Masculinities in Christian Mexican Music

Dr. Carlos Garma Navarro Depto. De Antropologia Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa México, D.F.

We will start this text standing out the importance of Christian music to understand the growth of the religious diversity in Mexico and Latin America. Many members of religious minorities express that the musical participation or "Alabanza" (“Praise”) as called by the believers, is the favorite part of the religious services that they attend. As annotated in an article published earlier, this artistic expression is an important space of expression for norms and values that are socially transmitted amongst the believers of these religious associations (Garma, 2000). There are currently “Christian” Enterprises that devote themselves to the market called “Evangelical”, which includes Denominational Protestants as much as Pentecostal Protestants. Instead of buying images of saints, candles, and little prints in shrines and peregrinations as the Catholics do, the Evangelicals buy bibles, cassettes, videos and compact discs of religious music in their churches, book stores, meetings, concerts, and now more often by internet. This particular musical expression has exceeded the simple publication of Hymn books to become into a prosperous cultural industry a managed from the religious associations themselves, which is dedicated to the production of specific cultural goods for the consumption of a wide and growing public. Note 1 Music is an important way to spread the religious message because it can be heard by diverse social sectors, and it doesn’t even require reading and writing skills. Anyone can sing or learn the lyrics of a composition and the collective esthetic emotions are transmitted easily. The Christian cultural Industry produces goods to be sold in a specific market, the self named "Pueblo Cristiano" (Christian People). As such, it acts like a bridge amongst the different churches, because the artists emphasize elements of unity and cooperation amongst the diverse associations, making creative products that emphasize values, norms, and common topics. They do not present themselves as believers of a particular church, but rather as Christian Artists, whose performance is for their companions of belief or- to put it in other terms- their public. They foment the feelings of a community created by an Interdenominational community of followers. It is necessary to clarify that the terms “Christians” or “Evangelicals” are used above all by the members of the Protestant and Pentecostal groups when they want to emphasize elements of cohesion and union. These terms are used as well to identify themselves before unfamiliar people instead of giving out the name of a particular association. However, there are groups that clearly aren’t “Evangelical Christians”. These are the Jehovah’s witnesses, the Mormons, the Spiritualists, The Afro-Cuban Santeria, and of course the Catholics. (Garma, 1992). Note 2.

The role of the interpreters, artists and creators of the "Alabanza" or Praise is important not only to maintain unity of the current believers, but to also attract new members that are attracted by the music they listen to. The ministers and leaders recognize the value of the acoustic creation as a notable tool for the proselytism and the missionary work. (Gaxiola, 1994). Many people –although not everyone- inside this expressive area already have had experiences or previous training inside the sector of the commercial or worldy performances before they had a conversion experience. Known cases are: Yuri, Juan Luis Guerra, Nelson Ned, Maria del Sol, José Luis Rodriguez “el Puma” and recently Lupita Dalessio, amongst the more well known in Latin America. The transition from the entertainment field to the ecclesial one is not completely new. Jacobs and Kaslow, (1991) noted how the Pentecostal Churches as well as the Spiritualists in New Orleans appreciated the conversion of organists, pianists, drummers, that formerly played Jazz or blues because they helped so much to create a good setting during the religious services. The instrumental and harmonic foundation continues to be the established format from the Afro-American protestant churches from the United States known as “Spiritual Songs” or “Gospel Music”. Music from the Gospel style uses a big chorus, accompanied by an Organ or guitars, and some times tambourines, (Brooks, 2001, Cox 1994, Marks 1974). The Christian Music currently is extremely syncretic and accepts a great variety of musical styles. This variety of expression has been adapted this way, in part due to the interpretive knowledge of the artists, as well a form to adapt to the different tastes of the believers. There are musicians that plays bolero, salsa, reggae, pop music and in Mexico the “mariachi” music or “ranchero” style. The rock and the hip-hop of Christian musicians and singers have had a great demand among the young persons, nevertheless, a great distrust of certain conservative sectors in some of the churches for this particular music style remains, because they consider it to be too mundane, (see Israel, 1996). One of the strengths of the Christian music is the variation and adaptability that allows the music to be accepted by people that comes from so different social groups as young urban people, housewives, workers, newly established immiigrants in the city or settlers of indigenous localities. Inside the nascent field of the studies on the mass media and religion; many topics are missing or undeveloped. I think that the study of gender offers some very interesting possibilities that can be taken advantage for new perspectives. On listening to the Christian music I have found that there are different conceptions about masculinity and the exaltation of gender relations considered suitable for a believer that are expressed in the lyrics of this music, which will be described in this brief text. I am going to emphasize the composers whom are more heard in Mexico due to the fact that this country is where I carry out my research, but I believe that we may find similarities in other parts of Latin America where religious diversity have been developed, and in particular the Spanishspeaking ones, because the songs themselves have crossed the national borders (Garma, 2000). Note 3. I am going to give a brief note methodological brief on how I obtained the material. In the very beginning, I had recieved cassettes or hymn books printed as gifts from diverse people i had interviewed and friends, later I came to buy audio material at the evangelical stores. This procedure was interesting but slow. Later I found a great amount of the material for the analysis could be obtained in the Internet, especiallly seeking in the

multiple Christian sites that are easily located in the network. For instance, offers several options to the internet believers, from online sermons to videos. Besides the lyrics, frequently it is possible to find the chords of the musical pieces themselves. Here is where I’ve found the possibility to gather a much larger number of song lyrics and listen to them directly by downloading these songs. I’ve obtained eventually an average of a hundred song lyrics to analyze. This diverse diffusion shows how as Christian music has been consolidated in a cultural industry that adapts itself quickly to the technological changes and appropriates without any problem to the consumption innovations for a wide market increasing continuously.

The Gender of God
An increasing trend between the evangelical Latin Americans is the orientation towards the spiritual war, which is kept in the implacable clash between the good and evil, which only can conclude with the absolute victory of the first (Stoll, 1997). The God figure in the songs of spiritual war presents very particular characteristics. He appears with a hipermasculine identity, with particular elements of domanance and force. He is an Almighty being, a winning and aggressive warrior who gains the battles that are freed against the forces of evil. His Biblical orientation is towards the divinity represented in the Old Testament, which demands the loyalty of a people that faces the adversity before formidable opponents, as the diverse invading empires of the Hebrew territory like the Persians, the Egyptians, and the Romans. According to this orientation the believer must decide and to take the side of good in this cosmological battle. Some compositions indicate that the enemy is Satan, who is conquered by the follower with the help of the Divine. An interesting variant for the anthropological analyst is the song “The Wizard” of the group of Christian rock “The Strong Tower”, where a pagan shaman is converted to the Christianity. Another composition from this rock group titled “For my soldiers” distinguishes the trials that the followers must pass and the choir emphasizes :(March, fight, observe, monitors, in the war they will be the winners of God the invincible ones…….) The very popular singer & compositor and Mexican-American businessman Marcos Witt emphasizes this representation of the God of the spiritual war in the composition " Majestic and Powerful ". In another his creation named “Sitting on his Throne”, the monarchic representation of the divinity develops in this strophe: (Seated on his throne surrounded by light, to the right-hand side of the Father, Jesus governs….). Another example is the song ”Powerful is our God”, of Luis Enrique Espinoso. It is necessary to remember that not all the evangelical churches accept an orientation opened towards the spiritual war, due to its antagonistic trend that can be felt to be very aggressive. The winning God is also a source of power for the believer who submits totally to the plans of the creator, as stands out clearly the composition “You are My Owner" of the group “Angels of Fire”. Note 4.

Other compositions emphasize other facets of the divinity. This way Jesus Christ appears more as a major kind brother who rests and helps the believer when he requests it. A clear example is in the song " I have a friend who loves me ", of the group J.E.S. Another case gives itself Jesus Adrian Romero's composition called “With my God shoulder to shoulder”. As well as in the song “When you feel a lot of sorrow” of the Group “The Rapture". The divinity is represented in these songs is a near and friendly being, who supports the believer when he evokes his support through the prayer and the praise. In addition he is named as a healer who relieves the pain of the body and of the soul, in songs that have a clear Pentecost orientation towards the belief in the gift of the Health. This is the case of compositions like “ Christ is my Doctor ” and “Jesus, the Divine Doctor “ . Songs that I heard in Mexican Pentecostal Temples during the meetings to relieve the Illness and sufferings of the believers there congregated. They underline that, he is the Lord who gives health to the human beings and that illness aqnd discomfort are linked with distancing from God, as it is showed by the title of an anthem of the Christian United Church, “I am ill by the sin”. The Christian Rock group “Red” presents an petition of Health in their song’s chorus “ God send Rain”, that has an interesting symbolism.: God send Rain, spill over your Spirit,; Send today your fire, Recover my wounds, Restore me Lord. In different parts of the Bible there is an interesting association between fire and rain, (which in earthly sense are extreme opposites), with the divine and extraordinary gifts that are delivered to a select following (Goodman, 1972). Frequently there are references to the miracles of Jesus Christ taken one by one from the New Testament’s four Gospels. Another examples is given in the composition “Raise me, Lord” where the singer Marcos Witt calls in name of the Divinity the banishment of the Spirits of disease, evilness, Resentment and perversion, emphasizing also the aspects of the fight against the evil; “Your enemies Flee in front of you, they disperse before you, all those who detest your presence…”This song clearly combines elements from the mentioned topic of a spiritual war. This composition besides it clearly refers to the liberation of evil throughout the request for divine help, which in catholic terms it closer to the ritual of exorcism. It is interesting to point out that in the songs the typical distinctive characteristics between God and Jesus Christ do not exist in the lyrics. They appear like figures that are practically interchangeable in their roles and attributes, the references to the Holy Spirit are scanty in the lyrics. The interpreters in fact are not worried for theological principles as the mysteries of the Holy Trinity, (those are elements that causes discussion and disagreement amongst the different religious associations). The artists rather seek to construct a set of wide and shared messages for the consumption of the members of the different Christian groups. The creators and interpreters hereby increase the feelings of support and union between the "brothers" instead of the discord that causes " the theft of the sheep “ (This phrase refers to when a preacher or pastor takes followers from another leader of a congregation). Nevertheless, there are also references to God with somewhat ambiguous terms, as lovelyb and beautiful. It is necessary to remember that these adjectives would be associated more in Latin America and the Mediterranean Europe to the qualities of a feminine person, because the excessive physical and esthetic care can be associated with

the homosexuality in a man (Peristany, 1968, Pitt Rivers & Peristany, 1993). Perhaps, the lyrics of these compositions here signal the return of an androgynious God, both masculine and feminine in his qualities. Curiously the same singers and composers who emphasize the spiritual war, may include own songs about this divine androgyny, for example Marcos Witt, above mentioned author of compositions titled “Beautiful you are”, “How beautiful is the Lord” and “Lover of You Lord” ¿ Would it be possible for an earthly soldier to express in this way about his commander or general ? I’ve even found in a web site a chorus for children named “Christ is Beautiful” and I have to recognize that this Androgyny was the most amazing element found in these compositions. Some researchers have noted certain figures of bisexuality monitored in certain feminization of God that appears in some rituals of possession. (Goodman, 1989 Lewis, 2003 Laplantine, 1987) but these songs express it an open way in a Christian context. It is good to mention that the homosexuality is not accepted in these groups, rather it is openly condemned and considered as immoral and sinful. (Garma, 2004). In some churches these kind of songs are sung mostly by a female chorus (Hilario Wynarczyk, argentine sociologist, personal observation). It would be interesting to study what do the people that sing and listen to these songs feel.

The Christian male
There are also recommendations toward a suitable masculinity, which is the one that must have a real Christian, who has dominated his sexuality, respects his wife, fulfills matrimony and supports responsibly his family. There are the songs of the group ”Keepers of promises”, for instance. In " My home and I " the husband manages a household where worship is given to God in a proper way. Another song of this kind is " Man of commitment " by Jesus Adrian Romero. The composition " What you have to do" from the rock Christian group " The Strong Tower " indicates clearly the following thing: “to be a man is to respect, to be a man is to wait, is not a man the one that hurts for pleasure and later goes away". The importance of the good marriage is exalted in these compositions, for example in ” I will enjoy “ from Marcos Witt, that emphasizes the role of a good wife. Also the virtues of the good women are annotated here. They are usually submissive Christian wives. Likewise the good Christian husband must rest and support his spouse, as sung in a rap of the aforementioned group” The Strong Tower” that states " a man is not that one that tries to satisfy many women, but that one that is capable of satisfying only one in all her needs". Among the Christian evangelical males, the norm of the monogamy is upheld and the extra matrimonial affairs are not accepted. There is no double standard towards the sexual conduct among between men and women, which is common in popular culture in the region. (Garma, 2004 Brusco, 1995). Some songs illustrate the problems with people of the opposite sex who are not Christians. This theme in fact is scanty compared with the cases mentioned above. The examples that are given are taken from Biblical stories, as happens in many compositions. Here there are the tempting women that tease the good men, and can take them to the misfortune of the sin. I’ve found an example in the deception of Delilah to Samson (stated in the Old Testament) in a Christian song of “ranchero” style. In his composition the singer Pedro Sánchez request “ Do not make a mistake like Samson did” , whom refuses to get married with a decent Hebrew woman due to the charms of the beautifull Philistine. To balance the situation the next song of the cassette tape ( titled “Beautiful love”) is called “The Samaritan” and is about a good woman who quenches the thirst of Jesus Christ and

converts. I must point out that it was difficult to me to find a single example about the sinful woman (From more than hundred titles I just found one) and it called my attention to discover precisely in the "ranchero" musical style, known for its high content of discrimination against woman. There are also compositions that shows the other side. This is illustrated by the interaction amongst the worldy man and Mary Magdalene, according to Yuri’s song. In this very popular composition by the converted singer from Veracruz, the men that sexually desired the Magdalene are the same that will throw stones to her body, until she is recued by Jesus Christ. In the lyrics of her composition called "Maria Magdalena", Yuri identifies herself with this Biblical personage in the following strophe : "There were some who were praising me, some of them were pointing me and many men desired me, like Mary Magdalene they threw stones on me. (It is worth mentioning that Yuri, before becoming a converted singer, had passed through a time when she used her sensual image and also posed for a “gentleman’s" magazine). This proves that the relationships with mundane men can be also unfortunate for a Christian woman. In the evangelical temples I’ve heard many times about cases in which good Christian woman got married with bad catholic men that prohibited them to assist to their temples, until they became widows. On the other hand, I’ve never heard from a man that he stopped going to the church because of his catholic wife. This is a proof of the weight of men’s decisions inside the family with regards to the accepted beliefs of the domestic unit. (Garma 2004, Juárez 2006) It is notable that in the Christian songs the very accentuated misogyny of the popular Mexican songs does not exist. This negative orientation reaches its maximum expression in authors as Jose Alfredo Jimenez of Guanajuato or Agustin Lara of Veracruz, composers of real anthems to “ machismo”, as the recognized expert of the popular cultures, Carlos Monsivais has indicated in his work. Jimenez, in his song “La chancla” compares a lover with an old shoe that must be thrown away. Lara dedicated songs as “Perdida” and “Aventurera” to romantic prostitutes. Even though the majority of these compositions belongs to the forties, fifties and beginning of the sixties of last century still remain in the radio, the cinema and television. In other Countries they are considered to be the typical Mexican. As Gutmann indicates, 2000 the classic stereotype of the Mexican macho that has spread in the massive media is the ill-mannered person, brave "ranchero" singer, player, womanizer and alcoholic. Nowadays, the songs about drug-dealers (narcocorridos) maintain this tradition exalting aspects of a violent and arrogant masculinity that despises the women and mistreats them. Several authors have pointed out the characteristics of the misogynic streotypes that these popular diverse popular compositions emphasize (Zarate, 2005). The females are unfaithfull, money hunters and malevolent. Prostitutes and brothels abound all over, the wives are simply absent. Though there is one or another holy mother out there. Misfortune, oblivion and murder are the destiny of bad women (Fernando Poncela, 2002). It is important to mention that in the Christian songs the hate towards woman is really absent. If we consider the norms recommended for the masculinity of these groups, the expression of these values is coherent. In the Christian evangelical churches there exists an absolute condemnation to polygamy, adultery, alcoholism, and violence against the weak. This behaviors complete a serie of actions that reinforce themselves. Concluding an adept to a terrible sinful situation, that takes a person to ruin. Catholicism

is condemned to be too relaxed against these vices and different forms of evilness (Garma, 2004). The attachment to these prohibitions is a man’s training that will avoid the dangerous situations that bring about imbalance and the excess, such as the visits to bars and drunken parties. In this sense it can be stated that the result is a “domesticed male”, but who also happens to be a good man and good father. This is helpfull to the whole family. A recent study has proved that the childhood mortality has been reduced in the indian communities of the mexican state of Chiaps with a Protestant and Pentecostal majority (Potter, 2007) Note 6.

The representations of these songs, show the contradiction of the gender relationships in the Protestant and Pentecostal churches that are considered as Evangelical Christians. There the believers are indeed reborn human beings, well yes, but in their own way. Male believers are still patriarchal in several aspects, because as seen, it exists some patriarchal conceptions of the masculinity of God in the different kind of the spiritual war songs, but they are not really oriented toward misogyny, in the sense of accepting a denigrated vision that justifys the violent submission of women. Their goal is the balanced matrimony based on mutual monogamy. ( Let’s remember that the pastors and preachers here are married, which is different from the “celibate” catholic Priests). Besides the feminine qualities can be accepted, including even God and Jesus Christ. In this sense, these Christian songs, prove the existence of complicated aspects of gender relationships amongst the evangelical believers, which had been already mentioned by several specialists, above all female authors as Mariz y Dores 1997, Juárez 2006, and Brusco 1994. and others. It is necessary to insist that the masculinity itself of the particular social beings it is always complicated and it can’t be characterized by simple stereotypes. (Bourdieu, 1993 Godelier, 1986). I’ll mention here the role of the Christian singer as an organic intellectual ( Portelli 19977) for the religious minorities. The composers and singers adapt to the representations of their audience to keep listeners and at the same time they help to forge the same conceptions of the world. Their lyrics as a double aspect. In one manner, they help to express the norms and values of the social group to which their audience belongs, and allow them to understand easily the acceptable behavior of their interaction , as to their own reference group and likewise toward the rest of society. In this case, they express the forms of masculinity of upheld by believers mentioned above, but they also express elements from concepts of the same believers which the singers reflect in their performance. Therefore. also unsolved contradictions that have been lived by the individuals also appear, though these are not always considered resolved. The purpose that is intended is to express as in these compositions is that the human being is complicated, unfinished, and changing entity. This is a man that will call himself a Christian. Finally I’ll make a brief comparison with the gender ideology of Catholicism, where is notable the contrast with the worship of the Virgin Mary and the permanent exclusion of women from the Clergy and the Priesthood. The Mother of Jesus Christ is unique amongst all the women therefore she presents an unreachable condition to regular mortal females. This relation have been identified by many authors as part of a subordination of women justified ideologically by Catholicism, (Bourdieu 1999, Douglas 1997 and Napolitano

2002). Also it is linked to the Mediterranean systems of honor, grace and shame (Peristany 1968, Pitt Rivers & Peristany, 1993), that exalt masculinity and that have been spread in America throughout the Iberian colonization. This has been demonstrated clearly in anthropological studies that compare the speeches, popular tales and sayings about the relations between men and women in Spain and Mexico (Fernández Poncela 1994, Taggart 1997). As stated before in this text, those values linked to the exageration of the “manliness” are very present in popular Mexican songs. In these songs I have analyzed there are no references to the Virgin Mary, as happens continuously in Mexican catholic religious lyrics (Zarate 2004). In the samples of the lyric I have obtained I just found one reference to the mother of God (“As Mary in Bethany”), and inside of a Printed Hymn Book, not in a record. No doubt, idolatry to the Virgin Mary is associated by evangelicals to Catholicism and therefore is prohibited, here the absence of the Marianism does not point to the absolute gender equality between men and women, but it is perceived an effort to eliminate the exaltation of the most extreme forces of symbolic masculine violence, that are associated to the earthy sin. On the other hand, it is proposed the subordination to Divinity, that acts with power and love, is proposed. For its unique attributes it is considered that God is different from the earthy authority, whether it is masculine or not. The Christian song manifests a re-socialization of gender subjectivity amongst the converted, persons that have belonged to another religion and whom have learn to reorganize their lives based in a new identity that privileges the new system of belief that has been chosen by the followers of a receptive association (Garma 2004, Rambo 1996, Stronberg 1993 ). The separation with the former life, is often underlined,as the song, “there is no condemnation “, from the rock Christian group “Red” mentions “The one that is in Jesus is new creation, the things of the past, have now passed” . In the religious groups, the transformation of the individual by the acceptation of his new Faith is emphasized, the accomplishment of the norms and values of the new accepted religion is vital for the believer. The songs reinforce the practice that the believers must fulfill in the new religious affiliation. Also they are emotionally supported in their daily life, privately (playing and listening to music at their home) and publicly (participating in the praise at churches and meetings of believers). The intersection of the gender space and artistic expression appears as a modeling element of the experience that help us to understand several interesting stages of the current religious transformation.

1.- The concepts about the characteristics of the cultural Industries comes from García Canclini, 1997. 2.- For the readers that aren’t familiar to the religious minorities I’ll clarify as follows: The Historical Denominational Protestant churches have their origins directly linked to the Reform of the Century XVI, inspired in the work and thought of Martin Luther and John Calvin. Among these churches are the Presbyterian, Methodists, Baptists, Lutherans, Calvinists, Nazarenes, and other Congregations amongst the most important, Every association has a superior structure at the national level that takes the most important decisions as well as arranging organization schedules. (Vazquez, 1991). In this congregations the pastor usually has formal studies. The rituals emphasize the reading of the Bible, unique source of divine revelation, as well as the testimonies of the believers

(Ruiz, 1992). The Pentecostal Churches have their origin in the United States of America, since 1906 in areas where there was a strong influence of the black Protestant population. Pentecostalism was founded by the Afro-American pastor William Seymour (Cox, 1994). Its name derives from the Christian holiday that commemorates the day in which twelve apostles recieved the Holy Spirit for the first time, and they obtained wonderful gifts, as speaking in different foreign languages, the healing of the sick people and prophesy. According to the Pentecostalism every believer can receive these "gifts" by being opened to the Holly Spirit. Amongst the more important Pentecostal groups of Mexico we find the Assemblies of God, the Apostolic Church of the Faith in Jesus Christ, Christian Interdenominational church, Centers of Faith, Hope and Love, Pentecostal Independent Church, and Christian Friendship. In all of Latin America, including Mexico, among the evangelical Christians, the Pentecostals are the majority (Bastian, 1994, Martin, 1990, Cox, 1994). Denominational Protestants and Pentecostals that are considered to be "brothers" and emphasize their distance from the Catholicism as a binding aspect. Their attachment to the Bible separates them from Mormons and Jehovah's Witnesses, who use other sacred books or appeal to distinctive interpretations. To receive foreign spirits apart from God is a serious sin, which is a cause of condemnation against the spiritualism and the Cuban Santeria. 3.-The market of the evangelical recordings in Brazil has developed widely, (Aubree, 1996, Burity, 1997, Chesnut, 1997), but its analysis needs of a bigger approximation of their national culture and language, which exceeds the limits of this text. 4.- A special mention on the case of the multi-skilled Marcos Witt is needed. This Christian artist has his own Record line titled "Canzión", which in addition is distributed by the international corporation Sony. He`s one of the few Spanish-speaking artists of this kind whose work can be bought by Amazon in Internet. Canzión has his own website that also distributes the recordings across the Americas. The website is: Witt has done 21 discs in his prolific career and has written two books "Let's "adore" and " God, What we do with these musicians? ".He is the son of North American missionaries, born in San Antonio, Texas, U.S.A., but since he was a child he grew up in Mexico. Currently, he is considered to be the most successful Christian artist of Spanish-speaking America, filling multiple audiences and theatres from Houston to Buenos Aires, as shown in his web page (other colleagues and specialists have confirmed this success to me in other countries, as Paul Sérman & Hilario Wynarczyk in Argentina). His musical style is rock pop, with a strong influence of gospel. As expected he is also a pastor and the ordained Minister of a Christian independent association. 5.-The topic of the healing as the manner how God conquered pain and suffering is a vital aspect to understand the growth of the non-catholic groups, particularly the Pentecostalism, where these beliefs attract many potentials converts from very diverse contexts (Garma, 1987 and 2004). Currently, the practices linked to miraculous faith healing have spread to many groups of belief such as the catholic charismatic renovation, spiritualists, and new age followers. Once again the term itself has a specific meaning for the followers. It is considered that the cure implies the relief of the corporal discomfort as well as spiritual suffreing that only comes from the contact with the divine. On the other hand, the doctors provide the treatment that only affects the body and therefore it ‘s limited. It is considered that due to the divine intervention, the miraculous recoveries are

possible, when other methods have failed, Garma, 2004. In many different expressions of belief the role of the music is extremely important to achieve a suitable state adapted for the rituals where the healing of the sickness and discomfort occurs (Goodman, 1989, Lewis, 2003). 6.-This does not imply the acceptance of complete equality between man and woman. In evangelical churches the formal position of the women changes varies greatly. Some associations accept the ordenation of female pastors and preachers, as for instance the Church of God, the Anglican Church and the Methodist Church, which have even accepted to have women as Bishops. Other associations consider that a woman may direct a congregation only in exceptional cases and under the eventual supervision of a man, this is the case of the Apostolic Church and the Assemblies of God. The Pentecostal leader Manuel Gaxiola considered that mexican were not sufficiently mature to accept a feminine leadership (Gaxiola, 1994). In the family and home a good wife respects and follows her husband when he is a good Christian, she must support him and not cause him problems. This exhortation follows St. Paul's recommendations in his epistles to the Corinthians, which recommended the obedience of the wives to their husbands. Nevertheless, as Juárez, 2006, shows in her excellent study; even in the most conservative groups there is room for negotiation on the recommendations for gender conduct.

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Michoacan, Zamora, 2006. LEWIS; I:M:; Ecstatic Religión, a study of shamanism and spirit posesión, (tercera edicion), Routledge, New York, 2003. MARKS, Morton; “Uncovering ritual structures in afro-american music”, Religious Movements, in Contemporary America; Zaretsky Irving y Mark, Leone. Editors, Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 1974. MARIZ, Cecilia y Dores, Maria; “Pentecostalism and Women in Brazil”, en Powe, Politics and Pentecostals in Latin America, Cleary, Edward y Stewart Gambino, Hannah, coordinadores, Westview Press, Colorado, 1997, pp. 41-55. MARTIN, David; Tongues of Fire, the Explosion of Protestantism in Latin America, Basil, Blackwell, Oxford, United Kingdom, 1990. MONSIVAIS, Carlos; Amor Perdido, Editorial Era, Mexico, 1987. NAPOLITANO, Valentina; Migration, Mujercitas and Medicine men, Living in Urban Mexico; Universtity of California Press, Berkeley, 2002. PERISTANY, J. (coordinador); El concepto del honor en la sociedad mediterranea, Editorial Labor, Barcelona, 1968. PIRTT Rivers, Julian y Peristany, J. (coordinadores); Honor y Gracia, Alanza Universidad, Madrid, 1993. PORTELLI, Hugues; Gramsci y la cuestion religiosa, una Sociología Marxista de la Religión,Laia, Barcelona, 1977. POTTER, J. et. al; “Chils mortality and religious affilation by ethnicity in Chiapas, Mexico”, paaa2007., accesado 10 de octubre, 2007. RAMBO, Lewis; Psicologia de la Conversion Religiosa, Editorial Herder, Barcelona, 1996. RUIZ, Ruben; Hombres Nuevos, Metodismo y Modernizacion en Mexico (1873-1930), CUPSA, Mexico, 1992. STROMBERG, Peter; Lenguaje and Self Transformation; A study of Christian Conversión narrative, Cambridge University Press, London, 1993. STOLL, David; Is Latin America Turning Protestant? The Politics of Evangelical Growth, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1990. TARGGART, James; The Bear and his sons, masculinity in Spanish and Mexican folktales; University of Texas Press, Austin, 1997. VAZQUEZ, Felipe; Protestantismo en Xalapa, Gobierno del Estado de Veracruz, Xalapa,

1991. ZARATE, Alberto; “Los cantos religiosos en radio comercial, relaciones de genero”; Convergencia, Vol. 11, No. 36, 2004 pp.61-79. ZARATE, Alberto; “Algunos Mensajes misoginos en canciones populares comerciales”, en Hombres ante la Misoginia: Miradas Multiples, Daniel Cazes y Fernando Huerta, coordinadores, U.N.A.M. – Plaza y Valdez, 2005, pp.227-251. I have used the Bible in spanish, published by the International Bible Society.

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