Journal of African Instituted Church Theology

African Indigenous Churches in Ghana Past, Present and Future Clifton R. Clarke Theological Education and Training: Challenges of African Independent Churches in Ghana Thomas Asante Oduro Prophetic Movements in the Congo: The Life and Work of Simon Kimbangu and How His Followers Saw Him Emmanuel Martey Globalization: A Perspective From the African Independent Churches Njeru Wambugu and John Padwick African Indigenous Churches and the Ministry of the Holy Spirit Humphrey Akogyeram

Volume II, Number 1, September 2006
Published by Good News Theological College and Seminary P.O. Box AN 6484. Accra-North, Ghana

When we are bored with the political analysis. and then to consider the role we can play as AICs in negotiating with. We cannot escape from these and other effects of globalization in our daily lives. on the very way we shape our vision of our future. and confronting this phenomenon of our time. political. but are made in China. corruption. It is a cultural. on our ability to survive and prosper next year and in the years ahead — indeed. on our economies.* Introduction S cattered in towns and villages across Africa. What has been called ‘archaic globalization’ was led by ‘great kings and warriors searching for wealth and honour in fabulous lands. Globalization in the Past As a process. we watch as the US prepares for its 2004 presidential elections.. We know that whoever is chosen will have an impact on our lives. we can only attempt to deal here with its economic theological and cultural impact upon our societies and our churches. on our security. Such an approach to history begins in the pre-modern era. and how to get great wealth or power over others through witchcraft. itself a global news corporation.D. some historians have begun to rewrite the history of the world as episodes in the history of long-term globalization. Ph. ethical. 2 . on TV sets that have Japanese or South Korean brand-names. Latin American or Australian soap operas or. globalization is not new.. to Nigerian or Ghanaian videos that centre on extra-marital affairs. we can switch channels to American Christian TV networks. Indeed. and ecological issue.”1 Because it is so broad a subject. perhaps. We watch the presidential debates carried live on CNN. by religious wanderers and pilgrims seeking .GLOBALIZATION: A PERSPECTIVE FROM THE AFRICAN INDEPENDENT CHURCHES Archbishop Njeru Wainbugu and John Padwick. God in _____________________________ * The Most Reverend Njeru Wambugu is the General Secretary of the Organisation of African Instituted Churches (OAIC) and John Padwick is Church Mission Society Mission Partner working with OALC in Kenya. ‘Globalization is not simply an economic issue.

some also played a somewhat less subservient role in the European trading companies and their related local ventures. They also brought with them and propagated an ideology and a rationale to encourage Africans to become useful servants of the colonial state. however. a historical perspective shows that the spread of the Christian faith is itself both a cause and a consequence of globalization. 1. No. In West Africa.’2 A long-term perspective on globalization is important for two reasons. Zimbabwean gold was a vital part of the trade along the East African coast to Arabia and South Asia. across borders and continents. Secondly. multiracial community of the New Jerusalem as seen by John in the Book of Revelation. Vol. in the will of God. In Africa. family setting in the Garden of Eden to the multicultural. some form of globalization may be part of God’s plan. this suggests that.3 Journal of African Instituted Church Theology. Christian missionaries did not come only with the Good News of Jesus Christ. followed by the European colonial empires. this is not inevitable. II. that meant forcing Africans to leave their rural homes and clans and traditional support systems in order to become wage labour in colonial farms. plantations. Eastern. The . and mines. were more recent phases of globalization that very seriously impacted the African continent. the economic force behind the whole colonial programme..3 Even though contemporary globalization may be led by the West. First. Whatever the precise nature of colonial African occupations.. the training and recruitment process required a degree of conversion to the values of industrial capitalism. 2006 Globalization: A Perspective from the African Independent Churches distant realms. To take the most obvious example. In Central. the West African trade networks of the middle ages were linked to the Islamic world of the Mediterranean and Middle East. Paul’s missionary journeys were made possible by the early globalizing trade and communication networks of the Roman Empire. industries. Indeed. it reminds us that globalization is not simply westernization. for example. AICs As Initiatives to Deal with Globalization of the Colonial Era The slave trade of both East and West coasts. requiring us to move from a rural. and Southern Africa. As part of the colonial phase. and by merchant princes and venturers pursuing profits .

since both were believed to be. and peoples. boundaries between their members and colonial society. at best. consider any form of political involvement to be ‘of the Devil’. But the stance taken by the Spiritual churches was. at worst. some of their founders perceived that the driving force . (This was true equally of African traditional medicine and imported European medicine.5 In these ‘African’ churches. and a threat to the integrity and purity of African society. The Holy Spirit led many such churches to adapt the purity laws from Leviticus (particularly chapters 11-16) to create tight. The AICs were also resistance movements to the wider European project of harnessing the African continent. its resources. They tried to restrict too much promiscuous contact with Europeans and European institutions. Aladura. ‘Nationalist’ churches) appreciated the education and forms of social and political organization the colonizers and missionaries came with — churches. Apostolic. a concession to human weakness and. self-aggrandisement and financial profit of the so-called ‘metropolitan’ countries.) Theologically. not simply to missionary arrogance and insensitivity (what David Barrett calls the missionaries’ ‘lack of love’4). and political parties. and Zionist churches had a less obvious political agenda. Vol. therefore. Some churches forbade the taking of medicine. In some of these churches. were opposed. schools. The other category of AICs. In this colonial context. the ‘Spiritual’. a means by which Satan attacked the body and the spirit. The leaders of the ‘African’ churches (called in Southern Africa ‘Ethiopian’ and in East Africa. Their churches became what have been termed ‘self-strengthening’ resistance movements. No. These AIC leaders sought to acquire and use this education. and wearing European clothes or using manufactured goods of European origin. in some ways. political liberation was considered a divine imperative. impervious. Indeed. laws restricted people from shaking of hands.Journal of African Instituted Church Theology. 1. to the present day. some of these churches. II. to the glory. and these colonial tools and techniques against the invaders. They regarded the very values of colonial society to be irredeemably tainted. 2006 Globalization: A Perspective from the African Independent Churches 4 African independent Churches that emerged during the colonial era. more radical than that of the African or nationalist churches. welfare societies. we can consider the AICs in two categories. So far as they could. they created Christian societies that were counter-cultures to colonial society.

the founders of the AICs were born from. 2006 Globalization: A Perspective from the African Independent Churches behind capitalism was a form of lust — an insatiable desire for more and more material goods. and confronted an earlier form of globalization that (like the contemporary form) put at risk the continent’s power for self-determination. the rules that governed access to Divine power and blessings in the pre-European epoch were laid down by local leaders and priests. Either they themselves felt they would lose their authority if spiritual gifts were widely distributed in the church. ‘By ‘independent church. (After all. church uniforms. Instead. in laws of impurity. forms of worship. 1. and its access to the Divine and to Spiritual power. It shows that. stories. and the practice of exorcism. they came from a culture that had largely eliminated the ‘Spirit’ from their explanation of the world. II.5 Journal of African Instituted Church Theology. the African Independent Pentecostal Church of Kenya. In seeking to define their own vision. But missionaries were frequently reluctant to offer free access to this Third Person of the Trinity. the founders developed a way of life and faith that was not articulated in books of theology.’6 This brief historical analysis has a purpose for us today. that of the Holy Spirit of the One God Himself. No matter how we understand today the nature of African Traditional Religions. when leaders of the largest nationalist church of Central Kenya. both types of churches were concerned about re-asserting local control — local control over society. flags. Whatever the precise nature of the AIC resistance. they said. its moral sanctions.reliant. and narratives . it was to be found in ‘songs. or else they themselves did not properly understand the Holy Spirit. in forms. Reflecting on their struggles in the light of the Scriptures. or Rome. these local attempts at racial domination in the church were themselves controlled by missionary agencies with their headquarters outside the continent.) Moreover. its values. Vol. By way of contrast. self. The Christian Gospel offered a new and superior power. traditions. explained their use of the word ‘Independent’ in the church’s name. the founders of AICs created vibrant indigenous churches. No. dance. Edinburgh. born and nurtured within African culture and living out the Gospel with relevance in their own particular contexts. or what has been termed the African Religious Heritage.’ we meant a church that would not be governed from Canterbury. concepts of evil. and names.

Nevertheless. and. cultures. less formal qualifications. The cost of their faithfulness to their vision remains as our legacy today. II. and seek guidance from the Holy Spirit and the Word of God for a renewed vision. in dream interpretations and prophecies. less access to worldly influence and power than their brothers and sisters in the mission-founded churches. in OAIC.’7 It is this multifaceted expression of AIC faith that we. If we are true. 1. As a result. and which we struggle to make sense of. while it dramatically shills relationships from local to global contexts. Indeed. Vol. have been caught up within. our churches. less income and resources. institutions and individuals worldwide. it must be so in order to empower us to engage effectively with the new and serious challenges we face. within our own cultures. It is to these contemporary challenges of globalization that we now turn. refer to as ‘the Founders’ Vision’ 8 But this vision came at a historical cost. Its power and momentum is derived from growing . Contemporary Globalization: A Definition Our concern today is not so much with long-term globalization or its earlier phases as with the tremendous global forces that we ourselves. faced by the challenges of contemporary globalization. in the midst of crisis. I propose to define contemporary globalization as: the rapidly increasing complex interactions between societies. and in understandings of healing and salvation. both to the gospel and to our current situation. the AICs still found themselves excluded from positions of power and influence. 2006 Globalization: A Perspective from the African Independent Churches 6 of preaching and prayer. When suddenly the colonialists handed over the reins of government to their African successors. in general. this vision will be significantly different from that of our founders. as they did. No. and our nations. Its critical dynamic is the compression of time and space. in consequence. therefore. we can still follow the example of our founders of two or three generations ago: we can stand. or deliberately cut themselves from the economic and other benefits of being close to the colonial state. AIC founders were often excluded from missionary education.Journal of African Instituted Church Theology. For this purpose. they had less skills.

mobile phones. or moved somewhere else in the world at the demand of short-term profits. In consequence. at times almost irrelevant. mingle together. • • The Gains and Costs of Globalization10 Some. is the question of who rules this village and how they view us.7 Journal of African Instituted Church Theology. • There are constant and frequent interactions between the local and the global in our lives. factories. International finance capital is constantly moving around the globe seeking to maximize profit. More disturbing. II.9 We experience the present phase of globalization in the following ways: Time is speeded up. Rather. such as forests and minerals. No. perhaps. However. etc. people talk of living in a ‘global village’. Economic. regardless of social constraints. The clear fact is that. they increase. 1. e-mail. the candidates refer to this as ‘out-sourcing’). In a process known as ‘global sourcing’ (in the current US elections. indeed many national economies. its inhabitants. these benefits go to economies . social. indeed. Distance becomes much shorter. and dropped. than the concept of the global village. This aspect of globalization is made possible by new telecommunications technologies such as the internet. • Cultures become closer. One consequence for countries of the South is that debts are not paid off. the contemporary globalization is driven by the free market and global capitalism. Trans-National Companies search the most cost-effective location for their production. are taken up. Between 1980 and 1997. Projects. Vol. It is often easier to keep in touch with someone thousands of miles away on a different continent than our friends in the town we live in. and environmental concerns are subordinated to the demands of the financial institutions for the highest return on their investments. and become mixed. the international trade in goods and service increased threefold. financed. started. the exploitation of natural resources. 2006 Globalization: A Perspective from the African Independent Churches market capitalism and global advances in communications technologies. have become very much richer.

Indeed. But. are among the most seriously affected by the economic effects of contemporary globalization. The continent of Africa. their members have lower levels of formal education than nembers of the so-called ‘mainline’ churches. Sub-Saharan Africa’s per capita GDP (Gross Domestic Product per head of the population) fell from 1980 to 1998.)12 • The inequality between rich and poor is increasing rapidly in the ‘loser countries. The contribution of Sub-Saharan Africa to total global exports fell from 3.5% in 1997. taking the increase in population into account. globalization has clear costs: • The inequality between rich and poor countries is increasing rapidly.g.Journal of African Instituted Church Theology. the assets of the 3 richest people in the world were more than the combined GNP (Gross National Product) of all 43 of the UNDP least developed countries.’ e.. they may be better placed to resist some of the other ill effects. That is to say. This is partly because: • The ability of national governments to control their resources and cultures is diminishing rapidly. Sub-Saharan Africa. 2006 Globalization: A Perspective from the African Independent Churches 8 which have good access to capital markets and are best able to exploit the improved competitive environment the free market brings about.11 In particular. 1. too. It would be fair to argue that. because. • Natural resources and the environment are being used up and destroyed. thus increasing poverty. as we have seen. and turn to salvation from fundamentalist religious groups that believe only in prayer. Perhaps. in general. members of AICs. they have sometimes turned too much to prayer when they could have been working their way out of poverty. • People experience increased insecurity. as we shall see. . In fact. in other ways. Vol.8% in 1980 to 1. II. (In 1998. in particular. the global economy would only be poorer by just over one per cent. No. their current marginalization in most countries of Sub-Saharan Africa is related historically to their resistance to its earlier colonial phase. if Sub-Saharan Africa fell off the edge of the map. has been the greatest loser.

Vol. No. clans. This moral discipline is part of the work of the Holy Spirit who speaks and reveals His will through prophecy. The church member is exhorted and reminded that responsibility for fellow brothers and sisters in the faith. trade unions. because they do not question its basic assumptions. especially those most vulnerable is at least as important as meeting individual personal needs. we are conditioned to evaluate ourselves on the basis of external measurements and manipulation. Moreover. and upon our consumption of things. laws. true faith means financial success and the possession of expensive consumer items. consciously in control of his desires. Unfortunately. I describe one alternative AIC understanding of the human condition. even including private planes. The call to repentance and the restoration of the sinner are functions of the community. some churches have adopted this definition of human beings: to them. from the Roho (Holy Spirit) churches of Western Kenya.13 As a result. The Roho Church founders had a vision of a selfdisciplined human being. II. their self-reflection.9 Journal of African Instituted Church Theology. a person is no longer capable of knowing himself or herself on the basis of their experience. 2006 Globalization: A Perspective from the African Independent Churches Confronting the Vision Behind Globalization What is the value system that drives globalization? How does it influence the way we understand ourselves as human beings? In the present globalized form of free market capitalism. isolated and conditioned people are fit for the global economy of the free market. in the context of worship and church meetings. Instead. Faith itself has become an investment that must produce financial returns.) Over against this model. They are easily controlled and stimulated by advertising and by other commercially driven media. 1. human beings have no intrinsic value except insofar as they are producers or consumers. the free market views us as individuals. or their life with other human beings in community. and dreams. global capitalism distrusts collective experience — such as we experience in churches. and cannot be adequately . under the communal discipline of the church community. we have the potential of creating counter-ideologies to that of the free market. and professional associations — because when we come together with other people. visions. their relationship with God. In fact. (We refer here to what is usually termed as the ‘prosperity gospel’.

Indeed. There are many such understandings among the AICs of what it means to be human. 2006 Globalization: A Perspective from the African Independent Churches 10 fulfilled by the individual concerned negotiating privately with God. the humane life lived in community. in respect of ease of communication. No. widow. A village. II. and they differ in detail and theology. 25:31-46. but lacking the bonds of mutual responsibility that. Today. in fact and in day-to-day practice. Cultural Globalization15 Culture can be described simply as ‘a people’s way of life’. that is. bind together the people of African villages! It is precisely in this difference that one of our greatest strengths as AICs lies and one of our greatest contributions to the world community — we have not lost our care for the stranger. But behind all of them is a fleshing out in Christian teaching of what the South Africans have taught us to call ubuntu. The colonial value system was not African and the AICs did not accept it as such.’16 This culture is all the more powerful for being carried by a highly sophisticated and ever-expanding telecommunications industry. 1 Tim. Acts 5:32-35. Matt.22:22. self-determination today is even more difficult under contemporary globalization that it was under colonialism: . Vol. ‘The largest single export industry of the US is not aircraft. it is the culture of the dominant North Atlantic free market and its associated values that threaten the continent. to be a Christian. The term must have been invented by someone in the North. a way of pursuing one’s own private desires at the expense of the community. perhaps. computers. and orphan (nor handed our responsibility over to the anonymous state) nor do we regard the communality of the earliest Christian church as the natural and excusable consequence of excessive enthusiasm (Ex.Journal of African Instituted Church Theology. ultimately. In this respect. such a failure to honour and respect the community is regarded as ‘hypocritical’. or automobiles — it is entertainment in films and television programmes. We have already noted that the African continent has experienced earlier forms of globalization that threatened the integrity and self-determination of the African peoples. sins against community.14 We have referred above to the description of the contemporary world as the ‘global village’. 1. in which all sins are. 5:3-5).

But now. First. because. to African Christian values. Nevertheless. We need to allow space in our churches for this process of importation . John would not have been able to distinguish one group from another. and speaking American English. because it is a mistake to think that African people are completely foolish and will simply abandon their cultural birthright.17 That was. a new mix of items taken from different cultures. in Nairobi. knew who the enemy was. In the churches. (Anthropologists call this a bricolage. and they sing of the issues they face in their lives in Nairobi. we should not despair. when external cultural fashions are adopted from abroad. the mission and the sisal plantation to impose the European way of life. the route taken by AICs. although the youth of Nairobi may be singing to hip-hop styles and rhythms taken from the US. Hindi. 2006 Globalization: A Perspective from the African Independent Churches in fighting colonialism. Vol. Thus. and Levi jeans. Often. nation.) Indeed. II. indeed. Kikuyu. Had everyone been dressed alike in Adidas trainers. they are given a new meaning in the African context. tribe. At the same time. our universities are deprived of financial resources. People could take the option to circumvent or avoid these institutions. God values the diversity of cultures he has created. the African. and language’. T-shirts. The vision of John in the book of Revelation (Ch. currently. Secondly. and many youth study elsewhere in a cultural context alien to African realities. The European colonial master used the open system of the school. systems of Christian faith developed for North America are marketed on TV channels and through crusades. 1. and other mother tongues. Education systems are distorted by World Bank conditionalities that declare that national pride and systems of ethics have no economic benefit. at least.11 Journal of African Instituted Church Theology. English. 7) is of ‘every race. or indeed. the church. there is a strong movement of Christian hip-hop. If we reflect on the development of our own AIC faith and worship. as if they are culturally relevant appropriations of the gospel — leaving aside whether they are theologically correct or not. No. the power and influence of global media make attractive exotic lifestyles that have little or no relationship to African traditional values. and put to a new purpose. the language they are using is sheng — an indigenous mixture of Swahili. we can see similar processes of cultural borrowing at work.

Internationally.20 Few AICs are in this position: the Kimbanguists in DR Congo. the Harrists in Cote d’Ivoire. II. re-direct society through advocacy and law. Vol. strategies which he has derived from the scriptural record:19 • Taming political and economic power structures through prophecy and law (‘established church’ approach). ‘The interest payments to the global money market force all the different nations of the world to adapt to the one and same system. It can lobby international agencies and national governments to take into account the social costs of globalization when new projects or programmes are planned and to make interventions that protect the most vulnerable. What Then Can Aics Do? Currently. however. 1. Thus. who want to change the present system towards an economy which will bring life to all.Journal of African Instituted Church Theology. hopefully. which it both seeks to challenge and be accepted by. it can be argued that. No. we should be aware that. to moderate and. the Kimbanguists were co-opted by Mobutu and the ZCC by the South African apartheid government. there is no Christian culture fixed for all thne or for all places.) The ‘established church’ approach seeks to ‘tame’. As AICs. whether we like it or not). there seem to be no practicable alternatives to the general process of globalization. the ‘established church’ approach has been carried out most successfully by the World . does this new cultural item make christian faith or worship more relevant to people today? We can expect anger and frustration between the opposing sides during these negotiations over what is relevant or permissible. This approach requires its spokes-people to be members of a church that is well-respected in society. and possibly. Duchrow says. The danger here is that the church becomes co-opted by the state. the Zion Christian Church (ZCC) in South Africa. 2006 Globalization: A Perspective from the African Independent Churches 12 and adaptation to continue (as it will anyway. • Refusing to co-operate with totalitarian systems and creating networked small-scale alternatives (the ‘counter-culture’ approach in messianic groups and communities throughout all peoples.’18 He defines two practicable strategies for Christians. The criteria we should seek to apply is.

the Anglicans in their workshop with the World Bank in Nairobi in 2000. based on an alternative vision.g. church. and — as we ourselves have already suggested — the process of renewing our vision.13 Journal of African Instituted Church Theology. and. the Roman Catholic Church. We do so by improving the facilitating. Charles Villa-Vicencio argues that churches should not only be active in ‘civil society’. II. and advocacy abilities of church and leaders. Most AICs. and identity’. independent of outside funding or initiative. 1.. Villa-Vicencio describes these two elements as critical social analysis — understanding the ‘meaning of the time’. engage with the surrounding society in day-to-day economic affairs. becoming involved in community development and the political process. more recently. 2006 Globalization: A Perspective from the African Independent Churches Council of Churches. and community groups. which OAIC seeks to support through its Participatory Development and HIV/AIDS programmes (e. No. Vol. with its own chief) were attempts to be self-sufficient. in BUCOSS — Building Community Support Systems). which demands two things. history. This requires “building ‘within the shell of the old society’ step by step until enough experience. It is precisely such indigenous community support systems. and political organizing has occurred — enough social and political momentum has been built up — to allow a more general perestroika to take place.”22 To do this in the long-haul. networking. however. moral energy. vision. however. The other alternative is the fostering of small-scale communities. and giving them professional skills where appropriate . as far as possible. constitute an alternative social support system. and cultural empowerment — enabling people ‘to look to their own resources and discern the Spirit of the Lord within their own culture. requires the motivating power of a vision. and to act as ‘beacons of hope’ to the surrounding society.21 In this way— through the churches living out their vision practically at the micro level in building institutions and also in stretching. but that they should also take some community responsibilities upon themselves. which network with other sympathetic churches and organizations for mutual support. already existing structures — there is eventual hope for the transformation of the present all-embracing world order.23 Some AIC communities (like Aiyetoro in Nigeria. but through their closely-knit congregations. which ran its own fishing economy and schools.

As an integral part of our Christian faith. and ask them to ensure their faith is relevant to the challenges we face in the context of contemporary globalization. in the era of colonialism. we own our faith and we do not have divided loyalties. issued by Eighth WCC Assembly. we have some of the necessary tools for negotiating with cultural aspects of globalization. We have a genuine and strongly held faith which gives meaning to our lives. 40. Celebration Though economically vulnerable. We have done so before. 202. References 1 ‘Statement on Globalization’. 2. We are close to our cultural roots. our culture. No. in home care for people living with H1V/AIDS). . Globalization in World History. in a number of respects. and which is not subject to any authorities outside Africa. In other words. p. 2006 Globalization: A Perspective from the African Independent Churches 14 (e. and the demands of modernity. 5. We are involved in frequent negotiations between our founders’ visions. 6. 4. Harare. Tn addition.g. Churches in International Affairs.Journal of African Instituted Church Theology. 3-14 December 1998. Zimbabwe. p. 3. II. community groups) that are very largely independent of external support or direction. In other words. in Epps. we enable them to return to the roots of their faith in the founders’ visions and in the Christian Scriptures. 4. 1. Ethnicity and Democracy’. our responsibility for others in the community and especially for those who are most vulnerable. well-placed to counter globalization: 1.. we recognize and value ubuntu — that is. 2 Hopkins. Let’s celebrate our calling as AICs to speak an African Christian voice to the continent at this time of crisis. AIC leaders and members are. Vol. We participate in indigenous social support structures (church congregations. 3 Lonsdale. We have been given these strengths at this time to benefit others. p. ‘Globalization.

p. 13 This section is drawn in part from Giudici. Hopkins. 119-130. 278-280. 20 This and the following paragraph are drawn partly from Padwick. cit. ‘The meaning and relevance of “ubuntu”. 209. 6 Neckebrouck. p. Schism and Renewal in Africa: An Analysis of Six Thousand Contemporary Religious Movements (Nairobi: Oxford University Press. 22 Villa-Vicencio. 1999. 78. ‘Building a Living Democacy’. Le Qnzième Gommandement. 18 Duchrow. Alternatives to Global Capitalism. 171. 122. 11 During the period 1980-90. David B. Rwanda. 2-6. Desire. Globalization in World History. p. 12. pp. p. pp. 19 Duchrow. I have omitted his second alternative. Human Development Report. 14 For a succinct summary of ubuntu values. Vol. 2004. 21 Villa-Vicencio. op. p. 132. 33.. II. p. pp. Local Perspectives on Globalization. ‘The Vision of the Founders’. and Zambia. During the period 1990-2002. 31-33. Schism and Renewal. Of these. pp. p. ‘Local Perspectives on Globalization: the Cultural Domain’. No. 1.. 23 Villa-Vicencjo. op. 10 This section draws on Semboja. cit. p. 16 UNDP. and the World’. ‘Dominant Model of Development’.15 Journal of African Instituted Church Theology. 12 UNDP Human Development Report. 7 Padwick.. 190. as no longer practicable.’ 15 This section is drawn in part from Mlama. 7. 17 Mlama. the number of countries had increased to twenty. 9 Semboja. p. Human Development Report 1999. except where otherwise stated. op. Alternatives to Global Capitalism. ‘Spirit. cit.. op. see Pato. 36 8 Imunde. Mission and Economy. 1968). p. 2006 Globalization: A Perspective from the African Independent Churches 4 5 Barrett. . p. 459.. Bibliography Barrett. 38. 13 were from Sub-Saharan Africa. ‘Transforming one society’. p. 1. pp. cit. 241 (quoting Alperovitz. three countries experienced a drop in the human development index: DR Congo. p. 27).

n.d. 1996. Joseph. Paper Presented at the OAIC Johannesburg Theology of Development Workshop. N[dege]. 2002.A. 1999 (New York: Oxford University Press. Villa-Vicencio. Alternatives to Global Capitalism: drawn front Biblical History. University of Birmingham. ‘The Dominant Model of Development: A Critique’. 119-30. in The Anitepam Journal. 28th Nov.). 1996..G. _____Human Development Report.Journal of African Instituted Church Theology. ‘Globalization. eds. 2002). 2002). Stephano. 1. 2002. 2004). Mission and Economy: A Necessary Encounter for a Possible Change. op. 2004: Cultural Liberty in Today’s Diverse World (New York: UNDP. Luke “The meaning and relevance of ‘ubuntu’ in the contemporary African Context”. Giudici. No. Human Development Report. An essay submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for a B. Desire. 1999). Padwick. II. and the World: Roho Churches of Western Kenya in the era of Globalization. The Churches in International Affairs: Reports 19951998 (Geneva: World Council of Churches. cit. Imunde. 194-214. 2003. 2004). pp. Semboja.-8th Dec. Penina. Pato. 1995).. . ... Catholic University of Eastern Africa..G. Globalization in World History (London: Pimlico... Mlama. T. 40. A. Nov. Vol. Hopkins. in A. ed. No. pp. Local Perspectives on Globalization: The African Case (Dar-es-Salaam: Mkuki na Nyota Publishers. in J. Charles. 1. OAIC Johannesburg Theology of Development Workshop. 1997 (Nairobi: New People. Lawford.’ PhD Thesis. ed. ‘Local Perspectives on Globalization: The Cultural Domain’. Dwain C. Epps. Background Paper No.. 28th Nov. A Theology of Reconstruction: Nation Building and Human Rights (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. designed for political action (Utrecht: International Books. 2006 Globalization: A Perspective from the African Independent Churches 16 Duchrow. Ethnicity and Democracy: A View from ‘the Hopeless Continent’. 4-12. 1992). John. pp. Lonsdale.8th Dec. Ulrich. Semboja. et al. The Vision of the Founders: Towards a Theology of Development for African Independent Churches in Africa’. UNDP. Hopkins. _____Spirit. Tangaza College.

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