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Prisms

Elements of Prisms D F A C B B E

1. A plane of ABC is called the base of the prism. Meanwhile, the plane of DEF is called the top of the prism. 2. Planes that intersect the base of prism are ACFD, ABED, and BCFE which are called lateral sides. 3. The base, top, and lateral sides are called the face of prism. 4. Every two lateral faces make a lateral edge. Between a lateral face and the base makes a base edge. In figure, AD and BE are examples of lateral edges. 5. The distance between the top and the base is the altitude of the prism. 6. Every two edges meet on a vertex. In the figure, points A, B, C, D, E, and F are vertices. 7. Between the base and the lateral face make a plane of diagonal. Examples of plane of diagonal are AE, BF, CD, BD, CE, and AF. 8. The segment made by two crossing vertices is called a spce diagonal. A prism is named by the shape of its base. If the base is a triangle, then it is called a triangular prism. Generally, if the base of prism is an n-sided shape, then it is called an n-sided based prism. It the base is a regular n-sided share or a polygon, it is called a regular n-side based prism. The net of the triangular prism can be seen in the following figure.

The net of prism consists of same areas of the all sides which is the sides of the prism.DEF and next to it is the net. It is a triangular prism. The figure shows a triangular right prism of ABC.Surface Area of Prisms F C c b t D B B E A a Consider the figure at left. The sum of the area of all sides of the prism is called the surface area of the prism. The surface area of the prism = = = = L +L +L +L +L L∆ABC + L∆DEF + bt + ct + at the are of the base + the area of the top + (a+b+c) t (2 x the area of the base) + (the perimeter of the base x altitude) The surface area of a prism = (2 x the area of the base) + (the perimeter of the base x altitude) Volume of Prisms The volume of a prism can be calculated by the formula of : Volume = the area of the base × altitude Consider the figure at left. Therefore. Determine the volume of the prism if the altitude is 15 cm ! Solution: The volume of the prism = the area of base × altitude = = × AC × BC × t × 9 × 12 × 15 = 810 . the volume of the prism is t Volume = the area of the base × altitude = × AC × BC × t Example The base of a triangular prism is a right angle triangle with lenght of the legs are 9 cm and 12 cm. The base and the top are right angle triangles.

EFGH is a length units. we are going to find the length of diagonal AC. vertex A and vertex C is connected by segment of AC. The line of AC is an example of diagonal of the face ABCD of the cube ABCD. C. then the cube is called a cube of ABCD. and H. The edge of AB is the intersection between faces of ABFE and ABCD.EFGH is √ length units. AC² = AC = √ =√ =√ = √ Thus. In the figure.EFGH. Edges of Cube The edges of AB and CD are parallel to each other and are on the same plane. Face of the Cube The base is ABCD and the top is EFGH.EFGH. G. b. F. and Diagonal Plane of a Cube 1. the vertices on the base are respectively A. Suppose the length of the edge of the cube ABCD. They are perpendicular to each othher. and D. Say. Diagonal of a Face Consider the cube at right. then use the Pythagorean theorem and found the following relation.Cubes H E F G D C A cube may be viewed as a square prism in which the lateral faces are also squares. Element of a Cube a. Meanwhile. the edge of CD is the intersection between faces of ABCD and CDHG. . A cube is named according to the label of the vertices. Say. 2. Diagonal of a Cube. You may have seen the relation between sides AB and BC. Now. and the vertices on the top are respectively E. consider the position of faces ABCD and BCGF. Diagonal of Faces. A B 1. the diagonal of the face of the cube ABCD. The face of ABCD is parallel to the face of EFGH. B.

Surface Area and Volume of Cube 1. 3. 3. segment of AG is an example of the diagonal of cube ABCD. Consider the figure at right. is the surface area of a cube and is the side length of the cube. Since AC is the diagonal of the face cube ABCD. Diagonal of a Cube In the figure ar right.EFGH. √ √( √ ) √ √ √ Thus. Surface Area of a Cube You should have known that a cube is a specific of prism. and ADGF. then ( ( ) ) ( ) is ( ) So. Volume of Cube The formula to find the volume of a cube is : Volume = area of the base height = = So.EFGH is √ length units. Diagonal of a Plane A diagonal of a plane is a plane connecting the parallel and facing edges whereas these edges are on different sides.EFGH. the surface area of the cube with side length of 2. Therefore. Let. . the surface area of a cube can be calculate using the formula of the surface area of a prism. Therefore. The plane of ABGH is an example of diagonal of a plane in the cube of ABCD.2. Another examples are planes of EFCD. the volume of cube is . then the length of AC is √ length units. BCHE.EFGH. the diagonal length of the cube ABCD.

♦ KL. Diagonal of Face. QR. PQ. √ √ √ √ √ √ Therefore. MR. and SN named height of the rectangular prism ♦ The edges of KL and MN are examples of parallel edges ♦ The edges of KL and LQ are examples of perpendicular edges ♦ The faces of KLMN and PQRS are examples of parallel faces ♦ The faces of KLMN and LMRQ are examples of perpendicular face 2. and Diagonal Plane of a Rectangular Prism 1. and PS named width of the rectangular prism ♦ LQ. Diagonal of a Face Consider the rectangular prism at right. MN. you may find its parts are as follows. depend on where the face.Rectangular Prisms 1. Let the length. Diagonal of a Rectangular Prism. width and height of the rectangular prism of KLMN. t l p . you may have the following relation. and RS named length of face rectangular prism ♦ LM. Parts of a Rectangular Prism In a rectangular prism. you found that the length of the diagonal of the face of a rectangular prism are different.PQRS are and . Using the Pythagorean theorem. KN. KP.

Volume of Rectangular Prisms The volume of a rectangular prism may be calculated using the formula of the volume of a prism.PQRS. Thus. In the regtangular prism KLMN. Diagonal of a Rectangular Prism In the rectngular prism. Diagonal of Plane Consider the rectangular prism at right. Surface Area and Volume of Rectangular Prisms 1.2. the base area ( ) height . Surface Area of Rectangular Prisms The surface area of a rectangular prism may be calculated using the formula of the surface area of a prism. the length of the diagonal KR is √ p l t 3.PQRS.PQRS. KR is one of the diagonal of a rectangular prism KLMN. a plane of LQSN is sketched and shaded. This plane is diagonal of a plane in the rectangular prism KLMN. The length of AG may be found as follows. √ √( ) √ . t l p 3. (2 area of the base) + (perimeter of base plane height) [ ( )] [ ( ) ] ( ) 2. So.

ABCD .ABCD at right. T. and T. Surface Area of Pyramids You can define the surface area of a pyramid as the sum of the area of all of its side.ADHE + volume of pyrmid T. Parts of a Pyramid A pyramid has the following parts. The point of aliance angle of triangle tops named the top point. The ditance from the top of the pyramid to the base plane named height. Triangle regions. area of + (area of + area of + area of + area of ) base area + the sum of lateral triangles.ABFE + volume of pyrmid T.Pyramids Definition: A pyrmid is a polyhedron that has a polygon base and triangles as the laterl faces.ABFE.BCGF.EFGH + volume of pyrmid T. Polygon region.BCGF + volume of pyrmid T.EFGH intersect on point of T and therefore the diagonal make six squares based pyramids in which T is the top point.CDHG.ABCD + volume of pyrmid T. The pyramids are T.EFGH = volume of pyrmid T. named planes of standing side or called as stnding side. T. these pyramids have square bases and thus their height is a half of the edge of the cube. Consider the figure of pyramid T. The edges that passing throught the top of pyramid named standing edge. you get the following relationship. Then.CDHG = 6 volume of pyramid T.ADHE. Let L is surface area of a pyrmid.EFGH. Based on this. The diagonals of cube ABCD. T. the formula can be generated as follows. Volume of Pyramid Consider the figure at right. named base plane or called as base. The volume of cube ABCD. T.ABCD.

In other words.ABCD volume of cube ABCD.EFGH ( ( ( ) ) ) ( ) area of ABCD base area height . The volume of pyrmid T.

Polyhedral

Polyhedral

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