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Wataru Sekiguchi* Koji Matsui* Tatang Juhatta* Dewi Rahmalia*

ABSTRACT Seven vertical wells, aiming at the late Jurassic sand reservoir, were drilled in the Abadi field. In the past drilling campaigns, some of the wells encountered the drilling difficulties such as excessive drill string vibration and tight hole in the Woodbine group, the Tertiary carbonate formation. The excessive vibration caused the BHA twist-off in two wells. The tight hole, observed as frequent drags of the drill string, resulted in casing running problems in two wells. After reviewing the observation of the 3D seismic attributes around the wells, it is found that the zones of these troubles tends to located in karst, channel, fault and kink band near fault tip. Therefore, it is helpful to check not only variance (or coherence) attribute, but also dip, azimuth and its derivative "dip across fault trend" attributes to make well trajectory keeping away from these geological features. It is expected to be helpful to plan more efficient and safer drilling in the Tertiary carbonate in this field. INTRODUCTION Seven vertical wells, aiming at the late Jurassic sand reservoir, have been drilled in the Abadi field. In the past drilling campaigns, some of the wells encountered the drilling difficulties such excessive drill string vibration and tight hole in the Woodbine group, the Tertiary carbonate formation. The excessive vibration caused a part of the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) twisted off in two wells. The tight hole, observed as frequent drags of the drill string, resulted in casing running problems in two wells. There troubles forced side tracks twice. In many deep water oil and gas fields, 3D seismic data is utilized to assess the subsurface geologic hazards such as faults, gas-charged sediments, buried
* INPEX Masela, Ltd.

channels, over-pressured formation etc., and avoid to drill such risky geologic features (Haskell et al., 1999, Rader and Medvin, 2002, Dutta et al., 2010). Many of the quantitative method rely on the seismic amplitude relating to the rock and fluid properties. The curvature attributes, the derivative of structure dip, are also used to detect sub-seismic fracture (Roberts 2001, Al-Dossary and Marfurt 2006, Chopra and Marfurt, 2007, Yenugu et al., 2010). The qualitative method rely on the geological patterns mainly in coherence attribute. In this paper, the authors attempt to qualitatively extract the geologic features which potentially causes drilling difficulties such as the vibration and tight hole in the Tertiary carbonate formation in this field. The 3D seismic attributes such as variance, dip and azimuth around the existing boreholes are utilized. GEOLOGIC SETTING The Abadi field (Figure.1) lies within the North of the Bonaparte Basin, on the Sahul Platform at the eastern end of the Sunrise-Troubadour High. The Timor Trough lies to 50km north. The water depth in the existing wells ranges from 400 to 700m. The Woodbine group carbonate, the Puffin sand, the Wangarlu shale, the Jamieson carbonate and the Echuca Shoals shale formations lie above the Plover sand reservoir. The thickness of the Woodbine group is 1700m on average in the existing wells. This is mainly consist from three layers (Figure 2). The lower, middle, upper layers correspond to the Paleocene to Oligocene, Miocene, late Miocene to Present day respectively. Carbonate is dominant in the lower and middle layers. NE-SW trending faults have been produced in these layers and some of them are reached sea bottom. The horizontal distance of these faults are approximately 2km and the fault dip is up to 80 degree in the middle layer. The faults in the middle part clearly show throw and en-echelon and

over-steps pattern laterally in the 3D seismic. The faults in the lower part frequently show kink band feature so that the throw is not always clear in the 3D seismic. These were initially generated by the Australia-Banda arc continental collision in Timor at Neogene. There were three geological events relating to the tilting due to Timor tough development after late Eocene in this region (Honda et al. 2006). The development process and system of these faults in North-West Australia Shelf are related to the reactivation of the Mesozoic fault systems (Frankowicz and McClay, 2010, Amir et al, 2010). The geo-mechanical analysis, conducted by INPEX based on FMI data, leak off test and core measurement such as uniaxial compression strength for the Plover formation at the Abadi wells, indicates that Shmax azimuth ranges from 32 to 59 degree and the maximum horizontal stress Shmax larger than vertical stress Sv in the Abadi field. This is generally consistent with the present-day regional stress. In the Woodbine group, the karst and channel structures are well-developed partly. DRILLING EXPERIENCES The seven wells were drilled in the three drilling campaigns. The well locations were chosen to avoid shallow faults with visible throw in 3D seismic besides main exploration and appraisal objectives for the Plover sand reservoir. The riser-less drilling was adopted for the Woodbine group to minimize any lost circulation in the potentially high porosity and permeability carbonate formation. Sea water was pumped into the hole while drilling and high viscosity material was pumped to sweep the hole clean. TCI Bit, roller reamer and mud motor were installed to BHA to minimize drill string vibration. The vibration sensor, gamma ray and resistivity LWD tools were installed in BHA for real time monitoring. The troubles due to excessive vibration and drags in the Woodbine carbonate happened in the 3rd drilling campaign (Figure 3). In the 1st and 2nd drilling campaign, Abadi-1, Abadi-2 and Abadi-3. the bit size for this formation was 17-1/2". In the 3rd drilling campaign, the bit size of the first three wells, Abadi-4, Abadi-5 and Abadi-7 wells, was changed to 16" to attempt to enhance the BHA stabilization and the hole cleaning efficiency by increasing annular velocity in the hole. The hole size of the Abadi-6 was backed to 17-1/2" again to reduce casing drags,

which frequently happened in the Abadi-5 and Abadi-7. The Abadi-4 operation, the hole was initially drilled with 30 to 40 string RPM (Rotation Per Minute) and then increased to 100 to 110 below 1000mMD. Due to the survey data showed the indication of building hole angle, lower weight on bit and increased string RPM over 110 (140 was reported in the drilling report but not recorded in the data) was applied to maintain hole verticality below 1879mMD. The excessive vibration over 60G occurred and continued about 200m, then the BHA was finally twisted off at 2106mMD. Tight hole condition were observed while fishing run in the excessive vibration zone. The Abadi-5 operation, the 2nd well, the hole was started to drill with 75RPM at the shallow interval. The RPM was decreased to 40 toward deeper, then the vibration was successfully decreased than the previous well. But many tight hole issues were experienced then the 13-3/8" casing was hung up while RIH. It was however recovered and successfully set after wiper trip. In the 3rd well, the Abadi-7 operation, the hole was initially drilled with string RPM 60 then steadily reduced to 40. But the lateral vibration started to increase below 1460mMD then reached up to 130G. The high vibration continued over 500m even low string RPM was applied then the BHA was finally twisted off (at 2125mMD). Severe tight hole problems were experienced in the subsequent trips. The 13-3/8" casing was finally got stuck. In the 4th well, Abadi-6 operation, the bit size was changed to 17-1/2". The hole was drilled with string RPM 55 then reduced to 50 toward deeper. The lateral vibration occasionally reached to 45G but generally the level was not significant and the section was drilled through without serious trouble. The occurrence of drags was significantly reduced from the previous wells drilled with 16" bits. WELL DATA The vibration data and drag record are utilized to distinguish the problematic intervals from the non-problematic intervals since the excessive vibration and the frequent drags were followed by the BHA twist-off and casing hung up and stuck in the past drilling operation. The vibration was acquired measured by LWD tool as acceleration. The unit is gravitational constant [G]. It has two lateral components X, Y and vertical component Z. Each component was logged its average and peak in regular time interval. In this study, the lateral peak is mainly observed to distinguish the problematic intervals. The vibration was acquired by the same service company except Abadi-1. The Abadi-1 data

is not used for this study. The depth of the drags are picked up from the daily drilling operation report. 3D SEISMIC ATTRIBUTES Pre-stack time migrated 3D seismic volumes are utilized for this study. The data was acquired in 2001 and reprocessed in 2006. The two way time of the Woodbine group is from 0.8 to 2.0 sec. The amplitude in this interval is affected by the acquisition foot print but the quality of the interval is generally good. The center frequency in this interval is 35Hz. The original trace interval is 12.5m and 25.0m for inline and cross line direction respectively. The interval is decimated to 25m by 25m prior to calculate the seismic attributes. PETREL(TM) is used to calculate the seismic attribute volumes. The variance, dip and azimuth are calculated (Figure 4). The dip and azimuth attributes are calculated with the principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm. In addition, Dip Across Fault (DAF) attribute is calculated by the following equation. DAF = * cos(-o) where, is dip attribute, is azimuth attribute and o is main fault dip direction. The DAF represents the structure dip perpendicular to the main fault trend. The variance is superior to visualize karst, channel and fault with visible throw in seismic amplitude volume. The DAF is superior to visualize kink band around faults three-dimensionally, which is not always clear in the variance attribute (Figure 5).

after the borehole passed through the Woodbine group. Abadi-4 (Figure 7) is one of the cases of the severe vibration due to the kink band and karst. The peak lateral vibration was suddenly got to 50G then remained about 30G till 1840ms after the borehole reached kink band near the major fault tip. The most excessive vibration over 200G occurred when the borehole reached karst layer in the kink band. It continued until the BHA was finally twisted-off (2090mMD). Abadi-3 (Figure 8) is the typical case of the minor vibration. The lateral peak vibration slightly increased around 1460ms only when the borehole reached minor channel. Abadi-5 (Figure 8) is the considerable case of the minor vibration. When the borehole entered into the karst and minor fault, the vibration kept small. Abadi-7 (Figure 9) is the most complicated faulted segment among the seven wells. The borehole obviously went through the structure such as channel, fault and kink band which can be interpreted as relay ramp. Therefore, the geologic features in the high vibration zone are summarized as follows. 1) Karst, channel and fault where the structures are heterogeneous, 2) Kink band, where stress is concentrated around fault tip or sub-seismic faults are possibly developed. Drags

STRUCTURE FEATURE AROUND THE BOREHOLES Drill String Vibration As a result of the review of the structure feature around these boreholes, it is found that the vibration became higher while drilling in karst, channel, fault and kink band. Abadi-2 (Figure 6) is the model case of the vibration due to fault, karst and kink band. The peak lateral vibration got to 20G (1355ms) when the borehole reached the adjacent fault. Then the level was decreasing toward deeper once, but increase again up to 90G (1560ms) when the hole entered into karst. The vibration became smaller after decreasing the string RPM and passing through the karst zone (1740ms). But it increased again when the borehole reached the kink band. The vibration got to 70G at maximum (1830ms). The vibration decreased again

The frequency of the drag occurrence in the 17-1/2" hole is obviously smaller than 16" hole. Many of the intermittent drags tend to happen where the high vibration occurred in 16" hole. It means some of the root causes is same as the high vibration. These tend to occur where the geological structure is rather heterogeneous due to fault, karst or channels. The interval in the Abadi-5 from 1660mMD to 1860mMD is near karst. The interval in the Abadi-7 below 1450mMD is near channel, karst and fault. The drags at the Abadi-5 above 1600mMD and the Abadi-7 above 1400mMD are difficult to explain by such geological heterogeneity. There is no karst and channel features. The faults are still few hundred meter away and the damaged zone should be smaller than the distance. It however can be explained by the hole cleaning condition instead. For example, when the borehole at Abadi-7 reached 1734mMD, the Remote Ocean Vehicle (ROV), standing by on the water button, observed that the returns at the

wellhead were stopped. The borehole is near channel and fault at this depth. This was supposed lost circulation occurred through fault or channel. Once it happened, the hole condition was getting worse since many drill cuttings were not cleaned out from the well effectively. The same thing might happen at the Abadi-5 after drilling karst, but there was no determinate data since the lost circulation was only detected visually by ROV observation at wellhead. DISCUSSION The drags tend to happen the heterogeneous structure such as karst, channel and fault. Once such structures are drilled, the hole cleaning efficiency is also reduced due to the lost circulation and it causes drags even above the interval. The high vibrations are partly explained operation-wise such as the higher string RPM of the Abadi-2 above 1610mMD and the Abadi-4. In addition, the vibration tends to happen not only in the heterogeneous formation such as karst, channel, fault and fracture but also the stressed formation such as fault tips. The cause-and-effect relation between the geologic features and the vibration is unclear. It however can be assumed that once rock blocks and chunks fall into the borehole and jammed between the borehole and drill string, it causes vibration. The number of the debris is increased if the structure surrounding the borehole is heterogeneous and stressed. In the Abadi-4, the en-echelon type faults in the upper Woodbine group converged into the kink band in the lower Woodbine group. The Abadi-4 borehole is located in the fault tip, which is observed as the edge of the kink band in the 3D seismic. The azimuth of Shmax derived from FMI image analysis at the Abadi-4 is 32 degree and it is parallel to the fault strike though the azimuth of the other wells are about 55 degree. It is because the azimuth of the Shmax is affected by the existing fault (Figure 10). The Shmax tends to concentrate around the fault tip then the magnitude become larger than the surrounding area. If the borehole reached the heterogeneous formation under the stress, the frequency of fallen rock blocks and chunks into the borehole is accelerated by the stress and the vibration is getting higher. On the other hand, for example, the Abadi-5 was located far from the edge of these faults. These faults are more continuous vertically and parallel laterally than the Abadi-4. Therefore, the stress does not concentrate around the well so that the borehole is rather stable while drilling. But the drags happened frequently since the karst and faults nearby causing lost circulation, reduce the hole cleaning efficiency. The

Abadi-7 is probably affected by such heterogeneity and stress same as Abadi-4. Abadi-2 and Abadi-6 is influenced by the less stress since the throw and length of the kink band around the well has minor throw and length. Abadi-3 is the most homogeneous and less stressed structure. CONCLUSION The risk of the BHA twist-off and lost circulation increase in proportion to the existence of the geological features along well trajectory as follows. 1) Karst, Channel and Fault, where the formation is heterogeneous or disturbed, 2) Fault tips, where stress tends to concentrate or sub-seismic faults are developed. Item 1 potentially increases a risk of drags caused by insufficient hole cleaning due to lost circulation. These are visualized well in 3D seismic attribute such as variance or coherence. Item 2 can act as damage acceleration factor of borehole wall by concentrated stress, which probably increase rock blocks and chunks fallen into the hole and cause drill string vibration. Faults should be carefully accessed by not only variance or coherence but also dip, azimuth and its derivative DAF attribute especially around the tips if the planned well is located near faults. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to express their sincere thanks for INPEX Corporation and EMP's acceptance to the publication of this paper. BPMIGAS generously permitted our publication of the data from MASELA PSC.

REFERENCE CITED Amir, V., Hall, R. and Elders C.F., Structural Evolution of the northern Bonaparte basin, Northwest shelf Australia: Proceedings, Indonesian Petroleum Association, Thirty-Fourth Annual Convention & Exhibition, May 2010. Al-Dossary, S. and Marfurt, K.J., 2006, 3D volumetric multispectral estimates of reflector curvature and rotation: Geophysics, 71, 5, 41-51. Chopra, S., Marfurt, K., 2007, Curvature attribute applications to 3D surface seismic data: The Leading Edge, 26, 4, 404-414. Frankowicz, E and McClay, K.R., 2010, Extensional fault segmentation and linkages, Bonaparte Basin,

outher North West Shelf, Australia: AAPG Bulletin, 94, 7, 977-1010. Haskell N., Nissen, S., Hughes, M., Grindhaug, J., Dhanani, S., Heath, R., Kantorowicz, J., Antrim, L., Cubanski, M., Nataraj, R., Schilly, M. and Wigger, S., 1999, Delineation of geologic drilling hazards using 3-D seismic attributes: The Leading Edge, 18, 3, 373-382. Honda, H., Kobayashi, H, Ando, T., Kihara, K. and Banjarnahor, H., 2006, History of the Timor Trough, West Arafura Sea and movement of the Australian Plate: Jakarta 2006 International Geoscience Conference and Exhibition. Dutta, N.C., Utech, R.W. and Shelander D., 2010, Role of 3D seismic for quantitative shallow hazard

assessment in deepwater sediments: The Leading Edge, 29, 8, 930-942. Rader, B and Medvin, E., 2002, Shallow hazard detection in the near surface, a coherence cube processing application: The Leading Edge, 21, 7, 672-674. Roberts, A., 2001, Curvature attributes and their application to 3D interpreted horizons: First Break, 19, 2, 85-100. Yenugu, M., Ray, A.K., Biswal, S and Dutta A., 2010, Applications of Curvature Attributes in reducing the Drilling Risk - A Case History: 2010 SEGY Denver 2010 Annual Meeting.


Figure 1 - Structural and stratigraphic montage in and around the Abadi- field. (a) Location Map. (b) The Abadi field depth structure map (top Jurassic Plover Formation). (c) Regional depth structure map (Base Cretaceous Jamiesion Formation) with the Mesozoic tectonic elements. d) Stratigraphic columnar section on the Abadi field.

Figure 2 - 3D seismic section and attributes in the Woodbine group in the Abadi field. (a) Seismic section for the Tertiary Carbonate. Blue horizon: Top Miocene. Green horizon: Base Miocene. Magenta: Base Tertiary. (b) Channels in the variance attribute horizon slice. (c) Karsts in the variance attribute horizon slice. (d) En-echelon faults in the upper Woodbine group above the green horizon. (e) Faults in the lower Woodbine group below the green horizon.

Figure 3 - Composite log of the Woodbine group in the Abadi field. The second well (Abadi-2) to seventh well (Abadi-6) in the past drilling campaigns from left to right. For each column: (left) Drill string rpm. (middle) Lateral peak vibration. The gray color fill and black color fill mean below and above 30G respectively. (right) Depth of the drill string drag. Severe vibration happened in the Abaid-4 and Abadi-7 and frequency drags happened in the Abadi-5 and Abadi-7.

Figure 4 - Time structure and the seismic attributes on it indicating the Tertiary carbonate structure feature. (a) Time structure. (b) Dip. (c) Azimuth. (d) Variance. (e) Dip Across Fault trend "DAF". (f) 3D view of the seismic section and an time structure superimposed DAF. Red and blue indicates south-east and north-west steeper dip across fault respectively.

Figure 5 - Seismic sections with an fault interpretation. (a) Reflection. (b) Variance. (c) DAF indicating kink bands of the lower Tertiary formation which is not always clear in the variance.

Figure 6 - Abadi-2 lateral vibration, drags and structure feature in the Tertiary formation. (a) Seismic section around Abadi-2 across main fault strike direction. The log is RPM. Green and red means below and above 30G. Drags happened on the white boxes. (b) Variance at 1355ms indicating fault on the well location. (c) Variance at 1620ms indicating karsts. (d) DAF at 1700ms. (e) DAF at 1850ms indication minor kink band.

Figure 7 - Abadi-4 lateral vibration, drags and structure feature in the Tertiary formation. (a) Seismic section around Abadi-3 across main fault strike direction. (b) DAF at 1600ms indicating kink band 500m away from the well. (c) DAF at 1680ms indicating kink band near the well. (d) DAF at 1850ms indicating the edge of the kink band on the well. (e) Variance at 1850ms indicating channel. (f) Variance at 1920ms indicating karst. (g) 3D view of these time slices.

Figure 8 - Abadi-3 and Abadi-5 lateral vibration, drags and structure feature in the Tertiary formation. (a) Seismic section around Abadi-4 across main fault strike direction. (b) Variance at 1470ms indicating minor channel on the well. (c) Seismic section around Abadi-5 across main fault strike direction. (d) Variance at 1840ms indicating karsts and faults on the well.

Figure 9 - Abadi-7 lateral vibration, drags and structure feature in the Tertiary formation. (a) Seismic section around Abadi-7 across main fault strike direction. (b) DAF at 1470ms indicating edge of fault around the well. (c) Variance at 1560ms indicating channel and fault on the well. (d) DAF at 1650ms indicating the edge of the kink band on the well. (e) DFA at 1800ms indicating relay ramp.

Figure 10 - The fault trends in the Tertiary carbonate and Shmax. (a) The upper Tertiary fault trend from variance (black), the lower Tertiary kink band and fault trend (red and blue) with Shmax derived from FMI image analysis in the Jurassic sand reservoir. (b) Abadi-4 fault trends and Shmax. (c) Explanation of the Abadi-4 Shmax. The azimuth of the Shmax becomes parallel to the fault trend.