essence of religious education has increased significantly. But has social consciousness got rid of the stereotypes looking at religious education as at harmful sphere of life? Is modern Ukrainian society capable to accept religious education not as a vanity 318

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of time, but as an alternative or parallel form of human knowledge? Understanding the reasons of such skepticism, whish has grown not only as a result antireligious propaganda of the Communists Party, but also as a reaction to a rather negative experience of the religious education and pre-Soviet period, w when the level and quality of it was wanted to be better. It is important to turn to the analysis of the current state of education. Transformation of the latter is too slow. Education, especially religious education has still been under the pressure of both state and church ideological and organizational prohibitions. Nowadays the objective circumstances such as lack of financial and human resources obstacle the progressive development of religious education in Ukraine. But they fade facing the civil and ecclesiastical bureaucracy trying to introduce the innovative changes in education. Ministerial and regional officials are against any changes. The churches prefer traditional forms of education. They ignore the need of the educational reform. Instead of allowing everything not prohibited by law, they are banning everything not prescribed it. The situation in the religious education cannot spontaneously change. Although things happened that way. The state recognized that the church was separated from it, so it didnt interfere in the process of the restoring the old and the creation of the new religious educational institutions. The problems appeared when it was time to return the nationalized schools and seminaries, colleges and academies, share assigned library collections, take the icons and other religious items out of museums. On the other hand, the state treated negatively the attempts to restore the rights of the church in the educational sphere, the attempts to establish control over the school in terms of educational content, the representation of the Gods Law or Christian ethics, the demands of changing the evolutionary theory into the creation theory. The indisputable authority of the church in religious education provoked the resistance of the teachers. In education both state and church has not always behaved autonomously without intervention in the internal affairs of each other. It is sometimes hard to realize that citizens could be and are believers, and believers are citizens of Ukraine. Thats why the state discriminates the part of the citizens with the authority of its power limiting their rights to alternative education. At the same time the church with the power of its authority marginalizes non-believers and 319

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non-Christians considering the non-religious education as secularizing process. It is necessary to note that religion is not taught in public secondary schools. Religion orientated subjects are not included into the curriculums of public schools. The courses of Christian ethics are implemented instead both with secular non-religious ethics. Mostly Christian ethics is taught in the western regions of Ukraine during last 15 years. Such course as "On the paths of kindness" is taught in Kiev schools, "Fundamentals of Orthodox culture" and "Fundamentals of Islamic culture" are included in the curriculum in the Crimea as optional courses. Its a true fact that Christian ethics that is taught in some schools to meet the parents wish depends on the teachers personality and his religious affiliation though it is not admitted. This subject is taught by teachers who got certificates, the success of its teaching depends on the teachers level of the religious culture. Speaking about religious education in private educational institutions intelligent part of Ukrainian society arouses the same key question that the states responsibility is to assist in creating adequate conditions for the development of religious education through which citizens of Ukraine realize their right to freedom of conscience and religion. Religious education is extremely important for religion and religious organizations, because religiosity is realized through it. In general churches of Ukraine formed the need in religious education, but not all of them are able to implement these needs fully because of shortage of experience, money, human resources, adequate legislative and social base. And here another question appears: how to convince deputes of Verhovna Rada of Ukraine to adopt appropriate legislative acts that would give the religious organizations rights and possibilities to found educational institutions and support them because Ukrainian children go there as well as to secular institutions. The state should take care of them as of representatives of younger generation, regardless their world and religion views. Conscious citizens should remind the state constantly that the government exists on taxes of all citizens who work - both Orthodox and Catholics, Greek Catholics and Protestants and even Hare Krishnas and Muslims. Thats why the state should guarantee freedom and rights to everybody and provide citizens with 320

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the conditions under which these rights and freedoms should be implemented the best. Why wouldnt the state provide religious educational institutions with printed textbooks? Why wouldnt it refund expenses on general subjects (history of Ukraine, Ukrainian and foreign languages, etc.)? Why wouldnt it grant renting buildings and land for erecting schools? Arent students and teachers of seminaries and academies, Bible institutes and schools of religious leadership the same citizens of Ukraine? Unlike European countries Ukraine has no laws which regulate the sphere of religious education. Educational process is based on the "Law on Education" (1991), where religious education is mentioned in Articles 6, 8, 9 in prohibitive context (education is independent of religious organizations, educational process in educational institutions is free from interference of religious organizations, involving pupils and students in the religious activities during the educational process isnt allowed, educational institutions in Ukraine regardless their ownership are separated from the church and have a secular character, except educational institutions founded by religious organizations). Religious education is subject to the law "Freedom of Conscience and Religious Organizations" (1991). The existence of two laws, one of which prohibits religious education and another allows it only in the religious educational institutions, their contradiction dont help to develop religious education. Such education is still not certified, not licensed. Religious education out of religious educational institutions is illegal. And all that happens because the state bases on law declaring separation of church from state and school from church which was adopted 90 years ago. It is strange that having a solid social base for the development of religious education, liberal legislation of the freedom of conscience and the rights of believers, the activity of religious organizations, the desire of churches as well as the believers the state cant make an effort and create a transparent system of religious education. The state even doesnt have in its administration structures a special department which could deal with this task. The formula of the school being separated from church is actually used by the state to justify its inactivity in the field of religious education. It is indifferent to this segment of life behind which stand (as the state represented by the President and 321

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government members and the deputies declared this not once)-the spirits and morals of the people Isnt the state interested in having educated and intellectual priests, pastors whose certificates are recognized abroad but not in its own country? Why cant a graduate after his studies at the seminary or academy and receiving a bachelors or masters degree in theology and taking the Humanities courses and mastering three classical and several foreign languages teach at school and at the same time work on his post graduate thesis or work at the government department or department of culture? Declaring the separation of the state and religious education the state understands it not as the right for some autonomy but as complete non-interference and separation (You are not mine).But whose? Whose religion is being spoken about? Do our churches belong to Americans or Australians? Are these not the churches of our citizens? The English word "separation" used in western secular legislation related to the relations between church and education means division, the distribution of duties and rights rather than separation. But our post Soviet and postcommunist conscience got used to understanding only separation: neutral in its better meaning and hostile in its worse one. Religious education is considered by the state to be the matter of churches which plan and organize the process by themselves. Besides, its the state rather than society that doesnt understand the thing that the improvement of educational system in Ukraine requires the coordination of the existing legislation acts which regulate the relations in this field, the recognition of -co- existence in Ukraine the alternative forms of studies that would meet the requirements of the principles of freedom of belief and freedom in choosing education, in active support on behalf of the state the foundation and development of various educational models. According to the statistics of the Ministry of education in Ukraine there are about two hundred private secondary and actually alternative educational establishments. Its about 1% of the total number of secondary schools in Ukraine. In Europe this number is 1013 per cent .Honestly speaking, the number of private and specialized schools is constantly growing because in society there is need for this education but there is no documentary permission. The existing 322

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collision/controversy between some documents related to the rights of parents to choose education for their children and the rights of religious and public organizations to organize secondary schools must be solved. Its not the state but parents who have the right to choose, and some institutions, church and public organizations- to organize a system of religious education. Such approach corresponds to the constitutional legislative sphere of the Ukrainian state, to the international standards in this field, to the Declaration on the liquidation of all forms of religious discrimination declared by the resolution 36/55 of the General Assembly on 25th 1981{6, p.1620} and will provide a complete realization of the citizens rights for the freedom of belief, the right to choose education that will respond to the rights and interests of a child. The necessity of solving this problem has been mentioned more than once. It looks as if everyone understands the necessity of solving this problem but everything remains as it was in the Soviet time. The amendments to the existing laws have been made many times. Among their number, a law project on the right of religious organizations to organize their secular educational establishments was registered by the Parliament(Verhovna Rada )of Ukraine (the 5th session, 2020, August 2006, the author-peoples deputy V. Stretovich ) and suggested adding religious organizations to the list of those who have the right to organize secular educational establishments .Religious organizations could have equal rights with public organizations and private people and according to the authors these projects didnt need any special regulations in the participation of religious organizations in the process of providing secular education. Unfortunately, in its turn Ministry of education and science of Ukraine didnt support the adoption of the above mentioned legislation changes referring to the requirement of the Constitution of Ukraine about the separation of church from school and emphasized the necessity to bring some complex changes to the whole system of educational laws Because of this attitude and unfavorable political situation law project 2020 was turned down by the Parliament. But soon another project 3160(February 2007, authors-peoples deputiesStretovich, Bodnar, Malishev, Marushchenko) was registered in the Parliament. It differed from the previous one in suggesting some changes and amendments to the whole system of educational laws. But 323

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this one wasnt considered by the deputies and wasnt added to the agenda of the 5th session of the Parliament either. The unwillingness of Ukrainian society to untie the knot of controversies between the reality and the law which legitimates this reality hampers the development of religious education. But such education exists in Ukraine. There are secondary and higher educational establishments which actually were organized by religious organizations as private or their departments but which by themselves have to resist the branchy bureaucratic machine of the state government which is trying to close their activity or change their schools into common or to find some illegal ways of influence (remember the scandal connected with the initiatives of SBU (Intelligence Service of Ukraine) to "cooperate" with Ukrainian Catholic University).The state is not interested in giving the church its autonomy in the field of education and uses its power as a means of political and legislative control of church. The same problems arise in the relations of the state and church. Ukraine differs from other countries in having no particular religion or church which have the right to control religious education at secondary schools according to the state legislation but some churches wouldnt refuse to take up such power. According to the Ukrainian legislation religious organizations have no right to start private schools with the program of education and a certificate recognized by a secular state and for this reason they have no other privileges in this field. The state doesnt finance religious education. And it is very happy about this because there is not enough money to keep more than 30 thousand secondary schools the number of which is growing every year. According to Order 94 a public council on cooperation with churches and religious organizations was organized at the Ministry of education and science on 20.10.2008 On its initiative the Ministry of education and science addressed the Ministry of finance and the budget committee of the Parliament with the idea of considering the possibility of financing books on the subject "Principles of Christian ethics" for 122 thousand children of state and community schools in 2010. But the most essential result of the activity of the public council was the discussion of the branch standards on theology and the requirements of Ministry of education and science to the books on theological subjects. 324

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The state is too slowly solving the problems of giving some land to the religious educational establishments for the construction or acquiring and renting school buildings Religious education doesnt receive any support from the state: either material or methodological. The bill payment for religious and government schools differs too. Only the Resolution of the Government of Ukraine(182 February 24th 20100 ) on "Some problems of forming tariffs for industry, transport and heating industry" suggests that religious organizations including religious schools pay the same electricity and water tariffs as common people. But even here the state does not fulfill its duties because it classed all the payers into 4 groups who pay different tariff for heating. Only church is responsible for religious education in Ukraine. The state dissociated itself from financing and showing any interest in such schools because of this separation and shows absolute indifference to this segment of education. But this is a big number of schools. At the beginning of 2010 in Ukraine there were 12633 Sunday schools [7] (among them about 40%-protestant, 13%-catholic, and 46%orthodox).To the system of religious education of Ukraine also belong 196 educational establishments where 9012 day-time students and 8537 correspondence students study [8]. Among these establishments orthodox ones comprise 22.5%, catholic-12%, and protestant-64%. All religious organizations, parents and especially the state ought to take it into consideration. Maybe the state should stop ignoring religious education and start showing interest in what is taught and how it is taught at religious schools. Who teaches there and who do they teach? How are the teachers and students doing? What worries them? The purpose is not to control another sphere of social life by its monopolizing to imposed dullness and similarity but to understand that its not people who are meant for the state administration but the state administration is meant for people and it ought to defend the freedom and rights of those people who have or dont have any belief, demonstrate their belief in public or private, separately or united [6, p.1065]. Many changes have taken place in the relations between the state and religion for about twenty years of independent Ukraine. Many arguments and even conflicts have been solved. But education still remains the field which the state is not going to leave and church lays claim to. 325

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What prevents these two subjects of partnership relations from solving the problems of the development of religious education? Firstly, stereotypes about the contents and forms of religious education. Secondly, lack of willingness, creative and open approach to the problem which cant be solved by means of old methods. Its more convenient to work till retirement without risking your career than to change the world around you. Thirdly, lack of knowledge about the experience of other countries in this field and being uninformed about our own historical past when similar problem also arose but were more or less successfully solved. Fourthly, poor integration into modern pedagogical methods which comprise the basis for authorized programs and projects that might encourage society to be more informed on religion. Moreover, there are all objective grounds for this. Ukrainian education in general and religious in particular are experiencing various prohibition actions of both the state and church in the line of ideology and organization. There are some objective reasons in Ukraine that hinder the progress of religious education and among them lack of financial and human resources. But they all become secondary in comparison with bureaucracy both in the state and church when it comes to innovative changes in education. Ministry and regional officials dont want any changes and legislators prefer other fields thus remaining inactive in this field. Churches choose traditional and tested in the course of time methods of teaching and thus are very careful about modernization of education. Ignoring the need of reforming education they all defend old ideologies, out-of-date laws and ineffective instructions. Instead of making such a simple and clear step to do everything that is not forbidden by law they are trying to ban everything that is not registered in this law.

1.
2.

3.

List of sources and literature [ 5 ] / . . . . . : , 2001 2005. [ ]. : http://www.irs.in.ua/index.php? option=com_content&view=article&id=459%3A1&catid=34%3 Aua&Itemid=61&lang=uk . . : 326

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4. 5. 6.

/ [. . . ; .. . . ]. . : ; ,381 00 2003. 766 . : . / [. . , . . , . . ]. . : , 2006. 447 . . . / . . [ . . . ]. . : - . . . 364 . // .. ., 2002. 150 .

7.
8.

( 1 2010 .) [ ]. : http://risu.org.ua/ua/index/resourses/statistics/ukr2010
16.03.2007 048.

UDC 930.1:94(4770 M. V. Shkriblyak HISTORIOSOPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ARCHIVAL SOURCES ABOUT THE ROLE AND PLACE OF SECULAR ELEMENT IN SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS PROCESSES OF BERESTECHKO AND POST-BERESTECHKO PERIOD The historiosophical analysis of considerable part of the archived sources kept in the Central Record Historical Office of Ukraine in Lviv and department of Manuscripts of the Lviv Scientific Library named after Vasyl Stefanyk and the National academy of sciences of Ukraine is conducted in the article. The author considers the role and place of "secular element" in public and religious life of Orthodoxs of Poland Kingdom in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. An author proves that scientific research of the archived materials can assist to the revision basic diametrically opposite on ideal and ecclesiastic essence historiography directions. And it, certainly, will result in the overvalue of most events and phenomena of national history, that in turn will create favorable terms for 327

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establishment of complex and conceptually new objectivity of religious and political transformations to the Orthodox environment in the late 16th early 18th centuries. Keywords: the Central Record Office, Department of anuscripts, archived materials, historical documents, historical monuments, "secular element", church fraternities, episcopate, Orthodox hierarchy, Kyiv metropolis. Actuality of research theme. It would be out of place to prove that deep and impartial analysis of sources is the most important theoretical and methodological scientific research of each historical event or phenomenon, and especially those who have clearly expressed controversial nature and character. Such events, as it is known, in historical existence of Ukrainian people and its Church is quite a lot. What cost only Berestetska union in 1596, which marked the emergence of a "new" Ukrainian Church under the aegis of the Roman Apostolic See or the incorporation of Kyiv Orthodox Metropolis 1686, when Ukrainian Church joined the Moscow Patriarchate later to dissolve into the treasury of the Moscow-Russian Orthodoxy. Disagreements on ratings of these and many other events determine the problem Artificial modernizing church-historical issues, which conceals negative trends, which ultimately detract from finding the historical truth and, in turn, destabilizes vektornist its evolutionary changes ecclesiological, spiritual, cultural and even political priorities of Ukrainian believers. All this points not for the first time to the need for refusal of blind theoretical development and cultivation of a particular ideology in favor of adherents, or implacable opponents of the same event. Thus, it becomes increasingly obvious that only one change of emphasis in the estimates is not enough. The modern social and political reality in Ukraine, therefore, those transformations that happen in the consciousness of the Ukrainian public, ask for objective assessment of the most historical events and phenomena, especially those who cause the historical fate or misfortune of Ukrainian Church. In this regard, the problem of a new thinking and revaluation of certain segments of the social and religious environment is in progress. The thing is about of interpretation of the role and place of "social elements" (church brotherhoods) as is the only legitimate out 328

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of the hierarchical structure of the Kiev metropole of the period of Ukrainian statelessness and outstandish relious influence. Extrapolation of historical experience of functioning of church brotherhoods on present intra church transformations allows to develop such model, relationship of social element and the spiritual power in Church which would consider not only moral, but also church-canonical determinants secular on church and religious life in Ukraine. After all even moderate domination in internal life of Church of outside the hierarchical influence is more negative, rather than positive. Goal and task. This article is an attempt of historiosophical analysis of archival document, of different origin (church and secular) and information potential which allow you to visualize radicalism of those public and religious changes in the late XVI early XVIII century, which were led to a full imbalance in the ratio interferences in a triangle by "churches-states-laymen" and also to reproduce modus two- vectorial to perception of idea of a church uniya of 1596, joining the Metropolitan of Kiev to the Moscow patriarchy and many other events of the specified period. The main content of the article. Being guided by documents of fund 129 of the Central state historical archive of Ukraine in Lviv (further CSHA of Ukraine in Lviv) you can easily reconstruct the specifics of relationship of Lviv Holy Dormition Brotherhood with local bishops. Historical documents - patriarchal, metropolitan and episcopal diplomas, letters of clergy and church brothers, and also the attestations of eyewitnesses fixed on the letter which are available in mentioned fund, with all distinctness show that the conflict between the Lvov brotherhood and local bishop Hedeon Balaban (15691607) became more active in the middle of the 1580th years. Exactly at that time a brotherhood, fighting spheres of influence in church and religious life, declared full independence of the local bishop in the Lviv diocese. Historical documents show that in the exacerbation of the conflict between the bishop Hedeon and Lviv church brotherhood important role at first played Patriarch of Antioch Joachim (15671585 years), and then himself patriarch of Constantinople, Jeremiah II. The first approved charter fraternity, and another gave to the member of brotherhood status of stauropegian power. Since obtaining stavropegic, Lviv Holy Dormition Brotherhood gained all-state character, and his 329

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work priorities those that a priori belonged exclusively spiritual persons. This is primarily for church proceedings of the clergy, even to excommunication from the Church. It should be noted that all 129 fund "divided" into four descriptions. In the Description number 1 remains complex of documents of Lviv Holy Dormition Brotherhood church, religious and social organization, which operated for many centuries, and it kept a decisive influence on the socio-religious, spiritual and cultural transformation, not only in Lviv, but also in neighboring dioceses. In addition, in the first Description there is several cases containing documents on the self-organization of the laity at Holy Assumption Church in Lviv (it can be seen as a precursor of Lstauropegian Brotherhood), and documents on the history of the Epiphany brotherhood, self-destructived in 1831. These materials enable researchers not only to impartially interpret the nature of the relationship between the church hierarchy and laity [12, 13, 19, 23, 24], but then find and characteristics and main form of struggle between them for spheres of influence in the Kyiv Metropolis late XVI early XVIII [2528]. Other historical monuments of the description number 1 indicate the role of temporal and spiritual power in this process [5 84; 1417; 31; 33; 39]. Its important to mention, that Kyiv orthodox hierarches of parent state aimed at normalization of relationship with laity, but the last didnt make a compromise, especially it had to do with those church fraternity, which had reached stauropegion. There is a letter confirmation, where Lviv bishop Hedeon asks the local members of the brother hood to conciliation [12] and assures of about readiness of cooperation. A wide range of documents confirm the fact that bishop Hedeon in his sending to the local nobility and faithful people made a request to help Lviv Sviatouspenskiy brotherhood to renew its infrastructure (restoration of church, school, hospital etc., which were burnt down ) [21, 32, 33]. In fund 129 there are also a lot of documents (letters and missives) which serve as a proof of a struggle between non- hierarchical structures and the union [29]. There are also many documents charters and letters of eastern patriarchs or their representatives, where calls of ecclesiastical brotherhoods for resolute actions against religious expansion of Rich Pospolytas Catholic Church and immediate 330

Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society.

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suspension of confrontation with local hierarchs [20, 21] are present. At that period of time there were only two local hierarchs bishop from Peremyshl Mykhailo Kopystianskii (15911610) and Hedeon Balaban from Lviv, while the rest five bishops of Kyiv mytropoly with its head Mykhailo Rohoza (15881599) supported the union with Rome. In this case, it should be mentioned that even common struggle against the union of bishop Hedeon and Lviv Svyato-Uspenskyi brotherhood could not influence the change of relations between church hierarch and the laity. Judging from the sources, from now on brotherhood did not have to obey bishops power. Not only bishops of Kyiv mytropoly, in particular metropolitan and member of Uniate Church Mykhailo, but also patriarchs and metropolitans of foreign clerical centers of the union pointed at tactless behavior of ecclesiastical brotherhoods members [22]. However, the majority of documents in Description 1 of this fund are documents which record reasons of conflicts between hierarchs and ecclesiastical brotherhoods and attempts to solve them with the help of royal power [6,8,31,39], metropolitan [2,4] and ecclesiastical synod [3,5,10]. Materials of 129 funds Description 1 are also valuable because they help to recreate controversial perception of the unions ideas among members of Orthodox church, to understand relations between members of Orthodox and Uniate church on the territory of Rich Pospolyta at Berestechko and post-Berestechko period and, at last, to interpret the essence of state religious policy at the second half of XVIbeginning of XVIII cent. (primary and final phases of collisions considering the union). Among documents there are regalities, decrees, credentials, claims etc [21, 34, 36]. Among other archival documents Description 3 is of high importance. It includes documents from history of parishes, monasteries, ecclesiastical unions, brotherhoods which functioned at the investigated period at the territory of Halychyna and partly Moldova and Volyn province. In the first place, these are privileges of church considering lands, and also charters which serve as a proof for the sale of parishes and recommendations for fideism. The book of brotherhoods minutes for the period of 16781828 years at Drohobych church is also kept here [1]. Availability of such historical documents helps us recreate quantitative structure of brotherhood, dynamics of 331

Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society.

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brotherhoods authority with religious, ecclesiastical and cultural life of Drogobych and neighbouring territories. Description 3 has also got documents which underline the role of royal power in the processes of regulating interconfessional confrontation between Catholics, members of Uniate and Orthodox Church which exacerbated as a result of church union of 1596 year [9, 18, 35, 36]. Considering these documents, main tendencies of religious and social policy of Rich Pospolyta towards the orthodox could be clarified. Documents gathered in fund 132 are also very significant. In Description 1 there are letters of state, public and religious figures from Ukraine and Poland; letters which belonged to nobility, tradesmen and lower middle class citizens which were excluded from Lviv magistracys archives during its normalization. In these letters different questions of social, political and religious life of Western Ukraine and Halychyna, in particular, are discussed [8]. Mostly it concerns the letter from 27 of April 1694. This letter was written by polish monarch August II to Lviv senior Adam Synivskii and it had a message about creating a committee for dismissal Uspenska church from Episcopal throne. Moreover, it included an order to protect the brotherhood from Lvivs bishop Yosyp Shymlianskyis (16671708) aggression because of the adoption of the union [18]. In a decree of Yan Sobeskyi III from 917 October there is a call for Uniate brotherhood and stavropihii in Great Lithuanian princedom with the demand to come to Liublin convention in order to stop religious hostility between members of Uniate and Orthodox church [41]. To this category of archival materials also belongs the letter written by Yan III to Lviv magistracy. In this letter the king blames pupils of Polish-Latin school because they attacked the school of Lviv Svyato-Uspensk brotherhood. Not only did the monarch blame them, but also punished malefactors [42]. The base of sources about the role and place of "secular element" in social and religious transformations occurred at the end of XVI beginning of XVIII cent. Can be widened with the help of documents form Manuscript department of Lviv Vasyl Stefanyk scientific library of National Academy of Sciences (further-MD), namely "Thoughts and Annotations, Extracts from Different Sources, Concerning Catholic Church, Mainly about the Union" [50], "Collection of documents of 332

Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society.

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Congregation of Faith Propagation with Regard to Ukrainian Catholic Church: Decrees, Orders, Letters etc." [46], selected works by Andrushkevych and Treatises by Tarchakovskyi [49]. The most valuable sources concerning these problems are: "Surveys about the Renewal of Halych Mytropoly" and "Historical Information about the Past and Present Situation of Rus" United Church in Velyka, Bila and Chervona Rus. Both these manuscripts were written by the priest Mykhailo Harasevych [44]. Lists of Ukrainian metropolitans who headed Kyiv mytropoly from 1000 to 1720 year are also kept in MD. Moreover, the document contains short references about the most of archbishops of this period [52]. Conclusions. Historiosophical analysis of archival sources about the role and place of "secular element" in social and religious transformations occurred at the end of XVI beginning of XVIII cent. which are kept in Ukrainian Central State Historical Archive in Lviv and in MD of Lviv Vasyl Stefanyk scientific library enable us to make the following conclusions. Analyzed historical documents from funds and Manuscript Department which belong to already mentioned organizations serve as reliable basis and arguments which help to create conceptual and scientific ideas about the real role and place of ecclesiastical power and laity in cultural, spiritual, ecclesiastical and religious life of orthodox in times of anarchy. 1. Scientific analysis of these materials (if principles of polymethodicalness and non-confessionalism are abided) help us not to stick to two diametrically opposite according to their ideologicalecclesiastic nature directions which dominate in church historiography concerning Berestesteiska Union and uniatism in general. 2. Introduction of analyzed historical documents to scientific turnover and their broad attraction will lead to revaluation of major events and phenomena of local church history and will help to form complex and conceptually new embodiment of religious and political transformations in orthodox environment in Rich Pospolyta at the end of XVI-beginning of XVIII cent. In fund 129 there are also a lot of documents (letters and missives) which serve as a proof of a struggle between non- hierarchical 333

Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society.

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structures and the union [29]. There are also many documents charters and letters of eastern patriarchs or their representatives, where calls of ecclesiastical brotherhoods for resolute actions against religious expansion of Rich Pospolytas Catholic Church and immediate suspension of confrontation with local hierarchs [20, 21] are present. At that period of time there were only two local hierarchs bishop from Peremyshl Mykhailo Kopystianskii (15911610) and Hedeon Balaban from Lviv, while the rest five bishops of Kyiv mytropoly with its head Mykhailo Rohoza (15881599) supported the union with Rome. In this case, it should be mentioned that even common struggle against the union of bishop Hedeon and Lviv Svyato-Uspenskyi brotherhood could not influence the change of relations between church hierarch and the laity. Judging from the sources, from now on brotherhood did not have to obey bishops power. Not only bishops of Kyiv mytropoly, in particular metropolitan and member of Uniate Church Mykhailo, but also patriarchs and metropolitans of foreign clerical centers of the union pointed at tactless behavior of ecclesiastical brotherhoods members [22]. However, the majority of documents in Description 1 of this fund are documents which record reasons of conflicts between hierarchs and ecclesiastical brotherhoods and attempts to solve them with the help of royal power [6, 8, 31, 39], metropolitan [2, 4] and ecclesiastical synod [3, 5, 10]. Materials of 129 funds Description 1 are also valuable because they help to recreate controversial perception of the unions ideas among members of Orthodox church, to understand relations between members of Orthodox and Uniate church on the territory of Rich Pospolyta at Berestechko and post-Berestechko period and, at last, to interpret the essence of state religious policy at the second half of XVI beginning of XVIII cent. (primary and final phases of collisions considering the union). Among documents there are regalities, decrees, credentials, claims etc [21, 34, 36]. Among other archival documents Description 3 is of high importance. It includes documents from history of parishes, monasteries, ecclesiastical unions, brotherhoods which functioned at the investigated period at the territory of Halychyna and partly Moldova and Volyn province. In the first place, these are privileges of church considering lands, and also charters which serve as a proof for the sale 334

Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society.

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of parishes and recommendations for fideism. The book of brotherhoods minutes for the period of 16781828 years at Drohobych church is also kept here [1]. Availability of such historical documents helps us recreate quantitative structure of brotherhood, dynamics of brotherhoods authority with religious, ecclesiastical and cultural life of Drogobych and neighbouring territories. Description 3 has also got documents which underline the role of royal power in the processes of regulating interconfessional confrontation between Catholics, members of Uniate and Orthodox Church which exacerbated as a result of church union of 1596 year [9, 18, 35, 36]. Considering these documents, main tendencies of religious and social policy of Rich Pospolyta towards the orthodox could be clarified. Documents gathered in fund 132 are also very significant. In Description 1 there are letters of state, public and religious figures from Ukraine and Poland; letters which belonged to nobility, tradesmen and lower middle class citizens which were excluded from Lviv magistracys archives during its normalization. In these letters different questions of social, political and religious life of Western Ukraine and Halychyna, in particular, are discussed [8]. Mostly it concerns the letter from 27 of April 1694. This letter was written by polish monarch August II to Lviv senior Adam Synivskii and it had a message about creating a committee for dismissal Uspenska church from Episcopal throne. Moreover, it included an order to protect the brotherhood from Lvivs bishop Yosyp Shymlianskyis (16671708) aggression because of the adoption of the union [18]. In a decree of Yan Sobeskyi III from 9-17 October there is a call for Uniate brotherhood and stavropihii in Great Lithuanian princedom with the demand to come to Liublin convention in order to stop religious hostility between members of Uniate and Orthodox church [41]. To this category of archival materials also belongs the letter written by Yan III to Lviv magistracy. In this letter the king blames pupils of Polish-Latin school because they attacked the school of Lviv Svyato-Uspensk brotherhood. Not only did the monarch blame them, but also punished malefactors [42]. The base of sources about the role and place of secular element in social and religious transformations occurred at the end of XVI 335

Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society.

22012

beginning of XVIII cent. can be widened with the help of documents form Manuscript department of Lviv Vasyl Stefanyk scientific library of National Academy of Sciences (further-MD), namely "Thoughts and Annotations, Extracts from Different Sources, Concerning Catholic Church, Mainly about the Union" [50], "Collection of documents of Congregation of Faith Propagation with Regard to Ukrainian Catholic Church: Decrees, Orders, Letters etc." [46], selected works by Andrushkevych and Treatises by Tarchakovskyi [49]. The most valuable sources concerning these problems are: Surveys about the Renewal of Halych Mytropoly and Historical Information about the Past and Present Situation of Rus United Church in Velyka, Bila and Chervona Rus. Both these manuscripts were written by the priest Mykhailo Harasevych [44]. Lists of Ukrainian metropolitans who headed Kyiv mytropoly from 1000 to 1720 year are also kept in MD. Moreover, the document contains short references about the most of archbishops of this period [52]. Conclusions. Historiosophical analysis of archival sources about the role and place of secular element in social and religious transformations occurred at the end of XVI beginning of XVIII cent. which are kept in Ukrainian Central State Historical Archive in Lviv and in MD of Lviv Vasyl Stefanyk scientific library enable us to make the following conclusions. Analyzed historical documents from funds and Manuscript Department which belong to already mentioned organizations serve as reliable basis and arguments which help to create conceptual and scientific ideas about the real role and place of ecclesiastical power and laity in cultural, spiritual, ecclesiastical and religious life of orthodox in times of anarchy. Scientific analysis of these materials (if principles of polymethodicalness and non-confessionalism are abided ) help us not to stick to two diametrically opposite according to their ideologicalecclesiastic nature directions which dominate in church historiography concerning Berestesteiska Union and uniatism in general. Introduction of analyzed historical documents to scientific turnover and their broad attraction will lead to revaluation of major events and phenomena of local church history and will help to form complex and conceptually new embodiment of religious and political 336

Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society.

22012

transformations in orthodox environment in Rich Pospolyta at the end of XVIbeginning of XVIII cent. List of sources and literature . 1. // . . .129. . 3. . 273. 14 . 2. . XVI . 27 1593 . // . . .129. . 1. . 237. 2 . 3. . . 2 1594 . // . . . 129. . 1. . 262. 6 . 4. , ; . XVI . 26 1596 . // . . . 129. . 1. . 293. 2 . 5. . 25 1591 . // . . . 129. . 1. .155. 2 . 6. II . . 26 1700 . // . . . 129. . 1. . 756. 12 . 7. 337

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8.

9.

10.

11. 12.

13.

14.

15.

. 18 1700 . // . . . 129. . 1. . 753. 4 . III . 2 1592 . // . . . 129. . 1. . 204. 4 . 6 1694 . // . . . 129. . 1. . 739. 1 . , . . . 1 1594 . // . . .129. .1. .260. 13 . 16781828 . // . . . 129. . 3. . 65. 69 . . 3 1586 . // . . . 129. . 1. .74. 2 . , . 22 1586 . // . . . 129. . 1. . 75. 7 . . 25 1588 . // . . . 129. . 1. . 906. 1 . 338

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17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

, . . 2 1594 . // . . . 129. . 1. . 261. 3 . . . 6 1595 . // . . .129. .1. . 288. 1 . . . 24 1596 . // . . . 129. . 1. . 300. 1 . II . . 14 1701 . // . . . 129. . 1. . 763. 4 . , () . . 1596 . // . . . 129. . 1. . 310. 2 . . . 28 1601 . // . . . 129. . 1. . 357. 3 . . . 29 1598 . // . . .129. . 1. . 325. 4 . , 339

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23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

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29.

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31.

. . 20 1599. // . . . 129. . 1. . 342. 4 . 1000 , . . 11 1596 . // . . . 129. . 1. . 307. 4 . . 30 1586 . // . . . 129. . 1. . 76. 3 . . 16 1591 . // . . . 129. . 1. . 137. 2 . . 1591 . // . . . 129. . 1. . 140. 2 . . 1591 . // . . . 129. . 1. . 141. 2 . . 1591 . // . . . 129. . 1. . 142. 1 . , . . 26 1596 . // . . . 129. . 1. . 301. 2 . . 10 1595 . // . . . 129. . 1. . 290. 1 . III 340

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32.

33.

34.

35.

36.

37.

38.

. XVI . 8 1593 . // . . . 129 . 1. . 226. 1 . () . 30 1584 . // . . . 129. . 1. . 70. 4 . , , , . 1 1587 . // . . . 129. . 1. . 83. 2 . , // . . . 129. . 1. . 66. 2 . II . 29 1700 . // . . . 129. . 1. . 753. . III , . . 30 1595 . // . . .129. . 1. . 289. 1 . - . . 1592 . // . . . 129. . 3. . 99. 1 . . . 1682 . // . . 129. . 3. 341


39.

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. 67. 1 . . XVI . 1593 . // . . . 129. . 1. . 224. 4 . 40. , () . . 25 1596 . // . . . 129. . 1. . 292. 1 . 41. III 24 1680 . , . . 9 17 1679 . // . . . 129. . 1. . 715. 3 . 42. III . . . 27 1694 . // . . . 132. . 1. . 1112. 2 . 43. , "" ( , , ) // . . . 328. . 1. . 95. . 5154. 44. . , . 1826 ., // . . 3. . 1. . 811. 58 . 45. . . 1677 . // . 342


46.

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47.

48. 49.

50.

51.

52.

. 3. . 1. . 584. 26 . (, , ). . XII. 16131794 . // . . 3 . 1. . 799. 160 . // . . 3. . 1. . 294. . 1516. // . . . 3. . 1. .374. 12 . . . 1781 . // . . 3. . 1. . 201. 143 . , . , , . (19201931 .) // . . 3. . 1. .857. 30 . // . . 3. . 1. .1238/3. 1 . 1000 1720. 12711728 . // . .3. . 1. . 663/18. 4 .

UDC 159.923:159.922.62 V. M. Yamnytsky SPIRITUALITY OF A PERSONALITY: 343

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PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH The article is based on theoretical analysis of the problem of spirituality in modern personality psychology is offered to the authors approach to identification of psychological factors. Keywords: spirituality, life creation, the inner world of personality, needs, values, self-awareness. The problem of spirituality for a human nature is as important as capacious and loose. The problem is not investigated not only in home but even in foreign psychology. The aim of the article is to define the psychological essence of the concept of persons spirituality(spiritual life), to define its psychological causes. We shall pay our attention on the attempts to clear up the question from the position of scientific psychological approach. With the aim we find ourselves on the basis of internal world of a human being the sphere, where the academic scientific approach seems to be quite limited (restrained). T. Smirnov (2001) sounds reasonable when saying "The crisis of psychology is a clear crisis of scientific method and approach of a persons studying. The fact of realizing the fact that science has lost its soul and because of this the human being, establishes the hope the latter will be found" [10]. Many scholars (V. Barulin, I. Bekh, L. Bueva, Y. Viazemsky, P. Yershow, M. Kagan, M. Savchyn, P. Symonov, etc.) link individual humans essence with his/her spirituality (spiritual life), the basic components of which can be creation, self-consciousness, selfawareness from the point of view of value orientation and ideals, freedom in self-realization of burden powers. The point of view that spirituality belongs to the most principal characteristics of a human being and his/her life is worth attention [11]. L. Bueva remarks that the concept of spirituality can be used to define subjective persons inner world as spiritual inner world. It can be clearly defined from the position of his/her life sense values. Spirituality is the problem of sense obtaining, index of existence of particular values, aims (goals) and senses. In the spiritual sphere the individual realizes the choice of ideas, values, goals on the basis of awareness and outliving personal life experience. That is why the content of spirituality as definite quality of a human being integrates idea, knowledge and 344

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sense with the action behavior. The scholar remarks that spirituality is the problem of life creativity [3]. I. Bekh (2001) denotes spiritual basis of a human as his/her inner personality. He considers that spirituality (spiritual life) is not the result of culture, spreading from outside, it is a real essence of a personality, his/her super-consciousness, the highest point of personal individuality [8, p. 154155]. M. Kagan defines spirituality as the concept that denotes integrated humans mental activity in his/her sociocultural determination and pithiness. The concept "ideal" is not equal to "spirituality" as the latter supposes not only the spiritual result but the process that causes it. The scholar gives the paramount role to the ideal spiritual result directed both into the outer and inner worlds in the form of ideal self-consciousness and self-improvement [5]. The important role of the problem of spirituality is paid in V. Barulins research works. The author considers spirituality to be essential human quality. He remarks that spirituality contains rational and emotional, affective, cognitive and value-motivating aspects and different conditions of individual spiritual life. He denotes that all these not only exist but is even interconnected. The other aspects of spirituality are ideality and subjective humans world. V. Barulin sees the sense, meaning and the role of spirituality (spiritual life) in the interconnection of a person and society. Spirituality appears to be: - the form of human self-consciousness, self-identification; - the form of interiorization, acquiring social experience; - determining, imperative component of human existence; - impulse, analog and sense of creative human mission; - basis of humans freedom, self-realization, embodiment of personal potential. The author links the humans essence with his/her spirituality, characterizes the essence of a personality as integral part of personal existence, connected with the exception and unicity of each personality [1]. Y. Viazemsky, P. Ershow, P. Symonov study personal spirituality on the grounds of needs and information approach according to which needs are stimulating forces of a human being. The scholars distinguish 345

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the following principal needs: a) vital (biological) needs which secure humans nature; b) social which are divided into personal ones and for society needs; c) ideal needs which help to realize persons reasons to exist. Inner hierarchy and individual unique composition of principal needs define humans personality. P. Symonov considers that the terms "soul" and "spirituality" define individual display of two principal needs: ideal need for creation and social need "for others" [9]. N. Patturina understands spirituality as persons awareness and realization of his/her transcendental needs. The concept is related to the concepts of personal and spiritual development. The scholar represents the latter in the form of two successive stages: 1) awareness of personal transcendental needs; 2) formation of new relations with the others [7, p. 114-115]. From the standpoint of integrative approach to the development of a person the direct connection of a spiritual life with the function and state of human conscience has been stressed. Due to T. Smyrnov, spiritual life is partially stable and the most psychologically common for a person state (of conscience), which is achieved in the process of progressive self-cognition. Thereafter, selfcognition is a process of spiritual human development expressed by accepting different theoretical data about a human being and correlating it with the inner experience, feelings, and practice with the help of certain spiritual tasks. The spiritual tasks here mean a wide range of issues from special methods of self-cognition (e.g. meditation in a special posture) to universally accepted forms of culture values comprehension (e.g. listening to a symphonic music concert) which are spread in a society [10, p. 104]. On the basis of his own studies the researcher suggests a psychological pattern of a life quality evaluation whose constituent parts wholly determine parameters of a human being existence the leading parameter being the level of spiritual life. The pattern shows, that the human life quality will be quite high (in other words a person will feel happy) if a person is relatively stably on a high spiritual level regardless to his/her health, social acceptance and physical comfort [10, p. 128]. S. Driomov and I. Siomin point out, that one of the approaches to the definition of a spiritual life is its consideration in the context of 346

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changed states of conscience. Thence to the researchers point of view a spiritual life in the context of CSC is a conscious passage of latent levels of conscience, integration of their emotively saturated content in real life [4, p. 64]. The presentation of a spiritual life in a genetic aspect demands studying of the depth of conscience and its hierarchic structure which are characterised by anthropological normativity. The experimental researches conducted by the authors provided an opportunity to determine such constant levels of a human conscience: the level of social role preferences; vital (existential) level; the level of mythological conscience [4, p. 76], which allowed to suggest a hierarchic model of the conscience structure (spectrum) which may by presented as the following: Absolute (already not-Me) beyond-personal self-conscience Me-potentional everyday self-conscience making Absolute objective (not yet Me, Another), Where Absolute is a critical dimension of subjectivity; making Absolute objective the objective reality which fills the subjective relationships of an individual; beyond-personal self-conscience archetypes; everyday self-conscience the connection with Absolute in its distinct way, socialization [4, p. 119]. Due to this approach the final aim of the process of conscience development is achieving such zone of not-Me which is identical to Absolute. The problem of spiritual life and spiritual development have been considered in researches of V. Kozlov in similar aspect [6, p. 114]. On his opinion the final aim of integration is transformation personal selfperfection, spiritual search for the way out of form limitation to such space of conscience and human personality, where a person approaches the conditions for spontaneous creativity, becomes free and selfactualized [6, p. 90]. The author sees the main meaning of transformation in making forms transcendental id. est. structural components, relations, and identifications etc. Due to Kants conception making transcendental (from Latin Transcendents that one which oversteps, goes beyond) means something that goes beyond the scopes of possible experience [6, p. 112]. 347

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Human conscience is binary, thence an opposite to any "Me" of our psyche (subconscious form including) structure exists which can be denoted as "not-Me". Resulting from the strain between these opposite components stability and integrity of a person are provided. Due to V. Kozlov, the dynamics of personal self-perfection is accompanied by destruction of the border between "Me" and "not-Me", thanks to which the third space is created in the personality that may be denoted as "Equility" or non-identity. In case of integration of tension between these dualities a new space appears where a person does not identify with anything. All mystical traditions of the world call a person "free" when he/she is able to see the truth through illusion of opposites, and the binary of agreement-disagreement. Due to experience the space of "Equality" is life as a stream of conscious beyond limitation of illnesses, getting old, and death. All forms of life are just a possible choice; herewith a human being does not loose feeling of his/her own harmony. It is such state of conscious in which a human being identifies neither with material nor with social and mainly lives in a spiritual space, where "Me" and "notMe" already do not have any sense, and become only the possibilities of choice. Finally, when a great number of meaningful fragments of "Me" and "not-Me" merge that which is called wordly enlightenment or wisdom happens. In orthodox tradition the analogy of this state is a Great humility. In esoteric, sacral sense this discovery is not a state of all positive and absence of negative, but the state of realisation of "nonopposition", "non-binary", that is perceived as the most noble selfactuality (Serhiy Radonezhskiy, Ioan Kronshtadskiy, Serafim Sarovskiy etc.). The integral personality becomes a guardian of human spiritual life whilst transmitting through himself/herself the main existential values. It is such a state of a personality when his/her final selfexpression becomes to serve people; a human being is wholly realized in his/her spiritual potential, simultaneously he/she is free of any identities and wish to become anybody or anything. Equality is a state and a transitive integrative way of life. Its sense lies in the fact that it takes in all other forms of possible spiritual ways. It considers other traditions as certain possibilities and forms that the conscious experiences, which may be made objective by a person, filled with personal sense and thence a unique individual way to 348

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integration may by built [6, p.115120]. Lets summarize the points of view of the scientists (L. Buieva, V. Kozlov, N. Patturina, P. Symonov and others) about the problem of a spiritual life via the chart. So, due to the results of the analysis, generally we can characterize a spiritual life as an essential feature of a human nature directed to achieve vital values on the basis of realization of the ideal and transcendental needs that finds its expression in the form of selfdevelopment, personal grows, and creativity. The notion of a spiritual life is considered by the scientists on two hierarchical levels: as the process of realization of corresponding needs and as the result of spiritual values realisation. Chart 1 The main factors of a human being spiritual life The sources Features Aim Expressions The realization The feature of Transformation: It is expressed of social needs a subjective conscious by selffor others inner world, passing of latent comprehension, and the ideal integral levels of self-perfection, needs of activity of the conscious, selfcomprehension psyche; the integration of development, that are process and their emotively creativity, common for the result of coloured personal and human nature vital values content in the spiritual and ideals real life, growth; on achieving; the achieving of higher levels form of selfsuch free of in the form of realisation, identities notserving people selfMe space identification, (Equility) in the interiorization; result of selfessential realization human feature which is identical to Absolute, where Me and not-Me 349

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become a whole 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. List of sources and literature . . - . / . . . . : , 1994. 256 . . . : 2. . 1: : - : .. . .: , 2003. 280 . .. / . . // , 1996. 12. . 39. . . . . : / . . . , 2001. 204 . . . /. . // , 1985. 9. . 1517. . . . . / . . . . : - , 2001. 384 . . . // / . .., ... ., 2000. 252 . . . / (..). - : . - -, 2001. 204 . . ., . ., . . . . : , 1989. 350 . . / . . ., 2001. 192 . . . - - / . . // : 1 - . , 2001. 227 . 350

7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. THE AUTHORS

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Babak Iryna Viacheslavivna an aspirant of the general and social pedagogics and acmeology department, teacher of Ukrainian language and literature at the specialized school #15 of Rivne State Executive Committee. Bulyga Iryna Ivanivna a candidate of philosophy, docent of the department of philosophy of Rivne State Humanitarian University. Verbetz Vladyslav Volodymyrovych a doctor of pedagogics, professor, the dean of the arts and pedagogics faculty of Rivne State Humanitarian University. Havrilova Natalia Segiivna a candidate of philosophy, scientific officer of the religion studies department of the Institute of Philosophy, named after G. Skovoroda, of the National Academy of Science of Ukraine. Hon Maxim Moiseijovych a doctor of political studies, professor, the head of the political studies department of Rivne State Humanitarian University. Hrypych Svitlana Nykanorivna a docent, the director of the scientific library of Rivne State Humanitarian University. Dzubyshina Natalia Bohdanivna a candidate of pedagogics, docent of the foreign languages department, the assistant officer of the rector of Rivne State Humanitarian University. Desyatnychuk Igor Oleksijovych a candidate of historical studies, docent, the head of the Ukrainian history department of Rivne State Humanitarian University. Domanjuk Oksana Myhailivna a teacher of the theory and methodology of preschool education department of Kremenets Regional Humanitarian and Pedagogical Institute named after Taras Shevchenko. Dokash Vitalij Ivanovych a doctor of philosophy, professor, the head of the sociology department of Chernivtsy National University named after Urij Fedkovich. Kobernyk Nina Ivanivna a senior teacher of the department of philosophy of Rivne State Humanitarian University. Kokarieva Angelica Mykolaivna a candidate of pedagogics, docent of the pedagogics and psychology of professional education department of the Humanitarian Institute of the National University of Aviation. Melnychuk Maxim Sviatoslavovych a candidate of philosophy, teacher of the department of philosophy of the National University of Water

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Management and Nature Resources Use. Melnychuk Yulia Ivanivna an aspirant of the department of philosophy and religion studies of Donetsk State University of Informatics and Artificial Intelligence. Lytvynenko Svitlana Anatoliivna a doctor of pedagogics, professor of the applied psychology and psychotherapy department of Rivne State Humanitarian University. Lukomska Oksana Ivanivna a teacher of the theory of economics department of Rivne State Humanitarian University. Lishuk Natalia Dmytrivna a teacher of the department of philosophy of Rivne State Humanitarian University. Mysyk Iryna Hrygorivna a doctor of philosophy, professor of the department of philosophy and sociology of the State Institution "The North-Ukrainian National Pedagogical University named after K.D.Ushynskij". Myshkariova Svitlana Volodymyrivna an aspirant of the general and social pedagogics and acmeology department of Rivne State Humanitarian University. Myshkov Viktor Yaroslavovych an aspirant of the department of world history of Rivne State Humanitarian University. Nechyporuk Lubov Ivanivna a candidate of pedagogics, senior teacher of the general and social pedagogics and acmeology department of Rivne State Humanitarian University. Pavelkiv Roman Volodymyrovych a doctor of psychology, professor, the pro-rector of scientific-pedagogical and educational-methodological work, the head of the age and pedagogical psychology department of Rivne State Humanitarian University. Pavelkiv Katerina Mykolaivna a candidate of pedagogics, senior teacher of the department of foreign languages of Rivne State Humanitarian University. Palchevskij Stepan Sergijovych a doctor of pedagogics, professor of the general and social pedagogics and acmeology department of Rivne State Humanitarian University. Petruk Ludmyla Petrivna a candidate of pedagogics, docent of the general and social pedagogics and acmeology department of Rivne State Humanitarian University. Perzhun Volodymyr Vasyliovych a candidate of sociological studies, assistant of the sociology department of the philosophic-theological faculty

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of Chernivtsy National University named after Urij Fedkovich. Rudenko Volodymyr Mykolaiovych a doctor of pedagogics, professor of the department of international information of Rivne Institute of Slavonic Studies of Kyiv Slavonic University. Rudenko Natalia Mykolaivna a candidate of psychology, docent, Rivne Institute of Slavonic Studies of Kyiv Slavonic University. Smolinchuk Larysa Symonivna a candidate of pedagogics, the head of the post-graduate study department of the Institute of Pedagogy of the NAPN of Ukraine. Sorochynska Tetiana Adamivna an aspirant of the general pedagogics and akmeology department of Rivne State Humanitarian University. Stupnytska Nina Ivanivna a teacher of the theory of economics department of Rivne State Humanitarian University. Stupnytsky Viktor Volodymyrovych a candidate of economics, docent of the theory of economics department of the National university of the National University of Water Management and Nature Resources Use. Tadeyeva Iryna Mykolaivna a candidate of pedagogics, docent of the theory and methodology of education department of Rivne State Humanitarian University. Tymochko Iryna Bohdanivna a senior teacher of the general and social pedagogy department of Rivne State Humanitarian University. Phylypovych Ludmyla Oleksandrivna a doctor of philosophy, professor of the religion studies department of the Institute of Philosophy, named after G. Skovoroda, of the National Academy of Science of Ukraine. Shamsutdynova-Lebedjuk Tetiana Nazarivna a candidate of philosophy, docent of the department of philosophy of Rivne State Humanitarian University. Schevchuk Kateryna Sergiivna a candidate of philosophy, docent of the department of philosophy of Rivne State Humanitarian University. Shugaeva Ludmyla Mukhailivna a doctor of philosophy, professor, the head of the department of philosophy of Rivne State Humanitarian University. Shkriblyak Mykola Volodymyrovych a candidate for doctors degree of the department of religion studies and theology of Chernivtsy National University named after Urij Fedkovich. Yamnytsky Vadym Markovych a doctor of psychology, professor, the

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head of the applied psychology and psychotherapy department of Rivne State Humanitarian University.

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Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. Icientific issue

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Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society


Collection of scientific works of the RSHU

2nd Issue
Established in 2011

Responsible editors: Dychkivska I. M. Computer graphics and design: Kravchuk V. I.

Sighned for printing 11.05.2012 . Format 6084 1/8. Font Times New Roman. Multigraphic printing. Printed pages 19,85. Order 121/1. Quantity 100.

Editorial address: Department of Philosophy of Rivne State Humanitarian University, Ostafov Str., 29, Rivne, 33027

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