THE GAME OF LOGIC .

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------------EMPTY sky is GREY! ___ THE GAME OF LOGIC By Lewis Carrol To my Child-friend. for never again. I charm in vain. |--y-------y'-| on us. FULL and | | | RED! | x' | |7 | 8| Sun is gone away. Will . All keenly as my glance I bend.By Lewis Carroll --------------------|9 | 10| | | | | -----x-----| | |11 | 12| | | | | | | |---y-----m------y'---| | | | | | | |13 | 14| | | -----x'----| | | | |15 | 16| --------------------COLOURS FOR COUNTERS ___ See the Shining Now the And the ------------|5 | 6| | x | | | | Sun is overhead.

when you want to play a Game." This Game requires nine Counters--four of one colour and five of another: say four red and five grey. which requires twenty-two.Memory. The Author will be very grateful for suggestions. containing a Diagram (similar to the frontispiece) on card. especially from beginners in Logic. or further explanations. my fairy friend! Yet could thy face. for instance. My loving little friend! NOTA BENE. in mystic grace. With many a floweret gay. Covent Garden. and nine Counters. At the same . With each copy of this Book is given an Envelope." PREFACE "There foam'd rebellious Logic. Letters should be addressed to him at "29. The Envelope. that may seem desirable. Adown its willowy way: May no sigh vex. can be had separately. gagg'd and bound. London. four red and five grey. Besides the nine Counters. AT LEAST. at 3d. 'twould send Far-darting rays of light From Heaven athwart the night. nor let me gaze On thee. How much easier it is. no care perplex. I am not aware of any Game that can be played with LESS than this number: while there are several that require MORE: take Cricket. &c. Bedford Street. of any alterations. Embody for my joy Departed days. sweetest friend! So may the stream of Life's long dream Flow gently onward to its end. to find ONE Player than twenty-two. By which to read in very deed Thy spirit. it also requires one Player. each. A moment smile on me. goddess coy.

so long as you get plenty of amusement? CONTENTS. Propositions to be represented . . . 85 CHAPTER I. . CROSS QUESTIONS. . Half of Smaller Diagram. NEW LAMPS FOR OLD. . . Elementary . . CROOKED ANSWERS. . . . . . . . HIT OR MISS . Do. . Syllogisms . Do. . Half of Smaller Diagram. . Propositions to be represented . CHAPTER PAGE I. . Elementary . . Smaller Diagram. . . Propositions represented . 37 2. Symbols interpreted . 55 2. . . . 44 5. . though one Player is enough. . . Symbols interpreted . . 61 4. 59 3. . Propositions represented. . . . being infinite). Propositions to be represented . . Do. . . 46 6. Symbols to be interpreted. Fallacies . . Propositions represented. Symbols to be interpreted. . . . 20 3. 62 5. A second advantage. . . . . and correcting each other's mistakes. 40 3. 65 6. Smaller Diagram. . 1. . . . Propositions . . . 67 7. .time. . . 32 II. . 51 III. is that. . . . possessed by this Game. . . 48 7. . NEW LAMPS FOR OLD. . Larger Diagram. . . that may be worked by it. it will give the Players a little instruction as well. Both Diagrams employed . 72 IV. 42 4. Larger Diagram. Both Diagrams to be employed . . . . . . 1. 1. . . 1 2. . . a good deal more amusement may be got by two working at it together. But is there any great harm in THAT. Do. . . besides being an endless source of amusement (the number of arguments. . .

without any Thing to BE beautiful. Propositions. People have asked the question "Can a Thing exist without any Attributes belonging to it?" It is a very puzzling question. Whenever we wish to mention a Thing. "Some new Cakes are nice. any Thing." There are three 'PROPOSITIONS' for you--the only three kinds we are going to use in this Game: and the first thing to be done is to learn how to express them on the Board. if they put it the other way." But before doing so." "All new cakes are nice. a remark has to be made--one that is rather important. &c. and I'm not going to try to answer it: let us turn up our noses. light go. we may say at once "No: no more than a Baby could go a railway-journey with no one to take care of it!" You never saw "beautiful" floating about in the air. we use a SUBSTANTIVE: when we wish to mention an Attribute. The world contains many THINGS (such as "Buns". and by no means easy to understand all in a moment: so please to read this VERY carefully.). and ask "Can an Attribute exist without any Thing for it to belong to?". or littered about on the floor. "Babies"." _________ 1. "broken". we use an ADJECTIVE. Let us begin with "Some new Cakes are nice. "beautiful". &c. "Battledores". that is "said to belong to". But. "black". now did you? . whatever can be "attributed to". and treat it with contemptuous silence." "No new Cakes are nice. as if it really wasn't worth noticing. "Beetles". is an Attribute)."Light come.: in fact. and these Things possess many ATTRIBUTES (such as "baked".

TERM. The other two kinds are said to be 'UNIVERSAL'. of the Things belonging to a certain class. but only of a PART of it. in all this long rigmarole? It is this. if you put "is" or "are" between the name of a THING and the name of an ATTRIBUTE (for example. PARTICULAR." being the one we are talking about. PREDICATE. and you . "pink is light-red"). or between the names of two ATTRIBUTES (for example. if written out in full. you may take this:--"a sentence stating that some. in order to make good sense of the Proposition "some new Cakes are nice". if you would like to have a definition of the word 'PROPOSITION' itself. Also this Proposition is said to be a 'PARTICULAR' one. of the WHOLE class of "new Cakes". "some Pigs are pink"). And the simplest understanding would. is called the 'SUBJECT' of the Proposition. would be "some Pigs are pink (Pigs)". we must suppose it to be written out in full. called its 'Predicate'". and "nice (Cakes)" the other. I think. ATTRIBUTE. be this--that the Substantive shall be supposed to be repeated at the end of the sentence. since it does not speak of the WHOLE of its Subject.And now what am I driving at. But. You will find these seven words--PROPOSITION. and "nice (Cakes)" the 'PREDICATE'. or all. Mind you bring all seven words into your answer. Now this contains two 'TERMS'--"new Cakes" being one of them. You may put "is" or "are" between names of two THINGS (for example. "New Cakes. UNIVERSAL--charmingly useful. and the other asserting it. in the form "some new Cakes are nice (Cakes)". if any friend should happen to ask if you have ever studied Logic. and in each case it will make good sense. Lastly. SUBJECT. called its 'Subject'. are also Things belonging to a certain other class. And now the word "are" makes quite good sense. or none. so that the sentence. Thus. you do NOT make good sense (for how can a Thing BE an Attribute?) unless you have an understanding with the person to whom you are speaking. because they speak of the WHOLE of their Subjects--the one denying niceness. "some Pigs are fat Animals").

the must be "x y. y "nice". Now please to look at the smaller Diagram on the Board. they must be NEW: and it is part of the left-hand half. of course). means 'one or more' so that a single Cake in a compartment would be quite enough reason for saying "there are SOME Cakes here"). intended for all the Cakes in the world (it would have to be a good large one. 7. so that. so that they must be NICE. if it has any Cakes in it. This you will find a very convenient rule for knowing what Attributes belong to the Things in any compartment. . they must have the double 'ATTRIBUTE' "new and nice": or. At present. If there are any Cakes there. ANTEDILUVIAN Cakes--if there are any: I haven't seen many. that there are SOME Cakes in it. we must understand x to mean "new". x' "not-new". and suppose it to be a cupboard. they must be "not-new and nice." And now what kind of Cakes would you expect to find in compartment No. then." Observe that the letters x. they must be "x' y". for instance. Take No. Also let us agree that a grey counter in a compartment shall mean that it is 'EMPTY'.' in Logic. the NOT-new ones) into the lower half (marked 'x'').friend will go away deeply impressed--'a sadder and a wiser man'. And let us suppose all the new ones to be put into the upper half (marked 'x'). the not-nice ones) into the right-hand half (marked 'y''). and all the rest (that is. (The word 'some. that is. y are written on two of the edges of this compartment. if we use letters. 5? It is part of the upper half. AGED Cakes." Now let us make another agreement--that a red counter in a compartment shall mean that it is 'OCCUPIED'. Thus the lower half would contain ELDERLY Cakes. and y' "not-nice. myself--and so on. that is. Hence if there are any Cakes in this compartment. Let us also suppose all the nice Cakes to be put into the lefthand half (marked 'y'). and all the rest (that is. you see.

and '0' (meaning 'none') where you are to put a GREY one. "nice"). you will find all the rest quite easy. but read it over and over again. that some of them (besides having the Attribute x. in a shorter form. till you DO understand it. with the UPPER half of the cupboard." Now. I shall put '1' (meaning 'one or more') where you are to put a RED counter. In the following Diagrams. 5. As the Subject of our Proposition is to be "new Cakes". After that is once mastered. This we might express by saying "some x-Cakes are y-(Cakes)". at present. putting words instead of letters. At last we have found out how to represent the first Proposition of this Section. we are only concerned. "new. "Some new Cakes are nice". ----------| | | | 1 | | | | | ----------- that is. or. go no further. or. where all the Cakes have the attribute x. . with a red counter in No. "Some new Cakes are nice (Cakes)". What would this tell us. If you have not CLEARLY understood all I have said. fixing our attention on this upper half. that is. which belongs to both compartments) have the Attribute y (that is.that is that there are NO Cakes in it. suppose we found it marked like this. with regard to the class of "new Cakes"? Would it not tell us that there are SOME of them in the x ycompartment? That is.

" I think you will see without further explanation. in doing the other Propositions. "some new are not-nice." i.e. 5. "some new are nice. doesn't it?) Of course any other Things would have done just as well as Cakes. I find it convenient to call the whole class of Things. then." (Sounds nice. if we agree to leave out the word "Cakes" altogether. the 'UNIVERSE.It will save a little trouble. for which the cupboard is intended. and ask ourselves the meaning of ----------- .e. or even "a Universe of Hornets"." i. we have learned that ----------| | | | 1 | | | | | ----------- means "some x and y. We might make Propositions about "a Universe of Lizards". that ----------| | | | | 1 | | | | ----------- means "some x are y'. (Wouldn't THAT be a charming Universe to live in?) So far.' Thus we might have begun this business by saying "Let us take a Universe of Cakes." Now let us put a GREY counter into No.

and some are not-nice." What would you make of this. or. In the same way.| | | | 0 | | | | | ----------- This tells us that the x y-compartment is EMPTY. I wonder? ----------| | | | 1 | 1 | | | | ----------- I hope you will not have much trouble in making out that this represents a DOUBLE Proposition: namely." or. "no new Cakes are not-nice. "some new are nice.e. perhaps: ----------| | | | 0 | 0 | . AND some are y'." i. "some x are y. ----------| | | | | 0 | | | | ----------- would mean "no x are y'." The following is a little harder. which we may express by "no x are y". "no new Cakes are nice". This is the second of the three Propositions at the head of this Section.

since you do not know them to be NOT-NICE. "no Cakes are new." i. And now suppose you had to represent. so that all the new Cakes. AND none are not-nice": which leads to the rather curious result that "no new exist. This I shall represent (as I always put '1' where you are to put a red counter) by the diagram ----------| | | | -1| | | | ----------- Our ingenious American cousins have invented a phrase to express the position of a man who wants to join one or the other of two . then. Evidently you must put a red counter SOMEWHERE in the x-half of the cupboard. between them. or. "some Cakes are x". AND none are y'. that exist." This is because "nice" and "notnice" make what we call an 'EXHAUSTIVE' division of the class "new Cakes": i. which would be "some Cakes are new". since you do not know them to be NICE: nor may you put it into the RIGHT-HAND one." i. But you must not put it into the LEFTHAND compartment. "no new are nice. how would you do it? This will puzzle you a little. I expect. since you know there are SOME new Cakes.e. they EXAUST the whole class.e. are you to do? I think the best way out of the difficulty is to place the red counter ON THE DIVISION-LINE between the xycompartment and the xy'-compartment. What. putting letters for words. must be found in one or the other of them.| | | ----------- This means "no x are y.e. with counters the contradictory to "no Cakes are new".

that the Universal Proposition "All new Cakes are nice" consists of TWO Propositions taken together. which is the last of the three Propositions at the head of this Section. What does this mean? ----------| | | | 1 | 0 | | | | ----------- This is clearly a DOUBLE Proposition." Hence the result is "ALL x are y. namely.e. then. 6. and he doesn't know WHICH to jump down into. So there he sits astride. 5." but also the "no x are NOT y." In the same way ----------| | | | 0 | 1 | | | | ----------- . We see. It tells us not only that "some x are y. Such a man is said to be "sitting on the fence. and he likes the look of No. silly fellow." and "No new Cakes are not-nice.parties--such as their two parties 'Democrats' and 'Republicans'--but can't make up his mind WHICH. "all new Cakes are nice". "Some new Cakes are nice. dangling his legs." i. He likes the look of No." Now that is exactly the position of the red counter you have just placed on the division-line. one on each side of the fence! Now I am going to give you a much harder one to make out.

now don't you? But I didn't. it is 'Universal'. they are (or rather 'it is') ALL that you have given me! Thus." (You think I invented that name. and piling them up in the left-hand compartment. . keeping the NICE Cakes to the left. "One single Cake is hardly worth calling 'some." That means "ALL the Barzillai Beckaleggs. "Barzillai Beckalegg is an honest man. "Generous creature! How shall I ever repay such kindness?"). somewhere down in Cornwall. and the upper one as nearly as possible empty.) This kind of Universal Proposition(where the Subject is a single Thing) is called an 'INDIVIDUAL' Proposition.' even. are honest men. I begin by carefully collecting ALL the Cakes you have given me (saying to myself. from time to time." you readily reply. It's on a carrier's cart. my dear impulsive Reader. when I am told to put an upright division into each half. few as they are (and I grant you they couldn't well be fewer)." No. And then. that I am now considering. of course." Now what would you make of such a Proposition as "The Cake you have given me is nice"? Is it Particular or Universal? "Particular. "All new Cakes are not-nice. that is.would mean "all x are y' ". and the NOT-NICE ones to the right. if (leaving 'red' out of the question) I divide my Universe of Cakes into two classes--the Cakes you have given me (to which I assign the upper half of the cupboard). and those you HAVEN'T given me (which are to go below)--I find the lower half fairly full. Remember that. AND IT DOESN'T TAKE LONG TO DO IT! Here is another Universal Proposition for you.

"some nice Cakes are new". Without more words. that is. where all the Cakes have attribute y." you will say. that is. 5 as part of a HORIZONTAL oblong. that is. and NOW you tell us that it means 'some NICE Cakes are NEW'! Can it mean BOTH?" The question is a very thoughtful one. 5. "Some nice Cakes are new. after explaining the HORIZONTAL oblong so fully. You put a red counter into No. you may read it "some x are y". that this means "some y are x". "some new Cakes are nice": but. I will simply set down the other ways in which this . "nice Cake") as your Subject. that is. and to regard No. I hope you will see. if you choose to take y (that is." "But. let us fix our thoughts on the LEFT-HAND half of the cupboard. and you told us it meant 'some new Cakes are nice'. If you choose to take x (that is.Now let us take "NICE Cakes" as the Subject of Proposition: that is. "we have had this case before. "nice. They are merely two different ways of expressing the very same truth. and does you GREAT credit. dear Reader! It DOES mean both. "new Cakes") as your Subject. for yourself. and to regard No. to spend much time over the UPRIGHT one. THEN you may read it "some y are x"." Suppose we find it marked like this:-What would that tell us? ----| | | 1 | | | ----| | | | | | ----- I hope that it is not necessary. 5 as part of an UPRIGHT oblong.

Some nice are not-new. and may go on to the larger one. ----| | | | | 1 | | | | | ----| | ----| | | | No y are x. Also you will do well to write out for yourself two other tables--one for the LOWER half of the cupboard. _______________|_________________________________ ----| | | | | | | Some y are x'. | Meanings. By comparing them with the various cases of the horizontal oblong. and 'dodging about'. I hope.e."] | | | | | | ----| | . as the children say. be able to understand them clearly. | | | ----| [Observe that this is merely another way of | | | expressing "No new are nice. | | | i. And now I think we have said all we need to say about the smaller Diagram. adding the meaning in each case. | 0 | | i. by covering up first one column and then the other. No nice are new. you will.e. _________________________________________________ | Symbols. You will find it a good plan to examine yourself on this table.upright oblong might be marked. and the other for its RIGHT-HAND half.

and some are x'. No nice are not-new.e. and none are x'. .e. i. i. and some are not-new. All y are x. No y are x. i.----| | | | | | ----| | | 0 | | | --------| | | 1 | | | ----| | | 1 | | | --------| | | 0 | | | ----| | | 0 | | | --------| | | 1 | | | ----| | | 0 | | | --------- | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | No y are x'.e. All nice are new. i. Some y are x.e. i. No Cakes are nice. Some nice are new. No y exist.e.

just as. not-nice. Let us give to m the meaning "wholesome": and let us suppose that all WHOLESOME Cakes are placed INSIDE the central Square. and all the UNWHOLESOME ones OUTSIDE it. and unwholesome. y'. here. take No. Here we find x. 12. containing x and y. We see that. here. by looking at a compartment. . but ALSO divided into two portions.| | | | 0 | | All y are x'. (Observe that m' is supposed to be written at each of the four outer corners. in one or other of the four queer-shaped OUTER compartments. representing the TWO Attributes. so. x and m. were written on the EDGES of the compartment. at the corners. For instance. ----| | | | | 1 | | | | | ----| _______________|_________________________________ This may be taken to be a cupboard divided in the same way as the last. they are written at the CORNERS." (Remarkably untempting Cakes!) It would take far too long to go through all the Propositions. just as the letters. as specimens.) So that we can tell in a moment. All nice are not-new. | | | i. 16. in the smaller Diagram. the Cakes in each compartment had TWO Attributes. the Cakes in each compartment have THREE Attributes: and. and wholesome. y'. x'. that is. what three Attributes belong to the Things in it. that is. and y and m which can be represented on this diagram (there are ninety-six altogether. 'xy'm'. take No. not-nice. have the triple Attribute. for the Attribute m. so I am sure you will excuse me!) and I must content myself with doing two or three. if there are any. at the corners: so we know that the Cakes in it. "new." Again. so.e. Here we find. m. m': so the Cakes in it are "not-new.

No. Taking the upper half by itself. and to understand this to mean that ONE of the two compartments is 'occupied. of TWO Propositions. how are we to represent "no new Cakes are wholesome"? This is. we know. so that our Subject is "new Cakes". are to be found INSIDE the central Square: that is. is represented by ------------------| | | | _____|_____ | | | | | | | | 0 | 0 | | | | | | | ------------------- And now how are we to represent the contradictory Proposition "SOME x are m"? This is a difficulty I have already considered. are EMPTY. . "no x are m. 12. 12. 11 and No." Now this tells us that none of the Cakes.' but that we do not at present know WHICH. I think the best way is to place a red counter ON THE DIVISION-LINE between No." This consists. belonging to the upper half of the cupboard. writing letters for words.You will do well to work out a lot more for yourself. the two compartments. And this. 11 and No. This I shall represent thus:-------------------| | | | _____|_____ | | | | | | | | -1| | | | | | | ------------------- Now let us express "all x are m. of course.

"Some x are m. with regard to x and y? ------------------| | 0 | | _____|_____ | | | | | | ." Let us express the negative part first. This. are EMPTY. 10. What are we to make of this." This tells us that there are SOME Cakes in the oblong consisting of No. 12. as in the previous example. This tells us that none of the Cakes. are to be found OUTSIDE the central Square: that is. 9 and No. on the divisionline between No. the two compartments. No. 12: so we place our red counter. belonging to the upper half of the cupboard." and "No x are m'. and the result is ------------------| 0 | 0 | | _____|_____ | | | | | | | | -1| | | | | | | ------------------- Now let us try one or two interpretations. of course. 11 and No. 11 and No. is represented by ------------------| 0 | 0 | | _____|_____ | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | ------------------- But we have yet to represent "Some x are m.

If. "all x are y. you know. if the given oblong had been marked thus:-------------------| 1 | 0 | | _____|_____ | | | | | | | | | 0 | | | | | | | ------------------- Once more: how shall we interpret this. that it is wholly 'empty'. with regard to x and y? ------------------- . it tells us that it is 'occupied'. since BOTH compartments are so marked. then. With regard to the xySquare. we have a right to mark it ----------| | | | 1 | 0 | | | | ----------- which means. True. we transfer our marks to the smaller Diagram.| | 1 | 0 | | | | | | | ------------------- This tells us. with regard to the xy'-Square. so as to get rid of the m-subdivisions. to settle the fact that there is SOMETHING in the Square." The result would have been exactly the same. it is only ONE compartment of it that is so marked. but that is quite enough. whether the other be 'occupied' or 'empty'.

For instance. that ONE of its compartments is 'empty'. then. we can say nothing about THIS Square. if it happened to be 'occupied'. the xy'-Square. the Square would be 'empty': and. the Square would be 'occupied'. as there is no mark in the OTHER compartment. to represent "all y' are m'" we should mark the ------RIGHT-HAND UPRIGHT OBLONG (the one | | that has the attribute y') thus:-|--| | 0 | | |---|-1-| | 0 | | |--| . we transfer our marks to the smaller Diagram." These principles may be applied to all the other oblongs. as we do not know WHICH is the case. we know (as in the previous example) to be 'occupied'. If. The other Square. If the other compartment happened to be 'empty' too. you know. "some x are y'.| 0 | 1 | | _____|_____ | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | ------------------- This tells us. as to the xy-Square. So. But this information is quite useless. we get merely this:-----------| | | | | 1 | | | | ----------- which means.

| | -------

and, if we were told to interpret the lower half of the cupboard, marked as follows, with regard to x and y,
------------------| | | | | | | | 0 | | | | | | | | -----|----| | 1 | 0 | -------------------

we should transfer it to the smaller Diagram thus,
----------| | | | 1 | 0 | | | | -----------

and read it "all x' are y." Two more remarks about Propositions need to be made. One is that, in every Proposition beginning with "some" or "all", the ACTUAL EXISTENCE of the 'Subject' is asserted. If, for instance, I say "all misers are selfish," I mean that misers ACTUALLY EXIST. If I wished to avoid making this assertion, and merely to state the LAW that miserliness necessarily involves selfishness, I should say "no misers are unselfish" which does not assert that any misers exist at all, but merely that, if any DID exist, they WOULD be selfish. The other is that, when a Proposition begins with "some" or "no", and

contains more that two Attributes, these Attributes may be rearranged, and shifted from one Term to the other, "ad libitum." For example, "some abc are def" may be re-arranged as "some bf are acde," each being equivalent to "some Things are abcdef". Again "No wise old men are rash and reckless gamblers" may be rearranged as "No rash old gamblers are wise and reckless," each being equivalent to "No men are wise old rash reckless gamblers." 2. Syllogisms Now suppose we divide our Universe of Things in three ways, with regard to three different Attributes. Out of these three Attributes, we may make up three different couples (for instance, if they were a, b, c, we might make up the three couples ab, ac, bc). Also suppose we have two Propositions given us, containing two of these three couples, and that from them we can prove a third Proposition containing the third couple. (For example, if we divide our Universe for m, x, and y; and if we have the two Propositions given us, "no m are x' " and "all m' are y ", containing the two couples mx and my, it might be possible to prove from them a third Proposition, containing x and y.) In such a case we call the given Propositions 'THE PREMISSES', the third one 'THE CONCLUSION' and the whole set 'A SYLLOGISM'. Evidently, ONE of the Attributes must occur in both Premisses; or else one must occur in ONE Premiss, and its CONTRADICTORY in the other. In the first case (when, for example, the Premisses are "some m are x" and "no m are y'") the Term, which occurs twice, is called 'THE MIDDLE TERM', because it serves as a sort of link between the other two Terms. In the second case (when, for example, the Premisses are "no m are

x'" and "all m' are y") the two Terms, which contain these contradictory Attributes, may be called 'THE MIDDLE TERMS'. Thus, in the first case, the class of "m-Things" is the Middle Term; and, in the second case, the two classes of "m-Things" and "m'Things" are the Middle Terms. The Attribute, which occurs in the Middle Term or Terms, disappears in the Conclusion, and is said to be "eliminated", which literally means "turned out of doors". Now let us try to draw a Conclusion from the two Premisses-"Some new Cakes are unwholesome; No nice Cakes are unwholesome." In order to express them with counters, we need to divide Cakes in THREE different ways, with regard to newness, to niceness, and to wholesomeness. For this we must use the larger Diagram, making x mean "new", y "nice", and m "wholesome". (Everything INSIDE the central Square is supposed to have the attribute m, and everything OUTSIDE it the attribute m', i.e. "not-m".) You had better adopt the rule to make m mean the Attribute which occurs in the MIDDLE Term or Terms. (I have chosen m as the symbol, because 'middle' begins with 'm'.) Now, in representing the two Premisses, I prefer to begin with the NEGATIVE one (the one beginning with "no"), because GREY counters can always be placed with CERTAINTY, and will then help to fix the position of the red counters, which are sometimes a little uncertain where they will be most welcome. Let us express, the "no nice Cakes are unwholesome (Cakes)", i.e. "no y-Cakes are m'-(Cakes)". This tells us that none of the Cakes belonging to the y-half of the cupboard are in its m'-compartments(i.e.

10.the ones outside the central Square). and we must place a grey counter in EACH of them. thus:-----------|0 | | | --|-. the other Premiss has settled the matter for us.| | | | | | |--|-----|--| | | | | | | --|-. by declaring No. No.| | | | | | |--|-----|--| | | | | | | --|-. and MUST go into No. in this case. Hence ONE of the two compartments. Hence the red counter has no choice. "some x-Cakes are m'(Cakes)". 9 and No. 15. "some new Cakes are unwholesome (Cakes)". namely.| |0 | | ----------- We have now to express the other Premiss. This tells us that some of the Cakes in the x-half of the cupboard are in its m'-compartments. is 'occupied': and. 9 to be EMPTY. No. are both 'EMPTY'. i. 9 and No.| |0 | | ----------- And now what counters will this information enable us to place in the . 10.e. thus:-----------|0 | 1| | --|-. as we are not told in WHICH of these two compartments to place the red counter. the usual rule would be to lay it on the division-line between them: but. Hence the two compartments.

must be got out of the rather meager piece of information that there is a red counter in the xy'-Square. 5. We know that there is SOMETHING in it. we have simply no information at all.e. Hence our Conclusion is "some x are y' ". but the other looks neatest. for there is a red counter in its outer portion. 7. if you prefer to take y' as your Subject. we are in the same condition as with No. First. 5--we find it PARTLY 'empty'. 8. Thus the Square MAY be empty. so as to get some Proposition involving x and y only. Secondly. Who can tell? So we dare not place ANY counter in this Square. As to No. We will now write out the whole Syllogism. putting the symbol ∴[*] for . but we do not know whether the other part is empty or occupied: so we dare not mark this Square. is quite sufficient excuse for saying "THIS SQUARE IS OCCUPIED". 6? Here we are a little better off. And as to No. in one corner of the Square. "some not-nice Cakes are new (Cakes)". leaving out m? Let us take its four compartments. All we know about THIS is that its OUTER portion is empty: but we know nothing about its inner portion. "some new Cakes are not-nice (Cakes)": or.SMALLER Diagram. The result is ------| | 1 | |---|---| | | | ------- Our 'Conclusion'. what of No. then. and for marking it with a red counter. It is true we do not know whether its inner portion is empty or occupied: but what does THAT matter? One solitary Cake. i. one by one. or it MAY have something in it. No.

" And you have now worked out. you may be safely left to play the Game by yourself. in HTML. I don't guarantee the Premisses to be FACTS. I never even saw a Dragon: and. at the end of each Proposition. This can be done. some class of things which will include Dragons and Scotchmen: shall we say 'Animals'? . Permit me to congratulate you. or our cupboard will be of no use to us. successfully. we must give up the "Cakes" now. your first 'SYLLOGISM'. so that. or (better) with any friend whom you can find. that is able and willing to take a share in the sport. if THEY were true. You see. for the sake of brevity. IT would be true also. Let us see what we can make of the two Premisses-"All Dragons are uncanny."therefore". it isn't of the slightest consequence to us. so if this document is read in a browser. then the symbol will be properly recognized." Remember. whether our Premisses are true or false: all WE have to do is to make out whether they LEAD LOGICALLY TO THE CONCLUSION. We must take. and omitting "Cakes". as LOGICIANS.] "Some new Cakes are unwholesome. This is a poor man's excuse. as our 'Universe'. All Scotchmen are canny. I think. and to express the hope that it is but the beginning of a long and glorious series of similar victories! We will work out one other Syllogism--a rather harder one than the last--and then. however. No nice Cakes are unwholesome ∴ Some new Cakes are not-nice. In the first place. There is no font available in general practice which renders the "therefore" symbol correction (three dots in a triangular formation). [*][NOTE from Brett: The use of "∴" is a rather arbitrary selection. in the second place.

"no x are m"." And these may be expressed. thus:-"All x are m'. separately. without further explanation.| |0 | | ----------- and that these two.| | | | | | |--|--|--|--| | | | | | | --|-. "no y are m'". give us . All y are m." And the second also consists of two parts:-"Some y are m." Let us take the negative portions first. when combined. x for "Dragons". of two parts:-"Some x are m'. then. using letters for words. are ----------| | | | --|-. I think you will see." and "No x are m." and "No y are m'. and y for "Scotchmen". first. to mark. So that our two Premisses are. in full. as you already know.| | | | --------------------|0 | | | --|-. "All Dragon-Animals are uncanny (Animals). as "canny" is evidently the Attribute belonging to the 'Middle Terms'. we will let m stand for "canny". on the larger Diagram. and secondly.| | |0 | 0| | |--|--|--|--| | | | | | | --|-." The first Premiss consists. We have. that the two results. All Scotchman-Animals are canny (Animals).And.

11 is already marked as 'empty'. . 9 is already marked as 'empty'.| |0 | | ----------- And now how much of this information can usefully be transferred to the smaller Diagram? Let us take its four compartments. 13. 11 and No. one by one. Similarly. 10. available for Things which are xm'. are No. are No.| | |0 | 0| | |--|--|--|--| | |1 | | | | --|-. Of these. 13. The only two compartments. Of these. available for ym. No. No. 9 and No. The final result is ----------|0 | 1| | --|-. "some x are m'" and "some y are m". 10. so our red counter MUST go into No. the only two.| |0 | | ----------- We have now to mark the two positive portions.| | |0 | 0| | |--|--|--|--| | | | | | | --|-. so our red counter must go into No.----------|0 | | | --|-.

our two Premisses and our brace of Conclusions. Let us now write out. The smaller Diagram is now pretty liberally marked:-------| 0 | 1 | |---|---| | 1 | | ------- And now what Conclusion can we read off from this? Well. we get "all x are y'". "All Scotchmen are not-Dragons". that is." . (So mark it with a grey counter. we see. First. (So mark it with a red counter. ∴ All Dragons are not-Scotchmen. 7? Ditto. all together.) As to No. is wholly 'empty'. by taking y as Subject. this time. 6? This. All Scotchmen are canny.) As to No. is 'occupied'. it is impossible to pack such abundant information into ONE Proposition: we shall have to indulge in TWO. "All Dragons are uncanny. ditto. we get "all y are x'". As to No.As to No. that is. All Scotchmen are not-Dragons. by taking x as Subject. 8? No information. we see. "All Dragons are not-Scotchmen": secondly. 5? This.

"some Welsh hippopotami are heavy" would be TRUE. according to these writers (since the Attributes "belonging to the Police Force" and "eight feet high" are quite COMPATIBLE: there is nothing to PREVENT a Policeman from growing to that height. First take "some x are y". "no Policemen are eight feet high" would be TRUE in our Game (since. but theirs does NOT include ours. y are INCOMPATIBLE. no such splendid specimens are ever found). In such treatises.Let me mention. Secondly. y are COMPATIBLE. but it would be FALSE in our Game (since there are no Welsh hippopotami to BE heavy). so that nothing can have both at once". in conclusion. For example. and "no x are y" to mean "the Attributes x. Propositions have quite different meanings from what they have in our 'Game of Logic'. by "some x are y" is understood to mean "the Attributes x. as an actual FACT"--which of course implies that some x-Things EXIST. So they mean LESS than we do: our meaning includes theirs (for of course "some x ARE y" includes "some x CAN BE y"). Here WE understand "are" to mean "are. not only that none ARE y. But THEY (the writers of these other treatises) only understand "are" to mean "CAN be". and it will be well to understand exactly what the difference is. So they mean more than we do: their meaning includes ours (for of course "no x CAN be y" includes "no x ARE y"). but ours does NOT include theirs. as an actual fact. take "no x are y". Here WE only understand "are" to mean "are. For example. according to these writers (since the Attributes "Welsh" and "heavy" are quite COMPATIBLE in a hippopotamus). if sufficiently rubbed with Rowland's Macassar . But THEY understand the Proposition to mean. as an actual FACT"--which does not at all imply that no x CAN be y. that you may perhaps meet with logical treatises in which it is not assumed that any Thing EXISTS at all. so that a Thing can have both at once". which does not at all imply that any EXIST. but it would be FALSE. but that none CAN POSSIBLY be y.

that scattered broadcast over the world. deduced by other people. y are INCOMPATIBLE". y' are INCOMPATIBLE. of course. and the Attributes x." and a grey one to mean "there cannot POSSIBLY be anything in this compartment. when rubbed on hair.Oil--which said to make HAIR grow. that is. would be a totally different thing. for having knocked down one of his chimneys. you may work them. For ONE workable Pair of Premisses (I mean a Pair that lead to a logical . by the system I have given you: you have only to make 'are' mean 'are CAPABLE of being'. and to satisfy yourself that the Conclusions. when rubbed on a Policeman). "all x are y" will become "some x are capable of being y. were correct! But it is all the other way. is to deduce Conclusions from workable Premisses. in real life. and none are capable of being y'". which consists of the two partial Propositions "some x are y" and "no x are y'". that is. you must understand a red counter to mean "there may POSSIBLY be something in this compartment. do you. that is. quite easily. if even a majority of the arguments. Here. of course. But the two operations don't balance each other--any more than you can console a man. are correct? I only wish it were! Society would be much less liable to panics and other delusions. y are COMPATIBLE. Fallacies." In using the Diagrams for this system. Thirdly. And. and more than we do in the SECOND. And so you think. the treatises mean LESS than we do in the FIRST part. I fear. by giving him an extra door-step. and POLITICAL life. "the Attributes x." 3. And "no x are y" will become "no x are capable of being y". especially. "the Attributes x. and so of course will make a POLICEMAN grow. For "some x are y" will become "some x are capable of being y". "the Attributes x. If you meet with Syllogisms of this kind. and all will go smoothly. y are COMPATIBLE". take "all x are y". that the chief use of Logic.

it MUST be wrong. and have read off the correct Conclusion.Conclusion) that you meet with in reading your newspaper or magazine. for each in turn. one by one. after marking them on the larger Diagram. you try to transfer the marks to the smaller. ∴ Some Englishmen are soldiers. and would then calmly remark "Fallacious PREMISSES!": you wouldn't condescend to ask what CONCLUSION the writer professed to draw--knowing that. In the first case. even when the Premisses ARE workable. in such Logical skill as this Game may teach you. But YOU are not to be caught by such a trick! You would simply set out the Premisses. "What mark can I place HERE?". you may say "the PREMISSES are fallacious": in the second. For instance." looks uncommonly LIKE a Syllogism. WHATEVER it is. and in EVERY one the answer will be "No information!". where the writer draws a correct Conclusion. "the CONCLUSION is fallacious. for ONE instance. Some Englishmen are brave." The chief use you will find. and see what Baby's doing. just go up to the nursery. and ask. who said "Mary. there are probably TEN where he draws an incorrect one. AND TELL HIM NOT TO DO IT!" The other kind of Fallacy--'Fallacious Conclusion'--you will not detect till you have marked BOTH Diagrams. will be in detecting 'FALLACIES' of these two kinds. You will take its four compartments. you will probably find FIVE that lead to no Conclusion at all: and. The first kind of Fallacy--'Fallacious Premisses'--you will detect when. You would be just as safe as that wise mother was. and have compared it with the Conclusion which the writer has drawn. and might easily take in a less experienced Logician. . "All soldiers are brave. showing that there is NO CONCLUSION AT ALL.

and march off triumphantly with a single penny-bun." and so is PART of "All x' are y'." Here the correct Conclusion would be "All x' are y'" (that is. AS FAR AS IT GOES. "All unselfish people are not misers"). is "No y are x'. "DEFECTIVE Conclusion!" Suppose. No misers are generous. if you were in a confectioner's shop. while the Conclusion." simply because it is not IDENTICAL with the correct one: it may be a PART of the correct Conclusion. you will meet with various kinds of (so-called) 'Fallacies' which are by no means . with a pitying smile.") Here you would simply say "DEFECTIVE Conclusion!" The same thing would happen. ∴ No misers are unselfish. You would shake your head mournfully. when you read other treatises on Logic." (which is the same as "No x' are y. you were to meet with this Syllogism:-"All unselfish people are generous. In this case you would merely remark. and you would very properly say "Fallacious Conclusion!" Now. and if a little boy were to come in. put down twopence. you mustn't say "FALLACIOUS Conclusion. drawn by the writer. No y are m. this would be going BEYOND his legitimate rights (since it would assert the EXISTENCE of y. in the above example. "All y are x"). and so be quite correct. which is not contained in the Premisses)." the Premisses of which might be thus expressed in letters:-"All x' are m. and would remark "Defective Conclusion! Poor little chap!" And perhaps you would ask the young lady behind the counter whether she would let YOU eat the bun.But mind. which the little boy had paid for and left behind him: and perhaps SHE would reply "Sha'n't!" But if. of example. the writer had drawn the Conclusion "All misers are selfish" (that is.

What are 'Particular' and 'Universal' Propositions? Give examples. in order to make good sense? 5. When is a class of Things said to be 'exhaustively' divided? Give . 7. Explain 'Proposition'. Give examples. When is it NOT good sense? Give examples. 1. 8. 6. what Attributes belong to the things in each compartment. Elementary. 3. 'Term'. When it is NOT good sense.enterprise: but if you once Rush upon your FATE--why. 'Subject'. What is an 'Attribute'? Give examples. What does "some" mean in Logic? [See pp. Give a rule for knowing. 4. 6] 9. you must take the consequences! CHAPTER II. 2. when we look at the smaller Diagram. and 'Predicate'. What is a 'Double' Proposition? Give examples. 55. "The Man in the Wilderness asked of me 'How many strawberries grow in the sea?'" __________ 1. In what sense do we use the word 'Universe' in this Game? 10. what is the simplest agreement to make. 11. CROSS QUESTIONS. When is it good sense to put "is" or "are" between two names? Give examples.

----------[See pp. 15. 'Conclusion'. Give a rule for knowing. Give examples. John is not at home. and 'Syllogism'. . these Attributes may in some cases be re-arranged. All tigers are fierce. All hard-boiled eggs are unwholesome. 7] 21. and shifted from one Term to the other. Explain the phrase "sitting on the fence. Explain 'Premisses'. 12. in this Game. What kinds of Propositions imply. What are 'Individual' Propositions? Give examples. ------------Break up each of the following into two partial Propositions: 17. 18.examples. In what cases may this be done? Give examples. 20. I am happy. when taken together. when we look at the larger Diagram. 56. 22. what Attributes belong to the Things contained in each compartment. What two partial Propositions make up. When a Proposition contains more than two Attributes. "all x are y"? 14." 13. the EXISTENCE of their Subjects? 16. 19.

23. Propositions to be represented. why is it best to mark NEGATIVE Propositions before AFFIRMATIVE ones? 25. and yet cannot be fairly called 'Fallacious'. y are COMPATIBLE". as Logicians. 57-59] 2. How can we work Syllogisms in which we are told that "some x are y" is to be understood to mean "the Attribute x. ----------| | | | x | | | | --y-----y'- . Explain the phrases 'Middle Term' and 'Middle Terms'. 24. and "no x are y" to mean "the Attributes x. Why is it of no consequence to us. whether the Premisses are true or false? 26. Sometimes the Conclusion. In marking a pair of Premisses on the larger Diagram. What are the two kinds of 'Fallacies'? 28. How may we detect a 'Fallacious Conclusion'? 30. How may we detect 'Fallacious Premisses'? 29. is not identical with the correct Conclusion. y are INCOMPATIBLE"? 27. Half of Smaller Diagram. When does this happen? And what name may we give to such a Conclusion? [See pp. offered to us.

8. y="wholesome". Some x are not-y. There are no wholesome plums. Some x exist. 4. and some x exist. . y="just". 5. and some not. All judges are just. 11. 9. 14. and some are not-y. All x are not-y. Some x are y. No x are not-y. All plums are unwholesome. Some plums are wholesome. Plums are some of them wholesome. 6. 13. -----------Taking x="judges". __________ Taking x="plums". No x exist. 3.__________ 1. 7. 2. Some x are not-y. Some judges are unjust. 10. No judges are just. 12.

Some students are diligent. All diligent students are successful. 16. 59. 17. 19. 18. __________ ----------- . x="successful". 15. but unsuccessful. No diligent students are unsuccessful.[See pp. Half of Smaller Diagram. No students are diligent. 60] ----| | | x | | |--y--| | | | x' | | ----__________ Taking y="diligent students". students. 60. 1] 3. There are some diligent. [See pp. Symbols to be interpreted.

| | | | x | | | | --y-----y'__________ ------| | | 1. | | 0 | | | | ------------| | | 3. | - | | | | ------__________ ------| | | 2. | 0 | 0 | | | | ------------| | | 4. | 0 | 1 | | | | -------

Taking x="good riddles"; y="hard";
------| | | 5. | 1 | | | | | ------------| | | 7. | 0 | 0 | | | | ------------| | | 6. | 1 | 0 | | | | ------------| | | 8. | 0 | | | | | -------

__________

[See pp. 61, 2] Taking x="lobster"; y="selfish";
------| | | 9. | | 1 | | | | ------------| | | 11. | 0 | 1 | | | | ------__________ ----| | x | | | |--y'-| | | x' | | | ----------| | | 10. | 0 | | | | | ------------| | | 12. | 1 | 1 | | | | -------

Taking y="healthy people"; x="happy";
--| 0 | 13. |---| | 1 | --| | 14. |-1-| | | --| 1 | 15. |---| | 1 | --| 0 | 16. |---| | |

---

---

---

---

[See p. 62] 4. Smaller Diagram. Propositions to be represented.
----------| | | | x | |--y--|--y'-| | x' | | | | ----------__________

1. All y are x. 2. Some y are not-x. 3. No not-x are not-y. 4. Some x are not-y. 5. Some not-y are x. 6. No not-x are y. 7. Some not-x are not-y. 8. All not-x are not-y. 9. Some not-y exist.

11. No nation is uncivilised. are amiable. y="warlike". All warlike nations are civilised. No crocodiles are amiable. No crocodiles are amiable when hungry. and y="amiable". All unwarlike nations are uncivilised. All hungry crocodiles are unamiable. when not hungry. 17. Some y are x. 62. when not hungry. x="hungry". 12. 22. 14. No not-x exist. 20. All crocodiles. Some crocodiles. ------------Taking "crocodiles" as Universe. and all civilised nations are warlike. and some are not-x. and all unamiable crocodiles are hungry. are amiable. but some are not. 13. and some are hungry. x="civilised". 16. All x are y. 15. 3] Taking "nations" as Universe. and all not-y are not-x. No uncivilised nation is warlike. . 19. 18.10. 21. [See pp. Some nations are unwarlike.

|---|---| | 1 | | ------------| | 1 | 3. |---|---| | | 0 | ------------| | | 4. __________ ----------| | | | x | |--y--|--y'-| | x' | | | | ----------__________ ------| | | 1. |---|---| | 0 | 0 | ------- . Some hungry crocodiles are amiable. and some that are not hungry are unamiable. [See pp.23. Symbols to be interpreted. 63. |---|---| | | 0 | ------__________ ------| | | 2. 4] 5. Smaller Diagram.

and y="good-tempered". |---|---| | . |---|---| | 0 | | ------------| | 0 | 7.| ---|--------| | | 8. and y="active". interpret . |---|---| | 0 | 1 | ------- [See p. x="fat". x="green-eyed". interpret ------| 1 | 1 | 9. |---|---| | | 1 | ------------| 1 | | 12. |---|---| | 0 | 1 | ------- Taking "cats" as Universe. and y="two-storied".Taking "houses" as Universe. |---|---| | | | ------------| | | 6. 65] Taking "boys" as Universe. |---|---| | | | ------------| 0 | 1 | 11. interpret ------| 0 | | 5. x="built of brick". |---|---| | | 0 | ------__________ ------| | 0 | 10.

Some y are m'. |---|---| | 1 | 0 | ------- [See pp. 6] 6. . |---|---| | | 0 | ------------| 1 | | 15.| | | | | | |--y--m--y'-| | | | | | | --x'.------| 0 | 0 | 13. No x are m. Larger Diagram. |---|---| | | 0 | ------- ------| | 1 | 14. |---|---| | 1 | | ------------| 0 | 1 | 16. Propositions to be represented. __________ ----------| | | | --x-. 65.| | | | ----------__________ 1. 2.

5. m="greedy".3. that sing loud. m="that sing loud". 14. No birds. All white rabbits are free from greediness. No old rabbits are greedy. and y="happy". x="well-fed". 7. Some x are m. . No y' are m'. Some not-greedy rabbits are black. 10. No old rabbits are greedy. 12. represent 15. All black rabbits are greedy. and y="black". 11. No old rabbits are free from greediness. 8. represent 9. 4. No m' are y'. are unhappy. All m are x'. __________ Taking "birds" as Universe. [See pp. that are not greedy. All rabbits. No m are x. 13. x="old". All well-fed birds sing loud.8] Taking "rabbits" as Universe. All greedy rabbits are young. 6. No m are y. All y are m. are black. 67. No x' are m. No y are m. All m are x'.

68-70] Taking "persons" as Universe. __________ [See pp. __________ ----------| | | ----------- . I sent him to bring me a kitten. m="in the house". that do not sing loud. All birds. out of the house. 70. Nobody. represent 17. No well-fed birds fail to sing loud.. There is no one in the house but John. x="that has taken a walk". m="I". are unhappy. Both Diagrams to be employed. He brought me a kettle by mistake. 18. represent 19. x="John". I have been out for a walk. and y="having a tooth-ache". y="that feels better". __________ Choosing your own 'Universe' &c. Everybody in the house is suffering from tooth-ache. 1] 7.16. __________ Taking "persons" as Universe. [See pp. John is in the house. represent 20. has a tooth-ache. I feel much better.

----------|0 | | | --|-.| | |0 | 0| | 1. |--|--|--|--| | |0 | | | | --|-.| | | | | | 4. |--|--|--|--| | |0 | | | | --|-.| | | | | | |--y--m--y'-| | | | | | | --x'. |--|--|--|--| | |1 | | | | --|-. a small Diagram should be drawn.| --x-.| | | | ----------- [See p.| | | | ----------__________ | | | | x | |--y--|--y'-| | x' | | | | ----------- N. |--|--|--|--| | |1 | 0| | | --|-. and marked in accordance with the given large Diagram: and then as many Propositions as possible.| | |0 | 0| | 3.| | |0 | 1| | 2. In each Question. for x and y only.| | | 0| ----------- .B. for x and y. 72] ----------| | | | --|-.| |0 | | --------------------| | | | --|-.| | | | --------------------| | 0| | --|-. should be read off from this small Diagram.

15.__________ Mark. No. 19. [See pp. Unexciting books make one drowsy. No. 18. No. No skeletons are fat. No. These are. 9. 13. . No judges are unjust. No impatient person can sit still. are the CONCLUSIONS. 11. No children are patient. Some days are rainy. No. &c. No exciting books suit feverish patients. who deserve the fair. 10. 72-5] 16. &c. 50] 20. 6. 13. 7. on a large Diagram. No monkeys are soldiers. 5. None but the brave deserve the fair. [see p. read off from the small Diagram. 14. get their deserts. All pigs are fat. 16. the following Pairs of Propositions: then mark a small Diagram. 17. No. Pairs of PREMISSES for Syllogisms: and the results. 12. None of my cousins are just. No. 19. No. 17. 8. 49] 14. Some. [see p. 18. __________ Mark. 15. in a large Diagram. the following pairs of Propositions from the preceding Section: then mark a small Diagram in accordance with it. in fact. All monkeys are mischievous. Rainy days are tiresome.

CROOKED ANSWERS. There are no Jews in the house. 27. . 32. No fat creatures run well. No muffins are wholesome. No Jews are mad. No eggs are uncrackable. All Patagonians are Gentiles.20. 31. Some greyhounds run well. 82-84] CHAPTER III. No nightingale drinks wine. Some orators are passionate. Senna is a medicine. Some Jews are rich. All medicine is nasty. 22. Salt is not sweet. All soldiers march. There are no Gentiles in the garden. 30. 23. All Rabbis are Jews. All passionate people are unreasonable. 25. What makes no noise may escape notice. All buns are unwholesome. Some skates are fish. All battles are noisy. All teetotalers like sugar. There are no fish that cannot swim. Sugar is sweet. 24. 75-82] 29. 21. 28. 26. Some eggs are hard-boiled. [See pp. Some youths are not soldiers. [See pp.

"all new Cakes are not nice". 4. where the class "new Cakes" is the Subject. called the 'Predicate'. Whatever can be "attributed to". When one is the Name of a Thing. or none. "baked". "some new Cakes are nice". For example."I answered him. is called 'Universal'. of the Things belonging to a certain class. called the 'Subject'. as I thought good. 'As many as red-herrings grow in the wood'. A Proposition. . stating that SOME of the Things belonging to its Subject are so-and-so. which can (frequently) be attributed to "Buns". "these Pigs are pink"). A 'Proposition' is a sentence stating that some." __________ 1. that is (written in full) "some new Cakes are not nice Cakes". For example. and the class "not-nice Cakes" is the Predicate. or all. and "beautiful". "pink is light red"). that is "said to belong to". "these Pigs are fat Animals"). since a Thing cannot actually BE an Attribute. 3. Elementary. "some new Cakes are not nice. or that ALL of them. are so-and-so. "no new Cakes are nice". a Thing. 1. is called 'Particular'. For example. or of two Attributes (for example. "these Pigs are pink (Pigs)"). is called an 'Attribute'. which can (seldom) be attributed to "Babies". and the other the Name of an Attribute (for example. For example. When they are the Names of two Things (for example. "some new Cakes are not nice". That the Substantive shall be supposed to be repeated at the end of the sentence (for example. stating that NONE of the Things belonging to its Subject. 6. 2. are also Things belonging to a certain other class. 5." A Proposition.

For example. the class "new Cakes" is "exhaustively" divided into "nice" and "not-nice" since EVERY new Cake must be one or the other. "I am happy". A Proposition containing two statements. "some new Cakes are nice and some are not-nice. These are Universal Propositions. is "exhausted" among the sets into which it is divided. "Some x are y" and "no x are y'". thus divided. 8. 12. For example. are not at home". "John is not at home". whose Subject is a single Thing. 14. he is said to be "sitting on the fence"--not being able to decide on which side he will jump down. When they begin with "some" or "no". there being no member of it which does not belong to some one of them." 11. When a man cannot make up his mind which of two parties he will join. . "some abc are def" may be re-arranged as "some bf are acde". 16.7. As a name of the class of Things to which the whole Diagram is assigned. The Things in each compartment possess TWO Attributes. Propositions beginning with "some" or "all". 15. being the same as "all the I's that exist are happy". is called 'Individual'. For example. For example. whose symbols will be found written on two of the EDGES of that compartment. each being equivalent to "some abcdef exist"." 9. that I am now considering. 10. 13. "One or more. A Proposition. "ALL the Johns. When the whole class.

23. 19. the two classes of "m-Things" and "m'-Things" may be called 'the Middle Terms'.' If an Attribute occurs in one Premiss. No hard-boiled eggs are wholesome. the third one 'the Conclusion'. Some tigers are fierce. 18. For example. but is SUPPOSED to stand at each of its four outer corners). if the Premisses are "no m are x'" and "all m' are y". and if two Propositions be given. 20. Because they can be marked with CERTAINTY: whereas . For example. The Things. Some hard-boiled eggs are unwholesome. If an Attribute occurs in both Premisses.17. the given Propositions are called 'the Premisses'. in each compartment of the larger Diagram. the Premisses might be "no m are x'" and "all m' are y". No Johns are at home. Some Johns are not at home. Some I's are happy. If the Universe of Things be divided with regard to three different Attributes. No I's are unhappy. 21. and its contradictory in the other. whose symbols will be found written at three of the CORNERS of the compartment (except in the case of m'. which is not actually inserted in the Diagram. containing two different couples of these Attributes. if the Premisses are "some m are x" and "no m are y'". 24. the Term containing it is called 'the Middle Term'. and the whole set 'a Syllogism'. possess THREE Attributes. and if from these we can prove a third Proposition. and it might be possible to prove from them a Conclusion containing x and y. No tigers are not-fierce. 22. the class of "m-Things" is 'the Middle Term. For example. containing the two Attributes that have not yet occurred together. the Terms containing them may be called 'the Middle Terms'.

2. When the offered Conclusion is PART of the correct Conclusion. 'Fallacious Premisses' and 'Fallacious Conclusion'. that there is 'no information' for any of its four compartments. if THEY were true. we may call it a 'Defective Conclusion'. 26. is neither identical with it nor a part of it. so that. 25. __________ ------| | | 1. Half of Smaller Diagram. IT also would be true. 27. 30. and then observing that the Conclusion. those that begin with "some" or "all") sometimes require us to place a red counter 'sitting on a fence'. 29. By finding. | 0 | 1 | | | | ------------- . and a grey one to mean "this compartment CANNOT be occupied" or "this compartment MUST be empty". offered to us. In this case. when we try to transfer marks from the larger Diagram to the smaller. Propositions represented.AFFIRMATIVE Propositions (that is. By finding the correct Conclusion. | | 1 | | | | ------------------| | | 2. 28. Because the only question we are concerned with is whether the Conclusion FOLLOWS LOGICALLY from the Premisses. By understanding a red counter to mean "this compartment CAN be occupied".

| | | 3. which we know already. ------| | | 8. in knowing that ONE is occupied. | 0 | | | | | ------------| | | 9. in order to express "some | | | ------x exist": but this is really contained in "some x are y'. | | 0 | | | | ------- ------| | | 7.e." To put a red counter on the division-line would only tell us "ONE OF THE compartments is occupied".e. | 0 | 0 | | | | ------------| | | 6. | | 1 | | | | ------------| | | . | 1 | 1 | It might be thought that the proper | | | ------------| | | Diagram would be | 1 1 |. i. Some x are y'. | 1 | 1 | | | | ------------| | | 5. i. | 1 | | | | ------- | | | 4. No x are y.

and some are y'. All x are y'. | 1 | 1 | | | | ------------| | | 14. i.10. i. | 1 | 0 | | | | ------------| | | 11. All x are y. Some x are y. |---| | 0 | .e. | 1 | | | | | ------------| | | 12. No x are y. i. i. i. Some x are y.e. |---| | 0 | ----| 1 | 16.e. All y are x.e.e. No y are x'. | 0 | 1 | | | | --------| | 15. | 0 | | | | | ------------| | | 13. i.e. i.e.

e. Some x exist. 4. Half of Smaller Diagram. i. Some x are y. i. i. Some y exist. 5.e. 2. Some good riddles are hard.e.e. Symbols interpreted. No y exist. Some y are x'. i. __________ 1. 3. No x are y'. No x exist. |-1-| | | --- 3. |---| | 0 | ----| | 18.----| 0 | 17. |---| | 1 | ----| | 15. . All x are y'.

11. Propositions represented. Some y' exist. and some are unhappy. All lobsters are unselfish.e.e. i. 16. 8. No x are y. Some x are y'.6. Some y' are x. Some people are unhealthy. 4.e.e. and some are x'. Some lobsters are unselfish. i. and some are unselfish. Some lobsters are selfish. No x exist.e. and some are y'. No lobsters are selfish. 13.e. No riddles are good.e. 7. i. i. 12. |---|---| | 1 | | ------------- . __________ ------| 1 | | 1. Smaller Diagram. i. No good riddles are hard.e. i. Nobody is unhealthy.e. i. All good riddles are hard. 9.e. i. Some invalids are happy. i. All y' are x'. All x are y. 14. No y' exist.e. i. 10. All x are y'. No x are y. |---|---| | 0 | | ------------------| | | 2. i. Some x are y. 15. All invalids are unhappy.

|---|---| | 0 | | ------------| | | 8. |---|---| | 0 | | ------------- . |---|---| | 0 | 1 | ------------| | | 10. |---|-1-| | | | ------------| 1 | | 11. |---|---| | | 0 | ------------| | 1 | 5. |---|---| | 0 | 0 | ------------| 1 | 0 | 12.| | | 3. |---|---| | | | ------------| | | 7. |---|---| | | 1 | ------------| | | 9. |---|---| | | | ------------| | | 6.e. No x' are y. i. |---|---| | | 1 | ------- ------| | | 13. |---|---| | 1 | | ------- | | 1 | 4.

|---|-1-| | | | ------------| 1 | 0 | 16. |---|---| | | 1 | ------------| | | 15. All y' are x'.e.e. Some y' exist. All y are x. No x are y. and all x are y. i. and some are y'. i. i. All x are y'. |---|---| | 0 | 0 | ------------| 0 | 1 | 18. |---|---| | 0 | | ------------| | | 17. Some x' are y.| | 0 | 14. No x' exist. |---|---| | | | ------------| 0 | | 19.e.e.e. |---|---| | | | ------------| | | 20. i. i.e.e. i. i. |---|---| .

| 1 | 1 | ------------| 0 | 1 | 21. i. and some x' are y'. No y exist. 2. No houses are two-storied. No Things are not-x. . Smaller Diagram. 4. 5. i. No not-y are x. Some x are y. Symbols interpreted. No not-x exist. |---|---| | | 1 | ------- 5.e. No y exist.e.e. No not-y are not-x. or. __________ 1. or. All x' are y.e. 3. i. No not-x are not-y. and all y' are x. and some x exist.e. i. |---|---| | 0 | | ------------| | 1 | 22. Some not-x are y. |---|---| | 1 | 0 | ------------| 1 | | 17. i. Some y are not-x.

e. built of brick. Some x' exist. and all x' are y. Or. Or. Or some y are x'. Some fat boys are active. No houses. i. Some x are y. and some are y'. that have not green eyes. and some x' are y. and none. 8. . All active boys are fat. are other than two-storied. i. that are not green-eyed.e.e.e.6. have not green eyes.e. that are bad-tempered. are not twostoried. no y' are x. are bad-tempered. and some. i. some good-tempered cats have green eyes. are good-tempered. Some green-eyed cats are bad-tempered. that are not built of brick.e. Or. and all thin ones are lazy. and some y' are x. i. and no y' are x'.e. Some x are y. All y' are x'. no houses. and all lazy ones are fat. 10. 9. 11. some good-tempered cats have not green eyes. and some are not. All houses. Or. 13. 7. that are not two-storied. No x are y'. and no y' exist. Some x are y'. some y are x. 12. and none. i. Some houses are not built of brick. and some bad-tempered ones have green eyes. are built of brick. i. All lazy boys are thin.e. No x exist. i. and none have bad tempers.e. All fat boys are lazy. Some green-eyed cats are good-tempered. All y are x. No cats have green eyes. i. and all y' are x. 15. All x' are y'. 14. i. Or. and no x' are y'. i.e. All x are y'.

|---|---|---|---| | | 1 | | | --------------| | | | ---|--| | | | | | 2. __________ --------------| | | | ---|--| | | 0 | 0 | | 1. |---|---|---|---| | | | | | | ---|--| | | | ----------------------------| | | | ---|--| | | 0 | 0 | | 3. that have not green eyes. Or. 6. are good-tempered. and all y' are x. Or. all y are x'. all good-tempered ones have eyes that are not green. i. Propositions represented. and all x' are y. |---|---|---|---| | | | | | | ---|--| | | 0 | ----------------------------| | | | ---|--| | | 0 | 1 | | 6. |---|---|---|---| | | 0 | | | .16. All green-eyed cats are bad-tempered and all. and all bad-tempered ones have green eyes. Larger Diagram.| | | ---|--| | | | ----------------------------| 0 | | | ---|--| | | 0 | 0 | | 5. |-1-|---|---|---| | | | | | | ---|--| | | | ----------------------------| | 0 | | ---|--| | | | | | 4. All x are y'. |---|---|---|---| | | .e.

| ---|--| | 0 | | ----------------------------| | | | ---|--| | | 0 | 0 | | 7.e.e. i. i. |-1-|---|---|---| | | | | | | ---|--| | | | ----------------------------| | | | ---|--| | | | 0 | | . |---|---|---|---| | | 0 | 1 | | | ---|--| | | | --------------- | ---|--| | | | ----------------------------| | 0 | | ---|--| | | | | | 8. |---|---|---|---| | | 0 | 0 | | | ---|--| | | 0 | --------------- --------------| | | | ---|--| | | 0 | 0 | | 9. |---|---|---|---| | | 0 | | | | ---|--| | | | ----------------------------| | | | ---|--| | | | | | 10. No x are m. Some m' are y.

All m are x'. 14.e. All m' are y.e. |---|---|---|-1-| | | | 0 | | | ---|--| | | | ----------------------------| | | | ---|--| | | 0 | 0 | | 12. .11. All y' are m'. |---|---|---|---| | | 1 | | | | ---|--| | 0 | | ----------------------------| 0 | 0 | | ---|--| | | | | | i. |---|---|---|---| | | 1 | | | ---|--| | | | ----------------------------| 0 | | | ---|--| | | 0 | 0 | | i. i. No x are m. i. |---|---|---|---| | | | | | | ---|--| | 1 | 0 | ----------------------------| 0 | 0 | 13.e. All y are m.e. No x are m'.

e. |---|---|---|---| | | | 0 | | | ---|--| | | | ----------------------------| 0 | 0 | | ---|--| | | | | | i.15. --------------| 0 | 0 | | ---|--| | | 1 | 0 | | 17. i. p. No m are y'. No x' are m. All x are m. |---|---|---|---| | | 0 | 0 | | | ---|--| | 0 | | --------------- 18. All x are m.] | | | ----------------------------| 0 | | | ---|--| | | | | | i. No m' are y. |---|---|---|---| All m are y. | | | 0 | | | ---|--| [See remarks on No. All m' are y'. 7. 60. |---|---|---|---| | | | | | | ---|--| | 0 | 1 | --------------- 16. No x are m'. | ---|--| | | 1 | 0 | | i.e.e.e. .

e. and y = "persons who brought.19." Hence. in which case the Premisses will take the form I am a-person-who-sent-him-to-bring-a-kitten. &c. --------------| | | | ---|--| | | 1 | 0 | | i. and the required Diagram is --------------| | | | ---|--| | | 1 | 0 | | |---|---|---|---| | | 0 | 0 | | | ---|--| . He is a-personwho-brought-me-a-kettle-by-mistake. We had better take "persons" as Universe. |---|---|---|---| | | 0 | 0 | | | ---|--| | | | --------------- 20. &c. All m are y. We may choose "myself" as 'Middle Term'. The latter form seems best. All m are x. Or we may choose "he" as 'Middle Term'.". All m are y. I am a-person-to-whomhe-brought-a-kettle-by-mistake. Let us then make m = "he". as the interest of the anecdote clearly depends on HIS stupidity--not on what happened to ME. All m are x. in which case the Premisses will take the form He is a-person-whom-I-sent-to-bring-me-a-kitten. x = "persons whom I sent.

------------- . |---|---| i.e. or. | 1 | | ------------| | 1 | 2. ------| 0 | | 1. No x' are y'.e.e. Some x' are y. |---|---| i. | 1 | | ------------| | | 4. Some x are y'. or.e. No y' are x'. or. All black rabbits | 1 | | are young. All y are x'. i. | | | ------------| | | 3. | | 0 | ------------| 0 | | 5.| | | --------------- 7. |---|---| i. |---|---| i. All y are x'. |---|---| i.e. Some y are x'. Some y' are x.e. Both Diagrams employed.

are unhappy.e. | 0 | | has got a tooth-ache. |---|---| i.| | | 6.e. i. |---|---| i.e. Some y are x'.e. |---|---| that are not well-fed.e. |---|---| i. No one. |---|---| i. | | 1 | or.e. Some birds. i. ------------- . ------------| | | i.e.e. All well-fed birds | | | are happy. feels better. i.e.e. ------------| 1 | | 11. ------| 1 | 0 | 9. ------------| | | 10.e. No x' are y. All x are y. ------------| 1 | 0 | 7. All x are y. Some one. Some x' are y'. |---|---| i.e. Some x are y. i. 8. but John. i. John has got a | | | tooth-ache. Some unhappy birds are not ------well-fed. i. Some black | 1 | | rabbits are young. who | | | has taken a walk.

12. x="that get their deserts". Some x are y.e. No m are x.| 1 | | i. No y' are m. m="that deserve the fair". No books suit feverish patients. . ∴ No y' are x. i. --------------| | | | ---|--| | | 1 | 0 | | 14. All m' are y. y="that make one drowsy". m="exciting". i. |---|---| whom I sent to bring me a kitten. y="brave". ∴ Some y are x. Some one.e. except such as make one drowsy. --------------------| | 0 | | ---|--| | | 0 | 0 | | 13. x="that suit feverish patients". Some m are x. | | | brought me a kettle by mistake. |-1-|---|---|---| | | | | | | ---|--| | | 0 | --------------- ------| | 0 | |---|---| | | | ------- Let "books" be Universe. |---|---|---|---| | | | 0 | | | ---|--| | | | --------------- ------| 1 | | |---|---| | | | ------- Let "persons" be Universe.e.

Some brave persons get their deserts.i. No children can sit still. No y are m. i. ∴ No x are y. i. y="skeletons". m="fat".e. |---|---|---|---| | | 0 | | | | ---|--| | | | --------------- ------| 0 | 1 | |---|---| | | | ------- Let "things" be Universe. --------------| 0 | | | ---|--| | | 0 | 0 | | 15. --------------| | | | ---|--| . --------------| 0 | 0 | | ---|--| | | 0 | 1 | | 16. m="patient". No x are m. x="children". |---|---|---|---| | | | | | | ---|--| | 0 | | --------------- ------| 0 | | |---|---| | | | ------- Let "persons" be Universe. x="pigs".e. No m' are y. ∴ All x are y'. All x are m. All pigs are not-skeletons.e. y="that can sit still".

--------------| | | | ---|--| | | 1 | 0 | | 19. y="judges". No x are m. m="just". ∴ No x are y. |---|---|---|---| | | 1 | 0 | | | ---|--| | | | --------------- ------| | | |---|---| | 1 | | ------- Let "creatures" be Universe.e. m="monkeys". All m are y. |---|---|---|---| | | | | | | ---|--| | | | ------| 1 | | |---|---| | | | . |---|---|---|---| | | | | | | ---|--| | 0 | | --------------- ------| 0 | | |---|---| | | | ------- Let "persons" be Universe. x="soldiers". i. --------------| 0 | | | ---|--| | | 0 | 0 | | 18.| | 0 | 0 | | 17. x="my cousins". No m are x. i. None of my cousins are judges.e. y="mischievous". ∴ Some y are x'. No y are m'. Some mischievous creatures are not soldiers.

thus:-"All xm are y" contains "Some xm are y". the first Premiss. Some rainy periods are tiresome. ∴ Some x are y. since the Conclusion is really part of the second Premiss. as we know. is actually contained in the second. which contains "Some x are y". besides being superfluous.--------------- ------- Let "periods" be Universe. y="tiresome". in letters. These are not legitimate Premisses. .B. Moreover. Some m are x. Altogether. in words.e. x="nasty". i. which. a most unsatisfactory Pair of Premisses! --------------| 0 | | | ---|--| | | 1 | | | 20. since it is equivalent to "Some rainy days exist". y="senna". m="days". which contains "Some rainy periods are tiresome". m="medicine". N. Or. x="rainy". is implied in the Proposition "All rainy days are tiresome". |---|---|---|---| | | 0 | 0 | | | ---|--| | 0 | | --------------- ------| 1 | | |---|---| | 0 | | ------- Let "things" be Universe. "All rainy days are tiresome" contains "Some rainy days are tiresome". This may be shown. so that the first Premiss is superfluous. All xm are y.

|---|---|---|---| | | 0 | 0 | | | ---|--| | 0 | | --------------- ------| | | |---|---| | 0 | | ------- Let "creatures" be Universe. --------------| 0 | | | ---|--| | | . Some m are x. x="that like sugar". y="Patagonians". i. m="teetotalers". p 60. No y are m'. ∴ All y are x. ∴ Some x are y'. m="Jews". ∴ No y are x'.e.e. All y are m. x="rich". y="nightingales". [See remarks on No. All y are m'. i. . Senna is nasty. All m are x.| | 22.All m are x. |-1-|---|---|---| | | 0 | | | | ---|--| | | | --------------- ------| | 1 | |---|---| | | | ------- Let "persons" be Universe.] --------------| | | | ---|--| | | 0 | 1 | | 21. Some rich persons are not Patagonians. 7.

i. y="buns". ∴ Some y are x'.i. |-1-|---|---|---| | | 0 | | | | ---|--| | | | --------------- ------| | | |---|---| | | | ------- Let "food" be Universe. Some y are m. m="that run well". x="muffins". so no Conclusion can be drawn. Some greyhounds are not fat. |---|---|---|---| | | 1 | | | | ---|--| | | | --------------- ------| | | |---|---| | 1 | | ------- Let "creatures" be Universe. There is 'no information' for the smaller Diagram. --------------| | | | ---|--| | | 0 | 0 | | 23.e. --------------- . x="fat". No x are m.e. m="wholesome". All y are m. No nightingales dislike sugar. y="greyhounds". No x are m. --------------| | | | ---|--| | | 0 | 0 | | 24.

m="sweet". Salt is not sugar.e. x="sugar". All y are x'. y="salt". so no Conclusion can be drawn. All y are m'. All x are m. --------------| | | | ---|--| | | 1 | 0 | | . x="that march". |-1-|---|---|---| | | 0 | 0 | | | ---|--| | | | --------------- ------| | | |---|---| | | | ------- Let "persons" be Universe. m="soldiers". y="youths". There is 'no information' for the smaller Diagram. |---|---|---|---| | | 0 | | | | ---|--| | 1 | | --------------- ------| 0 | 1 | |---|---| | 1 | | ------- Let "food" be Universe. --------------| 0 | 0 | | ---|--| | | 0 | 1 | | 26. Some y are m'. i.| | | | ---|--| | | .| | 25. Sugar is not salt. All m are x. ∴ All x are y'.

No m' are y. Some hard-boiled things can be cracked. i.e.| | 29. --------------| 0 | 0 | | ---|--| | | . m="Jews". y="that are in the garden".27. ∴ Some x are y. --------------| 0 | | | ---|--| | | 0 | 0 | | 28. i. y="crackable".e. Some m are x. No m are x. x="hard-boiled". are also in the garden. |---|---|---|---| | | | | | | ---|--| | 1 | 0 | --------------- ------| | | |---|---| | 1 | | ------- . ∴ No x are y. |---|---|---|---| | | | | | | ---|--| | 0 | | --------------- ------| 0 | | |---|---| | | | ------- Let "persons" be Universe. m="eggs". No persons. that are in the house. x="that are in the house". No m are y'. |---|---|---|---| | | | 0 | | | ---|--| | | | --------------- ------| 1 | | |---|---| | | | ------- Let "Things" be Universe.

All m' are y. All Rabbis are sane. . All x are m. i. may escape notice. y="Rabbis". y="skates". x="mad". --------------| | | | ---|--| | | 1 | | | 31. m="noisy".e. i. Some things. x="battles". No m are x. y="that may escape notice". All y are m.e. that are not battles. |---|---|---|---| | | 1 | | | | ---|--| | 0 | | --------------- ------| 0 | | |---|---| | 1 | | ------- Let "persons" be Universe.Let "Things" be Universe. --------------| 0 | | | ---|--| | | 0 | 0 | | 30. ∴ All y are x'. |---|---|---|---| | | 0 | 0 | | | ---|--| | | | --------------- ------| 1 | | |---|---| | | | ------- Let "Things" be Universe. m="fish". x="that can swim". ∴ Some x' are y. m="Jews".

∴ Some y are x. my good man. 3. Some orators are unreasonable." __________ 1.] CHAPTER IV. No bald person needs a hair-brush. i. No lizards have hair. [See remarks on No. . x="reasonable". ∴ Some y are x'. hit it. No thoughtful person forgets a promise. y="orators".e. |---|---|---|---| | | 1 | | | | ---|--| | | | --------------- ------| | | |---|---| | 1 | | ------- Let "people" be Universe. "Thou canst not hit it. i.No m are x'. Pain is wearisome. No pain is eagerly wished for. m="passionate". Some y are m. hit it. Thou canst not hit it. 7. 60. Some skates can swim. p. HIT OR MISS. All m are x'.e. Some y are m. All thoughtless people do mischief. 2. --------------| | | | ---|--| | | 0 | 0 | | 32.

Graceful animals delight the eye. No one can sing who has a cold. All merchants are generous. All unwise men walk on their hands. Some bridges are picturesque. All industrious people are happy. . 8. All pine-apples are nice. Senna is a medicine. 5. No antelope is ungraceful. No pins are ambitious. 6. No silent creatures are amusing. All these riddles are insoluble. I do not like John. No pokers are soft. 7. 15. Some of my friends like John. Some people use ink in writing books. All wise men walk on their feet. 16. Some oysters are silent. 18. No needles are pins. No frogs write books. 14. No unhappy people chuckle. Some uncles are ungenerous. 19. 17. No bridges are made of sugar." 13. This quarrel is no business of yours. John is industrious. 9. All my friends have colds. Some dishes are unwholesome if not well-cooked.4. No happy people groan. "Mind your own business. 20. All pillows are soft. 12. All these dishes are well-cooked. No potatoes are pine-apples. 10. 11. No riddles interest me that can be solved. No medicine is nice.

No Professors are ignorant. All wasps are unfriendly. All my friends are old millers. 28. 27. All improbable stories are doubted. Inaudible music is not worth paying for. No lambs are terrible. Some ignorant people are conceited. Toothache is never pleasant. Oatmeal is a kind of flour. No old misers are cheerful. 30.21. "He told me you had gone away. 29. 22. No old Jews are fat millers. Some old misers are thin. 23. Audible music causes vibration in the air. Unwholesome food should be avoided. No rich man begs in the street. that lasts an hour. 36. His songs never last an hour. Warmth is never unpleasant. No bride-cakes are wholesome. Some dishonest people are found out. All puppies are friendly. 34. 35. 24. All ducks waddle. 32." "He never says one word of truth. No thieves are honest. 25. 33. is tedious. . None of these stories are probable. He gave me five pounds." 31. Flour is good for food. 26. Some dreams are terrible. I was delighted. A song. All who are not rich should keep accounts. Nothing that waddles is graceful.

nothing beyond endurance has ever happened to me." 45. None but misers save egg-shells. No judges are unjust. No reasonable creatures expect impossibilities. 48. Bores are terrible. 49. Some old men are not generous. Any oyster may be crossed in love. 42. All stiles can be surmounted. 51. No fossils can be crossed in love. . 43. No lobsters are unreasonable. All my cousins are unjust. 40. "This is beyond endurance!" "Well. No banker is imprudent.37. Some mountains are insurmountable. 50. No kind deed is unlawful. No Frenchmen like plumpudding. All these students are educated. is infested by dragons. that has been explored. 39. Unexplored countries are fascinating. 46. 44. No original work is producible at will. Some painters are not idle. No misers are generous. No misers are unselfish. What is lawful may be done without fear. You are a bore. All uneducated men are shallow. 41. A prudent man shuns hyaenas. All Englishmen like plumpudding. 47. Some poetry is original. No idlers win fame. No country. 38.

59. 67. What is useless on a journey should be left behind. All wasps are unfriendly. 66. No puppies are unfriendly. 58. No industrious people are unhappy. He called here yesterday. All spiders spin webs. All judges are just." "All newspapers tell lies. Richard is out of temper. Imprudent travellers lose their luggage. Some creatures. All jokes are meant to amuse. No one but Richard can ride that horse. are savage.52. 56. Some pillows are soft. that do not spin webs. None of my cousins are just. Prudent travellers carry plenty of small change. 54. No pokers are soft. 63. John is industrious. No one. 55. 65. 62. No eventful journey is ever forgotten. No Act of Parliament is a joke. looks poetical. 53. He is no friend of mine. . I am old and lame. Unpleasant experiences are not anxiously desired. Uneventful journeys are not worth writing a book about. who is not pale. Some sweet things are liked by children. Sugar is sweet. No old merchant is a lame gambler." 64. All pale people are phlegmatic. Umbrellas are useful on a journey. 57. No nightmare is pleasant. 61. "I saw it in a newspaper. 60.

Bores are dreaded. Some lessons are difficult. A bore is never begged to prolong his visit. 72. 71. Some sweet things are unwholesome. Some grasses are blades. No pills are unmedicinal. No military men write poetry. No uncooked meat is served at dinner. 82. No muffins are sweet. 76. Neither you nor I are old. No unexpected pleasure annoys me. like walking. Some excuses are unsatisfactory. All buns are nice. No medicine is nice. Some pigs are wild.68. Nothing but gold will silence him. 79. No quadrupeds can whistle. . 75. 74. No dictatorial person is popular. No generals are civilians. What is difficult needs attention. All dentists are dreaded by children. All judges are just. Gold is heavy. 70. 73. 83. Your visit is an unexpected pleasure. She is dictatorial. No cooked meat is sold by butchers. 69. 77. No emperors are dentists. All blades are sharp. All my cousins are unjust. who are not old. All. Some buns are rich. 78. All owls are satisfactory. There are no pigs that are not fat. 80. 81. 84. Some cats are quadrupeds.

Weasels sometimes sleep. 88. Everybody has seen a pig. if there is one:-92. 87. Nobody admires a pig. No bankrupts are rich. Some merchants are not bankrupts. if you like. that no old sailors ever like gruel!" "But I thought. "It was most absurd of you to offer it! You might have known. All I know is. MY uncles are all old men: and they like gruel like anything!" "Well. 86. 91. Jones is eloquent. Unfriendly creatures are always unwelcome. is a very savage animal: and there are certain individuals among them. 89. Caterpillars are not eloquent. though I will not guarantee it as a general law. Railways are never illmanaged. then YOUR uncles are--" . who do not drink coffee. indeed! Stuff!" "You may call it stuff. ______________ Extract a Pair of Premisses out of each of the following: and deduce the Conclusion." 93. Some bald people wear wigs. All wasps are unfriendly. as he was an uncle of yours--" "An uncle of mine.85. All animals sometimes sleep. if you had had any sense. as any one can tell you who has been chased by them as often as I have. 90. Ill-managed concerns are unprofitable. "The Lion. All your children have hair.

Brown?" "Why. don't you see that it's absurd to call him a miserly merchant? Either he's not a merchant. but I've heard you talk about Browning's poetry: and that showed me that you're METAPHYSICAL. isn't he very rich?" "Yes. "Do come away! I can't stand this squeezing any more." "Why. further down the street. No crowded shops are comfortable." "Well. And what then?" "Why. of course! And I'm sure there are some shops. how do you make THAT out? You never heard me play the organ. you know very well. So--" 95. out shopping?" "Why. that are not crowded. "They say no doctors are metaphysical organists: and that lets me into a little fact about YOU. "It IS so kind of you to enquire! I'm really feeling a great deal better . or he's not a miser!" 97. you know. of course he is. "Don't talk to me! I've known more rich merchants than you have: and I can tell you not ONE of them was ever an old miser since the world began!" "And what has that got to do with old Mr." "No. doctor. So--" ___________________ Extract a Syllogism out of each of the following: and test its correctness:-96.94. who expects to be comfortable. I do. at any rate.

and what does THAT prove." "Well. at this distance! I grant you they're all RED flowers: it doesn't need a telescope to know THAT. if you'd the sense to follow an argument! But what's the good of proving anything to YOU. aren't they?" "I don't deny it. I don't like you one bit. that feels better after taking his medicine!" 98. The Doctor has given me some of that patent medicine of his. who ever said they were?" 99." "Well. "Boys. DOLLS are never unkind. And what then? I suppose you'll be telling me some of those flowers are geraniums!" "Of course that's what I should tell you." "And is it Nature. "No.to-day." "Well. I should like to know?" 100. I think. "What are you talking about geraniums for? You can't tell one flower from another. I'll never call him a humbug again. that is to have the credit of this happy change?" "Art. or Art. And I'll go and play with my doll. some geraniums are red. I'd like to know! If you mean that cousins aren't dolls. at any rate. you've passed a fairly good examination." "So you like a doll better than a cousin? Oh you little silly!" "Of course I do! COUSINS are never kind--at least no cousins I've ever seen. There's SOMEBODY. all things .

One's got no memory afterwards. And money's not to be had. in the way of lessons. Of course that doesn't do unless children are HEALTHY: I quite allow THAT. Sir. you should never give them more than six hours altogether at lessons in the day. And that's EXACTLY our plan I can assure you! We never go . who are really anxious to learn. worth speaking of. their cheeks bloom like peonies! Well. at least. in the name of my scholars! And proud am I to think there are SOME of them. that are really ANXIOUS to learn. "Well. And only just look at my darlings! Why. without money's worth: they must WORK if they want to live. Well. Now let me give you a word of advice before I go. that have to learn. that is. So those. there's no place for ignorance in THESE times! And all authorities agree that the time to learn is when you're young. with her children. work HARD. It is supposed to be spoken by a fond mother. And how are they to work. must learn when they're young." "I thank you. Remember that all.considered." "Very glad to hear it: and how do you make it out to be so?" "Why. A child will learn more in an hour than a grown man in five. the doctor tells me no children are healthy unless they've got a good colour in their cheeks. in answer to a friend's cautious suggestion that she is perhaps a LITTLE overdoing it. as YOU know. to keep children in health. Who should know better?" ___________________ Extract from the following speech a series of Syllogisms. I know how hard they work--some of them. Sir. now. they tell me that. or arguments having the form of Syllogisms: and test their correctness. they've got their own way to make in the world. if they don't know anything? Take my word for it. if ever they're to learn at all. and at least two half-holidays in the week. WE can't leave them a fortune apiece. 101.

I promise you!" THE END. The Game of Logic.beyond six hours. and every Wednesday and Saturday.net/ . by Lewis Carroll A free ebook from http://manybooks. as ever is. not one syllable of lessons do they do after their one o'clock dinner! So how you can imagine I'm running any risk in the education of my precious pets is more than I can understand.