AFTERSCHO☺OL
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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Dr. T.K. Jain.

AFTERSCHO☺OL
Centre for social entrepreneurship Bikaner M: 9414430763 tkjainbkn@yahoo.co.in www.afterschool.tk, www.afterschoool.tk
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X and Y are partners sharing profits and losses in the ratio 2:1 they added Jitu into partnership and profit sharing ratio of the three is now 2:2:1. what is the gaining / sacrificing ratio of X & Y
• X = 2/3 – 2/5 = 4/15 (sacrificed) • Y = 1/3 – 2/5 = - 1/15 (gained). • Thus Y has gained and X has sacrificed.
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If two letters are taken from HOME, what is the probability that they are not vowels?
• 2c2 / 4c2 • =1/6 answer. • (c = combination, read the theories of permutation and combination in mathematics to understand this question better).

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Remember the firm’s supply curve?
P=MR=AR

AVC

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Page 123

What is the market condition in the previous graph?
• Perfect market – because only in perfect market, you have MR = AR.

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

What is equilibrium point?
• Where MR = MC • In this question, this is also the point where AR=MR = MC

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

How is shut down point identified in the previous graph?
• MC = marginal cost • AVC = average variable cost. • The point where MC curves intersects AVC. Remember MC curve also reprensents the supply curve of the company.

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

P=MR=AR

Firm’s supply curve starts at shut down level of output

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Page 162

Profit maximizing firm will desire to produce where MC=MR

P=MR=AR

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Page 162

Economic losses will occur beyond output OMAX, where MC > MR

P=MR=AR

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Page 162

Building the Market Supply Curve

Market supply curve can be thought of as the horizontal summation of the supply decisions of all firms in the market. Here, at a price of \$1.50, Gary would supply 2 tons of broccoli and Ima would supply 1 ton, giving a market supply of 3 tons.
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Page 163

Building the Market Supply Curve

+

Market supply curve can be thought of as the horizontal summation of the supply decisions of all firms in the market. Here, at a price of \$1.50, Gary would supply 2 tons of broccoli and Ima would supply 1 ton, giving a market supply of 3 tons.
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Page 163

Building the Market Supply Curve

+

=

Market supply curve can be thought of as the horizontal summation of the supply decisions of all firms in the market. Here, at a price of \$1.50, Gary would supply 2 tons of broccoli and Ima would supply 1 ton, giving a market supply of 3 tons.
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Page 163

How is industry demand determined?
• There are different firms in an industry, each willing to sell at its profit maximising level (or anywhere above shut down level). Combining these together gives you equilibrium of the industry.

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Merging Demand and Supply
Price D S

PE

Market clearing price

QE
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Quantity

AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Merging Demand and Supply
Price D S

PE Demand curve

QE
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Quantity

AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Merging Demand and Supply
Price D D* Factors that change S demand:  Other prices  Consumer income  Tastes and preferences  Real wealth effect  Global events

PE* PE

QE QE*
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Quantity

AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Merging Demand and Supply
Price D S Supply curve PE

QE
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Quantity

AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Merging Demand and Supply
S* S Price D Factors that change supply:  Input costs  Government policy  Price expectations  Weather & disease  Global events

PE* PE

QE* QE
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Quantity

AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Concept of Producer Surplus
Producer surplus is a fancy term economists use for profit. We measure producer surplus as the area above the supply curve and below the market equilibrium price.

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Page 165

Concept of Producer Surplus
Producer surplus is a fancy term economists use for profit. We measure producer surplus as the area above the supply curve and below the market equilibrium price. Total economic surplus is therefore equal to consumer surplus plus producer surplus.

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Page 165

Market Price of \$4

A

B

Product price

Producer surplus at \$4 is equal to area ABC

F
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G

AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Page 165

Suppose Price Increased to \$6…

Product price

Producer surplus at \$6 is equal to area EDC

F
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G

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Page 165

The gain in producer surplus if the price increases from \$4 is equal to area AEDB

C

Producers are better off economically by responding to this price increase by producing output G
F G

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Page 165

Economic Welfare Concepts
We can use the concepts of market demand and supply to assess the effects of events in the economy have upon the economic well being of consumers and products in a particular market during a specific period. We do this using the total economic surplus which is given by: Total economic Consumer Producer = surplus + surplus surplus
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An Example of Economic Welfare Analysis

Assume a drought occurs that results in a decrease in supply from S to S*. Before this happened, consumer surplus was area 3+4+5 while producer surplus was equal to area 6+7. Total economic equals area 3+4+5+6+7
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An Example of Economic Welfare Analysis

After the decrease in supply, consumer surplus is just area 3. They lose area 4 and area 5. Producers gain area 4 but lose area 7.

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Page 169

An Example of Economic Welfare Analysis

Consumers are therefore worse off because of the drought. Producers are also worse off if area 4 is less than area 7. Society loses area 5+7.

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Page 169

Measuring Surplus Levels
\$7 D S

Consumer surplus is equal to (10 x (7-4))÷2, or \$15
Product price

\$4

\$1 10

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Page 168

Measuring Surplus Levels
\$7 D S

Consumer surplus is equal to (10 x (7-4))÷2, or \$15
Product price

\$4

\$1 10

Producer surplus is Equal to (10 x (4-1))÷2, or \$15

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Page 168

Measuring Surplus Levels
\$7 D S

Consumer surplus is equal to (10 x (7-4))÷2, or \$15
Product price

\$4

\$1 10

Producer surplus is Equal to (10 x (4-1))÷2, or \$15

Total economic surplus is therefore \$30…
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Page 168

Market Disequilibrium

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Market Surplus

At the price PS, producers would supply QS.

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Page 170

Market Surplus

At the price PS, consumers would only want QD.

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Page 170

Market Surplus

At the price PS, a market surplus equal QS – QD exists

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

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Market Shortage

At the price PD, producers would only supply QS.

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

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Market Shortage

Consumers want QD at this low price.

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Market Shortage

Consumers PD, At the price want QD at this a market shortage low price.– QS exists equal QD

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Markets converge to equilibrium over time unless other events in the economy occur. One explanation for this adjustment which makes sense in agriculture is the Cobweb theory. This names stems from the spider like trail the adjustment process makes.
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Year Two Reactions

Producers use last year’s Price (P1) as their expected price for year 2 – will produce Q2 in year 2. Due to surplus, this Q will then cause Prices in year 2 to fall to P2
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Year Three Reactions

P3

P2

Producers now decide to produce less at the lower price. This lower quantity pushes price up to P3 in year 3.

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Page 172

Cobweb Pattern Over Time

Market equilibrium

The market converges to market equilibrium where demand intersects supply at price PE. In some markets, this adjustment period may only be months or even weeks rather than years assumed here.
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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Some Important Jargon
We need to distinguish between movement along a demand or supply curve, and shifts in the demand or supply curve.

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Some Important Jargon
We need to distinguish between movement along a demand or supply curve, and shifts in the demand or supply curve. Movement along a curve is referred to as a “change in the quantity demanded or supplied”. A shift in a curve is referred to as a “change in demand or supply”.
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Increase in demand pulls up price from Pe to Pe*
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Decrease in demand pushes price down from Pe to Pe**

AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Increase in supply pushed price down from Pe to Pe*
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Decrease in supply pulls up price from Pe to Pe**

AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Merging Demand and Supply
Price D S Supply curve PE Demand curve

QE
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Quantity

AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Firm is a “Price Taker” Under Perfect Competition
Price The Market D S Price AVC PE The Firm MC

QE
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OMAX
AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Quantity

If Demand Increases……
The Market Price
D D1

The Firm S Price AVC MC

PE

QE
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10 11
AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Quantity

If Demand Decreases……
The Market Price D2 D S Price AVC PE MC The Firm

QE
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9 10
AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Quantity

Firm is a “Price Taker” in the Input Market
Price Labor Market D S Price The Firm MVP PE MIC

QE
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LMAX
AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Quantity

Firm is a “Price Taker” in the Input Market
Price Labor Market D S Price The Firm MVP PE MIC

QE
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LMAX
AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Quantity

Effects of Increasing The Minimum Wage
Price Labor Market D S Price The Firm MVP PMIN MIC

QD QS
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LMAX Quantity

AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Summary
 Market equilibrium price and
quantity are given by the intersection of demand and supply  Producer surplus captures the profit earned in the market by producers  Total economic surplus is equal to producer surplus plus consumer surplus  A market surplus exists when the quantity supplied exceeds the quantity demanded.  A market shortage exists when the quantity demanded exceeds the AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS quantity supplied.

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Some questions on accounting & economics

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

SOLVE IT
• A draws a bill on B for Rs 30,000 for mutual accommodation. A discounted that bill • For Rs.28,000 from bank and remitted Rs.14,000 to B. On due date A will send to B • (a) Rs. 14,000 • (b) Rs,14,500 • (C) Rs.15,000 • (d) Rs.15,500
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Solution
• The bill gave them 28000 out of which both of them will share equally. Both of them had to get 14000 each – and they have got it. The discount was Rs. 2000 and both have shared it equally. Thus on due date the payment of Rs. 30000 will be made by B. He already has 14000 and he will further get 15000 from A and he will add 1000 from his share. Answer.
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Solve it
• Sure Ltd. issued 5,000, 15% Debentures of Rs.100 each at a premium of Rs 10 These debentures were to be redeemed at a premium of Rs.4 each after 5 years amount to be credited to the debenture premium account will be • (a) Rs.25,000 • (b) Rs.50,000 • (C) Rs:40,000 • (d) Rs.60,000 • Solution : 5000 * 10 = 50000
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Solve it
• Mr. Big who was the holder of 200 equity shares of Rs.100 each on which Rs.75 per share has been called up could not pay his dues on allotment and first call each at Rs.25 per share. The Directors forfeited the above shares and reissued 150 of such shares to Mr. Small at Rs.65 per share paid-up as Rs.75 per share. The amount to be transferred to Capital Reserve account will be • (a) Rs.1,500. • (b) Rs. 2,250. • (c) Rs. 5,000. • (d) Nil.
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Solution
• • • • • Amount received = 25*200 = 5000 Discount allowed = 10 * 150 = 1500 Remaining amount 15*150 = 2250 Answer.

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

The Board of Directors of a company decides to issue minimum number of equity shares of Rs. 10 each at 10% discount to redeem Rs.5,00,000 preference shares.Maximum amount of divisible profit available for redemption is Rs. 3 lakhs. The number of shares to be issued by the company will be ?
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Solution
• • • • 5 – 3 = 2 lakhs to be collected Total shares to be issued : 2 lakhs / (Rs. 10 – 1) =22222 shares to be issued at a discount of 10%. • Answer.

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

What is an indifference curve?
• Suppose I can buy two goods from some money and get equal satisfaction – there is a point where I am indifferent between them – (purchasing any of these will give equal satisfaction) - A curve with collection of locus of all such points is called indifference curve. This curve can be plotted in production function also (various combination of capital and labour that give you equal production).
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What is break even point?
• The point where there is no profit no loss is called break even point

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P of Faridabad sent out goods costing Rs. 45000 to Goti of Bikaner at cost + 33%,1/10th of goods were lost In transit. 2/3rd of the goods received are sold at 20% above price. The amount of sale value wilt be;
• Cost of goods sold = 45000*9/10*2/3 • =27000. Print price = 27000+1/3 = 36000 • 20% above print = 36000*1.2=43200(ans).
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Debit balance as per Cash Book of ABC Enterprises as on 31.3.2006 is Rs. 1,500. Cheques deposited but not cleared amounts to Rs.100 and Cheqes issued but not presented of Rs.50. The bank gave interest amounting Rs.50 and collected dividend Rs. 50 on behalf of ABC Enterprises. Balance as per pass book should be

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Solution
• 1500 -100 +50 +50 +50 • =1550 answer.

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Solve it
• A, B and C were partners in firm sharing profits and losses in th ratio of 2:2:1 respectively with the capital balance of Rs. 50,000 for A and B, for C Rs. 25,000; C declared to retire from the firm and balance in reserve on the date was Rs. 15,000. If goodwill of the firm was valued as Rs. 30,000 and profit on revaluation was Rs. 7,050 then what amount Will be transferred to the loan account of C?
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Share of C
• • • • • Capital 25000 Goodwill 30000*1/5 = 6000 Reserve = 15000*1/5 = 3000 Revaluation profit = 7050*1/5 = 1410 Add these = 35410 will be transferred to C’s loan account.

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

In the previous question question, what will A get if he retires?
• • • • • Capital = 50000 Goodwill 30000*2/5 = 12000 Reserve = 15000*2/5 = 6000 Revaluation profit = 7050*2/5 = 2820 Add these = 70820 will be transferred to A’s loan account.

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

The total cost of goods available for sale with a company during the current year is Rs.12,00,000 and the totai sales during the period are Rs.13,00,000. if the gross profit margin of the company is 33 % on cost, the closing inventory during the current year

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Solution
• • • • • Total sales = 13 lakhs Cost of this sale = 13 lakh * 100/133 =975000 Thus closing stock is 1200000-975000 =225000 answer.

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Consider the following data pertaining to Goti Ltd. for the month of March 2005: ParticularsAs on March 01, 2005 (Rs.) As Stock 1,80,000 & on March 31, 2005 (Rs.) 90,000 The company made purchases amounting Rs. 3,30,000 on credit. During the month of March 2005, the company paid a sum of Rs.3,50,000 to the suppliers. The goods are sold at 25% above the cost. The sales for the month of March 2005 were

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Solution – stock account
• Opening stock 180000 • Purchase 330000 • Closing stock 90000 • Goods used in manufacture = • 420000

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Solution
• • • • Sale = cost of goods sold + Gross profit 420000 + 25% =525000 Thus sale was Rs. 525000

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Bhuwanesh Audi Ltd. dealer in second-hand cars has the following five vehicles of different models [ in their stock at the end of the financial year 2004-2005: what is stock?
• • • • Cost : Fiat 90,000 Ambassador1,15,000 Maruti Esteem2,75,000 • Maruti 800 1,00,000 • Zen 2,10,000
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• The net realisable value were : • Fiat 95,000 • Ambassador 1,55,000 • Maruti Esteem2,65,000 • Maruti 800 1,25,000 • Zen 2,00,000

AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Solution
• We shall take lower of cost & realisable value to compute the cost: • Fiat 90,000 • Ambassador1,15,000 • Maruti Esteem2,65,000 • Maruti 800 =1,00,000 • Zen 2,00,000 • Total stock = 770000 answer.
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Solve it
• On May 01,2003. Goti Ltd. Issued 7% 40 lakh convertible debentures of Its. 100 each at a premium of 20’ Interest is payable on September30 and March 31. esers sear. The interest runs from the date of issue, the amt. of interest expenditure debited to profit and loss Account for the year ended 2004 will be:
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Solution
• Interest will be charged for 11 months. • 40,00,000 *11/12* 7/100 • =256666 answer.

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Study the production possibility curve below. X axis is for consumer goods, capital goods is denoted by Y axis.

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Which points in PPC represent equal production?
• A,B,C,D

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Which points in PPC represent highest production?
• W

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Which points in PPC represent lowest production?
• U

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Which is the equilibrium point?

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Solution
• Q == because this is the point, where highest indifference curve touches the budget line.

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

In the graph,which indifference curve shows least satisfaction?

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Solution
• IC 1

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

If a consumer’s income increases, which ICs will he touch?

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Solution
• The consumer will shift from IC3 to IC4 and then to IC 5.

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Which is the budget line? What will happen, if income decreases and price of X also decreases?

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Solution
• Budget line is YL. • The point L will not shift much. But the point Y will shift toward below and the budget line will shift below.

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

What is FII?
• Foreign institutional investors • They invest money in the secondary market – in stock markets etc.

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

What is private placement?
• When a company directly sells its equity to an investor, it is called private placement.

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

What is book building?
• The process by which shares of a company are given support by another company is called book building. The company which undertakes book building, tries to ensure that the shares don’t fall below certain level.

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Which is this – demand curve or supply curve?

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Solution
• Supply curve

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

What is PPC?
• Production possibility curve

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

What is labour mobility?
• Labour is one of the factors of production (the other factor is capital). When the labour is able to move from one place to another, it is called labour mobility.

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

In the following case, there is shift in a curve, identify the reason of shift?

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Solution

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

What is basis point?
• In international markets, when firms go to raise funds, they get loan at LIBOR + basis point. For example, if interest rate is LIBOR + 300 basis point, and LIBOR is 5, then the rate of interest is 5.3%. • These basis points show change from LIBOR (London Inter Bank Offered Rate).

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

When does the law of increasing return end?

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Solution
• • • • As you can see there are three stanges: 1. increasing returns 2. constant returns 3. decreasing returns

• The law of increasing returns ends at point N. answer.
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what is GDP, and how is it measured?
• GDP= Gross Domestic Product. • There are 3 ways to measure it: 3. Calculate total earnings of every one and sum it up. 4. Calculate expenses of each individual in the nation and sum it up. 5. Identify total production of goods and services in the nation by each unit and sum it up.
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What is utility and what is its impact?
• Utility is the benefit that a consumer derives from consuming some product or service. • Utility reduces with each unit of consumption • There are 2 concepts regarding utility : • 1. Cardinal utility – the utility can be measured • 2. ordinal utility – utility cannot be measured.

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

What do you understand from diminishing marginal utility?
• Utility reduces with each additional unit consumed. Thus diminishing marginal utility means the utility will reduce with each unity being consumed. • Marginal utility means the utility derived from one additional unit consumed.

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What is the relation between demand & supply regarding factors of production
(a) Labor Demand Real wage, W/P W/P1 W/P2 Y2
d L 5 L (W/P )

(b) Production Function Inc ome, output, Y Y5 F (L)

Y1 4. ... output, ..

L1 2. . . reduces . the real wage for a given nominal wage, ..

L2

Labor, L 3. ...which raises employment, ..

L1

L2

Labor, L

(c) Aggregate Supply Pric e level, P
e Y 5 Y1 a(P 2 P )

P2 P1 1. An increase in the price level ..

6. The aggreg supply curve summarizes these changes Y 1 Y2

Inc ome, output Y

5. ... and income.

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

What are the factors of production?
• 2. 3. 4. 5. There are many, some of them are : Labour Capital Technology Entrepreneurship

We generally take only 2 factors while doing analysis : these are 1. capital 2. labour
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What is short run and what is long run?
• Short run is the period in which we cannot increase the capacity of the plant. Long run is the period in which we can increase or decrease the capacity of the plant and also install or close a plant. • In short run only one factor can be changed – labour – other factors are constant • In long run both labour and capital can be changed. Plant capacity be altered.
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What is bank rate ?
• The rate at which the central bank ( RBI in the case of India or FED bank in the case of the USA) gives loan to other bank is called bank rate.

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What is PLR?
• Prime lending rate – it is the rate at which a bank gives loan to prime customer. Prime customer means the customer, whose economic conditions are very good and who is credit worthy.

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What is CRR & SLR?
• CRR = cash reserve ratio (it denotes the ratio of cash held by banks against the deposits) • SLR = statutary liquidity ratio (it denotes the ratio of investments in government and approved securities by the banks).

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Suppose the total deposits are 1 lakh crores in India – RBI reduces CRR by 1%, what will happen?
• 1% of 1 lakh crore = 1000 lakh crores. Thus liquidity in the market will increase by 1000 lakh crore Rupees – as bank will be able to give more loans and will be able to give money easily. Due to ease in liquidity, the industry will benefit as it will be able to get more funds easily. However, inflation may increase due to this. www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Which is called banker of banks or banker of last resort?
Central bank (RBI in India).

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What is liquidity?
• Availability of cash / cash equivalent is called liquidity.

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

What is sensex?
• It is index of stock prices based 30 selected scrips. These 30 scrips are those which are selected on the basis of market capitalisation & business volumet. • It is presented by BSE (Bombay stock exchange).

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What is NIFTY?
• It is index of stock prices based 50 selected scrips. These 50 scrips are those which are selected on the basis of market capitalisation & business volumet. • It is presented by NSE (National stock exchange).

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

What is NPA?
• Non performing assets –in banks, the major assets are loans given to companies / units / people. Some times some loans become overdue - those loans (assets) which are not performing – means not making regular payments of their outstanding amounts are called NPA. • NPA word is used for banking industry.
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What is CAC?
• Capital Account Convertibility. • When foreign exchange is converted into capital account freely even in capital account, it is called capital account convertibility. • Capital account here mean money raised for capital projects / investment purpose etc.
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What is LC?
• Letter of credit, = when a bank gives loan against export documentation, it is called LC. For example, if you export some goods, the buyer send you acceptance of the bill and the bank of the buyer gives guarantee, then your bank can give you loan agains these documents. This is called LC.
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What is packing credit?
• When you have received an order from an importer for some goods and you want to make goods as per the order, then you may take packing credit from the banks. In packing credit the bank gives you loan for purchasing raw material, and other working capital expenses. It is given for period till exports are sent – later LC is given.
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What is forex reserves?
• Foreign exchange reserves of a country is called forex reserve. • It will increase in following cases : If FDI will increase, FII will invest more money and exports will increase, increase of tourists to your country, repatriation of money by NRIs (non residents Indians),

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What is IRS?
• INTEREST RATE SWAP • Banks use these instruments to minimise their risks.

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What is ALM?
• Asset liability management – banks try to match the cash flows of cash inflow and cash outflow through ALM. They try to match their assets and liabilities. • Banks’s assets are its loans • Bank’s liabilities are its deposits • Matching them is called ALM.
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What is hedging?
• When banks use various instruments like swaps, options etc. to reduce their risk exposure it is called hedging.

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What FCD?
• Fully convertible debentures.

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What is market capitalisation?
• No. of shares multiplied to the market price per share. • For example, the share of reliance is quoted at Rs. 1250. suppose there are 100 shares in the market. The market capitalisation is 125000.

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AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

What do you understand from reverse mortgage?
• In mortgage, a person goes to bank and puts his land / building as mortgage to obtain loans (humge amount simultaneously) from bank and then he used to repay it in long time. In reverse mortgage, the bank gives land / building to the other person and gives money also on monthly basis and takes back the land / building after long time. (many old age persons are resorting to this option for maintaining their living)
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What is microfinance?
• Raising small deposits (let us say Rs. 10 per month) – pooling this money together and Giving loan in very small amount (let us say Rs. 2000) so that a person may start a micro-enterprise – and can become self dependent. It is very successful business model –as has been proved by Gramin Bank and SEWA.
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Afterschoool conducts three year integrated PGPSE (after class 12th along with IAS / CA / CS) and 18 month PGPSE (Post Graduate Programme in Social Entrepreneurship) along with preparation for CS / CFP / CFA /CMA / FRM. This course is also available online also. It also conducts workshops on social entrepreneurship in schools and colleges all over India – start social entrepreneurship club in your institution today with the help from afterschoool and help us in developing society.

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Why such a programme?
• To promote people to take up entrepreneurship and help develop the society • To enable people to take up franchising and other such options to start a business / social development project • To enable people to take up social development as their mission • To enable people to promote spirituality and positive thinking in the world
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Who are our supporters?
• Afterschoolians, our past beneficiaries, entrepreneurs and social entrepreneurs are supporting us. • You can also support us – not necessarily by money – but by being promotor of our concept and our ideas.

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About AFTERSCHO☺OL PGPSE – the best programme for developing great entrepreneurs
• • • • • Most flexible, adaptive but rigorous programme Available in distance learning mode Case study focused- latest cases Industry oriented practical curriculum Designed to make you entrepreneurs – not just an employee • Option to take up part time job – so earn while you learn • The only absolutely free course on internet
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Workshops from AFTERSCHO☺OL
• • • • • • • • • IIF, Delhi CIPS, Jaipur ICSI Hyderabad Branch Gyan Vihar, Jaipur Apex Institute of Management, Jaipur Aravali Institute of Management, Jodhpur Xavier Institute of Management, Bhubaneshwar Pacific Institute, Udaipur Engineering College, Hyderabad
AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

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Flexible Specialisations:
• • • • • • • • • • Spiritualising business and society Rural development and transformation HRD and Education, Social Development NGO and voluntary work Investment analysis,microfinance and inclusion Retail sector, BPO, KPO Accounting & Information system (with CA / CS /CMA) Hospital management and Health care Hospitality sector and culture and heritage Other sectors of high growth, high technology and social relevance
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Salient features:
• The only programme of its kind (in the whole world) • No publicity and low profile course • For those who want to achieve success in life – not just a degree • Flexible – you may stay for a month and continue the rest of the education by distance mode. / you may attend weekend classes • Scholarships for those from poor economic background • Latest and constantly changing curriculum – keeping pace with the time • Placement for those who are interested • Admissions open throughout the year • Latest and most advanced technologies, books and study material
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Components
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • Pedagogy curriculum and approach based on IIM Ahmedabad and ISB Hyderabad (the founder is alumnus from IIMA & ISB Hyderabad) Meditation, spiritualisation, and self development EsGotitial softwares for business Business plan, Research projects Participation in conferences / seminars Workshops on leadership, team building etc. Written submissions of research projects/articles / papers Interview of entrepreneurs, writing biographies of entrepreneurs Editing of journals / newsletters Consultancy / research projects Assignments, communication skill workshops Participation in conferences and seminars Group discussions, mock interviews, self development diaryng Mind Power Training & writing workshop (by Dr. T.K.Jain)

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Pedagogy
• • • • • • • • • Case analysis, Articles from Harvard Business Review Quiz, seminars, workshops, games, Visits to entrepreneurs and industrial visits PreGotitations, Latest audio-visuals Group discussions and group projects Periodic self assessment Mentoring and counselling Study exchange programme (with institutions out of India) • Rural development / Social welfare projects
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Branches
• AFTERSCHO☺OL will shortly open its branches in important cities in India including Delhi, Kota, Mumbai, Gurgaon and other important cities. Afterschooolians will be responsible for managing and developing these branches – and for promoting social entrepreneurs.

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Case Studies
• We want to write case studies on social entrepreneurs, first generation entrepreneurs, ethical entrepreneurs. Please help us in this process. Help us to be in touch with entrepreneurs, so that we may develop entrepreneurs.

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Basic values at AFTERSCHO☺OL
• • • • • • Share to learn more Interact to develop yourself Fear is your worst enemy Make mistakes to learn Study & discuss in a group Criticism is the healthy route to mutual support and help • Ask fundamental questions : why, when, how & where? • Embrace change – and compete with yourself only
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www.afterschoool.tk social entrepreneurship for better society

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