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Bunge Mario Augu to.
Politi a] philo. ophy : fact, fiction and i ion / Mario Bunge.
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In Jude bibliographi al referen e and index.
ISB 978- 1-4 128-0828-6 alk. paper
1. Political science. 2. Politi al ience--Philo ophy. I. Title.
JA 7 1.B834 200
320. 0 1--d 22
Acknow ledgmenl .
hical Back
round: Univcrsal1dcas
2 Citizen and Polity: Diversity and Unity
Vu a Mo' Iaa Sa
5 Contention and Ne
i Goe
7 Scientific In
ut to Politic
8 Technolo
ical In
ut to Politic
9 Vision: Inte
ral Democrac
Thi book i ab ut politi s p liti al theory and p litical philo ophy.
Alth ugh thc e two discipline' arc often nfated b au e they inter
a t they actually arc distinct. In fa t politi aJ theory i ' part of political
sciencc whereas politi al philosophy i a hybrid f p litical the ry and
philo ophy. Th ' former dis ipline is d criptiv and explanat ry wherea
th latt r is pr . criptive-to the point that it i. often called 'nonnati
th ory.' Simmon. 200 : 1 defnes it correctly a. '"the e aluati e study
of political .oci tie .. In other words wh reas politologi. t d . cribe and
xplain politics. political philosophers examin it critically and v ntur
to . ugge. t impro em nts and, on occasion, radically different . ocial
futures. Political philo. ophers propo.e scenarios and dr am. wh r
political cienti 'ts offer nap 'hot of exi ting politie.
For example at this time, the right to gainful and ecure employment
is moral, not yet legal' hene it belong' in political philo 'ophy and social
technology rath r than in political 'ci nee ('ee ILO 2004 . By contra t,
the hypothe 'is that ' Great Powers in relativ decline in tinetively respond
by 'pending more on security and thereby divert potential resources
from inve tment and compound their long-term dilemma (K nnedy
L 988: xxvi belong' in political cience and hi toriography.
Becau e of it normati e natur . political philo ophy ha. a moral ting
that political cience lacks. When the political . i nti t oberly report .
on low voter turout th political philo opher deplore' that thi i an
indicator of the decline of ci ic-mindedne" or e en d mocracy' politi
cal cienti t call' ettlement ' and " trong leadership what political
philo opher condemn a colony and tyranny respecti ely-and 0 on.
However, political philo ophy i not yet a well-defined feld: it hov
er between political theory and utopian fanta jzing. It devote too much
time reanalyzing the work of Plato, Ari totle, Thomas Aquina , Hobbe
Spinoza, Loke. Monte quieu, Kant, Rou eau. or Bentham. But none of
the thinker c uid have anticipated any of the mo t pre . . ing p litical
is. ue of our time. Ther i the need to . t P global warming, di mantle
viii Political Philosophy
nuclear armament prevent further resource war . top the ri c of in
equality between individuaL and nation" and fight authoritarianism,
particularly when it come. di. QuL ed as democracy or as sociali. m.
Not even more recent , 0 ial thinker , . uch a. John Stuart Mill Karl
Marx, Emile Durkheim, Max Weber Vilt'redo Pareto John Dewey Joeph
Schumpeter, Harold La, ki, Karl Popper, Hannah Arendt, or John RawI. ,
had much to . ay about uch topical i. sue, as en ironmental degradation,
gend r and race di riminations participative democracy nationali m,
imp rialism, the North-South (or dev lopcd-underde eloped divide re-
our war the indu trial-military omplex, r the nnection between
po erty and nvironmental degradation and b tween inequality and
bad health. S e Le noff 1999 for a fair di cll'sion f twentieth-century
politi al philo 'opher .
Wor ,abo e their ideological div rg 'n e , mo t political phil pher'
ha e been nearly unanimou. in their indiff rence to the plight of the Third
World. Con. equ ntly the bulk of political philo. ophy i. irrel vant to f e
sixth. of humankind. The pr s nt author. a native of thi. world doe. not
share that indifference. rn general 1 agree with Dworkin 2000: 4 that
"it ri. l e . . ential that political philosophy re. pond to politic. " in. tead of
d aling with fctions .uch a. those of the state of nature, social contract,
liberty without equality, and social ju tice di pensed [rom above. The
very notion of an apolitical political philosophy i an oxymoron.
We are given a 'ingle world not a free choice of world '. ole that I
ju ,t wrote l rId not USA. Thi ' choice of words i deliberate for I be
lieve that contemporary political philosophy i' till far too USAcentric
and Eurocentric, while politics i ' being played in the world 'tage rather
than only in th U. S. government. I al 0 happen to think that political
philo. opher hould pay more attention to number'. uch a ' the tandard
index of in om inequality and the mor cornprehen ive U human
dev lopment index for the variou . nation'. It i pointle to write about
redi tributi e policie unl we ha e 'orne of id a of the urrent wealth
di tribution.
Howe er, the irrelevance or ob ole cence of many political idea
matter litt1e to our concer, becau e we hall di cu topical political
i ue and ocial policie rather than author or fanciful world . In fact,
we shall focu on some current problem and hall eek promi iug lead
to the future.
A' usual lowe much to a numb r of cholars and tudents who asked
stimulating que tion ,formulated critici 'm' offered advice (not alway
foIl wed , gave p rtinent informati n or encouragement, or helped to
cope with alamities. Thi tim' I ingle out Da id Blitz Ricard Bloch,
Micha '1 Breher, Moi h Bronet Antonio Colomer Viadel, Rafa '1 Gonzalez
del Solar. Peter C. Hoffmann th late Gino Germani Irving Louis Horow
itz, Michael Kary Jonathan Loeh Martin Mahner. Luis Maron ,Antonio
Martino the late Robert K. M rton Ignacio Morgado- B rnal, Da id
Oswald Andreas Pick 1, the late Anatol Rapoport. ichola. Re.cher.
Marc Silber.t in Charle. Tilly. the lat Bruc G. Trigg r Robrto Tuda.
and Per-Olov Wik. tram. And as ver r thank Marta, my wife of half a
century, and my childr n: Carlos, Mario, Eric, and Silvia.
I dedicate this book to the memory of my father,
Augusto Bunge 1877- 194
ph sician, the first Latin Areri an redi -al so -;ologi5t,
parliamentarian, and hampion of so ial ju rice
and Lilzi\ er al health are.
My father wa ' active in politic' frorn hi. . tudent day till hi. la t day
when hara ed by the polic for hi anti-fa. ci ,t militan y. He tran mit
ted to me hi pa' 'ion for politic iew d a the civic arm of morality
a well a hi conviction that ocial policie hould be ba 'ed on 'ocial
cience rather than improvi ed in the hunt for ote . I can still picture
him speaking in the Argentine Congre , tanding beside hi armchair
fanked by two tall pile of learned books andjoumal in four languages
which he u ed to ju tify or criticize a new bill, while most of hi col
leagues, attuned to fery rhetoric rather than olid evidence, Ii tened
re p ctfully or dozed.
1 have worked f r most f my long aead mic life in politically neutral
feld : the reti a1 physi and the r ti a1 philosophy. Howe er in a way
x Political Philosophy
1 have been writing thL book all my life for 1 started reading political
new, and Ii. tening to political di cu . . ions at age . e en. I have been a
political-new. addict ever since, and have participated in some politi al
campaigns. Sti11, I ne er contemplated embarking on a poJitical career,
particularly not in univer, ity politic, . T have alway. been intere. ted in
doing more con, tru ti e work: organizing and running a worker, school,
a on, tru tion fml a philo, ophy journal, and , everal leared ocietie,.
The a tivitie hav ' giv n me 'ome experi 'nee in both cont 'nti n and
go ernance.
Howev r possessing a politi al ar th ugh no p liti a tongue, and
having Ii ed half of my liD ' in a p liticaUy re tive nation I ould not
a oid being affected by nati nal politi s in b th my native Argentina and
my adopti Canada. In fa t I hav ' I i ed through half a dozen military
coup and on revoluti w igned or refused to ign numerous petition'
and manife, toe.' tak n part in many boring meeting. and assemhlies;
marched in . tre t d mon, tration. for or against a ariety of cause. ; and
writt n for an und rground paper. Like my father. r wa. jailed twice
(my mother once and both tim s my hom wa, raided; r wa. dismiss d
from my univ r, ity job, and deni d proper id ntity documents for more
than a decade.
Finally in 1963 I reluctantly left my country [or god, afer a bloody
confrontation between two army faction' and fearing that the n xt mili
tary coup would truncate my research projects if not wor 'e. Three year
later the coup actually happened, and about I 000 academic' re 'igned
or wer being dismi . ed. Canada has been my home since 1966. I am
grateful to the politician' and civil ervants who built the 'ervic 'tate
that ha kept Canada at p ac and placed it on the 'ixth rung in human
dev lopment U DP 2006).
In hort I learned omething about politic' not from book but from
life if unwillingly in mo t ca' .. In particular, I learned 'omething that
pin-doctor', pundit and di enchanted citizen. do not know: that cI an
con tructiv politic i' po 'ibl . I tru t that tho 'e exp rience ha e helped
me ketch a political philo ophy that i neither armchair-i h, nor cynical,
nor utopian.
Finally, given the current tate of the study of politics I prefer "poLi
tology' to' political science even though I hare Condorcet 1782)
optimi m concerning it bright future. And, unle otherwise indicated,
all the foreign language tran lations included in thi book are my own.
The a t majority of books and cour e on politi -al theory and politi
cal philo. ophy examine their pa ts. Thi i certainly a legitimate and
intere ting concern ee e.g., Ball and Bellamy ed . 2003 . But it is
no cub titut for either "Ii ing political theory or r levant political
philosophy just as the hi tory of mathematic i no ubstitute for prov
ing theorem, .
Tn my view political philo. ophy exceL when combined with , 0 ial,
political, economic or legal data and theory, a. in the works of Gunnar
Myrdal, RobertA. Dahl Amartya Sen, Ronald Dworkin, El1nor 0, trom,
and David Mi11er. Otherwise it ri, k, 10, ing conta t with reality, a. in the
ca, e of Leo Strau .. (1959). trau ,the influential political philo. opher
who r mmended going back t the an ients, i an e treme xample
of the profe r out of touch with current p liti to the point of seek
ing political wisd m in writers from Plat and Ari totI onward who
opposed democracy and took lavery and war for granted. Thi i why
h ' erlookcd the p liti al issues of hi day.
Art must pass the te t f time: ci n mu t fail it for the world it trie
to under. tand keeps changing. Reading old books i. a pleasant pastim
but no . ub. tiulte for the in ,tigation of burning political i .. ue, and th
philosophical prohl m. th y raLe. Plato', elitism wa, dismantled together
with th Ba, tiJl
Augu, tin . just war was blast d atHiroshima; Hobb s'
war of all against war was .tillhorn for in the end coop ration always
trumps competition' and Marx . dictator. hip of th proletariat crumbled
along ,ide th oviet empire.
On 'econd reading the 'aid Leo Strauss wa far [rom having stayed
abov the fry. In fact, taking lead' fTom Plato " noble lie," ietz ch "
elitism and Heidegger' ' esoterici 'm, anti-moderism and anti-humanism,
Strau' . taught in person or in pired some of the neocon ervative who in
1997 drafed th "Project [or the ew American Century,' which 'ketched
the imp rial goal pur u d by the government of George W. Bu h Ryn
2003; Dmry 2005 . Plato failed in Syracu' where Strau ucc ed d in
2 Political Philosophy
Wa hington D.C. a Nietz che and Carl Schmitt had previously. uc
ceeded in Ber1in-merciful1y only for a dozen years.
It is hard for a political philo. opher to be a pa" ive bystander the way
some conservati e po1itical theorist ha e urged when attacking scholar.
who, like the great John Maynard Keyne. and his disciple , riticized
unfettered capitali. m for being self-de, tru tive and proposed economic
regulations and social programs to im pro e the lot of the common people.
Unlike the hi 'torian of p liti al thought, wh should be impartial a well
a bjectiv ' political ienti t, and p litical philosoph rs arc exp cted to
analyz ' and inspir ' social poli ies, which arc guide to political action or
inaction. If th ir phil phie arc wrong, 0 will b ' the poli i 'S they pr -
po e. In any event the philo opher pr p c' and the 0 ereign-whether
prince or people-di p
Politics, the highe t and the lowe t form of '0 ial a tion, om ,tim' ,
the mo. t . elfi. h and at oth r times th most , lfie .. of activities is the
art of facing or e ading . ocial issues that i. ,problem. other than purely
p r. onal predicaments. Social i.. ue. arise in all social .y. tem. from
the childless couple to the world . ystem. This i. why politics p rmeate.
all social lif : There ar family politic. and gang politics office politic.
and club politic. , school politic. and church politic., municipal politic.
and interational politic " and so on.
Politic' can be con tructive, de tructive or barren and it can be grand,
mean or mediocre. And politics has both a contentious and an adnlinis
trative 'ide. Politic' i ' the ,truggle for power as well as the exerci e of
power in ocial yst O of all kinds and 'izes. It i ' al '0 the art of confict
re 'olution in both contention and admini 'tration.
It behoove plitical cienti t. and technologi t to d tect po ibl
ource' of confict and d vi' rnean to r olv them, but it i up to politi
cal philo opher to offer ethi al argument, for or again t any propo a1.
to r .01 e politi al confict '. An intere ting if eldom notic d political
no elty that emerged in the cour e of the la t c ntury i that functionarie.
of the UN and ivil 'ociety organization ha e b en far mor activ than
academic in tackling international confict , becau e the UN Charter i
basically an ethical document, the only one agreed upon univer ally, if
not always respected in practice.
The exercise of power of any kind i not neutral: it b nefit or har1
some or all, in particular by either buttre ing or undenining pri ilege.
Con equentJy political philo opher and policy anaJy t are called upon
t either improv or wren the I t of ordinary folks for in. tance by
supporting or opp . ing programs intended to either fa ilitate or hinder
Introduction 3
popular access to gainful job public health 'arc culture or public
go ernance. on, equently political philo, opher, should be able to dete t
the promi, e, and threat lurking behind the seemingly neutral , cholarly
Take. for example the famou. Pareto optimality principle, ac
cording to which the state of an economy (or of an entire , ociety) i,
efficient ju, t in ca e no one can be made better off without . omeone
else being made wor e ff. In other word ci ,ty would b ' like a ee
saw. In parti ular all the oeial program aiming at impr ving oeial
ju ti and enf reing int 'rnational law hould be j ,ttisoned a b 'ing
Pareto in 'ffici nt and any hop ' f impr ving the lot of humankind a
a whole hould be abandoned f r the ize of the eak , t be di tributed
i constant and ta i ' i alway preferable to hange. In short, whoever
a eept Par 'to 4 ptimality' mu ,t, if con i tent rej et the very idea of
, ocial progress.
And yet even John Rawls 1971: 66-67) who thought of himself a,
progre .. iv , mbrac d Par to 'optimality' becau, e h failed to realiz
that it i. just an application of the con, ervativ political philo, ophy that
njoin. u. not to rock the boat, or ven row it. A moral of thi. story i,
that the political philo. opher should be , keptical of main.tream conomic
theory, if only because a Milton Friedman (1991 boa 'ted, [or aU its
apparent mathematical 'ophi ,tication, that theory i 'old wine in new
bottles' -hardly the liquid the thirsty need.
What might draw a philo 'opher to the study of politic' i . that politi
cal action is never done in a conceptual and moral vacuum. Indeed, all
politician' invoke certain alue' and ideals, claim to act on expert advice,
and d vi. e policie. and plan'. It i up to the politi al philo opher to
judge whether the value , exp rti' ,and poIicj in que. tion are authen
tic rather than rhetorical, and well grounded rather than jmprovi' d. In
turn our judgment wjll be right or wrong d p nding on it. input uch
a knowledge about 0 jal matter', a crjtical or gullible attitude and a
moral pro ocial or jmmoral (anti. ocial) tand.
Since politic i bound to change people lives it ha a moral compo
nent, albeit ordinarily a tacit or even carefully concealed one. Bernard
Crick [1992: 141] went a far a to claim that "Po]itical activity is a type
of moral activity." Moreo er, I ubmit that the moral compnent of politi
cal action i the mo t important if the lea t isible one, imply because it
invo] e benefit and harm . I also ugge t that it i a ta k of the political
philosoph r to unveil and evaluate uch component, aU th more so in e
it i often fogged by a narrow ideology or even by a crude philosophy
4 Political Philosophy
such a contrac tari ani m utilitariani m pragmati m legal positi i Tl,
dialectical materialism critical theory, or hemleneutic . .
Undoubtedly, political cience has advanced appre iably since the
la. t world war. However. in my view it , till . uffer. from the , ame moral
defcit a. tandard economic theory. Indeed in both field the mainstream
i. utilitarian and therefore indifferent to mora] sentiment and to the lot
of the 10 er. in the race. to power and wealth. Tn fact few contemporary
profe ors of political ' i 'n ' ha e ever condemned military aggres i n,
tat terrorism unprov ked ' preemptive' military aggr 'ssi n torturing
political pri on r ,cen oring the n 'W ,or re tri ting ivil liberti 'S during
emergen i 'S (ev n when engine red by their government .
On the i'w oc a ion wh 'n acad mics ha e condemn d 'u h pra tice ,
ordinarily they indict d th m as ineffectual rather than immoral. Wor '
yet, in re ent time me famou pr fe r of political ien e hav ' of
fered or . old . tarkly immoral advice to their go emment.: Susp nd thi.
ci il right. ignore that int rnational tr aty bomb or in ad that country,
keep fighting thi. ill gal war d stabilize that unfriendly go ernment,
support this friendly dictator, rip off th .ocial fabric of thos rural il
lage. adopt this carpet-bombing .chedule, try out that toxic . pray t 11
the p opl that th y ar und r attack ven if they are not, d moniz your
adversaries, and '0 on. The e betrayal' have made political philosophy
timely once again for the nucleus of thi ' di 'cipline i " or ought to be,
moral ,-the art of helping other enjoy life.
The central the 'i ' of thi ' book i that re 'ponsibl politic' i ' based not
only on ideology but al '0 on philosophy, in particular ethic' a' well a
on 'ocial technology, which in tum is effective only when ba 'ed on 'olmd
ocial 'cience. The following diagram ummariz the whole book.
i J
Philosophical Background: Universal Ideas
Philo ophy ha a bad reputation among cienti t. who regard jt a '
b ing either irrelevant to . jenc or oppo ed to it. in particular political
philo ophy ha been accu. d of being opportuni tic rather than principl d
a well a' jmpreci' and only 100 'ely related to the bulk of philo ophy.
Pet r La lett 1967: 370 noted that the aid opportuni m 'ha. led to
a raggedn . '. ev n an incoherence. in works d voted to it and to an
empha i on intuiti e arguments which compare unfavorably with the
content of other philo ophical Hterature.' Many year later the are
cholar added a complaint: Political philosopher 0 eremphasize the
hi tory of politkal thought at the expen e of contemporary chaUenge
(La lett in Skinner 2002: 2 .
However nobody can avoid philo ophy when di cus ing anything
other than everyday events. if jn doubt, try do p litology without u ing the
notion of thing and pro . . reality and appearan e au and chanc
person and society bhavjor and norm a. umption and dedu ti n datum
and theory indicator and test, cience and ideology-and then som .
One an. and usually doe. use them without pausjng t examine th m.
H wever ta it philo phy is loppy and uncritical. To avoid th . e two
faw we mu t analyze and y tematize univer al concep . We mu t build
pred e theorie around thern. Thi j a ta k for good philo ophy.
The pre ent chapter ketche what I hope to be a coherent philo-
ophi al y ter, and it offer ugge tion on how to harpen ore key
philo ophical concept rele ant to the tudy of politic . Some of the e
concept occur, albeit impLi itly for the rno t part in the work of the
much-maligned Niccolo Ma 'hia cIli 1940. Machiavelli founded not
only modem political t 'hnology or the art of ra per uac ion, but aL 0
modern political theory. Thus, he inspired not only Hitler, Stalin and
terror peddler but al 0 all the eriou politi 'al theori of the modem
era f0l11 Hobbes and Lo 'ke to our day.
6 Political Philosophy
1 ubmi t that Machi avel l i ' s c ci enti fc ucce was l argel y du to hi
moder phi l o ophi cal outl ook taci t and , ketchy a. i t was. Tn fact, hi .
ontology wac both secul ar unl i ke that of hi . Chri sti an predece . . or. ) and
dynami ci st un1 i ke Pl at o' and Hu" erl , . Ma hi avel l i vi ewed the pol i ty
as a concrete whol e i n perptual fux whose i ndi i dual component were
moved pri mari l y by worl dl y i ntere. ts. He wa. confdent that, by studyi ng
t he me hani m. of pol i t i cal change, he woul d be abl e to understand and
control t hem for the beneft of t he overei gn.
ontrary to Pl ato and Ari t ot l , but D re hadowi ng Gal i leo, Machi a
el l i r gard 'd change a a mark of p rfect i on, not i mp rc ti on. H ' wa '
al t he fr t to tate that pol iti cs i s not j u ,t a game pl ayed by pri n e '
rul er , but al 0 a pro e i n 01 vi ng ma e f i ndi vi dual who attempt
to forese ' the conscqllen e f thei r a t i on . Machi a I l i wa al so an
epi temol ogi cal real i `\. He bel i ' d i n t he i ndependent exi tence of th '
external worl d, a. wel l a. in the po . . i bi l i ty of gett i ng to know i t . Tn short ,
by and l arge Machi avel l i may b regarded as a mat ri al i st of sort. a.
wel l a. a real i . t a rati onal i . t . and an ut i l i tari an. Tru , h al so hel i d
in magi c but thi . pl ayed no rol e i n hi . t heory j u.t as wton' s God di d
not occur i n hi . equati on. of mot i on.
On may t ackl e a ci rcum. cri bed pol i ti cal probl em . uch a. whether
proporti onal representati on i ' fai r and workabl e, wi thi n a ' i ngl e branch
of a di ci pl i ne. But the bi g i ssues of any ki nd, such as poverty can onl y
be tackled wi t h the hel p of several di ' ci pl i nes and wi thi n a broad phi lo
sophi caJ fTamework. Tbi i ' so because pol i ti cal action occurs i n the real
worl d i s pl anned in the l ight of some body of knowledge and ' ore moral
code, and is l ikel y to benefit ' ome peopl e whi le harmi ng other ' .
For exampl e, t he d i gn and i mpl mentati on of any promi i ng or
threateni ng) publ i c work . healt h, or edu ati on program pr ' uppo e a
ecul ar worl d i ew a real i t i c epi ' temol ogy. an acti on theory mi ndful of
i nter t" and a con. equenti al i t though not nec ari l y ut i l i tari an moral
phi l o. ophy. in hort I ' ubmi t that phi l o ophy contri but to fa hioni ng
the pol i t y vi a pol i t ical theory and pol i t i cal acti on a llgg ted by th
fol lowi ng fow di agram:
Philosoph Politi al tlleor Poli Politi al debate
Politi al de isiol1 Planning Exe ution Evaluation
Et enfual poli' or plan r design
The na' ,ve materi al i t mi ght object that thi . i ew i . ideal L t i c. becau. e
it presents certai n fact. a. con, equence of i deas. But as it so happen.
Philosophical Background 7
that del i berate acti on, by contnL t to kn e-jerk r acti on, i. carried out i n
the l i ght of i dea i ntert wi ned wi th moral , enti ment . (Any deci si on to
take acti on i s preceded by del i berat i on, gui ded or dL torted by de. i re,
rooted i n i ntere. t s. as wel l as constrai ned or fuel led by moral . . ) Admi t
ti ng t hi , i no conce. si on to phi l osophi cal i deal i sm, provi ded i deas
are regarded as brai n proce es, not a. exi , t i ng by them el ves. So, the
enti re proce" we ha e j u. t , ketched occur. i n the real world i nhabi ted
by pol i t i al agent .
The r ' le an e of phi l o ' ophy to pol i ti cal ' i 'n ' resear h i s ob i ou
from the approach to th ' di ci pl i ne ho en by the author i n the four
more i nfu ' nti al Ameri can and B ri t i h joural i n th ' f l d duri ng the
1 997-2002 peri od ( Mar h and Sa i gny 2004 . F r ampl , 56 of
the contri butors to the Ameri 'an Journal of Politi al Science opted for
"behavi oural i m,' r respect for 'mpi ri cal data wh ' rea rati onal -choi ce
th ory-characteri zed by i t. apri ori sm-was t he choi c of onl y 1 59 of
th author, . Th corre. pondi ng data for t h British JournaL 0/ Politi 'aL
S 'ienc( were 63< and 9 r . p ct i vel y.
r n thi s chapter I wi l l , ketch t h phi l osophi cal di . ci pl i n s i n ol ved i n
pol i ti cal phi l o. ophy. In my v iew authent i c phi l osophy con. i st s of t h
fol l owi ng branch s:
Logic: preci si on and deduci bi l i ty
Semallri s: meani ng and t ruth
Ontolog .: bei ng and becomi ng
Epi remolog : cogni ti on and knowledge
PhiLo oph of Scien e and Techllolog
MethodoLog): evi dence
Axiolo ' : al ue.
Ethi 'S` ri ght and dut i e.
Praxiolo : action
Politi ' aL philosoph . pol i t i c.
Al l of t h ' k 'y i dea ' i n t he phi losophi cal di ' cipl i ne wi l l pl ay a rol e
i n each hapter f thi book. However, t he reader ' houl d remember t hat,
unl i ke mathematics or chenli try phi l sophy i ' pl ural in the ' n e that
eve!' phi lo ophi cal view b 'l ong t some chool or other-rati onal i st or
inat i onal i t ideal i t or materi al i , t i ndi v idual i t r y t ' mht, and so n.
1 ha e ch en my own phi lo ' ophy whi ch I ha e di scu cd i n detai l
i n previ ou, works, part i cul arl y i n t h ei ght ol um . of my Treati"e on
Political Philosophy
Bo i Philosoph 1 974-89) as wel l as i n t hree boo on the phi lo ophy
of soci al ci ence Bunge 1 996a 1 998a. 1 999a , i n my late. t books on
ontology and epi. temol ogy ( Bunge 2003a, 2006a , and i n an anthol ogy
on my ci enti fi c real L m (Mahner 2001 . But I cl ai m that though bi a. ed a.
al 1 phi l o ophi e, , mi ne i s both preci se and evi dence-ba, ed. The e i dence
I offer for or agai n, t phi l o, ophi cal hypotheses come, from science and
technol ogy. For i nstance, if I regard e ery thi ng as changeabl e and a.
ei ther a y tem r a mpon nt of ne i t i s becau e d e ev ' ry c i
ence proper. I n other words my phi losophy i s unaba hedly sci enti ti ,
that i s, sci ence-center d.
Thi phi l o phy may be ummarizcd a ' a h agon centered i n s i enc ,
and the id of whi h are my own vcr i on ' f emergentist materiali 'm
a opp cd to both ideal i sm and radi cal reduct i oni 01)' sterni rn a '
the al t rnat i v to both i ndi vi dual i sm or atomi sm, and hol i sm or struc
tural i sm) ' d 'nomi 'ism or th the. i s that ev rythi ng i n t h r al worl d i .
changeabl ; s 'iel1ldic realism a, opposed to na'i e real i sm, suhject i i . m
and rel ati vi sm) ; humanism ( as oppo. ed to sup rnatural i sm and goi . m) ;
and ?xa '111 'SS. a. oppo. ed to i mpreci si on and oh, curi ty. I wi l l att mpt to
show the r I e ance of ach of the. e phi l osophi cal vi ews to both pol i t ical
sci ence and pol i t i cal phi l osophy. I wi l l a1 O argue that a phi l o ' ophy wi t h
out l ogi c and ' emanti cs i ' mu hy' wi t hout ontol ogy, spi nel es ' ; wi thout
epi stemol ogy headl ess; and wi thout thi es, cl awle ' ' .
g. 1.1. Sketch of the phiiosophicaJ system used in this work.
1. Logic: Conceptual Rationalit)'
Let u, gl i mpse at pol i ti cal reasoni ng. What thi nks and feel s about po
l i ti cal i s, ue, and what to do about them i a brai n. And brai n can work
ei ther rat i onal l y and real i st i cal 1 y or not. The, e two condi ti on , rati onal i ty
Philosophical Background 9
and real i m C qui te dist i n .t . On may argu rati onal l y about ghost
the way rati onal -choi ce theori st do when usi ng undefi ned uti l i ti e, and
probabi l i ti e, . Or one may sti ck to real i ty yet t hi nk i rrat i onal 1 y about i t ,
t he way postmodems have been doi ng-as when Derri da tated that
"[ w] hat i , proper to a cul t ure i s to not be i denti cal to i tel f ' i n Col e,
+ 002: 1 1 .
To argue correct l y about anythi ng whether real or i magi nary, one mu. t
sti k t the rul es of rati nal argument. The e rul are studi ed by D rmal
( or mathemati al l ogi c the mo , t ab t ra t and theref r t h ' most general
and portabl e of al l sci ences. We need 1 gi c not to generat idea but to
che k them for gency and to sp t dangerous nonsen e ' uch a ' au
thori tari an ci al i m,
' demo rati c central i ' m ' ( the i nt eral mechani m
of communi st part i e ert i al l abor uni on,
and ' war on terror. '
Logi c deal s wit h con ept ' uch a th ' prcdi at ' i s democrat i c "
a. wel l a. wi th proposi ti on, or . tatements, . uch as "Onl y democracy
, at' guard. human ri ght. . ' Cone pt. ar de, i gnated by symbols such
a. words wher a, propo. itions are desi gnated by sentence, i n som
l anguage. Si nce ther ar , everal thousand, of l anguages one and th
, am concept can be d , i gnated by thousand, of symbol s; proposi t i on,
ar paral l el . Onl y proposi t i on. or statem nt. can be t ru or fal s to som
degree. For in tance, ' l i berty i nei t her tru nor fal ' e, wh rea ' ' Li berty
mu t be ei ther conquered or defended' i arguabl y t rue. However l ogi c
i s concered wi th preci ' i on and formal val i di t y i n part i cul ar l ogi cal
consequence, not l rut h. I ndeed the pri nci ple and rule ' of l ogi c hol d
r gardJ ess of content and l ruth-val ue.
Paradoxical l y, t h l ogi cal a umpti on and thei r consequence ' are
empty. They . tate nothi ng in part i cul ar, which i ' why they are cal l ed
laU% ies. Yet, ore poli ti ci an. love tautologie , ei ther out of i gnorance
or becau ' they do not comIni t u . to anyt hi ng. For xampl , Pre ident
Georg W. Bu h once procl ai med: "Tho e who enter th country i l l egal l y
vi ol ate t he l aw. ' H al ' o i n ented t he . l ogan ' War on terror, ' whi ch i .
a contradi cti on i n di . gui e i nce war i the wor. t terror.
Logi c does not handle entence that fai l to represent propo i t i ons
uch a que t ions request , regret , i mp rati ve , and counterfact ual . But
of cour e que t i on , reque t regret , and i mperati ve , though de oi d of
truth-val ue , are i ndi pen abl e. The ame cannot be ai d of contrary to
fact tatement , even though they are rampant in pol i t ical rhetori c. Re
member what the are pol i ti ci an ci ted abo e ai d: ' If we had not i nvaded
Iraq t hi \voul d now be a terrori t nur. ery." Contrary to the wide pread
bel i ef that the per on i n que ti n i f nd of utteri ng l ies that parti cul ar
1 0 Political Philosoph
sentence i s nei ther true nor fal s . Howe er i t igni fe roughl y the . ame
as the decl arat i ve . entence "We attacked Traq becau, e i t was bound to
become a terrori . t nursery. ontrary to the corre. pondi ng counterfact ua]
sentence t hi . one doe. express a proposi ti on, though one that i. nei ther
supported nor undenlli ned by any evidence, whence it cannot be a . . i gned
a t ruth-val ue. We onl y know t hat f i ve year, after bei ng i n aded, Iraq ha.
become a breedi ng ground of "terrori . t. . ' aL O cal 1 ed ' i nsurgent. ' or
, patri ots ' by ore. Th moral i that ounterfa tual s houl d b handled
wi th care, parti ul arl y in matters of l i fe and death.
The H t i mportant of al l l ogi a rul e arc the l aw of non-contradi -
ti on and the i nference rul e cal l 'd modus ponens. The f rm r tate ' that
th joi nt a 'rti on of a propo i t i n and i ts deni al i fal se: A and not-A i '
fal se regardle of the content of A. And the Inodus pOllen i the rul e:
From A and 'if A t hen B ' deduce B.
Paradoxi cal l y, contradi ction. are xce . . i v l y fert i l e, a. th y entai l
any proposi ti on. what . oev r. By cont rast , th conj uncti on of "I f A, t h n
B ' wi th B ntai L nothi ng. To cl ai m t hat i t does i. to i ncur a cI a . . i caJ
fal 1 acy. For i n. tance, from t he gen ral i zat ion "Th r pre. ntat i ve. who
ke p thei r word are reel ect d,' and the datum "He was r el ected ' i t doe.
not fol l ow that he kept hi s word. In fact e ery body of r pre. ntat i ve.
i . ful l of people who have repeatedl y broken t hei r promi ses.
Logi c i ' t hen t he torchl i ght that hel p ' us ' pot wrong argument . But
how do we argue for the logi cal rul es? W eldom do becau e any val i d
argument about anyt hi ng i nvol ve ' t he rul es of debate. Drop the l aw of
non-contradi ct i on, and you U i ncur the cheap t of al l fal si t i es: contra
di cti on, whi ch amount ' to l osi ng the debate. And i f on drop ' the modus
ponen q one i . unabl e to concl ude anythi ng from any et of premi . e , not
even to check whether they b get contradi ct i on. Thu . l ogic the l ea t of
con trai nt upon rati onal di cour e be ide cl ari ty i. not only e " nt i al
to al l ound di cour e: i t al 0 k ep u from fal l i ng i nto ei ther nothi ng
ne or ev ryt hi ng.
Thi i why Hei degger. Ja ' per Gadamer, Arendt. Derri da. lrigaray,
Vatt i mo, and the other so-cal led po t modem rejected logi c: I rrat i ona]
i ty al l owed them to put word together without worryi ng about en e,
l et al one coherence and e i dence ( ee Edward 2004) . And of cour e
i rrat i onal i m hel p di ctator . for it di arms anal y i s and cri t i ci m and
repl ace uui er al t heorie wi th tri bal b Hefs. Thi s i s why fa ci m, i n
al l of i ts ver i on , ought "to f i ght the very i dea of objecti ve truth and
universal r ason" Kol nai 1 938: 59 .
Philosophical Background 11
I t L nearly i nl po sible to argue wit h p ople who excel i n e oteric
gi bberi sh and i gnore the rule. of rati onal debate. For i n. tance how can
anyone argue in fa or or agai nst Hei degger . ( 1 954: 76 e. oteri c a . . er
ti on that Bei ng "i s I t i t self . The po. tmoderni st Gi anni Vatti mo call.
t hi s ki nd of ' thi nki ng," whi ch he commend" "weak thi nki ng. I t hi nk i t
de. er e . bei ng called pseudothinkin + E oteri ci m, commended by Leo
St rau . . , serve. to conceal vacui ty or mal i ce. Howe er let u, go back to
g ' nui ne rea olung- lear and ogent argument.
Logi c i s the m t general and therefore al s the most ab tract) of al l
sci ences be ause i t i s topi c-neutral hence portabl ' from one feld to the
n 'xt. Thi s i s why ther ' an be n poli t i al l ogi any more than hemical
l ogi c. However, logi lea v 's practi al rea ni ng out : it doc not cov 'I
i nference pattern uch a t hi :
I f that nati on i . attacked i t will retali ate.
R t ali at i on i . bad.
That nation shoul d not b attack d.
Thi s i s an i n. tance of practi cal rea. oni ng. I t rel at . fact. rather than
tatement " and i t i nvolve ' a value j udgment s and an imperat i ve. We
hall return to practi cal rea oni ng i n Chapter 8 Secti on 2. For the t ime
bei ng, ' uffice it to note that hone ,t poli t i cal di scourse contai n pract i cal
a ' well a logi cal arguments.
Rat i onal debate i ' not pri vat i v of academic l i fe: i t i s al O a feat ure
of democracy. I ndeed, poli ti cal tri fe and the admi ni ' ( rati on of the com
monwealth i nvol e rat i onal delib rati on ' about rnean and nd . e en for
the i nv nt i on and xecuti on of dumbi ng poli t i cal campai gn uch a the
Nazi appeal to 'blood and ' oil. ' But of cour ' rati onal d bate, though
n ce ary. i . n er ' uffcient . Only naive rati onali t coul d bel i e that
poli t i al confi ct . can be re olved exclu i vel y by rati onal di ' U ' i on:
rati onali ty hould gui de poli t i cal cont e t, i f onl y to mi ni mi z damage
but it cannot replace t ruggle. Regrettably, i ntere ts backed by force can
overpower t he mo t cogent arguments: God fa or the go d guy when
t hey outnumber t he bad.
Rat i onality i 0 much taken for granted in al l walk of l i fe, that we
fi nd i rrati onal behavi or un ett 1 i ng, and t hat some mili tary t rategi t have
recommended imulati ng i rrat i onali ty to confu e and care t he enemy .
Schelli ng 1960 called t hi p I i Y th "rati onali t y f i rrati onali t y" and
Presi dent Ni x n Profe or Ki . . i nger's star pupi l cal led i t the "madman
1 2 Political Philosoph
theory. " I n playi ng wi r h rati onal i ty those people along wi t h t hei r Sovi et
counterpart , were playi ng wit h the survi val of the human speci es.
Let u. deal bri efl y wi th t he oncept of a t heory. Some pol i t i cal
sci ent i st equate pol i ti cal t heory wi th normati ve poli tol ogy or poli t i
cal philoc ophy, or . oci a] engi neeri ng . ThL u. age i i di o. yncrati c and
mi . leadi ng, for i n all the mat ure . ci ence. a theory i . under. tood a. a
hypotheti co-deduct i ve sy. tem, by contra. t to an i sol ated hypothe. i s or
an unst ructured et of hypothe e . In oth r w rd , what i ' typi al of a
th ory i ' that ' ry statement i n it i an i ni t i al a umpti on or po tulate ,
a def ni t i on or a l ogi aJ conse u n of one or more a ' ' umpti on ' or
defni t i on ' . Howe er 00 , t of what pa for theOl"i ' , in p lj ti eal ' i ' n '
ar actually , ne-Ij n ' the ri e ,
that i hypothese , ueh a ' All war '
ar about eeon mi e re our ' s. '
Her ' i s an ad hoc example of a mj ni t heory an illu ' trati on of Mert n' ,
thesi . on t he uni ntended i n part i cul ar p r ers consequ nce. of . oci al
acti on:
l. Welfare legi lation pr m te pr perity.
2. Pr perity fav r the Rioht.
3. Y Ifare legi lari n fay rs the Righr.
P . t ulate 1 and 2 joi ntly entru l the onelu. i n 3. The t hree proposi
ti on. taken tog ther con ti tute a t i ny c nceptual y tem-a con i tent i f
some\vhat parad xi cal t heoreti cal model.
Fi nal ly a wanl i ng. Poli ti al theorie are not to be confu ed wi t h p -
lit ical doctri ne the way La well and Kaplan 1 950: xi i i di d i n thei r
i nfuent i al b ok. A poli t ical do tri ne such as li berali m or s ci al i m i
an i deology' and O far a I know no i deology ha ever been organi zed
a a hypotheti co-deducti e y tern. I n fact i deologi e are ordi narily
pre ented a collecti on of l ogan uch ' Freedom or death! and "Free
trade or bu t ! And poli t i cal logan are call to action rather than te table
hypothe e . We hal l rerurn to i deologi e in Chapter 4.
2. Political emantics: .feaning and Tuth
S manti c. has got a bad r putati on a. bi ng an i nane di sput about
word. or v n as verbal t ri ckery. However phi lo. ophi cal . manti cs i .
a . ri ous di . ci pl i ne for it deal. wi t h meani ng and t ruth each of whi ch
can ei ther . hi ne or b shunn d i n pol i t i cal di . course. H nce no seri ou.
philosophi cal . y. tem can fail to contai n semanti c theorie . . L t u. gli mpse
at t he two concept. i n questi on.
Philosophical Background 13
Meani ng i , a property of ' onstru ' ts i . e. , 'oncept propo, i t i on , and
theori es. It may be defi ned a reference together wi th en, e, or denota
tion cum connotat i on. If ei ther of the, e components i , empty, there is no
construct proper. Yet mo, t phi l o opher, ca11 'non-referri ng' a con, truct
wi th no counterpart i n the real worl d. Thi s u, e is mi taken, for a1 1 con-
truct referri ng to i magi nary enti ti e,
uch a, "Zeu, , Hamlet ' "utopia,
"perfect compet i ti on, and "Iraqi weapon, of ma" de, t ructi on, ' refer to
such ' nt i t i e and ha ve rather 1 ' ar sense . In other word all c nstTuct
prop r r fer-some to real i tems t hers to i magi nary ones.
Ari totl rightly r ommended that we tart any di cussi on by mak
i ng lear what i t wi ll be about . In moder terms: Start by spcci fying
y ur uni verse of di scourse, r reference lass. F r i n tanc ' w ' mll t
di st i ngui 'h p li t i cal act i n from poli t ical sci ence from the phi lo ophy
of p l it i al ci ence whi ch refer only i ndi r ctly to poli ti cs.
Fi . 1.2 The arro symbolizes the reference function. The arrow *_from
philosophy of political scienc to politics equals th' compo "ilion of 7_ and 7.
Meani ng will be fuzzy i f i ther or both of i t component. reference
and en" , i vague. Vaguene i a eri ou defect becau "e logi c only
hold for exact oncept ' . lnde d, if con truct A i fuzzy, 0 i not-A
whence A do not ati f the pri nci ple of non-contradi cti on that i ' The
conj un l i on of A and not-A i fal e. ' Nor i vali d i nf renc po i ble wi th
ague propo i ti on . In parti cular not-B doe not in alidate "If A, then B
whenever B i hardl y di t i ngui hable from not-B . And yet the poli tical
di cour e i full of vague not i on , uch a tho e of power and L i bert y.
Vaguene can be 0 extreme a to b hardly di t i ngui hable from
empt i ness. Bi marck s famou formul a 'Poli t i c i the art of the po -
i bl e i a ca e in poi nt . I ndeed any craft from poetry and mathemati c
to engi neeri ng and medi ci ne. deal wi th po i bi li ti e . whi ch i t attempt
to e ither actualize r fru, trate. A mathemati cal onjecture i s a po ible
theorenl a bluepri nt a possible con tructi n a parl i amentary bi ll a pos-
i bl e law and so on. True the oncept of possi bili t y is nt ral to much
ontemporary phi losophy i n parti cul ar po ible-world ontology, \vhich
deals wit h fanta t i "world . " But t he noti on i nvol ved i n t he specula
t i on is i mpreci e and alien t the concept of r a1 p i bi li ty u ed in the
1 4 Political Philosoph
mature sciences ( Bunge 2006 . In the. e, th adverb 'possi bly' applie to
fact not propo, i ti on, . Moreover the concept of real po" i bili ty depend.
upon that of . i enti fc l aw. whi ch i . a1 i en t o formal l ogi c. I ndeed, i n
phy i cs and other factual sci ences one say. that a fact i real1 y possi ble
ju, t i n ca, e i t i, compat i bl e wi th the relevant 1 aw . .
To put i t formall y: The fact de, cri bed by propo, i ti on p i s reall pos
sibl' " There i s at 1 east one l aw , t atement L . uch that the conj uncti on
of p wi t h L i t rue. Thi con cpt of real pos i bi li t y i s radi al ly different
from that of oncept uaJ pO ' ' i bili ty whi ch may be d fned a follow .
The con t ruct p i s onceptuall., pO' 'ible in the bod of /unt ledge B i f
p d es n t contradi ct any memb 'I f B. M dal l ogi and the theorie '
bui lt around it nfate th ' tw ncept of po i bi li ty that we ha e ju t
di t i ngui shed ce Bung 2006a .
So mu h for meani ng. A f r truth let u tart by not i ng that i t me '
in . e eral ki nd, : formal factual moral and art i . t i c. The formal truth, ,
such a. 'A or not-A" and' I > 0,' h01 d r gardl es, of the state of the world
b cau. they do not ref r to it. They belong in logi c or math mat i c, . By
cont rast , the factual truth" such a, "Canada i s a sov rei gn country "
are cont i ngen for anada u, d to b a colony, and it may y t 1 0. e i t .
i ndep ndence.
Moral t ruth , ref r to moral fact ' uch as helpi ng people i n di ' tre ' s,
and i mmoral fact ' uch a ' bombi ng ci vi li an popul at i on ' . The the i ' that
there are mordl t ruths and fal ' i ti e ' i ' pcubar to moral reali sm a minori ty
vi ew. Fi nall y the arli , ti c truth are i milar to the formal one ' i n that they
are i magi nary but di fferent from them becau ' e they cannot be proved.
Poli t ical sci ence i s expcted t o fnd fact ual t rut h , and poli ti cal phi
lo ophy i uppo ed to deal wi th bot h poli tologi al and moral t rut h . . A.
u ual i n phi lo ophy there are e era] vi ew conc ri ng factual truth.
Here ar the mai n one :
Radi al kepticisl11 = Th r are no t rut h ' -hence no fal jt i e ejther.
R lati ism = Tmth i local i . e. t ri be-depend nt-hence multi ple.
Pr 19matism = Truth i the same a u efulnes -hence never di j nter
e ted.
Conventionali'm = Truth js di guj sed defni ti on-hence i n en i t i ve to
evi dence.
Realism = Truth js adequacy of i dea to fact.
Radi cal skepti ci sm i d feati t and relati v i H is If-de truct i ve for
if t rue then rel at i vi m i t If cannot be uni r all y t rue. Besjdes relati v-
Philosophical Background 15
i sm makc. no room for t h uni vcL al t ruth i nvcnt d by mathcmati c and
di co ered by the . ci enee and te hnologi e . . The po tmodern. are either
radi cal . kept i c, or relat i vi . L. Pragmati . m or i nstrumentali . m attempt.
to repl ace reali ty check wi th u efulness test. : i t take . . uece" for t ruth.
Conventi onali . m i gnore t hat fact ual truth, are not arbi trary, i nce they
mu, t be . upported by evi dence' and that defni ti on, may be more or Ie, ,
u, eful but are nei ther true nor fal e. And e1 i ti ts ' reveal what they regard
as the truth to the few wi thout endangering the unquali fed commi tln nt of
the many t t h opi ni on on whi ch so i ety re ts ' ( Strauss 1 9 8: 222 .
Only r ' al i ' m accounts D r the fact ' that we mu t expl re the world to
fnd truth ab ut it, and t hat m t such truth have no practical u ' be au e
they r 'f 'r to fact s that arc bey nd human ontr 1- uch a th pa t fact
and the c ents that O ur i n ' ide t ars or byond our solar sy tem.
And yet there have recently been me di cu i on ' about t he real i t y
or unreali ty of nat i on . . I t has b n cl ai med t hat nat i on. ar fgment. of
th collect i v i magi nat i on j u. t becau. e non of t h m would exi . t unl . .
th i r suhjects and n i ghhor. believed in t hem. However nati on, pa, s
qui t ordi nary r ali ty checks. Th y can i nteract wi t h ach oth r. ei ther
peaceful1 y or vi ol ntly as a con. quenc of whi ch t hei r terri tori , can
i ther xpand or . hri nk and thei r peoples get ri ch r or poorer. rn any
event i f nati on ' were i magi nary, O would be war, whi ch would be
conveni ent to all e cept the war profi teer . Be ' ide ' , t h ' are appli e ' to
aU the other oci a) constructi on ' . For i nstance, we would not hop at the
upermarket unle ' s we beli eved in it ' exi tence.
ati ons are O real that i t would be i mpossi ble to i nvade Thoma '
Mor ' . Utopia or Jonathan wi f Li lli put or to trade wi th them, [or
both are i ndeed i magi nary nat i on . What j t ru i ' that nati on. are made
not found: they are ' oi al art i fact . But the i magi nati on requi red to form
reforrn or de ' t roy nati on i of the arn ki nd that engi n r u e to d . j gn
i mprov . mai nt ai n, or uti li ze machi ne .
The denti t who tudy fa t , u h a the politologj t are r ali t ,
i n ofar a th y . eek to fnd out truth ' about t h chunk of the world they
tudy. A po i ble defi ni ti on of factual t ruth is thi . A propositi n p ele-
ribing a fa ,t f is true = iff happen' as de cribeel b) p. Thi defi ni ti on
may be enl i ghteni ng but, to be u ed, i t mu t be accompani ed by a t ruth
cri teri on, t hat i , a rule for recogni zi ng when a propo i ti on i true. Here
i s one uch cri terion. A proposition p referrin to a fa ,t f is true in the
light of e ieen e e = The eli repan bef een p and e is Ie s than the
loteran e or error agreed 011 beforehand.
16 Political Philosoph
Sci enti m hold. that . oci al sci ent i st . houl d eek truthc ju t a rigor
ou. ly a. thei r col 1 eague. in the nat ural sci ences. I n part i cul ar. pol i ti al
theori e . . houl d be a. true ( real L ti ) a, possi bl e. Thi . goal i . not . hared
by the henneneuti c or i nterpreti i st or "humani . t hool whi ch i gnore.
the sci enti sti c i nj uncti on Seek evi dence for or agai nst your theorie . . ' For
i nstance de. pi te hi s admi ration for Hannah Arendt Horowi tz 1 999: 4 1 3)
depl ores ' her unwi l l i ngne . . to support her theory wi th evi dence '-an
atti tude that evi dently di qual i fe her a a pol i t i al cientist.
Besi des, the hermeneut i c ( or hUl1ani t i " ch 01 er ct a wal J
betw ' n t h ' ci al and the natural realm , a well a between thei r COI~
re pondi ng tudi es. For example Searle 1 995 : 27 lai l1 that th r ar '
two ategories f fa t : brute, uch a ' a land t ide and in t ituti onal , uch a '
a conv '! at i n. But land ' li d can have oci al auses and conscquen e ;
and con er ' ati on and al l ther 0 i al i ntera t i on , arc bioso i al rather
than purel y . oci al , si nce t h y i nvol e Ii i ng p rson . . Thi s is why there
are hi o. oci al sci ence. , such as geography demography p. ychol ogy and
anthropol ogy al l of whi ch ut i l i ze t he sci nt i fc m thod, and thu. trespa . .
the natural/soci al and t h humani . t ic/. c ienti fi c fronti ers.
St i l l h rmeneuti ci st. and oth r postmoderni . U hav b n mod ratel y
effect i i n . l owi ng down t h progre . . of t he soci al . ci ence. a. wel l a.
i n rei nforci ng the popul ar prej udi ce agai n t th m. Even uch a di t i n
gui hed pol i tol ogi st a Bernard Cri ck ( 1 992: 1 87) fell under the pel l of
heml eneut i c ' , and ' eel11ed to echo Michel Foucaul t when he decl ared
that ' [ p] ol i ti cal theory is it ' elf pol i t i cal . ' I f t hi ' were true, poli ti cal
methodology would be unnec ary and the worth of poli t ical theori e
could be a ' ' ed by poll i ng. What are poli t ical are oci al poli ci e . The ' e,
li k any oth r technologi cal i tem " are to be judged by th i r effcacy or
otherwi e in ad anci ng cert ai n i ntere t .
Noti ce t hat Max Web r 1 98 b not wi t h t andi ng, obj ct i ve truth i .
not t h arne a . ei ther val ue-neutrali ty or i mpart i al i ty. S i ent i fi reo earch
i nvolve alue j udgment , uch a "Explanati on trump. d eri pti on. '
And ore . ci nt i fi c fi ndi ng er e to ei ther . upport or undermi ne publ ic
pol i ci es. For i n tance, stati t i c uggest t hat generou wel fare l egi lat i on
i an effecti e fert i l i ty control . There i s nothi ng di rectl y pol i t i cal , hence
relati e about t hi s result of demographi c re earch.
And yet, i n the facul t i e of art i n the Northern hemi phere. anti -real
i l1-i n part icul ar con truct i i m-rel ati vi sm-i nowaday more popular
than reali m. One rea on for the populari ty of relat i vi m i that it i
und mandi ng. By denyi ng the po i bi l i ty of fndi ng bject i ve truth. i t
regard. every a ademi c di sci pli ne as one nl r narrati or dt. COU:e-a
Philosophical Background 17
variety of l i terat ure rather than , "i cnee and t hu a matter of taste rather
than test. Stori es do not can for t i me-con. umi ng , earch for evi dence. AI 1
we want from a , tory i. that it be entertai ni ng. Surel y the vi ew of , oci al
tudi es as narrati ve ha nothi ng to do wi th , eri ous schol arshi p. It i . j u, t
t ri vi al wordmanshi p-a di . t urbi ng i ndi cator of the current decl i ne of
the humani st i c cul ture and i L further e, t rangement from the i ntel l ectual
engines of moderi t y, namel y , ci ence and technol ogy.
How ' vcr, i t woul d be mi taken t r gard rel at i v i m a ne more
harml es extravagance n par wi t h i ntui t i ni m, phenomenology, or the
phi l o ophical tra agance about paral lel world . I ndeed rel ati i m
el i i ts a Yli al v iew of p l j ti c i n d ' nyi ng that there can be uni versal
human rights, and in affrmi ng that al l moral and pl i t i al rule arc just a
l ocal a regi onal food typi cal dre s, and fol k art . I n part i ular rel at i i m
j usti fe ' nati onal i sm and it undermi n a efforts to eradi ate pol i ti cal
oppressi on tort ur . and ev n genoci de. It i . t hu. i ncompat i bl e wi th t h
Uni ted Nat i on, and the Internati onal Cri mi nal Court .
That sai d th , ci nt i fc real i . t acknowl edges what may be cal l ed t h
Rashomol1 effe t, after Aki ra Kurosawa , cI a" i c fi l m. Thi s i s th fact
that al mo, t any . oci at fact i. l i kel y to be percei v d di ff r nt l y by di ff r-
nt actors or wi tn , se . . Thi s happens som t i m s from mal i ce but mor
often from prejudi ce or l ack of i nformati on. ypi cal l y we under ' tand
far better 'people l i ke u: that i s, member of the i n-group, than ' th m,"
the i ndi vi dual s i n the out -group.
In natural ci ence t ruth counts ' upremel y, whereas mere opi ni on doe '
not . By cont rat opi ni on count very much i n ' oci al l i fe and i t ' ci ence '
becau e b l i ef , regardl .. of t hei r truth- val ues, gui de mi ' gui de, or
paral yze acti on. I n met aphorical term ' . oci al fact . rea h U refracted
by our bel i f and i ntere t . Thi ' do not entai l that obj ect i ve tmth i '
unattrunabl e in oci al matter '0 that rel ati i t. woul d be ri ght after al l :
i t onl y mean that t here are ob. tacI e ' i n t h earch for truth about ' oci al
l ife t hat are not pr ent i n the earch for trut h about natur . More on con-
tructi i m-rel at i vi m in Gel l ner 1 985' Bunge J 99 1 - J 992. 1 999; Boudon
and Clavel i n 1 994; Boudon 2004; Bogho i an 2006, Jar i e 2007. )
The Ra homon effect go a l ong way t o explai ni ng why the oci al
cience are far I e advanced than t he natural ones even though we
al l have i n i de i nformati on about oci al facts becau e we make t hem
wherea our acce to natural facts, uch a atomi c col l i i on , chemi cal
reacti ons, and peci at i on, i ext remely i ndi rect . Be i de t he Ra homon
ffe t there i what may be aI l ed t he Big BrOTher efect. Thi s i . t he de
l iberat abotage of ,0 i al s i ence re earch on the part of authori t ari an
1 8 Political Philosoph
and con. ervat i ve government because it may come up wi t h trut h that
annoy or even endanger the powers that be. Thu , there wac no poJ i t i
cal . ci ence under total i tari an rul e, and t he Reagan admi ni t rati on cut i n
hal f t he federal subsi di e. t o soci al reo earch whi l e keepi ng the . upport
for the natural sci ences. Ironi cal 1 y. Bi g Brother s fear wa. exaggerated,
for no soci al ci enti . L predi ted, or even correct l y autopsi ed. any of the
so i al earthquake. of the twenti eth cent ury, . uch a. the two worl d war. ,
th Great Depre i n, the Am ' ri an defeat at the hands of Vi etnam
pea ant , the crumbl i ng of the S vi et empi re th ' revi val of ni netccnth
cent ury econ mic l i beral i H. or the i nt ru i on of r 'l i gi n i nto pol i ti s.
3. Political Ontology: Being and Becoming
Ont 1 gy (or H taphY ' i has arned a bad r 'putati on among ci n-
t i st s b cause most of i t i . i ther non. n. i cal or fal se. Why then shoul d
pol i t i cal phi losoph r. pay any attenti on to i t . Becau. ontol ogy deal .
wi th bei ng and becomi ng in g n ral by contra. t to the part icul ar . ciences,
which deal with parti cul ar bei ngs, such a. humans and part i cul ar changes,
such as the emergence reform. and ext i nct ion of pol i t i cal sy. t ms-el
d r . a. s mbl i es town hal l s, I gi sl at i ve bodi es gOY r nm nt s pol i ti cal
parti . , and thei r chang s. Hence to di smi . . al l ontol ogy i . t o gi e up the
hop of pl aci ng part i cul ars i n a general framework or worl dvi ew. Bad
ontology i confusi ng or mi l eadi ng, but a phi lo ' ophy wi thout ontology
i ' pi nel e " . And those wi thout a worl d vi ew are bound to borrow bit
and pi ece ' of unexami ned worldvi ews.
Contemporary metaphysi ci an ' are more i nterested i n fantasy worl d
than i n the real worl d. So much O. that one wi l l ' earch i n vai n i n the
tandard phi l o ophi cal di t ionarie , for entrie on - y tern and rnechani m,
h\o key ontol ogi cal concepts in cience i nce the Sci ent i fc Re ol ut i on.
Un urpri ' i ngl y. rno t phi lo ' opher and oci al - i nt i t , ha e ei t h r i g
nored t he concep or mi U d th m. For exampl e i kl a Luhmann
1 987: 1 J 3 Haberma ' authori t y on o oci al - y ter . con ei ed of them
a de oi d of p opl : ' Soci al y ter . . . con i t of communi cat i on and
not hi ng but communi cati on -not of human bei ng . ' And Col eman
1 992: 1 4 hel d that formal organi zati on . uch a government , "ha e
po i t i on rather than per on a element of thei r t ructure '-whi ch,
if t rue, woul d make them i mmateri al object . Hence nuclear bomb ,
plague , and other calami t i e woul d not affect corporati on anie , or
school : they would ' urvi e' them becau e they contai n no Hfe.
El ster 1 989a) l i k ned m chani . m t o the " nuts and bol ts" of a ma
chi ne. But of our a broken watch i s not a t i mepiece an abandon d
Philosophical Background 19
factory L ju t a bui l di ng a dL cnfranchi cd ' i ti zcnry i s not a pol i ty and
a country wi thout an effecti ve govemment i . not a nati on. A, concei ved
i n the natura] , ci ence" from phy. i c, to bi ol ogy mechani sms are not
t hi ng, but proce . . e. i n system, . More preci . el y a mechani sm i a pro
ce" that construct. a sy. tem or keep. i t goi ng: a proce" that perform,
a . peci fc functi on requi red for its per, i. tence. So i al exampl e : work
and management. More on mechani , m, in Pi ckel +04; Bunge 2006;
Hed trom 2006.
In other word , mechani m arc l i fe-or-death proce 'S l i teral l y in the
ca ' or organi sms and metaphori al l y i n al l ther cases. For in tance,
aU tat usc taxat i on a t h ir mai n rev ' nue-g ' nerat i ng mechani sm,
and al l mod rn tate have u d compul sory el ementary s hool i ng and
mi l i tary draft a nati on-bui ldi ng mechani sms. Li k wi e war i s a l arg '~
scale theft mechani sm' n 'got i ati on a confi t -re ol ut i on mechani 01;
and d l iherat ion-cum-vot i ng. the col i ct i v deci . i on-maki ng mechani . m
charact ri stic of a pol i t i cal d mocracy. onsequent l y the fa, hi onabl
phrase "'del i brati ve d mocracy" i s pl eona. ti c.
Let u. now move from ontol ogi cal cone pt. to ontol ogi cal t h ori s.
There are two major ontol ogi cal or m t aphy. i cal ) fami l i , : i deal i , m
cul t ural i sm hermeneuti c, , and materi al i . m. Accordi ng to i deal i sm al l
ent i t i e ' are onl y i dea ' or ' ymbol ' , or rul ed mai nl y by i dea ' or symbol s.
For exampl e Hei degger 1 954: 5 hel d that ' [ l ] anguage is th house
of Bei ng. And a Charle ' Tayl or put it famou ' ly, ' oci al facts would
be ' text or l i ke text ' . ' Hence ' al es lecti on wac and th I j ke houl d
be endowed wi th grammar, meani ng and st yl e. Magi c- rel jgi ou thi nk
i ng i s back.
By contra. t for mat ri al i m pol i ti cal enti ti e are concr t e ( or materi al )
t hi ng ' from ci t i zen to nati on to t he i nt mat i onal comrnuni t y; fact are
tate or chang of tate of t hi ng ' , whether nat uraL 0 i al , or bi o ' oci al
l i ke u
and i dea ar brai n proc e whi ch i . why they can gui de
acti on . Thu a dj cour e about nat i on i r I e ant onl y i f nat i on ' are
vi ewed a concrete t hi ng rather than exi t i ng onl y di cur ' i v l y-e. g.
a ' i magi ned cool muni t i e
as Benedi ct Ander on 1 98 put i t.
I deal i sm ouod convi nci ng becau e i t ri ghtl y emphasi ze the cri ti cal
rol e of i dea i n pol iti cal struggle a wel l as i n go emance. But i deal i m
rei fi e i dea and exaggerates thei r i mpact on soci ety; furt hermore, i t
confu e fact wi t h our i dea about them, and con equeotl y i t i bl i nd
to t he weat and bl ood of human confi ct . For exampl e, i t i at l ea t
doubtful that total i tari ani sol wa the di re t brai n hi l d of t he i deal i t
phi l o. ophi es of Pl ato and Hegel a Popper ( 1 945 claimed' or of the
20 Political Philosoph
French Enl i ghtenment a, Tal mon 1 970 hel d' or of Carte i an dual i H .
as Arendt ( 1 989) i magi ned. Surel y such i dea, were pra t i cal l y effecti e
because they hel ped de i gn and i mpl ement pol i cie, that ad anced certai n
powerful materi al i nterest .
Wi ld exaggerati on. of the i mpact of phi l o, ophy on pol i ti cs, as wel l
as the confu, i on of fact wi th i dea" come natural l y to i ntel l ectual . who
onl y handle text. : They tend to confuse goaL wi th meani ng" ocl al
movement ' wi th id I gi e , and la polifique wit h Ie dis 'our' polifique.
They wi ll al di scuss pol j t ical t heories 'paratel y from real l y exj st i ng
o i eti es a wel l as from pol i ti cal movement ' .
For exampl e, Martha u baum ( 2006: 88 b ' l ieves that I t ] heorie '
of s cial ju ti e houl d b ab tract . . . f r we cannot j ust i fy a pol i ti al
th ory unl ess w ' can h w that it can be stable over t i m ' r ' ei i ng
ci t i zen support for m r t han ' I f-prote t i ve r i n trumental reason . '
Surel y ab, t racti on guarante , general i t y hoth of whi ch are nece, , ary i n
mathemati cs. B ut pol i ti cal t h ory doe, not b l ong i n pure math mati c"
for i t deals wi th pol i ti e. whi ch ar mi n nt ly changeabl e becau, e t h y
are concr te not ideal . In part icul ar i t i . poi ntl ss to I i , t the condi ti on.
for soci al j usti c . parat I y from t h . oci al , t ructure of real , oci et i e.
as W 1 1 as from the ari ou. soci al mo em nl. that cl ai m to fi ght for or
agai nst it. Thus the soci al ju t ice attai nabl e in a l i beral democracy i
si gni fi cant l y ' tj ngi er than the one pur ' ued by the ' oci al i st HO ement
of variou . ki nd ( E ' pi ng-Andersen 1 990) . An ab ' tract concept of oci al
j u , t i ce i s apol i t i cal and ahi tori cal ; i t i a pol i ti cal fct ion.
Besi de ' , i deal i m lead to l opsided and hal l ow views, [or pol i t i c "
though fought l argel y wi t h word i about materi al i ntere ,t nol i deas
in them ' 1v . l et al one word ' , For i n tance. the end rni c confi ct in th
Near Ea. t ar oi l l and. and water war rather than ' cul tur cl a h . . ' a.
ugge ted by the fact that Saudi Arabi a and Paki tan t wo of the cI o -
e t al l ie of the Uni t d State , ar authori t ari an and I l ami c rat h r than
demo rati and Chri t i an.
In addi t ion to the ideal i m/materi al i m ' pl i t , t her i th . tati c/dy
nami c one. A tati c ontology hol d that change i onl y a momentary
depart ure from equi l i bri um or harmony whi ch would b the i deal tate
of affai r - uch a t he el u i ve market equi l i bri um gl ori fed by tandard
economi c , and the tran i ent bal ance of power recommended by pol i ti cal
theori t -a bal ance that. i nci dental l y, became i mpo i bl e the moment
only one great power remai ned.
Dynami ci m or pro e uaI i m hol d to the ontrary t hat tasi i
a part i cul ar and ephemeral ca e of proce : that every state f a t hi ng
Philosophical Background 2 1
i s i t hcr t h i ni t ial i ntcrmcdi ary or fnal phac c of a proce . Al l of thc
authenti c factual . ci ence. , from phy, i c to bi ol ogy to hi stori ography,
center on change, and , eek l aw of change or at l east trend. Hence any
cience-oriented ontol ogy i . bound to be dynami ci t. So much , O that
we may defne a concrete or materi al object a one capabl e of changi ng.
Onl y mathemati cs deal i n unchangi ng object .
Confi ct, or onti c ( as oppo. ed to l ogi cal contradi ct ion i . of course
a parti ul ar case of pro e " . Di al cti cal ont 1 gy wheth r i deali st l i ke
Heg ' 1 ' , or materi al i t l i ke Marx s, cl ai m that a change re uI ts from
confi ct r 'contradi r ion" . The confi t theori ts from Hera l it us to
Machi av ' Hi to Hobbes Smi th Heg ' l Marx, L ni n and Gram ci , empha
si zed tri D' to the poi nt of underrati ng or even ignori ng cooperati on. And
y ,t the very exi st nee f soi al n 'tworks and 'y ters of vari ou ki nd
and si zes a wel l a t he coexi ten e of group wi t h di ffer ' nt i nter 'sts,
i n ol ve a modi cum of coop rat i on. For xampl , the empl oy rs and
mpl oyee. of a bu. i ness may cl a. h wi th r gard to wag , and beneft s.
but t hey coop rate i n keepi ng t he frm afoat . Hence i t i s ju, t as wrong
to i gnor cooperati on as to overl ook conti i ct.
An agoni . t i c or contl i ct -c nt ered ont ol ogy such a. H g I ' , or
Marx' . , i s at b , t parti al l y t ru . ThL hol d, not onl y for pol i t i c. but at 0
for bu i ne . I ndeed, the economi t s who repeat t he mant ra about the
vi rtue of compet i t i on O erlook t h fact t hat compet i ti on i s , t i mul ati ng
among peer ' , but de ' t fucti e among t h unequal , whi ch i ' why smart
bu ' i ne ' ' men try to avoi d i t . Moreover, al l of the advanced economi es,
from B ri tai n' to Japan' " grew under ' tate protecti on and with t he hel p
of product i vi ty-enhancement technol ogi , that were i n ented for the
mo , t part, i n . tate- upported uni er i t i ' .
A thi rd rel evant ontol ogi cal di t i n t ion i that betwe n i ndi vi dual
i m hol i m, and y t rni m. I ndi i dual i ' m hol d that ' I t l here are no
oci eti e ' , only indi idual that i nteract wi t h each oth r ' EI ter 1 9 9b:
248 . Cornpare: Ther are no bodi e , onl y atom that i nt ract wi th each
oth r ' hence there are no emerg nt properti i ther, uch a hardne "
and al i vene . Pre umabl y. t hi i t he mi crobe ' worl dvi ew.
When appl i ed to pol it i c , i ndi i dual i m recommend focu i ng on
cit i zen . Hence i t i i ncapabl e of account i ng for the ery exi tence of
upra-i ndi vi dual enti ti e , such a armi e , government , and nati on , a
wel l a for upra-i ndi i dual processe such as development progress
and war. Indi iduali m doe not e en account for an i ndi vidual s pol i ti cal
atti t ud . i n e the e refer to sy tenlS su h as muni ci pal i ti e , and c 1 -
l ecti ve proce e such a popul ar mobi l i zati on . That sai d i t i . ob i ous
22 Political Philosoph
that i ndi vi dual i nl i ri ght i n . trc j ng the nced wi he , and ri ghts of the
per. on-part i cul arl y the need. for 1 i berty and human contact.
Hol i sm-al . O cal 1 ed . truct ural i sm and organi ci . m-focu e. on
whol e. . uch as goverments. and thei r bul k properti es such a. odal
order mi l i t ary mi ght , and fi scal debt . Con equent] y i t regard, i ndi vi dual
act i on as ei ther negl i gi bl e or the effect of pre . . ure from above. More
o er. in soci al matter. hol i . m advocates equi l i bri um and di . courage.
contenti on and rebel l ion: it j , ba ' i al l y conser ati e-a is part i cul arl y
ob IOU i n Heg ' l , Durkhei m, and Par on . Thi s alon ' how that Marx
wa not a ful l - fedg d holi t . Hol i sm empha iz duties at the ex pen '
of ri ght . However, it ha th meri t of in i st ing that `O i ety i s not ju ,t a
col l e t i on of i ndi vi dual s' that it ha bul k m 'rgent prop ' rt i , uch a '
pol i t i al r gime and tabi l i ty or i t dual ' and that ev 'ry person i s b rn
i nto a pr - i t i ng soci al ' y tem.
Regr nabl y, hol i sm i . often confu. e d wi th . yst mi . m al t hough
there ar i mportant di ff r nc . betw en th m ( Bunge 1 996a). Sy. tem
i . m combi ne. the i rtues of i ndi vi dual i . m and hol i . m: I t hol d. that al l
t hi ng. ar i th r . y. t ms or sy. tem component. -wh ther act ual or
potenti al . Thu. cont rary to hol i . m systemi . m admi t. the possi bi l i t y of
d composi ng whol es, eit her i n thought t hrough conceptual anal y. i s)
or i n pract i ce. Hence contrary t o i ndi vi dual i m ' ystemi sm ' uggest
focusi ng on system ' and th i r i nteracti ng components rather than on the
lall r. And, contrary to hol i sm ' y temi sm mai ntai ns that bul k properti es,
such a ' soci al cohe i on, voter turnout and publ i c opi nion merge from
i ndi vi dual alt i t udes act i ons, and i nteract ion ' -al l of whi ch proceed,
though, wi t hi n gi ven ocia) context ' .
Becau e of the abo ernentioned onfu i on, mo t ont rnporary oci al
cienti t di . t ru tal k of 'y tem although t h y do not object to organi c
whol whi ch i metaphorical except wi th reference to organi m . Thu.
t he mi nent al l -rounder oci al ci nt i t Charl e ' Ti l l y per onal commu
ni cat i on I Apri l , 1 998 : ' Si nce you recogni ze y ' tem where er you e
mul t i pl e l er nt t hat i nfuence each oth r I have no di ff ul ty accept
ing your bapt i m of my thi nki ng a y temi c. In my end of t he busi ne ,
however I tudi ed wi th Par ons and Soroki n, among other ) the word
, y t er 0 regul arly take on t hi ngne i ndependent of the element and
thei r relations that I boycott t he word to avoid mi under tanding. " Perhap
thi i why Gi ddens 1 984) prefer structuri sm' to ' sy temi m. ' But
struct ures are prop rti e of y tems rather than free tandi ng ent i t i e .
There i s no ub t i t ute f r y t m. If i n d ubt ask mathemat i ci an
". y ter of equati on " astronom r ( pl anetary y tenl" or biol ogi st
Philosophical Background 23
'cardi o ascul ar sy ter" . True microeconomi l ' lai m to deal wi th
i ndi vi dual s ( as wholes or sy. tems . but the theory of general equi l i bri um
regard the market a. a whol e t hat unl i ke the household. and fi rms that
compo. e i t , i s sai d to be i n equi l i bri um and to run i tsel f. And the father
of modem macroeconomi c . tated: "I am hi efl y concerned wi th the
beha iour of the economi c . y, ter as a whole Keynes 1 973: xxx i i ).
Fi nal l y I have argued el sewhere ( Bunge 1 977a 1 979a 2003a, 206a
that i t i ' po i bl e and ad i abl e to mbi n ' the ix ariet i 'S of ontol ogy
di st i ngui sh d abo e. l n patti ular on h uld ombi n material i m wi th
b th dynami i m and sy temi m. I ha e al O argu 'd at l ength Bunge
1 979a, 1 996a 1 998a, 1 999a that t h be t i al i ence has al ways been
sy temi t rather than ei t h 'r i ndi i dual i st or h I i t. On ' r 'a n i that we
resembl e goat more than ei th r porcupi nes or ' heep. We have di t i nct
p ' r nal i t i 'S but a t i n gr up for gr ups or agai n , t group .
Moreov r the sy. t mi c approach i . th on u. ed in mathemat i cs.
physi c. chemi . try bi ology psychol ogy. and ot h r sci nces. I ndeed.
al l . ci nti . ts study i ndi vi dual . a. compnent of systems, and . y. tem.
a. compo. ed of more or Ie . . . trongl y bound i ndi vidual . . For xampl .
i ndi i dual numher. ar defn d a. member. of some numher sy. t m.
and . paces a. system. of i nter-r l ated poi nts: atoms and mol ecul e. ar
y ' tems of el ementary parti cl es; cel l s are y ' tem ' of molecul es and or
ganel le ., and mul t i -cel l ular organi ' ms are 'y ' ter ' of cel l s embedded i n
eco ys( m ' persons are component ' of fami l ie ' and other soci al system ' ;
nati on ' are m mber ' of the i nterati onal communi ty-and Oon Bunge
1 979a 1 996a, 1 998b 2003 ; Bunge and Ardi la 1 987; Mahner and Bunge
1 997 . It is ' y tems all the way.
4. Political Epistemology: Knowing
Epi temology i the phi l o ophi cal tudy of knowl edge whi ch i n t urn
i th . oci al i zed product of cogni t i on. Cogni t i on a brai n proce. . i i n
di vidual , wherea knowl edge i ' ocial and l arg ly i n the publ i c domai n. )
Logi ci an and mathemati ci an hav no need for epi temology becau e
t hey use purel y conceptual means to i n ent t hei r own object , aJ ] of them
i magi nary as wel l a to di cover t hei r i nterrel at i on . Not 0 the t udent
of the real world. whether natural or oci al . Since t hey face real t hi ngs
t hey have to take eri ou l y the mai n probl em of epi temol ogy, whi ch i
whether anyt hi ng can b known and, i f 0 whether through exp ri ence
cogitat i on, or bot h.
Bpi temology can be either de cri pti ve or n r1at i ve. We hal l peek
at both branche f epi temology. Th hi tory of epi t mol ogy i l ittered
24 Political Philosoph
wit h the corpse of doctri ne that ha e , c1 dom if ev r advanced the tudy
of real i t y. Let u. exami ne the most i nfl uenti al of t hem, start i ng wi th
skept i ci sm. Accordi ng to radi cal kepti ci . m, nothi ng can be known-a
sel f-de, tructi e thesi , . Moderate , kept i ci , m by contra, t , hold. that some
thi ng. can be known though sel dom wi th accuracy and that knowl edge
of mat ters of fact i . , el dom perfect, O that i t advance, t hrough cri ti ci . m
as wel 1 a re earch. I t i . t hus both fa1 1 i bi l i t al ert t o error and mel i ori st
hopeful of i mpr vem nt .
Ju t a moderate ' kept i ci m i s the mark f the ' i ' nt i t, so dogmati ' m
i s the mark of th ' pol i t i i an more i nt r ted i n power D r it wn sak '
than a a tool for doi ng good. Remember Queen Vi ctoria' advi ce: ' Ne er
expl ai n, ne er apol ogi z ' . ' She ne r apol ogi zed for any Bri t i sh mi l i t ary
aggre i ns Stal i n n ' r apol ogi zed for hi s c ri me or for refu i ng to
l i sten to the vari oH ' authori tat i ve warni ng that Gel111any was about to
attack th So i et Uni on; and George W. Bu, h ne er apol ogi zed for the
t chni cal and moral bl und rs of his Admi ni strati on. Ob i ousl y "strong
I adershi p' i . t he nemy of i nt l l ectual and moral probi ty.
So much for sk pti ci sm and dogmat i sm. Let u. now gl i mp, e at the
mo. t pri mi t i e and barren of al l theorie, of knowl edge: i nt ui t i oni sm.
I nt ui ti oni . t . cl ai m to know anythi ng i mmedi atel y wi thout re, ort i ng t o
ei ther experience or rea ' on and wi t h certai nt y. For example, Edmund
Husserl , t he founder of phenomenology, hel d that t he way to gra ' p the
essence of t hi ngs i ' t hrough 'tran ' cendental -ph nomenol ogi cal reduc
ti on, ' whi ch con ' ist i n 'brack l i ng out' the ext rnal world-that i s i n
pretendi ng that i t does not exi ' l-and del vi ng i nto the depths of one'
own consci ousne Un ' urpri si ngl y, phenomenol ogy ha ' not produced a
i ngl e pi ce of knowledge of real i ty. I n pri nci pl e i t hould l ead to pol i t i
cal ni hi li 111. Yet Hu ' rl ' t hre mai n di ci pl e. -Max Schel er, Ni col ai
Hartmann. and Marti n H i degger-pai d cl o e attenti on to pol i t i c ' : I i k
Hegel one c nt ury before they glori fed country. tate, and war. Be
cau e i nt ui t i oni I11 cl ai m. that t ruth can be attai ned effortle . l y without
ei ther hard t hi nki ng or rigorou ' empi ri cal reo earch i t come nat ural l y
t o t he l azy.
Dogmat i c rat i onal i m cl ai m t o be abl e to know real i ty t hrough
specul ati on. wi thout re ort i ng to any empi ri cal procedure . Rati onal
choke theorie uch a neocl a i cal mi cro conomi c , are i nstances of
dogmati c rati onal i sm, for thei r pract i t ioner do not bother to check thei r
a umpti on . For exampl e. becau e they take el f hne for granted,
rati onal -choi ce theori l concl ude that col lecti ve good ar b und to
b pi l f red by "fr el oader. . For exampl e i f i l l ager have acce to
Philosophical Background 25
a communal pasture, the more enterpri si ng among them wi l l take to i t
more cow. and sheep than t he other , and consequentl y overgrazi ng the
common re ource wi ] ] soon exhau, t i t . Thi s i . known a. ' the t ragedy of
the common, ' (Hardi n 1 968 .
o such tragedy woul d occur i t is l ai med, i f every vi l J ager owned
hi own parcel , for he woul d take good care of i t i n, tead of beha i ng a.
a freel oader. The hL torical record teache. that there wa. , i ndeed . . uch a
t ragedy of th ' common , nam ' ly when Bri t i sh l andowners t k O r the
communal pa lure and put mor ' hccp to graze. But rational - h i e theo
ri t arc not i nt 'r 'sted in ad er ' e empi ri cal evi dence: Th 'y el certai n
that D l k p ' ychol ogy and e nomj ' rati onal i ty' (sel f hn ' 's uffce to
under tand t h ' soci al worl d. But it i n t. Al l deep sci enc ' i counteri n
t ui ti ve and most people are not t he way cconomi t prunt them.
Thu ' e peri mental economj st have shown that most peopl e are
reci procators rath r than . el f sh . e, .g . . Gi nt i s et al . 2005 ' Henri ch t
a1 . 2006; Rockenbach and Mi l i n. ki 2006 . And hi . tory show. that . om
common-pool reo ources such a. i rri gation canal . fi sh ri es communal
wood. and past ure. , have been col l ect i vel y managed for mi n nni a see .
. g. Esman and phoff 1 984' 0. t rom 1 990; Kad koi 2(04) . Fi nal J y in
pol i ti c. Hume s di ct um holds: R a. on i . t h . l ave of pa . . ion.
The oppo ' ite of dogmati c rat i onal i 'm is empi ri ci sm ( or po ' i t i vi ' m .
I ndeed empi ri ci t ' -l i k Bacon Locke, Hume Comte, Mi l l Mach and
the l ogical po -itj i ts hol d that onl y experience can del i ver know ledge,
though never beyond ph nomena, that i , appearance ' . Caution: Po ' iti v
i sm i . ofen confu ' ed wi th sci enti sm the the i ' t hat t h ci enti fc method
is the b t strategy for exploring real i t y. )
Empi ri i m c rtai nl y hol d for t ri vi al t ruth ' uch a that you, t he
r ad r. are now readi ng t hi page. But i t fai l ' mi rabl y for ev ryt hi ng
el e. part i cul arl y for i mp rcepti bl fact . ' uch a ' atomi c col l i i on ' and
pol i ti al ent ' . And it 0 happen that th va t majori ty of fact ' are
i mpercept ibl e' and that. a the Greek and I ndi an atomi t ' u p ct d
2, 500 y ar ' ago the ul t i mat compon nt to the prcepti bl e worl d are
unobservabl e. Whi ch. i nci dental l y. i a remi nder that epi temol ogy
wi thout ontol ogy i hal l ow.
To gra p oci al real i ty we mu t ri se above everyday experience, be
cau e we i nteract mo tl y wi th people i n our l i mi ted ci al ci rcl e , wi th
whom we hare i ntere t , b l i efs, and att i t ude . For exampl e, pol it i cal
act i vi t di cu pol i ti cal i ue mai nl y wit h fel low party member and
ympat hi zers 0 that t hey t end to xaggerate pol it ical pol arizati ons: they
ar vict i m of t he gap between xperi ence and r al i ty' ( Bal d, arri and
26 Political Philosoph
B arman 2007 . I n mo t 'ase th b t we 'an g t are obs r abl e i ndi ca
tor. of unob. er abl e fact. for exampl e, street demon. trati on i ndi cati ng
pol i t ical unrest . Si nce most of real i ty i . hi dden t o the . ense. t o get t o
know anythi ng worth knowi ng we mu t i magi ne conje ture. i n addi t i on
to maki ng ob. er ati on, . For exampl e hi torical anecdotes teach u t hat
tri umvi rate are unstabl e, but not why. Soci opol i ti cal anal ysi . reveal .
the mechani sm underlyi ng that general i 7ati on. Tn any t ri ad, any t wo of
i ts component an j in to ust the thi rd.
Empi ri i sm next of ki n i pragmati m or t he phi l o ' ophy f bl i nd
acti on. A cordi ng t it pra ti ce i s at once the ult i mate ' ource and th '
te t of al l r l iabl ' knowl edge' and what ' r i n t anch red to pra ri ce i '
ai n pecul at ion. Pragmati m thu rc mmend di pen ' ing wi t h the ry
and repla i ng th s i ent i f method wi th bl i nd t ri al and error. Thi phi
lo ophy com natural l y to men of a t i on, part i cul arl y bu i ne men and
pol i t ici ans and in fact it u. ual l y . uffce. for smal l . cal and , hort tenn
endea ors. But pragmat i . m i s woeful 1 y i nadequate for ambi ti ou, proj ects,
as these req uir pI ans i nformed by theorie. and data. Sti 1 1 Gothe' . prag
mati st the. i. "I n the begi nni ng was acti on, ' can occasional 1 y s rve as an
anti dote to John s i deal i st dogma "Tn t h begi nni ng wa. the Word. "
Moreover, pragmati . m i. i rrel ant to mathemati c, and natural sci
ence, nei ther of whi ch i nvol ve theori e ' r ferri ng t o human action ' ; i t
i ' mi sleadi ng i n soci al ' cience whi ch ' eek truth
and i t i s dangerou
in ' ocial technology whi ch endeavors to u such truths to solve ' oci al
problem . To ad ance by tri al and error on a large ' cal i ' to court di ' as
ter. St i l l , pragmati ' m perfoIl ' a u eful functi on when criti ci i ng 'grdnd
theories that i s, ' peculat i ve i deas and when i t demand that the po ' si ble
con ' qu nce. of act ion b tak n i nto account-regardle of the m an ' ,
though, whi h i why Mu " ol i ni 1 932 d el ared hi m el f a pragmat i . t.
Let u f nal l y ay . omet hi ng about two Ie er pi temol ogi e that
hav attai ned ' ome notoriety i n recent year : oci al con ' t rueti vi m and
femi ni t epi temol ogy. The . oci al con tructi vi t , cl ai m that al l enti ti .
and al l t ruth about th m are local oci al con t ructi on. -i nvent i on of
certai n communit i e . Consequent l y they di sal low t he exi tence of uni
ver al or cross-cul t ural truths, such as "Bi gots hi nder rati onal pol i ti cal
debate. " Hence at be t t hey may qual i fy a journal i ts or tory tel l er but
not a cient i st -for. a Ari tot l e taught. ci ence eek general i t i e .
And at worst oci al con truct i vi m i nvi tes subjecti v i m and rel ati vi H,
enemi e of cient jc re earch.
That ai d i t i obvi us t hat there are s ci a! constru t i ns gal re. l n fa t
everythi ng i n O i ety i man-made and i t i . ei ther fun t ional "meani ng-
Philosophical Background 27
ful " or dye funct ional to some extent. For exampl e school s arc i nvented
and organi zed, not di scovered, and they are expected to perfOnll two
i mportant functi ons: i n. t ructi on and so i al i zati on. But, once con, t ru ted,
a . oci al art i fact i. j u. t a rea] a. a rock. Consequent l y it de. erve. bei ng
tudied wi th the hel p of the . i ent i fi c method.
Fi nal l y, the femi ni st epL temologi st. hold that what i u. ual l y cal l ed
knowl edge-wi th the attendant rati onal i ty and object i vi ty-i s j u. t a tool
of mal e donli nati on to be e entual l y repl aced wi t h femi ni n ' know! 'dge,
whi ch al l egedl y emphasi zes i ntui t i n and care. Don' t ask for evi dence:
i t woul d i ndi ate m ' mbrshi p i n the 'phaUocra y. '
ontrary to the radical er ' i n of al l of the abovementi on d doctrincs,
sci ent i f real i st argue that object i t ruth can be t b g tten through
re ' car h b t h empirical and th ret icaL Sci entic real i t hold that a the
exteral world exi sts i nd pendently of the know 'I. and b i t can be known,
though approxi matel y and gradual l y. through re. earch conducted i n ac
cordance to th scienti fc method ( . ee Mahner 201 . Thi s method i nvolve.
int r. ubjecti v tests. Howev r, contrary to popul ar opi ni on, int r. ubjecti v
ity con. en. us i . an object i vi ty i ndicator not a defn r of i t ( Bung 20 b .
So much . 0 that propaganda can el i ci t consen. us abollt l ies.
Howe er. here i. a word of warni ng. Phi l osophi cal real i . m has onl y
a t enuous r l at i on wi t h pol i t i cal rea I i m and neo-real i sm, accordi ng to
whi ch i nterati onal rel ati ons are ba ' ical l y antagoni , t i c and revol e ex
c lusi vel y around pol i t i cal power, i n part i cul ar mi li tary mi ght . Pol i ti cal
real i ' ts and neoreal i , t ' are epi temol ogical rea I i t and moral uti l i tari ans.
I n parti cul ar t h ' el f- styl ed pol i ti cal real i t s advocate the ab ' ol ute pri
macy of nat i onal i nter ts, regardl e of moral ' and i nterati onal l aw.
For exarnpl e. t h y may recommend bombi ng ci i l ian popul ati on - and
cul t i vat i ng friendl y di ctator .
Leavi ng nUaIlC , a i de the mai n contemporary epi temol ogical doc
trine may be la ed thu
Lpt l mulutc

lt\rrt . Criti -al

S j nt i fc

Skept i i ' m

Subjecti vi _ 111
Attlt ttult\m-- Ku||?u| III
Tnl Ul tJm Ol
lmp| riCim
28 Political Philosoph
Some of the above epi temologi cal doctri nes have counterparL i n
pol i ti cal theory and practi ce. For i nstance, al l the i nfl uent i al i deal i st ,
from Pl ato to Hegel , Fi chte Husserl , and Hei degger, were react i onar
ie. prhap, becau, e i deal i . m favor rel i gi on and the contempl at i ve l i fe
made possi bl e by i nheri ted weal t h. An addi t i onal advantage of i deal i . m
i, that a, Vebl en ( 1 899) woul d , ay i t confer so i al presti ge, for onl y
the i dl e can afford usel e" leari ng, whereas ' crass ' materi al i . m and
empi ri ci m arc pI bei an. H w er t here were excepti on . Thu , m '
of the 1 ft- wi ng Hegel ians regarded Hegel ' dialect i c ' a th algebra of
revol ution ' L 'ni n)' and the Fren h l i beral f the l 850s ad pted Kanti an
i sm bccau e of i ts e ' pou al f free wi l l l ng nier 1 923 . Empi ri ci ' m
i s e ual l y ambi val ent . Rus ' el l 1 947 cl ai med that i t mat he l i beral i ' m
becau e both rej ct arbi t rary authori ty and fa i l i tate busi ne . But Ari s
totl e, Hume, Burk ' and the ond C mte were con 'r ati ve ' a wel l
as empi ri ci st s: and Mi l l , Engel . , and most of th l ogi cal po. i t i vi . t. were
soci al i st s. B , ide. empi ri ci sm has b n r act i onary in nat ural . ci ence
b caus of i ts phenomenal i , m: Hum rejected Newton , mechani c. and
Conn and Mach di smi . , d atomi . t i c, Bunge 2006c . S Table 1 . 1 ,
ke pi ng i n mi nd that the phi l osophy-pol i t i c, corr l at i on i , weak.
r. jJistemology
kcpti ci . m
n:'Lruct i vi . m-r l at i i . m
Tnt ui li oni . m
priori 'Ill
Empi ri ci m
Pragmat i sm
Rea1 i r
Poliri . .
Liberal i sm or abst nt i oni m
Parochi al i m
Tmpul si vene . .
"OIlL rvat Lm
0PPOI1lIlU m
Table 1. 1. Political correlate of th major epi temologies. farxism i s not listed
because its epistemology is empiricist and social-constructh1ist. 'ee Barbr 198
for alterative correlations. Collins ( 1998 onrloks the phi l osophy-plitics
connection altogether in his bulky \t 'iolog ofPhilo 'ophies (sec Bunge 2000b).
Sci enti st have no u for anti r ' al j ' m i n parti cular apri ri m, b eau '
th Y tudy documents about fact out there not i nt i mate m ' nt al event '
or freel y f ati ng idea . In parti cul ar, they annot embrace ' tri t posi
t i vi sm because they ' l dom i f ever ob ' r e p l j ti cal fact oth r than
fa e-to-face squabbl e or eremoni es that onl y legal i ze deci i on mad '
earl i er behi nd door .
Nor can seri ous , tudents of pol i t i cs embrace pragmat i sm, hecau, e
sci nt i . t. s k truths. not j u.t , uec ss-ot her than SliCCes. in fi ndi ng new
Philosophical Background 29
truth . The pol i ti cal counterpart of pragmat i m a vari ty of cmpi ri ci m
i s opport uni . m. The o-cal 1 ed real i . L i n i nterat i onal pol i t i c. , , u h a.
Henry KL, i nger, are act ual 1 y pragmati . ts, for they rate . ucce hi gher
than pri nci pl e,-whi ch i s j ust a. bad a. procl ai mi ng hi gh-. oundi ng
pri nci pl e. while betrayi ng them.
Femi ni t epi . temol ogy e. g .. Hardi ng 1 99 1 ; Kourany 2002 ) is a par
ti ul af ki nd of pragmat i . m. I ndeed i t hol d that al 1 t he . ci ence. , even
formal l ogi c mathemati c , and t heoreti cal phy i cs hav ' onl y a pract i cal
g il: They w uld b ' tool f mal domi nat ion. I t al O l rum t hat women
arc uniqu 'ly i t uated to expl ore th worl d. But f course the femi ni t
epi st ' mol ogi t do not bother to offer any e i dence for t hese vi ews. They
d n t how, D r in tan ' that ewt n' l aw of m ti on arc gendered,
or t hat there i actual l y uch trung a ' femi ni t hemi t ry. Al l t h ' y do i
to wri te and utter fal and ' i l l y l ogan ' that di r di t genui ne femi ni ' m,
whi ch i s not an academic i ndust ry hut a s ri ou . . oci al mo m nt .
Onl y certai n pol i t i ci ans fnd ant i real i sm u. ful-though j ust to del ud
th ma . . e . . I ndeed, all the total i t ari an rul ers have tri d to persuad thei r
. uhj ects that th hardshi p and oppressi on they were exp ri enci ng w r
onl y a down payment for the promi sed earthl y del ights. A. the t orturer
xpl ai n d to his vi ct i m in Georg Orw 11 . ] 984 real i ty exi . t. i n t h
human mi nd, and nowhere el '
con equent J y there i s no poi nt i n t ryi ng
to change i t . The Admi ni st rat i on of George W. Bu h ' ucceeded i n p r-
uadi ng most American ' that the 9/ 1 1 terrori t attack wa ' onl y the start
of a long war, and that the goal ' of the i nva i on of Afghani stan and I raq
were to bri ng to t hei r people ' the gi ft of freedom and democracy, a '
wel J as to ferret out the 9/ 1 1 terrori ' t s. A seni or ad i er to the Pre ' ident
tol d a et ran j ournal i t that guy l i ke hi m are ' i n what we cal l t h real
i t y-ba. ed communi ty . . . . We ar an empi r now and when we act . we
create our own real i ty ' Su ki nd 2004 .
The tudent of real i ty con t i tute th n, a that Pre. i dent ' . poke ' man
put i t . t he ' real i ty-ba ed communi t y. ' But of cour e they are not naive
r al i t b au. e they know that al l i ' not what i t . em . Nor do cri t i cal
real i m or Popp r' cri ti cal rat i onal i sm suffi ce b cau e t hey onl y requi re
t he weedi ng out of fal e hypothe e i n addi ti on to the "deconst ructi on
( unma ki ng) of pol i t i cal rhetori c.
Pol itologi t s need hard data and opbi t icated meth d be jde true and
deep hypothe e . For jn tance, they need to know whether a gi en regi on
uch a the Ba que Count ry Cor j ca, or the Tami l part of Sr Lanka
i s ec n mi al l y i abl e and thu a eri ous candidate to i ndependenc .
Pol i t I gi ts aL O need to kn w \vhether or not the s - aIled veri f ati on
Political Philosoph
t ' hni que are rel i abl e enough to dete t nucl ear expl o i on and t hu
guarantee the compl i an e of nucl ear di sarmament treati . e, .
But of cour e data and techni ques. though nece, , ary are i n. uffci ent
to bui l d a , ci ence. One a] O needs general i zation broad hypothese. ) .
Hypothe, es can , hal l ow purel y de, cri pt i ve or deep expl anatory .
Under. tandi ng i . onl y attai ned by fi r t i magi ni ng and then checki ng hy
pothe, e in ol vi ng deep- eated mechani sm. , uch as the i ncenti ve, and
di i n ' nt i ves for uni n and party member hi p vot i ng, vol untary work,
or so i al protest. Such hypoth ' ses an not be i nferred from data b cau '
th Y ntai n concept absent from empi ri cal i nformat i on: they have got
to be in nted ' e. g. Bunge 2006c . And the mpi ri cal hecki ng of
m chani mi c hypothe es al l for c n t ruct i ng pol i ti cal i ndi ators, uch
a ter t urn ut, p rcentage of goverment budget al lotted to repre i n,
frequency and i z of treet d m n trat i on ' and number and treatment
of pol i ti cal pri , oner, .
Fi nal l y l et u. warn agai n, t a wi despread confusi on. Many pol i ti cal
sci ent i sts and even . ome phi lo. oph r. equate po, i t i vi sm wi th real i sm,
sci ent i . m or natural i sm. Actual l y t hese four isms ar qui te di fferent
from one another; mor 0 er. , ome of them are pai fi . i ncompat i bl e.
I ndeed. t he. pi stemol ogi cal t h , e. can be characteri z d schemat i cal l y
as fol l ows:
OlSm " The external world i ' real and i t an be known t o me ex
tent .
ltllIlSm " Anything kn \ able is best im e:ligated usi ng the s i enti fi
POIullSm * All the so i al ience. are ultimately reduci ble to the natural
OSlIl lSm* Observation only counts i n ' ci encc, whence sci enti fic thcori e '
are data summaries.
1 advocate real i sm and sci nti , m becau. factual sci nc , unl i ke
fantasti c l i t rat ure and mathemat i c . . d al . onl y wi th put at i vel y real
ent i t i e. , and becaus fact ual sci nce start . where ordi nary knowl dge
stop . . The pol i t i ci an who refus , to face real i ty i s bound to be i t .
i ct i m. And t he ant i real i , t pol i tol ogi . t whet h r h rm n tl t i ci . t or
rat i onal -choi ce t heori . t cannot po, si bl y und rstand pol i t i cal real
i t y becau ' e he re fu ' e to ' ubject hi ' gue es to r al i t y check ' that
i , confrontat i on ' wi t h fact ' . For exampl e, anyone who attempt ' t o
under ' t and t he Mi ddle East cri si s must ' tart by l eari ng that there i ' a
lot of petrol eum i n that regi on.
Philosophical Background 31
ow, i f we wi h t o face real i t y real L l and po i t i i st agree that the
mo. t . tri ngent and rewardi ng strategy i. the ci ent i fi c method. to be de-
cri bed in the fol l owi ng secti on. Sci enti . m hold. that thi . . t rategy pay.
not onl y for fndi ng truths i n al 1 fi el d. but aL O for de. i gni ng pol i ci es and
pl an. of acti on. I nci dental l y, Condorcet, the father of modern pol i tol ogy,
may aL O have been t he earl ie. t champion of ci enti . m Condorcet 1 976 .
And the word s ientisme had joi ned the French vocabul ary l ong before
Hay ' k 1 955 mi sr 'presented and attack d i t .
A ' for natural i m and p i t i vi ' 11, t hey arc una ceptable for th fol
l owi ng reason. Natural i m i s fal e out i de the natural ci ence because
soci al fact ' t h ugh ju t a real as physi cal fact -a Durkhei m ri ghtly
i nsi ted-arc made, n t D undo Moreov 'r, ci al fa ts i nvol ve art i fac
such as compani e and ' hool s, a wel l a the norm and nvent i on
i nv ' nted t go H them. And pO ' i t i vi m i fal se becau e g od i en
t i . ts. far from . t i cki ng to data, att mpt to expl ai n t h m wi th the hel p of
th ori es that r f r to unohser abl nt i ti e. and t rai t . , such a. l egi ti macy
and peac .
5. fethodology: Researching
We t ake i t for granted that studyi ng poli t i c does not con i t i n watch
i ng new ca ts readi ng pol i ti cal go i p, or ' readi ng ol d book ' as Leo
St rauss l ai med , but in c ndu t i ng research n p l i ti cal processe in a
m thodi al fa hi on. Let us start by warni ng agai nst a popular termi no
l ogi al mi stake. Thi i . t he confu i on b tween meThod or standardi zed
pro edure and methodolog) the tudy of speci al method techniques)
uch as en us taki ng opi ni on-pol l i ng r t h general sci ent i fc method.
The l atter an be summarized by the fol lowi ng sequence:
Ba 'k I round knO ledge Problem Solution andidate
(/7 !pothesi ; 'xp 'rimental design, or Ie hniqu') Test
E aluafion of andidale E entltal re ision of 'ifh r 'oiufion
'ondidaf', checki ng the procedure background knowledge or
even the i ni ti al probl em.
Contrary to what Bacon and Hus erl i magi ned one cannot tart from
c cratch, but mu t alway. bui ld upon previ ous fndi ngs, for the i mple
rea on that the very statem nt of a probl em i nvolv . ome background
knowl dge. What L known sugge l what i t i l l unknown but hould be
i nvesti gated to sat i sfy curi o i ty or meet a need or a mere dec i re. Thu
every research project L triggered by . orne probl em. But whereas . ore
32 Political Philosoph
re. earch projc ' ts arc empi ri cal oth r arc theoretical and t t i l l other
methodol ogical . That i one may de. i re to bui l d. expand, or correct
a theory' col l ect or i nt erpret some data: or i nvent or perfect a method.
And, unl i ke technol ogi sts ba. i i ent i st s are dri ven by di . i nterested
curi o. i t y, the , earch for peer recogni ti on or both Merton 1 973 . If the
goal is to attai n power of ome ki nd one engage in pol i t i c or busi nes. ,
not i n . i ent i fi c re. earch. Hence i t i . wrong t o oppose probl em- dri ven
t o t h ry-dri en data-dri ven r method-dri en. Nev ' r mi nd t he dri r
moti ari on, a l ong as t h ' ai m i to l v ' an i ntere , t i ng and reasonabl y
wel l -posed probl em i n a rigorous way.
Sci ' nt i fi c ri gor i n I ves on eptual pr ' i i n, testabi l i t y and t h '
arch for evi dence. To ' how h w not to ati fy th ' 'e requi rem nt ,
let u con oct a t heory f the ' pol i ti cal organ,
a parody f Ch m ky' ,
eel brated t heory of the l anguage organ whi h ' upp edl y en de th '
( unknown) uni ersal grammar. We a. sume that al 1 human. are born wi th
a pol i ti cal organ l ocated i ther i n the mi nd or i n the brai n. Thi . organ
woul d contai n a uni ver. al pol i ti cal "grammar ' si mi lar to Chom. ky . .
Thi s "grammar ' i ncl udes th ba. i c uni ersal ) rul es of pol i ti cal behavi or
together wi th "param ter. ' attun d to the subject . part i cul ar pol i ti cal
envi ronment
Fol lowi ng Chom ' ky s example i n l i ngui stic " we shal l nei ther state the
rul e ' of th pol iti cal 'granl mar ' nor ' peci fy the accompanyi ng 'param
eter . I n t hi ' mann r, any common patter of pol i t ical behavior, ' uch
as eeki ng or ' poi l i ng al l i ance ' agai n ,t a common enemy wi l l count a
confi rmi ng the exi stence of the sai d 'granl mar, ' whereas any l arge di f
ferences, uch a ' those between Byzant i n and modern Ameri can pol i
t i c ' rnay be i nterpret d a. di fference i n the val u of the ' pararneter . '
Phy i i t know that by i ncrea i ng the numb r of adj u tabl e parameter.
i n a black-box t heory any . et of rnpi rical data may b accounted for, yet
none expl ai ned. Thu our t heory wi l l tand r gardl e " of what happen i n
real pol it i c : i t i . i rrefutable. Hence i t i . un ci enti fic becau e t h mark
of ' ci ence i. . n ' i t i vi ty to evi dence on top of preci i on and ompat i bi l i ty
with the bul k of know ledge.
Evi dence can be empi ri cal or theoreti cal : compari on wi th ei ther rel
evant data or c lose- by theori e -such a oci ol ogy and economi c i n the
ca e of poL i tologi cal t heorie . For a pi ece of re earch to b sci enti fi c, em
pi ri cal te tabi L i ty i neces ary but i n uffi ci ent. For exampl e. t he prophecy
that all forthcomi ng i nternati onal confi cts wi l l be ba i cal ly "cl a he of
ci vil i zati on " Hunti ngton 1 996) is te table to the extent that the oncept
of ci vi l i zati on is wel l defned. But the hypoth . i j extravagant becau e
Philosophical Background 33
an i nternational confkt may i nvol e al l i ances who e menl ber bel ong
to ei ther the . ame or di fferent "ci vi l i zati on, . ' For exampl e the current
trategi c ames of the Uni ted States i ncl ude . uch , trange bedfel l ow. as
the Uni ted Ki ngdom and El Sal vador South Korea and Pol and, 1 . rael
and Saudi Arabi a, ol ombi a and the Phi l i ppi ne . . By the way where is
the pol i t i cal cI a, h? And i. the Traq War . tarted se en years after the
prophecy was ca t, a cl ash of ci vi 1 i zati ons or rather an oi l war?
Data are val uable in t h m el ve ' or a pi eces of evidence for or agai n t
som ' hypothe i s. But data can b ' hard, l i ke th e of demographi c and
C nomi c stati ti , r soft l i ke the el f- report obtai ned fr H i al
survey . Furthermore, i f a hypothesi contai n hi gh-l evel oncept ' uch
a t h e of s cial l a s, i nequal i ty, and democracy t h n it won' t be di
rect l y t 'stable, because they den t , unob ervabl e trai ts. To t t uch a
hypothe i ' one must i ntrodu e a bri dge b tween i t and the rel evant data.
Such a bri dg i . of COUf. e an i ndi cator.
For xampl , occupati on i . an i ndi cator of ( or . urrogate for . oci al
cI a . . ; GOP i ndi cate. the i ntensi ty of economi c act i vi ty; th l ogari t hm
of GDP per capi t a i s an i ndi cator of conomi c d el opment the Gi ni
i ndex i s an i ndi cator of i ncom i nequal i ty; p rcentage of voter t urnout
i s an i ndi cator of pol i ti cal parti ci pati on- and the p rcentage of the na
t i onal budget devoted to securi ty force ' i ndi cate ' the l evel of pol i ti cal
repressi on.
ot i ce the i nsuffi ciency of ' uch empi ri cal i ndi cators. The Gi m i ndex
mea ' ur i ncome i nequal i ty but not a ' ' et i nequal i ty, which can be ju , t
a ' i mportant, as i n the case of the African American who ' ' net worth"
is one-twel fh of that of thei r Whi te countrymen. Other soci al i ndi cator '
are arnbi guou . . For i n tance, a l ow rate of pol i ti cal unre ' t . a . mea ured
by the frequ ncy of t re t demon trati on . may i ndi cate ei th r pol it i cal
apat hy or t rong repr . . j on.
At t h heyday of l ogi cal pO ' i t i vi m. i ndi cator ' u ed to b cal l ed
"operati onal defi ni ti on , ' and th y w re uppo ' d to defne theoreti cal
concept . Thi em an t i the i ' i . known a. operati ni 1. For j n tance i t
wa ai d that t i me i what cl ock mea ure. The Tal i ban fundamental i t
know better: They ay that ' t hey ' [ meani ng u ] have watche wherea
[ meani ng them] have t i me. A it happen . the concept of t i me, l i ke
t hat of matter, i s so genera] , that phy i ci st do not defi ne i t even though
t hey can mea ure and cal cul ate ti me wi th amazi ng accuracy.
Pol i ti cal ci enti t u e two mai n data-gatheri ng techni que : unl ey
and stati t i . Th . e are very di fferent procedure . Sur y gather pi n
i ons whi ch ar more or l es . . ubje t i ve and t h r fore unrel i abl e wh reas
Political Philosoph
stati sti cs report on objcct i ve facts' hence whereas the former frni h , oft
data the l atter suppl y hard data.
Suppo, e the Ameri cans, French, Russi an, or Chi ne e had been a, ked,
on the e e of thei r world-, haki ng re ol ut i ons what they thought about
the l i kel i hood or de, i rabi l i t y of a revol t agai nst t hei r govermenL. Si nce
the O erwhel mi ng majori ty of tho, e peopl e were farmers wi thout any
pol i ti cal experi ence, mOe t l i kel y they woul d not have expressed any , e
di t i ou opi ni ons O that the urvey woul d ha e had no pr di ct i ve al u .
E en n waday , aski ng peopl e whether they support a ' oci a] revol ut i on
i s doubl y na'v ' . Fi rst, becau e w al ready kn w t hat revol ut i nari "
everywhere are i n a mj n ri t y. Second, becau ' revol ut i onari e woul d b '
afrmd to teU th truth. And y ,t thi s que t i n wa a ' ked i n many nati on '
by eri ous ' tat i t i c bureau i n re ent year (see Mac uI lo h 2004 .
Moral 1 : Keep on p ' rformi ng ur y opi ni on p 1 1 but do not rel y
on t h m to uncov r any r al facts other than th opi ni ons themsel e, .
Moral 2: Keep on u. i ng , tati s ti cs hut onl y to check hypothese, not to
hui l d them.
Once a , ol uti on candidat ha, been val uated in th l i ght of the reI vant
evi d nc , one may have to hend or even remo som of the pre i ou,
l i nk i n the chai n. But never al l of th m: ontrary t o what Kuhn and
Feyerab nd c lai med there are never total sci enti fi c revol ut ions. Thi
i ' becau 'e e ery i nnovati on bui l d on ' ore piece of extant knowl edge
and i e al uated i n the l i ght of i t . For i nstance the greate ' t sci ent i fi c
revol ut i on after the i nventi on of ci ence i n ant iqui t y, namely t h one t hat
occurred i n the ' eventeent h century, hardl y touched Greek mathemati c ' .
And the major upheaval ' i n bi ol ogy, namel y the theory of evol uti on and
mol ecul ar hi ol ogy, have yet to affect pol i tol ogy. True, there ha b en
orne tal k of bi opol i t i c ' , but onl y t he Nazi Rassenkunde, a cri mi nal
p eudo. i enc , ha heen horn O far. or i ' ci ent i f biopol i t ic. l i kel y
to v r emerge becau e pol i t i i . not i n our gene . We hal l ret urn to
thi ' que t i on in Chapter 7.
The concept of . ci nt i fc method al l ow u t o ' pl i t knowl edge i nto
sci ent i fi c and non- ci ent i fi c. I n t urn, non- ci ence can be part i t i oned
i nto ordi nary knowl edge, technol ogy , i deol ogy, and p eudosci ence.
Modern medi ci ne and engj neeri ng do not eek knowl edge for i t own
sake. But t hey are ci ent H ic becau e they u e not onl y t he ci ent i fi c
method but al so con i derab] e chunk of ba i c ci ence. Thi s i not the
ca e of p ychoanal ysi , crowd p ychol ogy, or memeti cs. They are al l
sel f-cont ai n d di ci pl i ne e tranged fr m genu i n ci enc and i mpreg
nabl e to data.
Philosophical Background 35
The method chosen by i nvestigator depend upon thei r ontol ogy and
epi stemol ogy. For exampl e, if one deni es the i ndependent eX1- tenee of
the rea] worl d, a. subject i vi st. do one wi l l engage i n i nt ro. pe ti on or i n
heer fant asy. I f thi ngs are regarded as text or l i ke t ext s as hermeneu
ti . does. one wi l l embark on i nterpretati on or Verstehen. By contra. t,
whoever regard. the real worl d a. a sy tem of concrete . y, ter wi l l go
out and expl ore some of them-though of cour. e rememberi ng that i f
the system of i nterest arc ' oci al t hey wi l l b compo ed of ani mal wi th
supraphy i al t rai t , such a ' the abi l i t i 's to thi nk and peak.
Any eri ou pol i tol ogi cal t udy i nvol ves m r ' t han I i teni ng to
spec he and readi ng edi tori al , part i ul arl y when the ' pee hes have
b 'en produ d by gh stwri ter and the edi t ri al ' di tated by pre s t y
coon ' rather t han wri tten by career journal i ' ts. Mo t pol i t i cal docum n
mask a much as they r eal . Be i des, al l pol i t ical ystem , in parti ul ar
government and part i es have output. of two ki nd. -word. and deeds.
The latter ar . ur l y far more i mportant than t he fonner . i nc pol i ti c.
i s not j u. t an xerci s i n rhetori c. For i n. t ane , to f i nd out who are t h
wi nn rs and l o. ers of any gi ven . oci al program or pol i t ical event w
mu. t check it. i mpact upon such i tems a. un mpl oyment rat company
arni ng. di scount rat . con. umer pri ce. trade d f i ci t . to k market i ndex.
and number of n w construct i on permi t s. I n ' ur, to eval uate the real
oci al val ue of any pol i ti cal i tem check i t s effect on real l i fe. However,
we have reached the next ' ect i on.
6. The Case of Political Science
A pol i to l ogi cal project i ' ' ci ent i fc i f and onl y i f it abi des by the
cient i fi c method po i t no gho tl y enti ti e , and make. onta t wi t h
ot h r oci al ' t udi ' . For exampl e, pol i t i cal ' cience reL i e on tati t i c
oci ol ogy economi c ' , hi toriography, and rnore. B eau e of u h part i al
o erl ap arnong th vari ou re earch fi el d " any part i cul ar ci en e mu t
b d fi ned a a cornponent of the 'y t rn of t he cience . Thu , we . hal l
charact ri ze pol i t i cal . c i n c a the ordered d atupl e
J = <C S, D G F, B P, K A M>,
C = The pol i t i cal cience ommltnif : t he group whose member en
gage i n p l i tol ogi al re earch and xchang pol i tol ogi cal kn wl edge;
m Political Philosoph
S = the socief ho ti ng C wi th ome tolerance and support-a con
di t i on met onl y by democrat i c , ociet i e. wi th enl i ghtened rather than
phi l i . ti ne) cul t ural pol i ci e
D = the domain of di scouLe or . tudy i . e. , the pol i ty or pol i ti e, studi ed
by the Cs;
G = the CnClal outLook or phi l o. ophy adopted by the Cs: (a real
i , m-the pol i ty exi . ts out ide the reo earcher , brai n, i , a soci al system
rath r than a y ter of i d a ' and norm in them el , and it can b '
i nvesti gated obj ct i vel y; b dynanli ci m-every oci ety i al way i n
a tat of fux' c t h ethos f ci en e - c ient i fc r e earch i the fr '
earch for truth, whi ch i to be shared wi t h the w rl d communit y of
re arch r ;
F= th 'joOHal logical and mathemati at tool ut i l i zable i n pol i tol gy,
whi ch i n pri nci pl i s t he who) of math mati cs, but so far i n practi ce i .
l i mi t d to el m ntafY l ogi c al g bra, and mathemati cal . tati . t ics;
B = t he SP? 'i ba 'k round kil o\ l ?dC. the extant body of dat a and
theori , out. i de pol i tology but reI ant to i t such as soci ol ogy econom
i cs and hi story'
P = the probL ?malics, or system of probl em, t ackled by the C, , ' uch
as whether democracy i ' ' u ' t ai nabl e wi thout ci t i :en part i ci pat i on, and
whi ch el ectoral ' y ' tem i more democrati c: si mpl pl ural i ty or propor
ti onal repre ' entati on;
K = the fund ofknowledge: the extant body of pI au ' i bl e pol itol ogi cal
data and theori e ;
A = the aims of pol i tol ogi cal research, from understandi ng pol i t ical
proce e. to de i gni ng ' oci a] pol icie .
M = the me/hodier. or col l ect i on of method for gatheri ng pol i t ical
data and te t i ng pol i tol ogi eal hypothe. e , from ' urv y and tal i , t i c to
mal l -group experi ment .
How w 1 1 do contemporary pol i tol ogy meet th abov cri teri a .
Perhap not worse than soci ology or economi cs, t hough certai nl y not a
weU a hi tory. The mai n faw of pol i to logy are the carci ty of rel i able
poLi tjcal data, pol i t i cal i ndi cator , quanti tati ve model s and empi ri cal
te ts. For exampl e, the low voter turnout i n Ameri can electi ons has been
expl ained alternati ely by low ci ic con cience. di i ntere t apathy , l ack
of contra t. contentment, and di affecti on (0 of fai t h i n goverment .
But nobody ha put th . e f ve ri val hypothese to real i ty he ks: they are
adopted r r je ted dogmati cal l y-a mark f n n-sci en e.
Philosophical Background 37
Another exampl e of the ame ki nd i the col l ect i on of rat i onal -choi ce
( i n part i cul ar game-theoreti cal ) model s. I . ubmi t that they are unsci enti fi c
becau. e they are nei ther conceptual l y preci e nor empi ri cal l y val i dated.
Let u. t ake a cl o. er l ook at t he former feature. The rat ional -choice model s
are i mpreci . e becau, e they i ncl ude , u h fuzzy concepts a . . ubjecti e
probabi l i ty, . ubjecti e ut i l i ty, and payoff-al l of whi ch can be adj u, ted
at wi l l to produce the desi red reo ul L Bunge 1 989b, 1 99 1 a . Be i des,
the very oc urr ' n ' of probabi l i t y, whether ubject i ve or bj t i e, i
objectionable i n most of so i al sci ence bcau ' 0 i al pr ce e , uch
a war , arc causal rather than rand m. And the ut i l i t i es and di ' -ut i l i
t i c ) attached t mi l i tary enterpri " houl d be object i e: body ounts,
square ki l met rs and oi l barrel conquered or 1 0 ' t, and 0 on. For ex
ampl e, Bueno de Me quita s 1 989 book on war i ncl ud 'S probabi l i ti e
and ut i l j t ie t o two d ci mal poi nts-mo t of t hem made up. Thi work
i gnor . the wel l -known fact that most of th rec nt wars were l ost by
th aggre . . ors. I ncid ntal ly t hi s . how. that mi l i tary aggr . si on, i n ad
di t ion to bei ng i mmoral and i l l ga1 . i . often pol i ti cal l y and economi cal l y
wrong a. wel l .
As i f conceptual fuzzi ness were not bad enough al l t h rat i onal-choi c
mod I s i ncl ude th central assumpt i on of . tandard conomi cs t hat peopl
al ways act O as to maxi mi ze t hei r expected ut j l it i e . Thi . a ' ' umpti on
i s at be , t fal e, becau ' e real - l i f agents ' ometi me ' behave al truisti cal l y,
and at other t i me i n sel f- de ' t ruct i v way -a ' when t hey i gnore fact '
and al l ow i deology to pr vai l over ' ci ence.
Three vent i n recent pobti c ' holl id suffice to , how that i n pol i ti c '
dll mbne ' , i ' at least a . common a ' rat i onal i ty. I ) A majority of Ameri can
vot r ' re l ected i n 2004 th goverment that had di t i ngui ' hed it el f by
1a hi ng oci al ervi c . . i n adi ng two ountri u i ng ' O rci v i nt r-
rogati on' on pol i ti cal pri oner . and borrowi ng at the rate of two bi l l i on
dol l ar. a day to fnance i t di a ' trou pol ici e o (2) R centl y t he American
Secretary of State a ked Congr . . for 75 mi l l i on dol l ar. to fi nance op
po i ti on group i n I ran, i gnori ng that i f uch fund were to reach tho e
group rather than corrupt exi le , the I rani an poli ti cal pol ice nli ght arre t
t hei r member and force them to confe bei ng forei gn agentsonly to
hoot them afterward . 3 I n 2006 the I rael i army shel led and i nvaded
Lebanon for the thi rd t i me, ki l J i ng again i nnocent people and demol i hing
ci vi l i an i n tal l ati ons apparent ly bel i e j ng t hat brute force i preferable
to negot i at i ng i n good fai th-that i , start i ng by withdrawi ng from the
oc upi ed Pale t i ni an terri t ri es and rele, i ng the thou. ands of Pale t i ni an
jai l ed n uspi ci on of terrori snl. Rat i nal i ty i ndeed !
38 Political Philosoph
ThL i . not t o di scourage pol i t ical theori zi ng but t o encourage real i st i c
pol i ti cal theori zi ng. Regrettabl y, most . tudent. of pol i t i cs l ack theori e.
capable of expl ai ni ng the myri ad of data they gather from pri odi al .
and offi ci al document. For example, they can tel l u, i n bori ng detai l what
happened where and when, but not why al l that happened, that i s. what
were the i ntere. ts of the actor i n questi on and whi ch , oci al me hani . m.
they t ri ggered. Thei r sci ence i at t he stage bi ol ogy wa, before Darwi n:
descri pt i ve natural hi tory rather than bi ol ogical ci n e.
T be ure, there are a w ' grand th ri c , ' uch a ' Marxi ' m and
functi onal i m, l ai mi ng t pl mn everyt hi ng' and ther ' arc pl enty f
rati onal -choi ce model purport i ng to acc unt for pol i t i al event taken
out of c nt ' xt u h a Pre i d nt K ' nnedy' s a as i nati on. But we l ack
what M ' rton 1 957 al l ed "nliddl e-range theori e , ' m deL referri ng
t o ' t s of so i al event ' n ' i ther to smal l uch as I toral epi od , nor
too large, . uch a. th rol l i ng back of . oci al , ervice . .
Smal l fact. are gri st for t h journal i . t , mi l l . wh reas bi g fact are the
pre. erve of phi losoph rs. Th pol i ti cal . ci ent i . t . houl d t ackl e mi d-. i ze
fact. , and craft testabl t heori es about th m. Only thi s re, earch .trategy
wi l l promot t heor t i cal progress in pol i tical . ci ence. The grand wto
ni an , ynth si. wa. po. si bl e onl y because Archi m d " Stevi nu" Gal i l 0,
Torri cel l i , Kepler and Huygen had earl i er bui l t l i ttl e theori es model s)
about rest ri cted range ' of facts. The e mi ni -theorie di d not entai l the
Newtoni an ynthe ' i s, but they mot i vated and t ted i t .
7. Value Theory and Ethics
Al l soci al act ion ' are preceded by del i berat i on ' i nvoLvi ng preference
and the matchi ng or viol at ion of moral norm . For exampl e, wh n a gov
erment r ort to mi l j tary aggr . j on it exhi bi t bl i ndn . . about what
i . ri ght and what wrong a . w I I a preference for victory over decency
and unconc rn about the aftermath of war.
I n general , pol i t ic i not abo e val ue and rnoral : i t i t he tool that
al l ow u ' to ei th r real i z or cru h val ue on a large ' cal . It j what anled
the B ri ti sh Labor Party near uni er a] appro a] when i t constructed the
Nati onal Heal th Sen/ i ce and what earned the John on, Ni xon George
W. Bu h and BLai r admini strat i on near uni ersal condemnation when
t hey bombed ci vi l i an popul ati ons. We wi l J gl i mp e at t he nature of a] ue
and moral in Chapter 3.
Val ue theory, or axi ology. deaJ wit h the nature of val ue , from trut h
and beauty to peace and pro peri ty. The fi r t poj nt t hat must b nlade
i s t hat aL ues ar rel ati onal pr pertie : ne ays that a is val uabl to b
Philosophical Background 39
for purpo. C or \lab for . hort. ThL shows that V j at least a tri adi c
rel ati on. When a val ue i . quant i tati ve, one wri te V( Q b, , ) " d. where
u name. the uni t e. g. cal ori e, dol l ar and d i . t he numeri c.
Val ue judgment. have t radi t i onal l y been regarded a, subjecti e, hence
a, i mpregnabl e to cri t i ci sm and empi ri cal teo t , and therefore out. i de . ci
ence. Whi le thi . hol ds for , ome val ue j udgments parti cul arly t he ae, thet
ics one. it fai l for the mo. t i mportant ones. whi ch are the techni cal and
moral n rm . For in tanc ' the value judgment made by mpetent and
re ' pon i bl ' physi ci ans engi neer and ocia! technol ogi ts are exp ted to
b ' obj cti ve and t table. Obvi ous examples: ' Smoki ng and po rty are
bad for heal t h," , Good wage and decent treatment i mprove pr du t i v
i ty,
and ' C rrupti on and i mpuni t y erode g vernment l egi t i ma y. '
De ri pti on and pres ri ption hould b di ti ngui shed but n t parated.
For exampl e, when deal i ng wi th di . t ri but i e j usti c the . oi al . ci ent i st
"need. a normat i e theory both to nabl e hi m to di . ti ngui sh bel i f. and
pi ceo of bhavi or that expre . . j usti ce fom those that do not and to
xpl ai n . uch bel i ef. and beha ior adequatel y" Mi l l er 1 999: 59).
Furthermore whenever po . . i bl e val uej udgm nt s . houl d re.t on w 1 1 -
corrobrated factual statements. Tn part i cul ar th val ue statement. mad
i n normat i ve pol i t ical theory ' houl d be based on ' ot id oci al -sci ence data
and hypothee ' . For exampl e John F. Kennedy' ' famous statement that
when the t i de ri ' es [ meani ng when the GDP grow ' J al l the yacht , ri e,
overl ook ' the fact that thoe who do not ' ai l yachts risk drowni ng when
the t ide ri e ' and that ext reme i nequal i t i ' are bad for heal th and di gni ty
a ' wel l a [or ' oci al coh ' ion.
1 regard t hi c a the appl icati on of val u t heory to oci al act i on. L t
u . . t art by d fi ni ng the ontro er i al concept of a rnoral acti on. From a
oci ol ogi cal vi ewpoi nt pro odal or val uabl e) acti on ' are moral and
anti oci al di val uable on are i mmoral wherea oci al l y i rr l evant
acti on are amoral . Hence any fa t i nvol vi ng a moral acti on i it el f
moral . For i n. tance, ' cratchi ng one head i amoral , wh rea aggr i ng
i s i mmoral , and ori ent i ng a pa erby i moral .
Obvi ou l y, there are degree of moral i ty and i mmoral i t y, from gl ut
tony to murderi ng. Gl uttony i i mmoral becau e i t i nvol ve unnece -
ary wa te, whi ch i n t urn may entai l depri vi ng other from food. Lyi ng
i s i mmoral b cau e i t i nli sleadi ng and weakens de i rable oci al t i es.
Theft-from burgl ary to swi ndl e to plagi ari m-i i mmoral becau e i t
harms. Oppre i on rape torture and murder are far \v r becau. e they
au e i rreparabl e harm. The same appl i e to i rrespon i bl e procr ati on
by havi ng chi l dren who are unl ikel y to be properl y rai sed and educated.
% Political Philosoph
Thi s al O appl i t o c O j al pol i ci e that favor the powerful a t the exp n C
of the weak.
Our equat i ng of " moral wi th ' prosoci al i . at odd, wi th t he mai n ethi
cal t radi ti ons. The, e hol d that moral . are gi ven from above and t herefore
ca. t in tone, or that they are purel y matter. of emoti on or i nt ui t i on. T n
ei ther ca, e moral norm, are regarded as non-cogni t i ve and therefore a.
i mmune to both rati onal di cu . . i on and empi ri cal tee t. Con, equentl y
our d fni ti on wi l l be r jected by the 1 gi an as wel l a by the ethi al
emoti vi st l i ke Hum and t h pO ' i ti vi and the i nt ui t i ni t . Th ' lat
ter fol lowi ng G. E. Moore, wi l l i ndi t our d fni ti on as an i nstance f
th ` O al led natural i ti fal lacy.
But our defni ti on has the ad antag that it av i ds ethi cal ubjecti vi ' m
and i rrational i sm, a wel l a ' the ncomi tant moral r l at i vi m. I ndeed,
it al l ws u to draw ro -cul t ural compari ons and adopt a uni vcr al i t
(or non-tri hal ) moral i t y. Thi . moral i ty cont rary to th t ribal moral i t i e.
enshri ned i n th so-cal l ed sacred . cri ptures i . soc i al l y progre . . i ve he
cause it condemns oppre . . i on expl oi tati on serfdom . l a ery, torture,
and mi l i t ary aggre. , i on wher ver and whenever they occur. r t al so
condemns a, i mmoral al l the pol i ti ci ans. pol i tol ogi . l and economi st.
who j u. t i fy such ant i soci al practi ces. rn sum we adopt moral real i . m
or objecti vi m.
Becau ' e pol i ti c ' i . bound t o change ' om people I i ves, i t ha a moral
compon nt, albei t ordi nari l y a taci t one. Moreover I agree wi th Cri ck
( 1 992: 1 4 1 ) that the moral component of pol i ti cal acti on ' i ' the most
i mportant i f the lea t vi ible one, ' i mpl y becau ' e i t i n ol ves benefi t
and harm ' . I al o sugge , t that i t i a task of the pol i ti cal phi l o opher to
un eit uch compon nt. To a cornpl i h thi . ta k i t wi l l not ' uff e to r ad
pol i ti cal pl atform or ' pe he. hecau e al l too oft n th e di ' gui e th
real i ntere . that dri v pol i ti cal acti on. I n pol i t i d ed ' count more than
word. and word are u. ed now to bri ng fact to l i ght now to hi de them.
A t he anci ent Roman ' u ed t o demand. re , llOll erba.
The tao k of exhi bi t i ng the rnoral or i mmoral ' ide of pol i t ic i par
t i cul arl y urgent nowaday , becau e in the Uni ted States, l i ke in Europ
between the two great wars, the reJ i gi ou ri ght cl ai m to monopol i ze the
hi gh moral ground. They are the ones who rant about fami l y value and
born-agai n honesty in bu i ne and pol i tks. Many of the e are people
were eventual ly found to be i nvol ved in corporate candal , in l obby
i ng parl i amentarian for pri vate i ntere t , or applaudi ng t he pro ecuti on
of Pre id nt Cl i nton for mari tal i nfdel i ty whi l e approvi ng f mi l i t ary
aggre i on vi ol ati ng U resol ut i ns condoni ng tort ure rai l ing agai nst
Philosophical Background 41
t he Uni t d ati one and t he I nt mari onal Cri mi nal Court among other
thing . . Su h dupli i ty i s not acci denta1 . The neocon. er ati ve. ha e a
doubl e moral . t andard, one for the "herd and none for t hemsel ves-the
uprmen. Many of them l earned thi . from i etzsche vi a hi admi rer Leo
St rau . . , who taught some of the mo. t i mporant member. and advL or.
of the po. t -Ni xon Republ i cans . ee Ryn 2003; Drury 2005 .
Ju. t a. pol i ti c. ha. a moral component. so moral phi l o. ophi e. ha e
p l i ti cal i mpl i ati on , sometim 's by what they tate and at ther t i me
by what they d n' t and i n al l ca e wi t h reference t o i al act i on. Thu
egoism fom Schop ' nhauer and Nietzsche to Ayn Rand and Mi l ton
Friedman, i s ant i soci al and therefore anti d m rati . Un ' urpri si ngl y,
Ni etz che wa Hi tl er' fav ri t , pop phi lo ' oph ' r. And t he m tt f the
squadri ti-the member of the fa ci t parami l i tary-wa Me ne frega,
( ' I ul d not care l ess. " Common decency i nv l e on ' rn for oth-
r . .
xt to egoi sm come. ut i l i tari ani sm of whi ch we di . t i ngui sh t hr
ari t i e. : i ndi vi dual i st pro. oci al . and negat i ve. Th cent rpi ece of
i ndi vi dual i st ut i l i t arian i . m i s t he ol d h doni . t i c pri nci pl e of ut i l i t y,
"which approves or di sappro e. of every acti on what. oever accordi ng
to th t ndency whi ch it appars to have to augment or di mi ni . h t h
happi ne ' , of t he party who ' e i nter , t i ' i n questi on' (Bentham 1 982:
1 2). The pol i t i cal counterpart of uti l i tari aui m i s Machi avel l i ani ' m. For
e ampl e, a ut i l i tari an wi l l condon war cri me as l ong a ' he expect '
them to advance hi s cau e,
However, ut i l i tari ani ' m i . not i nherent l y el fi sh: i t can al O be com
bi ned wi th cooperat i vi ' m Regan 1 980 . Actual l y Hel vet i u ' cl a ' ' ical
pri nci pl e, that enjoi n u to . ek ' the great t happi ne of the great t
numb r,' ummari ze pro. oci al ut i l i t ari ani ' m. But for better or for
wor e thi pri nci pl e cannot be i mpl emented: it i i mpo i bl e to maxi
mi ze at t he arne t i m both variable , ut i l i ty and number. ee hapt r
3, Secti on 7 .
The t hi rd ver i on of ut i l i tari ani m advocate ' doi ng no harrn. It i
cal l ed "negat i ve uti l i tariani sm
and ha been advocated by t he Buddha
Epi curu , and Popper. I t pol i ti cal counterpart i pol i ti cal apathy. I ndeed
whoe er enjoi n u to hmi t our el ves to ab tai ni ng from harmi ng anyone
taci t l y condemn not only t yranny but al 0 part i ci pati e democracy
becau e t he good cit i zen i expected to contri bute to the publ i c good i n
addi t i on t o ab tai ni ng from robbi ng and beati ng up peopl e.
Li kewise Ari totle' . ethj of vi rtue does not hel p demo racy becau. e
i t c un. el bravery i n batt l e but d es n t di t ingui h battl es to defend
42 Political Philosoph
the fath rl and fronl battl e, to attack oth r countri c -b t i dc whi - h that
great t hi nker wa. , l i ke hi . tea her Plato, a wor enemy of democracy
and the t utor of a war cri mi nal .
From onfu i u, to Kant , the ethi c. of duty exhorts u, to perform our
duty. i n part i cul ar to the , tate. regardl ess of the good or evil it may do.
Deonto] ogL m i s i ndeed the code of beha i or of the exempl ary functi on
ary rather than a mora] phi l o, ophy, be au e an genui ne phi losophy i .
cri t ical . B au i t prea hes bl i nd bedi enc ' deontol gi m i ' a c n-
rvati v ' moral i ty t hat may be ut i l i zed by any pol i ti cal movement or
regi m except a parti i pat i ve d moracy. I ndeed, the latter an only b '
constructed by ci t izens ready not nl y to do thei r i i c duty but al so to
bl ow the whi st l ' at i ol ati on ' of democrati c rul e : Th y are expected to
denounce fraud corrupti n, the curtai l ment f ba i l i berti 's and mi l i
tary aggr ' , ' i on. I n any event 4 [ t J O act moral l y i n p l i ti i s t o consi der
the reo ul ts of on ' s acti on. ' Cri ck 1 992: ] 54 . Thu. the Confuci an or
Kant i an pol i t i ci an or bur aucrat may act i mmoral l y ven whi l e . trutti ng
on th hi gh moral ground.
Onl y a moral phi l o. ophy that advocates both altrui . m and contri buti ng
to t he common good can support democracy. Thi s is agathoni sm, whose
top maxi m i. 'Enjoy l i fe and hel p I i e ' Bunge 1 989a . Sti l l t hi . proso
cial moral i ty i not enough to in ' pi re democrats: It mu t be uppl mented
wi th a pi nch of methodol ogi cal kept i ci m. I ndeed, t hi ' epi stemol ogy
enjoi n ' u ' to cri ti cal l y anal yz i deas and pract ice ' O a ' to weed out
fal ' i t i es and avoi d harmful acti ons whi l e pl anni ng and execut i ng good
one ' . Wh rea ' a dogmat i , t make a good subject of any regi me and a
radi cal skepti c mu t mbrac anarchi sm a good democrat, l i ke a good
ci enti t, i a m thodol ogical kept i c.
The moral ' of a pol i t i ci an ar be. t reveal d by defeat. The pol i t ici an.
who work or fght for an i mp r ' onal cau e t ak d feat a a jgn that t h y,
thei r movement or t hei r cau e have been at faul t and ne d correct i on.
By ontra wh n def at d, the per on who goe i nto pol i t i onl y for
per. onal advancem nt may b tempted to abandon pol it i c or even joi n
the i ctor-the ca e of the Reagan Democrats t he Sarkozy Soci al i st ,
and the aparat 'hiki tured ol i garchs. Thi i s why the Youth branche of
part i e are O i mportant : t hese can be the con cience of thei r part y.
For a i mi l ar rea on, there houl d be no profe ional reformer or revo
l ut i onarie : In eeki ng to maxi mize effi ci ency they wi l l rel ax pri nci pl e ,
turni ng i nto ei ther t i mid manager -l i ke t he German oci a1 democrat
of the early 1 900 -or rut hle str ngmen l i ke th Bol hevj k l eaders.
Ni ke j amoral but Nike worshi p j i mmoral .
Philosophical Background 43
8. Action Thery
Act i on theory or praxi ol ogy i about action in general : what trigger
it. and how the concurrent action of vari ou i ndi vi dual ombi ne to
produce a oci al fa t, uch a the v ictory of a party i n an el ecti on. What
pa e for acti on t heory i n rnai n tream conternporary phi l o ophy i an
appl i cati on of the phi l o ophy of mi nd, whi ch i n t urn j often concei ed
of a an appL i ati on of the phi l o ophy of l anguage-j u t becau e a
Chomsky put i t ' language i the mi rror of the mi nd. ' Un urpri si ngl y
t tandard acti on theory i s onl y concemed wi th t ri i al everyday acti on
t uch a. pi ' ki ng up a hoc. I t docs not tackl e problems of the ki nd that nl n
of acti on such a. pol i t ici ans and bu i nc managers, or even craftsmen
and hopkeeper fa ' e for the e oc ' upati on cal l for xpert knowledge
del i berati on and pl anni ng.
The Au t ri an school of economics-Lcd by Meng r von ML es, and
Hayek-i nvol ves a , l i ght] y more ophi . ti cated theory of acti on, one that
revol ve around the . o-cal l ed rati onal i ty postul ate. Th L is the a . umpti on
that the rati onal agent i. the homo oe onomi us of neocJ as. i cal mi croeco
nomi cs, that i the i ndi vi dual who act. . O a to maxi mi ze hi s own expcted
uti l i ti e. regardl , of hi . own moral enti ment and other peopl e' right.
( on Mi e. 1 949 . But thi s i s none other than Bentham , hedoni , ti c "pri n
cipl e f ut i l i ty. ' The only difference i that Bentham, th ugh wri ti ng in the
Age f R ason, di d not att 'mpt to di sgui e sel f hness a rat i nal i t y.
Oi ven th di smal fai l ure of tandard mi roc onomi to ac unt for
b th human bchavi r and th ' a tual fun ti oni ng of the bu i nc s frm, th re
i no rca n t h pe that i t may hed any l ight on pol i ti c , parti ul arl y
on the manag ' mcnt of publ i good , whi ch i ' subject to confi ct and
negot i at i on. For cri ti ci sm. of rati onal choi ce theory see, . g. March
and Si mon 1 958 Bung 1 998a.
The si mplest moel of i ndi vi dual acti on i s the desi re-bel i ef-opportuni ty
tri pl e. 1 choose to do , omethi ng b eau. e 1 ha the opport uni ty to do i t .
and bel i e e t hat t hi s act i on wi l 1 bri ng about t h d . i red outcome ( , e
Hedstrom 2006 . Though i nsi ghtful thi . sch ma i . seriou, l y i ncomplet .
for it misse . i nterest b l i ef and commi t ment " as wel l a ' al l the ' tep '
that precede and fol low the taki ng of act i on: Del i berat i on pl anni ng,
deci 'i on, mean ' outcome and the eval uat ion that may i nduce the actor
to correct the ori gi nal cour ' e of acti on.
For i n ' tance, I want to ' upport a cert ai n party becau 'e I bel i eve
( ri ght l y or wrongl y that i t advances the i ntere ' t s of my group. I there
fore del i berate what to do about it gi v n th opport unit i e, at hand e. g.
4 Political Philosoph
an upcomi ng cl e ti on . 1 then nlake a deci si on (e. g. to raL e fnds for
the party . To i mpl ement thi . deci si on I draw a pl an. Thi , lead, me to
procuri ng the requi i te mean. e. g. , transportati on . T fi nal l y take action,
watch i ts outcome and e a] uate the l atter. If the eval uati on i s negat i ve I
anal Y7e the enti re fow chart to fi nd what went wrong and re, t art. Fi gure
1 . 3 general i 7e and . ummari zes the precedi ng anal y, i . .
I ntcrc t
/ \
ue Pr bl III Del iberation Planni ng De i ion
Mean Acti on Outcome Eval uatj n
Bel i ef
Fig. 1 .3. Flow chart of indh'idual action. or political action r' plae'
" Deliberation with 'Contention.
The previ ou di agram may uggest that al l d l iberate acti ons have
predictabl e onsequence . . But of cour e t hi s i not so: A predi ct i on
may not be borne out either becalL e the act i on wa accompani ed by
an overl ooked ci rcum, tance, or becau e unforeseen event i nt erpo. ed
between the emergence of the probl em and the executi on of the action,
to the poi nt that the pl an became outdated. Lea i ng out the unfore, een
for the , ake of si mpl i ci ty we are l ed to replace the , i ngl e "Act i on
Outcome chema wi th two or more arrow, :
A & C
, A & C O
wher ' the C' s denote i rcum tances. H w er ordi nari l y we have a
choi ce betw en two r m re act i ns to r l e an i ue. U ual l y n '
make a rough co t-beneft anal y i : One prefer ' 0
to 0
ju t i n a '
th co t/ben ' ft ratio f r act i on A
i ' ' maI l er than for acti on A . Rati onal
choi ce theori . ts cl ai m that one can go ev n furth r al l otti ng prohahi l i ti e.
as wel l a. uti l i t i s to the outcom s of act i ons. Mor over, they cl ai m t hat
a rati onal actor wi n do A
rath r than A
j ust in case the expected ut i l i ty
of AI i s greater than the expcted ut i l i ty P
of A
. Howev r t hi .
hol ds onl y wh n pl ayi ng game. of chance: Outsi de ca, i no, and stok
market. , r , ponsi bl agent. are not gambl ers: Th y al ways t ry to a oi d
chance becau e th y are ba ical l y ri k-avoi de['. ( Acci dent ' or coi nci
dence ' are a di fferent matter al together: Mo , t of them reult from cau ' al
processe o that they cannot be a ' si gned probabi l i t i e ' . Mor on t hi
in Bunge 2006c.
. m . K N O X R3
where he says that the end of the State is the happiness of the
citizens, and that the State' s footing is insecure if it is not the
means of satisfying subjective aims. ) In face, therefore, of
Hegel's own exegesis of this paragraph, which Mr. Carritt
regards as crucial, I fnd it hard to understand how he can still
hold that Hegel believes the individual to be a mere means to
the State' s ends (see pp. 37f., above) .
To one who reads the Philosophie des Rechts as a whole and
does not rely on isolated passages, the tenor of Hegel' s view of
the State is not really in doubt. He believes that the essence of
the nation State is a tension between the State's power on the
one side and the individual' s freedom on the other. If the
tension is destroyed by laying exclusive emphasis on the latter,
the result is anarchy and the disappearance of the State; if by
laying emphasis exclusively on the former, then the State be
comes "mere might and a synonym for despotism" ( 278) .
As I indicated in my article, it is open to a critic to consider
Hegel's safeguards for private freedom and to maintain that
they are insufcient; what perplexes me is criticism like Mr.
Carritt's, which ignores these safeguards, implies that they do
not exist, and consequently misses what for Hegel is the very
essence of the State, namely the tension to which I have
Mr. Carritt concludes his reply by summarizing an interpre
tation of Hegel which he claims has been current for eighty
years, and to which he seems to subscribe. I should like to
make some comments on his summary-a summary which I do
not believe those whom he quotes would accept.
(i) "Hegel thinks that might indicates right. " This is certain
ly an overstatement, if not actually false. Hegel believes that
right is mighty, but that is not what Mr. Carritt says. If he had
believed that "might indicates right" there would have been no
sense in his clear distinction between brute force and the
"might of the Idea" (see, e. g. , footnote to 258) and his
repudiation of despotism (e. g. , Anmerkung to 278) .
(ii) "Hegel defends the suppression of free speech. " Here
again we have an overstatement. Hegel defended the dismissal
% Political Philosoph
other . Real i st shoul d settl e for a more mode t goal : contai ni ng ant i
so i al action . . I submi t t hat an a lion i s so iall admissibl f it rnakes
most peopl belt 'r off \ en l hile bothering antisocial indi iduals or
groups. ThL pri nci pl e remove, from t he market cert ai n act i vi ti es,
such as en i ronment al prote t i on, publ i c heal t h care and gun manu
fact ure' but i t i s compat i bl e wi th any act i i ti es t hat whi l e seeki ng
pri vate proft , do not thri ve on harm. More on praxi ol ogy i n B unge
1 989a, 1 998a and thc International Annual ofPracti al Philo oph
and Methodolog .
9. Political Philo ophy
Pol i ti cal phi l o ' ophy i ' the phi l o ophi cal mpani on to pol i ti al ci -
ence. The troubl c wi t h bt h i s that mu h f thcm arc i rr ' l e ant t o r ' al-1 j D'
pol i t ics. A, Gerri ng and Ye, nowi tz ( 2006: 1 05 say "t he sel f-appoi nt d
job of the r pol i ti cal l theorist . eem, to be to keep t rack of what the pol i t i
cal phi l osoph rs ha e , ai d or are . ayi ng. Expl i ci t normati e theory about
what i t woul d be good to do i s r l egated to the margi ns. " Contemporary
phi l o. ophy can a1 . 0 be accu, ed of schol ast i ci sm: see Bunge 200 I . )
Pol i ti cal phi l o, ophy is normat i ve rather than descri pti ve; i t que, ti on.
n arl y v rythi ng that pol i t ical . ci ence takes for granted: and i t i magi ne.
pol i t ical ' ystem ' and ' i t uati on ' that pol i ti cal ' ci ence does not ordi nari l y
exami ne, for i t focuse ' on fact . More preci el y pol i t i cal phi lo ophy i
the di ci pl i ne charact eri zed by th decatupl e
J = <C S, D, G, F B, P, K A, M>,
wh re
C = the ol1l munil of pol i t ical phi l o ' opher from Ari totl e Aqui na ' ,
I bn Khal dun, Machi a el l i Spi noza. Hobbe , Locke. and Rou eau. to
Dahl , Li ndbl om. Rawl , Wol i n, Bobbio Mi l l r and S n-to be di ti n
gui ' hed from pol itical ideologue , uch a Plato Burk . H gel Ni etz ' che,
L ni n, Afon, Strau . " and Arendt.
S = the socief ho ti ng C-unti l recent l y onl y a We tern European or
North Ameri can oci ety;
D = the domain: the coUecti on of pol i t i cal fact s; i f ci enti fc, the
pol i t i cal phi lo opher wi l l l ook at such fact onl y through t he len e of
rel i abl e data and i ntel l i gi bl e t heorie :
G = t he general outlook or phi lo ophy ontologi cal . epi temol ogi cal ,
ethi al etc. bei ng presuppo ed; i f sci ent i fc the pol i t ical phi l opher
wi l l adopt hyl real i . m t he combi nat i n of materi al i H wi th real i H`
Philosophical Background 47
F = thc formal background i s the ct of formal tool s; thc cxa ,t phi
l o opher of pol i t i c. wi l 1 hel p hi mel f to whatever mathemati cal ideas he
may requi re to anal yze or , y. temati ze i dea. ;
B " the spe 'f ba k 'found is a col l ecti on of pert i nent pol i tol ogi cal
data and hypothe, e .
P " the problemafi s con. i st s in que t i oni ng al l t he ba, ic concept and
pri nci pl e. of pol i tol ogy. For exampl e: i , the concept of pol i t i cal ri k
wel l -defned, i democracy m ral l y superi or to other p l i ti cal regi mes,
and are game-the r t i c mode s i enti f ?
K" theJundofkflO-dedge i s a ol l ccti n f up- to-date and rea onabl y
wel l -confml d i tem i n al l t h sci en 's rel evant t p l i tol ogy'
A " t he aim or g al s i n J ude th ' l ari fcati n f pol i t 1 gical i dea
and the desi gn of pol ici e and pl atform .
M = the m "thodi ,. includes such phi l osophi cal techniqu , as l ogi cal
anal ysi s and sci ent i fi c techni que. such a. statL t ical , ampl i ng. I f . ci n
t i ti c, t he pol i ti cal phi l osoph r wi l l test i deas by contrasti ng them t o t h
r l evant . oci al sci ne . Otherwi . e he wi l l j u, t check whether th i dea, i n
quest i on are consi , tent wi t h hi . own i deol ogy. Thu. , most of us di smi , ,
out of hand each other s i dea. i n, t ad of argui ng rat ional l y about th m
and seeki ng to val i date or confute t hem empi ri cal l y.
10. Concluding Remark
Phi losophi es are relevant to both pol i t i cs and pol i ti cal ' ci ence bcau 'e
t hey ' tand at the very center of very ideology. Hence they underl i e many
a deci ' i on to ' t udy a pol i ty, de ' i gn a pol icy, and adopt a pol i t ical stance.
For exampl e anyone who upp' d that the worl d i i 1 l u ory woul d not
attempt to ei ther expl ore or chang i t. In ' hort anti r al i m i pol i t ical l y
and ci ent i fi al l y ni hi l i t i c.
Li kewi e, anyone hari ng Hobb . po t ul at that oci al l i f i t he
fi ght of everyone agai n everyone el e or Kant . pri nci pl e that duty
b at con equ nce wi l l not care to joi n wi th other to i ther protect or
change the oci al order. That i . i rreal i m, egoi m and deontol ogi m
i nduce con er ati m and di courage pol i ti cal part i ci pati on. By contra t
real i m and humani m sti mulate oci al reform and pol i t ical acti on. I n
ur, t eU me what your phi l o ophy i s and I U tel l you what your pol i t ical
preference ought to be i f you wi h to b con i tent. Si nce phi l o ophy
i s una oi dabl e, we had better keep i t expl i ci t, cl ean, real i sti c and wel l
organi zed.
A freewheel i ng e capi t and fragmentary phi l o ophy j at be t use
I e . By contrast good phi l osophi es can hel p i denti fy probl em , uncover
48 Political Philosoph
pre uppo i ti ons analyze and hone 'oncept and theori e and suggest
sci ent i fi c hypothec es a. wel1 a. bri dge. among di . ci pl i ne . . Note the
\f i rtuou. ci rc1 e: Sci ence benefi t from good phi l o. ophy, whi ch i n t urn.
may i nspi re deep sci en e.
Citizen and Polity: Diversity and Unity
Pol i t i cs may be defned as t he art of faci ng or evadi ng i al pr bl em ;
pol i ti cal . ci ence, as the m thodi cal an obj ect i ve . tudy of t he pol i ti cal i .
. ue. raL d by soci al probl em. ; and pol i ti cal phi l o. ophy a. a al ue-I aden
del i b rati on on major pol i ti cal i. . u . and the ways to reo ol v them.
Al l . eri ous pol i t ical i ssue. ari se fom soci al probl em. but th con ers
is fal se. For exampl e povert y ha. always been a . oci al probl em-and.
if we ar to b Ii e the Bi bl e it al way. wi l l be. But pov fty b came a
pol i ti cal i ' su onl y around the year 1 8 0, when the earl i est ant i - poverty
pol i ti cal group ' and movements emerged. Li kewi ' ' l avery became a
pol i ti cal i . ' ue once the abol i t ioni st movement became promi nent ; op
pre ' ' i ve labor condi ti on ' in l and and factory gave ri ' e to pea ' ant and
l abor movements r pecti vel y' race and gender di ' cri mi nati on turned i nto
pol i ti cal i ' ue ' when the ci i l ri ght ' organi zati on ' took to the street-and
o on. Con equentl y th view that pol j t i cal i u are nothj ng but in t i t u
t ional probl em ' be t l eft to j uri t and pol i ti ci an i a up rfi cj al a ept i c
and ahi tori cal account of pol j t i c . Secti on of the publ i c have to be
mobi l i z d before a oci al i u emerg on th pol i ti cal l evel :
So ial issue Social m \ emenl Political i Hue
Thi sugge t that oci al i ssue and mo ement are be t tudi ed by
pol i ti cal soci ol ogy. Thi i t he hybri d cience that t udi es t he pol it i cal
confi ct generated by the i nequa] i t i e of a] J ki nd t hat now bl e , now
cur e humanki nd-i nequal i t ie of sex and age occupati on and comp -
tence i ncome and a ets, class and statu . per on a] l oyal ty and civi c duty
oci al capjtal and pol i t ical p \ver partici pati n and effci en y i deological
orientation and pol i t i al al l egj an e and on.
But no di ci pli ne i ff e from philo ophy. And as ugge ted in the
precedi ng chapter t he core of e ery authenti c phi l os phi al . y tern i s
50 Political Philosoph
a coherent world vi ew. Modem pol it i cal t heory and pol i t i -al phi l o ophy
have been domi nated by two mut ual l y oppo, ed ontol ogi cal t radi t i ons:
i ndi vi dual L m, whi ch focuse. on t he rul er and the rul ed, and hol i sm or
col l ect i vi sm whi ch focu, e on such pol ari ti e a. i ndi vidual -, t ate and
l ocal -gl obal .
1 , ubmi t that each of these two t radi ti on contai n. a grai n of truth but
nei ther i . compl etel y true. Bot h of them deny that , oci ety 1 . a , y. tem of
ub y ' tem of vari ou typ ; they al so deny t he oexi ' tenee of ri aI ry and
cooperati on wit hi n and between soci al systems. I ugge t that pol itol ogy,
l i ke any other O ial ' ei ' n ' houl d sta11 by admi tti ng the tru i m that
e ery n ' i ' b m i nto a soci ety on tnt ted by our for bear , and that
hapes u tronger than t h mo t i nfuent i al prea her or t h most pow r
ful di tator. For 'xampl e, I am a famil y man, wa t rained as a ' i ' nt i st,
do and tea h pru l osophy, and i ntere ted i n p l it i es. Al l th ' ' e trai t ,
that charact ri ze me are , oci al not bi ol ogical . Li ke ev ryon 1. e. I am
a chi l d of my ancestor. and my t i me; and a. father. t acher and writ r,
] am aL O one among si x bi l l i on prog ni tors of the future.
E en th humble.t and mo. t wi thdrawn of u, exert . ome . ocial i mpact,
b cau. ev ryon is capabl of st i mul at i ng in enti ng, taki ng i ni t i at i ve, ,
and i mprovi . i ng. H nc i t woul d b a mi . tak t o regard i ndi i dual s a.
ei ther ful l y heteronomous ( dependent or as utterl y autonomou ' ' I f
governed . We are al l i nterdependent to ' ome extent. Chi ldr n depend
on t hei r parent and teachers, who i n t urn woul d not enact uch role
wi thout dependents. Employee and employed, rul ers and rul ed, pol i t i
cal l eaders and t hei r consti tuents and o on, paral l el t hi s. I t i ' ' ystem
al l the way down and up. on-sy tems, ueh a ' pol i ti e and crowds, are
i ncluded i n . y t m . namel y 0 i eti e . and provi d the member hi p of
y. ter ' , uch a tate ' and pol i t i cal partie .
Ev ry 0 i al y tem contru n ' ore i ndi vidual wi l l i ng to a ur
heavi er reo pon ' i bi l i t i . and r i ks than other ' . and apabl e of organi z
i ng l i ke- mi nded per on to ffect . oci al change. of ari ou typ . and
i ze , from tart i ng a arpool to canlPru gni ng for a pi ce of l egi l ati on
to toppl i ng a goverment . The e are, of cour e, the l eader : i ndi vi dual
who mobi l i ze peopl e to parti ci pate in common cau es and ay WC at
lea t as often as 1. Leader and ra e bel ong together. Although t hi i
a pl ati tude i t i at variance wi th the two mo t popul ar view of pol i tks:
that i t a leader game i ndi vidual i sm) . and that it i about pontaneou
ma movements col l ecti i m .
I ndi vi dual i m and ol lecti vi sm are, at be t part i al l y true. The f mler
cannot be completel y true if only because it f cu e on the actor and
Citizen and Polity 51
i gnor |hc rcac| ion o| | h ma c | o |hc c| i tc` ac|i on . And co| | c t i i s m
canno| bc comp| ctc| y | ruc ci |hcr bccau c i t ovcr| ook thc |ac| |ha| |hc
componcn|s o| a ma o| pcop| c havc i ndi i dua| i cw and i n|crcst tha|
hapc thci r rcac|ion |o |hc c| i |c . action .
Actua| | y |hc sourcc o| cvcry| hi ng . oci a| i . |hc i ndi vidua| - i n- oci cty
ra|hcr | han ci |hcr |hc i ng| c i ndi vi dua| or oci c|y a a who| c. |o| i | i c i
madc by i n|crac|i ng i ndi vi dua| . omc o| whomthc po| i |i i an. and hi ch-
ntnking i vi | scrvan| -ar carccr po| i | i ci ans. Thi s a| |crnativc |o both
i ndi vi duahsm and ho| i sm may b a| | cd (emi m, |hc soci a| on|o| ogy
|ha| |ocu on soci a| y |c m. or nc|works su h as |an | i cs choo| s,
busi ncss h n and po| i | i ca| group. |ha| nur|urc omc i ndi vi dua| s whi | c
s| i H i ng o|hcr ( cc Bungc | a. | 8a. | a .
1. Human ature
A| | po| i |ica| i dco| oci c i nvo| v . omc i cw o| human na|ur . |ha| w ar
i |hcr born or madc good or bad, aggrc . . i vc or coopcra|i v . obcdi n| or
r bc| | i ous, | azy or i ndu. tri ous, cducab|c or . | ubborn, gcncrous or s | |i sh.
rcdc mab| or i ncorri gi b| c, and . 0 on. |or i n tanc . Chri t i ans bc| icvc i n
Ori gi na| Si n, | h rc| n|| css dccay o| humanki nd si nc | hc cxpu| si on |rom
|aradi . work as a cur c, and suhcri ng as t hc bcs| way to a|on |or si n.
Conscrvati vcs and rcac| i onari
concur. obi | i | y o| charac|cr and i t dua|
arc i nbom. Ari tot|c and NicIz chc | augh| |hat mcn arc bom to bc ci t hcr
|rcc or s| avcs, |hc oci a| Darwi ni | | ha| |hc oci a| c|a c arc rc u| |
o| bi o| ogi ca| cvo| u| ion. no| oci a| o| u| i on |hc car|y c|ho| ogi s| tha|
man i |hc `ki | | r apc ' and |hc gcnc|i c dc|crmi ni t |hat a| | thc | rai | o|
cvcry i ndi vi dua| arc |i xcd in hi s gcnomc whi ch wou|d bc compo cd o|
| |- u|hci n| and omni potcn| ` c| h h g nc . '
Bio| ogi ca| rcducti oni m i |a| . |or i | i gnor |hat human ar no| u |
oci a| | i kc chi mp bu| ` u| tra- oci a| . Tha| i s i n addi |i on |o bci ng ab| c to
communi ca| oopcratc. and compctc wi | h con p i | c- `human ha
a| 0 vo| v d ki | | |ha| nab| |hcm to ac|ua| | y crca| di hcrcn| cu| | ura|
group cach opcrati ng wi |h a di | i nc| i vc | o| ar| i |ac| - ymbo| , and
oca| practi cc and in |i |u|i on ` ( Hcrrmann c| a|. 2007 . Bio|ogi ca| cvo-
| u| ion ha ccrtai n| y cqui ppcd u |o t hi nk and act a human bu| i| docs
not |c| | u what to | hi nk and do. on|y cxp ri cncc can | | | | hi s gap.
Lco To| toy | . 2 | | . who kncw morc about human na|urc |han
many a p ycho| ogi |. wro|c |hat j m] cn arc | ikc ri crs. |hc wa|cr i |hc
amc in onc and a| | . bu| cvcry ri vcr i s narrow hcrc, morc rapi d |hcrc, hcrc
| owcr |h rc broad r now c| car n w du| | . now co| d, n w wam . E cry
man bcar i n hi m c| | thc gcm o| cvcry human qua|i | y. bu| s mc|i mcs
52 Political Philosoph
onc qua| i |y nani |c t i |sc| | somc| i mc . mo|hcr and |hc man o||cn bc-
comcs un| i kc hi m c|| whi | c . | i | | rcmai ni ng thc samc man. `
Ncuroscicnti | cxp| ai n why tha| i o. Bccau c |hc human brai n, un| i kc
|hc an| , i cmi ncn| | y p| a | i c. | ndccd, i t rcwi rc. i | c| | cvcry | i mc i | | carn.
or |orcct somcthi n. And ncura| p| a. t i ci |y i a sourcc o| oci a| p|a. |i -
i |y. |ha| i s, |hc abi | i |y |o adopt or i nvcn| ncw bchavi or nonns, a wc| | a.
|o orani zc and rcorgani zc . oci a| . ystcms. | n hor|, |o bc i |o bccomc,
and |o bc human i | o | ivc |oday somcwha| di ||cr n|| y |rom ycs| rday.
Thi s nu|abi | i ty gcncra| s thc paradox no|cd by Vcb| cn | 6 | . | 4 |ha|
` |hc in t i |u|i on o| to-day-| hc prc cn| acccptcd sch mc o| | i |c-do no|
cn|i r | y h| |hc i tua| i on o| |o-day,` bccau c today s i n |i |u|i ons wcrc mad
yc |crday. Hcncc |hc unavoidab|c |cn i on bc| w n soci a| | i |c and po| i | ica|
|radi | ion-a | n i on |ha| omc pcop| c rcso| v by adop|ing onscrva|i m
and oth rs rc|ormi s m.
Whoc cr b | i cv |ha| human na|ur i una| | rab| i s | i kc| y | o bc
po| i | ica| | y ni hi | i |i c. h ncc conscr a|i vc. H wi | | bc| i cv . wi t h Lao Tzu,
|ha| thc i ndi vidua| i i mpo|cnt, whcncc | hc con|cmp| a| i c | i |c i b ||cr
|han | h ac|i c on . Thc Roman Ca|o is a casc i n poi nt. and | hi s is why a
pow r|u| ons rvati v | hi nk tank bcar hi namc. Thi i s a| so why Han-
nah Arcnd|. H i d gg r` pupi | c| osc hcr popu| ar book on |hc human
condi | i on wi th a quo| |rom Ca|o. ` cvcr i hc morc ac|i vc |han whcn hc
doc not hi ng. ncvcr i hc | c a| onc | han whcn hc i s by hi m c|!` ( Arcnd|
| 8. J25 . A umi ng |ha| | hi cntcncc makcs scnsc. i | rai cs |hi qucs-
| i on. | | | hc ac| i vc | i |c i |o bc hunncd. why wcr omc po| i | i ca| ni hi | i s|
such as Ca|o, |hc Taoi s| monk |hc Lamai s| and Zcn Buddhi | s, as w | |
as i c|z chc Hci dcggcr, and |hci r admi rcr Lco S| rau s '0 |asci na|cd by
pow r and . 0 cag r |o cck or crvc i |'
Somc |hi nk r- |rom Rousscau onward arc op|i mi | i c |o t h poi n|
o| bc| ic i ng tha| whi | mcn arc bom i gnorant, good and cqua| . soci cty
shap and corrup| u wh ncc |hc nccd |or oci a| rc|orm |o a| | ow |or
|hc dc c|opmcn| o| our po|cn| i a| |or good. Thi i dca |ha| thc i ndi vi dua|
i ori gi na| | y good whi |c oci c| y i no|, ha dri n progr i v ocia|
rc|ormcr o| a| | po| i t i ca| | ri p -anarchi | s. comm uni | s. oci a| i | ,
and | i bcra| . | | thc cicncc o| man wcrc to cha| | cngc | hi s i dca. wou| d
i | |o| |ow |hat soci a| rc|orm arc a| bc | usc| cs . and a| wor c harm|u|
Lc| u scc.
owaday |hcrc arc |wo popu| ar modc| o| human naturc. ( |hc
ba| | o| put|y a| | hc mcrcy o| i t cnvi ronmcn| and 2 |hc automa|on pro-
grammcd by i| gcn mc ( . c , c. g. . Lcwon| i n 2000 |i nkcr 200J Bu| | cr
2005 ) . Whocv r adop| | hc pu| | y r tabula rasa) m dc| wi || |cnd to
Citizen and Polity 53
advoca| cduca|i on and cga| i|ari an oci a| cngi nc ri ng |o i mprovc human
| i |c. whcrca thc hc| ic cr in gcnc|i c prcdcs|i na|i on wi | | | c| i ndi i dua| s
|cnd |or thcm. c| cs wi th |hc hc| p o| God, Dad and cood connc |i on o|
cour. c. Whi ch o| thc two modc| shou| d wc adop|` | suhmi | tha| nci thcr
hccau. c ho|h arc i ncompa|i h| c wi |h con|cmporary sci cn c. l ndccd, hi o| -
ocy and psycho| ocy . how |hat wc arc |hc produc| o| |wo i ntcrtwi ni n
|ac|or . gcnc and cxpcricncc. A hahy wi th cri ou. gcnc| i c di ordcr canno|
h comc a norma| adu|| .md on wi | h |h h | gcnonc wi | | not makc i |
i | ncg| cc|cd or ahuscd |or a | ong | i mc. |irs|horn gc| hi ghcr i n| c| | i gcncc
|c | scorcs |han |hci r Jh| i ngs hccausc t hcy gct mor a||cn|i on and cnoy
a hi ghcr ' 0 i a| rank i n t h |ami |y Kri |cnscn and Bcrkcda| 2007) .
| | i s | h rc|orc | mp| i ng to cqua|c dcv | opn n| to t hc produc| o|
g nc| ic cndowmcn| hy nvi ronmcn| or D = G x E |or hor| . Bu| | h
popu| ar |omti|a i phony |or nonc o| | h vari ah| occuni ng i n i t i s
ma|hcma| i ca| | y wc| | d hncd. Howcvcr t hc |ormu| a docs . uggc. | two
|ruc and va| uab| i dca . . |i r. | . human na|ur i |or rca| ra|hcr t han a su-
pcr t i | i on. si ncc human g nomcs arc di s| i nc| |rom |h g nom o| othcr
pcci c . . And no| cvcry cnvi ronmcn| i. |avorah| to human | i |c-whi ch
i s why wc t ry |o bui | d our own nichcs. Sccond. si ncc |h cn i ronm nt i
changcab| c ra|hcr | han i mmu|ah|c . . 0 i human na|ur . Th rc i s nci t hcr
gcnc| ic prcdc | i na| ion nor cnvi ronmcn|a| omni po|cncc. But. i ncc wc
c.m a|| r |hc cnvi ronmcn| . |c| u |a hi on i| so as |o gi c good gcncs a
chancc, and |o compcn a| c |or had gcnc wi th cx|ra |ami | y, mcdi ca| .md
cducati ona| uppor| .
S|andard cconomic | hcory in part i cu| ar ncoca ica| microcconomi c
propo c a p ycho| ogi ca| a| |crnati vc |o ho| h hi o| ogi m .md cnvi ronmcn-
|a| i m. | ndc d, i | a umc th p ycho| ogi ca| hypo|hc i |ha| w arc a| |
| |- r gardi ng. mor prcci c| y |ha| i n maki ng any dcci i on and |aki ng
any a |i on. w a| | a||cmpt to maxi mi z our cxpcctcd ut i | i t i c r gard| ' S
o| o|hcr pcop|c i n|cr .t . Th cxpcc| d u| i | i |y o| an ac| i on i d hncd
a thc product o| i | ubcc|i vc u| i | i | y by |hc prohabi | i ty o| uccc o|
| h a |ion in qu |i on. Th conccpt ar wc| | d hncd i n |hc par| i cu| ar
ca c o| gamc o| chancc. Bu| ho|h no|i on arc vaguc and mi sp| accd
cvcrywhcrc c| sc par| i cu|ar|y whcrc a in bu i ncss. po| i ti c . and cduca-
| i on. ordi nari | y wc | cavc not hi ng |o chancc hu|. on |hc con|rary. a|tcmp|
|o i nHucncc or c cn sc| up cau a| chai n .
| gnorc |or |hc momcn| |hc conccp|ua| i mprcci i on o| thc po | u| a|c i n
qucs| i on, and a k who conduc|cd |hc cmpi ri ca| | c | rcqui rcd | o rcgard
i| as |ruc. Thc an wcr i Nohody. Why |hcn hav mo | conomi cs pro-
| r and t hci r i mi |a| r |augh| |ha| assump|i on as c| |-c i dcn| cvcr
54 Political Philosoph
|or |wo ccn|uri cs . |rcsumab| y t hcy |augh| it bccau c th y |cam| i| a|
schoo| . | ndccd thc |rai ni ng o| cconomi | i nvo| cs nci thcr cxpcri mcn|
nor sci cn| i hc mc|hodo|ogy. Thcy | cam cconomi c |hcory a i | i | wcrc a
branch o| ma|hcma| i c whi ch i| i no|, |or i | c| ai m | o dc cri bc |hc rca|
wor| d cvcn whi | c maki ng unrca| i s| i c a ump| i on abou| i| ( Scc Bungc
| 6a | 8a. ) .
Thi si |ua|i on . tar|cd |o hangc in rcccn| | i mc , whcn a numbcr o|
s icn| i ts pu| | h ` cconomi c ra|i ona| i |y pos|u| a|c |o t hc |c |. t hus |ound-
i ng |hc n w hc| d o| cxpcri mcn|a| or bchaviora| conomi c ( cc c. g. .
Davi s and Ho| | | J) . A wc| | - known rc u| t o| |hi s work i s t ha| mos|
busi n : n n do no| bchav a u| i hty maxi mzcr but ra|hcr. as ` a|i s-
hc rs. |ar |rom wai | i ng |or |hc id a| dca| |o comc a|ong |hcy grab |h
hr t oppor| uni |y |o makc a dca| un| i kc| y |o yic| d a 10 ( cc. c. g. March
and Si mon | 5 . sua| | y wc ar |orccd |o bargai n .md u|c |or |h
sccond-b | so| u| i on. On| y s ctari ans rcmai n purc, a a conscqu ncc o|
whi ch |hcy r mai n po| i | ica| | y margi na| . Thc morc i n|cc|i ou a para i tc,
|hc | css c|hci n| | y i | . prcad , bccau. i | surround. i |s | | wi| h a . hi | d o|
i n|cc|cd ho t |ha| b| ock i |s |ran. mi ssi on. Mod ra|i on. whc|h r microbi a|
or po| i ti ca| sprcads |ast r and wi dcr |han xt rcmi sm.
Ano|hcr batch o| i mpor|an| n ga|i rc u| t cam |rom Dani c| Kah-
ncman and hi s tudcn| s. hc c psychocconomi | s havc hown. among
many o|hcr |hi ng |hat pcop| c u uaUy gct a||achcd | o |hci r po c i on
and kccp thcm | ong ahcr | hcy havc ou|| i vcd thci r i ni ti a| |unc| i on. |or
i n |ancc, harcho|dcrs |cnd to |i ck |o |hci r harc cvcn a |hci r book va| uc
p| ummc| . | dco| ogi cs and po| i |i ca| a| | cgi .mccs tcnd |o ou| | i vc whatcvcr
u c|u| ncss |hcy may havc had at bi r|h. |or c amp| c. |hc i dca tha| pcop|c
o| wi |h | hci r wa| | | p| au ib| om d adc ago in |rancc is a| vari -
ancc wi |h | h |act | ha| nowaday . ncar| y crywh r . a | argc pcrc n|ag
o| thc poor vo|c |or par|i |ha| |a or bi g busi nc but know how |o | i .
Thc | a| | dc c|opmcn| in xpri m n|a| conomi c i thc |udy o| |h
i mpac| o| mora| cn|i mcnt u h a mpa|hy and ympa|hy, on cconomi c
| i | . Somc o| |h 00 | i n| rc | i ng r carch on | hi prob| cm wa conduc|cd
by Lrn | |chr and hi co| |cagucs at |hc | n | i t utc |or Lmpiri ca| Rc carch
in |conomi c . i n thc Uni vcr i |y o| Zuri ch ( |chr and Gchtcr 2000. Gi n-
| i s c| a| . 2005 . Thcy |ound | ha| uttcr c| | hncss i |hc cxccp|i on rathcr
|han |hc ru| c. |n |ac|. |hc human |ami | y i s u | a ari cd a psycho| ogi s| .
soci o| ogi | and an|hropo|ogi | had a| ways known. Bc i dc | hc rarc
cgo| i | and ai n|s. thcrc arc rcci proca|or and coopcra|or o| cvcra|
|ypc . |n |ac| t hc . | ma ri |y o| us arc rc i pr ca|ors whi | c thc rcs|
arc ra|i na| max i mi z rs.
Citizen and Polity 55
Mo | P op|c h ha e a| |rui | i ca| | y a |ong a oth rs do |hc amc. |h y
prac|i cc quid pro quo. Mo | arc a| 0 wi | | i nc |o puni . h |hosc who do
no| rcci proca|c. Thcy arc a| |rui s|i c puni hcrs,` and arc wi | | i ng |o run
|hc ri k o| puni hcr. |or thc good o| a| | |1cnri ch c| a| . 2006 . Bc i dcs,
mo t pcop| c prc|cr cn|cri ng coopcra|i vc vcn| urc |o goi ng i t a| onc. |hcy
|cnd |o hc t ronc rcci proca|or Gi n|i ..000 . |urthcrmorc ncar|y a| |
o| lL rc. pcc| and |cnd |o |a or pcop| c who havc camcd a rcpu|a|i on |or
g n rosi | y (Rock nhach and Mi | i n ki 2006) . And ncar| y a| | o| u dc pi c
and 1un |rcc-| oadcr . | n ho|!. thc ha ic po t u|atc o| a| | rat i ona| -choi cc
|hcori cs i |a| c. Wc ar no| ncar| y a sc| h h a cconomi s| havc pai n|cd
u . By contras|. chi mp.mzccs h| |andard ccononi c 1cnscn c| a| . 2007) .
Thi hndi ng conh n: thc hypo|hc i s t ha| |ai rnc i uni qu | y human
( | hr .md |i hhachcr 200J . But so i s cruc| ty. |or h ||cr or |or worsc,
ho|h ar cducah|c.
' (k= I' ciprocal altruism (good for
/800/, badforbad
Social cOl/dllcr - R 'cipm ator

Strong =
reciprocal altruism +

J'ig. 2. 1. Thre type of social conduct
| | may wc| | hc, |hough. |ha| thc ordi nary pcrson hchavc in a| | o| |hc
ahovcmcn|i oncd way on di |tcrcn| occa i ons. In parti cu| ar, onc` . con-
| ri huti on |o o|hcr pcop|c wc| |arc dcpcnds on uch vari ah| cs a . oci a|
rc| atcdncss, oci a| . cn. i |i i |y, and pcrccp|ion o| thc nccd and wor|h o| |hc
rcci pi cn| . Morc prcci . c| y, |hc |o|a| i n c tmcn| i n anyonc s . oci a| acti on
may hc concc|urcd |o cqua| |hc sum o| thrcc |crm .
C = r + e. ' + 171,
r = cxpc| d rc|um
e = qui |y paramc|cr
= d grcc o| soci a| rc| a|cdnc
III = mora| commi | mcn|
5 Political Philosoph
Thc |our vari ab| c arc ,L c u mcd to rang bc|wccn and | . Thc c O i a|
rc| a|cdnc . o| a pcr on to ano|hcr, or to a soci a| ys|cm ha no| bccn
dc| ncd but may bc mca urcd by thc t i mc . pcn| in con|ac| wi |h i t . Thc
cqui |y or oci a| . cnsi | i i |y paramc|cr mca urc |hc i ntcn. ity o| |hc
subcc| s pro- oci a| or goodwi | | a||i tudc. Ixt rcmc a| ucs arc
Homo oe onomi u e = 111 = 0. hcncc C = r
Altruist e = 111 = | . hcncc C r
Recipr calor e 0, m > 0 hcncc C > r.
H wcvcr. si ncc n nc o| | hc i nd pcndcn| ari ab| c ha bccn wc| |
dchncd. |hc abovc |ormu| a const i |u| on| y a k | ch o| a rcscarch pro -
A con cqucncc o| thc abov r u ||s and suggc | ion |or po| i| i ca| sci -
cncc i tha| ma|cri a| i n| rc t cxp| ai n n| y p | i| i ca| ac|i on | cr|ai n
ki nd . |or i n tan c. |hcy cxp| ai n rc ourcc war bu| no| why a | argc
pcrccn|agc o| poor pcop| c vo|c |or t hci r cnc|ni c , |hcy cxp| ai n why
| hc ri ch arc ob c cd wi |h tax cut . bu| not why o|nc wca| |hy pcop|c
gi vc gcncrou | y |o chari t i c , |hcy cxp| ai n why on |hc who| c capi |a| i r
ha |a orcd cicn| i | c rc carch. bu| no| why |hc rc| i gi ou ri gh which
i | crcc| y pro-capi |ah t , | gh| cvo| u|i onary bi o| ogy and |cni c| | rc-
carchand 0 on. |n hor| cconomi c con i dcra|i on cxp| ai n much o|
po| i |i c bu| n vcr a| | o| i t . A |u| | undcrandi ng o| po| i |i c. i nvo| vc a| o
mora| cn| i mcn| uch a yn pathy and cmpa|hy a. wc| | a i rrat iona| -
i |y. gu| | i bi | i |y rc p c| |or uncxami ncd |radi ti on. i dco|ogy. |hc chari ma
o| on | cadcr pa|ri o| i sm both gcnui nc and rhc|ori ca| c| i cn|c| i m.
o| r i n| i mi da|i on and morc.
Thc hctcrodox hndi ng o| cxpcri mcn|a| cconomi c shou| d ha c thci r
s|roncc | i mpa | on pub| i po| i cy and govcmancc. In |ac| , i | mo t pcop|c
arc no| cgoi s| bu| . t rong rcci procator , |hcn |hc . | a|c can cngacc |hcm
i n cndcavor o| pub| i c i n|crc t , |rom b| ock wa|chcs and carpoo| |o par-
c|u-|cachcr and an| i -cri mc a oci a|i on. , such a. |hc Chi cago A| |crna|i vc
|o| i ci n S|ra|cgy | itcracy and vo|cr rcgi |ra|i on campai cns |own ha| |
dcba|c on wa |c i | i ng and choo| |axc
suppor| |or Amncs|y | n|cma-
|iona| and Do |ors Wi |hou| Bordcr and so on.
Th cconomi vi w o| human naturc uggc | s up rv i i on and puni h-
m n| mc ha|u m uch as h ni ng, ai | i ng and cxccu| i ng charac|cri zcd
by bo|h hi gh '0 | and |ow c|hci n y. |or cxamp|c |hc ni mc and robb ry
ra|cs ro signi hcan| | y i n |hc ni |cd |a|cs undcr |hc admi ni s|ra|i on o|
Gcorg W. Bu. h a| onc wi | h |h hardcni ng o| | h pcna| codc c||cc|cd by
6 Political Philosoph
An cconomy per se rai c no mora| prob| cm . | | i u | a urviva| |oo| .
By con|ra. | , omc markc|s, par| i cu| ar| y | hc | avc markc|, arc con. i dcrcd
i mmora| bccau. c |hcy on| y |hri vc on human . u||cri ng. Thc |ock markc| i .
con i dcrcd mora| | y prob| cma|i c bccau c a s|ockbrokcr can cam as much
i n onc day a a produccr i n onc ycar. Mu h | hc samc can bc ai d abou|
| hc unrcgu| a|cd capi |a| i s| markc| | ha| pro okcd | hc mora| i ndi cna| i on o|
| hc car| y so i a| i st and uch soci a| novc| i s| a Char| cs Di ckcn. , Imi |c
Zo|a and Maxi m Gorky. Howc cr | c| u go ba k |o |hc basi c di i i on
o| oci c|y i n|o |our nun sub y |cms.
Thc proposcd di s| i nc|i on b |wccn | hc bi o| ogica| . c onomi po| i| ica| .
and cu| |ura| . | ooks obvi ous bu| i| is no| gcncra| | y acc p|cd. | n |ac|. mos|
s|udcn|s o| socic|y |o u on on| y onc o| |h sub ys|cms, and con. cqucn|| y
adop| i |hcr a bi o| ogi ca| . cconomi c, po| i | i ca| or cu| |ura| paradi gm a
Tourai n ( 2005 ) wou| d ay. I nd cd, . oci obi o| ogi s| and vo| ut i onary
p ycho| ogi . |s | ry to rcducc cvcry| hi ng . oci a| |o |hc bi o| ogi ca| whcrca.
|hc sc| |-. ty|cd cconomi c i mpcri a| i s|s, or rat i ona|-choi c |hcori s|s bc| i cvc
|ha| a|| human. h| |hc homo oe 'ol1omicus . chcma. O|h r. adop| |h OOIl
POlilikofl mod |, and . t i h o|hcr. |hc i d a| i | . | ry |o rcducc crythi ng
soci a| |o i dca . . E idcn|| y c cry onc o| |hc |our schoo| o||cr con|i rm-
i ng c amp|c bu| ovcr| ook coun|crcxamp| cs. On| y y |cmi | |ry to do
u | i cc |o a|| |our vicwpoi n| Bungc | 7. | 8, 200J).
|dca| | y, a| | adu|| s arc m mbcr o| a| | |our ubsys|cm . But i n omc
soci c|i . part i cu| ar| y thc undcrdcvc| opcd onc mos| i ndi i dua| s arc
cxc| udcd |rom mo | ub yst cms. |or cxamp| c. rcccn| i mmi gran| may
not bc|ong |o any bi osoci a| 'Y'( m. |hc chronica| | y uncmp|oycd havc
bc n | h ou| o| |hc cconomy or may urvi vc on| y a cavcng rs or bcg-
gar ) . und r a di |a|orshi p mo t ci | i z n arc po| i | i ca| | y di cnfranchi d
or u cd a | cc|ora| |odd r, and |h un duca| d havc no accc |o |h
highcr | cvc| o| cu|| ur .
A progrc i c po| i| i ca| movcmcn| may bc harac| ri zcd as havi ng a
i | mai n goa| |hc dcc| i nc o| margi na| i |y o| a| | ki nds. a| pro|cc| i ng |ami -
| i c . crca|i ng ob . |a ori ng po| i | ica| par|i ci pa|i on. and |aci | i ta|i ng |hc
acccss |o cu| | urc. |o| i |i ca| progrc i vi m i i dcn|i ca| wi |h thc promo|i on
o| mu| t i p| c i nc| usi on or par|i ci pa|i on. Corrc pondi ng| y. con crva|i vc
and rcac|i onaric |avor t hc mai n|cnancc or i ncrca c o| cxc| u ion and
margi na| i |y.
Thc i mpact o| |hc |hc i |ha| cvcry i ndi vi dua| i cmbcddcd i n oci a|
sy |crns o| di h r n| ki nds and sizcs. i s |ha| i | con|ri bu|c |o cxp| ai ni ng
b |h |hc chc | | i ndi vidua| ac|i n n soci a| wh | , and |hc way |hcsc
shap i ndi vi dua| ac|i n. C n i dcr |or cxamp|c | h aggrcga|c c||cc| o|
58 Political Philosoph
Mor prcci sc| y |hc 0 iaL apita/ o| a pcr on i |hc nc|work o| rc| a-
|i vc. , |ri cnd and acquai n| ancc on whom shc may coun| |or hc| p o|
somc ki nd. |rom ob|ai ni ng i n|ormati on |o | andi nc a ob. hor|cr. Soci a|
capi ta| cqua| conncct ions. A word o| warni ng. . oci a| capi ta| shou| d no|
bc con|oundcd wi |h civi | soci c|y whi ch i t hc par| o| so i c|y ubs|ant i a| | y
|rcc |rom | a| c con|ro| .
Thc cxprcssi on po| i |i ca| capi |a| , o||cn u cd bu| sc| dom i | cvcr dc-
hncd. may bc rcgard d as a pat!i cu| ar a c o| ` so ia| capi |a| .` Ind cd. |h
political capital o| an i ndi vi dua| or p| i |i ca| organiza|i on may bc dchncd
a |hc nc|work o| ci | i zcn wi | | i ng |o uppor| |hc p r on or organi zati on
i n qu s| i on. uch capi ta| wi | | mcrca a ncw r crui t s b | i c : ri gh|| y or
wrong| y |hat t hci r i n| r s| or ausc |and |o gai n hom thc a ti ons o| |h
po| i | i a| uni t i n qucs|i on. and o| coursc |ha| capi | a| wi | | dc | inc i | |oncr
suppor|crs |c | di appoi ntcd. O| a| | ki nds o| capi ta| po| i |i ca| capi |a| i .
|hc hardcs| to accumu|a| honcs| | y, and i | i s |hc asi cs| |o quandcr.
| n a| | wa| ks o| | i |c a n w n t work |orma| or i n|orma| , m rgcs wh n
p op| ra| | y around an i nnova|or. | n po| i ti c |hi s and a| 0 |hc convcr c
may occur. A powcr|u| nctwork may makc a | adcr ou| o| a nobody wi | | -
i ng |o scrvc i |, or brcak an au|h n| i c | cadcr who i s ci |hcr i ncorrupti b| c or
no | ongcr u c|u| . Occa iona| | y a i ng| c pcr on or par|y cnac| bot h ro|c
a| di hcrcn| t i mc . |or cxamp| c i n | 6 thc C|A, ac| i ng on bcha| | o| |hc
oi | nc|work, backcd thc coup |ha| i ns|a| | cd |hc Ba` a|h |ar|y, whi ch bui | |
up a prccoci ou as a i n. Saddam Hu
ci n who c cn| ua| |y was madc
prc idcn| o| | raq. a |ri cnd| y di ctator who was u| | i ma|c| y |opp|cd by |hc
vcry samc nc| work.
Soci a| | i | . in par| i cu| ar po| i | i ca| ac|i on i charac|crizcd no| on| y by
i n| rpcr ona| rc| a|i on . omc o| whi ch ar conHi c| i and othcr coop-
cra|i v . |t i a| 0 markcd by t n i on bc|w cn p rson and ocic|y. i n
parti cu| ar by conHi c| bctw n i ndi vi dua| and oci a| i n|crc | and a| uc .
i ndi vidua| ri gh| and oci a| du|i c |ha| i . b |wccn wha| i good |or |h
pcr on and what i good |or oci |y. No wond r |hcn |ha|, whcr a om
po| i |i ca| i dco|ogi c arc i ndi vi dua| i | o|hcr arc ho| i |, and | i | | o|hcr
sy 'cmi | . | n par| i cu| ar | i bcrah m i i ndi vi dua| i | whcrca |o|ahtari an-
i m, communi tari ani m and na| i ona| i m arc ho| i t , and |hc par|i an o|
i n|cgra| dcmocracy prac|i cc y tcmi m-no| |o bc con|u cd wi |h ho| i m
|or |hc y tcmi c approach cc, c. g. , Las|on | 5J, Buck|cy | 68, Lmcry
| 6 and Bungc | 7a.
Bccau c o| |hc pcrs n-soci |y dua| i ty. any 0 i c|y can bc sp| i t i nto
|wo phcrc ` or subsy |cms. pri va|c and pub| i c. || ha bccn c| ai mcd | ha|
|hcrc i no such p| i | i n pri mit ivc oci c|i c but t hi c|ai m is un|ruc. |I cn
Citizen and Polity 59
i n pri . |i nc Amazoni a ihag c ccr|ai n ac| i ons. uch a scx and dc|cca|ion
arc donc in pri a|c. Undcr dcmocracy, |hc |wo sphcrc do no| 0 cr| ap,
whcrca thcy do undcr tota| i |ari ani m pani cu| ar| y |ha| o| |hc |hcocra|i c
ki nd. Thc pri a|c . phcrc i s ru| cd by cu tom. mora| , and omc | cga|
norm . Thc pub| i c phcrc i. ru| cd by |hc . |a|c. whi ch i n t urn i cxpcc|cd
|o abi dc by ccr|ain nom . Undcr p| u|ocracy, |hc pri a|c/pub| i c . cpara|i on
pcr i. t bu| | hc pub| i c phcrc i s domi na|cd by |hc wca| |hy | i kc i n | hc
s|a|c dcpi c|cd by |rank Capra` s h | m M,: Smith Goe t o Wa hingtoll.
Thc pri a|c phcrc, or civil society i |hc co| | cc|i on o| |orma| and
i n|orma| organi zati ons ou| i d |hc |a|c such a |ami | i 'S, businc c and
vo| untary or non-gov mmcn|a| organiza|i ons- hari | ics. pro|c i ona|
a oci a|i on . c| ubs church . R d Cro . and po| i | ica| par| i c . A| | uch
a oci a|i on arc vo| un|ary and mo 4 o| |hcm arc pcacc|u| and charactcr-
i zcd by civi | i|y otic d grcc o| o| i dari |y and o|tcn co| | cgi a| i|y a wch.
|or |h ambi gui |y o| ` ci vi | . oci ty` scc Bobbi o | 5. )
Worki ng i n vo| untary organi zat i on. and po| i |i ca| par|i s ca| | s |or.
and i n | urn |os|cr , ci vi c- mi ndcdn ss. wi t hou| whi ch thcr can bc no
common good and thcrc|orc no good govcrnmcnt. Thc anci cnt Grccks
and Roman. prai scd ci i m-at|cndi ng asscmb| i . carryi ng ou| pub| i c
o|hcc whcn c| cctcd, and rcspcc|i ng pub| i c good uch as roads, t mp| s.
and |a|uc . | n a na| i on wi |h a rcpub| i can t radi | i on. whcrc |hc |a|c i s
no| us| a rcprcssi vc appara| u but |hc tcward o| thc commonwca| | h,
| hc res publica i cvcryonc` , hcncc om | hi ng to pro|cc| and chcri h. | n
non-rcpub| i can rcgi m i t i no onc` s, whcncc pcop| c |cc| |rc | o d |acc
or cvcn s|ca| i | .
on idcr ||orcncc and Romc, bo| h a| | h | i mc o| Machiavc| | i and |hc
|o| | owi ng and prcccdi ng ccn|uri . || orcncc wa thc crad| c o| Rcnai -
an c and Rom |hc scat o| | h |apacy. || orcnc was ru| cd |or ccn| uri cs
by t h Si gnor|a a body o| no| ab| c who | i t n d |o |hc p op| c` gri cv-
ancc or a| | a t |ho o| | hc mcrchan| whcrcas Romc wa. ru|cd by
an i nacc si b| c and orrup| ccc| c i a | ica| hi rarchy. || orcnc wa |u| |
o| w | | -kcp| pub| i c bui | di n . many o| whi ch ar | i | | 4andi ng wh rca
Romc had on|y dccayi ng anci cn| rui n , whi ch i| ci |i zcn u cd as quarric
|o rcpai r thci r homc . Thc ||orcn|i nc ci ti zcn cou|d ta| k |o |hc ci |y counci |
whcrcas thc Roman ubcct cou| d on| y ta| k |o God. | n hort whcrca || or-
cncc wa a rcpub| i c ( no| a dcm cracy |hough) Romc wa an au|ocracy.
Thc contra | bctwccn ci | i zcn and ubcc| pcr i | nowaday in dcmocra|i c
oci cti c , cxccp| |hat t hci r ci t i zcn ha c thc ri gh| o| p t i | ion and com-
p| ai n| and coun| on |hc o| i dari |y | mcmbcr | | hci r oci a| nc|work.
| hcy havc s mc po| i | ica| capi |a| and an c cn | arg r ci a| capi |a| .
6 Political Philosoph
Hobbcs |amou | y ,L c u mcd tha| wc ar a| | c| |-conccrncd. hcncc i n
nccd o| s|ronc govcrnmcn| i | any oci a| goa| , par|i cu| ar| y pcr ona|
sccuri t y and pcacc, arc to bc a||ai ncd. But , as wc . aw i n ccti on | , cx-
pcri mcn|a| cconomi . t havc |a| si |i cd Hobbc ` a. . ump| i on. A. a pi onccr
i n t hi . |i c| d pu| i| a con | i |u|i on dc. i gncd |or knavcs |cnd |o dri vc ou|
ci vi vi r|ucs ( |rcy | 7. 44) . | n po i | i vc |crms. |cop| c |cnd |o coopcr-
a|c whcn |hcy havc a |akc in thc a||ai r in quc tion and par| i ci pa|c in i |
admini trat i on.
Thc good ci | i zcn carcs |or thc ommon good |o thc poi n| o| puni shi ng
an|i soci a| bchavi or parti i pa|i ng i n po| i |i cs and vo| un|c ri ng i n non-gov-
cmmcn|a| organi za|i on GO ) or ci vi c a . 0 i a|i ons. Thcsc havc bccn
parti cu| ar| y ac|i v and c||cc| ivc |or |h pa | |wo ccn|uri cs i n Wcst rn
Luropc Nor|h Am ri ca, .md c| cwhcrc. A| | hi s wri ti ng |hcy havc bccn
dcc| i ni ng in |hc Uni |cd S|a|c 0 cr |hc pa | | hrc dccadcs. par| | y b cau
|hc . | a|c suppor| |or |hcm ha. bc n wcakcncd, and par|| y bccausc o| |hc
i ncrca cd work dcmand spcci a| | y on womcn ( . c Andcrscn | a| . 20|X) .
Bu| GOs arc |I ouri . hi ng | cwhcr , part i cu| ar| y i n |hc cx-Communi s|
coun|rics, whcr non cxi s| d bc|orc.
Mo | pcop| c . horizon. arc rath r narrow. Thci r curiosi t y i. ordi nari | y
| i mi |cd t o us| rc| a|i vc. . |ri cnd. |chow workcrs, and n x|-door nci ghbors.
Ncx| comc thc pub| i c` |a ci na| i on wi th t h pri a|c |iv o| cc| cbri | i c
as dcmons|ra|cd by TV ra| i ngs and th a| c o| cn at i ona| |ab| oi ds. |or
cxamp| c, |rc i dcnt Chnton s t ry t wi|h Monica Lcwi n ky attractcd |ar
morc a||cn|i on and mora| condcn+na|i on than any o| hi po| i | ica| ac|i on
bo|h good .md bad. | n pcop|c wi|h a |ow ci vi c cu| t urc conccrn |or na|i on
and wor|d comcs |ar bchi nd i n|crcs| i n go i p and |oca| a||ai r . Howcvcr,
such i ndi |b r ncc aba|c i | | hc ru| r uccccd i n pcr uadi ng pcop|c | ha|
|hcy ar und r a||ack. Som cxamp| ar |h Y | | ow p ri | . R d carc.
Mus| i m |crror, i | |cga| i mmi grati on or v nhorror o| horror 'gay
marri ag ombi ncd wi |h s|cm cc| | rc carch.
Ano|hcr |actor | hat crodc i vi c cu| t ur i doub| a| | cgi ancc. Thi oc-
cur wh nc r idco|ogy in par| i cu| ar r | igi on. bccom |rong cnough
|o di vi dc soci c|i c or na| i on a| ong rigi d i dco| ogi ca| | inc . |or cxamp| c,
a |cw po| | conduc|cd i n 2006 showcd |ha| i n thc Uni |cd S|atc 42' o|
|hc pcop|c | hi nk o| |hcm c| vc a hri | i an |rs| and ci t i zcn sccond,
whcrca i n |rancc 8J rcgard | hcmsc| c a |rcnch | r | . |aradoxi ca| |y,
hri |ian |undamcn|a| i ts al 0 |cnd to bc i ngoi t ra|hcr |han ccumcni ca| .
Thi poi n|s |o a criou dc|i ci | i n Amcrican ci ic cduca|i on. and i| cxp| ai n
why rc| i gion p| ay such an i mportan| ro|c i n con|cmp +ary Amcri an
p | i | i cs. by con|ra | |o Luropc 1apan and La| i n Amcri a.
Citizen and Polity 61
On| y Mu J i m i ndo |ri na|i on h a had a n cvcn |rongcr po| i |i ca| chcc|
|han |undamcn|a| i | Chri s| i ani |y. |or cxamp| c, |hc amc |cw po| | showcd
|ha| 8 | % o| |hc Bri | i sh Mus| i m | hi nk o| |hcmsc| vc. f r | as |ai |h|u| cc-
ond as Bri | i h ci |i zcn. . | hc corrcspondi nc f gurc i n |rancc i s 46% . Thi s
con|ras| may bc cxp| ai ncd by a di hcrcncc i n cu| |ura| margi na| i |y. Whcrca
|hc Bri |i sh Mu | i m camc ori gi na| | y |rom arca wi |hou| |ron | i cs |o |hc
Uni |cd Ki ngdom, |hc |rcnch Mu. | i ms camc |rom |ormcr |rcnch co|oni cs,
whcrc |r n h i | i | | | hc sccond | anguagc-an i n| gra|i on |ac|or.
Wha| ho| ds |or po| i | ica| a| | gi ancc a| so ho| ds |or mora| s|andards.
Thc Roma or gyp Jcs a |a|c| cs pcop| i || u | ra|c |hc mora| aspc | o|
doub| c a| | gi ancc whi ch i on| y worscn d by |hc hos| i | i| y o| |hc ho |
coun|ry. || has bccn no|cd |ha|, wh r | hcy ar s|rong| y di cri mi na|cd
agai n | . |hc Roma prac|i c a doub| c nora| s|andard. ri gorou |or |hci r
i n|crac| i ons wi |h |c| | ow gypsi c and | ax |or i n| rac|i ons wi | h |hc rc |
. c . . g. , Mar|ncz-Sc| va | 8 | .
or i s mora| |riba| i sm | i mi |cd |o marci na| group . . | n |ac| i| |I ar
up in c ry i n|crna|i ona| conhi c|. Norma| | y ra|i ona| . ki nd hi ch-mi ndcd.
and | aw-abi di ng i ndi vi dua| can suddcn| y bccomc i rra| i ona| . cm | and
wi | d | ri bc. m n whcn | h ir po| i | ica| |cadcrs, | hc pr s. or pro|c SOT. a| c| i |
uni vcrsi |i cs as urc | hcm |ha| a gi n na|i on i s us|i hcd i n a||acki ng ano|hcr.
i n rc|a| i a| i ng again | a hos| i | c group. or vcn in tonuri ng uspcct . In uch
ci rcum |ancc |ho c amc norma| | y ki nd pop|c uddcn| y |orgc| tha| a| |
aggrc sion i cri mina| . | ha| rcvcngc i barbic and coun|crproduc|ivc, |ha|
cvcn tcrrori |
arc cn|i ||cd |o |cga| dc|cn c. and |ha| |hcrc i
a hugc di ||crcncc
bc|wccn a hand|u| o| ui ci dc bmbr and a powcr|u| army in |hc scrvicc o|
a rapacious i | sc| |-s|y|cd dcmocra|ic go cmmcnt. Thcy a|so |cnd |o |orgc|
|ha| as rac| Chi | 1 u | icc Barak da|cd in | wh n somc ra |i so|di r
wcrc brough| |o us|i cc |or ha i ng |or|urcd Arab pri oncr . `Thi i |hc d -
|iny o| dcmocracy a no| a|| mcan a acccp|ab|c |o i | and no| a|| prac|icc
mp|oycd by i cn ini cs arc opcn b |orc i| ( in Sands 2005. 20 .
ndcr dcmocra|i c ru| c. |hc ci vi | soci |y i |ak n |or gran|cd. || i mpor-
|anc is on| y r a| i zcd wh n |hr a|cncd by di c|a|or hi p and whcn | h
arc |opp|cd-whcncc | hc popu| ari |y o| | hc vcry conccp| i n Las|crn Luropc
i ncc | 8. |i na| | y. in |hc i n|crs|i cc bc| wccn |hc ci vi | oci c|y and |hc
|a|c. |hcrc i s |hc un i il oci c|y. |hc onc compo cd o| cri mi na| o| ari -
ou si zcs. |rom pi ckpockc| . cmbczz| cr . rcck|css hnanci cr . prcda|ory
corpora|i on . and ma| | - ca|c murdcrcrs |o war mongcr . mcrccnari cs
|crrori | . |or| urcr . and ccoci dc .
Whcrcas a| | dcmocraci cs rcc gni zc and pro|cc| |hc priva|c phcrc
a| | |o|a| i | ari ani m whc|hcr sc u| ar or |hco ra|i c | c|| or ri gh|rcjc |
62 Political Philosoph
|hc pri vatc/pub| i c di | i nc| i on rcndcr thc i ndi i dua| a mcrc s r ant o| |hc
s|a|c, and a|tcmp| | o hnd ou| and con| ro| wha| | hci r ubcc| |cc| , | hi nk,
and i n|cnd | o do. A. Musso| i ni and hi s mi ni |cr o| cdu a| i on, | hc nco-
Hcgc| i an phi | o ophcr Gi ovanni Gcn| i |c | 75 . wro|c in | J2. |or |hc
|aci t cvcry|hi n i . i n | hc S|atc, and no|hi ng human or spi ri |ua| cxi s| ,
mu h | c ha a| uc, ou| i dc thc S|a|c. | n | hi s . cnsc |a. ci m i s |o|a| i tar-
i an.` Li t || c wondcr | hat undcr |o|a| i tari ani . m ci | i zcn arc cncouragcd to
spy and rcpor| on onc othcr. and chi | drcn arc r ward d |or dcnoun i ng
|h i r parcnts. | n t h coursc o| 2006, |h |rc udcn| o| |hc ni |cd S|a|cs an-
nu| | d hundrcds o| | aws pro| cti ng pri vacy and ci i | ri gh|s. and admi | |cd
|ha| hi govcmmcn| had bccn spying on mi | | i on o| |hci r subc | -|or
|h i r own protcct i on. o| ours . Vcry w pro|c or o| po| i t i ca| ci nc
pro|c t d. | | i not known whc| hcr | hci r si | cncc wa duc to ympa|hy.
prudcncc or i ndi |r n to rca| - | i |c po| i | i c .
A po| i|y, or po| i | ica| communi | y i t hc ubsys| m o| a pub| i c phcrc
whosc componcn| s hav |hc po| i |i ca| ri ght and du| i s spcci hcd by |hc
( |orma| or i n|orma| po| i | ica| ru| s or norm o| |h pub| i c . phcr i n qu s-
| i on. nd r dcmocracy | hcs norms i nc| udc | h ri gh| s | o | i | . | i b r|y and
|hc pursui | o| happi n s . ` as wch as | o vo|c and run |or pub| i c o||i c . and
|hc duty | o abi dc by th | aw o| | h | and. Thc ri gh| to pri va|c propcr|y o|
good o| ccr| ai n ki nds i
guaran|ccd, bu| a| ' 0 r |ri c|cd, i n a| | oci ct i c .
Morc i n Chap|cr J Scc| i on 4.
Thc ba i c ri gh| and du| i c o| |hc i ndi i dua| i n a oci | y at a givcn
| i mc arc ordi nari | y pcci hcd by a con t i | u| ion. A| | hough cons| i | u|i on
arc somc| i mc pr cn tcd as sacrcd and abo v po| i | i c . rca| is| know | ha|
|hcy arc hi |ori ca| product o| po| i |i ca| | rugg|c and compromi c .
| rdi nand La a| | c put i | . wi | h Max Wcbcr s approva| . cons| i | u| i ona|
i uc ar a| bo| tom qu | ion o| powcr. and wri || n con | i | u| ion ar
u | pri n|cd mattcr un| c | hcy accura| |y r pr n| th pr vai |i ng powcr
rc| a| i on .
H nc c ry radi ca| po| i | i ca| changc i bound |o ca| | |or om con t i |u-
| i ona| rc|orm. Thi ho| d , i n par| i cu| ar |or | h di mi nu| i on. cxaccrba|i on.
or ma ki ng o| oci a| i ncqua| i | i cs. uch as gcndcr or c| hni c di cri mi na-
| i on, and thc rca| (a di | i nc| |rom | hc |orma| ) abi | i t y |o run |or pub| i c
o|| cc. |or cxamp| c. |hc pri ncp| c o| i onomy ( or cqua| i | y bc|orc |hc
| aw hi || a| | |hc bi o| ogi ca| cconomi c. and cu| | ura| i ncqua| i | i c |o |hc
pri a|c phcrc. A Ana|o|c |rancc wrotc a ccn| ury ago. Thc | aw. i n i |
i nh ni |c wi dom. gi vc cvcryonc. whc|hcr poor or ri ch |hc ri gh| | o | ccp
undcr | hc |ari bri dgc . `
Citizen and Polity 63
Thrcc cxamp|c may i hu |ra|c |hc |hc i |ha| | cga| cqua| i | y may na k
ra|hcr |han c| i mi na|c oci a| i ncqui |i c . | I n | 857 | hc go cmmcn| o|
Icuador awardcd ci | i zci hi p |o a| | | ndi ans. Hcncc|or| h | hc markc|
|ook 0 cr | hc | abor upp| y, whi ch un| i | | hcn had bccn rcu| a|cd by
| hc co cmmcn| . || |ook onc ccn| ury |or | hc | ndi an oi cc |o rcach
|hc pub| i c domai n. Con cqucn| | y | hc comp| ai n| o| | hc | ndi an wcrc
hun|cd |o | hc pri a|c . phcrc. ( In | 62 |hi wri | cr wi |nc . cd a hucc
mas dcmon | ra| i on by 0 hava| o I ndi an i n Qui |o carryi ng pos| rs
rcadi ng 4 j Abajo el feudalismo ! ") 2 Thc Brazi | i an sugar and co||on
p| an|cr bcnch|cd |rom | hc abo| i | i on o| s| avcry i n |hc | 8 0s bccau c
hcncc|or| h |hcy had |o pay | hci r | aborcr on| y duri ng | hc p| an| i ng
and harvcs| i ng sca ons-wagc |ha| wcrc |ar i n| ri or |o | hc co | o|
housi ng | o| hi ng and | cdi ng |hcm |h ycar round. Thi s i why many
o| | hc |r dn cn. upon bccn i c|cd |rom | hc fa . endas, |ook up arm
dcmandi ng |h r | urn |o . | av ry. ( J ) Our | na| xamp| c i s | hc po| i | i ca|
n|ranchi s mcn| o| womcn i n many coun|ri c duri ng | hc | w n| i | h
ccn| ury. Thi . po| i | i ca| ad anccmcn|. |hough i mpor|an| , ha no| c| i mi -
na|cd de facto pa|riarchy. Wom n arc | i | | |ar |rom cnoyi ng | h am
conomi c and cu| |ura| s|a|u a. mcn. |hc g| ass cci | i ng i s | i | | | h rc. In
hor| . i sonomy and |u| | ci |i zcn hi p do no| op n |h doors |o workp| ac .
choo| . or church. | hcy arc usc|u| on| y as |oo| |or | gh| i ng |or i n|cgra|
oci a| rc|orm.
So |ar w havc bc n u i ng |hc i n| ui |i vc conccp| o| i ndi vi dua| i m,
ho| i m and ys|cmi m. I | i s | i mc | o | uci da|c |hcm. bccau c | h y arc
ccn|ra| |o soci a| phi |o phy.
3. Individualism Hol isnl and . ystemism
Th r arc | hrc mai n i W ' conc rni ng |hc par|-who| rc| a| i on. i n-
di vidua| i m. ho| i m and y |cmi m. | ndi vi dua| i | |ocu on |hc par|
ho| i | on who| - and y | mi | dca| a| onc wi |h who| c and | hci r
par| . Ac|ua| | y, i ndi vidua| i m and ho| i m arc mu h mor |han oci a|
phi | o ophi . nbcknown | |o mo | o| |h i r upho| dcr . |hcy arc cn| i r
wor| d icw . | ndccd. cach o| | hcm ha many |acc . | ogi ca| . scman|i ca|
cpis|cmo| ogica| . on|o|ogi ca| . c|hi ca| . and morc Bungc 200Ja . | ubmi |
| ha| aU o| |hcsc |acc arc p| ai n or c cn ug|y whcn | ookcd a| cpara|c|y
bccau c cvcry|hi ng. cxccp| |or |hc uni vcr c a a who| c. i rc| a|cd |o
omc| hi ng c| c, and bccau c omc i n|crac|i on | cad |o |hc cmcrgcncc
o| uprai ndi idua| y 'cm cndowcd wi |h bu| k ( cmcrgcn|) propcr|i cs
6 Political Philosoph
| ha| | hci r componcn| | ack|or in |anc nati on tha| arc mor or |c
cohc i vc and coopcra|c or compc|c as who| c. wi | h onc ano|hcr, | houch
o| cour c |hrough i ndi i dua| rcprcscn| i nc |hcm ra|hcr | han a | i nc on
|hci r own.
| n soci a| . | udi c i ndi vidua| i m i . |hc vi cw |ha| as Margarc| Tha|chcr
put i|, thcrc i no . uch | hi ng a oci c|y. |hcrc arc on| y i ndi vi dua| s.`
Thcrc no scn|cnccs, on| y | ct |cr | ha| can bc combi ncd.` And yc|, no
s riou ocia| c icn| i | can hc| p i nvcstiga|c y |cm u h as |ami | i : . hm.
s hoo| s. and na|i on . a k wha| ho| d thci r ompncnt |ogc|hcr or wha|
puH t ri apa and |ook |or thc conc ondi ng bu| k or sys|cmi propr|i .
Thc rca on i |ha| hurian i ndi vi dua| arc studi cd by o|h r di i p| i n : . u h
a. bio|ogy and psy ho|ogy. And vcn |hc c |udy i ndi i dua| in |hci r oci a|
contcxt . |hc pcr on as chi |d or parcnt mp|oy r or crip|oy con umcr
or upp| i r ci | i zcn or ru|cr. and 0 on. Thu |hosc scicncc cxp| ain, |or
i ns|ancc why di scmpowcrcd i ndi vi dua| arc morc s|rc scd and th rc|orc
morc u. c p|i b| | o i cknc . . |han othcr .
and why pcop| c in ccrt ai n oci a|
s|ra|a |akc po| i | i cs morc ( or | . at hcar| | han p rsons in o|h rs.
Thc oppo i tc o| i ndi vi dua| i sm i o| coursc ho| i m ( or co| | cc| i i . m) .
Ho| i s| . | ar| hom soci a| who| c. and sccm | o b | i c c, wi | h Ari .dot| c. | ha|
who| c. arc prior |o | h ir i ndi i dua| compon nt . ra| h r | han cmcrgi ng
as a rcsu| | o| i n|crac| i on among i ndi i dua| s. Thcy a| so tcnd to a||ri bu|c
who| c ccr|ai n trai | |hat on|y i ndi vi dua| can po c uch a havi ng
i n| cr | s and goa| , vi r|ucs and vicc , among o|hcr |hi ng . Ho| i m. or
s|ruc| ura| - |unc| i ona| i m, wa | hc domi nan| oci a| onto|ogy whcn Ta| c-
o|| |arsons ( | 5 | domi na|cd |hc di sci p| i nc i n |hc ni tcd Statcs. Bu| i | i
curnn|| y unpopu| ar i n a| | | hc ocia| ci cncc , whcrc radica| | y i ndi vi dua| i |
|hcori c- uch a ncoc| a i ca| microcconomi c and o|hcr rati ona| choi c
modc| , | hat t ak | |-r gardi ng b ha i or |or gran|cd prc ai | .
Such xc| u i v |o u on i ndi vi dua| i nt r c | ha. pr vcntcd oci a|
sci cnt i | |rom und r tandi ng thc ry cxi t n c o| oci a| y | cm . | n
parti u| ar i | i prc nt i ng mo | po| ito| ogi s| |rom undcr | andi ng why a
many young and ab| Mu | i m around |h wor| d arc wi | | i ng |o acri h c
| hcm c| vc whi | c a| t hc amc | i mc murdcri ng i nnoccn| bys|andcr . i nh -
dc| and |ai |h|u| a| i kc. Thcsc c| |- | y| cd mar| yr bc| ong |o nc| work o|
i ndi vi dua| who c uppcrmo | | oya| | y i |o a communi| y o| bc| i cvcrs |ha|
has bccn opprc cd di posscsscd and humi | i atcd by ru| h| c armi c o|
` i nf dc| ` i n|crc |cd on| y in |and. wa|cr or oi| |ha| i not | hci r . Tho c
sc| Hc a assi n arc vi ct i m o| a h crcc communa| i m unwi |t i ng| y
s|rcngth ncd by | hc grccdy ( and u| | i ma|c| y | upi d) occupicr. Thci r sac-
ri hcc puzz|c u bccau c wc in |hc o-ca| | cd Wcst arc cxpcc|cd | bc
Citizen and Polity 65
ruggcd i ndi vi dua| i | and do no| havc ,L much |ai t h i n |hc ahcr| i |c. Wc
a| so |cc| cu| | ura| | y c| oscr |o |hc Crusadcrs |han |o thci r hap|c . vi c| i ms.
Thi i |hc mora| c||cc| o| radi ca| i ndi vi dua| i m a| | ousnc. s.
| n addi ti on |o i ndi vi dua| i sm and ho| i m | hcrc i sy |cmi m, | hc i cw
|ha| i ndi vi dua| s group |ogc|hcr i nto y tcms possc . . i n bu| k ( or cmcr-
gcn| propcr|i c. uch a cohc. i on, i abi | i ty. di i i on o| | abor, oci a|
|ra|i f cat i on, and oci a| ordcr. | n po| i ti ca| mat |crs, whcrca i ndi vi dua| -
i s| and ho| i ts oppo thc i ndi vidua| |o |hc |a|c y |ctni |s i n|crpo| a|c
mcsoso ia| y |cm. bc|wccn |hctn- uch a |ami | ic .md c| ans. gangs
and par|i cs. | ub and uni ons. and so on. And thcy c k to i dcn| i |y |hc
di vi i v a w | | a |hc uni |yi ng |rai | s. Scc |igur 2. 2.
Mel mso 'ial
Me 'OSo ial
M icrosoci al
Fig. 2.2. I ndhriduals group into mesosocial systems ( families gangs firms union ,
etc.) which in turn join to form higher-level systems federations towns, etc.).
1 submi t |ha| |hc m | basi or oarscs| di vi i on | any s ci c|y i tha|
bc|wccn i |s bio| ogi ca| conomic po| i |i ca| and u| |ura| ubsy tcrns. Thc
bond tha| joi n i ndi i dua| i n|o bi 0 i a| sy tcrns ar ki n hi p and ym-
pathy. | hc mcchani m charac|crizi ng an c nomi sy | cm arc produc-
| i on and |radc a po| i |i ca| ys|cm i hara |crizcd by g cmancc and | hc
|rugg| c |or powcr. and a cu|t ura| ys|cm or cu| |urc i n | hc oci o| gica|
cn c, no| |hc an|hropo| ogi ca| onc i a group o| pcop| c uni |cd by |hc
u c o| cu| t ura| i tcm . uch a | anguagc and a bc| i c| y |ctn.
|arcn|hc|i ca| |y, wc hou| d rcca| | a di | i nc|i on |hat, |hough c|ctncn-
|ary. i of|cn 0 cr| ookcd whcn i | comc |o |hc ccono|ny. |hc markc| , and
capi ta| i tn. Lvcry oci c|y, howcvcr backward, ha an cconomy. c cn i |
i | on| y con i t o| gathcri ng, hun| i ng. and bar|cri ng. Ah oci cti c havc
tnarkc| |oo, cvcn i| |hcy i nvo| vc |hc prac| i c o| bar|cri ng in tcad o|
usi ng moncy |o c| | and buy. By contra | capi |a| i sm i. modcm. || di d
no| cmcrgc un| i | |hc h||ccn|h c nt ury. and |hcn on| y i n |hc |orm o| con -
mcrci a| capi |a| i m a hrst prac| iccd by V ni cc. Gcnoa. |i a || orcncc
and a |cw o|h r rcpub| i c Braudc| | 82) . | ndu | ri a| api ta| i m cmcrgcd
on| y |oward |hc ci ghtccn| h ccntury |uc|cd by thc tcam cngi nc and a| so
odd| y by |hc | av |radc.
6 Political Philosoph
An cconomy per se rai c no mora| prob| cm . | | i u | a urviva| |oo| .
By con|ra. | , omc markc|s, par|i cu| ar| y | hc | avc markc|, arc con. i dcrcd
i mmora| bccau. c |hcy on| y |hrivc on human . u||cri ng. Thc |ock markc| i .
con i dcrcd mora| | y prob| cma|i c bccau c a s|ockbrokcr can cam as much
i n onc day a a produccr i n onc ycar. Mu h | hc samc can bc ai d abou|
| hc unrcgu| a|cd capi|a| i s| markc| | ha| pro okcd | hc mora| i ndi cna| i on o|
| hc car| y so i a| i st and uch soci a| novc| i s| a Char| cs Dickcn. , Imi |c
Zo|a and Maxi m Gorky. Howc cr | c| u go ba k |o |hc basi c di i i on
o| oci c|y i n|o |our nun sub y |cms.
Thc proposcd di s|i nc|ion b |wccn | hc bi o| ogi ca| . c onomi po| i| i ca| .
and cu| |ura| . | ooks obvi ous bu| i| is no| gcncra| | y acc p|cd. | n |ac|. mos|
s|udcn|s o| socic|y |o u on on| y onc o| |h sub ys|cms, and con. cqucn|| y
adop| i |hcr a bi o| ogi ca| . cconomi c, po| i | i ca| or cu| |ura| paradi gm a
Tourai n ( 2005 ) wou| d ay. I nd cd, . oci obi o| ogi s| and vo| ut i onary
p ycho| ogi . |s | ry to rcducc cvcry| hi ng . oci a| |o |hc bi o| ogi ca| whcrca.
|hc sc| |-. ty|cd cconomic i mpcri a| i s|s, or rati ona|-choic |hcori s|s bc| i cvc
|ha| a|| human. h| |hc homo oe 'ol1omicus . chcma. O|h r. adop| |h OOIl
POlilikofl mod | , and . t i h o|hcr. |hc id a| i | . | ry |o rcducc cryt hi ng
soci a| |o idca . . L idcn|| y c cry onc o| |hc |our schoo| o||cr confi rm-
i ng c amp|c bu| ovcr| ook coun|crcxamp| cs. On| y y |cmi | |ry to do
u | i cc |o a|| |our vicwpoi n| Bungc | 7. | 8, 200J).
Idca| | y, a| | adu|| s arc m mbcr o| a| | |our ubsys|cm . But i n omc
soci c|i . parti cu| ar| y thc undcrdcvc| opcd onc mos| i ndi i dua| s arc
cxc| udcd |rom mo | ub yst cms. |or cxamp| c. rcccn| i mmi gran| may
not bc| ong |o any bi osoci a| 'Y'( m. |hc chroni ca| | y uncmp|oycd havc
bc n | h ou| o| |hc cconomy or may urvi vc on| y a cavcng rs or bcg-
gar ) . und r a di |a|orshi p mo t ci| i z n arc po| i | i ca| | y di cnfranchi d
or u cd a | cc|ora| |odd r, and |h un duca| d havc no accc |o |h
highcr | cvc| o| cu|| ur .
A progrc i c po| i |i ca| movcmcn| may bc harac| ri zcd as havi ng a
i | main goa| |hc dcc| i nc o| margi na| i |y o| a| | ki nds. a| pro|cc| i ng |ami -
| i c . crca| i ng ob . |a oring po| i |ica| par|i cipa|ion. and |aci | i ta| i ng |hc
acccss |o cu| | urc. |o| i |i ca| progrc ivi m i i dcn|i ca| wi |h thc promo|i on
o| mu| ti p| c i nc| usi on or par|i ci pa|ion. Corrc pondi ng| y. con crva|ivc
and rcac|ionaric |avor t hc mai n|cnancc or i ncrca c o| cxc| u ion and
margi na| i |y.
Thc i mpact o| |hc |hc i |ha| cvcry i ndi vi dua| i cmbcddcd in ocia|
sy |crns o| di h r n| ki nds and si zcs. i s |ha| i | con|ribu|c | o cxp| ai ni ng
b |h | hc chc | | i ndi vidua| ac|i n n soci a| wh | , and |hc way |hcsc
shap i ndi vi dua| ac|i n. C n i dcr |or cxamp|c | h aggrcga|c c||cc| o|
Citizen and Polity 67
vo|i ng onc o| |hc i mp| cs| po| i |i ca| ac|i on and thc way i t i nhucnccd
by ccn|ra| au|hori |i c .
MacI ovcrmcnt chang" Ncw l aw
MicI Vot i ng 'cw at t i tud"
Fig. 2.3. Individual action when multiple. tan impact meso and matrontities.
which in tur can al ter ub equent indhridual action.
ot i cc |hc di ||crcncc bctw cn oci a| sy |cm and i nst i tut ions. A
pat!i cu| ar |ami | y i s a mcmb r o| |hc i n |i tuti n ca| | cd `|ami | y.` and a
pat!i cu|at st rc bc| ng in |hc i ns| i|u|i on ca| | cd commcrcc. | n g ncra|
an i ns|i tuti on may bc dchncd a thc |ami | y o| a| | |hc s i a| y tcrns
|ha| pcr| m1 |hc samc pcci hc |un | ion |hos | ha| n o|hcr y tcrn
pcr|orm . Socia| y |cn arc to in | i t ut ion what organi m arc to |hci r
pcci c . Whcrca oci a| y |cm arc u | a concrc|c (or ma|cri a| a
phy i a| y |cni . i n t i |u|i on arc | c|i |i ou . bu| o| cour c no| hccr |an-
|a ic -i ndi vi dua| i | no|wi t h tandi ng. Li kc bio pcci c , i n | i |u|i on arc
rca| i |ic bu| no| rca| .
A| | tudcm o| oci c|y |a c |hc i ndi i dua| i m/hoh m/ y |cni i m |r -
| cmma. o| on| y poh|i ca| i cnt i | bu| a| 0 po| i t ica| phi | o ophcr and
|a|c. mcn po| i cymakcrs and po| i |i ca| ac|iv |s |acc |hi |ri |cmma. Takc
|or in |ancc |hc |o|| owi ng i uc .
1 . Lib rt)' l ndi i dual i sm: unre tri cted. Hol i . m : Mi ni mal . stemi sm:
freedom to d hate er does not jeopardi ze membershi p i n desi rabl e
S i a1 . y. tems.
2. Equa/it l ncli i dual i m: l egaJ and pol i t i aL . H I i m: i l l u ory. Sy tem
i m: bi ol ogi 'al , ec nomi c, cul t ural . and p l i ti al
3. Private prop rl) I lldi vi dual i sm: acr an t . Hol i 111: sa ro an t ri ght
wi ng or l i mi ted t hou ehold g ods l eft- wi nJ . Systemi :m: pri ate
hou ehol d go ds , cooperati e mems of pr du t ion and ex ' hange ,
and . t atc-control lcd publ ic good ) .
4. PlIbli ' Joods. I ndi i dual i sm: None. Hol i m: al 0\ ned and managed
by the . tatc. Systcmi sm: thc s tate owns and managcs onl y and all thc
trategi c good , such a l and, n n-rene\vable natural resource , and
i nfra t ructurc.
5. Slale l ndi vi dual i 111 : nonc I cft- wi ng l i bcrtari ani . m r mi ni mal ri ght
wi ng l i b rtari ani sm . Hol i m: maxi mal . . y temi m: l i mi ted t th
management f indi i ibl e publ i c go ds.
6. Taxation I ndi vidual i m: onl y on good and to fund eCllri ty. Hol i m: n
both i n 'ome and goods, and to fund t he t t al i tari an state. Systemi ' m:
nl y on i ncomc and to fund t he managcmcnt of publ i c good . .
68 Political Philosoph
7. Edu ati 11 I ndi i dual i m: left t o each p r on' s r sour e . Hol i m: i n
charne of the slate. SY ' lemi sm: i n charge of the tate and ompetent
GO .
Health are I ndi i dual i sm: 0 I i ered exclu i el y by pri ate profession
al and c1 i ni ,. Hol i m: del i ered ex ' l u i vel y by t he tate. Sy. temi sm:
Del i ered by profcs. i onal s, pri at e cl i ni cs and stat hospi tal s. but
funded and uper Led by the state the anadi an model ) .
War and peae Indi vi dual i . m: E ery nat j on for i tsel f i . ol ati oni m) .
H Ii 111 : th mo, t pow rful nat i ons ha e the ri ght to domi nate the
weaker ne . Sy t emi 111 : regi nal hI c and ul t i mately w rId federa
lj - n. r at l east rl bal g veman e.
1 0. 0 ial jllstice I ndi vi dual i m: charit . . Hol i sm: t he tate ei t her manage a
mi ni mal ,' afely net to keep the ' ubje ts contented or determi nes wages
and carni ng rcgardlcs of product i vi ty. Sy temi m: cial ju. ticc i
the ' oncem of everyone and of e ery soci al . yst em; t he onl y functi on
of thc tatc i ' to sce to i t that al l the systems operate i n such a way that
the basi c need ' of e cr onc bc met. that e eryone' s l egi t i mate ambi
t i on wi l l be real i zed, and that eryone contri bute, hi s fai r share to
the comm n go d; and t pre ent the accumul ati n f weal t h i n a few
y tern moti vated onl y b pri ate proft.
Thc abovc | is| hou| d makc a |rong casc |or |hc ccn|ra| i | y o| onto|ogy
|o po| i t ica| phi | o ophy. And yct thc vcry word on|o|ogy hardy occur
i n our di ci p| i n .
4. Sociodhrersity
|o| i |i c i abou| managi ng h |crog n i | y. abou| ci |h r sccuri ng or
con|ro| | i ng oci a| di vi i on . What di idc pcop| c Bc| ongi ng |o di I|cr-
cn| group c. g. . |or havi ng i ncompa|i b| i n| rc |s and knowi ng abou|
|hcm. And wha| uni |cs pcop| c . Bc|ongi ng |o |hc samc group-c. g. . |or
havi ng | hc amc or comp| cmcn|ary i n|crc | and knowi ng about |hcm.
Wha| promo|cs oci a| i n|cgra|i on . Mi xi ng group i ns|cad o| ghc||oi zi ng
|hcm. and |aci hta| i ng oci a| mobi | i |y. And wha| makcs a oci c|y u tai n-
ab| c Combi ning cohcsi on wi |h c|hci cncy.
Thc prcccdi ng |hc c | ook obvi ou . Howcvcr. u t i |yi ng |hcm i a |a| |
ordcr. 1 wi | | on| y | ry |o | ari |y |hcm and i n parti u| ar | c| u i da|c and
i n| rrc| a| thc kcy conccpt i nv | vcd i n thcm. Thc prcs nt sc |i on and
|hc ncx| may bc rcgardcd as upp| cmcn|s t bo|h my own ma|hcma|i ca|
ana|y i s o| so i a| |ruc|urc Bungc | 74a. Garc|a-Su 1 and Bungc | 7
and B| au` c| a i c |udy o| i ncqua| i |y and h |crogcnci | y B| au | 77 .
Ivcry cic|y howcvcr pri mi t i c is no|ori us|y di vi dcd i n| a numbcr
o| group . Thi nk. |or i n |ancc. o| cx. agc. c| hni ci |y, oc upa|i on. i ncomc
brackct . cduca| i ona| achi c cnicn|. rc| i gi ou a| | cgi ancc. and po| i | ica| ori-
Citizen and Polity 69
cntati on. Whcrcas mcn bcri p i n omc group i by bir|h i n o|hcr it i s
by choi cc. A . oci c|y wi |h a | argc numbcr o| di . t i nc| soci a| group may
bc ai d to bc charac|crizcd by a hi ch hctcrogcnci |y or oci odi vcrsi ty. Thc
cmcrgcncc o| ci vi | i za|i on and thc | ndu |ria| Rcvo| u|i on wcrc accompa-
ni cd by . oci odi cr. i|y cxp| o i on . And dcmocra|i za|ion i accompani cd
by a ri c i n |hc ra| i o o| c| ccti c mcmbcr hi p |o |orccd mcmbcrshi p. By
con|ra | , |hc dcc| i nc o| thc anci cn| ci vi | i za|i ons wa. accompani cd by
dra t i hri nki ng i n o i odi vcr J|y and dcc| i n i n opportuni | ic |o hoosc
group mcmbcr hip.
Whcrcas omc oci a| groups arc mu|ua| |y cxc| u ivc o|hcr par|| y
o cr| ap. |ur|hcrmorc, whcrca i n somc oci ct i c thc bar ri r among
son soci a| groups o| th samc ki nd ( c. g. cconomic ) arc i mp rncab| c,
i n o|hcrs t h y arc porou . Tha| i . di ||crcn| soci cti cs ar hara |cri zcd
by di hcrcnccs in soci odi crsi t y and mobi| i |y. Cons qu n|| y th y arc a| so
charac|cri zcd by di ||crcn| d grccs o| cohc. i on. Wc ha| | t |o dc| nc |hc.
|rai | s. Bu| bc|orc doi ng 0 w mu. | | uci da| | h no|i on o| soci odivcr i |y.
|h oci a| ana| og o| bi odi cr. i |y.
| n | h . i mp| cs| casc. that o| a communi |y sp| i | i nto us| |wo oci a|
group. |hc degre ? ofsodal difJnliation o| S may bc dchncd as |h
r | a|i vc numbcr o| p op| who |ai | |o b | onc |o both group a| t hc am
| i m . ( Morc |orma| | y, ca| | i ng A and 8 |hc |wo groups in quc | i on. wc
dchnc th ir rc| a| i c di ||crcn|i a|i on as L I / N whcr / |and |or |hc
c|-|hcorc|ic symmc|ri c di ||crcncc o| |hc c| ' A and 8 and N |or |hc ppu-
| a| i on o| S. |or |hc gcncra| ca c o| a oci c| y sp| i | in|o a | argc numbcr o|
morc or | c homogcncous soci a| groups. wc nccd a morc ophi t i ca|cd
mca urc, a wc| | a a c|car cxp| i ci | cri tcri on o| oci a| di vi si on. Lct us
c how on may procccd.
A oci a| group | i kc any oth r ki nd or pcci may bc dc| n d by
onc or mor trai | or propcr|i c . | n t h ` hard ci ncc- onc may pi ck
wc| | -d | ncd pr di ca| . uch a atomic numbcr. a| ncc or modc o|
r produc| i on. By con|ra | in |hc ` oh ` ci ncc onc u ua| | y g t ho| d
o| a a| i cn| i f om wha| |uzzy |rai | . | n i |hcr ca c onc |orms thc cqui va-
| cncc) c|a of a|| |hc i ndi vi dua| po c i ng |hc | rai t in quc | i on. Lc| us
rcca| | how thi i donc.
Con i dcr |wo i ndi i dua| cahcd a and b, | hat sharc a gi vcn prop rty
P, a||hough t hcy arc bound |o di ffcr in othcr rc pcc| . L cn if wc do no|
havc an cxac| dc cri pti on of P, wc may ha c a cri |cri on a| |owi ng u to
|a|c |hat |hc i ndi i dua| a and b arc cqui va| cn| wi |h rcspcc| |o P, or P-
qui va| nt | r sh r. | n s|andard ymbo| a -p b.
70 Political Philosoph
Ncx| wc cxami nc |hc cn| i r popu| a|i on S i n quc |i on. and |onn |hc
subsct o| i t |hat i nc| udc a| | |hc P-cqui va| cn| i ndi i dua| s. |or cxamp| c,
po| i |i cs . p| i ts any oci c|y S i n|o a numbcr o| . ubgroup. o| i ndi vi dua|
wi th |hc amc po| i |i ca| oricn|a|ion uch a. | c||, ccn|cr, and ri gh|. Onc
says tha| |hc cqui va|cncc rc| a|i on amc po| i |i cs ` i nduccs |hc par|i | ion o|
i n|o a ccr|ai n numbcr It o| cqui va| cncc c|a cs, namc| y a| | |hc | |orma|
or i n|orma| po| i |i ca| groups in thc gi vcn so i cty a| |hc gi vcn | i mc. Onc
may wri t c S /-f = { Cl , 2 " " CJ j . wh rc |hc

arc |hc cqui a| nc
c| a : in qucs|i on.
Thi pat!i ti on nay bc i ua|i z d a a pi c har| . And thc who| |ami |y o|
part i |i on i nduccd by I di ||crcn| cqui a| n c r | a| i ons may bc i magi ncd
a a |ack o| fll pi c char| s. Thi s oci a| c|a si hcat i on has two di mcnsi ons.
horizon|a| hncn o| dis|i ncti on and vcr| i ca| (numbcr o| di 4ingui hing
|rai |s . I n g ncra| | hc i t h qui va| cnc r | a| i on wi | | i nduc t hc par| i ti on
o| S i nto n cc| | S

wh r i i s | hc a pcc| or trai t b i ng con. i d rcd ( i . c. , a
part i cu| ar pi c char| ) , and j namcs a scc|or o| |ha| par| i cu| ar pi c.
Wc can kccp trac k o| |hc di i sion o| soci ty i n|o vari ous soci a| group.
by rccordi ng thcm i n mat ri x |orm. Con. i d r hr t | h par| i cu| ar typc. o|
di vi si on . uch a. by cconomi c c|a . . , po| i ti ca| a|| | i a| i on. c|hni ci |y and . 0
on. Suppo c |hcrc arc In o| | hcsc | ypc o| di vi sion undcr consi dcra| i on,
whi ch wc | ab| J

wi |h i runni ng |rom | | o m. Nc t, wc no|c | hc vari ou
subca|cgori wi | hi n cach o| thc di vi i ons. |or cxamp| c. th cconomi c
c| a c can bc ph| i n| o |ow, midd| and uppcr. | hc po| i |i ca| oncs i nto
Con cr ati vc, Li bcra| . Soci a| i | , and I ndi ||crcnt . thc c|hnici t i
i n|o ab-
origi na| and i n+ mi gran|, and ' 0 on. Suppo c | ha| |or cach |ypc o| di vi si on

hcrc arc Il; uch ubca|cgoric , and | c| IZ b |hc maxi mum o| | hc Ill "
Thcn wc can ummarzc our ana| y o| |hc m mb r hi p o| a oci c|y by
|hc m x n ma|r x D = I S . . ! . In our cxamp| . thi ma| ri x
Con crvativc
Abori gi na|
Mi dd| c
I mmi grant
Soci a| i |
I ndi hcr n|
whcrc 0 |and |or |hc cmp|y cc| | . otc |ha| |hc cntri c i n | hi ma|ri x
arc group o| p op| c not numbcr . |or |hc mathcma|cs o| ct ma| ri cc
cc Bungc | 74a. )
| n um t hc ana|y i o| | hc mcmbcr hi p o| a oci c|y i nto m rcspcc|
b it down |o |ormi ng |hc m x n ma|r i x D = 1 5;j- ' Thi may b ca| | d
|hc qualitative Jn er if matrix | |hc ci c|y. And |hc numb r J = m. 1l
may bc rcgardcd as | h degree ofsociodi ersi! . Snc |hc choi cc o| |hc
Citizen and Polity 7 1
numbcr I o| rcspc ts dcpcnd. | argc| y upon thc i ntcrc | s and abi | i ty o|
|hc ana| y t omc c| cmcn|s o| D arc bound t o bc cmp|y.
o |ar, |hi s has bccn a purc| y qua| i ta|i vc cxcrci c. Howcvcr, gi vcn
ui |ab| c |a| i t i ca| da|a, |on i ng |hc quant i |a| i vc countcrpart o| D i s
a rou| i nc ta k. I ndccd, a| | wc ha c |o do i s |o coun| |hc numbcr i . o|
pcop| c i n ca h cc| | S,)' and di vi dc i | by |hc tota| numbcr P o| pcop| c i n
|hc soci c|y S. Wc | hu gc| |hc quantitativ div rsity matrix = ( | / P) N . . ] .
Thi matri x i an In X n array o| |rac|i on .
Lc| u h na| | y g| i mp a| |hc onccp| o| a soci a| c |ass h r t brought to
|hc |orc by Marx .md Lng | i n | hci r m morab| c ommunist Manie to
o| | 848. .md di s| i ngui hcd |rom |hat o| |a| us by Wcbcr | 22 . |or
cxamp| c, |hc |a|us o| whi |c-co| | ar work r i hi ghcr |han |hat o| b| uc
co| |ars a| though bot h groups arc pcci c o| thc worki ng- | a gcnus. S| i | | ,
mo t Amcri can oci a| cicnt i | hav ci |hcr i cnorcd th conccp| o| c| a
or con|u. cd i | wi |h |ha| o| . |a|u

( Buncc | a. han and Go| d|horp
2007 . Yc| i | i s qui | obvi ous |ha| occupa|i on. arc groupcd i n|o oci a|
c| a cs. wh ncc |hc |orm r arc rc| i ab|c i ndi ca|ors o| |hc | at| r. |or i n-
|ancc i n mo. | soci |i cs |h ru| i ng c| ass i s composcd o| | h cxccut i vc. o|
bi g corpora|i ons, | andown r

and ranch r s or th i r mod r n coun|crpart .
agribu i nc , CLO ) bankcr , and rcn| i cr . Surc| y |hc c pcop| c arc no|
in |hc amc soci a| c| a as |hci r cmp| oycc . th ir i ncomc, | |c t y| c, and
po| |i ca| c|ou| arc |ar upcrior |ho o| | hci r ubordi na|c and ' 0 arc
| hci r a sc| and | i |c xpcctanci cs. Thcrc|orc, as ari zny 200J . 2 | 7 pu|
i |, wc hou| d wr

| |hc conccp| o| c| a i ntcrcs| |rom |hc dyi ng c| u|chc

o| Marxi m ( Scc a|so Giddcns and H |d cd . | 82. Wri gh| cd. 005 .
To i gnor c| a di h r nc i s u t as wrong a ho| di ng |ha| on| y uch
di Ib r ncc ma|t r in both dai | y | i |c and i n 0 i a| ci ncc. Ignori ng |h
vari ou ` |a| i on i n | i | ` i n dai | y ma||cr can cau ohcn c and crca|
po ib|c rcacti on |rom nubbi ng |o puni hmcn| |or in ubordi na|ion. And
i gnori ng | hcm whi | doi ng oci a| rc carch amount |o ovcr|ooki ng |ri kcs
ri o| , pa ant rcvo| t . and oci a| rc o| u|i on , a w | | a vari ou mccha-
ni m o| oci a| contro| and oci a| rc| i c| |rom gi vi ng a| m and promi -
i ng u |i cc i n t hc a||cr| i |c |o bca| i ng up | abor organi zcrs, and rcp| aci ng
dcmocracy wi |h di c|a|orshi p. Soci a| c| a c arc no| Marxi | i n cn|i on .
| hci r cmcrgcncc i cocva| wi | h |ha| o| ci vi | i za|i on. Wha| i charac|cri s|i c
o| Marxi m i |hc | hcsi |ha| c|a | rugg|c i |hc cngi nc o| hi s|ory. Whi | c
| hi s thc i ha an i mpor|an| grai n o| t rut h, i | |ad |o givc propcr crcdi | t o
thcr ngi nc | 0 i a| changc such a ri a| ri ovcr na| ura| rc ourc
|cchno| gica| i nno a|i n and thc prcad | | i |cracy. Worsc. |hc t hcsi o|
|hc pri ma y o| c| a | cads | cxa crbati ng thc u /|hcm sp|i |, and cxhor| i ng
72 Political Philosoph
|o c| a s . o| idari ty whcn appca| i ng |o common i n|crc |s and pa|rio|i m
mi cht bc morc c||cc|i vcand | css conduci vc |o i o| cncc.
Thc |hcsi s a| so i gnorc. |hc |ac| | ha| bccau. c mo | pcop| c do not dc-
| nc t hcm c| vc. cxc| u i c|y or cvcn pri mari | y in cconomi c |cnns, |hcy
do no| a| i gn |hcm c| vc po| i |i ca| | y |hc way Marxi | u cd to t hi nk. Thu.
Amcri can |cc| workcr and | ru kcrs do no| cc |hcm c| cs a. mcmbcr.
o| thc worki nc c| a , and arc morc | i kc| y |o i dcn| i |y wi |h |ouh-|a| ki ng
mi | | ionai rcs w ari ng can and wi ndbrcakcr |han wi t h cduca|cd | i bcra|
in uit s. | n poh| i c and mark | i ng. appcarancc |rumps r a| i |y.
5. Participation and 10bi l i ty
Thc sourcc o| a| | so i a| s|ri |c i |hc u vs. |hcm sp|i | . | n | u i on mak
|or i n| gra|i on and | u i on |or onH ic| . Thc m chani n at |hc m -
cro. oci a| | c c| i | hi . I | an i ndi vidua| is a| | owcd |o par| i ci pat in |hc
act i vit ics o| a c r|ai n group h wi | | no| oppos it. By con|ra t . h wi | |
| nd to . hun or cv n hght whatc cr group xc| udc. hi m. I n o|h r words.
|ar| i ci pa|i on-part i cu| ar| y coopcra|i on-uni |cs. whcrcas margi na| i ty
di vi d . I n par| i cu| ar, par| i ci pat i on o| any ki nd-i n |hc cconomy, |hc
cu| |urc, or | h po| i ty-i nducc |hc acqui i t i on or rci n|orc m n| o| |hc
ru| i ng idco|ogy. in parti cu| ar b | i c| in thc | gi t i macy o| |hc soci a| ordcr.
Such sharcd b| i c| wi | | di couragc rcb | | i on. I| i on| y wh n thc di crcp-
ancy bc|wccn i dca| s or my|h and rca| i ty bccomc obviou |ha| pcop|c
s|art to doub| rccci vcd opi ni on, pro|c t agai n t ` |hcm, and cvcn| ua| | y
wi h |or rcgi mc changc. |ar| i ci pat i on i t hc ccmcn| o| oci c|y. whcrca
margi na| i ty gcncra|c oci a| s| ri |c or apa| hy.
|| i thcrc|orc i mpor|ant to c| ari |y |hc conccp| o| par| i ci pa|i on and
i | dua| , t ha| o| margi na| i |y. Lct u con i dcr |wo arbi trary oci a| group-
A and B i n a gi v n oci | y. Th d grcc o| par| i ci pa|i on o| | h A i n B
act i vit i c or p(A, B), may bc | cqua| |o th numcroJ|y o| thc i n|cr cc-
|i on o| |hc c A and B di vi dcd by | hc popu| a|i on o| B. Li kcwi . |h
d grcc o| par| i ci pa|i on o| |hc B i n A . ac|i vi | i may b cqua|cd |o |h
numcro i | y o| |hc ainc i ntcr cc|i on di vi d d by | h popu| a| ion o| A. I n
standard ymbo| .
p(A, B) = IA n BI / I BI p B, A) = IA n BI / IAI
whcn n symbo| i zc |ogica| i ntcr ccti on. and IA n BI t hc dcgrcc o| ovcr|ap
bc|wccn thc ct A and B. Thc gcncrahza|i on o| |hc c |ormu| ac |or an
arbi |rary numb r | soci a| gr ups i | c|| t |h rcadcr.
Citizen and Polity 73
Corrc pondi ng| y. |hc margi na| i | y o| |hc A` s wi th rcgard |o B is |hc
comp|cmcn| o| p A, B) |o uni |y whi | c |hc mari na| i |y o| |hc B` s wi th
rc pcc| |o A i |hc comp| cmcn| o| p(B, A) |o uni ty. I n ob i ous ymbo| ,
m(A, B) = | - p(A, B), m( B, A) = | - p( B, A)
C| car|y, |hc va| uc. o| |hc |wo p. and |hc | wo m. | i c bc|wccn and
| . Zcro and | CO' pond |o ni | .md |o|a| par|i i pa|i on (or margi na| i| y)
rcspccti c| y. Thc standard mca urc o| i ncomc i ncqua| i ty namc| y |hc
Gi ni i nd ' X, can doub|c as .tn i ndi cator o| cconomic margi na| i |y. Anoth r
such i ndi ca|or i s |hc ra|c o| uncmp| oymcn|. Li kcwi c. voti ng |urnou| i
an i ndi ca|or o| po| i t i ca| par|i i pati on. .tnd t hc numbcr o| schoo| i ng y ar
i ndica|c cu| |ura| par|icipa|i on.
cx| I po i | | hat th d grcc o| g|oba| par| i ci pati on i n a | wo-| i r soci cty
qua| s t hc a crag o| | h |wo dcgrccs o| part i ci pa| i on.
1 =( 1 /2 rp(A. B) + pC B A)l
Th xt rcmc cascs arc
Total in lusion A = B, p(A, B) = p(B, A) = | 1 = |
Total exclusion A ( B = 0 p(A, B) = p(B, A) = 0, 1 =
Thc |i r ' l ca c i cxcmp| i hcd by thc ma| | Amazoni an and | nui t tri bcs,
whcrc |hc on| y igni |i cant di vi i on arc bi o| ogi ca| scx and ag ) . Thc
cond ca i |ha| o| thc ca | ' Y |cin. Mod rn soci tic ar in bc|vccn
|ho |wo cx|r mc . Th gcn ra| i za|i on o| thc prcvi ou |ormu| a. |o an
arbi |rary numbcr o| oci a| groups i s|rai gh||orward. Lc| u ncx| | ack|
ano|hcr |ac|or o| coh i on. mobi | i |y.
Socia| mobi | i |y i o| our thc abi | i |y to movc bc|wc n ocia| group .
Mobi | i ty may bc ci |hcr hori zon|a| hangi ng 0 cupa|i on or v r|i ca|
( movi ng upward or downward i n a | ra|i |i cd occ|y ). | ubmi t | ha| so-
cia| mobi | i ty o| bo| h kind con|ri bu|c to oci a| cohc i on bccau c |hc
i ndi i dua| wi th opport uni ti c . i n tcad o| rcscn| i ng soci a| cxc| usi on. can
hopc |o ci t hcr changc occupat i on or c| i mb up |hc soci a| | addcr. An car|y
cxamp| c i that o| anci cn| Chi nc c oci c|y o| |hc Con|uci an cra. whcrc
| hc ru| i ng i dco| ogy madc i | po si b| c |or any gi |tcd man |o attai n |hc
hi ghcr cchc| n o| |hc w | |-pai d and hi gh| y rc pcc|cd burcaucracyby
on|ras| t |hc ri gi di |y o| |h | ndi an as|c sy |cm. Tw mi | | cnni a | atcr
|hc Ot| man |mpi rc hcrcd i mi | ar oppor|uni |i c . And un| i | rcccn|| y |hc
74 Political Philosoph
ni |cd S|a|c |oo cnt i ccd mi | | ion o| pcop| c around |hc wor|d wi |h |hc
promi c o| ri i n | hrouch |hc ranks |hrouh hccr mcri | , and o| goi ng
|rom rac. |o ri chc | hrouch hard work.
Rank i. b | |o|cra|cd whcn |rong| y as oi atcd wi |h mcri |. owadays,
|hc wcakncss o| |hc | abor mo cmcn| in |hc Uni |cd |a|cs comparcd wi th
Wc. |cm |uropc may bc duc no| on| y |o |hc rc| u |ancc o| Amcri can
cmp| oycr |o hi rc uni oni zcd workcrs, bu| a| 0 |o |hc pcr i |cncc o| |hc
so-ca| | cd Amcri can drcam cv n i n |hc |acc o| | h harp i ncrcasc in i n-
comc i ncquah| y i nc | hc | 80s. Howc cr | hi i an cmpi ri ca| qucst i on
|o bc i nv |i ga|cd wi |h thc hc| p o| a rc| i ab| c mobi | i |y i ndi ator. Lc| u
|h r |or | ry |o sc| up on such a oci a| i ndica|or-|ha| o| mobi | i|y in a
soci cty ra|hcr |han o| an i ndi i dua| in a oci ty. Thc |orncr, un| i kc |h
|a|tcr. i a bu| k |rai t . ) Wc ha| | |o u on vcr| ica| nobi | i ty bccau c bci ng
|h hard : t |o at|ai n. i | i s a| so |hc morc po| i |i cahy rc| cvan| . Howcvcr.
|hcr i. on t hi ng |hat nccds |o bc mcnt ioncd. Soci a| mobi | i |y ha nothi ng
|o do wi |h |hc |Icxi bi | i ty o| |hc | abor markc|-|hat i . |hc unrc. tri c| d
|r cdom to | r -|hat |hc nco| i bcraI and t hci r acadcmic hc| p r. d mand
|oday i n ord r |o mod mi z ` | h cconomy.
A po i b| c i ndicator o| cr| i ca| . oci a| mobi | i |y i s |hc |rcqu ncy wi th
whi ch pcop|c c| i mb up and down |hc oci a| sca| c ovcr a ccr|ai n pcriod,
such a |hc | i mc bc|wccn ccnsu c . | n |hc si mp| cst ca c, |hat o| |wo s| ra|a,
H and L, |hc corrc pondi ng |rcqucnci c wi | | b ca| |cd
IIPl\ ard mobili! L H . ,,+
downward mobility H L : ""
Lc| us | na| | y |udy |h gcn ra| ca . t ha| o| ocic|y wi| h N mcmbcr-
di vi d d a| a gi vcn |i mc i n|o v ra| group o| a givcn ki nd. conomi c.
po| i |i ca| , or cu| | ura| . or what havc you. on i dcr |ur|hcr | h numb r M lj
o| pcop|c who ovcr a gi v n p riod. uch as | h i n|cr a| b |wccn ccn usc .
ra c |rom roup i |o roup ). Wc gathcr |hc c numbcr i n|o |h ma|ri x M
= | / [ M). Thc di agona| c|cmcn| Mii N i |hc |rac|i on o| pcop|c who
stay i n group i . By con|ra t . t hc c| cmcnt M; . I N rcprcscn|s |hc i n|cnsi ty
o| thc soci a| tra||c bct wccn |hc cc| | i and.
Si ncc on| y thc o||-di agona| c| cmcn| o| M rcprc cnt soci a| mobi | i |y,
|hc numbcr
,, = | /N) I L . . M . - Tr MI
I i
Citizen and Polity 75
whcrc Tr M rcad 1/ the tra e ofM" ) i |h un o| |hc di agona| c|cmcn|s
Mil o| M, mcasurc. thc mobi | it y o| |hc gi vcn . oci cty duri nc |hc pcriod
in qucst i on.
Hcrc arc |hc |wo cx| rcmc ca c .
( a) Sta 'IlWlt so 'i t M. = 8. M. , whcrc 81 , = | i | i = , , and 0
I J /I

o|hcrwi c, J = 0
b Maximall mobile societ M . . = 0, l = l IN) L. M . . .
So |ar wc havc no| di di ngui hcd |on::a| | y bc|wccn uppcr and | ow r
soci a| tra|a nor. cons qu n|| y. bc|w cn upward .md downward mo-
bi | i |y. Thi di t i nc|i on can bc i n| roduccd i n |hc ' 0 ia| mobi | i |y ma|ri x
M. a| | i ng M' |hc upward and M . . |hc downward mov : . it sccn:
rcasonab| c |o . ct
J = ( l IN) L, . M
J- = l IN) L . . M .
W ca| | net so 'iol mobilit
| hc cxcc o| upward mobi | ity ovcr downward mobi | i |y. Thi i ndi ca|or
o| ocia| changc wi | | bc u cd in thc ncx| cc| i on.
|i na| |y. how i mobi | i |y rc|a|cd | o i ncqua| i | y'. I conccturc t ha| , as
|ra| i hca|i on mcrg . vcrt i ca| mobi | i| y b comc po i b| un| c xp| i c-
i | | y prohi bi tcd, a i n | h Hi ndu ca |c y t m. r |urth r hypo|hc i z tha|
i n |act mobi | i |y r cs 4ccp| y un|i | |hc di |ancc bc|wccn rung mak i |
prac|i ca| | y i mpo b| c |or an i ndi vi dua| |o c| i mb up |hc | addcr. |rom |hcn
on i | i a|| thc way down. I n hor|, I ubmi | |ha| |hc mobi | i |y- i ncqua| i ty
cur ha |hc hap o| an i nvcr|cd U. Soci occonomi c |a|i | i c |or | h
| a | |hrcc dccadcs i n | hc Uni |cd S|atc con|i rm |hc downward cc| i on o|
| hc curvc A| brccht and A| brcch| 2007 ; |c | i ng o| | hc upward par| o| |hc
hypo|hcsi zcd curvc rcqui rc ob crvi ng a oi c|y i n qui ck | ran i |i on |rom
cqua| i |y |o s|ra| i |i ca| ion. Whc|hcr vcr|i ca| po| i|i ca| mobi | i ty i si mi | ar
i s yct |o bc i nvc | iga|cd.
6. Cohesion
A| | so i c| i arc m rc or |c hc| r g ncou . but omc arc morc 0-
hc i vc | css di vi dcd |han othcr . Lct u i nt r ducc a i mp| c mca urc o|
76 Political Philosoph
|hc dcgrcc o| cohc on o| a oci a| nc|work. A nctwork o| any ki nd may
bc rcprc. cn|cd by a graph, a ma|hcma| ica| objcc| |ha| consi . | s o| a sc|
o| nodc oi ncd by cdgc . I n |hc casc o| soci a| nctwork or y. tcm. , |hc
nodc. rcprcscn| pcr oiv or organi zati on , and |hc cdcc |hc bond |ha|
kccp |hcm |ogc|hcr.
f'ig. 2.4. network formed by four units joined by at most ix bonds.
inee tbere are everal kinds of odal relation, from friendship to cooperation,
a society must be represented by a family of graphs-as many as kinds.
Ca| | i ng N |hc numbcr o| nod
and t: th numb r o| cdgc wc dc|i nc
|hc cohesion o| | h nc|work as
1 = 2E 1 N( - | .
Thi i a numbcr tha| | ic bc|wccn 0 and | . | n |hc graph o| |i gurc 4,
N = 4 and |h maxi ma| numbcr o| po i b| c cdgc i E = 1 /2 N ( N - 1
= 6. Hcrc ar |our ou| o| | hc cvcn po. i b| cohc i on va| u .
E = O . = 0; E = 2. K = 1 13' E = 4. K = 2/3' E = 6, K = 1 .
Wc ncx| i ntroducc a mca ur o| |hc ial power o| an i ndi i dua| or
organi zati on. u h a |h abi | i | y o| a pcrson |o rccrui | n w m mb r |or
an organi za|i on, and thc abi | i |y o| an organi za|ion |o changc |hc |ruc-
| urc o| ano|hcr oci a| y 'cm. Wc dc|i nc uch powcr P as thc abi | i ty to
crcatc or dc troy oci a| bond in an organi za|i on, morc p ci hca| | y. a
|hc rati o o| | hc um o| | hc numbcr C o| ncw| y crca|cd oci a| bonds and
|hc numbcr D o| dc troycd ocia| bond by |hc |o|a| numbcr o| possi b| c
bond i n |hc nc|work.
p = C + D) 1 # | possi b| c bonds whcrc
C + D E and # possi b| bonds = ( 1 /2 N N - 1 ) .
Obvi ou | y | hcrc arc a many ki nd o| s ci a| powcr as |acc|s | c i a|
| i |c. po| it i ca| c nomi c and cu| |ura| . Thus po| i |i a| powcr i |hc abi |i ty
78 Political Philosoph
Noti ce that where'L the fr t col umn l L t properti c of per on the
trai t s i n the second and t hi rd col umns are gl obal or , y. temi . Here, a.
eL ewhere, col 1 ecti ve or bul k ) properti e, emerge from i ndi vi dual acti on.
and att i t ude, -whi ch i n t urn are i nfl uenced by the former see, e. g. ,
Col eman 1 990; Bunge 2003a .
However, part i ci pation fa ors cohe. i on onl y up to a poi nt , after whi ch
i t erode, cohe, i on. The rea, on i s that, when too many peopl e compete
for th . , are resource , [md when ev ' ryone m ' ddl es i n th . affai rs of oth
er , membershi p i n the group cea e to be adv(Ul tageou . Thus i t may
be uppo, ed that the i ntegrati on vs. palti ci pati on curve i an i nv ' rted U.
More pre isely, I t 'nlati vel y , uggest that the form of the dependence of
i ntegrati on l upon parti i pati on n i '
1 = 4n I - n) .
Thi . functi on takes t he val ue 0 for ei t h r ni l or total part i ci pati on. and
attai n, i t maxi mum nam l y I , for mi ddl i ng part i ci pat i on (n = 1 /2) .
A, for social mobi l i ty, I , uggest that, whereas upward mobi l i ty contrib
utes to cohe, ion, downward mobi l i t y weaken, it. Roughl y most p ople
feel contented, or at l east not i ncl i ned to revol t agai n, t the , tatu, quo,
if every year t hey ' ee more new ri ch than new poor-or ar just led to
bel ieve that t hi ' i ' ' 0. More preci ' el y, a po - i l i e net mobi l i t y J 0)
enhanc ' cohesi on, whereas a negat i ve net mobi l i ty J 0) weaken '
i t . And of cour 'e J = 0 makes no di fference i l her way.
Fi nal l y, I propo 'e that ' oci al eohe ' ion re ' ul t ' from both i ntegrati on
and mobi l i t y wi t h equal wei ght ' :
K = t /2 t + J
Thu hi gh net mobi l i ty may ompen. at for low i nt grati on du to
parti i pati on, and can er. 1 y. But a negati ve net mobi l i t y can of et th
b n fi t of parti ci pati on to t h poi nt that K = O. Thi wi l l r ul t i n oei al
col lap e unl e tools of effi ci ent oci al control are employed cunni ngl y
and rut hl e l y.
Ha i ng prai ed oci al cohe i on, l et me warn agai n t the hol i t i c
tendency to regard i t a t he summum bonum. I ndeed, maxi mal oci al
cohe i on, a advocated by total i tari ans and communi tarian both secul ar
and rel i gi ou . i t i fi ng becau e every i ndi vi dual i n a t i ghtl y kni t com
muni t y i bi ng watched l ect ured (uld puni hed by al l hi s nei ghbors.
Thi s i s n f the rea. ons that young peopl e who yearn r i ndependence
Citizen and Polity 79
tend to l eave e mai l town and tri ct rc1 i gi ou communi t ies. A Sp,UlLh
pro erb put s i t succi nctl y: "Smal l town, bi C hel l .' Let us therefore ai m
for mi ddl i ng rather than maxi mal so i al cohesi on. The . are hol d. for
everyt hi ng el se. othi ng i n excess. Ne er maxi mi ze anythi ng, because
al l the propert i e. of a t hi ng are i nterrel ated so that maxi mi zi ng one of
them i. l i kel y to mi ni mi ze others.
oci al cohee i on can be regul ated t hrough l egi . l at i on. I ndeed a . tate
can ei th ' r enfor e cul t ural assi mi lat i on t he mel t i ng pot paradi gm or en
courage mul t icul t ural i . TIl t he mosai . paragon . l ubmi t t hat both forced
a imi l ati on and unrestri ct d mul t i cul t ural i m af ' Und 'TI10 ratk. The
former because it i 'oer i ve, and the l atter b 'cau e it tol erates whatev 'r
undemocrati c tradi ti on. an , t hni c group may wi h to i mport- uch a.
wi dow buri ng, honor ki l l i ng, cl i tori dectomy, arranged matTi age, forced
rel i gi ou ' i ndoctri nati on and vi ol ent ectari an practi ces. I n addi t ion to
t hreateni ng human ri ght. and democracy unr . tri cted mul ti cul t ural i . m
i n ol ve. t he di vi sion of soci ety i nto ghettoe . . I . ugge. t rej ecti ng both
forced a . . i mi l at i on and unr . tri cted mul t i cul t ural i . m and pract i ci ng
s clecli e muLti 'uLlttralisrn i nstead. ThL can. i sts i n mut ual accommoda
ti on and i n tal rati ng whatever practi ce. do not i ol ate human ri ghts.
Mar i n hapt r 3, Secti on 4.
At al l events, a soci al order i . worth pr ' ervi ng onl y i f i l i . bot h fai r
and ' U ' tai nabl e. Otherwi se i l S member ' a r better 0[[ ei ther t ri vi ng [or
t ructural reform ' or mi grat i ng. However, the matter o[ ' U tainabi l i ty
cal l s for a speci al ecl ion.
7. Sustai nability: Tbe ficiency Factor
a matter how coh iv a 0 i ety may be it won' t be vi abl e, I
al on u tai nabl i n the l ong term, if i t l ack ' the requi i t natural and
human re our . Thi nk of a nomadi tri b of h rd m n duri ng a e r
drought or of a nral soci ety d pend nt on a ' i ngl e cult ivar vul n rabl
to a pl ague. Tru pi l l agi ng cara an . pl und ri ng of coloni e , and for i gn
a i ' tance may b ource ' of i ncome for a whi l . But l arg -scal i ol nc
and i mperi al i m are notori ousl y hazardou , a wel l a characterized by
di mi ni hi ng return , 0 that t hey do not en ure teady re enue.
As for humani tarian rel i ef, i t i more often promi ed than del i vered;
when del i vered i t often come wi th pol i ti cal stri ng attached; and when
cont i nued for purel y pol i t ical rea on i t rui n local farmer and craft men.
Be i de . genui ne and la ti ng devel opment i many- i ded and el f-gen
erated. I t re ul t from 1 0 a1 ef rt ompetent management and h n t
l eadershi p, rather than by occasi onal handouts. Thi s i why the early
S Political Philosoph
enthusi a. m for top-down devel opment hown by i nt mat i onal agcnei c
has col ed down over the past two decade. ( ee Kennedy 2(6) .
I submi t that the onl y safe hedge agai nst soci al decl i ne i . high overal l
effci ency. Thi s L defi ned as = Outputllnput, where the output come.
from di ver. i fi ed producti ve work rather than from thi e ery, bandi t ry, co
l oni al . poi l . forei gn subsi dy. or mo i ng money. Usi ng effci ency rather
than, . ay, GOP. ha. the fol l owi ng advantage . . Fi r. t effci en y i n l ude.
non-monetary good , such a. oei al ervice . S 'cond, i t i ncl udes taci t l y
th ' re. oure 'ful ness of t h ' peopl e and ' l ude t he i ncome deri vi ng fom
act i i ti es other than honest toi l ' fnal l y it dL suad 's u fom u i ng a11i fci al
weal t h uni ts such a t h ' Ameri can dol l ar.
Actual l y, the i nput shoul d i ndud ' wi th a negati ve si gn the valu '
of 'nvi ronm ' ntal depr dati on both at home ,UJd abroad-,UJ in l u i on
that decreases of cour e t h ' rati o i n que t i on. Thi i becau. ' though
un. u. pected by mO.t economi . t . t he non-r newable re. ources are fni te
and moreover dwi ndl i ng fa. t . I n . hort . the Output in the d fi ni t i on of
effci ency i . t he total rev nue from honest work or rather t he effci ency
of t hi . acti vi ty; and t h I nput i ncl udes al l t he re. ource. uti l i z d, both
natural and cul t ural , I ss the green co. t. Regrettabl y t h I an r can onl y
b gu . . d, b cau. e nobody know. how to m a. ure i t , and anyway no
government keeps track of i t .
Fi nal l y, I ' uggest t hat t he degree ofsusfainabilif a of a ' oci ety equal '
the product of it ' co he ' ion by it . effi ci ency:
a = 1 .
onsi der th fol l owi ng l i mi t case . :
CriminaL 0 iet : = 0 h nc c = 0 regardl of t h al ue of K.
CO Ie ociet : K = 0 h nc c = 0 regardl of t h val ue of .
Cooperative society of ki l l d peopl e: l arg K and h nce l arg c.
The above formul a " a = K . E, " ummari ze the chal l enge to pre ent
day societi e : To i nvent way to i ncrea e bth t hei r soci al cohe i on wi thi n
rea on and thei r effi ciency, i n order to enhance t hei r survi val chance.
Let me cl o e thi s ecti on by posi ng t hree open probl em for further
research. The fr t i t hi . We have treated cohe i on and effi ci ency
a mutual l y i ndependent vari abl e , but act ual l y they are not. In fact,
c h i on i ncreas i n me becaus i t faci l i tat ol l ecti ve endeav r
and decrea expendi t ures on se uri ty. Al 0 a hi gh nati onal i n ore
Citizen and Polity 81
faci li t ates wide pread acce t o natural and cul tural re ource . A more
. ophL ti cated model . houl d be free from these l i mi tati on . .
Another probl em concern. the po . . i bl e dependence of vi abi l i ty upon
. oci odi er. i ty. Ecol ogi . t, ued t o t hi nk t hat bi odi ver, i ty i ncrea. e. i
abi l i ty. Thi s hypothe. i s i s no l onger hel d: nat ure can onl y provi de . 0
many habi tat. . J u. t a. there . eems to be an opt i mal bi odi ver. i ty val ue,
i t i . l i kel y that there i s an opt i mal . oci odi er. i ty al ue whi ch i. nei ther
maxi mal nor mi ni mal . The reason i l i kely to b ' that as oci odi ver i t y
i ncrease , 0 does the number of speci al i nterests some of whi ch are
bound t o be mutual l y confi - t i ng.
The t hi rd and l ast probl em i the toughest : Al l of t h ' above hypth
e '. are empi ri al l y te tabl e but they have yet to pa ' , empi ri cal t 'sts.
My ' u ' e for i ncl udi ng them i s that h ' r ' we are doi ng phi l o- ophy, not
sci ence. And i t i part of the job descri pt i on that pol it i al phi lo ' oph 'rs
. houl d l ook b yond the hori zon.
8. I ntersts: Your line and Ours
ormal peopl are both sel f-regardi ng and other-regardi ng. They l ook
after t h ir own i ntere. t . but th y a1 . o tak oth r peopl ' s i nterests i nto
account . That is t hey often do favors to others parti ci pate in coopera
t i ve vent ures and sel dom i f ever engage in ant i ' oci al behavi or. Onl y
p ' ychopat hs ar ut terl y ' el f ' h. Yet the upholders of radi cal rat i onal "
choi c t heories hol d that everyone at tempt ' to maxi mi : hi ' own xpected
ut i l i t i e " wi th total di sregard for other peopl e' , i nterest .
I n part icular, the economi c theory of pol i ti cs or rather vot i ng bhav
i or hol d ' t hat the rat i onal ci t i zen has no i ntere , t i n vot i ng becau ' e he
know that a i ngl e vote i s unl ikel y to make a di f rence ( Down 1 957'
01 on J 965 . Moreover thi theory holds that ci tizen ordinari l y vote for
th i r ( p rcei ed) i nter . : They alway ote with th i r wallets. Undoubtedly
uch a choice i tark]y i mmoral accordi ng to the ociological defini ti on ' I m
moral = Anti oci al . But wh ther peopl do a t i n that way i an mpi ri cal
quest i on, not a moral one. Let U ' gl i mp e at the empi ri cal e i dence.
Over the pa t few decade , a number of p ychol ogi t ha e conducted
experi ment to check whether i n fact al l p opi e are maxi mi zer . We hal l
not revi ew i n detai l the cl assi cal experi mental tudj es of Kahneman and
hi coworker ( Kahneman, Sl ovi c, and Tver ky 1 982 , becau e they are
rat her wel l known. One of t hem i that we tend to grow fond of t hi ngs
uch as t i e , l ong after we have ceased u i ng them-whence the habi t
f a cumul at ing junk i n t he att ic . Let u report i n tead n a D w re ent
t udi e t hat c nfrm and enl arg the previ ou f ndi ng .
H2 Political Philosoph
1 . Human i11fants are mpathi ' and altrui ti . Al l parent know t hat y ung
pre-, chool chi l dren and even 1 - month ol d i nfants, feel concerned
for peer in di tres . Warneken and Toma el l o 2006 ha e recent l y
' onfirmed t hi s findi ng, shmvi ng t hat i nfant: wi l l aI . 0 do somet hi ng
to hel p adul t s faced wi th a pract ical probl em that they are unable t o
' 01 e.
Ht punish f;'ee riders. Fehr and Ga hter _00 f und t hat ordi nari i
pe pie puni sh "fee rider
e en knowi ng that t hey run a ri . k. That i .
people are wi l l i ng to put up wi th re enge \"hen i t corne t uphol di ng
omm n decen y i n t hei r communi ty. C uld thi . b becau ' e we cheri h
. ci al value ? We d not kn w yet .
3. Men ordinarii ' Plllli h unfair ( pponelll but mpathi , e l'\ ith fair on s
( Si nger et al . 2006). That i :, moral on iderati on may outwei dh "rati -
nal " cal cul ati on ven when j udgi ng people we di sl i ke. I t hi becau. e
our en e of Cai rnes has not been utterly corrupted by the struggl e for
l i fe . We do n t know.
4. We judge the ompetence of 'cmdid aes on tlwir fa ial app 'aran. 'e
i nstantl y and wi thout b theri ng to exami ne thei r record Tod ro et
al . 2005). l. t hi : be au. e we are hi l dren of the screen and l ave, t
advert i . i ng . We d n t know.
5. We ra ly make mplex decisions Oil the basi of areful deliberation
( Dj k terhui et at . 2006 . F r exampl , di ffcul t choi s, a b t we n
hOll e , are mor often unc n ci u than hoi e between si mpl i tem
su h a,' ' ocks, whi 'h d not i n ol ve areful cal ul ali on. More er,
nap deci i on may lead to good ch i ce . I t hi . because del i berat i n
tend, to focus on ,el ected trai t of the t hi ng i n que:ti on whi l e mi ssi ng
the \ hol e? Or because most of us are too l azy to lear \ hat it t akes
to make wel l -grounded deci i ons? Or el se be ause emoti on override,
reason on matters that are l i kel y t i nfuen e our l i fe, l yl e'. We do not
kn w yet.
6. Mo r (Ameri 'an) \ oters aI" ab small) i /lornt (r politi s, and the
candidates 'OUll 01 this Hardi n 2002 . For exampl e, Cal i f ri an
otef vot d for the so-cal l ed t hr e- t ri ke l aw, that mandate pri on
sentences for repeat offender regardl ess of the magni t ude of thei r of
fenses whi ch can be as petty as steali ng a s l i e of pizza.
The fi r t t hree fi ndi ng undermi ne the pe i mj tic hypothe i that we
are an ba i cal l y bad (anti oci al , i mmoral . Actual 1 y, a Robert Loui
Steven on argued per ua i el y, we are nei ther ful ly bad nor ful ly good,
but hal f and hal f. By ontra t, the Ia t t hree fi ndi ng ugge t that we are
not a rati onal ( not even economi cal l y a po t ul ated by rati onal -choi ce
thcori cs. Whi l tru t hi doce not confnT i rrati onal i . m that i , th view
that irrational i ty i s goo for lL. Rel yi ng on fcar or greed frst i mprcs i on
or good TV i mage, famboyant rhetoric or deep-scated prejudi c can b
dL astrous: i t can l ead to tyranny and war. W mu t try and ovcrcome irra-
Citizen and Polity 83
t ional i ty i nstead of al l owi ng i t to rul e u . So, the defenders of reason nlay
ha e been descri pti vel y wrong even whi le bei ng normati vel y ri ght.
Rat i onal i ty shoul d be the moral and pol i ti cal nonn preci . el y because
it is not the statL t i al norm. Let two exampl e, suffi ce to gau ge t he di
. a, trou. re, ul t . of i rrati onal pol i t i c . . When peopl e feel under t hreat
they t end to fol l ow any l eader. who magni fy t he t hreat and promL e
to save t hem from t he ' enemy,' whet her real or i magi nary. ThL wa
Mar ' hal l Gori ng' an w ' r t o t he quest i on : How di d you and your
fri ends ' ucc ' ed i n ral l yi ng t hc German peopJ c around Hi t l er? Sc ' ond
cxample : Wh ' n t hc Amcri can arnled forces l aunched t hei r at tack on
I raq i n 2003 t h 'y had no pl an for governi ng I raq, prcvent i ng t he
fore ' ceabl ' i n urgency and ' cct ari an i ol cnce or recon t ruct i ng
what they woul d be dc. t royi ng. Thc aggr ' s i on wa ' l argel y fuel 'd
by gr 'ed for oil ,md pl anned by i dcol ogue ' trai ncd or i nspi r ' d by the
pol i ti cal phi l o. opher Leo St rau, , . However the pol i t i cal rol of i ntel
l ectual s deserve, a new . ect i on.
9. Intellectuals and Politics
Al l i deologi es ha e b n in ented, defended, or cri t ici zed by i ntel
l ectual s, and al l go rnment. have been , upported or undermi ned by
i ntel lectual '-acqui e ' ci ng si l entl y more often than vocal l y, but ' ometi me '
i n ' piri ng mal efc pol i cies. I n The Guilded Age, a ' at i re of corrupt i on
of Washi ngton, D. C. , i n the 1 70s Mark Twai n and CharJe ' Warner
quoted the fol lowi ng fom the great German poet Chri stoph Wi el and:
' Thrasyl lu " wi t h hi ' unai ded i ntel l ect, woul d not have ' ucceeded, but
' uch wort hi e ' can al way ' fnd rogue ' who for money wi J l l end brai ns,
whi ch i j ust a w 1 1 a. to hav brai n ' of t h i r own. '
Th i ntel l ectual ' ta k is-a- \ i pol i t i . whether con t nl cti ve or cri t i
caL rai ' moral conf ict. : Shal l I enter th pol i ti cal fray at al l . I f 0
how? a ' afrallc-lireur or a ' a party m mb r . I f I do joi n a party wi l l J
urr nder my i nd pend nc to party di ci pl i n ? I f I r mai n i ndi fi r nt
wi l l J b tray my l I ow cit izens? And i f I parti i pat a a di ci pl i ned party
member, wi l l I event ual l y betray my ci ence, for what dri ves pol i ti cs are
i ntere t rather than ei ther knowl edge or moral s .
As a matter of fact i nt el 1 ectual part i ci pate i n pol i ti cs i n ei ther of
t hree capaci t i es: a techno] ogi t , i deo] ogue , or cri ti c . The expert may
be non-partisan, a i n t he ca e of the publ ic work engi neer and the
publ i c heal th or publ i c educati on offci al ; or he made work i n a pol i ti -
al l y en i ti ve depart m nt, such as i nteri or external affai rs defense or
i nf fflati n. I f the xprt work i n a purel y t chni cal apaci ty hi onl y
S Political Philosoph
moral conCCll is to do the b t hc can i n the publ i c c ervi ce. But i f the
expert is charged wit h execut i ng a parti e an pol i ti cal agenda1 , u h a.
ai l e i ati ng poverty or utt i ng taxe. on the ri h, he cannot evade moral
di l emma . . The . ame appl i e. , ajorfiori, to the i deol ogue and the desi gner
of pol i ci es and pl an, . Fi nal l y, the moral respon, i bi l i t y of the cri ti al
i ntel l ectual i e doubl e: to hi s profe . . i on and to hi e fel l ow ci ti zen . . Regret
tably, onl y a few i ntel lectual . , econded Wi I l i am James 1 987 when he
denounced the Phi l i ppi ne occupati on i n hi . 1 903 peech to th ' ew
Engl and Ant i - I mp ' ri al i t League' onl y a handful agre d wi th Ei nstei n
and Ru ' ' el l wh ' n they oppo ' d Worl d War I ' but qui te a f ' w when, hal f
a cent ury l ater they joi ned Bohr and t h ' Pugwa h group to warn agai nst
nucl ear Armageddon.
The fr. t moral di l ' mma of the i ntel l ' ctual i n pol i ti cs i thi ' : Shal l h '
e press hi m el f cl early, or shal l he ' p 'ak oracul arly, ' i ther becau ' he ha '
nothi ng to say or b cau. e h do . not want ordi nary fol k t o understand
hi m. I f honest , he wi l l choos c1 arity. If not, he wi J l xpres. hi msel f i n the
opaque styl of Hei degg r, th Mexi can pre. i d nt Lui . Ech verrfa, and
the central bank r Al an Gre nspan. To be hon . t , th pol i ti cal me . . age
has got to be cl ear, . 0 that th ci t i zen may form a w l 1 - i nformed opi ni on
and act i ntel l i gentl y i n.lead of bl i ndl y fol l owi ng . logans or exhortati on . .
The clari ty condi t i on i ' ' 0 cri ti cal that the Canadi an parl i am nt pa . ' ed
the Cl ari ty ct to force the Quebec ' eparat i st to frame clearly the ref
erendum que ' ti on, whether t h voter ' favor i ndependence-whi ch the
Parti Quebecois had attempted t o di ' gui ' e as soverei gnty-a ' soci at i on"
and ' ren wed federal i sm:
related moral di lemma faced by t he i nt el l ectual who enter ' pol i t ic '
in any capaci t y i . wh th r or not to ' wear what may be call ed th Al t hi c
Oat h, namel y 4 I wi l l ' e k th t rut h and t el l i t ." A handful of publ i i ntel
I ctual -i n part i cul ar Vol tai re Marx, Dicken Zola. Bi n ' tei n, Ru " el l ,
K ynes Gal brai t h. and Chom ky-a w I I a uncounted sci ent i t , hav
honored th oat h. By contra t Pl ato, Ni tzsch Hei degger Leo Strau "
Henry Ki ssi nger and other champi on ' of t he ' nobl e l i e doctri ne hav
not e en taken t he oath. A for Ari stotl e and Machi avel l i , the honest
sci ent i t in them honored t he oath, wherea t he cunni ng pol i ti cal advi s
er betrayed i t . Fortunatel y, the betrayal of i ntel 1 ectual s of al l cal i ber to
the cause of truth has occasi onal l y been expo ed ( Benda 2006 [ 1 927] ;
Kol nai 1 938; Li l l a 200 1 ; Popper 1 962 [ 1 945] - Wol i n 1 993; Vacher 2004;
Bri cmont 2005 ).
The C l d War 1 945- 1 990 teo ted the objecti vi ty of publ i c i ntel l e tual s.
For i n t an e a number of famou profe s r , such a Pr derick Hay k
S Political Philosoph
enthusi a. m for top-down devel opment hown by i nt mat i onal agcnei c
has col ed down over the past two decade. ( ee Kennedy 2(6) .
I submi t that the onl y safe hedge agai nst soci al decl i ne i . high overal l
effci ency. Thi s L defi ned as = Outputllnput, where the output come.
from di ver. i fi ed producti ve work rather than from thi e ery, bandi t ry, co
l oni al . poi l . forei gn subsi dy. or mo i ng money. Usi ng effci ency rather
than, . ay, GOP. ha. the fol l owi ng advantage . . Fi r. t effci en y i n l ude.
non-monetary good , such a. oei al ervice . S 'cond, i t i ncl udes taci t l y
th ' re. oure 'ful ness of t h ' peopl e and ' l ude t he i ncome deri vi ng fom
act i i ti es other than honest toi l ' fnal l y it dL suad 's u fom u i ng a11i fci al
weal t h uni ts such a t h ' Ameri can dol l ar.
Actual l y, the i nput shoul d i ndud ' wi th a negati ve si gn the valu '
of 'nvi ronm ' ntal depr dati on both at home ,UJd abroad-,UJ in l u i on
that decreases of cour e t h ' rati o i n que t i on. Thi i becau. ' though
un. u. pected by mO.t economi . t . t he non-r newable re. ources are fni te
and moreover dwi ndl i ng fa. t . I n . hort . the Output in the d fi ni t i on of
effci ency i . t he total rev nue from honest work or rather t he effci ency
of t hi . acti vi ty; and t h I nput i ncl udes al l t he re. ource. uti l i z d, both
natural and cul t ural , I ss the green co. t. Regrettabl y t h I an r can onl y
b gu . . d, b cau. e nobody know. how to m a. ure i t , and anyway no
government keeps track of i t .
Fi nal l y, I ' uggest t hat t he degree ofsusfainabilif a of a ' oci ety equal '
the product of it ' co he ' ion by it . effi ci ency:
a = 1 .
onsi der th fol l owi ng l i mi t case . :
CriminaL 0 iet : = 0 h nc c = 0 regardl of t h al ue of K.
CO Ie ociet : K = 0 h nc c = 0 regardl of t h val ue of .
Cooperative society of ki l l d peopl e: l arg K and h nce l arg c.
The above formul a " a = K . E, " ummari ze the chal l enge to pre ent
day societi e : To i nvent way to i ncrea e bth t hei r soci al cohe i on wi thi n
rea on and thei r effi ciency, i n order to enhance t hei r survi val chance.
Let me cl o e thi s ecti on by posi ng t hree open probl em for further
research. The fr t i t hi . We have treated cohe i on and effi ci ency
a mutual l y i ndependent vari abl e , but act ual l y they are not. In fact,
c h i on i ncreas i n me becaus i t faci l i tat ol l ecti ve endeav r
and decrea expendi t ures on se uri ty. Al 0 a hi gh nati onal i n ore
Citizen and Polity 81
faci li t ates wide pread acce t o natural and cul tural re ource . A more
. ophL ti cated model . houl d be free from these l i mi tati on . .
Another probl em concern. the po . . i bl e dependence of vi abi l i ty upon
. oci odi er. i ty. Ecol ogi . t, ued t o t hi nk t hat bi odi ver, i ty i ncrea. e. i
abi l i ty. Thi s hypothe. i s i s no l onger hel d: nat ure can onl y provi de . 0
many habi tat. . J u. t a. there . eems to be an opt i mal bi odi ver. i ty val ue,
i t i . l i kel y that there i s an opt i mal . oci odi er. i ty al ue whi ch i. nei ther
maxi mal nor mi ni mal . The reason i l i kely to b ' that as oci odi ver i t y
i ncrease , 0 does the number of speci al i nterests some of whi ch are
bound t o be mutual l y confi - t i ng.
The t hi rd and l ast probl em i the toughest : Al l of t h ' above hypth
e '. are empi ri al l y te tabl e but they have yet to pa ' , empi ri cal t 'sts.
My ' u ' e for i ncl udi ng them i s that h ' r ' we are doi ng phi l o- ophy, not
sci ence. And i t i part of the job descri pt i on that pol it i al phi lo ' oph 'rs
. houl d l ook b yond the hori zon.
8. I ntersts: Your line and Ours
ormal peopl are both sel f-regardi ng and other-regardi ng. They l ook
after t h ir own i ntere. t . but th y a1 . o tak oth r peopl ' s i nterests i nto
account . That is t hey often do favors to others parti ci pate in coopera
t i ve vent ures and sel dom i f ever engage in ant i ' oci al behavi or. Onl y
p ' ychopat hs ar ut terl y ' el f ' h. Yet the upholders of radi cal rat i onal "
choi c t heories hol d that everyone at tempt ' to maxi mi : hi ' own xpected
ut i l i t i e " wi th total di sregard for other peopl e' , i nterest .
I n part icular, the economi c theory of pol i ti cs or rather vot i ng bhav
i or hol d ' t hat the rat i onal ci t i zen has no i ntere , t i n vot i ng becau ' e he
know that a i ngl e vote i s unl ikel y to make a di f rence ( Down 1 957'
01 on J 965 . Moreover thi theory holds that ci tizen ordinari l y vote for
th i r ( p rcei ed) i nter . : They alway ote with th i r wallets. Undoubtedly
uch a choice i tark]y i mmoral accordi ng to the ociological defini ti on ' I m
moral = Anti oci al . But wh ther peopl do a t i n that way i an mpi ri cal
quest i on, not a moral one. Let U ' gl i mp e at the empi ri cal e i dence.
Over the pa t few decade , a number of p ychol ogi t ha e conducted
experi ment to check whether i n fact al l p opi e are maxi mi zer . We hal l
not revi ew i n detai l the cl assi cal experi mental tudj es of Kahneman and
hi coworker ( Kahneman, Sl ovi c, and Tver ky 1 982 , becau e they are
rat her wel l known. One of t hem i that we tend to grow fond of t hi ngs
uch as t i e , l ong after we have ceased u i ng them-whence the habi t
f a cumul at ing junk i n t he att ic . Let u report i n tead n a D w re ent
t udi e t hat c nfrm and enl arg the previ ou f ndi ng .
alues and Morals: Individual and Social
Mo.| po| i |i ca| i u arc ahou| soci a| proh| cm . and thc c in | urn
in o| v uch va| uc a curi ty, |airn i nc| u i vcn - qua| i |y and
|rccdom. c cry onco|whi ch canhcci | h r cxpand d or hrunk. Va| ucs
ha r ccn| | yhccomc a| | | hc ragc i n Am rican po| i t i c . | ndc d. many
Am rican havchccnp rsuad d|ha|po| i |i c ha uddcn|yhccom ac| a h
h twc n|hoscconccrn dahoutva| u and|ho whoarcno| .Mor ovcr
| hc Chri | i an Ri ght c| ai m to havc a monopo| y on va| ucs. Sanc|i mony
ischcapcr| han vi r|uc. Lvcn|hcprc t i gi ousScience cchocd|ha|vu| gar
opi nion ahou| thc rcccncy o|va|ucs. In i| |chruary | | . 2005 cdi |ori al
| hc puh| icati on c| ai mcd |ha| ` ci cnccandi | products arc i n|cr cct i ng
morc|rcqucn|l yj|hani n|hcpat] wi thccrtai nhumanhcl i c| andva| uc .
And i | addcd |ha| ccrtai n rcccnt cxpcri cncc j prc umah| y |rcsi dcn|
Bu h rcc| cc|i n|womon|h car| icr j suggc ||ha|thcva| uc di mcn i on
i shcrc |o |ay``
I n |a | a|| purposivchumanac|i nsha cu/ito\s hada va| u di mcn-
i on.` I ndccd c cry| i mcw do omcthi ngdc| i hcra|c|ywh | hcrhshi ng
r |radi ng. c ncc|uri ng r chccki ng a hypothc i swc makc m rc or
| c s cxp| i ci | va| uc udgmcn . Onc | akc ac|i n A hccausc onc a| ucs
ci|hcrA i ni tscl |orancxpcc|cdcon cqucncco|A. Inpar|icu| ar. i cnti | c
r ccarchha a| way hccn pul | cdhy ccu| ar val uc . ucha knowl cdgc
andpccrrccogni | i on. Andpol i |i c may hcrcgardcda |hc oci al action
| ha| cndcavor |ocithcri mp| cmcn|orh| ockva|uc y |cin .
Thcquc |i oni notwhc|hcrwchol dva| uc hu| whcthcrwc canu | i |y
anddchatc ra| iona| l yahou| |hcm I | i hcrc whcrc chol ar di ||cr. Max
Wchcr | 88a) wamcd hi co| | caguc agai n | maki ngva| uc udgmcn|
|or hc hc| i cvcd |hcm |o h i ncurah|y uhcc| i c. Bycon|ras| Gunnar
Myrda| | 6 cnoi ncd oci a| ci cn| i L |o |ar| hy dcc| ari ng t hci r
va| uc . Thcrca oni | hat whcrca | hcphy i ca| uni vcr c i va| uc-|rcc
|hc 0 i a| wor|d i va| uc-| adcn and 0 i sany ugg 4i onorcommand
HH Political Philosoph
|o on cr c or rc|orn i t . Hcncc |hc i ntcrcst o| po| it i ca| ci nt i . |s and
phi | o. ophcrs i n i dcn|i fyi ng anddcf ni ng va| uc. i n ho|h po| i |i ca| act i on
andpo| i t i ca|di scours a..|ori n. |ancc, i nrccardi nc|hccompc|cncyor
|ai rnc . . o|anadmi ni |ra|or.Thi si a|owhywcgctcmhroi |cdi nra|i ona|
andsomc|i mc i rra|i ona| dcha|csahou|va| uc and |hci rranki ncin a| |
wa| ks ot | i tc. Un| i kc |a tc . whi h arc | argc| y uhcc|i vc. somc a| uc ,
su h a | i vahi | i |y and pcacc,arc ohcc|i c. andthcrc|orc dcscrvchci ng
di u cdra| i ona| | y.
|rcsumah|| ucscmcrg don| yahout | hrcc- and-a-ha| |hi | | i onycar
ago |ogc|hcrwi |h thc hr | | i vi nghci ngs. | ndc d whcrcas omc| hi ng .
such a wa|cr arc va| uah| c |o a| | organi ilS o|hcr . u h a su| |uri c
aci d arc han:|u| |oa| | o||h' 11. Oh cti c va| u cxi t a proprti :.
not n| i | ic ) whc|hcror no| |hcy arc known or |c| | . Ordi nari | ythcy ar
rccogni zcdi nthc oursc o| i ndi vi dua| dcv| op| n| . | npar|i u|ar 1can
|i agc|di sco crcdthat sharcdt|ha| i s, . oci a| va| u , . uchasrcci proci ty
and so| i dari | y ar | carn| at homc. . choo| . or |rcct. and morc | hrough
co| l cti v gam . t han crmon c Mocssi nccr | 8 .
Whatho| d |or a| uc. a| 0 ho| ds|ormora| . I nani matcnat ur and|hc
| owcrani ma| s arc amora| . |crhaps on| y |hc grcgarious ani ma| prac|icc
mora| |or|hcsi mp|crca.on|ha|mora| ityamoun|s|opro-soci a| i |y,which
i n|uminccc sary|orcocxi s|cncc.Toput|hi i nncgativc|crm i mmora|i | y
i scquiva|cnt| oan|i - oci a| i|y.whichi n| umiincompatih|cwi |hc xi |cncc.
Hcnc |hc ancicntroo| o||h mond cmo|ion---cmpathy. ympa|hy, and
sham a wc|| a o|| h o|d tand mo | wi dc prcado|mora| pattcms,
namc|yrcciproca|a|trui mrc|umi nggood |orgood andhad |or had.
Bccausc va| uc and mora| sarcanchorcdi nhothhrai nsand oci cti c ,
ra|hcr| hanhovcri ngahovc|h m. cr hrai ndamag and oci a|di rup-
| i onmaycau |h 1 0 ot|h mora| n c. |or xamp| c. hi | a|cra|damagc
o|th n|rom di a|pr |ron|a|cor| xi mpai r | h ahi | i | y|o|c| | right|rom
wrong cc.c. g. Ko ni g | a| . 2007 ; | i kcwi c warmakc u |org ||ha|
|hc ncmy i us| a human a u . Thu contrary |o r c i v d opi ni on.
on| y a hi o 0 i a| , hcnc ma| cri a| i 1. approach |o va| u andmora| can
savc u |rom ho|hrc| a| i vi m ( ` a| | va| ucs and mora| s arc cqui va| cn| )
andau|hori |ari ani sm( on| ya upcri orhci ng whcthcrdci |yorru| cr.can
know wha|i good|oru . ||may a| 0 savcu |romthchypocri |c who
i nvokcsacrcdva|uc |o hc||cr advanccmatcria| i n|crc | .
1 . Interests and Val ue
| p| carc dri cnormo|iva|cd hyi n|crcst . Lvcry i n|crcs|i t hci n-
| r | | om nci n omc|hi ng. Str i | | y pcaki ng n| yi ndi vi dua| s an
Values and lorals 89
havci ntcrc |s. hccau |hc c ar hi o| ogica| urgcsormcnta| dri c. . St i | |
i n|crc | canhca||ri hu|cdi naf gura| i vcscnsctosuprai ndi vi dua|cn|i |i cs,
uch as croups, | rm par| i cs. and na|i on. . |or cxamp| c, onc may say
|ha| it i. in |hc i n|crc.| o|a con rc|c sy|cm tha| uch and such condi -
|i on. hcmc|hccau.c|hcyarc|a orah| ctoi tspcrsi |cncc.A|oma|soci a|
organi za|i on. suchasa| ahoruni on, mayhc ai d|orcprccn| adcquatc| y
norno| )| hci n|crc |s harcdhyi |mcmbr . Andapo| i t i ca|organi za|i on,
sucha apar|y mayad anc t hpuh| i ci n|crc | . I n|ac|oncci nawhi |ci |
mu tdo o ora| | ca | mus| appar| odos o i | i | wi hc | ogai n or kccp
|hc|avoro|i| uppor|cr .
I ntcrcs| arc o||n cqua|cd wi | h cconomi i n| r s|s. Thi i s undcr-
s|andah| c, ast h s|rugg| |or | i |c .md gcopo| i t ica| powcrarc hasi ca| | y
s|rugg|c ovcrc onomi crc ourccsucha | and. wa|cr.|orc |s mi nc and
oi | . |ori n umc | h Mi dd| cLa |ha h na |rong| yconHi ct i c rcgi on
i nc |h |a| | o||h Ot|oman Lmpi rc hccau c it happcn. |o contai n| h
ri ch s| oi | f c| donLar| h. |rc.tnnah|y.t hi . conHi c|wou| dno| havcHarcd
up i||a|c. | i ncand|hc1 wi hhomc| andw rc .i | ua|cdinarcsourc -poor
r gi on. .uchas|a|agoni aorUganda-a. ThcodorHcrz| .thc|oundcro|
Zi oni sm. dr amcd|orawhi | .
Howc r thcr ar i nt r |s o| .c cra| ki nd. . no|on| ycconomi chu|
a|socnvironmcn| a| , hi o| ogi ca| , po| i ti ca| . andcu| | ura| . | suggc | |hcp|a|i -
|udctha|cvcryrcsponsi h|cadu| | has i ntcrc t
o|a| | | vcki nd |houghi n
di ||crcn| propor| i ons. a can hc ccn |rom |hcc||or|. r ourcc or | i mc
di ||crcntpcop|cspcndprocuri ng| hcmc.m |o a| i |y|hcm. |orc amp| c,
whcrca po| i t i ci ansspcndmo | o||hci rt i mc ccki ng orkccpi ngpowcr,
po| i |i ca| ci cnt i s| arc c pcc|cd | o sp nd | hci rs |ryi ng to undcr |.md
po| i | i . Look atth |o| | owi ng |ah| c.
T pe ofinlere5(
Ln i ronm n|a|
Bio| ogi ca|
Lconomi c
|o| i | i ca|
Cu| |ura|
Rich.di v r . a| n i ronmcnt
Sa|c|y.goodhca| |h |ood
L|| ci cncy rcward.ohsccuri |y
|owcr. goodgovcrnancc. | i hcr|y
Know| cdgc.hcau|y cduca|i on
Li | i ng|ypi ca| humani ntcrct i pcdagogi ca| | y| nchu|i nsu|| ci cnt .
Wca| 0 nccda gcncra| andrca onah| yc|caranswcr|othcon|o|ogi ca|
quc | i n. Wha|i sani ntcrcs| .Thc|o| |owi ng onvcn|i nmayhc| pan wcr
| hi s qu | i on.
9 Political Philosoph
Defnition. I |cmA i an i ntcrc | o|c O i a| uni t B = A|| aini ng orprc-
scrvi nA i snccc. ary|or|hcwc| |arc o|B.
Ncx|comcs|hcmc|hodo|ogica|qucs|ion.Howdowcknow|ha| omc-
|hi ngi rca| | yin |hci n|crc | o|an i ndi i dua| ora oci a| uni |, rcgard| c . .
o||hci ntcrcs|or| acko|i | | ha| |hcuni | may admi | To f nd| hi sou| wc
nccd omc|hi ng| i kc|hc|o| | owi ng
Criterion. I|cmA i sin thci ntcrc | o|agi cn .oci a| uni | B i | and on| y
i |.whcncv r|hrat ncd|ohav i | accsstoA b|ockcd.B u asigni h -
can||rac|i ono|i | r ourcc | oat|ai ni ngorcon r i ngA.
A| |houghordi nari | ypcop| cwi |h si mi | ari n|crc | |cnd| og | |ogcthcr
|o d| nd thcm. |hy may dc| udc |h msc| vcs a |o | h i r rca| i ntcrcs| .
|or i ns|ancc. i n|h US |hcmanu|a |urcrs associ a|i on and th i r| hi nk
|anksprcach g|oba||rcctradccvcn|houghi | i gu| t i ngAmri canmanu-
|acturcs. Andi nr ccn|dccadcs| hcAm ri can| ahoruni ons uppor|cd|hc
sta|u quoandcvcnmi | i taryadvcn|urcs. I n short, pcrcci vcd int r s| do
notncccs. ari | ycoi nci dcwi t hrca| i n|crcs| s. Thcscar cxamp| cso|wha|
Marxca| | cd |a| c con ciou. ncss.`
I | hash nknown. i ncct hct i m o|Machi a | | i tha|po| i |i c. i ahou|
i nt rc. t . And vcryi n|cr .|i anccdord i rc|or om | i mitcdrcsourcc,
whcthcrphysi ca|| ikc| and watcr.andcn rgy, oci a| | i kc|radcroutc |hc
s|a|c, and |ri cnd hi p. orcu| | ura| uch a
know|cdgc. my|h. andbcau|y.
W ha c no par|i cu| ar i n|crcst |orwhat wc | pcrhap mi |akcn| y) |akc|or
gran|cd.wc c|domdc i rc|ha|whi chwccanno|attai n. Ordinan|ywcva|uc
on| y accc i b|c but carcc rc ourcc , t hat i i |cm |hat can bc cnoycd
di rcc| | y,| i kc| ovc.orput|ou c,| i kcap|o|o||and. |orbc||cror|orworsc,
w a i gn | i |t | orno a| u |owha| rsc m |o b |rcc|ya ai | ah| | i k
c|can ai rorunsough|advi cc. Bu|wha| wcgrca||yva| ucwcdo o |o|h
poi n|o|d tachi ng| hc i |cmva| ucd|rom i t va|u .andpcaki ngo|va| uc
a i ||h Y w rcthi ng . How v r. on rcHcct i on wc rca| i z |ha| a| u ar
prop r|i o|t hi ng orcvcn| no| n| i |i c . H n i| i wrong |o ay, |or
in |ancc,|hathca| |hand trut har va|uc . th y ar va| uab| .
Morcovcr va| uc arcrc| a|i ona| propcrti cs no|i n|ri n i concs. Tha|i ,
cvcry a| uc i |hcwor| ho| omct hi ng|or omconc. |or i n |ancc, |ood
i va| uab| c|oraU organi ms. and know|cdgc o|po| i |i csi va| uab| c|or
any adu|t human. n | ogi ca| tcrm a| uc arcn-p| accprcdi catc , whcrc
11 2. ) And whcrca somci |cm arc va| uab|ci nt hcm c| vc , o|hcr arc
va| uab|c a mcans and t i | | o|hcr arc va| uab|c bot h i n|rinsi caHy and
i n | rumcn|a| | y.|ori ns|an c. i nprinci p| ca| | t rut h go d|oknowpro-
idcd i| d csnot harm and somctru|h arcva| uab| as mcan | a|| ai n
prac| i a| cnds.
Values and lorals 91
Anysct o|val u c maybcsp| i t i ndi hcrcntway . Wc arcpart i cu| ar| y
i ntcrcs|cdi n|wodi hcrcn|par|i ti ons. .ubcc|i vc/obcc|i vc,andi ndi i dua| /
oci a| . Subc | i vcorpcrsona| a| ucsdcpcndonthcbi o| ogi ca| makc-up,
ba kground, pcr.ona| i |y,and oi a| s|a|u. o|i ndi vi dua| .Thus. whcrcas
omcpcrson | i kccommcrci a| mu i c, o|hcr dc pi sci | . Bycontra. t, ob-
cc|i cva|uc. arc|hoscwhoca||ai nmcn|i obcc|i vc| ynccc ary|or|hc
wc| | - bi ng o| omcora| | pcop|c. |orcxamp| c, c cryoncbcncf |s |rom
c |can ai rand po| i |cn ss. Agai n i ndi i dua| a| ucs. u h as wc| | -bci ng,
arcsought|oronc` pri a|c akc.whcrcas o i a| va| u:. suchas u t i cc,
d ri |romsoi c|yorcon|ri butc|o oc ia| wc| |arc. Hcrcwcarcpat!i cu-
| anyi ntcrcs|cd i nsoci a| a| uc o||hpo| i |i ca|ki nd-|ho |ha| mcrgc
or ubmcrg a a con cqucncc o|po| i | i ca| acti onori na |i on. | ubmi |
|ha|asoci a| ordcri |h b ||cr, |hcmorc pohti ca| va| u i t suppo|! .
|cw|a ksarcasd m.mdi ngaavoi di ng a| ucconHi |s. |orcxamp| c,
Chri s| i an. . hou| d no| xa| | ``|ami | y a| ucs |or, i |wc arc to hc| i c
Ma||h w ( | 0. J4 | . 2) Chri s|cnoi ncdhi s di ci p| cstoabandon|hci r
|ami | i cs. orshou| dMarxi s| scck p ac , |or|h y p| ac gr atva| ucon
chanc .anda||h samc| i mch |i vcindi a|cc|i ca| ma|cri a| i m, accordi ng
|owhi cha| | chang comcs|romcon|I ic| . or.f na| | y .hou| d| i hcra| h
dcmocra|i c. hccau dcmoracyi nvo| csr s|ri c|i ng| ihcrti cs, inpar|icu| ar
|hoc o|owni ng, cxp| oi t i ng andchca| i ngpcop| c.
Howcvcr. |hct hrccva| uccon|! ict wchav u |no|cdarc a no|hi ng
by compari on wi| h thcconf! i c| rai scd by |hc ` God. country, |ami | y
i dco|ogysharcd by |hc prc-warCa|ho| i c|a ci s| and |hc contcmporary
ri gh| -wi ng Lvangc| i ca| s. I ndccd. God can on| y prcvai | i | coun|ry and
|ami |y arc p|accd bchi nd Hi m. ` My coun|ry ri gh| or wrong ` on| y i |
Godor |ami | yar bc|raycd, and|ami |y cans|ayon |opo| |hc a| uc| ad-
d r on| y i |Godorcount ry ar |or akcn. |orbc|| r or|or wor , uch
conH ict occuron| y rarc| y. bccausc ordi nari | ya |our| h a| u nam | y
pri a|c i n| r | pr vai | ov ra| | o|hcr.
||maybc|hough|t ha|va| u con i |cncy hou| dno|bchardcr|oa|tai n
|hana oidi ngcon|radic|i oni nma|hcma|ic oranyo|h rdi ci p| i n . Bu| i |
i s hardcr,bccauscva| ucconHi ct mayi nvo| ccmoti onsa wc| | a ri gh|
o|o|hcrpcop| c, and o |hcy mayrcqui rc ci thcrvi o| at i ngt hcmor omc
acri |cco| c| |.Yc|,va| ucconHi c| canbcrc o| vcd,a||ca tconccp|ua| | y
wi |h|hchc| po|ahumani tmora| i t yt hatcnoi nsu tobothcnoyi ng| i |c
andhc| pi ngothcrscnoy | i |c. |or i ns|ancc whcndra||cd|of ght|or|hc
un u | aggrc i c)sidci nami | i taryconHi ct |hcpcacc |o cr wi | | honor
bo|h bro|hcr and coun|ry by bc omi ng a c ns i cn| i ou obcc|or and
vo| untccring|oworki nanaux i |i ary cr i cc. sucha cooki ng rnursi ng.
92 Political Philosoph
I n hor| . va| uc conH ict ac unavoi dab| and th y arc no| rc o| vcd by
axi o|ogi ca| rc.carchbu|bycxami ni nc|hcconcrc|c i |ua|i on whcrc|hcy
cmcrgc,andrccommcndi ngoradop|i nc|hccoursco|a |i on|ha|bc |f |
a mora| codc| ha| ad an cs| hcin|crc | so|bo|h IgoandAhcr.
A| 0, a| uc do no| cxi t i n a || atoni rca| m o|purc i dca . Va| uc.
archc| dorrccc|cdby rca| pcr.on , andpo| i |i ca| ac|i onmay|ran|om
|hcm i n|o ri ch|s. Thc. c, i n| um, ci vc pcop| c|hc abi | i |y |o pcr|om a -
|i on i n|cndcdtocmbody |ho c a| u i n|o| hi ngs uchas brad | oav
andprocc scs uchas 11 c|i ngo|hcrpcop|c. | n ho|!. va| ucs or rathcr
va| ua|i ons |ri ggcrprocc : o|| h |o| | owi ng |yp.
Va| ucs |o| i |i c Ri gh| A |ion Goods
1 ubmi | |ha| u i ng po| i |i cs|or|ran |ormi ng va| u s i n|o ri gh| . and
u| i | i zi ngri gh|sandac|i onsa int rmcdi ari c. hc|wc n va| uc. andgoo ,
arc |ypi ca| o|modcrni |y |rom |h In| i gh|cnmcn|onwards. Bc|orc | ha|
p ri od,|a| ko|ri ght wasrarcandordi nari | yi nanc,|or|hcywcrcnotcn-
shri ncdi n|hcha. ic| awo|| hc|and. I ndccd.i t a||star|cdwi | h|hc Amcrican
R vo| ution o| | ??6 whi ch proc| ai mcdthcri ght |o| i |c,| i h r|y,and|hc
pursui | o|happi ncss. Thc|rcnchR vo| uti ono| | ?8cn. hri ncdasomc-
whatdi ||crcn| |ri p| c. | i br| y cqua| i ty,and|ra|cmi|y or o| i dari |y) . o|c
|hcmod rni |yo||ouro||hcva| ucscxa| tcdbytho crcvo| u| i on . | i bcr|y,
cqua| i ty |ratcmi ty,and|hcpur ui|o|happi nc nonco|whi choccur
in thcScri p|urcso|.my o||hcso-ca| |cdgrca|rc| igi on . o| i cc a|so| ha|
on| y|hc| hi rd so| i dari |y.hasncvcri nspi rcdany ma murdcrs.
Wc wi | | cxami nc| hrcc o||hoc |ourva| uc . | i |c (orsccuri t y) , cqua| -
i |y and o| i dari |y. La| r on w ha| | add u t i c |rccdom. andcompc-
| ncc.
2. Biosocial alues I: ecurity Equality Solidarity
I| i hard| ycon|rovcrsi a| |hatsccuri |y bo|h i ntcrna| and x|cma| . isa
mu t . As on|uci u sai d ` | n ccuri |y i wor c |han pov r|y. ` Bu| wha|
i ccuri |y and whi ch i |hc bc t mcans |o achicvc it arc subcc| o|
controvcr y bccausc o|i| conccp|ua| i mprcci ion. Thcrcarc|wo|ypc
o| ccuri ty. i ndi vi dua| and co| |cc|ivc. Thc |ormcrcovcr uch di vcr c
dcsidcrataasbci ngab| c|owa| k| hc | rcct a|c| y whi | cco| | ccti vc ccu-
ri t ycanbcna|i ona| ori ntcma|i ona| . Lc|u tar| wi |h pcrona| ccuri |y,
orpro|cc| iono| c| |.
| rsona| ccuri |yhas|hrccmai ndimcnsi on cnvironmcnta| . bi o| gi -
ca| andc nomi . Invi ronmcn|a| ccuri |y i protccti n agai n | nau| ra|
Values and lorals 93
dia |crs.c uchastornadocs and man-madcd astcr . ucha i ndu. |ri a|
po| | uti on and c| oba| warmi nc. Di as|cr o|both ki nds|rc pa . . pri va|c
propcr|i csandcvcnbordcrs.and|hcymakc| i |chardorcvcni mpo i b| c.
Hcnccprotcc|i onagai n || hcmca| | |or |ron ta|ci ntcrvcnt i on. prc|cr-
ab| yo||hcprc cn|ivctypc. T . uggcst|hatpro|cc|i onagai n |cnvi ronmcnta|
hazard o|ca h o||hc |wo ki nd rcqui rc mca.urc o|di ||crcn| | ypcs.
Na| ura| di a|crs an bc mc|by a oi di ncdi a|cr-pronc arca, u h a
|hcnotoriousTornadoA|| cy i n|hcUni |cd ta|c a w | | a by bui | di ng
on a|cgroundandwi th sta|co|thcar||cchni qu:. suchasan| i -sci |ui c
andan| i -| sunami cngi nccri ng.
Bycon|ra | g|oba| warmi ngandpo| | ut i on ca| | |or s|rongcr |a|c i n-
|cr|crcncc i npr i atc a||air. bccau c i| cau cd mai n|y by | arg- a|c
i ndust ryand|ranspot!a|i on.On|ynow a|| r|ourdccadcso|campai gni ng
by NGO and thc |ubbom rcsi s|ancc o| rip| oyr ` a so ia|i ons, |hc
oi | -car- road comp|cx. and thci rpo| i | i ca| r prc cn|a|i cs, ncar| y c cry-
oncadmi ts thcconc| u i onso|th 200?INpan 1 o|cxpcr|. on c| i ma|
chang . Th y arc | ha| 0 o| | hi . changc hasbccn causcd hy human
acti vi |y and|ha|to prc cn| |ur|hcrdc| ri ora|i ono||h nvi ronmcnt w
mu t adop| draconi an m a. urc. |hatarc hound |o ahcctnoton| yhusi -
ncs. shu| a| so| hci ndi i dua| | i s o| vcryon .
Bi o| ogi ca| ccuri | y, or a|c|y.consi tsi npro|cc| i on |rom a| | ki nd o|
vi o|cnccwh | hcrathomc, |hc t rcc|. |hcworkp| acc | hcnci ghborhood,
or|hcna| ion. oonc| i kc |ob bca|cnup,no|cvcnby| hci r|ovcdoncs.
Wc a| | dcsi rc domcs|i c and s| rcc| - rc| a|cd ccuri | y. Lvcryonc nccd to
bc ab|c|o wa| kthc | rcc|si n a|| y. Thcworkp| acc| oo hou|d bc a|c,
and work hou| dbc rcwardi ng. |i na| |y.cvcry ci t i zcnha |hc ri gh||obc
i mmunc |rom un u | i h dvi o| ncc on |hc par|o|it own |a|c and oth r
|a|c . p acc bo|h i n|crna| and i ntcrna| i ona| ar mu | .
L | u Ii na| | y p ck a| cconomic ccuri t y. Iconomi |- |i nan i a|
ana| y | s andbusi nc xpcr| sar und r tandab| yi n| r |cdi nbu i n
ri ksa| |hough t h y arc no| yct agrccd on |hc corr c| ri k mca.ur .
|ai | ur |r qucncyVari an ? |n c |mcn| i z t i mc |ai | ur |rcqu n y )
Bu||hcysccm i ndi ||crcn|| o|hcvariousri k |ha|cmp| oycc omc| i mc
run. ob-rc| a|cd 'rcss.i n ury.hara mcn|. puni shmcn||oroi ni nga|abor
uni on dcprc cd| abormarkc|,di mi a| , | ock-ou|.wagcdrop.or| o o|
rc| ircmcnt bcncf| s. Lconon+i c ccuri |y i suchan i mpor|an| va| uc tha|
| hc | n|crna| i ona| Labor O|hcc 2004a) a UN organi za|i on. rcgard i |
a abai c human ri gh|. Rcgrc||ab| y mo | mora| and| cga|phi | o ophcrs
havc vcr| ookcd|hi va| uc.
94 Political Philosoph
Lc| u now gathcr|og |hcr|hc vari ou di mcn i on o| ccuri |y. 1 un-
dcr. t andby ` | i abi | i |y, i n|cgra| ccuri ty,` or ut ` ccuri ty, | hcsc| o|
ma|cri a| condi |i on. o|cxi .tcncc, sucha |ood housi ng, cmp| oymcn|,
hca| t hcarc,pro|cc|i on|romvi o| cncc, ac| canandpcacc|u| cn i ronmcn|,
ando| d-agcpcnsi on. Li |ccannotbc|u| | ycnoycdwi |hou||hcm.And|hc
hungry,homc| c or i ckcanno|bccxpcc|cd|obccapab| candwi | | i ng
o| hc| pi nothcrs | i tha| i , o|cxcrci i i c o| i dari |y. No|c a| 0 t ha| ,
con|rary| obo|hs|andardcconom csandnco| i bcra| i m | amno| wri | i ng
about prospcri ty bu| us| abou| | i vabi | i | y-n i ronmcn|a| bi o| ogi ca| .
andcconomi c. Thi i s amorcahordab| cgoa| , andonccompa|i b| wi th
|hc modcra| i on. or cvcn |ruga| i ty. n cdcd |o achi cvc cnvi ronmcn|a|
sus| ai nabi | i |y. Bycon|ras| | hc|cn:: ' a|hucn c` and` prospcri | y` cvok
| uxury andwa |c. | n hor| wc hou| dadd ' | i vabi | i |y. or ` i n|cgra|pcr-
sona| ccuri |y
|o |h admi rab| | ri ni |y W ' i nhcri |cd |rom |hc |rcnch
Rc o| u| i on.
But o|cour. i nt gra| p rsona| sccuri |y-|hc c| o|ma| ri a| condi -
|i on. o|cxi s|cncc-do s no| |a| | homhcavcn hu| mu.d bc carncd hy
i ndi vi dua| orcroups. A. LockcandSmi |h argucd. | ahori |hcu| | i ma|c
sourcco|a| | | gi | i ma|cwca| |h.And,a. Marxaddcd workcan a| o hca
mcan. o|cmanci pa|i onand . ||- rca| iza| i on. Howcvcr manyoccupa|i on.
i nvo| vi ngmanua| workarc| i|cra| | y `di rty. `o|hcrsarcdangcrou and |i | |
o|hcr arc t i gma| i zcdi nccr| ai n ocic| i c |orpurc| ycu| | ura|rcasons. |or
in | ancc. in | ndi aon| y|ow-cas|cpcop|c canworka wccpcrs, garbagc
co| |cctors, tanncr . orcvcn hocmakcr . But in morcad .mccd ocic|i c
manyprcvi ous| yd pi cdoccupa| ionsarcno | ongcr |i gmat i zcdand i |
workcr gct pai dwc| | . |or in | ancc bookkccpcr oncc| hc| ow | i n|hc
whi tc-co| | arhicrarchy.ha ri scn|omanag r |at us, Toron|ogarbagcco| -
| c|or carn 40pcrhour andi nNcwYork| h yca| || h m | c ` ani tary
cngi nccr . `Thu .` occupa|i on mayd vc|op uph mi sm , c| i nica|| rm .
and a uniquc argo| to mu| thc a| i ncc o|di r| andcdi |y |ai n|cd |a ks
Krci ncrc|a| 200. 27) .
| nany vcn|. a| | adu| | smu |work| o| i vc anda| | norma| pcop| wan|
|o work. |or. con|rary to bo|h|hc Bi b|c and |andard cconomi c i ncc
Smi |h, cxp ri mcnt ha shown|hat `man ha an i nhcrcn| nccdo|work `
|o|hcpoi nto|dcc| i ni nggood pay in cxchangc|ori d| cnc ( Hcbb | 5J .
Thu , |ar|rombci ngacursc worki hi gh| yva| uab|ctot hci ndi i dua|a
wc| | a |o oci cty. Hcncci | i dc i rab| c|oguaran|cc |hcri gh|and duty
|ogai n|u| work. Bu|a|prcscn||hi ri gh|i hardtoi mp| cmcnt, andi tha
n t cv n bccn nshri ncd i n| aw. | pr duc|i onand|rcc|radc
amonguncqua|nat i ons|wo| radcmark |i ndu |ri a| api |a| i smbrccd
Values and lorals 95
uncmp| oymcn|. whi chi n|hcThi rdWor|do||cnrcachc 50 o||hcadu| |
popu| at i on.
As|orna|i ona| sccuri ty.| radi | i ona| | yi | ha bccn .ough|| hroughmi | i -
|arymi ght . Bu| aci i | i zcdanddcmocrati c oci c|y hou| du c|orccon| y
as| hc| a. trc.or| . Thi j . 0 no| on| ybccau c i o|cncca||ack basi cri chts,
bu| a| sobccausc vi c|ory by|orcc ha . c| dom | a| i ng rcu| | . | ndccd t o
a||ai n ccuri | yi | i s bc|tcr|omakc|ri cnd orncutra| |hancncmi c. . Thi s
i s why i ncc | i mc i n ncmori a| whcn mc ti ng | rangcrs pcop|c ha c
shown| hci rcmptyhand ra|hcr|hanawcapon. |ur|hcrnorc |hchabi t ua|
rc or||o|orcccmpowcrscxc i vc| y|hc|aw-and-ordcrand armd|orccs.
| n|crna| pcacc i b: t cur d | hroughus| i : .md i n|crna|i ona| pcacc
| hrough|ai rn .mdcoopcra|i oni ni n|crnati ona|rc| a|i ons aswc| | a |hc
obscrvancco|i n|cma| iona||aw. ThcMagi no|Li nc. |hcs|rongcs|andmo |
sophi | i ca|cdt rcnch in hi s|ory did no|pro|cc||rancc |rom th Gcrman
ons| augh|. || us|gavc|hc|rcnchru| cr a|a| sc scn o| curi |y.
|| is wc|| known |ha| conccrn|ori n|crna| and i n|crna|i ona| .ccuri ty
can grow |o |hc poi n| o| obc. . i on. in whi ch casc i| i nvi | . cur|ai | i ng
ci vi | ri gh|s. ThcUni tcdS|a| ha. a| radi t iono|tradi ng .ccuri ty |orci vi |
ri gh|.Thus | hcAnarchi . |Scar i n|hc | 80wa. manu|ac| urcd|ohca|up
andc n hang| ahororgani zcr . . Thcrchadtohcahomhi ncvcryuni on
| oca| . Thc Rcd Scarcs i n |hc | 20 .md | 50 w r u cd |o p r ccu|c
| c||i s| o|a| | s|ri p
.|hcrcmu t b aRcdundcr vcrybcd.And| h Tcrror
Scarccngi nccrcd incc|hc / | | a||ack has rcndcrcddc|cn|i onwi | hou|
| ri a| , | ort urc, and prc-cmpti vc mi | i |ary aggrc ion | cga| i n thc cyc o|
manyAmcri c.m arcac|i on|ha|ha |uc|cda omcwhati rra| i ona| an| i -
Amcri c.m wavcaroundthcwor|d.
|cac i bothagoa|i ni | | |andamcans|ohui |d ccuri tywhcnc
| h pcrcnni a| r | ancco|paci | m. Howcvcr,wcmus| di | i ngui h t wo
ki nd o|pa i h m. Radica|orun ondi |i ona| andmod ratcorcondi |i ona| .
Thc radi ca| paci h | wi | | no|on| yah |ai n |rom cngagi ngi naggrc .i on.
Hcwi | | a| 0 oI| r|h oth r hcck. Thati h wi | | notcoun|crat|ack.and
wi | | work|or| h di handi ngo|a||sccuri t y|orcc . Th mod ra|cpaci h4
bycontral, wi | | rc i |aggrc i on and |avorrcduci ngandrc|ormi ng|hc
armcd|orcc .argui ng|hatthci rmcmbcr shou| dbcpcacckccp rs. carch
andrc cuc agcnt , and rc| i c|workcrs whcnna| ura| di sa |crs|ri kc .
Whcn na|i ona| ccuri |ybccomc |hcccn|ra|conccrno|agovcrnmcn|
a| |o|hcraspcc| o|| i |carc ubordi na|cd|oi |.|cop|carca kcdto acri hcc
propcr|y,| i br|y,andcvcn| i |c|ona|i ona| ccuri|y. Thi i whypo| i | i ci an
mc| i mc i nvcn| ccuri |yi u , in ordcr| i n rca c |hci r wn powcr
r t ha| o|| hci r wn coun| ry. Thus. Bi mar k cngi nccrcd |hc war wi th
9 Political Philosoph
Au |ri a |o u ni |y Gcrnmy Hi | |cr i n cn|cd |hc 1cwi sh- Bo| hcvi k|cri |
|o ci zc powcr,andGcorccW. Bush i nvcn|cd| raq sWMDs |oi nvadci |
and| opu| hi . owncount ryonapcni ancn| |a|co|cmcrgcncyand| hu.
i n| i mi da|c hi opponcn|.
Whcn na| i ona| ccuri |y i an au|hcn| i c i ssuc, |hc f rs| honc | and
i n|c| | i gcn||hi ng|odoi . |ounvci | i | root. Thi cxcrci scmayrc ca| | ha|
|hc cau. c | i c. wi |h us. no||hcm. |or i ns|ancc, | rac| chroni c ccuri ty
prob| cmi ducno|on| y|o|hci ncp|po| i i cso|i | nci ghbor .bu|a| soto
i| con|i nucd i||ga|o cupa|iono||a|s|i ni antc|:i|oric .Mrcwi thdrawa|
|rom |hcm wou| d o|vc ha| | |hc prob| cm and Am ri can ncutra| i|y i n
| h conH ic|wou| dso| vc| h o|h rha| |.Onrcason| hi s i s 0 di |hcu| | to
achi cvci tha|| hpo| i |i ci ansonboth i d o||hcf ncnccdcachothcr
|o r tai n powcr ano|hcr. |armorc i mpor|an|. rcason i |ha| |hc Uni |cd
S|at : us | ua | |oguardt hgatc|o|hcoi| wc| | sncx|dor.
War-.|atc-conduc|cdmas murdcr-i undoub|cd| y| hcmo ti rrati o-
na| was|c|u| , and i mmora|o|a| | anti soci a| acti vi | i c . . || i |hc u| | i ma|c
cri m . as my compa|ri o| A| b rdi | 870 argucd morc |han a c n|ury
ago. | ndccd, war vio| a|cs|h ri ghtto| i | o|ci vi | i ansas wc| | a comba|-
an|s-un| css |hcsc | i mi | | h ir ac| i vi |y |o droppi ng bombs |rom a sa|c
a| |i tudc. Bc. i dc , war drai n. |hc | rca. ury and | hr at n. ci i | | i bcrti c ,
si ncci nwart i mcthcci | i zcni s xpcctcd|oshu| up andpay up. Andyc|
un| i | rcccn| | ywarwasrcgardcdasaca| an+i | yonaparwi|hdrough|s. ||
|ookawor|dwar|orca| i zctha|warisavoi dab|cbccausci | i 0 man-madc.
And i | wa0 on| y i n | 28 |hat a| mo t a| | | h |a| 0 igncd | h Gcncra|
Trcaty|or|hcRcnunci a|i ono|War.
Thc Lcaguco| a|i on .md|hcUni |cd a|i onswcrc organi zcda||cr
|hcf rs|and ccondwor|d war rc pcc|i vc| ybccausca| | |hathad f na| | y
bc nund rs|ood.Th |ai | urco|| h Lcagucandthc| i mi |cd uccc o||h
U dono|provc|ha|wari i n vi tab| .bu|tha||h xi | i ngmcchani iu
|oprc n|ar | i | | i mpcr|cct.Thc xp ri nc a| 0 uggcs||hati n| ma-
|i ona| organi za|i ons hou| dbc upp| mcntcdwi thrcgi ona|on -i i | i an
a| | i anc ra|hcrthanmi | i |arypact |hough. Tor v r c|hcanci n|Roman
di c|um. ||youwan|pcacc. prcparc |orpcacc.
cx|i nouragcndacomc cqua| i |y. whi chi pri mari | yamora| i uc.
Somuchso. |ha| oci a| i ncqua| i |y wa |akcn|orgran|cd|rom| hcbcgi n-
ni ngso|ci i | i za|i on. f vcmi | |cnnia ago.| ih |hc mi d | 700 . whcna |cw
i n|c| |cc|ua| . par|i cu| ar| yRou cau Di dcro|.andMorc| | y dcc|arcdsoci a|
i ncqua| i t y|obcbo| hunna|ura|andi mmora| . Thcrci s noquc | i onbu||ha|
|hccga| i t ari an i dca| ha i nspi r d mu h ci a| rc| rm vcr|hc pas|| wo
ccn|uri cs par|icu| ar| y si nc thccmcrgcncc ||hcwc| |arc tatc ar und
Values and lorals 97
| 00and|hc cndo|nani |c tco| oni a| i m in |hc | 0 . How vcr bc|orc
goi ngahcad wcmu |rcca| ||hat|hcrcarcmanyki nd o|cqua| i |y,amon
|hcm po| i |i ca| and cconomi c a| vari ou | cvc| and di hcrcn| |uncti ons
( cc, c. g. Ti | | y | 8 .Undcrpo| i |i ca| dcmocracy,a| | ci | i zcn. arcsai dto
bc|rcc|ovo|candrun|oro|hcc, bu|somcmaybcmuchwca| |hicr|han
othcr adipari |y | ha| may bc u cdtopo| i |i ca| advan|acc.
|o| i | i ca| cqua| i | y ha ricn ncar| y c crywhcrc i ncc | hc cnd o|| hc
Wor|dWarll. Bycon|ra. t cconomi i ncqua| i |yamongi ndi vidua| andna-
|i on ha i ncrca cdJncc|hc | 80s,andwi |hi | |hthrca||odomc |icand
i nt rna| i ona|dcmocracy.|aradoxi ca| | y.cconomi ci ncqua| i |yhabcomc
morc pronounccd in |hc rich: t andmo. | powcr|u| na|i on (scc 1a ob
andSkocpo|2005) . And yc| conomi ci ncqua| i t yi noton| hcrcscarch
agcndao|nos| on|cmporarypo| i |i ca| sci cn| i | . Iti par|i cu| ar| yab cn|
hom| hcwri |i ng o|po| i to|ogi | scduccdby| hcnt| iona|-choicparadi gn
ucgc.dcdby |ha| mos|i | | u |ri ouso|i nt | | cctua| cada crs. ncoc| assi ca|
microcconomi cs. Thu. on| yon o||h | 4 mos|r ccn|prc. i d n|s o|| h
Amcri can |o| i | ica| Sci nccA. . oci a|i on A|SA xpr d conccrn |or
|hcncc|ccto|in qua| i|yi ssuc. inthc con| mporaryp| i |o| ogi ca| | i tcra|ur
Hoch chi |d2005 .Thi smaybc|akcnasasadi ndi ca|oro||hci rr | vanc
o|contcmporarypo| i |ica| phi | oophy|ocurrcn| po| i| i ca| . ci cncc.
Bycon|ras|, i ncqua| i |y i |hch r | i | cmin | hc ummary o|Contempo
rOI Socology, apub| i ca| i ono||h mcri canSoci o|ogi ca| A oci a|i on.
| | i sa| so|hcsubcc|o| |hci nvcs|i ga| i on |orwhi chAmar| yaScn | )
wasawardcd |hc so-ca| |cd ob| |ri zc i ncconomi c . Con| rary | o| hc
or|hodoxcconomi t who|ocuonGD|andcconomi cgrowt h Scnha
|ocu cd on i ndi vidua| capabi | i ty ( orpo i |i vc |rccdom) . '0 ha Mar| ha
Nu baum 2000) . Thi i s|h abi |i | yo|a p r on|o|unc|i onadcquat | y
andwi |hdi gni |yi nh r oci c|y. | uggcs||ha| a p r onbc om capab|
|o|hc x|cnt |ha| hccanmccta||h rpri maryobcc|i vcn cd nouri h-
m n| | odgi ng company, | c. a wc| | a hcr| gi | i ma|cd i rc |ho
who c a| i |ac| iondono|pr v n|anyon c| cfrommc |ing|hci rpri mary
n cd Bungc |8a) .
| a| 0 ubmi | that| hccapabi | i |yi nquc| i onmaybcana| yzcdi ntotwo
componcn| . oca|andi ncomccuma ct .Hi ghi ncomcdoc no|com-
p nsa|csoci a| | yand p ycho|ogi ca| |y |or|ow oci a| |atu , whcrca hi gh
oca| ta|u doc compcn atc|or| owi ncomc. Ordi nari | yadark- ki nncd
cnginccri snotmadc|c| | |hccqua| o|hi Whi tcco| |cagucs whcrcasan
i mpovcri shcd Luropcan or | ndi an ari |ocra| mi ng| c c||ort|c |y with
wca| |hys|a|u pccr .
98 Political Philosoph
|o| i |i ca| ci nt i |sarcundcr tandab| yi ntcrc |cdi n po| i ti ca| cqua| i |y.
as in |hc |om u| a. onc man, onc otc and onc na| on, onc o|c. By
con|ra.| , , 0 i o| ogi t and mora| phi | oophcrsoucht |obc i ntcrcs|cdi n
sc cra|o|hcrcqua| i |i c a wc| | , par| i cu| ar| yi ngcndcr,c|hni c, cconomi c,
andcu| |ura| cqua| i | i c . | na| | | hc c ca c cqua| i |ycan bc undcr|ood
in ari ousway par| i cu| ar| y i n|wo .cnc . cqua| i |yo|ri gh| (oroppor-
|uni | y) and cqua| i tyo|ou|comc. .
| ha| | di smi ou| o|handcqua| i |y o|ou| omc bccausccqua| ou|-
comcs anon| ybca||ai ndby|hcbru|a| c| i mi na|iono||hb 4cndowcd
andmo. | ori gi na| i ndi i dua| -|h way thc KhmcrRougc di c|a|or hi p
di di nCambodi a( | 75-7 . Babcu|propo cd|orccdcqua| i | yat |hc nd
o||hcci gh|ccn| hc n|ury. Kur|Vonncgu|and|atCooksa| i ri zcdi | i n|h
mi d- | 50s. Th mai n harac|cri nt hci rdy topi a wa |hc H.mdi appcr
Gcncra| .who ta kwas|omakcsurc|ha|cvcryon`sbrai nworksa||h
| owcs| common |c | .
On|hco|h rhand. wcshou| dbcvcryconccrncdabou|sharpi ncqua| i -
|i o|i ni |i a| cndowmcn| andoppor| uni t i cs bccaus thcy dcri |rom
un u| i fcd pri vi | cgc and arc .| ronc| y corr | a|cd wi t h po rty. uncm-
p| oymcn|. i gnorancc,cri m .andunhappi n s. Conscrva|i csc|ai m|ha|
carni ngsar |ar morc i mpor|ant|han rank. | mpor|an||owhom . o| to
|hc vas|maori |yo|wagccarncr . |or|hcm r |a|ivcdcpriva| i on isus|
asbada i n u||i ci cnti ncomc. |or i | makc | hcm |c | wor|h| c . | | doc
not makc an A|ri can Amcri can |cc| good |o know | ha| hc carn | 00
| i mcs morc | han an Ango| an. orma| | y, pcop| ccarc us| a much |or
|hci rr | a| i vcs|andi ng a |orth i r i ncomc. Un| i kcor|hodoxcconomi s|
andpo| i |o| ogi t soci o| ogi t havcknown| hi vcr i nccth pi onccri ng
worko|Robcr| M r|onandA| i Ro si i n | 50 c. g. Mcrton | 68) on
| hcrc|cr nccgroup. ando|Runci man | 66)andS n | | )onrc| a|i v
d pri a|i on. Morcovcr rcc n| p ycho| ogi ca| xpcri mcn| hav hown
|ha| mos| pcop| c di appro o| harp i ncqua| i tic . and arc wi | | i ng to
do omcthi ng|ocorr c||h m. |hcy ` ngagc i nco ||yac| tha| promo|
cqui |ab| r ourccdi 4ri bu|i on Daw | a| . 2007) .
S|a|i |i c how|ha|pcop| c| i chca| |hi crand| ongcri n|hcmorccga| i -
|ari an oi c|i c . sucha thc ordicna|i on ,|hcNc|hcr|and .1apan Cos|a
Ri ca, Uruguay andCuba.|hani nthc i ncga| i |ari an oci c| i c . uchas|hc
Uni |cd S|a|c and Bri |ai n. | n par| i cu| ar. |a|i | i c how | ha| i ncqua| i ty
o|i ncomc anda c| is |hc mo | rc| i ab| c i ndica|or. hcncc prcdi c|or. o|
cri mc ratc ( Gi | | i gan 200| . Rcgrc||ab| y, 'ati | i cs a| o how |ha| i ncc
|hc | 80 i n mci ncqua| i |y ha ri cn harp|y in a|| c un|ri c cvcn i n
|hca|Hucn|oncs Ga| brai |handBcmcr200| Kcnwor|hyand| ntuss n
Values and lorals 99
2005 .Whocandoub||ha||hi dcgrada| i ono|onco||hcmai ni ndi cators
o|modcrni |y isanc||ccto||hci ncrcai npowcro|corpora|i on. and|hc
concomi tan| shi || |o|hcpo| i |i ca| ri gh| around|hcwor| dHowcvcr, | c|
u rc umcourconccp|ua| di scu i onotcqua| i |y.
i ncc no |wo i ndi vi dua| s arc i dcn|i ca| , and si ncc wc shou| dchcri h
di vcr i |y, | ubmi | |ha|wc hou| dai m|or a .oci a| ordcr| hat promo|c
d i vcri ty and cqua| opport uni | i c. ra| hcr | han |orc i ng cqua| i | y, a
rcgi m |ha| cnsurc t hc ri gh| |o d |op c cryonc` capaci | i pro-
vi dcd|hcyarcnot an|i - oci a| . and| h ob| i ga| i ontopay soci c|yback
wha| oci c|y i nvcs| i n thc i ndi vi dua| ` cduca| i on. Thi s i s | h i dca
| hatLoui B| anc( | 847 ca| | cd `propor| i ona| i |y ` and u mmari zcdi n
| hc|amou |ormu| aadop| dby 0 i a| i | so|a| | | ri pc . To each a -
cording to hi needs, and from each ac 'oreing to his abilitie ' . Thi
i proportionalism ra|hcr| hancga| i | ari ani sm. Wc sha| | d c| op| hi s
| h mc i nt hc | a | chaptcr. |ornow | c| us g| i mp. c a| | hrc . ub c| .
| h ori gi n. o|cca| i |ari ani sm, and| h cqua| i ty-| i bcr|yandcqua| i | y-dc-
mocracyconncc| i ons.
| | has bc n .ai d |hat ga| i tari ani m i s part o||h 1 wi sh, hri . t i an
and | | ami c | radi |i ons. bccausc th y ho| d | ha| wc arc a| | chi | drcn ot
God. Howcv r, non o| |h s gr at r | i gi on. ` condcmncd .| av ry
or cr|domunt i | rcccn| | y. anda| | o|t hcmcxc| udcd |hc i nH dc| |rom
| hc commonwca| | h. | | am i | hc mo| advanccd o| thc | hrcc. |or i |
proc| ai m thc cqua| i t y o| | hc |ai | h|u | . Uni vcr a| cga| i | ari ani mi s a
modcrn i dca| . | t i
| i kc| y|o havc bc n i nvcn|cdby pi noza whoi n-
H ucnccdLockc. whoi n| urn i nHu nccdRou
cau, Didcro| .ando| hcr
mcmbcr o|| hc |r nch Ln| i ght cnmcn| . St i | | , thc mai n or vcn on| y
qua| i | y| hcyadvoca| dwa po| i | i ca| . 0 cra| | cqua| i ty wa promo| d
on| yby | hcGcrmanAnabapt i | i n| hc i x |ccnt hccn| ury and by | h
Ing| i hL c| | cr i n|h ncx| . Th | a|crSoci a| i s| and ommuni t w r
ga| i tari ans |oo.bu| |hcy addcd |ha| wi| h p ci a| abi | i | i c comc addcd
r pon i bi | i | i c .
S| ar| i ng i n | 64 |h Uni |cd Sta| cnac|cd A|h rma| i vcAc|i on| aw
andru| c |ha|as i gnmcri |poi n| |orracc ( andgcndcr . a|a |i mcwhcn
| ha| was| hc mo | raci | o|a| | |hc ad anccd na|i on . | nc cncc. |hosc
| awsa| | owpcop|c|oca|chupb |orcbci ngrcqui rcdtocompc|c.A|h rma-
| i vcac|i on ha bccncri t i ci zcda a |orm o|rcvcr c di cri mi na| i on. Thi
cri |i ci m i un|ai r. Wha| i | doc i |o givc oppor| uni t i c |o pcop| cwho
| ackcdthcmbc|orc us|bccau c o||hci r cx orco| or a acon cqucncc
|whi ch|hcywcrcno|wc| | pr parcd|ocn| rcompct i |i on |orob and
o| | cgc .A|hrma| i cac|i oni |hu i nthcsamc| caguca thchandi capi n
1 00 Political Philosophy
go| |. || |ow r |h barri r |ocn|rybu|no||hc barricrs|ocxi t . i | sccksto
cqua| i zcoppor|unit i c wi |hou|| owcri ngs|andard 0 |ha|it iscon. i|cn|
wi th mcri |ocracy(cc Hi | | | | ) .
| | wou| dsccmobvi ou. | ha| dcmo racycombi nc.cqua| i |ywi |h| i bcr| y
Garzn-Va| dc .000) . On| y conscrva| i vcs di agrcc. Thcy ho| d | ha|
| i bcr|yi i ncompa| i b| cwi t hcqua| i |yand, morcovcr,|ha|cqua| i t yt hrca|-
cns | i bcr|y.Thcydonot ay why butoncmaygucss|ha||hcyarcon| y
i n|crcs|cdi n|rcc n|crpri sc.whi chi i ndccd| hrca| ncdby| aboruni on
and | c||- |cani ng group ccki ng |o dccrca i ncqua| i |y or c cn a||cmp|
|oa||ai n oci a| u t icc. How cr a|| rt hdi a |rou pcr|ormancco||h
so-ca| | cd `rca| | ycxi t i ng '0 i a| i 11 ` a gcnui nc| i bcra| uchasDworki n
| | i s us|i hcdi n| i |rus|i ngcga| i |ariani m. Bu| hi hard| y u 4i hcd
in rcdchni ngcqua| i | yas`cqua| conccrn|ora| | ` |Dworki n2000 . |orthi
is on| ypa| rna| i sm. Lquah| yi no|a good |o b di pcns d |rom abovc.
i |i . |h ba i c|rai to| .oci a| r | auon. among|hcci |i z n. o|adcmocracy.
Thc idcao|au|hori tari an orpa|crna| i | cqua| i |y is anoxymoron.
Un| i kcconscr a| i cs,progrcssi vc|hi nk r rcgardcqua| i tyand| ibcrty
asd pcndi ngupononcano|h r.|npart i cu| ar whcr a. | i b ra|dcmocra|
ho|d |ha| | i bcr| yi. aprccondi ti ono|cqua| i ty,soci a| i s| c| ai m |ha| on| y
cqua| i ty can guarantcc | i b r|y. | submi t t ha| cach o|th sc vi cws ha a
grain o| |ru|h, |or nci | hcro| thosc va| uc c.m bc rca| izcd wi |hou| |hc
o|hcr.| ndccd,| i bcr| yi ncc aryto cckcqua| i | y.andon|ycqua| i |ycan
prcvcn| |hcconccnt ra| i ono||rccdomina|cwhand . |n hor| .| i bcrt yand
cqua| i ty hou| dbc pursucdoi n| |y. How cr. thc pursui | o||hi orany
o|hcrpro-soci a| goa|a| sorcqui rc so| i dari tyra| hcr| han c| H shnc s. Thi
isobccauc noonccangc| any|hi ngi mpor|an|wi |hou| |hcdi si n|crcs|cd
a i |anc o|o|h r . |n hort,|h |rcnchr vo| ut ionari cso| | 78hadgo|
i | ba i ca| | yri gh| . Liberte e aLite, fralenz ile.
Lc| U ' now | ack| c|h | hi rd i |cm in ouragcnda, nam |y |ratcrni | yor
so| i dari | y,tou cagcnd r-n u|ra|| rm.So| i dari ty.orconccrn|oro|hcr-
comcsin | hr cki nds.
1 . Horizontal, or both cooperati on and murual ai d am ng equal .
2. Top down, or pri vate chari t y and tate-, upported poor-rel i ef.
3. Bottom-lip, or corporate "vel fare: the pri i leges al l otted a manu
facturers. petrol eum and pharmaceut i cal compani es. and others. at the
taxpayer' expen e.
Top-down chari | yi o|cour a vi r|uccxto| | cd byboth atho| i ci . m
and L | am and i | go s |rom a| ms-gi vi ng |o |hc admi rab| | argc-sca|c
work donc by omc |ounda|i ons, |o t hc mod r r |i | s|a|c u ua||y
alue and Morals 101
ca| | cd wc| |arc sta|c.` 1 usc |hc nco|ogi m ' bo||om-up o| i dari | y` wi th
|oncuc in chcck. | | i nc| udcs |hc hugc mi | i |aj and admi ni s|ra|i vc cx-
pcnscs i ncurrcdbya| | cmpi rc |opaci |y| hcnat i c o|thcsubcc|cd
|and. , t axbrcak | ooi | compani c , ub i di c. gi vcn |ophamaccu|i ca|
compani cs to c|| prc.cri p| i on dru |o .cni or , and morc. In a good
oci c| y on| y hori zon| a| so| i dari ty, t ha| i , coopcra|i on, .hou| dcoun| .
Thi s i what makc ur i a| i nhan|y|own. po si b| c0omni |z | 77) ,
and wha| cxp| ai n | hcr si | i cncc o|| hc1wi h pcop|c. | roni ca| | y |hc
ghc||osi mposcdby|hcChri |i ansrci n|orccd o| i dari|yby|orci ng1cw
|o| i vc c| bow-|o-c| bow.
Thcsi tco|horizon|a|so| idari |yis|hcci i | ocic|y. Thi s i aco| | cct i on
o|vo| untaryassoci a|i on -|ron |oodbank and mu| ua| -ai d '0 i c| i csto
po| i ti ca| part i cs-|ha|i n|cnd|oci thcr upp| cmcn|orcri |i ci zc|hcgovrn-
mcn|. Lv ry advanccdcountry i nc| udcsa |rong i vi | ocic|y. Bccausc
|h GO ci vi | -soci c|yorgani zat i on. gov rnthcm. | csandpcr|orm
oci a| |unc|i ons. |hcy ar sccn di hcrcn| | y by po| i | i ci ans o|di || rcn|
|ri pc. . Thc nco- | i b ra| who ar an| i -ta|c wou| d | i kc |o |rans| r a| |
|h oci a| . rvi ccs|ochari tab| ci ns|i tuti on. -t h poi n|so|| i ght` onc
r |crrcd|ocryp| i ca| | yby| h hrs||rc i dcnt Bush. t hcywou| da| 0 | ikcto
|ar corcvcnharass|hcassoci a|i ons, . ucha |hcAm rican i i| Libcr-
| i c Union Amncs|y| n|crnati ona| and cvcn at i ona| |ub| i cRadi o,tha|
arcthorn ont hci r i dc.
Bycon|ra t , thcc| a
ica| au|hori |ari ans, whounhkc | hc tradi ti ona|
conscrva|i vcsarc |a| i s| , advoca|cci |hcrdc |royi ng| hc ci vi | ocicty
orcapturi ng i | . Onco|| hc mos| ucccss|u| cap| urc opcra| i on wa |hc
|undaci n yuda Soci a| , ac|i vc in Argcn| ina |rom | 48 | o | 55. and
run| i | | hcrdca|hby Ivi|a|crn |hcpr id n| wi |c. Thi hari tyga
handou|s o| many ki nd . |rom ca h |o wi ng machi n , |o whocv r
cou| dprovcbo|hnccdandpo| i |i ca| | oya| |y.| | wa. |undcdby4 vo| un| ary
con|ribu| i on |rom| aborunion .pub| i ccmp| oy andbu i ncs m n.and
run by | h |a|ci nc| udi ng | h o| di cr |ha|| ran por|cd and dc| i vcrcd
| h gi |t . Tha| |ounda|i on` sai ms wcrc |o | urn |hc poori n|o upp| i can|
i ncxchangc |or otc .
Duri ng|hcsamcp ri od|hc|crongovcmmcn| gavc|hcdomc'i ca|cd
| aboruni onsa | argcnumbcro||argcandwc| | -| oca|cdbui | di ngs. whcrc
| hcyi n ta| |cdrc|i rcmcn|homcs. c|i ni c . ho| i dayhotc| , and othcrc tab-
| i hmcn|s. |oru c o||hc uni onmcmbcr and|hci r|ami |i c . |t wa rarc|or
| hcbcnc| ciaric no|to upport|hcru| i ngpowcr-c. g. ,byat|cndi ngparty
ra| | i csandabs|ai n|roms|ri ki ng. | n shor| anauth ri |ari an- popu| i s|g v-
crn mcn|may hi ack i vi | oci c|y| oconvcr|ci ti zcnsi n|o upp| i can| .
1 02 Political Philosophy
Lc|u. now wi |chhomchari |ya a. oci al con|ro| |oo||ocoopcrati on
asa|oo||or|rccdom i n| hccn c o| c| |-go cmancc. Coopcra|i on i o|
coursc dc. i rab|c |o carry ou|any co| | cc|i c cndcavor, no|on| yamong
pcop| c bu| a|0 amon cu. oci a| i n cc|s, ravcn hycna chi mpanzcc ,
ando|hcrani ma| . Thi s i why i | i | i kc| y |ha| pcop| chavc coopcra|cd
|rom|hc bcgi nni ng. o|our spcci c. . in ca|hcri ng, scavcngi ng, hun| i ng,
dc|cndi ng|hci r|crri|ory andsoon.
Andyc| mos| vo| u|i onaryp ycho| ogi | and conomi tshav |ound
cooprati on paradoxi ca| bc au c i | i nvo| vcs co. |s |o |h i ndi i dua| .
Thcrc|orc|hcyhavc ons|ru |cd i ngcni ou bu| un|c |ab|chypo|hc cs to
accoun||or|h pcr auvcoccurrcnc o|coop ra|ion( cc c. g. , Bus 2004 .
Apparcnt| y|hyhavcnci |hcrhcardaboutmora| cn| imcn| norp r|onncd
aco t-bcnch | ana| y i o|coop rati oncomparcd|ocompc|i | i on. ci thcr
o|| hci r|h ori c cxp|ai n coop rat i on. |npar| icu| ar. ki n | c|i onthcory
doc. not cxp| ai n coop ra|i on among gcn | i cahy unrc|a| d i ndi vi dua|
such as spouscs. |ri cnd. , coworkcr. so| di cr. , and |c| | ow o| un|ccr.
i n GO . . And rcci proa| a||rui sm t| .cra|ch yourbacki|you scra|ch
mi nc)doc no|accoun| |or|hcgcnui ncgcncro. i |y a|work i n o| untary
orcani za|i on. orcv n in |hc s|rc |. A r a on |or| hi s|ai | urc i. |ha| |hc
|hcory i cnorcs |h cxi . |cncc o|mora| cmo|i ons .uch as mpa|hy and
sympa|hy | udi cdbythcyoungAdamSmi thasw | | asthcnccd |or
o|hcr-rcgardi ngbchavi ori nany oci a| group.
On |hc po i | i vc i dc, rcccnt cxpcri mcn| hav hown |ha| o|hcr-rc-
gardi ngbchavi or,i npar| icu| arcoopcra| i on, i pcr a i c, no| u | among
co| | cgc | udcnt i n i ndu |ri a| i zcd oci c| i cs ( Gi n| i s ct a| . , cd . 2005 .
Thc c rcsu| | wcrc con|i rmcd by |our|ccn rc carchcr who pcr|ormcd
cxpcri m n| on | 762 adu| | samp| cd |rom | 5 di vcrsc popu| a| i on a|
di hcr n|| | o|dc | opmcnton|i di ||crcn|con|i ncn|s Hcnri ch |
a| . 206 . Thc subcc| cxhi bi tcda| trui ti cb havi or|o|hcpoi n| o|bci ng
wi | | i ng to admi ni |crco | | ypuni hm nt on sc| |i h bcha i or. Mor i n
Chap| r2, S c|i on | .
| n hor| xp ri mcn|ha |a| i |i d |hcccn|ra|dogmao| tandard cco-
nomi c|hcory |ha|a||human arc c| h h, hcncci ncapab|co|compassion
andcmpa|hy, a wc| | a borncncmi c o|cqua| i |y. Thi h ndi ng wou| d
not havc urpri cd Didcro|, Rou cau. orSmi | h. |or |hcy p|accd grca|
va| uc on oci a| cmo|i on |ong bc|orc i| wa di covcrcd |ha| wccanno|
hc| phavi ng |hcm bccau c wc arc born with a | i mbi c ys|cm. |hc organ
o|cmo| i on. Thc mora| |orpo| i | i ca| |hcori | shou| d bc obvi ou . S|op
aping|hc b |c|ccconomics|hc ry| ha|assumcspcop|c|obcpcr|cc|| y
|r c `ra| iona| ` andwc| | i n|ormcd a wc| | as sc| |i h andobscsscdwi th
alue and Morals 103
cconomi zi ng on o| idari | yand |o c. Sc |hc| ps | 75 |or ni | i ci m o|
| hi sf c|i on.
Howcvcr,bc|orc umpi n|o|hcconc| u i on|ha|so| i dari |yi a|tai nab| c
o cmi hton|hcp| anc|ary ca| c. | c| uspccka|ano|hcrpi ccco|cmpi ri ca|
data. Rcccn|cxpcri mcn| condu |cdon mcmbcr o|somco||hc mo. |
cga| i tari ancommuni | i c. , i ndi gcnou group in |apuaNcwGui nca,sug-
gc. | |ha| na|ura|

a| trui m i parochi a| or t ri ba| . | ndccd, puni shcrs o|

normvi o| a|ors|cnd|oprotcc|i n-groupvict i m muchmor |hant hydo
ou|-groupsubcc|s( Bcmhard |is hbachcrand|chr2006) . S| i | | |hcrci s
hopc |org| oba|coopcra|i on namc| y|h cxi | nco|i n|crgovcrnm n| a|
org.tni za|i ons. uchas| hc I ntcrna| i ona| A4ronomi ca| Union. andi ntcr-
nati ona| NGOso| ariou ki nd . homthcRcdCross|oDoc|or Wi |hou|
Bordcr .Thcrcarc uch|hi ngsasva| uswi |hou|bordcrs- a| uc sharcd
by vcry di ||crcn| oci | i c .
o| tha|,|ar|romb i ng i ndcpcnd nto| othcr a| uc. . o| idari |ydc-
pcnd. upon | i b r|yandcqua| i |y. S| av and s r|s mu tobcyandassi . |.
bu| th y donot rca| | ycoopcrat wi |h |hci r mas|crs. |ortwopcr onsto
coopcra|c wi th on ano|hcrthcy InU. | b |rc |odo . 0, and |h y mus|
r gardand| rca|cacho| h rascqua| ra|hcr|han i th rma|crorscrvan| .
| nsum, cqua| i |y and| i bcrt yar oi n| | yncccssary |or o| i dari |y. Con c-
qucnt | y|hc |ogan i bcr|y,cqua| i ty |ratcmi ty or o| i dari | y cou|dbc
hrunk|o So| i dari |y.`
3. Political Values: Ju tice Freedom Competence
Lc| u s|ar|wi |h |hc cry |ir |o|po| i | ica| va| ucs. u | i cc. |n pri mi| i vc
and archai c t i mc , u |i cc was ynonymou wi | h rcvcngc. | n modcm
|hough|. | h t wo i dca arc u|| r| y di |inc|. |i r | . rc ngc r | ri bu|i on
or rc|a| i a|i on i i ncrca i ng| y b i ng r gardcd a barbaric and i mmora| .
Sccond.rcvcng i s |ob avoi dcd|orpmd n| i a|rcasonsbccau i t brccds
r |a| i a|i on. a in |ami | y |cud and in | h Ncar Ia | conH ic| . Thi rd
wh rca r ng i s your or mi nc u | i c i our . i| i a oci a| or harcd
va| uc b cau c i| con it i n|ai rncss|o a| | conccrncd.
Lc|u |art by rcca| | i ng| ha| thcrc arc |womai nconccp| o| u | icc.
| cga| and mora| . Thc |omcr con i t i n|hc ru| c or | aw. rcgard|c o|
whcthcr|hc |aw i |ai r or un|air. cqui |ab| c, or i ncquitab| c. Obvi ou | y
uri | arc|armorci n|crc |cdi n|cga| u| i cc|hani nmora| u t i cc-par-
| i cu| ar| y i | thcy adop|| cga| po i t i vi sm. |hc vari c|y o|rc| a| i vi m accord-
i ng |o whi chon| y|hc | aw o| |hc | andma| |cr . Lcga| po i | i vi m, whi ch
i s on| y |cnu u | yrc| a|cd |o phi | ophi ca| po i t i vi m i s |hc d minan|
| cga| phi | o ophy bccau c i | suppor| |hc powcr |ha| bc. By con|ras|
1 04 Political Philosophy
mora| | cga| and po| i | i cal phi | o ophcrs |ocu onmora|ust icc and |cnd
|ocva| ua|cthc | aw o||hc |and|roma uni vcra| i st mora| s|and, .ucha.
Spi nozas, Rou- cau` , or Kant . |or i n tancc,|hcy wi | | aruc |hat|hc
ru| co|| aw i a oi a| dc. i dcra|umprovi dcdthc| aw i | c| |i cqui t ab| c.
o|hcrwi c nomocracy i sma| c|i c.
Wcdi|i ngui h . i xmai nki nd o| mora| u |i cc accordi ngas i t conccm.
i ndi vi dua| i ntcrpcrsona| rc| a|i ons, . oci ct y |hccnvi ronmcn| thcs|atc,
or|hc i n|crna|i ona| communi |y. Thc hr | cqua| src p c| |ori ndi vi dua|
ri gh|s |hcsccond. |hcconsi dcra|c |ra|m n|o|o|h rs |hc|hi rd. soci a|
udi cc. ort h cqu i |ab|c a| | o|mcnt o|bcnch| sandburd ns. |hc |our|h.
cnvi ronmcn|a| us|i c con i | i nthccqui|ab|c hari ngo|cnvi ronmcn|a|
bcnchts | h h|| h i i d n| i ca| wi th i mpar| i a| i |y whcn kcpi ng |aw and
ordcr.and|hc si xth onsi t i ncqua| ri gh| |ora||na|i ons.
|rom |h prcccdi ng skc| hydcscri p|i ons i | hou| d bc c|car |hat |h
common|actoro|a| |ki ndso|us|i c i s/irn ?SS or?quil . a. Raw| st | 7 | )
h | d. Lvcn|odd| cr. showth y knowt hi . . Whcndcpri vcdo|wha|othcr
chi |drcngc|, orwhcnpuni . hcd|oractstha| oth rchi | dr n commi | wi th
i mpuni ty,| h ycry `No|ai r' ` And| abororgani zcrsri ght| ycomp| ai n|ha|
in thc I. S. wag hav rcmai ncd practi ca| | ys|agnan|ovcr|hc pa.| 25
y arswhi |c produc|i i | yha. i ncrcascd4 pcr y ar-an grcgi ou. cac
o| i ndu | ri a| un|ai rn
. | | tak
aNobc|Laurca|c in cconomi c , suchas
|au| Samuc| on, to b| amc| aborco| ra|hcr|han i nabi | i |y |o i nnova|c
andtocarn|hcwork r | oya| |y,|orthcgu|ti ngo| mcrican i ndu | ry i n
rcccn|ycar .
Bci ngtrca|cd|ai r| yi a basi chumannccd,hcnccahumanrigh| . | | |akc
aHcgc| i an ora|cga|po i t i vi t |oc |ai m|hat u | icci dc|i ncdby po i | ivc
| aw, noma|tcrhow barbari i| may b . |romamora| i cwpoi nt. a|cga|
cod i u | on| y i | qui tab| and qui tab| on| yi | ommcn ura| wi th
ournccd andm an . Wri || n| aw can a|b | cn|r nchu | i cqui ty) .
a|wor| i n u |i cc i ncqui ty) .
1uri t andphi | o oph r ar i nt rcs|cdi n a| | i xki nd o| us| i cc. And.
wi| ht h o| cxccp|i ono|Hobb Hcgc| , | yran| -nco| i b ra| and |cga|
posi t i vi t ( Mi gh|makc ri ght ` .cvcryoncagrcc tha|c|hi c i rc|cvan|
|ou |i cc o|a| | kind . This i bccau c thc conccpt o|cqui ty. whi ch i
commontoa| | p ci a| conccp| o| u t i cc i mora| .Thcrci a| ocon cn-
su about thc nccd|or| cga|codc i nany soci cty and any suprana|i ona|
organi zati on. Thcprob| cm|orthcpo| i |i ca| phi | o ophcri whc|hcragi vcn
|cga|normiscqui |ab| cor|avor |hci n|crc |so||hc|cw.Lctu nowgi vc
|humbskc|chc o|rc|ribu|i vc ( orcorrcct i c) and di |ri bu| ivc r o i a|
u | i cc whi chwi | | bccxami ncdi n hap|crs 8 and r pcc|i vc| y.
alue and Morals 105
Lach o||hc two ki nd o|domc | i cu | i c omc i nvari ou hadc
omco|whi chgc|c| osc|oi n us|i cc. |npani cu| ar,rc| ri buti vc u |icccan
bc a barbaric a rcta| i a| i on, as i |hc casc o| |hc bi b| i ca| | aw A |ooth
|oratoo|h, an cyc|orancyc`. ori|canbca advanccd a |hc wcdi h
pcna|codc,whi chai m. u| | i ma|c| ya||hc rccduca| i on. rchabi | i |ati on and
rci n|ccra|iono|cri mi na| i nsoci c|y.
Li kcwi . c, di s|ri buti c or oci a| u|i cc)canbcundcr|oodin ari ous
ways. In hi magi tcri a| hi 4ory o|thcconccp|. I| i s hackcr 2004. 4)
d hncs i t | hus. Di |ri buti c u ti cc` i n i | s mod rn cnsc ca| | son|hc
s|a|c|oguaran|c tha|propcr|yi di | ri bu|cd| hroughou|soci ty 0 tha|
cvcryonci upp| i cd wi | hac rtai n|cv | o|ma|cri a| mcan .Th samc
author op. ci | . . | 2 rcmarks|ha| t hi rccn| i dca| did not cmcrgcand
sprcada|ongwi |hsci cn| i hcand|cchno| ogi ca|advancc ,bu|asarcsu| to|
achangcin pcop| c` cn i bi | i |i cs.` |n |um. mora| progrcsswa hc| pcd
bynovc| i s|swi |h soci a| n.i bi | i |y . ucha Di ckcns, Zo| a,
mucha. bythcworkso||hccar| y soci a| i s| andanarchi s| s.
Howc r di t ri bu| i c us|i c i a wi d rangc o|doctri n s and po| i -
cic .|rommcr rc| ic|o|mi s r y| o|uh- hcdgcd .oci a| u. | i c i n| h |orm
o|ci |h rcqui | ab| cor `propor|i ona| ` a| |ot m n| o|bcncf | andburd ns.
And u. | i cco||hi ki nd can bcdi spcn d |rom| h .|a| , or
conqucrcd |rom bc|ow. by |h |rcc a oci a| i on o|workcrsi n|ocoop-
cra|i v a Loui B| anc( | 847 and1ohnS| uar| Mi | | | 5 proposcd.
I n ci |h r ca c I submi t tha| , tod crv bci ngca| | cd ` oci a| | yu t ` a
oci a| ordcrmu| ba| ancc ri gh| swi |hdut i c i n |cado|bci ngr | ri c|cd
|o ci |hcr ri gh| s ordut i c . I a| so suggc t rc | ri c| i ng ` di s| ri bu| i vc u -
| i cc |o rcdi s|ri bu| i on po| i ci c |rom abovc, rc crvi ng oci a| us|i cc
|or|hcta| o| oci c|y wh rcc cryon urvi vc r gard| csso|mcri | bu|
| h bc|| rcndow dormorccn|crpri i ngarcgiv n thcchanc o|scr ing
oci ty|othcbc | o|| h irabi | i t ic a or|o| yn|hc i o| ga| i tari ani m
wi | hmcri |ocracy.
Justi e (1.\
D ert
Prill 'jple
To ea h a cordi ng to th ir ri ght . 10 ment i on of duties.
ea h a cor li ng I th ir need . N menl i n of dut i e .
To ea h ac ordi ng to t hei r de crt . Dut i e arc i mpl ied by d" ert s.
.qui table di . tri but i on f b t h benef it. and burden . .
To ca h a cordi ng to t hei r need , from ca h ac ordi no to t h i f
abi l i tin ' Loui s Bl an .
Table 3. 1 lain conceptions of distributhe ju lice.
1 06 Political Philosophy
Thi |ab|c uggc. |s tha| nci |hcr o| thc hrs| |wo | radi | iona| con cp-
|ion o| us|i ccthc ari .tocra| ` . and|hcbccgar` rc pcc| i vc|yi |air,
bccau c nci |hcrsay anythi ng abou| .oci a| ri gh|sandburdcns. bo|h arc
i ndi vidua| i| and|hcrc|orc an|i soci a| . Thcy arc a| 0 i mpracti ca| , asany
ac oun|an|wi | | conhrm.|ornooci c|ycansupporta| argcma. o|i ndi -
vi dua| dcmandi nc|ha|o|hcr provi dc|orthci rnccdsanddc i rc wi |hou|
con| ri bu| i ng any|hi nci nrc| urn. | ndccd a u |ai nab|c oci a| sy.|cmwi | |
ba| ancci | budgc|. i | r vcnucs( |rom burdcn ordu|i mu | b | argcr
|hanorcqua| |oi t xpcndi |ur : i nmcc| i ng bcncht orcnt i | | mcnts .
Thc varic|yo|conc p|i on o|us|i cc uggc t |ha||hi s i a hi tori ca|
catcgory.thcrci snosuch|hi nga na|ura| and|h rc|orci mmu|ab|c u ti c
anchor di nourg n |i chri |agc. Lga| oci o| ogyand| cga| hi s|oryhavc
|augh| u |ha| us|i cc. |ar|ron bcing ci thcrGod-gi vcn orna|ura| . is a
soci a| con |ruc| i onundcrpcrmancn|rccon truc|i on. Thi i whynuch
o|wha|uscdtobcrcgardcda. us|,sucha rcvcngc capi |a|puni . hmcn|,
and i n o| un|ary un mp| oymcn| i nowwi dc| yrcgardcd a. unu. t . Bc-
causc us|i c i sa soci a| cons|ruct i on. i | i . a hi |orica| ca|ccory subcc|
|opo| i ti ca| ac|i onai m d atrc|ormi ngi | .
Ano|hcrobvi ouspoi n|, thoughonc| i kc| y|ob mi . cdby|hcra|i o-
na| -choi ccthcori . | . i stha| us|i cci a soci a| trai t, andonc|ha|do no|
How |rom i ndi vi dua| ac| i on. Ra|hcr u | i cc i nh r
i n |hc | ruc|urc o|
cvcry oci cty, hcncc i t i par| o||hc | cgacy cvcryonc rccci vc a| bir|h,
andonc|ha|anyoncmaywi h |o i | hcrrc pctorcha| | cng and pcr|cc|
in |hc nam o| highcr va| ucs. Conscqucn|| y i | an i ndi i dua| mi gra|c
|romonccoun|ry |oanothcrhc wi | | bccxpcc|cd|o obcy |hc| awso|hi
ncw | andwhi chpo c wc| | -knowndi |hcuhi c |o thc i ndi vi dua| who
rc it i n|cgra| i on. i thcrbccau |h ykccp trongtri ba| orna|i ona|| i nks.
orb cau c thcy rcgard |h m 1 c a |ai th|u| f r t and n w| y i nduc| d
c| | i z n ccond.
Ncx|comc | i b r|yor|rccdom. Wcadop| |hctradi | iona| di | i ncti on
b | wc n ncga|i v orpa i vc andpo i | i vc |ora | i | ib r|y. bc|w n
|hc| i b rty}mmcon trai nt and |h | i b r to act ccB r| i n| 6 .Takc.
|orcxamp| c |hc|amous|our|rccdoms | i s|cdbyRoo cvc| t i nhi | 4 |
S|atco|thcUni on pccch. |rccdomo| pcchandwor hi p, |rccdom|nm
wantand |car. Thc f r t |woarc po i | i vc. |hc|a t twoncga|i vc.
Howc cr, |ar |rom bci ng mu| ua| | y i ndcpcndcnt thc two ki nd o|
|rccdom, ac|ivc and passi vc. arc i n| i matc| y rc| atcd. Ac|i c | i bcrty. or
|hcpowcrtoac|, i nc| udc |hcabi | i ty|orcmovcccr|ai ncon t rai n| . a i n
c capi ng|r I a ai | anddi c nncc|i ngonc c| | phonc. |n |hcrw rds
act i vc |rccd I i mp| i passivc hccd m. Morc vc| thc tw onccp|
alue and Morals 107
can bcsubsumcdundcr|hc i ng|c conccp|o|sc| |-dc|crnuna|i onorau-
|onomy. Thu an i ndi i dua| i sthc|rcc.| i thccan |orc hi own |atc
(1i |c cour.c) . bu|. i ncc to do . 0 hc nccd |hchc| po|o|hcr , hc won` |
achi c ctrccdomi nthchcrmi t scavc, bu|| hrouchh || i ngi n|ooncor morc
uppor| i c oi a| nc|workswhi h wi | | in |um pu| dcmandsonhi m. In
hor| , |hc pri cotpcrona| |rccdom is soci a| bondi ng.
Wha|ho| d |or i ndi vi dua| a| so ho| d , I'1wtatis mutandis |or oci a|
sys| ms. A h rm i c onon i a| l y |rcc i | uc cs |u| | y sc| |- ntnag d
( wi|hout |rong i n|crvcn|i on |rom banksorgov mmcn|dcpartm n| ) .
Andacommuni | yi s po| i t i a| l y|rcc i |i | managc i t a||ai rsbyi | | |. I n
shor| , posi |i v ( or ac|i vc |rccdon bcat ncga|i vc orpassi vc |rccdom.
Hcncc|ort hwc ha| |adop|| hc trong( ac|i v po i t i vc n o|| hcword.
Tha|i W ' ha| | cqua|c |rccdom or| i b r|y wi | h | |-dc|crm na| i onor
|ur|hcrmor . wc di t i ngui sh .c ra| ki ndso||r cdom, i n par| i cu| ar
conomi c |oworkandtradc) cu| | ura| (|o| camand worshi p) , andpo| i t i -
ca| ( topart i ci patci npub| i cahai r . . Andwcrcgardpo| i tica| |rccdomas
a mcan. |or .ccuri ngcconomi candcu| tura||rc dom. |n| i bcra| oci c|i
wctcnd|ot akcpo| i | i ca|hccdom|orgrantcd.Bu|o|cour.cphi | oophcr
ar cxp ctcd|oqu s|ion n ar|y c ry| hi ng. I npar| i cu| ar.wc. hou| da k
whyw va| uc|rccdom. Thc obvi ou an w ri s |hat| i bcrt yi va| ucd|or
|worcasons. Bccauc i| con i | i ndoi ng or bccomi ngwha| wc wan| .
andbccausc i | |cc| good | obc|rcccvcn toi magi nc |ha|oncha | hc
abi | i | yo|doi ng orbccomi ng what oncwant . Thi i why pcop|c and
othcrani ma| sarcwi | | i ng |opaya pric |or|rccdom. I |i ndoub|,wa|ch
an ani ma| |aki ng ri skstogc||hc |ood i| nccd orthcma| hc wan|s. or
rcadabou| |h opponcn| o|adi cta|orhip who|akc|ot h |rcc| at | h
ri k o|| hci r| i
ga| i vc| i bcr|y thcon| y| i b r| ynco| i b ra| h ri h i nc r nough
i |on| ybccau i t do not|ccd. Thi si why| h anci n|Romanci | izcn
whi | cproudo||hcirci vi c|ib r|i .wh nhungry| h ychc r danyt yran|
whogav ou|br ad. Thi s i wha|d magoguc orpopu| i | do. Th y
cxchangc po| i | ica| |rccdom |or |rccdom |rom want . Thcy u c pol i| i cal
dcmocracya amcan to upprc po| i ti ca| |rccdom .
I n|radi | i ona| oci cti c bru|c |orcc wa thc on| ymcan |o attai n|rcc-
domor|odcprivco|hcr |rom i | . Thcrcwcrcnoi n t i |u|i on dc i gncdto
protccti ndi vi dua| |rccdom. |n dcmocra|i c occ|i c wccan |i c wi | hou|
|cari ng|o ]0 cour|rccdoma | onga wcdon | bchavcan|i oci a| | y-or
clc |govcni |ncn| | i kc| y|orc| ri c| i | . Tru i n| hccapi |a| i st dcm craci cs
m ncy buysp w r. whi h i n| umcanbuy |rccd m hom on |rai n| as
1 08 Political Philosophy
wc| | , L hccdom |o ac| . But thc bu i ncss |y oon pay |or hi powcr i n
worri csandu| ccrs,andi n| i mc .pcn| i n| hccompanyo|pcop| cwhomhc
dcspi c.. Hcha. |hcma|cri a|mcan |ocnoy|hcbc ||hi ng i n| i |cuch
as |hccompanyo||ri cnds, good mu i , ood| i |cra|urc |ravc| , and|hc
abi | i |ytohc| pothcr. buthcha. nci |hcr|hc|a |cnor|hc| i mc|or|hcm.
Hcpay |oohi gha pricc|ortoorcs|ri c|cda|rccdom.
Thcidcao| |orcingpcop|ct obc|rcc i npar|icu|aro|i mposi nc|rcdomby
|hc|or co|arms i- acon|radi c|i onintcrms.andu |apropagandap|oy|o
di guiscimp|ia|anbi|ion.Thcno|iono||orccd|rccdom.h.ud|ydi sti ngui h-
ab| |rom|ha|o||rccsr|don.i sus|a | udicrousa |hato|i nncrhccdom.
sungby Kant |ich| . ando|hcr|am pro|c SOI ' . AndH idcggcr`s | 7)
s|a|cmcn|s |ha| `|h cs cnc o|h domi s|ru|h
and|hcc s ncco||ni|h
i- h dom,` arc notut non cnsica| . Thcy arc a|so hypocri |i a| comi ng
|rom omconcwhob | ic d i nnci |hcrhcdomnor|ruthnorc|hi c .
Lc| u a| 0 no|c| ha| | i bcr|yi . p| ura| notsi ngu| ar.Thcr arcasmany
ki ndso|| i bcr| ya. ki nd o| oci a| ac| i i | y and .omco||hcmar i ncom-
pa|i b| wi |ho|h rs.|ori n. | anc , |rcccn| rpri sci nvo| askc| |on ta|c
and| hu. mi ni ma| . oci a| .crvi cc. , whi ch in |um cur|ai | |r cdom |rom
wan|,di s asc,andi gnoranc .|r ( wagc | abor,asopposcd|o |a c| abor,
|orcc. pcop|c |o |cnd |orthcm. | cs rathcrthan dcpcndi ngon na| cr.
|or|hci r| i vchhoodacoun|| c | avc i nBrazi | i anp| an|ati on | carncd
|o |hci r chagri n whcn | a cry wa abo| i hcd in | 88 . bou| 20,000cx-
s| a c ,| cdbyth pric | An|oni oCon | hci ro,|ookarm agai ntabo| i |i on
andwcrc massacrcdby|hcoppo i ngarmyi n | 8.
As|or|rcc| radcamonguncqua| partncrs i | | i mi t
thcabi | i |yo| ma| | -
sca|c |armcr .md crahsmcn |o c| | |hci r produc| i n a markct Hoodcd
by ma. - produc d good- uch a agri cu| |urc produc cnoyi ng s|a|
subsi di c . Inr |ric|cd|r c pc ch mak ha|rcd propagandapo i b| c.
Inrc t ri c|cd|rccdomo|a oci a|i ona| | ow |or|hc|orma|i ono|cri mi na|
gang . |rcc ac c |o ocia| crvi cc can on| yb hnanccdbyi mpo i ng
|ax . Andun| |tcrcd |rcc nt rpri c |aci | i |a| rcck| c nc and |raud.
To ch ckcorpora|c soci a| i rrc pon i bi | i | y|h Amcri can Congrcsscrc-
a|cd| hc |cn i on Bcnc| | Guaran|y Corp ( | 74). which i n2004 alonc
|ook0 cr| 8|ai | cdcompanypcn i on|und -a||hctaxpaycr` scxp n c,
o|cour c. And i n 2002, a||cr |hc Lnron wi nd| c. Congrc passcd |hc
Sarbanc -Oxlcy Ac|. whi ch crca|cd |hc |ub| i c Company Account i ng
Ovcri gh|Board.|hcaudi |oro|companyaudi |or . ccAr| usandVi rard
2005. | n hor| . c cry | i bcr|y is a||ai ncd at |hc pricco|somc othcr|rcc-
d m. In |ashi nab| ci | mc|aphori a| |crms. Th cxcr i c o|| ibcr| i ci a
zcr - umgamc.
alue and Morals 109
How docshccdomrc| atc|ocqua| i t yCommuni st |romBab u|and
Cabct|o Marx, Ingc| s. and Lcni n, argucd|ha|| i bcrtymu. |bc rcs|ri c|cd
orpo | poncd|orthc akco|cqua| i t y.Thcci chtccn|hccn|uryphy i o ra|
di dnotcarctorci |hcr. Thcycombi ncd|rcccntcrprisc laiss -fair ) wi th
po| i |i ca| ab o| u|i .m. Thci r on|cmporary succc orthc nco| i bcra| s
uch as Hayck, |ri cdman, Buchanan, and Nozi ckarcuc |ha| | i bcrty
prcvai | 0 crcqua| i ty.Thcy arccagcr|oprotcc|propcr|yri ht andthc
c onomi c|rccdomandsccuri | yo|th mi nori |y.|hcydono|worryabou|
|hct yrannyo||hcni nori ty|ha|wi c| d conomi pow r.
|n|hcpa ta|cwi ndi vi dua| cou| down| .md.mdpcop|c-s| av .scr| ,
or i ndcntur d | aborcr . Modcm capi |a| i ts-wh thr a owncrs or as
managcr -nccdnotown any| hi ng '0 tangi b| cas| onga |hcyownobs
oroccupati onstha||hcycand: Jgn r dcsi gn mo caround. cxport i m-
por| orsupprc . 1obown rsmayrcn| | ca corborrowncar| ycvcry| hi ng
| sc-| and, bui | di ng , machi ncs truck . .hi p. andcvcn mon y-pro-
i dcdth y ownobs|ha| |h y can a| | o|, wi thho| d. orwi thdraw a| wi | | .
Iconomi c pow r rcsi dc. not i n mat ri a| pos. S. i on bu| i n|hc powcr
|ogcncratcorki | | obs-|ohi r and|i r . Thi . abi | i |y ci cscapi |a| i s| a
powcrovcrpcop| c` | i v tha|noo|hcrowni ngc| assin |hcpa t noycd.
|h abi | i | y|onur|ur orcu| down| i |chi stori c. ona| arg ca| c. Thus| hi s
awc omc|rccdomo|t hc|cw cur|ai | s|hc| ibcr|yo|| hcmany.
Tawncy | 4. | 70) put it | oqucnt| y in hi | J8c| a ic. cconon+i c
powcr i a |ormi dab| mcnacc | o| hc |rccdom o|commonmcn. Thc
prc ur o| uchpowcri s|c| | by|hcconsumcrwhcnh purcha cs ncc-
c ari c whi ch di rcc| | yori ndi rcc| | y,arccon|ro| |cdbyamonopo|y. | t i s
| | | i n| hcwork hop whcrc,wi t hi n|hc| i mi | sc|byi ndus|ri a| | cgi | at i on
andco| | | i agr m n| | h com|or| and amcni |y o|thcwagc- arn-
r ` urroundi ng , |hc di ci p| i nc and tonco||actory | i f.| hc ccuri |yo|
mp| oym n| and mcthod o|promo|i on, | h rc rui | m n|anddi smi a|
o|workr |hcdcgr c|owhi h ucc i v rc| ay o|chcapj u ni | | abor
ar mp|oycd. | h opportuni | y |o ccurc con i dcra|i on|orgri c anc
d pcndu| t i matc| y upon| h po| i cypur ucdbyaboardo|di rcc|or who
may ha c | i || |c | o c i ndccd. |or thci r harcho|dcr bu| who rcprc cn|
i n |hc | a | rc or|. |hci rhnanci a| i n|crc t andwho. i n 0 |ara thcyarc
harcho| dcr thcm c| c arc ncccs ari | y udgc i n|hci r own causc.` | n
um, | hc o-ca| |cd|rccmarkct| hrcatcn |rccdombccau ci | a| | ow omc
i ndi i dua| |oaccumu| atccconomi c, po| i | i ca| , andcu| |ura| powcr.
or i s i| |ruc|hatcqua| i |y i i ncompa| i b| cwi| hdcmocracy.Thc nco-
| i bcra| c| ai mtha|dcmocracy i |hc| yrannyo||hcma ri|y hcn c |h y
arc rcadyt acri hcc dcmo ra y a|| hc|rcc markc|a| |ar. |or cxamp| c
1 10 Political Philosophy
Mi | |on|ri cdman and |rcdcri ckHayck vii |cdChi | candi c|atorGcncra|
Aucusto|i nochc|whom|hcyprai cd|orhavi ng .avcd|rccdom.` |ri cd-
mana| 0 cn| hi hi cagoboy ` |oadvi cc|i nochctando| hcrdi cta|or.
oncconomi cma|tcr . Mararc|Tha|chcr, |hc|ormcr|ri mcMi ni . tcro|
|hcUni |cdKi ngdom, pracd|hcdi c|a|orwhi | chcwa undcrhou carrcs|
ac u cdo|havi ncordcrcdmurdcr. and |or|urc ca| orc.
| n a gcnui nc dcmo racy cvcryonc has |hc amc basi c ( or human )
ri gh|s. Morcovcr. d mo.racycn|ai | s| i bcr|y bu| not con crsc| y. | ndccd.
|o makc dcmocracy work. a| | i |i zcns mus| cnoy thc amc | i bc|!y to
c crci c | hirba i ri gh| and to do| hci rba i cduti:. i npar|icu| ar |h
ci vic oncs. Au|hcnti cdcmocracya| ocntai | s cqua| i | n c whcn om
hav much morc powcr than nos| | h y can i mpos t h i r wi | | on |h
wcak and |husdcprivc mos| pcop| c o| |h ri gh||o go crn |hcmsc| v:.
| n|crc4i ng| y a| |hc bcgi nni ng o||h ni nc|ccn|h c n| ury | hcAmcri can
advoca|cso|s| avcryu. cdthc|rccdomargum nt-whi chi . c i dcncc|or
|hcthcsi |ha| |rccdom mi nuscqua| i |y cqua| pri vi | cg .
| nshor| . . ub|| |i csai dc,hcrcarc |hc |o| | owi ngpossi b|ccombi na|i on.
b | wccn|r cdom cqua| i ty. and|hci ropposi t . .
|L= Dcmocra|i csoci a| i m |L = C| assica| | i bcra| i sm
|L= So ic|communi m |L= |a ci m
| | i dco|ogywcrc|hcmo t i mpor|an||ac|ori n po| i t ic , | hcrcshou| dbc
on|y |ournca|po| it i ca| b| ocsin |hcwor| d sccnc| hcon
shown abo c,
bu|po| i|i ca| rca| i |y is mor comp| cx. Thcrc i us in |hc | rs| p|acc, and
them i n| hc ccond. |ori n |ancc. b |orc |hc dcco| oni zati on procc i n
|hc | 60 .|hcBri t i sh. |rcnch. Du|ch. Gcrman.B | gi an-andAmcri an
wcr po| i |i ca| | y | i b ra| a| hom bu| opprc i vc i n |h ir o| oni On| y
|hc Spani ard and|or|uguc c wcr con i | n| | y i | | i bcra| bo| hat hom
andi n| h i r co| oni .
And. a| |hough| h Co| dWari | i | | ai d|ohavcb n abou||rc dom.
i n |ac| i | brough| |ogc|hcr | i bcra| anddc po| a wc| | a communi |
and mi | i |ary dicta|or . p| u a |argc b| oc o| non-a| i gncd na|i on . omc
dcmocrati c | i kc | ndi aando|hcr au|hori |ari an | i kc uba. Thc po| i |i ca|
|hcoris|orphi |osophcrwho| ook on| ya|i dco| ogi c andpar| i c i sbound
|omi thcrca| movcr andshakcrs.namc| y|hcma|cria|i n|crc | bchi nd
idco|ogi c andpar| i c . Morc i nChap|cr5. )
Lc| usn wg|i mp ca|| hcgcncra|i dcao|c ivi | ri gh| or| ibct!i c ) . To
bcgi nwi |h n |c|hcf howi ng|wo|ca|urc |c ivi | ri ght .Thcy mc i n
alue and Morals 1 1 1
bund| csor y. | m ra|hcr|han i ni o| ati on and|hci rcxcrcc bound
|o| cad|opro|oundpo| i | i ca| changc . Thus, |hcri gh| |o|rcccxprc i on
anda. . oci a|i on|aci | i tatc|hcri gh| |ovotc,whi chi u. cdby progrcsi c
part i csto a|tcmp| |o i n|roduccsoci a| rc|orms orc cn chanc|hc oci a|
ordcr, whcrca. con. crvati vc scc i t a. a | hrcat|opri vi | cgc and a|tcmp|
accordi nc| y|o|hwar|i | . |orcxamp| c, u uahy|hcCa|ho| i cChurchcithcr
rccommcndcd c| cc|ora| abs|cnti on, or cxhor|cd i | |ai | h|u| |o vo|c |or
ri gh|-wi ngpar|ics. Andi na| | t hrccAmcri ca |hccon crvati vcs wh n i n
powcr. havcpcrpc|ra|cd.or |ricd| opcrp|ra| c| cctora| |rauds.
Whcncv r po| i |i ca| ri ght hav b n pro|cc|cd and cxcr i scd. |hcy
ha c | d to igni hcan| po| i | ica| changcs. |or cxamp| c, |hc i ntrodu ti on
o|uni vcr a| ma|c) suhragc i n Wcs|cm Luropc, |hc Uni tcd S|at : and
|hcBri t i sh domi ni onsin|hccour o||h ni nctccn|h n|uryriu| | i p| icd
|cn|o|dthcra|co|po| i |i ca|par| ici pa|i onanddi crsi h d|hc ompo i t i on
o|par| i amcnt . omco|whi chpa. . d progrcssi c | aws. Abovca| | uni -
crsa| .u||ragc |rcng|hcncdd mocracyandb | i c|i ni t pow rt o hcc|
progrc. . i v .oci a| changcs. Thu . around | 00| hcArg n| i nc Soci a| i s|
|ar|yca| | cd i |s | | ``|hcpar|yo|uni v rsa| suhragc.`
Mos|proc| ama| i on. o| n w ri ght |hough. havcbccn pur | y |orma|
act wi|hou|maor .oci a| conscqucncc . Somc xamp| s o||hi s arc | h
Amcri canCons| i | uti oni n| hc outhcmUni | cdS| atcsun| i ||hcmid- | 0 .
| hc La| i nAmcri cacon t i | u| i on i nc | hc | 850 . andt hcSovi ctchar|cr
o|ri ghts. Howcvcr, i n omccasc wordshavcbccn|o| | owcdbydccds.
|orcxamp| c. whcn| hc hor| - | i vcd|rcnchgovcrnmcn| i sucd |rom |hc
| 848rcvo| u|i onproc| ai mcd|hcri gh| | owork. i | i mmcdi a|c| yprocccdcd
| oorgani zc thc a|i ona| Work hop . | ocrcatcobs|or|hcuncmp| oycd.
Roo cvc| | wD a| | aci| | yr cogni zcd ncar| yac ntury| a| r.|hcri gh|
|o work whcn mbarki ng on | arg - ca| c program o|pub| i c work to
r |i vc un mp| oymcn|whi ch ac|ua| | ycau cd on| y a modc | dcc| i n
i nuncmp| oym n| bu| boo |cd|hc | |-r p c|andhopc o|| hccommon
p op| c.
Somuch|or i vi | ri gh|s. Thcyarci mportan|bu| i n u|| ci n| a com-
p |cncc and honc t y arc rcqui rcd |or |hc c|hci cnt go cmancc o| any
oca| sy |cm. |rom |hc|ami |y |o|hcwor|d ys|cm. Un| i kc i| par|ncrs
compc|cncci anamora| a| uc. |houghoncwi |hou|whi ch| i vabi | i |yand
| i bcr|y-sc| |-govcrnmcn|-archard| ypo i b|c. Thi nko||hcdcpcndcncc
o|chi | drcnand|hchandi cappcd. ando||hcvu| ncrabi | i |yo|| hcworkcrs
coopcra|i c wi |hou| ki | | |u| managcmcn|orup-|o-da|c |cchno| ogy.
| | i n doub| abou| |hc i mpor|an c o| ompctcncc in a||cmp| i ng |o
achi cvcanygoa|bcyondrc| i vi ngani |chby cra|chi ng, rcca| | thcpri c
1 12 Political Philosophy
|hcChi nc chadtopay|or|hc|cchnica| i ncompc| ncco|MaoZcdong`
di c|a|orhi p. Thc Grca|Lcap|orward | 5-6 | , whi ch mobi | i zcdhun-
drcdso|mi | | i onChi nc c,wascxpcc|cd|oproducc .t cc| and| hussupp| y
|hcrawma|cri a| |orthcna ccn|hcavyi ndu tj.Thi s wa. hopcdtorcsu| |
|rommc| |i ni roni |cms, cvcnki | hcnu|cn. i |,i ndomcs|i cc| ay-|umaccs.
Thcrcsu| |wcrcpa|hc| i c| umpso|bri ||| ccas| i ron, usc| c cvcn|ormak-
i ng si mp| c too| sas any mc|a| | urgi| , i|con u| |cd, wou| dhavc warncd.
Bu| o|cour |hcGrca|Hc| m man kncw bc||cr. Thc hunanco | o||hi
combi na|i on o| i n ompc|cncc wi t h di c|a|or hi p wa an cs|i matcd J0
mi | | iondcad |rom |hc|ami nc|ha|rc u| |cd |rom di vcr| i ng | argc ma
o|pcasan| s|rom |ood produc|i onto an i mprovi d .md |ai | cd s|cc| i n-
du 4ry mi | | .
| n| hi s c |i onwc xan ncd| hrccncw va| ucs- u | i . |rccdom .md
compctn -i naddi | ion|o|hcbi o. oci a| a| uc - curi |y qua| i |
so| i dari |y-wc had .|udi cdi n|h prcvi ou. scc|i on. An .i xva| uc hang
|ogc|hcr i n|h . ns |hatnci |hcro||hcmcanb tu| | yrca| i zcdun| css|hc
o|hcrh c tooarcrca| i zcd. Howcvcr |orcachmcmbcro||hi sy. |cmo|
a|u s|hcr isacoun| r ai | i ngorcompcnsa|orycoun|crpar||hatcur|ai |
i |t xtcn| .
Se 'urit Justi e
\ /
Libert - is facilitated but Cit the same time urtailed b) - Fraterni'
/ \
J'quality Competence
4. Rjghts and Duties
Lc| u now pa. |rom ci i | ri gh| |o ri ght i ng ncra| . A ri gh| i o|
coursc a | i n t odo om |hi ng. Thi spcrmi i on. wh thcrcxp| i ci | or
|aci | i gi nby 0 i c|y.and om | i mc anc| i oncdbythc |a| wh rci |
cxi t .A| | oci a| rcgi m v n| hc mo.|dc po|i c, r cognizcsom ba i c
right ,|orwi |hou||hcm| i |cwou| dbci mpo i b|c. |ncoun|ric wi |h| cga|
sy'cm i n pi rcd by Roman | aw | hc ri gh|sarc cxp| i ci | | ycnumcra|cdi n
|hc |cga|codc . Bycontra | |hccommon-| aw | cga| y |cm whi charc
morc | i bcra| . | i t on|y thc prohi bi | i on and a umc| ha|wha|c cri no|
cxp| i ci || yprohi bi tcdisprmit|cd.
Whcthcrcxp| i ci t ori mp| i ci | . ri gh| andduti c arc ci a| no|na|ura| .
asshownby|hccmcrgcnccandsubmcrgcncco|| hcvari u ri gh|sa| ong
hi | ry.Thus i nmo |countri c ma| cssti | | cn y ri gh|sdcni cd |cma| cs
alue and Morals 1 13
andun| i | rcc nt | ynooncdi pu|cd|hcri gh||opo| |u|candbca|upwi c
chi | drcn. and scr an| .I nshor|,ri gh| anddu|i c arcmadc. Hcncc. tri c| | y
pcaki n . |hc cxprcssi on human ri ch| i . any| hi ng but c| car. Thi s
cxprcssi onon| ydcno|c | hcri gh| tha|arc |akcn|orgran|cdi n modcm
dcmocrati csoci c|i cs. Howcvcr,|hi s docsnotcn|ai || ha|humanri cht arc
non. cn cons|i | |,` a Bcntham|houht , mcrcbourgcoi . in cn|i on. a
omcMarxi s| ha chc| d. oramani |c.|a|i ono|rati ona| i t |anati cim,
a Wcb' [ | 7. 2 wrotc.
| n |ac|. omc human ri gh| . uch as |h ri gh| |o | i |c | i b r|y and
sc uri | yo|pcr o| , tobc |rca| d wi|hdi gni |y or rcspc | to |o c andbc
| ovcd toob|ai ngai n|u| cmp|oymcn| . |o| carn and |cach |oho| dbc| i |
andoi na soci a|i on and |o votc and run|orpubhco|hcc. arc i mpor-
|an| acmc cm n| |ormcr| ydcni cdwomcn | av: . cns and cvn | and
|cnan|s. So much so. t ha| mo | o||hcm ha c bcconc n hri nd i n|hc
Uni v r a| Dcc| arati on o|Human Righ|sproc| ai mcdby thc ni |cd a-
| i on in | 48. Myon|yrcscrva|i onabout t hi sadmi rab| documcn|i. tha|
i| shou| dbc upda|cd as n cd d a. w || asbroadcncd|oi nc| udcdu| i s.
ont hc s|r ngtho|thc | hica| pri nci p| |hat i na u. | oi |yc r ri gh|
i mp| i adutyandconvcr.c| y( Bungc | 8a .Thcconn c|i onbc|\vccn
ri gh|s and du| i c i s .0 t rong | ha| thcy may changc i nto on anothcr.
|or xamp| c, accordi ng|o |hc Bib| c work i a cur c .md a du|y. .md
con crvati vcsbc| icvc|hatpo cr|yi |hcbc |worki nccnti vc. Bycontrast,
othcr t hi
wri |cr i nc| udcdwi h |ha| bo|h |hc righ| .md |hc du|y to
gai n|u| workwcrccn|rcnchcdi na| | con | i |ut i on .
Anydccpdi cu
iono|| hcna| urco|ri ght anddu| i c i sbound| oi n-
vo| v . a| omcpoi n| , t hci dca| i sm/ma|cri a| i mdi |cmma. I ndccd, whcrca
phi | o ophi ca| id a|i | | i k Dworkin | 8 bc| i cv | ha| | aw mak
p op| c phi |osophi ca|ma| ri a| i | ho| d|hatpcop| cmak orr p a| | aw
|ha| | aw and | hci rr p a| r u| | |rom oci a| acti on and ar
j u | pri n|cd
ma| tcrun| backcdbypcop| cwi | | i ng|ohght|or|hcm whcth ri ncour| s
o|| aw ori n| h trcc| . Thi ho| ds i npar| i cu| ar |or bi | | o|ri gh| . On| y
| i t igati onandpo| i|i ca| acti oncanpro|cc|th m. A Ipp |. 777 pu|
i | . j b ] i | | o|ri ght ma||cr, bu| on| y i |civi | oci c| i c havc | hc capaci ty
|o uppor| anddcvc|op| hcm.Thi sho| d o|cour c |ora| | | aw . Un|c s
cn|orccab| c, thcyarc u |word , andi |obcycdon| yundcrcocrci on, | hcy
arc boundtobcc| udcd. Leges sine m ribu vanae.
Ano|hcrphi |o ophi ca| prob| cmcncountcrcdby anyonc who rcHcc|
onri gh| and|hcpo i |i c| aw |ha|guaran|cc| hcmi thci ndi vi dua| i m-
ho| i m-sy t cmi m|ri | cmma| Bungc20Ja .| ndccd whcrcasi ndi vi dua| -
i s| | |i kcBcn|ham. Spcnccr.Dworki n andNozi k) c| ai mtha||hcr | co|
1 14 Political Philosophy
i ndi vidua| ri gh|si|opro|cc||hcpcr onagai n t. ocic|y.ho| i L mai n|ai n
|hati ndi i dua|ri ght hou| dbc| i mi|cdby|hc nccd|opursucthccommon
goo. Thc .ys|cmi s| i morcrca| i s|i c|handoctri nai rc. Hcknow. |ha|i n
c cry oci cty thcrc arccommon cood. who c prc crva|i on rcqui rc |hc
| i mi |ationo|i ndi vi dua| ri gh|s. Thi i why|hcsy. tcmi tadmi t | hcnccd
|oi mpo. cprogrcssi ctaxa|i onandtoobscrvcan| i -trus| | aw. to| i mi | |hc
conccn|ra|i ono|wca| |h|ocxpropri atcpri a|c| yowncd| and|or|hccon-
s|ruc|i ono|pub| i cwork or vcn|odi i dci | upamongi ndi vi dua||armcr .
|o mak vacci na|i on.mdbasi cduca| i oncompu| sory.and ' 0 on.
No oci |yi i ab| cwi |hou|somc|radcoh btwccnpriva|c i ntcrcs|
andthccommongood. Si ncc uch| radcohsarcbound|ohur| th shor|-
|crmi n|crc | so| on i ndi vi dua| s.|hcycannotbi mp| cmcn|cdwi |h|h
conscnto|a| | |h par| conccrn d. Th s|a|cha to s| pi nand scc |oi |
|ha|sc| hsh i ndi vidua| sdono|wrcck|hccommongood. W' ha| | r |urn
|ot hi ma|| ri n| hcncx| cc| i on. L | usnowr um our | udyo|ri gh|
i ngcn ra| .
Thcrc arc as many ri gh|s a. ki nds o| ac| i on. I ndccd, |h rc ar cn-
i ronmcnta| righ| . g. , |o cnoy c| can air) bi o| ogica| ri ch|s c. g. to
rcproducc ,cconomi cri gh|( . g. , towork ,cu| | ura| ri gh| c. g. |owor-
shi porno||oworshi p), and po| i |i ca| ri gh| c. g. |ovo|candbc vo| d
|or) . Nonc o| | hcsc ri gh|s can cxi s| cparatc| y |rom | h o|hcrs. Thcy
con | i t utc a ys| m, bccau c th y arc i n|crdcpcndcn|. I ndccd. wi |hou|
po| i | ica| ri gh|s w can nci |hcrconqucr nordc|cnd |hc oth r ri gh| by
|cga|mcan . Li kcwi c| h |rcccxcrci co|cconomi cri gh|sa| | ow usto
carn th whcrcwi | ha| to |i c, |carn, a
oci a| . vo|c. ctc. But o|courc
wcwon` | gc|adcccn|obun|c wchav | carn| omcski | | . andourvo|c
wi | | b |oo| i h i |w havcmad nou co|ourrigh||obci n|ormcdabou|
ma||crs o|pub| i c i n| rc | . Such i n|crdcpcnd ncco|ri gh i cxp| i i | | y
i nvokcd i n om rcso| u|i on o|| h Uni |cdNat i on andi t agcnci c a
i |hcca wi |hHumanRi gh| Rc o| u|i on2005/66conccrni ngth ri gh|
|oknow |hct ru| habou| vio| a| i on o|human ri ght .
A| | oci | i c ccurc om ri gh| wi |hou|mora| u | i | ca|i on. On o|
|hcmi thcri gh||oown| argc|ract o|| and who| c|orc |s. orcn| i rc| akc
ormountai n . In hi s c|oqucn| and i nHucnti a| Di c urse 11 inequalif ,
Rou cau |755) argucd tha| pri va|c propcr|y i thc hi'ori ca| roo|o|
soci a| i ncqua| i |y whi ch i n| urn i | hc sourcco|mo'conHi ct . Thoma
Morchadgonccvcn|ur| hcrinhi | 5 | 6work,Utopia. Hcargucd|hat,a
|onga thcrc i priva|cprop rty |hcrc wi | | bcpovcr|yandunhappi nc .
I ndccd unr | ri c|cdpriva|cpr pct!y ism +a| | yun u |bccau ci | dcprivc
many pcop|c|rom| hci rri gh||ocn y omcb. i cg od. . | rcxamp| c
alue and Morals 1 15
patcn|s s|i mu| a|c |c hno|ogi ca| i nnova|i on by cn uri ng a |cmporary
monopo| y, bu||hcy a| 0 b| ockthc di ||usi on ot know| cdc, and hi ndcr
|hcaccc |onccc si | i cssucha. prcscri p|i ondrugs. Thu. ,|hcco |o||hc
druc u cd nowadays |o|rca|AI DS i | i gh| | y abo c $ | 00 pcrpcrson
pcrycar, butt hcy arc o| da|about . | 0 000. Thi|ac| a| oncarou c |hc
u pi ci on tha| on| y|hcwca| t hycana|tordcapi ta| i m.
Howcvcr, notpri va|c propcr|y bu|i | s usc a| |hccxpcn co| o|hcrs i
anti oci a| . Thc owncr hip o| |hc ncccssari: o| | i |c i so i mpor|an| to
phy i a| .md mcn|a| wc| | -b i ng. |hat cv ryonc shou| d noy i|. Gi vcn
|ha|ncc: ari c arc | i mi |cd or cvcn ar c |hci r uni vcrsa| ac a| | s
|or| i mi |i ng| h i rpri a| cappropri at i on. Andon| yradi a| oc ia| r|orn
cou| davoi dora| |cas| ci rcum. cri b |hc an|i soci a| con cqucnccso|un-
rcs|ri c| dpri va|cpropcr|y par| i cu| ar| yo|| and. Thi i whyanumbcro|
soci a| a ti vi s|. hom |hcyoungHcrb r| pcnccr|oHcnryGcorgc|o|hc
Mcxi can rcvo| u| i onary Imi | i ano Zapata. havc ad oca|cd | and r |orm.
Thi si a| sowhy|hcrcarccommuna|| ands .uchas| hcMcxi canejidos .
a. w | | a. pub| i c|aci | i t ics.
Th sam casccanb madc|ora| | thco| hcrna|ura| rcsourcc i npar-
| i cu| ar . ca. | akc. andrivcr. aswc| | as orc andoi | d po i|. Rousscau
| 7J. 4) b |i cdtha| `th hui |o||h car|hbc| ong| ou. a| | , and| h
car|hi | | || onobody.Manypcop| caroundt hcp|ancthavci mp| cmcn|cd
| hi si dca| by cui ngupvo| un| ary.govcrnmcn|a| . ori n|crna| i ona| boi cs
|orthc co| | cc| i vc managcmcn|o|co| | cc|i vcgoods sccOs|rom | 0) .
Whcrcvcrpri va|cpropcr|y|ai | co| | cc| i v manag mcn|shou| dbctri cd,
bccau ci | combi nc propcr|y wi | hcqua| i |y. Lc|u nowrc umcourdi '
cu i on o|ri gh| i ngcncra| .
Any ct o|ri ght i s bound|ogi v ri c|ori gh|con|i c| .|ori ns| anc
myri gh| to pc hconH ic| wi |h your |o i | cnc andmy ri gh||o dri
i s on | rai ncd byyours|obrca|h c| can ai randusc trcc| in ab|y. I n
dai | y| i | w o| vc| hc cconUi | by|o| |owi ngcommon cn i ca| ru| o|
cocxi |cncc ci vi | i zcdconvcr ati on.andbargai ni ng. Bu| wh n i | comcs
|opub| i cgood . thc |at mus| i n| crvcnc |o r i n i nan|i soci a| bchavi or.
Thi i why wc havc rcd hgh| and spccd | i mi t . and why | i ||cri ngand
pub| i cdrunkcnnc arc| ncd i nad anccd oci c|i c . Andi npo| i | i c and
bu i ncss ri gh| conHi ct may i n o| vc bi g i n|crc t and thcrc|orc acu|c
conHi ct tha| on|y bargai ni ng, arbi | ra|i on court o||aworpopu| arpro-
|c | canrc o| vc.
Thcpopu| a| i on bomb. whi ch ro c |o pub| i c awarcnc duri ng |hc
| 60 po cd|hcpr b|cm o||hc ri ght| rcproduc . Cani |bcrcgardcd
a abasichuman ri gh|whcni|conU ic wi | h|hcsur iva| o||hcspcc ?
1 16 Political Philosophy
|n | 7|hc Chi nc cgovcrnmcnt |accd wi t h|hc di | mmarcproduct ion/
s|ar a|i on, |ook| hi sbu| | by |hchorn ,and adop|cd|hconc-chi | d|ami | y
po| i cy. I | was much cri |i ci zcd by ci vi | | i bcr|ari ans bu| i | workcd. Thc
a cragcnumbcro|chi | drcnbompcrwomandroppcd|rom2. in | 7to
| . 7 in2004| Hcskc|h Lu, andXi nc2005 . To bc urc, | hi harshpo| i cy
i n|ri nccdon|hcri cht|orcproducc. bu| .urc| ywhcni | comcs|osur iva| ,
o||spri ng| i mi t arc u. t a. rcasonab|caspccd | i mi |, si ncc popu| at i on
c c | cad |o |arvati on cmi gra| i on or |crritori a| cxp.m i on. D mo-
graphi di |a|or hi pi unnccssaryi nna|i on |hatcnoyci |h rpro pcrity
ora w | |ar s|at : |orc| cwhcrc pcop| |cnd|ohavcmanychi | drcn |or
|car o| dcdi |u|i on i no| d-agc, whcrcasadcqua|c pn i onp| an wcakcn
orcv n | i mi nat hnanci a| dcpcndn c on o|| pri ng.
Thcri gh| to noy a c|can cn i ronmcn| cmcrgcd rcc n| | y. Thcrcc-
ogni |i ono|| hi sn w ri gh|ha gcncra|cda n w bodyo||gi | a|i on- n-
i ronmcn| a| | aw. Thi . | cca| i n. |ru m n| r s|ri c| thc ri gh| |o op ra|c
smokcs|acks and vchi c| | acki ng dcvi c s tocap|urc and | rcat noxi ou.
|umc. asw | | as|ha|o|usi ngwatcrway. asi ndus|ri a| ordomcs|i c .cw-
cr.. Mos| o|usacccp||hcsc| i mi ta|i onson propcrt y ri gh|s as thc pricc
o|ci i | i zcd cocxi s|cnc . But . omccorpora|i on. managc |o ski r| somc
o|| hcc | cga| r |ric| i ons, and dcv | opi ng countrics do no| c cn havc
cnvi ronmcn|a| | aw whi chi
whysomc| ran mtti ona|corpora|i on prc|cr
|o work |hcrc.
propcr|yrigh| o| omcki nd, bu|on| yi n | avc
and |cuda| oci c|i c a wc| | a i npro|ocapi ta| i | oci c| i cs dopropcrty
ri gh| ovcrri dcaUo|hcrri gh| s. Inad anccddcmocraci c propcr|yri gh|
arc | i mi |cd by o|hcrri gh|s uchashumanri ght thcri gh||o a a| cn-
i ronmcnt . and| h ri gh|o||hcs| a| |ou c | and|orpub| i |aci | i t i c . Thi
iwhyhigh| ypo| | u| i ng| rm canbc| ncdor cvcncxpropria|cd.andwhy
|hc | a| ha |hc ri gh||oappropri atc| rac o| | and|or |hc con | n| cti on
o|pub| i cwork .Tha| i | h sam rca on|hati n om p| acc qua||cr i n
abandoncd| o| orhou b om own r a|tcranumb ro| y ar .
A mor rcccn|ca o|i n|ri ng mcn|o|propcr|yri gh| i |hi . Sc ra|
coun|ri c . par| i cu| ar| y| ndi a. arcproduci nggcncricdrug ata | i ny |rac-
|i ono||hc priccchargcdby| hcpa|cn| ho| dcr . Thc c comp| ai nbi |tcr| y
|or tha|brazcn vio| a|i ono|i n|c| | cc|ua| propcrty ri ght . Bu| thcai dor-
gani za| i on . suchasDoc|or Wi thoutBordcr . coun|cr|ha|| hc ri ght o|
pa| i cntsprcvai | ovcrpa|cn|s. Truc. dc c| opi ngncwdrugsi vcryco t | y.
Bu|mo |o|thcbasicrc carchrcqui rcd|or `|ran |ati ngbi ochcmi ca|and
pharmaccu|i ca| scicn c int ncwdrug i carricdou|atuni vcr i |i c .Thc
pharmaccu|i ca| c mpani c invc ton| y | 7 ||hci rrcv nuci nrcscarch
alue and Morals 1 1 7
| hc rc. d goc. |o markc| i ng whi ch i nc| udcs swc |cni ng up doc|or )
harcho| dcr, and managcrs.
| i | | , propcr|y ri gh| may prcvai | 0 cr human ri ch| cvcn i n | i bcra|
dcmocraci c a. whcncmp| oycr cu| obsduri ngbu inc . | umps. In a
|ai r so i cty. |hcri cht |o |i c| i hood hou| dovcrri dcpropcr|y ri ch|. Thc
| a| |cr shou| dbc | i mi |cd|o propcr|i c. |ha| do no| prcc| udc |hc ri gh| to
gai n|u| work~amora|humanri gh|. Thi siswhypropcr|yrigh| archard|y
mcn| ioncd in U documcn|s, .mddono|occur a|a| | i n|hccons| i | ut i on
o| omcna|i on . u ha anada.
|ropcr|yri gh|sarc|ri ckybcau c| hcycmpowcrthcprop r| i dwhi | c
di cmpowcri ngth dcs|i|u|c. | n|ac| myowningA pnvcn| youhomuung
A whi ch i un|ai ri|youhappcn|onc dA |osurvi vc. Th o| u|ionwou|d
o| ourscbc|o harA i |A happcn |obcsharab|c.a i |h ca c wi |h|hc
mcanso|produc|ion trad hnancc |ranspor|a|ion.andcommuni cati on, as
wc| |a. wi|hcu| |urc. Ino|hcrword. wh rcprop r|yi s.har dra|hcr|han
qucs| r d. nopropcr|y conHic|s |I arc up. Whi ch i swhycoopcra|i
ha bccncx|o| | cdbysuch cho| ar asMi | | ( | 5 Dah| | ) Mi | | cr
| ).Bung | a).andoth r. . W sha| | rct urn|othis|hcmcncar|h
ndo||hcbook. Lc|u now |ack| ca|cwo| dcrcthi ca| prob| ms.
Which com | r| |hc righ| or |hc good Kant |hough| |ha| ri gh|
prcccdc|hcgood, whcrca Mi | | hc| d|hccontrary.I|wou| d ccm, |hough,
| ha| |hi i a p cudo-prob| cm. bccau ca ri ghti a pcrmi i on |o pursuc
omcgood,andgoodsarcuna||ai nab| cwi | hou|thccorrc pondi ngri ghts.
| hr | igh|, |hc quc |i on i n hand rc cmb| c ||o|i nus` conundrum. I
omc| hi ng good bccau c wc dcsi rc i t . or i i | dcsi rab| c bccau c i | i s
goodThi prob| cmi i n o| ub| cun| c swcdi t i ngui h ubcc|i vc |rom
ob |i a| uc . I|w dodrawthi di t i nc|i on, wc r a| i zc |hat human
ar nota| way axio| ogi ca| | yrca onab| c. Som | i mc wc dc i r wha| i
ob | i | ybad|oru andato|hcr| i m wcundcrra| or v novcr| ook
whati good|oru .
Somc|hi ng i mi | arcanb ai do|| hcqucs|i onwhcthcrri gh| prcccd
du|i or on r |y. Agai n.wh rca u| i | i |arian p|accrightbc|or du|i c
dconto|ogi |s |rc du| i c . Ac|ua| | y. i nanyrca onab| y wc| | -organi zcd
occty ri gh|sarcpai rcdo|||odu| i c . Thu thc ri ght|oprocrcatcough|
|o cn|ai | |hcdu|y to rcaronc chi | drcn. bu|| hi du|y can on| y bc mc|
i | parcn|shavct hcri gh| |o gai n|u| cmp| oymcn| . Li kcwi c. | hcri ght t o
o| cough||ocn|ai | thcdu|y |oca | wc| | -i n|ormcd ba| | o| . A| | o|whi ch
uggc ts|ha|c cn|ua| | y| hcUN hou| dadop|aChar|cro|HumanRi gh|
and D|tticba i ca| | y,|hcri gh|tocnoy| i |cand|hcduty|ohc| p t hcrs
do|hc amc.
1 18 Political Philosophy
Un|or|una|c| y mos| on|cmporarypo| i| i ca| |h oric i gnorc|hcma|tcr
o|, 0 i a| du|i c. , in par| i cu| ar |hc | ca. | burdcn omc o|a| | . |ha| o| o|-
ing. Wor c, onco|thcmo. t i n|I ucn|i a| |hcori c o|vo|cr| umou|rccard.
vo|i nca. paradoxi a| Down. | 57) , bccausc |hcrat i ona| ` ci |i zcni a
|rcc|oadcr.Howc cr,|hcgoodci | i zcno|any ad anccddcmocracyknow.
|ha|vo|i nci a du|y a wc| | a ari ch| . Wc shah rcturn | o|hccconomic
|hcory o|dcmocracy i nChap|cr5 Scc|i on 5.
Onco| |hcri ght t ha|gi vcr i t o onHi c|si s|hcri gh|| o tri kc i n|h
pub| i c cc|or.Whcr a |rikcsin |hcprivatc cc|orharmmo t| yt hcowncr
andmanagrs o|busi ncsshn 4ri k : i nthc pub| ic cc|orharm ncar|y
c cryon . A ho pi |a| workcr ` s|ri kcpu|s|i v i ncopardy. apro|ra |cd
|ca hcr` tri k may scrious| y di uup| |hc | i |c coursc o| omc young
pcop| c and a garbagc co| | cc|ors` | ri k cnd.mgcr | hchca| |h o|cn| i r
nci ghbrhood . Bcsidcs uchs|ri kc backhr po| i |i ca| |y. Thcypush|h
pub| i c|o supportan|i -| abormca. urc. andvo|c|orCon crvati v par|i c.
asi | happcncdi nBri t ai ni n | 7.
What|odoSomc| cgi | at urc. pa cm rccncybi | | s ou|| awi ng t ri kc.
i nth pub| i c .cc|or. Bu| .uch bi | | . may b uncons| i | u| i ona| and i nany
ca |h y sc| dangcrous pr ccd n| |or |ur|hcr an| i - | abor | cgi . | at i on.
Thcpow r|u| | | a| i an | aboruni on. i n cn|cd| ongagoa |ar. mar|cr.| ra|-
cgythci n|cm i||cn| | ri kcwhcrcbyworki si n| crrup|cdduri nganhour
or|wocvcrydaya|ahxcdt i mcwhi |c| h ncgot i at i on wi t hmanagcmcn|
procccd. | ubmi | |ha| | hi
i a|ai r andpo| i t i ca| | yi n| c| | i gcn|compromi c
bc|wccn|hcri ght|os| ri kcand|hcduty| oscrvc. | ngcncra| ,ri ght i mp| y
duti c andconvcr c|y. ( Scc aproo|o|| hi |h i si nBungc | 8a.
Th po| i | i ca| phi | osophcr i c n| ra| | y i n| rc | cd i n |hc prac| i ca|
prob| cm by |h cxi t n c o|mu| |i p| va| uc y tcm and |h or-
rc pondi ng mora|codc in any | ibcra| oci cty. | u h va| u p| ura|i m
con i | n| wi |hacommongood |n par| i cu| ar.wha| abou| |h |radi |i on
o|i mmi gran| comi ng |rom oun|ri cs wi |h crydi hcrcn| norm |rom
our Shou| dw a| | ow th i ntroducti ono|c|hni cdi i ion on topo||h
cxi t i ng cconomi candpo| i |i ca| onc Thi prob| cmgai n dpromi n nc
si ncc| hc | 0 , andi tha di vi dcdpo| i ti ci an andpo| i |i ca| ci cn|i |scvcr
si ncc i |ha pi | |cdmu| | i cu| |ura| i |s orrc| a| i i |s agai n |cosmopo| i |an
oruni crsa|i | .
Thi di vi i on i s a| oncc phi | o ophi ca| and po| i t i ca| , |or i | rcvo| vc
aroundbo| h |hc p| ura| i |y o|va| uc and i mmi gra|i onpo| i ci c .Thi i uc
has bccn cxaccrba|cd by | hc anthrop| ogi | who, | i kc Gccr| z (J 8J ,
havc c| ai mcd tha| all bc| ic| arc | ca| . Yc| i | w u|d sc m ob i oustha|
whcrc. somcidca and cus|om arc i ndccd | ca| |hcr arcuni cr a| .
alue and Morals 1 19
|or cxamp|c cut stnc drc and |o| kmu ic arc |oca| bu|ma|hcma|i c
ci cnccandphi | o ophyarcuni vcra| .Thi si whywccanchcri ha|oncc
omcrcci ona||radi |i on. andthccommonhcri |agco|humanki nd I|i si n
|hcma||cro|ba. i chumanri gh| whcrc wc mu| makca choi cc.
Dcmocracyi n o| vc. |o| crancc|oanybc| i c| andprac|i cc. |ha|dono|
vi o| a|cany human ri ght. l nparti cu|ar i | i nvo| c |rccdom o|and|rom
rc| i gion. ( Bycon|ras|, |hc |oundcro| | i bcra| i m cxc| udcdCa|ho| i c and
a|hcis| |romthccommonwca||h.Lockc| . | | rc pcctswc.uing andno|
wc.uing) hcadscans.worhippinga|a|orcign` |cmp|c.orcat i ngc o|ic
|ood but no| murdcring womcn who da|c outsidc|h i rparcn|s` |ai | h. or
pr vcn| i ng hi | drcno|i mmi grants|roma||cndi ng ccu| .u choo| . Hcncc,
adcmocratigo cmmcn|wi | | practicc ' ele tive multi ulturalism. Ac p|
cv rythi ng harm| cs c cn i |o||cn uvc.bu|rccct cry|hi nghan|u| . Wc
shou|d|c| | pro pcc|i ci mmi gran|s. `Wc|conc.Docnri chourcu| |urcand
cus|om. , but | a c your barbari m bchi nd, |orwc ha c cnough o|our
own.Wc.ha| | rc|urn |o| hi . prob| cmin hap| r , Scc|i on4.
| | i i roni c|ha| omcpromi ncn| po| i |i ca| phi | o. ophcrs, sucha. Wi | |
Kym| i cka. har| c. Tay| or,andMi chac|Wa| zcr arca| oncccommuni tar-
i ans. mu| | i cu|| ura| i s| s, and| i bcra| . I .ubmi | tha|consi . |cn|communi tar-
i ans hou| dbci | | i bcra|anda. . i mi | a|i oni t s, |or|hcyp| acc| hccommunity
abov i ndi vi dua| rcgard| c o||hcharmtha| omccommuna| backward
| radi | i on may causc i t
mcmbcr .
|i na| |y.rcca| | tha|no| a| | va| u
canbcpursucdat | hc amct i mc. I n
part i cu| ar. po| i | i ci anscon|ron|conHict bc|wccn rcgi ona| and nati ona|
i n|crcs|
. bctwccn | h dc i rc o| potcn|i a| vo|cr and |hc nccds o| |hc
|a|c. bc|wccn ri sk and a|c|y, ccuri | y and | i bcr| y t radi | i on and ncw
know|cdg and 0 on. Si ncc | hcrc ourccs |hcy command arc | i mi|cd
andmor ov r carcc ta|c mcnmu |mak choi cc |hatwi | | a|i |y on| y
om o|| hci r con | i tucn| . Howc r. i na d mocra y `somc` wi || b
`mo | ra| h r| han ` |h cho n | w.` Thi n|ai | di a| | owi ng an|i oci a|
practi c i nhcr n|i nbarbaric|radi |i ons ucha|orccdarrangcdmarriag
g ni |a|mut i | a|i on. andhonorki | | i ng. |no|hcrword ci i | i zcdcocxi tcnc
i nvo| vc |o| crancc|oharm|c s i di o yncra i c .bu|i n|o|crancctocu toms
| ha| i o| a|chumanri gh| .
5. he Common Good
Thc goodci | i zcn in |hcgood oci c|y i cxpcc|cdno|on| y|orc|rai n
|romharmi ngo|hcr bu|a| 0 | ocon|ri bu|c| othccommon .Thi i why
|hc conccp| | comm n good or condomi ni um i cn|ra| |o po| i | i ca|
phi | . ophy. Howc cr f rbc||cror|orworsc|hatconccp|i s nci |hcrc| car
1 20 Political Philosophy
nori dco| ogi ca| | yncu|ra| . Thu |or|hc cconomi c| ib ra| thcnuc| cu o|
| hccommon good i sthcprovcrbi a| |rcc markc| . |or soci a| | i bcra| and
so i a| i s| |hcpub| ic goodi s|hcscto||hi ns andprocc. . c. tha|canbc
nci |hcrdi i dcd nor so| d, |rom |hc a|mo phcrc and|hc .cas|o|hc| cga|
cour|. |o .ci cncc,|hchumani | i cs, and|hc ar|. r ha| | adop|| hi sconccp-
|iono|thccommongooda thccommonwca| |horcommonpropcrtyo|
a roup o|pcop|c.
On |hcothcrhand u t icc, cqua| i |y and pca c arc notgoodsbcau
|hy ar nci |h r | hi ng norproccsscs. Thy ar s|a|cs o| soci cty wort h
ach i cvi ng. prcscr cd or pcr|cctcd. | n par| i u| ar. a| | houghu t i cc i
usua| | yrcgardcd as a commongood. actua| | y i| i no|such. orem] i |
bcown d byany i ndi vidua| s. | n|ac|. acommongood i s a |hi ng owncd
co||c ti vc| y. whrcas u | i i s acommongoa| . andgoa| arcdcsi rab|
cnd-s|a|s or pro . | n hor| wc ai ma|u ti cc bu|wc do no| own i | .
Wha| i acommongood i nadcmocra|ic soci c|y i i | s udi ci a| s y tcm.
war|sandah-|ha| i . thc .y. |cm composcd by | hccourt o|| aw and
|hci rmcmbcrs, |rom udgc and | awycrs |o c| crk andarchi i s| s. Thc
samcho| d |or ccuri |y wc| |ar . andhi gh | i|cracy ra|cs. Thcyarcai m .
notgood. .
Thcncx|qucs|i oni s.who. commongood . |orRousscau i | wa |hc
sma| |ci |y-s|a|corrcpub| i c. ucha| atc-mcdi a|andRcnai sa nccVcnicc
orGcnoa. |ormo | modcrn thccommon goodi |hccn| i rcnati on. |or
|hc wor|d |cdcra| i | i | i humanki nd. | propo c tha| |hc mcmbcr o|
cvcry oi a| ys| m shar i | owncommongood. |n cachcascthccom-
mongood i th cto|i | cm accc ib| c|oa| | thcmcmbcr o||hcgroup
i nquc | i on. Scc| hc|o| |owi ng|ab|c,wh r i ncachca con| y|wo|ypi ca|
goo andon or|wogoa| arc I i |cd.
.ocia/ SySftll1
Fiuni l y
Publ ic . ch I
Publ ic ho pital
Li ngll i I i mmllni l y
Pol i tical party
op r;lIi '
rban c 'nler
Provi nce
Nali n
Bloc of nuti ons
I nternational communi ty
Com mOil goode )
Home, ussets
Bui l ding( ) . teachi ng aids
Bui l ding( ) . medical faci l iti
Bui l di ng( s ) , faci l i l i , .
Temple s
Language. l i teral u'
Ideolog , organization
Hui ldi ng . raci l i t i
i l hal l
Provi nce territOl & go ernment
Member nutions, regional authori ty
arth. humanki nd. l
ommOIl gonl s)
Securi ty, nurtllfing
oci al i 7ati n edu ati 11
Health arc
Publ i c scrv i c '
Communi ati on
Pol i tical power
E 'onomi

' uri l )
i t go 'rnane
Provi nce go ernance
I ntrabloc peace & cooper.
W rid peace and peratiOIl
alue and Morals 1 21
Thcpub| i ccorpora|i oni sani ntcrcs| i ng hybri d asc. | npri nci p| ci | i s
| hccommonpropcr|yo|i | .harcho| dcr. bu|inprac|i ccc crycorpora|i on
i sdomi na|cdby |hc i ndi vi dua| or roup wi |h |hc| argc.| b| oc o|sharcs,
o||cn a ma| | |rac|i on o| |hc |o|a| . Bcsi dcs, |hc domi nant harcho| dcr
can i nHucnccthccorpora|ion ` |ra|cgy |houch no| it | ac|i c | c|a|onc
i| day-|o-dayopcra|i on, whi harci n|hchandso||hcmanaccra i |
hou| d bc. On| y oopcra|i c | nns arc sc| |-managcd, i n |hc .cn. c tha|
a| | |hci r mcmbcr arcco-owncr andhavcani npu|onmanagcmcnt. so
|ha||hcgap bc|w n own r hi pandmanagcmcn|i |arsma| | cr|han i n
| hccasco| |h api|a| i | corpora|i on. Wc ha| | rc|urn | o| hi i n|hc | a |
A| hr | igh| |hccommoni n|crc | o|a| argcp| ura| i | y t n mu |bc
cx|rcmc| yrcdu cdbccausco|i | di vcrsi|y.| ubmi | t ha||h imi s|akcn,
and|hat|hcmitakcari : |ron | ooki ngon|ya|po| i |i ca| i n|crcs| .|cacc
and n i ronmcn|a| protcc| ionarcinthci ntcrcs|o|thcovcrwhc| mi ngma-
ori | yo||hcci | i zcnso|amodcrnna|i on. and. 0 arccconomi cc|| ci ncy.
|or ign | radc, sci cn|i hc and tcchno| oci ca| advanc m nt. cood pub| i c
hca| th and cduca|i on ys|cms, adcquat pro|cc|i on o||hc ar| , and 0
on and .0 |or| h. Ti nydcmocra|i cA|hcnscarcdno|on| y|ori |s|crri |ori a|
i n|ccri |yandi |s|Icc|, buta| so|ori |st mp| cs s|a|uc | hca|rcs. andcvcn
p| aywri gh| . cvcryycari|ga cpri zc incash|o|hcbc |p| ay . Th morc
ad anccda oci c|y,thcri chcri| common i n| r | s.
6. Corruption and Crime
||i wc| | known|ha||hcpursui |o|pwcro|anykindcancorrup|ncar|y
cvcryonc and cvcry|hi ng. |n part i cu| ar. govcrnmcn| i corrup|cd whcn
p op| cbri bcpub| i crvan| u | |omo cah |c. Dcmocracyi cormp|cd
wh nvo|c arcbough| whcn| h ou| omc o|c| |i on dcpcndcri |i ca| | y
upon th amounto|mon y pcn| on campaigni ng wh n corporat i on
mak | arg dona| i on |oc| cc|ora| chcs| whcn ctor or hrm cngag
| obbyi |stop| ad|or| hci ri n|crc |
wh n | rm bribcburcaucra|og |
govcrnmcn|contract ,wh ncri mi na| buy u | i c | hroughrctai ni ng mar|
| awycr , whcn pric |s| hrca|cn |ocxcommuni ca|c|hcpari shi oncrswho
o|c|or|hcwrongpar|y,whcn|yi ng|o| hcpub| icgoc unpuni hcd-and
oonandso|orth. Nori corrup|i on| i mi |cd|o|hccconomi candpo| i |i -
ca| sphcrc . Lvcnpccrrcvi cw. |hc 'andardqua| i |y-con|ro| mcchani m
i n| hc acadcmic communi |y. i corrup|cd whcn u cd |orcward |ri cnds
puni h ri a| , s|rcng|hcnc| i qucs. orccn orhctcrodoxvi cws.
And yc| Samuc| Hunt i ng|on | . | hc wc| | -known Har ard
po| i to| ogi s| he |a|cd| ha|corrupti oni saw | c mc| ubri an|ca i ng|hc
1 22 Political Philosophy
pa|h|omodcrni za|i ona|hcsic harcdbysomcacadcmi cccononu |s.
Tchumanrigh| ac|ivi t maybgtodi ||cr.Thcyrcmcmbcr|hc i gcri an
s|roncman Gcncra| Sani Abacha,whohad wri |crKcn- aroWi vwaand
ci gh||c| | ow cnvi ronmcn|a| i . t cxccu|cd i n | 5. Thci rcri mchad bccn
wi th |i cht i ng|hc Shc| | - B| Oi | Companyagcncrou suppor|cr o||hc
di c|a|orhi p|or cvcrc| ypo| | u| i ng|hccr.t whi |c |crt i | c i gcrdc| |a.
|or|unatc|y omcsoci a| cicn|i s|,ucha GunnarMyrda| ,havcno|cd
|ha|cot:up|i oni ahi ndrancc|omodcrniza|ion.i|on|ybc au c orrup|ion
i sprcci sc| yonco|t h |rai |so|undcr-dvc| opmcn|. Somcai d agcnci
havdnounccd|ha|a| argc|rac|i on o|ai dmonys and goodsgo |o| i n
|h pockc| o|t yran|s. ( Mora| . Don` | scndmoncy or goods scndon| y
c pcr| |o hc| p producc, hca| . cduca|c orbui | d. | n r ccnt ycars c cn
|h Wor| d Bankhas dcnoun dcorrup|i on a|tcrha i ng suppor|cd |or
dccad : onup| govcmmcn| around |hc p| an t . And vcry ycarsi nc
| JTranparcncyI nt rnati ona| ha bccnpub| i shi ngi | sownranki ngo|
corrup| t a|c. . Accordi ng to i | , th c|can | Luropcan coun|ri arc |hc
Nordi conc , par| i cu| ar| y |i n| and. whcrca. Gr cc . I |a| y. and mo t o|
|hccx-Communi s|coun|ri s ar ncarth bo|tom.
Corrup|i ondc. |roysno| on| ycharactcrand|rus| . i | a| so harm | gi t i -
ma| bu i nc. . wcakcn. |h s|a|c,andcon. cqucn|| ygcncra| . cyni ci . m
andpo| i ti ca| apathy. Bc i dc , i npri va|i zi ngpub| i c crvi cc |hati s, i n
dcmandi ngbribc |or| hcmcorrupti onbrccd povcr|y Zuzowski2005 .
| nmany `dcvc| opi ng` .mdcx-communi t count ri ccorrupti oni ocom-
mon. thatbrib arcrcgardcdasnorma| i ncomcsupp|cmcnt andth on| y
c||i ci cnt mcchani m |orgctti ng anythi ng donc. |urthcr. paradoxi ca| |y,
i n uch oci cti csbri bry isnow amcanstochcatcqua| i ty, now thcon| y
way|ocx|rac||ai r|r a|mcnt |rom pub| i c crvant .
I n|cr 4i ng| y, |h rc i ani nv r r | a|i onbc|wc ncorrup|i onandpar-
| i ci pa|i on |or|hc par|i i pan|own api cc o||hcacti onin tcado|bci ng
a| i n |oi t . andthcrc|orc i no|i nci n d |ochca|hi m | |. Th cvi d nc
|ha| |hi i o i th hndi ng |ha| corrup|i on i hi ghc t i n hi rarchi ca|
soci a| y|cm and oci | i c , whi ch ar |ypi ca| | y opaqu and | owcs|
i n oca| y |cm and soci cti c whcrc thc rank and | |c ha c accc s to
|hcruddcr o|powcr. uchas ma| | munici pa| i t i c andpro|c iona|and
cu| |ura|associ a| i on .
A Robcrt |u|nam | J |amou |y no|cd by contra | to Northcrn
| |a| y. Sou|hcrn | |a| y is charac|cri zcdby bo|h |ow ci ic vi r|ucand hi gh
conup| i on. Thcroo| o|| hi s i t ua| i ongobackoncmi | | cnni um, whcn|hc
Norman i nva ion i mpor|cd |rcnch-s|y| c |cuda| i m i n| Sou|hcrn | | a|y.
Thc| andcdari | cracyand |hc tatc i| crvcdprcvcn|cd|hatrcgi n |rom
alue and Morals 123
p.tni ci pati ng i n |hc Rcnai ssancc |hc | ndu tri a| Rc o| ut i on. .md cvcn
|hc Ri ori mcn|o |hat |hc rct ot |hc coun|ry cnoycd |o| | owi nc i ndc-
pcndcncc. Thc undcr| yi n. oci a| mcchani mscxp| ai n|hc South- orth
di ||crcncc . | n|hcrcpub| i canNor| h, pcop| c ouch| |oso| vc | oca| i suc
by dcbat i ng | gh| i ng, and oopcra| i ng, whcrca in |hc |cuda| Sou|h
|hcycxchangcd|avors wi |h |hcpowcr|u| . |ori ns|ancc c cnnowadays
|hc Sou|hcm pri cs|, po| i ti ci an, orma| a bo ob|ai n pri vi |cgcs |orhi
c| i cnt i ncxchangc|orobcdi cncc, conp| i ci ty, vo|cs. orpar| i ci pa|i oni n
pub| i cccrcmoni c .Thci |i zcni | rans|oncdi n|oa upp| i cant. .md|hc
poh|i ca| i n | i | u|i ons ar bypa d. Th Sou|h-Nor|h contras| i hown
i n|hc|o| | owi ngdi agram.
Rcpub| i an - Richc ivi c-nss- L||cc|i vc indi |u|i on
|cuda|- |oorc ivi c- ncss- | nchcc|i c i ns| i t uti ons
on|cmporary cxamp| c o|thcdi scngagcmcnto|| hc ci | i zcnry |rom
|h po| i | yarcAtghani |an, ongo | raq, |a| . |i nc Soma| i a andHait i .
A| | hi . wri | i ng nonco| |h . coun|ri c has i |hcran c||cc|i vc tat or a
nctwork o|vo| un|aryand .ccu| arassoci a|i on , and wha| | i t|| h |p |hci r
ci |i zcn. gct ar handout |rom war| ord or parami | i tary-cum-chari |y
organi za| i on .
Howcvcr.| hcmo | cn a| i ona|rcccntcasc o|corrup|i on. bo| hpo| i | i -
ca|andcorpora|c havcbccn ccni n uchhi gh| ydcvc| opcdcoun| ri c a
| hc Uni | cd S|a|c . |nmcc. | |a| y. andRu i a. Thci n| i ma| rc| a|i on hi ps
bctwccn high| yp|accdAmcri cano|| ccr .md bi g comp.mi c | ikc Ha| -
| i burton. or|ormcrcompani cs | ikc Lnron. havcbccomcprovcrbi a| . So
ha t h hug campai gn hc t rcqui r d|orun|oro|| c i n|ha|coun|ry.
| n ap| u|ocracy, pow r|o| | ow moncy. In i| mon y i |or|hcpo| i | i ci an
what dopc i |or | hc ath| |c. | | a| | ow hi m to gc| ahcad o| |h oth r
r gard|c o|mcri |.
Wh n i | bccomc wi d prcad and d p| y roo|cd i n |hc cu| |urc o|a
p op| c corrupt ion ca| | |or po| i | ica| agi |a|i on gra -roo| campai gn
| rongudi ci a| mca urcs,andabovca| | thc cmcrgcncco|c|canpo| i|i ca|
|orccs app a| i ng |o thc mora| rcvu| si on o|p| ai n ci | i zcn . Rcgrcttab| y
rc|orm00 cmcnt andpar|i c arc|ypi ca| |y hort -| i vcd.Thus. thc|amous
mani puliti ( c|canhands t ri a| i n| ta| yi nthccar|y | 0 di crcdi tcdand
dc t roycd|hctwo mai n ru| i ngpart i c , bu|thc c wcrc quick|y rcp| accd
byancwa| | i ancc,cqua| | ycorruptbu|bc||crorgani zcdand|undcdbythc
mai nb nchci aryo||hcc rrup|i on andyc|vo|cdt hri c|orpri mcmi ni s-
|crbyha| | | hcc| cct ratc. | n |hccnd. | hcwca|| hi |crooki nt hccoun|ry
1 24 Political Philosophy
bca| 1udg An| oni oDi |i c|ro |h mora|hcro o||hc ycar. To paraphrasc
1c||cr.on |hc pricc o|pub| i chonc. |y i sc|crna| vi i | ancc.
No|c|ha|corrup|i on, | i kc i r|uc, i pcr ona| . Bu| , u| | i kc i r|uc. cor-
rup|i oncansprcad|hroughou|agrouporc cnancn|i rcsoci c|y bccauco|
ci |hcrnccdorrccdaccompani cdbyoppor|uni |y. Whcnmanymcmbcr.
o|a.oci a| croupchca| . c adc|axcs, |akcorgi vcbri bcs, cmbczz|cpub| ic
|unds, a| | owpub| i ccompani c |o| obby|hcgovcmmcn|, orcn|ru |pub| i c
works |o rc| a| i vsordonor |o|hcpar|y campai gn hcs| . i | i u 4i h-
ab|c| o| a| ko|groupcorrup|i on orcvcno|i ns| i |u|i ona| i z d orrup| ion.
Corrup|i on |hn bcom a po| i |i ca| i uc |ha| can on| y b |a k| d by
po| i | i a|ac|i on and. spcci h a| | y bysccki ngdcmocra| i za|i on.
A| i naMungi u-|i ppi di 200 |hcRomani anpo| i |i ca| icn|i | and uc-
cc |u| .m| i - onup|i onac|i i s| haspropocd,il i n|crc | i ng |ypo|ogyo|
|h conncc|i onbc|wccn orrup|i onand|hcdi s|ribu| i ono|poh|i ca| powcr.
J hav |akcn |h | i bcr|y o|| rans| a| i ng |h au|hor . unusua| cxprcs. i on.
` purcpar|icu| ari m. ` comp |i |i cpar|i cu| ari sm, ` and` uni vcrsa| i sm` i n|o
` au|ocracy,` ' o| i garchy ` and ` dcmocracy rcspcc| i vc| y. Hcr i. hcr|ab|c
i nmyownword. .
Regim POII' r " 011'11 r hip " Distribution Social Pllbliclpril'lue
Distrib/ltion { the tale ifvub/i at' eptabilit ' Distill ti n
'ood., ofcorrllptioll
Alllocrcy Monopoly One or few nfair but r"toderate No
prcdi table
ligor II ' ncven and 'Onl 'lcd nfair and Low V" ,
disputed unpredictable
D('motmc ' R ' l ati v ' l Auton m u air and Y 'ry 10 harp
equal predictable
|i na| | y docs orrup|i oncvcr|ou h|hcudi ci a| ys|cmIndccdi|o||cn
doc .Drugcart | .mdmahashavcbccnknown|obribc. i n| i tni da|c orki | |
udgcsand uri . B .i dcs, | h r arc| wo|cga| wayso|bcndi ngus| i cc.
Onci |orago cmmcn||opack| h udi ci arywi |hpo| i |i ca| appoi n|cc .
Thco|hcrmc|hodi s |obuygood| ga|advi cc.Thi i how whi |c-co| | ar
cri m ohcngounpuni shcd. AndA|ricanAmcricanmurdcrcr. arcabou|
| n | i m . morc | i kc| y|o b scn|cnccd |o dca| h| han |hci rWhi |c coun-
| rpar|s u. | bccau |hc|orm rcanno|a||ordcompc|cn|| cga| advi cc.
So, i n| hccnd. yc somc| i mc moncybuy u | i cc. Thi po csapo| i | i -
ca| . |cga| andmora| prob| cm|or| hc udi ci ary, bara oci a| i on GO
spcci ahzcdi n| cga| mat|cr . .md. o|cour c, po| i t i ca| part ics. Organi zcd
ci vi cvi gi | anccmayworkwhcrc i so| a|cd whi t | cb| owcrs|ai | .
alue and Morals 125
Howcvcr corrup|ioni. on| yoncki ndo|cri mc. | ndccd whc|hcrprivatc
orgovcmmcn|a| , cri mccomcsin c cra|ki nd and i zcs. Thc|o| | owi n
|ypc maybcdi| i ncui hcd Buncc 2006a) .
| . Environm "tal: agai ns||hcna| ura| oroci a|cnvi ronmcn|
a) |o| | u|i on
() Wan|ondc |ruct i on o|non-rcncwab|crcourccsorpub| ic
2. Biologi 'af: agai ns| hca| thor | i |c
a Mcdi ca| quack ry ` a| |cmati cncdi ci nc` )
Sa| co|harn|u| orgrca|| y0 crpri ccdproduct
c A au| |
Tor| urc
Scxi sm
Raci m
L|hni c `c| can.i ng`
o| | cct ivcpuni hm nt
J. E onomi : agai n ,t propcrty
a SmaU- ca| | hc||
Vanda| i m
c Corporatc wi nd| c
Lmbczz| cmcn|
c Landgrab
4. Politi aL: agai n | po| i | i ca| cn mi
a ) L| c|ora||raud
tb I n| i midati on
c) Group- pon or d gra ro| | rrori m
d S|a|c|crrori sm
) War
5. ultura/: agai n | know| cdgcor ar|
(a ||agi ari m and |raud
( b) har|a|ani sm c. g. . po | modcrni m
( c | cudoci cncc( c. g. ` in|c| | i gcn|dc i gn ` )
( d) Dcccp| i c advcr|i i ng
(c Ha|c propaganda
| |) Idc | gica| ccnsorshi p
tg At | a k oncu| | ura| h ri|agc rorganizati n
1 26 Political Philosophy
Thc c arcon| yana| yt i ca| di t i nc|i on . | nrca| . ocia| | i |c vcry cri mc
o|a ccrtai n t ypc ( i . c. , wi |h a ccr|ai n coa| ) i u uahy accompani cd by
cri mc o|di hcrcnt|ypc. . |ori ns|ancc,murdcri . omcti mc. commi ||cd
as a mcan. |or | hc|| orpo| i t i ca| powcr. Andmi | i |ary acgrc i on i |hc
u| | i ma|c rimc. |or i| i a| oncc cn i ronmcn|a| , bi o| oci ca| , cconomi c,
po| i |i ca| , andcu| | ura| .
Cri mc po. c. i n|crc | i ng and di |f cu| | prob| cms tor po| i |i ci an and
po| i | i a| phi | osophcrs. car|y cvcryonc agrccs |ha| wc hou| d scck t o
dccrca c cri mi nahty. bu| |h r i noconscnsu onhow|o achicvc | hi
goa| .Tradi |i ona| i |sbc| i vc tha| ni mina| i |y i s i|hata| | wcan
abou|i |doi|orcprc i |. Howcvcr,|h con cn usamongpsycho|ogi s| .
soci o| ogi |sand oci a| |cchno| ogi |s i |hat.cxccpt|ora|i ny|ra ti ono|
psychopa|h . ni mi na| arcmadc no|born. Hcncct hy ad oca| cri m
prc cn|i onand cri mi na| rccducat ionandrci nscrt i on i n ocity. Moron
|hi . i n hap|cr8. Scc|i on 6
7. Classical Moral Philo ophies
Lxccp||or Ni c|z ch . who dc.pi . cd | hi c. and Hci dccgcr who dc-
crccd i t i mpos i b| c c ryon admi t | hc nccd |or i | . I npart i cu| ar |hc
phi | o. ophica| corc o|any po| i | i ca| phi | o. ophy is a mora|phi | osophyor
c| hi c tha|is.a|hcoryo|mora| .Thcmo t popu| aro|a| | mora| phi | oso-
phi csarcrc| a| i vi sm, dcon|o|ogi sm, u| i | i |ari ani m,.mdcon|rac|ari ani sm.
Mora|r | a| i vi mho| d |ha|cvcry humangroupha i | own mora| codc
and|ha|n i |hcrcan b sai d |obc supcrior|o any o|hcr. Dcon|o|ogi sm,
advanccdbyCon|uci u andKan| s|a|c |ha|oncmu | dowhat i sri gh| .
U| | i |ari ani m. i n cn|cdbyC|audcHc| ct i u , ho| ds|hatwc hou| dpro-
curc|hcgrca|c |happi nc o||hcgr a| |numbcr.Andcon|rac|ari ani m
mai ntai n |ha|mora| i |y | i kcbu in i ama|tcro|con|ractagrccdupon
ra| i ona| | yand |or|hcmu| ua| bcn hto|thccon| rac| i ngpar| i .A| | |our
doc|ri nc arcsccu| ar.andcacho||h mcont ai n a a| i dgrai n. rc| a| i vi m
accoun| |or|hcp| ura| i |y o||ri ba|mora| i ti c .d on|o| ogi m |rc c du-
| i , u| i | i |ari ani m cmpha i z ri gh| , andcon|ra |ari ani m und r| i n
|hc advan|agcsi nkccpi ngonc` word. Howcvcr, wc ha| | arguc| ha| a| |
|hc c mora|phi | o ophic arco|hcrwi c Hawcd.
Mora| rc| a| i i m ha t wo componcnt . dc cri p|i c and norma| i vc.
Whcrcas|hc|ormcri corrcc|.| hc| a|| cri s no|. I n|ac|.cxp| orcr .an|hro-
po|ogi s| andsoci o|ogi |sdi covcrcdtha|di ||crcn|t ri bcs oci c|i c . and
cvcnpro|cs i ona|group havcdi ||crcn|mora|norm .Bu|| hcpropcr|a k
o|mora|phi |os phy. r | hi cs i di ||crcnt|r m|ha|o|s ci a| sci cncc. |hc
|ormcr` si |oana| yzcandcri | i ca| | y xami ncm ra|norms. ||i onc| hi ng
alue and Morals 127
|orcpr||hataccr|ai ntrib practi ccshcadc hri nki ng andanothcr|oi ndi c|
| hi sprac|i ccascri mi na| . Agai n, obcc| i ngtoccr|ai n mora| nom . i no|
|hc amca. condcmni ncus|oms| ha| wcf nduncongcni a| tormora| i ty
i sabou|conduc||hat may bcncf torharmo|hcr ,hcnccacti ons|hatcan
bcc a| ua|cdobcc| i c|y. Whcncc,wcrccc|Mi | |on|ricdman | 6.. | 2
advi ccto `|cavcthcc|hi ca| prob| cm|or|hci ndi vi dua| |owrc

t| cwi |h.
A| | mora|codc howcvcrdi |tcrcnt, harc omcnorms. But , whcrca
| radi |i ona| oci c|i c prcscri bcpro oci a| mora| )bha i orcx | u iv|y|or
mcmbcrso||hci r |ri bc orna| i on vcr i nc |hc Ln| i gh| nm n|w ha c
|cndcdtod tuandmora| uni v r a| i |y on thc ground|ha|a| | humansarc
ba i ca| | ycqua| . or a| |cas| hou|dbc |rca|cd cqui tab| y. I no|h r words,
wcadop| r|ai ncodcso|bchavi or whi | crccc| i ngo|h r.byconpari ng
|hcm wit h|hc ba ic humanri gh|s.
Thus |hcUni vcr a| Dcara|i ono|HumanRigh|s | 48) i thcgrav,
yardo|mora|r | at i vi m. AsBobbio( | 0)wro|c,|hatwas| h | r || i m
i nhi story |ha| uni vcra| agrccmcn|wasr achcd on any a| ucsy t m.
|romt hcnon p op| havc b cn condcmni ngccr|ai npract i ccs sucha
capi ta| puni shmcn|and|or| urc no| us| a. barbaricandi nc|f ci cnt. bu|
a| soasvi o| a| i ngth basichumanrigh|s n. hri ncdi nadocumcnttorma| | y
ub cri bcdbya| | na|i ons. Wha|ho| d

tormora|phi | osophya| 0 ho|ds|or

| cga|phi |osophy. |hi s tooi acomponcn|o|cu| | ura|rc|a| i vi

m, bccau c
i | ab o| ut i zc |hc|awo||hc| and. |rom | 48 on wccancva| ua| cvcry
i ng| cpi ccco|| cgi | a|i onasbci ngobcct i v |y us|or un us| accordi ng
a i | matchc or vi o| a| hum.m ri ght

or i n|cmati ona| | aw.

Thcn x|do trin inour|i

|i dcon|o|ogi m. I| virtuci |ha|i|rcmi nd

u |hatwchavcmora| ob| i gat i on i naddi | i on |ocon|rac|ua| |cga| .com-
m rci a| . andci i dut i .Thi s doctri n ha bccnpart i cu| ar| y i mportan|
i nc |hct i mco||hc|rcnchRc o| u|i on whi chaccu |omcdu |o |ri i ng
|or an cxpandi ng |i | o| ri gh| . How vcr dconto| ogi m ha |wo mai n
Haw . Onc i | ha| i | doc not| c| | u | ar| ywha| i ri gh|. Tradi | i on tair-
n . wha||h boss |hc | crgymanor| h po| i manord rcd.or wha|
Thco|hcrHaw o|| hi doc|ri n i | ha| i | hard| yaddrc c | h ma| | rot
ri gh| . i t i cvcrc| ybi a cd|oward dut i c .
S| i | | . Kan| |ormu| a|cd | hrcc i mpor|an| humani s| pri nci p|c . Onc i
| ha|a| | p r on hou| dbcrcgardcda cnd i n|hcm c| c . no|a mcans.
Thc ccond-| hc o-ca| |cdcatcgorica|i mpra|i vc-i |hatwc hou| dno|
adoptori mpo canymora| normtha|cannotapp| ytoc cryonc. And|hc
| hi rd i that wc shou| d procurc pcacc. Howcvcr. bccau c non- Kanti an
dconto|ogi smi snotuni vcrsa| i s| i c i t maybc i nv kcd by b |h par|i i n
anyconHi c| .
1 28 Political Philosophy
Thcbc. |-knownriva|so|dcon|o|ogi iiac | hcc|hi ca| |hcoricsgroupcd
around |hc |a.hi onab|c i dca o|ra| i ona| choi cc. Ra|i ona| cgoi .m tc. c. ,
Rand| 64) , nco| i bcr|ari ani sm c. g. ozi ck | 74 0 u| i | i |ari ani sm tc. c. ,
Smar| | 7J andcon|rac|ari ani sm c. g. Gau|hi cr | 86) . Thc|i rs|| wo
doc|ri ncsarcvcrsi on o| |rai gh| cgoi m and|hcrc|orc|hcyhard|yqua| i |y
as mora| so|ha| wc nccd no| dwc| | on |hcm. I ndccd,|hcu| |cr| y .chh
i ndi vi dua|i s oncwho |I aun|sa| |mora| i |y.Morcovcr,ra| i ona| cgoi smand
nco| ibc|!ari ani 11 arcpar|o||hci dco| ogi a| baggagco||hc w Ri gh|.
whi chi obscs cdwi |hpro|c |i ngpri vi | gcra|h r|han ccki ng|airn .
A |oru| i | i |ari .mi smandcontra |ari ani ii.|hcyi mp| m n| |hcnom o|
cn| i gh| n dsc| |-i n|crc 1. Lc|u ha caqui ck|ooka|| hcm.
Thcparagono|ra|i ona| hoi cc |hi ca| |hcory i o|cour cu| i | i |ari an-
i sm whc|hcrcgoi s|i cor oopcra|i v . ando|thcac|oro|ru| cki nd. Ac|
ut i | i |ari ans a| ua|ccachac|i nad hoc |a hion. wh rasru| cu| i | i |ari an
c| ai m|o know gcncra| ru| s o|conduct) Lgoi | ic u| i | i |ari ani m has a| -
way. b cn| hcru| i ng mora| i |y o||h powcr|u| i n| h Wc |crn wor| d. i |
hasguidcd|hc .| av mas|crand|hc|cuda| baron, | hcconqu rorand|hc
robb rbaron. |orcxamp| c Hi || cr` o|hccr. ncv rhadanyqua| m abou|
|hci r . ri a|warcri mcs. And| ho cwho|ookpar|i n|hc|ai | dconspi racy
agai ns| hi m i n | 44 di d no| rccc| hi i mmora| i dco| ogy. Thcy on| y
condcmncdhi st ra|cgi ci ncompctcncc. |orcxamp| c `S|au||cnbcrgj thc
hcadcon pi rator]wantcdthcmi | i|arydi c|a|or hi po||hc | ruc` a|i ona|
Soci a| i |
( Ho||mann2005. 255) .
So|arcgoi s| i cu| i | i |ari ani m. Bycontra t , c| a si ca| ut i | i |ari ani m, a
undcr tood by Bcn| ham and Mi | | or by Har anyi and Smart, proposc
that wc maxi mi zc thc aggrcgatc or soci a| ut i | i t y. or co| | cct i vc wc| |arc.
R gr ||ab| y|hi pri nci p| c a| |i r | i gh| a c| car a i | i nob| , i i n ur-
ab| y|uzzy. I ndccd, i| i nvo| v |hcno|i ono| ubcc|i vc u| i | i | y whi ch i
nci | hcrma|hcma|i ca| | yw | | dc|i n dnorcmpi ri ca| | yac i b|c. A kany
u| i | i |arian oranyra|i ona| -choi cc |h ori | wha|hi u| i | i |y|unc|i oni .
B i d u| i | i |ari an havcno|propo dany|unc|i on|ha|map i ndi vi dua|
u| i | i | ic on|o |h aggrcga|c or oci a| u| i | i | y. Con cqucn| | y |hc payoh
ma|ricc i nvokcdby omc u|i | i |ari an |odc|cndwar|arc. andby o|hcr
|o bo| |crpcaccmaki ng. arc phony. Thcya i gn va| uc |onon-cxi | i ng
kcy |unc|i on , and|hcy dosoarbi |rari | y-a proccdurc |ha|i any| hi ng
bu| ra| i ona|( ccBungc | 6aand | |or|cchni ca| obcc|i on ) .
Lc| u cxami nc| hcpopu| aru| i | i |arian|ormu| a |a|cda| |hc| i mco|
| hcLn| i gh|cnmcn|by| hcma|cri a| i |phi |osophcrC| audcHc| c| i u . and
adop|cdby| hcch mi | phi | o phcrand|hco| ogi an1o ph|ri | |cy,who
i n|urn|augh|i | |o| hci nHucn|i a| | cga| phi | ophcrBcn ami nBcn|ham.
alue and Morals 129
Thc |ormu|a i nquc |i on i Seek th greatest happiness of th greate t
number. A| f r| . i ch| | hi s | ocan is admi rab| cbccau c i | combi ncssc| |-
i shnc , whi ch wc nccd |o sur i vc, wi | h a| | rui sm, rcqui rcd |o cocxi | .
|orbc||cror |orworc, |hcmaxi mcanno|bcpu| i n|oc||cc|bccau ci | i
i mpos i b|c| omaxi mi zca| oncc|hc|wovariab| c ,happi nc andnumbcr.
| ndccd . uppo.c |ha||hcrc i a |o|a| good G |o bc di | ri bu|cd cqua| | y
amongn pcrsons. andca| | g | hc|rac|i on o|G |ha|cvcry i ndi vi dua| i |o
rccci vc. | no|hcrwords, G = Ilg.Thi s |or|u| amayb rcgard da |hcarca
o|a rcc|ang| co|ba c Il and hci gh|g. C|car|y i||hc ba c 11 nunbcr i
maxima| |hch i gh|g ( i ndi i dua| shar wi ||bmi ni ma| . .mdconvrsc|y.
|no|hcrwords. |hc|wocondi |i on canno|bcmc|oi n| | y.Thu usi ngan
cxccdi ng| ymoc | |orma| |oo|wch nd|ha| a|amou |ormu| a.|ha|ha
ou|| i vcd|woccn| uri: o|v rba|di cu i on i i napp| icab| c. 0 much|or
i n xac| mora| phi | oophy.
How cr,no|a| | i | os|. Drop| hcqua| i fcrcrca|c|,` and|hc ga| i | ar-
i an|ormu| arcmai n. : Seek e er one 's happiness. S| i | | , .i ncchappi ncssi s
asubcc|i |cc| i ng, i | i shard| oquan|i |a| .And wha|c cri | i s happi nc
i s una| |ai nab|c by |hccri pp| cd. |hcdcprcssi vc and|hcun| ucky. Hcnc
i | i unrca| i |i c|oa.k anyon |odi . pcnsccqua| do| | op o|happi nc. . . | |
i s morc rca| i s|i c |opropo c |ha| vcryonc bcgi vcn |hc amc rights alld
opportunities |odowha| |hcy nccd|oa||ai n ormai n|ai n a |a|co|wc| | -
bci ng. | n o|hcrwords,qua| i H cd cga| i |ari ani mi n|crm o|accc | o|hc
avai | ab| crcsourccsi mor rca| i |i c|hanu| i | i |ari ani m. Morcon| hi i n
Chap|cr, Scc|i on4onsoci a| u | i cc.
To bcsurc, | hcword `happi nc hard| yoccur i n| hccon|cmporary
phi | o ophica| | i| ra| ur . whcrc i| ha bccn rcp| accd wi | h ` u| i | i |y`` | n
mo | ca c |hi word i s |ak n i n| h n c o| ubcc| i v va| uc. Thi s i s
un|or|una| b cau ub c|ivc a| uc ar no| i n| r ubcc| i c | c| a| on
obcc|i c. Thu mayb | h rcadcr| i kc |hcki ndo|mu i c | i | ra|urc |ood
p op| c) |ha|rcpc| mc, andnci |h r o|u can gi anygoodrca on |or
ourprc|crcncc o|hcr|han|ha| | hcy ar acqui r d |adc
so. w agrc
|odi sagrcc. in oki ng |hc o|d di c| umde gu tibus 11011 e t disputandum.
Bycon|ra |. obcc|i vc va| uc , ucha |hc nu|ri |i ona| a| uc o| a ccrca|
bow| . or|hcpo| i |i ca| va| uco|a pcacc|rca|y,canbcwc| | groundcdand
| hcrc|orcra| iona| | ydi scusscd.
Worsc. u| i | i |ariani m ha no mora| codc o| i | own. || con|ai n no
dc|i ni |c mora| norm capab|c o| gui di ngourac|i on . | npar| i cu|ar ac|
u| i |i |ari ani m harc |hc |cnc|o|ra|i ona| h i c|hcory,|ha|cvcryac|i on
hou| d b wci ghcd on i | wn mcri | rcgard| ||hc nor| | soci a|
bcha i orcn|rcnchcd i n |radi | i n. To bc urc ru| c u| i | i |ari an arc om-
130 Political Philosophy
mi ||cd |o propo i ng gcncra| non:: o|conduc|. Bu| a a ma||cro||ac|
|hcy havc donc nothi ng o|thc sor|. Thcy o||cn u. | adop| |hc ru| c o|
con cnti ona|mora| i ty. (Iorancxamp| c .ccHaranyi | 85. ) Inprac|i cc,
|hcn, u| i | i |ari ani m i sas mucho|ancmpty .hc| | a. con|rac|ari anim or
Kant i ani m.
Yc|u|i | i |ari ani mha. undcni ab| cmcri |s. I | i ccu| ar conscqucn| i a| i s|,
andconccmcdwi |h both i ndi vi dua| and soci a| wc| |arc. So, dc pi |c i |
shor|comi ng u| i | i |ari .mi smi thc |cas|dc|cc| ivco|a| | ra|i ona| -choi c
c|hi ca| t hcoric . |or cxamp| c, i t |cachc |ha| war|arc i |ar worsc |han
sma| | -ca cmurd r bccausci t ham manymorcp op| c. and|hatcxp| oi | -
i ngp op|ciwor cth.udcpri i ng| hcm|romci vi cri gh| .bcaus|h|or-
m r han: i nrimy wayswhcrcas|hc| at|crrc tri c| | |-govcrnm n| .
Lc|u now| ooka| con|ra tari ani ri orcon|rac|ua| i m . Thi mora|
phi | o ophy ori gi na|cd i n Hobbc ` i da o|thc oci a| con|ract . Thi i
|hci magi nary compromi wh r by|hc monarch undcrtak . |odc|cnd
u |rom oursc| i n xchangc |or our | oya| |y |o |hc Crown. Spi noza
and Rousscau wcrc con|rac|ari ans but rcpub| i can. ra|hcr than i thcr
monarchi s| ordcmocra|
and abovca| | , | hcy hop d |ha| | hi c. wou| d
cv n|ua| | yru| cpo| i| i c . .
Bycon|ras|.| h ci s|o|con|cmporarycon| rac|ari ani sm i s|ha|t | ) i | i .
radi ca| | yi ncga| i tari an. 2 i t a
cr| tha|anact i on i ri ght i | andon| yi |
i | con|orm t o ` i n|ormcd. un|orccdgcncra| agrccmcnt Scan| on2002.
| J2) .md J) it ho| d t ha|mora| sar abyproduct o|con|rac|s|Gauthi cr
| 8 .A a conscqucnc o| | ) and 2 modcrndaycon|ractari.mi sm`has
nop| acc|ordu| i cs|hatarc t ri c| | yrcdi t ri buti vcin| h irc||cc| |rans|cr-
ri ngbu|noti ncrcasi ngbcncht ordu| i c t ha|dono|as umcrcci proci ty
|romothcrpcr on` (Gauthi crop. i | . . |6) . I | |o| | ow in par|i cu| ar t ha|w
hav nodu| i cstochi | dr n, |h w ak |h dcs|i |u|cor|hcpri oni nmatc-
|or non o||h m ha |h abi | i | y|o Jgnon|hcdot|cd| i nc.
on|ra | ari ani m i no| |or|hcGood Samari |anor|orDonQui xotc.
I | i s thccod o|bchavi oro|thc `ra|i ona| ` ac|or i magi ncd by t andard
cconomi c| hcory. I n o|hcrword i| i dc i gncd|or|h powcr|u|aid|h
Hi n| -hcar|cd. |or|ho c who wri |ccontrac| and havc | hcc|ou| toci thcr
cn|orccorbrcak|hcm. Un urpri i ng| y mo |con|cmporarycon|ractarian
worshi p|hcmarkc|.whi chisunconccrncdwi| h oci a|va| uc ucha cco-
nomi csccuri |y.pcacc. and oci a| wc| |arc. I n par| i cu|ar.markc| -oricn|cd
con|rac|ari an havcnothi ng|o ay|o|hc a tmasscso||hcThi rdWor| d,
|or|hc cpar|i ci patcon| ymargi na| |y i |a|a| | , i n|hcmarkctcconomy.And
whcn| h y dopart i ci pa|c. thcyu ua| | yundcr c| | |hci rski | | or|hc a h
crops| ha| sub t i | u|c |hcf odst uh|hcy h u| db cu| t i va|i ng| nouri h
alue and Morals 131
|hcm c| vc . andbuynanymanu|ac|urcdgood . ucha ci garc||c bccr
andgun |ha| |hcydono|rca| | ynccd.
Howcvcr.a anyoncknow whoha. con|ractari ani m
doc no|work|ori ntcr- hrmrc| at i on any morc|han i|docs|ori n|ra-hrm
onc .I ndccd,nocon|rac|can|orc ccc cryprob| cm. Mos|busi nc sprob-
| cmsarc|ack| cd as|hcy comc, bydc| ibcra| i ng, ncgo|i a|i ng, barai ni ng,
andcao| i nc, no| byi n oki ngcon|rac|. | | | hc| awycri ca| | cda|tcr| hc
con|rac| ha bcnsi gncd. i | i u uahybccausc| hcbuJncssa oci at i on
i s comi ng |oa bad cnd. Hcncc a| |houghcon|rac|ari ani m| ooksa| hr |
b| u h | i kc |hcbuJncs man ` odc. busi ncs m nwou| dbci | | ad i cdto
adopt i | .
A on|rac| |ha| |ai | s |o con|orm |o |hc norms o| common dcccncy
and|ai rncssi asi | ybrokcn. andi| mayc cnbc on|cs|cd inacourto|
| aw a Shy| ock|carn d. Th wi cbusi ncssmandoc notpropo cu||r| y
un|ai rdca|s anddoc. no|d a| wi |hcrooks. Suchdca| i ng. ha cnoton| y
hi ghi ndi vi dua| co t : Bydri i ng hon |dca| crsou| o||hcmarkc|.|h y
may dc. troy |h markc|i tsc| |t Akcr|o| | 84 .Th r |orc contrac|ari an-
i sm no|wi th t andi ng, |hough i n agrc m n| wi th B n |rank| i n, |hcr i
uch t hi ng as busi nc . . mora| i ty .c . . c. L|zi oni | 8 I annon | 8.
Scn | 8J .I n. hor|,mora| i |yprcccdc. con|rac| no||hco|h rwayround.
( |ormorc cc Bungc | 8a. )
Lc| u
nowrai c| woobcc| i on | oa| | ra| i ona|choi ccc| hi ca| |hcorics.
Onc i s tha|thcy ovcr| ook mora| n| i mcn| s. uchascompa si on, |ai r-
nc cqui | y . o| i dari | y, andt h wi h |o hc| po| hcr wi | hout ncccs-
ar i | y c pcc| i ngrcci proci | y.Yc| oci a| | i |c i shardtoi magi ncwi t hou|
uch |cc| i ngs. And| ho c mora| |c | i ngsarcmor rc| cvan| | o oci a|
j u | i cc | hancconomi ` ra| i ona| i |y`whi chi i ncompa|i b| cwi t h oci a|
j u | i c.
A ccond obcct i on|o ra|i ona| hoi c | hcory i |ha| |hca umpti on
|ha| a| | agcn| ar |o|a| | y|r c tochoo i unrca| i | i c. I ndccd, th ry
no| i ono| |rc wi | | i omcwha||uzzyun| dcfncd|cchni ca| | ya non-
| i mu| u -bounda||i tud orbcha i or. Mo| cu| ar thi nk r havcdcni cd
|rccwi | |a| |ogc|hcr-whi ch,o|cour c. con|radi c| ourcvcrydaycxpcri -
cncc o|choi cc undcrno cx|crna| compu| i on. O|hcr ha c admi | tcd i |
wi |h whatthc1csui | u cd| oca| | mcn|a| rc crva|i on . S| i | | o|hcr uch
a Spi noza, Hcgc| , and Lngc| . havc rcgardcd |rccdom as no|hi ng bu|
|hcknow| cdgco|nccc i |y`-amcrc ophi o. S|i | | o|hcr cqua| |rcc-
domwi |h prcdi c|abi | i ty-anob i ou ca|cgory mi |akc.|ori|con|u c an
n|o| ogi a| ca|cgory wi th ancpi |cmo| ogica| nc. | n um. |hc rati na|
hoi cappr ach ha no| ugg | cdany rca| i | i cc|h ica| t hc ry.
132 Political Philosophy
Givcn th |a|a| Haw o|thccx|an| mora| phi | o ophi cs | c| u brcak
wi th |radi |i on.
8. Humanist Ethics
Humani t c|hi c i an| hropoccn|ri c ra|hcr |han |hcoccn|ri c. and i |
c| ai m |ha||hcrc arc uni vcr a| mora| norms ccLamon| | 82 Kni gh|
and Hcrri k | 5) . Agathoni sm i s thcpar| i cu| ar humani s| mora| crcdo
|ha|i concrncdwi | hhumanki nd a w | | aswi |h i ndi i dua| s. ||smaxi -
ma| pri n i p| ci s Live and help live ( Bungc | 8a) . oti cc| hcdi hrnc
bc|wn | hi sntxi mand thcpopu| aron Live and let live, |ha|cnoi n
usno||oham. bu|do no|a k u |odoanyt hi ng |orothcrpcop| c. Thi
wcakcrpri nci p| cwas ndorscdby|h Buddha,Lpi um , Kant, Bcntham.
|oppcr.ando|h r -nci |h ro|whomadvoca| d rcci proci |y nu h | c
so| i dari |y.
L|hica| uni vcrsa| i . m h | dby|hc Buddha Spi noza, Kan|, Bcn|ham,
and Li ns|ci n amonc o|hcrs opposc mora| parochi a| i . m whi ch i a.
muchaparto|con| mporary rc| a| i i m aso|| ri ba| i dco|ogi cs. Th O| d
Tcs|am nt xcmp| i | c. |ri ba| mora| i ty. I | cnoi n vcry 1cw|obcni cc
|ohi snci ghbor whi | caski ng|h Lord` shc| p |o smi | |h | ribcsbchi nd
|hosc mountai ns. Thc cw Tcs|am nt i s omcwha| morc i nc| u. i vc. i |
urgc Chri t i an t ohc| p onc ano|hcr, whi | c kccpi ng | hc man-woman
andmas|cr- s| avcrc| ati onso| ubordi nat i on. Bu|con|umaci ou i n|i dc|
homo cxua| and adu| |cr c though not adu| |crcrs . mus| bc put to
dca| h. WhcnCon tan|i nct urncdChri s|i ani |y i n|ot hc ta|crc| i gion, |hc
pagan who con | i t utcd thc va t maori | y o| |hc popu| a|i onwcrc
gcncrous| ygi v n thcchoi cc|oconvcr|orc| c . |i ||ccnccn|uri c |atcr |hc
Ln|i gh|cnm n|rc c|cdtri ba|mora| and proc| ai mcdth ' a ri gh| |or
a| | human -or a | | ca | a| | Whi |c ma| cswi | hamodi umo| propcr|y. Bu|
t\voccn|uri | a| r anAmcri canprc i dcn|r i d |ri ba| i m. A||cr/ | |
h d cr d |hatUs i good, them i e iL, whcnc t hc `War on' rror` i
|hcwaro|Goodagai n t Lvi | .
Mora|parochi a| i m i not t hcmonopo|yo|rcdnccks,i | i a| 0 |ound
i nacadcmi a.Thccu| |ura| rc| a| i vi | , i npar| i cu| ar|hchcrmcncu|i cphi -
|o ophcr and a numbcro|an|hropo| ogi | . ho|dtha|aU va| uc ys|cm
anda| | mora|codc arc| oca| . Lvcry | ri bc wou|dhavc| hci rown andno
onci |osay whi cho||hcmi bct|crormorc advanccdt cc.c. g. . Gccr|z
| J) . Thi vicw ha bccn |aci | | y rccc|cd by a|| |hc govcmmcn| |ha|
si gncdi ntcma|i ona| |rca|i c banni ng | avcry,gcnoci dc.c|hni cc| can i ng,
| r| ur , thcusc o|wcapons |massdcstruc| i on co| | c | i vc puni hmcn|
ando|hcrcri m agai n thumani ty cc . g. , Sand 2005. Kcnncdy200 .
alue and Morals 133
Such trca|i cs prc uppos |hat t hcrc arc uni vcr a| mora| non++ bc. Jdcs
whatcvcr| oca| u |omsmay bc i n |orcc.
Whi | c i | i | ruc| ha| omc o||ho. c norm wcrc an| i i pa|cd by omc
grca|| hi nkcrsamong|hcmSpi noza.Kan|,To| s|oy,andKropo|ki ni |
wa. po| i |i cs rathcr| hanphi | o. ophy |ha| brough| abou||hc rca| mora|
progrc. cmbodi cdin|hcGcnc aConvcnti on ,|hcUNChar|cr,|hcRomc
Statutc, andothcr uch i ntcrna|i ona| documcn|. No| phi | o. ophcr bu|
son po| i |i ca| | cadcrs and i nt rna|iona| |un | ionari cs, whi |c bui | di ng
|hcUN rca| i zcd |hat pro|cc|i ngcivi | i za|i on andprcvcn| i ng |hc mutua|
anni hi | a| ion o|na|i on rcqui r d adop| i ng and cn|orci ng c r|ain basi c
mora| norm .
Truc |hcrc s| i | | arc rogu go rnmcn| |hat i . go crtn n|s who
b | i c |ha|na| iona| i n|crcs|sovcrri dc|h i n|cr tso|humanki nd. Thc
poh|i ca| ci n| i st whoadopt|hi i ngoi s|i cs|ancc a| | |h ti | vcs `rca| -
i st s.Bu|,|houghvcrypowcr|u| . .uchgovcrnm n|sar |cwandunpopu| ar
i n |hc i n|crnati ona| communi |y. I roni ca| | y, | hc ry samc p op|c who
condon mi | i |ary acgrcssi on, co| | cc|i v puni . hmcn| t hcdca|h pcna| | y.
|or| urc, and othcr barbarous practi c . c| ai m to cons|i | u|c |hc Mora|
Maori ty,andcampai gnagai ns|samc-scxuni on, abor| i on, .dcm-cc| | rc-
arch, andth t achi nco|a|c-scx mc|hodsandcvo| u| i onary bi o| ogy.
a i | thcywcrc |hc wors| i n .
9. Scientific Ethics?
Accordi ngto|hctradi |i ona|mora| phi |osophi c , | hcrccanbcnomora|
| ru|hsbccau cthcrc wou|db nomora| |ac| . A|| mora| pri nci p| c and
udgmcnts wou| d bc cmo| i c. i n| ui | i c, or u| i | i |ari an. Thcy wou| d bc
dogma rath r|han|c tab|chypo|h c . r di agr : 1 ubmi t tha|| h r ar
mora| | ru| h bccau | h rcar mora||ac| .A mora||actmayb d hncd
a a oci a| |ac||ha|a||c | s|hcwc| | -b i ngo|o|hcr . |orin |ancc |arva-
| i on phy i ca|vi o| nc , po| i | ica|opprc i on i nvo| un|aryun mp| oym nt
mi |i | ary aggr sion.and|orci b| cu| | ura|dcpri a| i onar mora||ac| . So
ar t h i rdua| . R | i ||rom | arva|i on.ob crca|i on conUi | r o| u| i on
po| i |i ca| part i ci pa|i on. pcacc-maki ng. andcu| |ura| di ||usi on. |ro oci a|
bchavi ori mora| whcrca an| i oci a| bchavi ori i mmora| . Thi dc| ni -
| i onavoid ubcc| i vi m andrc|at i vi sm.
| || hcrc arc mora| |acts |hcrc mus|bcmora| tru|h . Hcrc arc a |cw
candi da|c . Li |c shou| d bc cnoyab| c.
|ai rnc i ri gh|, ` Lyi ng i
Thc cnddocs no| a| way u t i |y |hc mcan
` Lxp| oi |a|i oni
un u |. `Cruc| | yi ab mi nab| c `A| t ru i m i sc mmcndab|c . L ya| ty
i s avi rtuc and `1u | and |a t i ngpcacci s prc|crab|ct vi |ory.
134 Political Philosophy
Mora| nccdbcnci |hcrdogma| i cnormcrc|ycmpi ri ca| . Th ycanand
shou|dbcsci cn|i | c, i n|hc .cnsc|hat|hci rru| c. canandshou| dbccompa|-
ib|c wi |h what i. knownt hrough i cn|i | crcscarchabout humannaturc
and so i a| | i |c ( cc Bungc | 8a). |ourcxamp| cs wi | | havc |o su|| cc
|omakc|hi poi ntA | r| cxamp| ci s|hi - . Con|rary| o|hcprcachi nco|
u|i | i tari ansandnco- | i bcra| s. rcci proa|a| t rui smha a| rmba i i n oci a|
sci cncc. | ndccd, i | i conduci vc|osoci a| uti ccandsoci a|cohci on, and
|hu |o bo|h soci a| harmonyandprogrc .
Sccondcxamp| c. Unhkc t radi | iona| pcdagogy.i | scon|cmporary uc-
cc orcmpha i zcs thcoy o|| cami ng. Conscqucnt | y i n |cad o|u i ng
puni shmcn| a an i nduccm n| . i | u cs rcward and| hc wi |hho| di ng o|
rcward.Thi s rcori cn|a|i onha| woroo|s. Onci | hc| h'. i |ha|. pacMar-
| i nLu|hcr. W ' arc no| bom to u||cr. Wco||cn cnoy | i |c and wcshou| d
hav |hc ri gh| |o do so. Thco|hcrroo| o||hc proccdurc i n qucsti on i
|hc | ndi ngo| modcrnpsycho| ogy and pcdagogy tha|chi | drcn rcspond
b | | r|orcwardor|h wi t hho| di nco|i|than|opuni shmcn| . Bo| hi dca.
arca| i n |o| h my|ho|sa| va|i ont hroughsu|tcri ng.
A |hi rd cxamp| i sthcca. |or rc.ponsi b| procrca|i on. Sccu| ar hu-
mani t ho| dt ha| i t i . cruc|toprocrca|cchi | drcnwho, b i ngunwan|cd,
wi | | no|b prop r| yrai dand ducatcd,a acon cqucncco|whi ch|hcy
arc| ikc| y|obccomcunhappya
wc| | asaburdcnto oi c|y. And i ncc
cru ||yi sabon+ i nab| c. | hcopposi | i on|ocontraccpti oni tark| yi mmora| .
Thci mmora| i |y o|condcmni ng| hc u co|condom i scompoundcdby
|hc currcnt A| DS cpi dcmi c, i ncc | hi s dcad|y si ckncss i t ran mi | |cd
|hroughunpro|cc|cd X.
Ano|hcrcxamp| co|cruc| ty, and |hcrc|or i mmora| i | y, i |hcbanon
|hcrc carchand|hcrapcut i u co| mbryoni cs|cm- | | |orcp| ac di -
ca cdor dcad| i u bccau i | cond mn |o dca|h |h i c| i mso| uch
ncurodcgcncra|i cdi ca a |arki n on` A|zhci m r` andHun|i ng|on .
whomi gh| rcu||ybcn |||rom | mcc| | |ran p| an| . Th ca co|rcproduc-
|i v humanc| oni ngi qui |cdi hcrcn|,|or|hcrcarc icn| i hcrcaon again |
i |i naddi ti on|orc| i gi ou obcc|ion . |irs|.ourov rpopu| a|cdwor|ddoc no|
nccdarti hcia|nproduc|ion.|ar|rombingancndangcrcdspcic ,ou i sth
mo tcndangcringo|ah. Sccond. manyo||hcknownar|i hci a|mamma|ian
c|oncshavccxhi bi |cd c crcdc|cct .Acau co||hcsci |hc hor|cni ngo|th
|c|omcrc .or|ai | o||hcchromoomcs,a wcagc.Apparcn||yarti hcia|c|oncs
arcbomo|d,hcnccpronc|o uhcri ngo| d-agc ai | mcnt |rombi rt h. Lithcr
o|| hc|worca on shou| d u|hccto ban humanc| oni ng |orthcmomcn|.
Andi nbo|hcasc thcmora| normi ba cd n c icnt i |i c on i dcrati ons.
Trut hmay how| hc way | o| hcgo dand| h ri gh|.
alue and Morals 135
Lc| us now ump |rom a h.mdm| o|ca c |o a |cw gcncra| i t i c . A
mora|codccanbc ci |hcr| radi t iona| orupda|cdwi |h t hc hc| po|sci cncc
and|cchno| oy.I||radi ti ona| ,acodcwi | | i gnorcorcvcnrccc|i mportan|
|ru|hs|oundinrcccn|ccn|uri c . . Con

cqucn|| y suchacodcwi | | condonc

cri ou mi ma|chc. bc|wccnmora| sandmocm| i |c, |huscon|ri bu| i ngto
|hcunhappi|manypcop| c. By con|ra |, a cicnti hcmora| i |ywou| d
|ar|byi dcn|i fyi ngbasi cnccd. and| cgi | i ma|cwan|s, bo|ho| dandncw,
a wc| | asway o|mcc|i ng|hmwi |hou|harmi ngo|hcrs. ||wou| dadop|
|hc naxi mEnjo lie and help Lil e.
| nsun. whcrcast radi |i ona|mora| sarcboundt ob ob o|c|c. oppr s-
si vc .mddi vi sivc a sci cn| i h mora|codcwou| dna|chmodrnh|cand
wou| dbc| i b rat i ng andi nc| usi vc. inb ingba donobcc|i vc|ru|hand
in pu|| i ng |hc mora| norm to mpi ri ca| | s|s, |hcway Li ns|ci n | 50)
suggc t d. | ndc d | hc sci cn|i h c tru|h (or ra|hcr i t rc ogni |i on) ha| |
mak t hcc|rcc '
Th i w o|mora| s|ha|I ha cj u | skctchcdi sca| | cdmoral realism.
andi | i scompati b| cwi |hphi | osophi ca| mat ri a| i smandr a| i m. bccaus
i | i swor|d| yra|hcrt hano|hcr-wor| d| y.Howcv r i t mu. tb di t i ngui shcd
|rommoral naturalism, orth vi cwtha|mora| i |yi son| yasurvi a| dc ic
ncod din|hchumangcnomc. I|i | wcrc wcshou| dpr |cr| yi ngto|c| | i ng
| hc|ru|h, andcon|ormi ty|oi ndcpcndcncc,morco cr.mora|ru| hou| d
bc i nborn and |hcrc|or uni vcr a| . |no|hcrwords |hc vcrs ion o|mora|
rca| i mandma|cri a| i sm| hav advoca|cd ( Bungc | 8a. 200c) i sno|
a |ormo|bi o| ogi ca| rcduct i oni m. | | coh r wi | hcmcrgcn| i tma|cri a| -
i sm whi chcmpha i zc

qua| i |a| i vc novc| |y and|hccxi s|cncc o|| cv | s

o|organi za|i on. |rom |hcphy ica| |o| h bi o| ogica| |o| h soci a| |o|hc
|cchno|ogi ca| Bung 200Ja) . I n hort, | ubmi ||ha|a| |mora| norm .|ar
|romb ngdc| rmi ncdby ourgcnc ar madc.rcpai r d. andr cc|cdin
| h cour co|hi |ory a| ongwi | hoth r oci a| norms. Hcnccc|hi c canb
mad ci n| i hc Bung 2007b .
Wha| ho| d |or c|hi a| 0 ho| d |or i | ncxt-doornci ghbor nam | y
po| i |i ca| i dco| ogy. Th |radi | i ona| vi cw i o|cour |ha| i d o| ogi ar
un ci cnt i | c. Thi si i ndccd|hc ca c wi t ha| | t hc cxtant idco|ogi c . Bu|
i nmy vicw i | i po i b| c |o cra|| a ci cnti | cpo| i |i ca| idco|ogy. |hati s
onc ba cdon oci a| ci cncc. Takc. |or i n tancc, |hc prob| cmo| oci a|
u t i cc. Why hou|di | bcobcc|i vc| ydcsirab|c'. |i r |,bccausccxp ri mcn|
u i ng |MR| how |hat i ncqui |ab| c rcward a||cct |hc vcntra| t ri a| um.
|ai rnc i sbui | |i n|o|hchuman brai n || i c bachc t a | 2007 .Thi rc u| |
onhm rc|cr nccgr up|hcory. |cop| carcdi a| i hcd n | on| ywhcn
dcprivcd buta| wh n|hcyarcno|ab| yandun u | i hab| ydi cri mi na|cd
136 Political Philosophy
agai n | Mcr|on | 8 . Lpidcmi o| ogyconcurs . Morbi di |y .mdmo|!a| i ty
i ncrcascwi |hcconomi ci ncqua| i |y. Sccond, oci a| i ncqua| i |y isobcc|ivc|y
undc.i rab|cbccau. c oci a| cohc i oni ncrca. c. wi t h .oci a| par| i ci pat i on
anddccrca. cs wi t hsoci a| cxc| u i on. |i na| | y,cqui |y i dc. i rab|cbccauc
po| i | ica| sci cn c has howntha| a dccp| ydi vi dcdsoci c|y i . p| agucdby
confI i c| and ri mc. andi |hcrc|orc po| i | i ca| | yuns|ab| cas wc| | a. dch-
ci cnt i n. ccuri |y. I n.hor| , |hcrc i o| i dsci cn| i f cc i dcncc|orpo| i |i a|
phi | o ophi csand oci a| programs|hatad ancccqua| i ty.
Thc prccdi ng i a u| i | i |ari anu |ih ation o||hc carch|orcquah|y.
Bu| in |ac|cqua| i |y i no|on| ya mcan |orca| i zc o|hcrva| uc . || isa| o
an ndi ni | c| |, |or i| |cc| goodtob amongpccr . and bad|obcci thcr
put down orrai scd |o an und cr d and |hcrc|orc uns|ab|c pcdc 4a| .
Thc amc ho| d |or|hc o|hcrso ia| va|u-| i b r|y o| i dari |y.sccuri |y.
pcacc and comp |cn| go crmmcc. Thyar a| | m'[il a wc| | a goa| .
Morcovcr, |hosc va| ucs con | i t utc a packacc or y|cm, |or nci |h r o|
|hcmcan b |u| |y rca| i zcdwi |hou||hco|hcr..
I a| |hough sci cnc xudcs n i thcr mora| s nor idco|ogy it o|-
|crs a promi si ng |ounda|i on |or bo|h. I ndccd i t show. |hat humani s|
c|hi c. |ar|rombci ngon morcphi |osophi ca||an|a.y, i consi s|cntwi th
p ycho| ogy and soci a| sci ncc. How vcr i d o| ogy d cr s a who| c
1 0. Concludi ng Remark
Thcrcar i ndi vi dua| va| uc . ucha w | | -bci ngandprivacy. bi o oc i a|
va| uc suchassccuri |yandso|i dari|y.andsoci a| va| uc . uch asu | i cc
andpcacc. Yc||a hi onab|cso i a| ci cncc,whicha0cmp||orcducca| ||hc
soci a| ci ncc |o n oc| a i ca| micro conomi c-admi | on| yi ndi vi dua|
a| u , orra|h rva| u . nam | ypccuni arygai n. Thu ` i tdi |or|st h ro|
o| a| ucsby|r a|i ngth ma a ort o|consump|i onchoi cc Orr n |88.
|5 .Con qucn| | yi | i |h rdi rcgard |hcbi o oci a| andsoci a| va| u or
rcgard | h commonpcr on` conc m|orgood- |c| |ow hi p. ccuri |y. u -
| i c . pcacc and o|hcr upra-i ndi i dua| va| uc asparadoxi ca| . Thcrc|orc.
|ora| | i| ma|hcmati ca| orp cudo-mat hcma| i ca| apparatu . |a hionab| c
soci a| ci cnccha bccomc| argc| yi rrc| cvant|o oci a| rca| i ty.i npar| i cu| ar
po| i t i cs Bungc | a. | 8a) .
By con|ras| . wc havc a|tcmp|cd |o p| acc i ndi vi dua| a| uc i nthci r
soci a| con|cx|- i nccnopcr oni ani | and-and havc cmpha i zcd| hrcc
bi o oci a| va| uc - ccuri ty.cqua| i t y and|ratcrni |y-aswc| | a thrccpo| i t i -
ca| va| uc u | i cc |r cdom and c mpc|cncc. Wc havc rcgardcd |hcsc
a|uc asbasi cra|hcr|handcriva|i vc rrcduci b| c| oth rs. Bu|on| y|hc
alue and Morals 137
rca| i zati ono| omco|thcs va| uc rcndcrso|hcr po i b| c. |orcxamp| c
cqua| i |y(E , | i bcrty ( l ,c uri | y S) and us|i cc J arcoi n| | y u|hci cn|
|orhuman di cni |y D . Tha| i . , E & l & S & J D. I nci dcn|a| | y, | hi
dcri ati vc i | i mportan| a| uc, di gni |y.doc no| occuri nanyrc| i ci on, i n
part i cu| ar, accordi ng |oChri s| i ani |y human wcrc not wor|hy a||cr| hc
|a| | . Human di gni t yrcpcc| |or c| |andothcrswa. hr| i dcn|i hcd by
|i codc| | aMi rando| aando| hcrRcnai anccphi | osophcrs, i | wa gi vcn
prom ncncc by Kat .mdha bcncn|rcnchcd in bo|h |hc U ha|! r
and|hc UNUni vcrsa|Dcara|i ono|HumanRi gh| s.
Mor ovr. wc hav argu d | ha| . a| | hough|ho c i x pri mary a| uc
arclogicall i ndcpcndcnt|romoncanothcr i . c. . no|i n|cr-dchnab| c) i n
prac| i cc|hyhang|ogc|hcr |or|h rca| i za|i on o| acho|| h n dpcnd
upont ha| o||hco|h r . Conscqucnt| ynonco||hcs i x an bc sai d|obc
morc i mpo|!.m| |han i ts par|ncr . In par| i cu| ar ccuri |y S) us|i cc J),
qua| i | y ( E |ra| rni |y (F and compc| ncc C arcoi nt | y ncc ary
|or| i bcrty(L . In ob i ou. symbo| s. L S & J & E & F & C. H nc | h
c| a i ca||rcnch | ogan .hou| db comp| | cdtor adVi ? liberte i alit -,
fralerllite justi e, omp irence.
I submi t tha|| hcc i xva| u shapc i ntcgra|dcmocracy, in con| radi . -
| i nc| i on |o purc| ypo| i |ica|dcmocracy.Thc .ys|cmo| a| uc. i nquc t i on
may bcpi ct urcda |orm ngt hi shcxagon.
Thc c va| uc , or | hci rdua| , i n pi rc i dco| ogi c , whi ch i n|urn|ramc
po| i |i ca| i uc and |hu mobi | i zc orpara| yzc po| i |i ca| ac|i on. Lc| us
|hcnana| yzc i dco|ogi c .
Ideology: Issues and Ideals
Cynic ' t nd to downpl ay i deol ogy a j ust epi ph nom non or even
wi ndow-dre i ng. Thi may hol d for I f-ri ghteou 1 ader but not
for t hei r fol lower. . Pre umabl y, t h pea ' ant who vol unteered for t h
m ade ' w r moti at ed by t hei r r l igiou. bel i f. not by the gr d of
t h ir mi l i t ary l eader . B l ief. mat t r i n al l fi el d part i cul arl y in pol i t i c
b cau. e they gui d vol unt ary acti on . i n part i cular, peopl can b pol i t i
cal l y mobi l i zed or paral yzed not onl y by materi al i ntere ts but al so by
i deal . whether noble l i ke democracy and equal i ty. or i gnobl e l i ke et hni c
c lean i ng and worl d domi nat i on.
Suffi ce i t to recal l t he abi l i ty of nat i onal i m to mobi l i ze t he masses
i nce the Ameri can Revol ut ion. The Lati n Ameri can i ndependence wars
fr t agai n t Spai n and a century l ater agai n t t he Uni ted State ' i mi l ar
m ement i n A i a and Afri a part i cul arl y i n Chi na, indi a Kenya Rho
de i a Algeri a I ndonesi a, I nd chi na Angol a and Mozambi que agai n t
the Uni ted Ki ngdom France Japan the Netherl ands or P rtugal . Duri ng
the twent ieth c nt ury Marxi . m pl ayed a si mi l ar rol e i n the Thi rd W rId
i mul t aneou ly fght i ng ol oni al powers and attempti ng-al a , un uc
essful ly except i n Cuba-to l i ght the fu e of so i al rev l ut i n. At ab ut
the aIne t i me I l am i n pi red nat i onal i ndependence mo eInent joi ntl y
wi th anti modemi t reacti on . I n al l t he e a e . j u t a i n t he ca e of
t he Ameri can and French Re ol ut i on , ideology mobi l i zed t he Ina e .
A i ngl e book Madero 1 908) . by the f r t democrati c pre i dent after
a l ong U. S. - upported di ctator hi p, reputedl y t ri ggered the Mexican
Re ol ut i on of 1 9 1 0.
Whether tme or fal pol i ti cal or apol i ti cal i nterested or disi ntere ted
b l ief are not i nnat . They emerg i n braine fon1 both experi ence l earn
i ng, anal yzi ng doubti ng reca ti ng and oci al i nteracti on per ua i on
debat i ng, doi ng . Thu wherea bel i e i ng, disbel i evi ng and doubti ng
are per onal bel ief b come oei al to th extent t hat t hey e pread. True
1 40 Political Philosophy
ome bel i eL are i nt i mate but when so they are pol i ti cal l y i n. i gni f ' ant.
Pol i ti cal bel i ef are publ i c: They concern the pol L , are u, ual l y l eared
through . oi al i nteracti on, and are debated i n publ i .
Unl i ke mathemat i cal or chemi cal bel i ef. pol i t i al bel i ef are i nt i
matel y bound to , oci al . t ructure becau. e, far from bei nC di . i ntere, ted,
they rei nforce or weaken the exi st i ng , 0 i al order. For exampl e, the Cru
sader. procl ai med that they wi shed to free the Hol y Land from T. l amic
domi nati on, wh 'n th 'y were actual l y dri vcn by greed for l oot and l and.
The Europ 'an powcr that conqucred t hc Ameri 'as ,md Afri a, a wcl l a '
bi g chunk of Asi a, dccl ar 'd that t hei r ai m wa to ' ang ' l i zc thc nat i v '. ,
whi lc t hci r actual nloti ati on wa to gct a hol d of rare spi 'c ' prc i ou '
m ' tai s, or sl a c . . And ' ontcmporary l lami ' nati onal i sm i s the i deology
of groups that e ' k i nd 'pcnd 'nc ' from forei gn powers whi ch in t urn
di gui 'c thci r i nt 'rfcfcncc a a noble fi ght for fre 'dom and dcmocracy,
whi le bei ng i nt rested in other peopl 's natural r source . .
I mperial ambi t ion wa. expres. ed qui te cl earl y i n th Project for a New
Am rican entury, the neocon. r ati ve mani f , to . i gned i n 1 997 by the
archi tect. of the ' War on Terror, ' that gui ded the forei gn pol i cy of the
Bu. h- heney Admi ni. trati on 2000- 2(08) : "W n ed to . t rength n our
t i . to democratic al l i , and 10 hall?fl e r imes hostile 10 our interesls
Clnd values; we need to promote the cau 'e of pol i t i cal and economi c
freedom abroad; we need t o accept re ' ponsibi l i ty for meri ca" uni que
rol e i n pre ' erv ing and xtendi ng an intenwlional order friendl) to our
se 'uri!), our prmqJerif), and our prin 'iples [emphase . added] ." The new
century was t o be Ameri cm-domi nated by the Uni ted State ' i n the
i nter ts of the Uni ted States in the name of freedom and democracy.
The moral i . ob iou . Look for mat ri al i nter ' t. behi nd any rh toric
of l oft y i deal .
What v r the nature of a do tri ne on pol i ti cal r gi me, th re are t hre
possi bl e view about i t r l ati on to oci al t ructure.
Belief 0 0 0
1 i i
SO 'iety 0 0 0
a b c
Fi g. 4. 1 . Three "iews on the belief-society connection. (a Idealism: beliefs arc
the uncaused prime mover (b wlLgar materialism: belief are epiphenom
ena (caused hy society and without causal eficacy of their own (d) .'ystemic
materialism: belief are part. iaUy baped by odety and in turn react upon it by
changing behavior.