# ICOQM-10

June 28-30, 2011

Thermal Analysis of Copper Fin by FEA
Matkar M.V. P. M. Ravanan rmaheshmatkar@yahoo.com pmravanan@vjti.org.com VJTI, Mumbai 1. Introduction
Fins are used for the heat transfer purpose in various instruments like heating and cooling equipments. So it is necessary to analyze and calculate the temperature and heat transfer rate by fin. Transient thermal analysis gives the correct values of the temperature which is varying with the time. To manufacturing fin we used various types of material like the Aluminium, copper, carbon steel etc. but the selecting correct material is important. In this paper I calculate the heat transfer rate and the temperature behaviour for the same object with the different material (like copper and aluminium). Though in cooling and heating equipments we see various types of fins which are having different sizes and shape, but for better explanation I used cylindrical fin for analysis.

2. Procedure
Following are the steps required for thermal analysis: Steady State and Transient Thermal Analysis  Defining the element  Defining the material properties  Building geometry  Meshing  Defining load  Solution  Result

3. Input Properties
Following are the input properties of copper required for the thermal analysis:
Table 1 Copper Properties Properties Density Coefficient of thermal expansion Thermal conductivity Specific heat (Cp) Ambient Temperature Values 8933 10 398 385 25 Unit Kg/m² W/m²/k W/m/k J/kg/k °C

Base temperature 100 °C Source Strength of Material by Bhandari

4. Transient Analysis
We know the steps used for the transient thermal analysis, now here we applying those steps to analyzed the copper fin: Defining the Element In this we define the element as solid 87 as copper fin is solid piece. And also this 10 node tetrahedral element works well for the curved edges of the fin. Defining the Material Properties Here we apply the material properties like coefficient of thermal expansion, thermal conductivity and density. In ansys software following steps should be follow to defining material. Preprocessor > Material properties>Material models > Thermal >Enter Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 398, Specific heat C = 385, Density DENS = 8933.

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2011 Building the Geometry Figure 1 shows the cylindrical copper fin.ICOQM-10 June 28-30. Steps to doing that are follows: Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh tool > Turn on smart size to 4 > Mesh > Volumes > Mesh > (Pick the body) > OK. Now for meshing use map meshing as it gives accurate area. Meshing Source Ansys 12 Modeling Figure 1 Copper Fin Geometry Source Ansys. we define the initial temperature and convection values steps include: 1230 . Defining Load In this.12 Meshing Figure 2 Map Meshing Figure 2 shows the meshing of copper fin.

Defining Convection  Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Areas > (pick all of the areas except for the base – there are 3 – just click 3 times near the tip of the fin) > Film Coefficient =10. Minimum time step size = 0. maximum time step size= 200 > OK. AUTOTS = Prog Chosen. Solution In this. Defining Frequency  Solution > Load Step Opts > Output Ctrls > DB/Results File > FREQ = every substep > OK. list of temperature and graphs. Defining Set Time  Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time‐Time Step > Set TIME = 10000 KBC = stepped.01. Bulk Temperature = 25 > OK. 12 List Result 1231 .ICOQM-10 June 28-30. Solve  Solution > Solve > Current LS > OK. Defining Initial Temperature  Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Initial Condit’n > Define > Pick All > Lab = TEMP. VALUE = 25. 2011       Defining Temperature by Following Steps  Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Transient > OK > Full > OK  Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Temperature > On Areas > (pick base of fin) > TEMP 100 > OK. software gives solution in terms temperature range. After selecting node with the help of following steps we can get the solution. Table 2 List of Variables Source Ansys.

Source Ansys. 2011 Source Ansys. Figure 6 shows the temperature at 50th second. by using following steps:  General Postproc > Read Results > By Time/Freq > Enter TIME = 50 > OK  General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Nodal Temperature > OK. 12 Nodal Solution Figure 4 Steady State Temperature 1232 .  General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Nodal Temperature > OK. 12 Graph Result Figure 3 Graph Variable Result Figure 5 shows the steady state temperature or last second temperature (at 10000s) which can get by following steps:  General Postproc > Read Results > Last set.ICOQM-10 June 28-30.

8442 TIME 3894.06606 13. it can be done by following steps.ICOQM-10 June 28-30. Now.3285 96.0000 1. Table 3. Table 4 List Variables TIME 1. All load application parameters are same.0496 16. We required this properties for define material in ansys software.3 TEMPERATURE 96. 2011 Source Ansys. Results of Aluminium Fin Result steps are same as we used in the copper fin analysis. Following figures and Table shows the results of the analysis. first thing is that to define input properties of aluminium. except solution all other Time steps. Transient Analysis on the Aluminium Here we use same steps which already used in copper fin analysis. are same.8290 TEMPERATURE 8. 5.  General Postproc > List Results > Reaction Solu > Heat flow > OK. Animation can be done by following steps:  PlotCtrls > Animate > Over Time > click on Time Range and enter 0 for a minimum time and 3000for a maximum time > OK. Heat Flow Now for heat flow.3 4094.4815 1. time start.3262 96. 12 Nodal Solution Figure 5 Temperature at 50th Second Now next is the animation part. shows the input properties of the aluminium. Table 3 Aluminium Properties Properties Density Coefficient of thermal expansion Thermal conductivity Specific heat (Cp) Ambient Temperature Values 2700 10 236 900 25 Unit Kg/m² W/m²/k W/m/k J/kg/k °C °C Base temperature 100 Source Strength of Material by Bhandari 6. maximum time etc.3285 1233 .3 4094.  General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set. The Element type is same which is SOLID 87.

3 2494.3327 96.3 7494.3 5494.3339 96.3 9494.3340 96.3340 96.3337 96.4212 62.3339 96.2864 96.3 5694.9179 96.3338 96.5243 90.3 8694.7640 94.581 125.3262 96.2657 96.3302 96.3008 96.3 7894.3228 3894.3339 96.3 6294.3 1894.3 2894.6771 37.9905 86.3109 96.1135 4.3 6494.3 8894.12 Graph Variables Figure 6 Graph Variables 1234 .3 2694.3 6694.28 894. Source Ansys.3339 96.3340 Source Ansys.0093 88.5577 93.3 4294.8853 10.3 6894.3340 96.3340 96.3 1294.32 309.3339 96.3 3094.3 4094.522 82.9452 55.50 494.3339 96.3731 74.3 9094.385 15.3338 96.3340 96.3331 96.38 193.7367 95.3 20.8135 46.28 1094.3340 96.3340 96.0441 96.3313 96.3 2294.3 3694.12 List Result 96.2971 82.5484 28.3 8494.3 1694.3340 96.4764 95.3340 96.3335 96.3 7094.3 6094.3 5294.3 10000.3285 96. 2011 2.3179 96.2359 96.775 36.3333 96.3 4494.5953 6.7975 79.3321 96.3340 96.1765 3.3 8294.ICOQM-10 June 28-30.3 1494.28 694.1320 96.1015 95.3 8094.706 23.3 9894.1933 96.002 54.7196 92.3 3494.3 4894.3 9694.3 7294.3340 96.3340 96.3 4694.3340 96.3 9294.3 2094.3 5894.3 7694.3 3294.5592 95.3 5094.9268 69.

and also the graph variables. 12 Nodal Solution Figure 7 Nodal Solution at Last Set Source Ansys. Now we see the behaviour of the temperature on the fin at various set of time. First one is the behaviour of the nodes at the last set. 2011 In above result we just saw the values with respect to time.Set of 50 Second 1235 . Source Ansys.ICOQM-10 June 28-30. 12 Nodal Solution Figure 8 Nodal Solution .

Connecticut. 7. From the graph we know that the copper gets stable at the lowest temperature. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation. which is 56. Perkin-Elmer Thermal Analysis Newsletter #44.Set of 180 Last solution is the Heat flow. 12 Nodal Solution Figure 9 Nodal Solution. 1981. 2. "Isothermal Cure of an Epoxy by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis". And hence here conclude that the copper is best material suitable for fin than the aluminium.ICOQM-10 June 28-30. Here we get the accurate values of temperature with respect to the varying time. Thermal Analysis Guide. Academic Press. Norwalk. Also we get the value of the heat flow rate. After comparing the both fin analysis. Turi. 1993. 8.99 W). References 1.2W) is less than the heat flow rate of the alluminium fin (56. Also the comparison of graph variables of both materials shows the steady state condition with respect to time. 3.991W. E. Conclusion In this paper. Thermal Characterization of Polymeric Materials. Also we can animate the result with varying time. it is observe that heat flow rate of copper fin (19. we successfully did the transient analysis on the copper fin and the aluminium fin. 2011 Source Ansys. 1236 .