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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Magnetic nanoparticles are a class of nanoparticle which can be manipulated using magnetic field. Such particles commonly consist of magnetic elements such as iron, nickel and cobalt and their chemical compounds. While nanoparticles are smaller than 1 micrometer in diameter (typically 5–500 nanometers), the larger microbeads are 0.5–500 micrometer in diameter. The magnetic nanoparticles have been the focus of much research recently because they possess attractive properties which could see potential use in catalysis including nanomaterial-based catalysts, biomedicine, magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic particle imaging, data storage, environmental remediation, nanofluids, and optical filters.
1 Properties 2 Types of magnetic nanoparticles 2.1 Oxides: ferrite 2.2 Metallic 2.3 Metallic with a shell 3 Synthesis 3.1 Co-precipitation 3.2 Thermal decomposition 3.3 Microemulsion 3.4 Flame spray synthesis 4 Applications 4.1 Medical diagnostics and treatments 4.2 Magnetic immunoassay 4.3 Waste water treatment 4.4 Chemistry 4.5 Biomedical imaging 4.6 Information storage 4.7 Genetic engineering 5 See also 6 References 7 External links
The physical and chemical properties of magnetic nanoparticles largely depend on the synthesis method and chemical structure. In most cases, the particles range from 1 to 100 nm in size and may display superparamagnetism.
Types of magnetic nanoparticles
Currently, three different kinds of magnetic nanoparticles are being produced and used.
Ferrite nanoparticles are the most explored magnetic nanoparticles up to date. Once the ferrite particles become smaller than 128 nm they become superparamagnetic which prevents self agglomeration since they exhibit their magnetic behavior only when an external magnetic field is applied. With the external magnetic field switched off, the remanence falls back to zero. Just like non-magnetic oxide nanoparticles, the surface of ferrite nanoparticles is often modified by surfactants, silicones or phosphoric acid derivatives to increase their stability in solution.
Metallic nanoparticles have the great disadvantage of being pyrophoric and reactive to oxidizing agents to various degrees. This makes their handling difficult and enables unwanted side reactions.
Metallic with a shell
Cobalt nanoparticle with graphene shell (note: The individual graphene layers are visible) The metallic core of magnetic nanoparticles may be passivated by gentle oxidation, surfactants, polymers and precious metals. In an oxygen environment, Co nanoparticles form an anti-ferromagnetic CoO layer on the surface of the Co nanoparticle. Recently, work has explored the synthesis and exchange bias effect in these Co core CoO shell nanoparticles with a gold outer shell. Nanoparticles with a magnetic core consisting either of elementary Iron or Cobalt with a nonreactive shell made of graphene have been synthesized recently. The advantages compared to ferrite or elemental nanoparticles are:
Higher magnetization Higher stability in acidic and basic solution as well as organic solvents Chemistry on the graphene surface via methods already known for carbon nanotubes
The established methods of magnetic nanoparticle synthesis include:
chlorides. A variety of experimental arrangements have been reported to facilitate continuous and large–scale co–precipitation of magnetic particles by rapid mixing. The co-precipitation approach has been used extensively to produce ferrite nanoparticles of controlled sizes and magnetic properties. cobalt/platinum alloys. Microemulsion Main article: Microemulsion Using the microemulsion technique.Co-precipitation Main article: Co-precipitation Co-precipitation is a facile and convenient way to synthesize iron oxides (either Fe3O 4 or γ-Fe2O3) from aqueous Fe2+/Fe3+ salt solutions by the addition of a base under inert atmosphere at room temperature or at elevated temperature. oxides. sulfates. the reaction temperature. using 1-butanol as the cosurfactant and octane as the oil phase. and gold-coated cobalt/platinum nanoparticles have been synthesized in reverse micelles of cetyltrimethlyammonium bromide.. and composition of the magnetic nanoparticles very much depends on the type of salts used (e. the Fe2+/Fe3+ ratio. the growth rate of the magnetic nanoparticles was measured in real-time during the precipitation of magnetite nanoparticles by an integrated AC magnetic susceptometer within the mixing zone of the reactants. Flame spray synthesis Using flame spray pyrolysis  and varying the reaction conditions. nitrates). Recently. the pH value and ionic strength of the media.g. and the mixing rate with the base solution used to provoke the precipitation. Various flame spray conditions and their impact on the resulting nanoparticles Operational layout differences between conventional and reducing flame spray s Applications A wide variety of applications have been envisaged for this class of particles which include: Medical diagnostics and treatments Magnetic nanoparticles are used in an experimental cancer treatment called magnetic hyperthermia  in which the fact that nanoparticles heat when they are placed in an alternative . shape. Thermal decomposition Main article: Thermal decomposition Magnetic nanocrystals with smaller size can essentially be synthesized through the thermal decomposition of organometallic compounds in high-boiling organic solvents containing stabilizing surfactants. metal or carbon coated nanoparticles are produced at a rate of > 30 g/h . metallic cobalt. The size.
The signal measured by the magnetometer is proportional to the analyte (virus. Pollert. This can be done quickly – usually within 15 minutes. ^ S. Genetic engineering Magnetic nanoparticles can be used for a variety of genetics applications. the poly A tail of the mRNA will attach to the bead's poly T tail and the isolation takes place simply by placing a magnet on the side of the tube and pouring out the liquid.. Iron oxide particles have been used for the detection of Gram negative bacteria like Escherichia coli and for detection of Gram positive bacteria like Streptococcus suis In an online news story article from Harvard Medical School posted by Jake Miller on Wednesday. The magnetic nanoparticles can be recovered and the attached cancer-associated molecules can be assayed to test for their existence. co-senior author of the paper. "Tomographic imaging using the nonlinear response of magnetic particles". the magnetic bead is attached to a poly T tail. See also Magnetic chemistry References 1. E. Typical supports include various kinds of carbon.harvard. The reactivity of heterogeneous catalysts occurs at the surface atoms. and that diabetes does not require an additional trigger such as a secondary infection or environmental stress . PMID 15988521 .200454222 (http://dx. These magnetic nanoparticles are trapped inside due to an externally applied magnetic field as the blood is free to flow through. and silica.magnetic field is used. Rapid genetic circuit construction has been achieved by the sequential addition of genes onto a growing genetic chain. so far to distinguish patients that do or do not have pancreas inflammation.435.: "Researchers from Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital have developed a magnetic nanoparticle-based MRI technique for predicting whether—and when— subjects with a genetic predisposition for diabetes will develop the disease. Consequently great effort is made to maximize the surface area of a catalyst by distributing it over the support. 4. is determined very early in life. When mixed with mRNA. the information density that can be achieved with this media could easily surpass 1 Terabyte per square inch.biomaterials.doi. Schmidt. In chemistry.nlm. Gupta (June 2005). Magnetic CoPt nanoparticles are being used as an MRI contrast agent for transplanted neural stem cell detection. the group was surprised that the diagnostic window—from six to 10 weeks of age— was so early. The magnetic nanoparticles are coated with antibodies targeting cancer cells or proteins. Demourgues. Portier.gov/pubmed/15626447). A. Schüth (August 2004).org/10. Magnetic nanoparticles can be conjugated with carbohydrates and used for detection of bacteria. Bill. The presence of magnetic beads is then detected by a magnetic reader (magnetometer) which measures the magnetic field change induced by the beads.org/10. March 21. radioisotopes or fluorescent moieties. Solid State Chem.012 (http://dx.nlm.doi. B. W.nih. ^ A. a research fellow in the Mathis-Benoist lab.1214G). F. along with Christophe Benoist.1002/anie.gov/pubmed/15368378). Gleich. where a magnetic label is conjugated to one element of the pair. B. According to first author Wenxian Fu. and using that predictive power to figure out what is different between those who get it and those who don’t get it. ^ A. Vasseur.biomaterials. Lu. Magnetic beads have also been used in plasmid assembly. PMID 15626447 (//www.org/10.2004.435. E. ^ B. W. This assay involves the specific binding of an antibody to its antigen. J. While done initially in mice. allowing them to be captured and carried out of the body.) quantity in the initial sample. In this method. alumina. Chemistry Magnetic nanoparticles are being used or have the potential use as a catalyst or catalyst supports.10.1214G (http://adsabs. to which a catalyst is affixed. This shows that the progression of the disease. 3. One application is the isolation of mRNA. Grasset. Biomedical imaging There are many applications for iron-oxide based nanoparticles in concert with magnetic resonance imaging. M. doi:10. Kiefer. "Nanoengineering of a Magnetically Separable Hydrogenation Catalyst". S. bacteria. PMID 15368378 (//www. 2012.. G. Waste water treatment Thanks to the easy separation by applying a magnetic field and the very large surface to volume ratio.1016/j.” said Diane Mathis. Another potential treatment of cancer includes attaching magnetic nanoparticles to free-floating cancer cells.1038/nature03808 (http://dx. 34: 237. and so brief. Duguet (2006). 2. Morton Grove-Rasmussen Professor of Immunohematology. Matoussevitch. K. 2012. J. The treatment has been tested in the laboratory on mice and will be looked at in survival studies.nih. doi:10. Goglio. a catalyst support is the material. preliminary data show that the platform can be used in people as well.2004.ncbi. In this particular application. Morton Grove-Rasmussen Professor of Immunohematology in the Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology and. taking less than an hour to create functional multi-gene constructs in vitro. F. Magnetic nanoparticles can be used for the detection of cancer.-H. “This research is about predicting Type-1 diabetes. E. Biomaterials 26 (18): 3995–4021.1002%2Fanie.1038%2Fnature03808).200454222).doi. The results were published online in Nature Immunology on Feb. The support may be inert or participate in the catalytic reactions. usually a solid with a high surface area. This method has been shown to be much faster than previous methods.10. using nanobeads as an anchor.etc. Gupta. Mornet. Bibcode:2005Natur. N. Nature 435 (7046): 1214–1217. magnetic nanoparticles have a good potential for treatment of contaminated water. at least in this animal model. enzymes. attachment of EDTA-like chelators to carbon coated metal nanomagnets results in a magnetic reagent for the rapid removal of heavy metals from solutions or contaminated water by three orders of magnitude to concentrations as low as micrograms per Litre.012). Tesche. Verveka.ncbi. 26. Weizenecker (2005). Grain sizes can be as small as 3 nanometers. cardiac marker. If its possible to modify the MNPs at this small scale. Spliethoff.1016%2Fj. toxin." Magnetic immunoassay Magnetic immunoassay (MIA) is a novel type of diagnostic immunoassay utilizing magnetic beads as labels in lieu of conventional. Prog. "Synthesis and surface engineering of iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications". Blood can be inserted onto a microfluidic chip with magnetic nanoparticles in it. Information storage Research is going into the use of using MNPs for magnetic recording media. doi:10.edu/abs/2005Natur. Bönnemann. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 43 (33): 4303–4306. P. H. The most promising candidates for high-density storage is the face-centered tetragonal phase FePt alloy.
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