Mastering
*

SAT Math
Jerry Bobrow, Ph.D.
Contributing Authors Dale Johnson, M.A. Joe Skinner, M.A.

the

*SAT is a registered trademark of the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product.

About the Author Jerry Bobrow, Ph.D., is a national authority in the field of test preparation. As executive director of Bobrow Test Preparation Services, he has been administering the test preparation programs at more than 25 California institutions for the past 30 years. Dr. Bobrow has authored more than 30 national best-selling test preparation books, and his books and programs have assisted more than two million test-takers. Each year, Dr. Bobrow personally lectures to thousands of students on preparing for graduate, college, and teacher credentialing exams. Author’s Acknowledgments I would like to thank Dr. Suzanne Snyder, of Wiley, for her assistance and careful attention to the production process. Finally, I would like to thank my wife, Susan; daughter, Jennifer; and sons, Adam and Jonathan, for their patience, moral support, and comic relief.
Mastering the SAT®: Math Published by: Wiley Publishing, Inc. 111 River Street Hoboken, NJ 07030-5774 www.wiley.com Copyright © 2007 Jerry Bobrow, Ph.D. Published by Wiley, Hoboken, NJ Published simultaneously in Canada

Publisher’s Acknowledgments Editorial Project Editor: Suzanne Snyder Acquisitions Editor: Greg Tubach Copy Editor: Tere Stouffer Production Proofreader: Henry Lazarek Wiley Publishing, Inc. Composition Services

Note: If you purchased this book without a cover, you should be aware that this book is stolen property. It was reported as “unsold and destroyed” to the publisher, and neither the author nor the publisher has received any payment for this “stripped book.”

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Bobrow, Jerry. Mastering the SAT : math / by Jerry Bobrow. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-0-470-03660-0 (alk. paper) ISBN-10: 0-470-03660-5 (alk. paper) 1. Mathematics—Examinations—Study guides. 2. Mathematics—Examinations, questions, etc. 3. SAT (Educational test)—Study guides. 4. Universities and colleges—United States—Entrance examinations—Study guides. 5. Achievement tests—Study guides. I. Title. QA43.B649 2007 510.76—dc22 2006029556 Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1O/SR/RR/QW/IN No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400, fax 978-646-8600, or on the web at www.copyright.com. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Legal Department, Wiley Publishing, Inc., 10475 Crosspoint Blvd., Indianapolis, IN 46256, 317-572-3447, fax 317-572-4355, or online at http://www.wiley.com/go/permissions. THE PUBLISHER AND THE AUTHOR MAKE NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE ACCURACY OR COMPLETENESS OF THE CONTENTS OF THIS WORK AND SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION WARRANTIES OF FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. NO WARRANTY MAY BE CREATED OR EXTENDED BY SALES OR PROMOTIONAL MATERIALS. THE ADVICE AND STRATEGIES CONTAINED HEREIN MAY NOT BE SUITABLE FOR EVERY SITUATION. THIS WORK IS SOLD WITH THE UNDERSTANDING THAT THE PUBLISHER IS NOT ENGAGED IN RENDERING LEGAL, ACCOUNTING, OR OTHER PROFESSIONAL SERVICES. IF PROFESSIONAL ASSISTANCE IS REQUIRED, THE SERVICES OF A COMPETENT PROFESSIONAL PERSON SHOULD BE SOUGHT. NEITHER THE PUBLISHER NOR THE AUTHOR SHALL BE LIABLE FOR DAMAGES ARISING HEREFROM. THE FACT THAT AN ORGANIZATION OR WEBSITE IS REFERRED TO IN THIS WORK AS A CITATION AND/OR A POTENTIAL SOURCE OF FURTHER INFORMATION DOES NOT MEAN THAT THE AUTHOR OR THE PUBLISHER ENDORSES THE INFORMATION THE ORGANIZATION OR WEBSITE MAY PROVIDE OR RECOMMENDATIONS IT MAY MAKE. FURTHER, READERS SHOULD BE AWARE THAT INTERNET WEBSITES LISTED IN THIS WORK MAY HAVE CHANGED OR DISAPPEARED BETWEEN WHEN THIS WORK WAS WRITTEN AND WHEN IT IS READ. Trademarks: Wiley, the Wiley Publishing logo, CliffsNotes, the CliffsNotes logo, Cliffs, CliffsAP, CliffsComplete, CliffsQuickReview, CliffsStudySolver, CliffsTestPrep, CliffsNote-a-Day, cliffsnotes.com, and all related trademarks, logos, and trade dress are trademarks or registered trademarks of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and/or its affiliates. SAT is a registered trademark of the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Wiley Publishing, Inc. is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. For general information on our other products and services or to obtain technical support, please contact our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at 800-762-2974, outside the U.S. at 317-572-3993, or fax 317-572-4002. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. For more information about Wiley products, please visit our web site at www.wiley.com.

Table of Contents
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
General Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Special Notes for the New SAT I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Questions Commonly Asked about the New SAT I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Taking the New SAT I: Successful Overall Approaches for Multiple-Choice Questions . . . . . 5 I. The “Plus-Minus” System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 II. The Elimination Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 III. The “Avoiding Misreads” Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 IV. The Multiple-Multiple-Choice Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 A Summary of General Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

PART I: ANALYSIS AND STRATEGIES
Introduction to the Mathematics Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Using Your Calculator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Basic Skills and Concepts That You Should Know . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Number and Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Algebra and Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Geometry and Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Data Analysis, Statistics, and Probability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Multiple-Choice Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Ability Tested . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Basic Skills Necessary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Directions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Analysis of Directions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Suggested Approach with Samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Grid-In Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Ability Tested . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Basic Skills Necessary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Directions with Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Practice Grid-Ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Suggested Approaches with Samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

PART II: REVIEW WITH SAMPLE PROBLEMS
A Quick Review of Mathematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Symbols, Terminology, Formulas, and General Mathematical Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Common Math Symbols and Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Math Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Important Equivalents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Math Words and Phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Mathematical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

Numbers and Operations, Data Analysis, Statistics, and Probability . . . . . . 45
Arithmetic Diagnostic Test (Including Numbers and Operations, Data Analysis, Statistics, and Probability) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

Mastering the SAT Math Test

Arithmetic Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Place Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Rounding Off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Estimating Sums, Differences, Products, and Quotients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Decimals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Using Percents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Signed Numbers (Positive Numbers and Negative Numbers) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Absolute Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Powers and Exponents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Squares and Square Roots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Parentheses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Order of Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Basic Set Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Some Basic Probability and Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Data Analysis: Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Sample SAT-Type Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Numbers and Operations, Data Analysis, Statistics, and Probability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

Algebra and Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Algebra Diagnostic Test (Algebra and Functions) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Algebra Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Variables and Algebraic Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Evaluating Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Proportions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Monomials and Polynomials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Solving Quadratic Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Operations with Algebraic Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Solving for Two Unknowns—Systems of Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Basic Coordinate Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Sample SAT-Type Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Algebra and Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

Geometry and Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Geometry Diagnostic Test (Geometry and Measurement) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 Geometry Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Types of Angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Parallel Lines Cut by Transversal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Coordinate Geometry and Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Sample SAT-Type Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Geometry and Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

iv

Table of Contents

PART III: MATH PRACTICE TESTS
Practice Test I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
Practice Test IA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 Practice Test IB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 Practice Test IC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 Scoring Practice Test I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 Answer Key for Practice Test I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 Analyzing Your Test Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 Mathematics Analysis Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 Analysis/Tally Sheet for Problems Missed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 Complete Answers and Explanations for Practice Test I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 Practice Test IA Explanations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 Practice Test IB Explanations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 Practice Test IC Explanations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227

Practice Test II

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235

Practice Test IIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 Practice Test IIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 Practice Test IIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 Scoring Practice Test II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 Answer Key for Practice Test II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 Analyzing Your Test Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 Mathematics Analysis Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 Analysis/Tally Sheet for Problems Missed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 Complete Answers and Explanations for Practice Test II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 Practice Test IIA Explanations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 Practice Test IIB Explanations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 Practice Test IIC Explanations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264

Practice Test III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
Practice Test IIIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 Practice Test IIIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 Practice Test IIIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283 Scoring Practice Test III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286 Answer Key for Practice Test III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286 Analyzing Your Test Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 Mathematics Analysis Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 Analysis/Tally Sheet for Problems Missed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 Complete Answers and Explanations for Practice Test III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288 Practice Test IIIA Explanations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288 Practice Test IIIB Explanations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293 Practice Test IIIC Explanations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299

SAT I Score Range Approximator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
How to Approximate Your Score in Mathematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303

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practice problems for each topic area (easy. and evaluated and are presently used in SAT I test preparation programs at many leading colleges and universities. compact. It is direct. In keeping with the fine tradition of Cliffs Notes. and difficult problems). The testing strategies. average. and score range approximators are included following the practice tests to give you a thorough understanding of the new SAT I math sections. and thorough. techniques. you can’t afford to take a chance. The practice problems for each topic area and practice tests have complete answers and in-depth explanations. Prepare with the best! Because better scores result from thorough preparation. Mastering the SAT: Math has been designed by leading experts in the field of test preparation to be the most comprehensive guide to give you that extra boost in math. and three full-length practice math tests. math area reviews. not substitute for. Analysis charts. Mastering the SAT: Math was written to give you the edge in doing your best by giving you maximum benefit in a reasonable amount of time and is meant to augment. formal or informal learning throughout junior high and high school. and materials have been researched. precise. your study time must be used most effectively. but your math scores can still really be improved with proper preparation! And because of these facts. diagnostic review tests. tested. Be prepared! Follow the SAT I Study Guide Checklist in this book and study regularly. Don’t take a chance. this guide is written for the student. This guide combines introductory analysis sections with sample problems. . You’ll get the best test preparation possible. easy to use.Preface The SAT I has changed.

average. Again. Strictly observing time allotments. take Math Practice Test I. Continue your math review on page 91 with the Algebra Diagnostic Test. and difficult review problems. While referring to each item of Math Practice Test III. ❏ 11. ❏ 26. Carefully read Part I: Analysis and Strategies. ❏ 14. 2. 6. beginning on page 236. Take a very short break after each hour of testing. ❏ 23. 5. and difficult problems). Review your math skills as necessary.org. take Math Practice Test III. ❏ 10. beginning on page 9. 7. While referring to each item of Math Practice Test II. Analyze your Math Practice Test II answers by filling out the analysis charts on page 252. Strictly observing time allotments. Get information online at www. ❏ 24. average. page 215. ❏ 22.SAT I Study Guide Checklist ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ 1. ❏ 18. selectively review Part I: Analysis and Strategies. ❏ 25. ❏ 21. Next. and any other basic skills or exam areas you feel are necessary. beginning on page 199. page 3. beginning on page 11. ❏ 13. Selectively review some basic skills as necessary. Review the answers and explanations for each question on Math Practice Test I. Learn the techniques of the Successful Overall Approaches. study all of the explanations that begin on page 288. Check your answers and use the Score Range Approximator (page 303) to get a very general score range. 9. Read the Arithmetic review as needed. 8. to see whether you applied some of the strategies. beginning on page 272. ❏ 20. and difficult problems). beginning on page 216. Become familiar with the test format. Strictly observing time allotments. Review or reread Part I: Analysis and Strategies. take Section 2 and then check your answers. Next work the Numbers and Operations and Data Analysis. . Continue your math review on page 145 with the Geometry Diagnostic Test. average. and so on). pages 5–7. Read and review Geometry and Measurement as needed. ❏ 19. take Math Practice Test II. and Probability SAT review problems at the end of the Arithmetic Review. study all of the explanations that begin on page 253. Read the Algebra Review as needed. ❏ 17. Read the New SAT I information bulletin. Next work the Algebra and Functions SAT review problems at the end of the Algebra Review (easy.collegeboard. 4. page 1. Analyze your Math Practice Test I answers by filling out the analysis charts. Analyze your Math Practice Test III answers by filling out the analysis charts on page 287. 3. beginning on page 9. Statistics. Take a very short break after each hour of testing. Note there are easy. Check your answers and use the Score Range Approximator (page 303) to get a very general score range. ❏ 12. Familiarize yourself with the answers to Questions Commonly Asked about the New SAT I. Start your math review on page 45 with the Arithmetic Diagnostic Test. ❏ 15. ❏ 16. section by section (take Section 1 and then check your answers. work the Geometry and Measurement SAT review problems at the end of the Geometry Review (easy.

45 Minutes Approximately 202–212 Questions 1 .Introduction General Format of the New SAT I Section 1 25 Minutes Section 2 25 Minutes Writing Skills—Essay Writing Skills—Essay Critical Reading Sentence Completions Short Reading Passages Long Reading Passages Section 3 25 Minutes Section 4 25 Minutes Mathematics Multiple Choice Writing Skills—Multiple Choice Identifying Sentence Errors Improving Sentences Improving Paragraphs Section 5 25 Minutes Critical Reading Sentence Completions Short Reading Passages Long Reading Passages Section 6 25 Minutes Mathematics Multiple Choice Grid-ins Section 7 20 Minutes Critical Reading Reading Passages (possible Sentence Completions) Mathematics Multiple Choice Mathematics/Critical Reading/ or Writing Skills Writing Skills—Multiple Choice Improving Sentences 1 Question 1 Essay Question 24–28 Questions 8–10 Questions 4–6 Questions 12–14 Questions 20 Questions 20 Questions 35 Questions 15–19 Questions 7–13 Questions 6–10 Questions 24–27 Questions 5–9 Questions 4–6 Questions 10–12 Questions 20 Questions 10 Questions 10 Questions 15–20 Questions 13–15 Questions (4–6) 14–15 Questions 15 Questions 20–35 Questions Section 8 20 Minutes Section 9 25 Minutes Section 10 10 Minutes 14–15 Questions 15 Questions Total Testing Time 225 Minutes = 3 Hours.

The writing ability sections test your ability to write a clear. and the number of questions may vary. One 25-minute section is a pretest. and to improve paragraphs. math. A Close Look at the New SAT I Question Type Critical Reading Sentence Completions Passage-Based Questions Total Critical Reading Questions Mathematics Multiple Choice Grid-Ins Total Mathematics Questions Writing Multiple Choice Improving Sentences Identifying Sentence Errors Improving Paragraphs Total Writing Multiple Choice Essay Question 25 18 6 49 One Question 44 10 54 19 48 67 Approximate Number of Questions The problems in the math sections (multiple-choice and grid-ins) and the sentence completions section of the new SAT I are slightly graduated in difficulty. to comprehend what you read. or writing multiple-choice section and can appear anywhere on your exam. the question types within a section. The math sections test your ability to solve problems using mathematical reasoning and your skills in arithmetic. 2 . the writing essay (25 minutes). and the multiple-choice sections (one 25-minute section and one 10-minute section) actually count toward your new SAT I score. with some grid-in questions. The critical reading sections test your ability to read critically. Only three of the critical reading sections (two 25-minute sections and one 20-minute section). It does not have to be Section 9.Mastering the SAT Math Note: The order in which the sections appear. so getting an easy question right is worth the same as getting a difficult question right. three of the math sections (two 25-minute sections and one 20-minute section). algebra I and II. and there may be many forms of the test. and an essay. or experimental. and to understand words in context. You should work all of the sections as though they count toward your score. section that does not count toward your score. precise essay and to find grammar and usage errors. to correct sentence errors. General Description The new SAT I is used along with your high school record and other information to assess your competence for college work. Many students make simple mistakes because they rush through the easy questions to get to the difficult ones. and geometry. Keep in mind that each question within a section is of equal value. The test lasts 3 hours and 45 minutes and consists of mostly multiple-choice type questions. The pretest or experimental section can be a critical reading.

fax. but no points are subtracted if you leave the answer blank. a good eraser.400 Q: WILL THE NEW SAT I BE MORE DIFFICULT? A: No. Questions Commonly Asked about the New SAT I Q: WHO ADMINISTERS THE NEW SAT I? A: The new SAT I is part of the entire Admissions Testing Program (ATP). a watch. Critical reading sections now also include paragraph-length passages. formerly called Verbal Reasoning. which is administered by the College Entrance Examination Board in conjunction with Educational Testing Service of Princeton. or you may write. or e-mail a cancellation to College Board ATP. Quantitative comparison math questions are no longer on the exam. The new SAT I assesses general critical reading. Q: SHOULD I GUESS ON THE NEW SAT I? A: If you can eliminate one or more of the multiple-choice answers to a question. and an approved calculator. and editing abilities that you have developed over your lifetime. Q: HOW IS THE NEW SAT I SCORED? A: The scoring will be as follows: Critical Reading: 200–800 Mathematics: 200–800 Writing: 200–800 (subscores essay 2–12. Q: WHAT MATERIALS MAY I BRING TO THE NEW SAT I? A: Bring your registration form. You may not bring scratch paper or books. mathematical reasoning. 2 pencils. positive identification. It is not uncommon for students to take the test more than once. You may cancel your score on the day of the test by telling the test center supervisor.Introduction Special Notes for the New SAT I ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Verbal analogies are no longer on the exam. a fraction of a point is subtracted for every wrong answer. it is to your advantage to guess. On the grid-in questions. including some algebra II problems. scores up to five years old were also included on the report. Q: IS THERE A DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE NEW SAT I AND THE SAT II? A: Yes. The first part of the test will always be an essay. writing. along with any completed test scores. The new SAT has been designed so that a student who could score a 500 on the math section of the old SAT I could score a 500 on the math section of the New SAT I. Your score report will record your cancellation. multiple choice 20–80) Total possible score: 600–2. On past score reports. To discourage wild guessing. 3 . See specific instructions for canceling your score in the Student Bulletin. The SAT II measures your proficiency in specific subject areas. MAY I CANCEL MY SCORE? A: Yes. You may do your figuring in the margins of the test booklet or in the space provided. Eliminating one or more answers increases your chance of choosing the right answer. there is no penalty for filling in a wrong answer. The SAT II tests how well you have mastered a variety of high school subjects. Writing multiple-choice sections have been added. Q: IF NECESSARY. three or four sharpened no. New Jersey. This is the same for the Critical Reading. Q: CAN I TAKE THE NEW SAT I MORE THAN ONCE? A: Yes. Math sections have been enhanced.

You can also register online at www. (408) 452-1400. 2099 Gateway Place.org.Mastering the SAT Math Q: HOW SHOULD I PREPARE FOR THE NEW TEST? A: Understanding and practicing test-taking strategies helps a great deal. Fax (850) 224-3077. Fax (408) 453-7396. San Jose.org.) You will be admitted only if space remains after preregistered students have been seated. California 95814. Middle States: 3440 Market Street. (850) 222-7999. Fax (847) 866-9280. Fax (512) 891-8404. is attached to the Student Bulletin. Evanston. Fax (781) 890-0693. or HighPoint Center. (An additional fee is required.collegeboard. and June. May. The College Board offers additional practice online. January. (512) 891-8400. 100 Crescent Centre Parkway. Illinois 60201-4805. Georgia 30084-7039. (916) 444-6262. Suite 480. Suite 1001. California 95110-1017. Fax (518) 472-1544. especially on the critical reading sections. The SAT I is administered at hundreds of schools in and out of the United States. Massachusetts 02451-1982. Suite 1200. Q: IS WALK-IN REGISTRATION PROVIDED? A: Yes. Suite 200. you can check online at www. Suite 900. Reviewing the writing process and practicing timed essay writing will also be helpful. plus the appropriate fees. Q: CAN I GET MORE INFORMATION? A: Yes. Some special administrations are given in limited locations. you may attempt to register on the day of the test. Waltham. and a review of basic grammar and usage will be helpful on the writing sections. If you are unable to meet regular registration deadlines. Suite 410. 470 Totten Pond Road. Tucker. November. Tallahassee. Fax (916) 444-2868. Q: WHERE IS THE SAT I ADMINISTERED? A: Your local college testing or placement office will have information about local administrations. (847) 866-1700. Sacramento. You should register about six weeks prior to the exam date. Suite 340. Pennsylvania 19104-3338. Florida 32301-7732. If you require information that is not available in this book. 4330 South MoPac Expressway. March. December. 106 East College Avenue. You can also write or call one of these College Board regional offices. Albany. or Capitol Place. on a limited basis. Mailing in these forms. Philadelphia. 915 L Street. (518) 472-1515. Fax (215) 387-5805. Texas 78735. complete with return envelope.collegeboard. (215) 387-7600. Q: HOW OFTEN ARE THE TESTS ADMINISTERED? A: The new SAT I is usually scheduled to be administered nationwide seven times during the school year. or 126 South Swan Street. in October. (781) 890-9150. completes the registration process. Q: HOW AND WHEN SHOULD I REGISTER? A: A registration packet. Austin. Midwest: New England: South: Southwest: West: 4 . Subject-matter review is particularly useful for the math section. (770) 908-9737. New York 12210-1715. 1560 Sherman Avenue. Fax (770) 934-4885. ask for the Student Bulletin.

make sure to mark it out in your question booklet as follows: (A) ? (B) (C) (D) ? (E) Notice that some choices are marked with question marks. + 5. + 2. Answer easy questions immediately. The “Plus-Minus” System Many who take the New SAT I won’t get their best possible score because they spend too much time on difficult questions. signifying that they may be possible answers. what is the value of y in terms of x? 5 . For example. Place a “+” next to any problem that seems solvable but is too time-consuming. Because every question within each section is worth the same amount. This technique helps you avoid reconsidering those choices you have already eliminated and helps you narrow down your possible answers. you suddenly realize how to solve it). go back and work your “+” problems. but rather the value of x + 4.Introduction Taking the New SAT I: Successful Overall Approaches for Multiple-Choice Questions I. use the following system. Act quickly. try your “–” problems (sometimes when you come back to a problem that seemed impossible. The “Avoiding Misreads” Method Sometimes a question may have different answers depending upon what is asked. If 3x + x = 20. what is the value of x + 4? Notice that this question doesn’t ask for the value of x. The Elimination Strategy Take advantage of being allowed to mark in your testing booklet. Or If 8y + 3x = 14. 3. A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E Make sure to erase your “+” and “–” marks before your time is up. II. Place a “–” next to any problem that seems impossible.” After working all the problems you can do immediately. 2. The scoring machine may count extraneous marks as wrong answers. – 4. Don’t let this happen to you. leaving insufficient time to answer the easy questions. These marks in your testing booklet do not need to be erased. If you finish them. don’t waste time deciding whether a problem is a “+” or a “–. 3. marking on your answer sheet: 1. As you eliminate an answer choice from consideration. Your answer sheet should look something like this after you finish working your easy questions: 1. III.

answering it incorrectly). E. what is the value of y in terms of x? All of the following statements are true EXCEPT . once again. it must be a counting number. The Multiple-Multiple-Choice Technique Some math and verbal questions use a “multiple-multiple-choice” format. II. And. II. therefore. or 3. do you have to find x or x + 4? Are you looking for what is true or the exception to what is true? To help you avoid misreads.Mastering the SAT Math The question may instead have asked. and so on. then which of the following must be true? I. D. C. You should cross out B and C on your question booklet. is always true. Statement II is incorrect. B. once you understand “multiple-multiple-choice” problem types and technique. these questions appear more confusing and more difficult than normal five-choice (A. x>0 x=0 x<1 6 . statement I. . B. next to II. because they do not contain true statement I. Notice that the words EXCEPT and NOT change these questions significantly. III. or E) must contain true statement I. D. Note that possible values of x could be 1. . these circles in your question booklet do not have to be erased. x cannot equal zero. . Actually. III. what is the value of x + 4? If 8y + 3x = 14. This eliminates B and C as possible correct answer choices. So next to I on your question booklet. Therefore. mark the questions in your test booklet in this way: If 3x + x = 20. T I. x>0 x=0 x<1 Now realize that the correct final answer choice (A. If x is positive. C. IV. D. x>0 x=0 x<1 I only II only III only I and II only I and III only Because x is a positive integer. T F I. III. E) multiple-choice problems. they are often easier than a comparable standard multiple-choice question. you should place an F for false. place a T for true. To avoid “misreading” a question (and. B. A. If x is a positive integer. II. For example. or 2. C. simply circle what you must answer in the question. At first glance. “What is the value of x in terms of y?” Or All of the following statements are true EXCEPT . Thus. or 4. For example. . x > 0.

Therefore. This technique often saves some precious time and allows you to take a better educated guess should you not be able to complete all parts (I. II. Know the directions. Only A and E are left as possible correct answers. Know when to skip a question. the “Avoiding Misreads” Method. ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ 7 . you should cross out D. Remember that an average score is about 50 percent right. Finally. I only. III) of a multiple-multiple-choice question. you realize that statement III is also false. A Summary of General Strategies Set a goal. Guess only if you can eliminate one or more answers. as x must be 1 or greater. So you place an F next to III. and the Multiple-Multiple-Choice Technique.Introduction Knowing that II is false allows you to eliminate any answer choices that contain false statement II. Go into each section looking for the questions you can do and should get right. Don’t get stuck on any one question. ❑ Remember to erase any extra marks on your answer sheet. Practice using the “Plus-Minus” System. Be careful. thus eliminating Choice E and leaving A. Be sure to mark your answers in the right place. because it contains false statement II. Don’t make simple mistakes by rushing through the easy questions in math to get to the difficult ones. Watch out for careless mistakes. Don’t be afraid to fill in your answer or guess on grid-ins. the Elimination Strategy.

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PART I ANALYS I S AN D STR ATE G I E S .

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or calculator with a typewriter-type keypad or paper tape. each question can be answered without a calculator—in some instances. Make sure that your calculator has new. you could have an additional 25-minute Math section. Don’t bring a calculator that requires an outlet or any other external power source. and the last few multiple-choice questions are more difficult before you start the grid-ins. ■ ■ 11 . Make sure that you are familiar with the use of your calculator. If a section has two types of questions. You should be familiar with this information. Before doing an operation. You may use an approved calculator on the SAT I. Don’t bring a pocket organizer. laptop computer. Check for a shortcut to any problem that seems to involve much computation. Practice using your calculator on some of the problems to see when and where it will be helpful. the three sections total about 52 to 56 math questions that count toward your score. usually each type starts with easier problems. ■ ■ ■ ■ Be careful that you ■ ■ ■ Don’t rush out and buy a sophisticated calculator for the test. the grid-ins start with easy questions and move toward the more difficult ones at the end. fresh batteries and is in good working order. You may want to check each number as you key it in. you’re probably doing something wrong. because you can’t borrow one during the exam. These three sections generate a scaled math score that ranges from 200 to 800. at this time. the easiest questions are basically at the beginning and the more difficult ones at the end. Using Your Calculator The new SAT I allows the use of approved calculators. You will be given reference information preceding each Mathematics section. Bring a calculator even if you don’t think you’ll use it. But use your calculator if it will be time effective. Two Mathematics sections are 25 minutes in length and one math section is 20 minutes in length. Even though no question will require the use of a calculator—that is. Since one section of the test is experimental (although you don’t know which one). check the number that you keyed on the display to make sure that you keyed in the right number.Introduction to the Mathematics Section The Mathematics sections of the SAT consist of two basic types of questions: regular multiple-choice questions and student-produced responses also known as grid-ins. Although the order of the sections and the number of questions may change. Don’t bring a calculator that you’re unfamiliar with. For example. using a calculator will save you valuable time. handheld minicomputer. About 50% right should generate an average score. That is. and the College Board (the people who sponsor the exam) recommends that each test taker take a calculator to the test. If there appears to be too much computation or the problem seems impossible without the calculator. Bring a calculator with which you are familiar. You should ■ ■ Bring your own calculator. The Mathematics sections are slightly graduated in difficulty. a section starts with easy multiple-choice questions. Don’t bring a calculator that makes noise.

As you approach a problem. Learn to use a calculator efficiently by practicing.. Don’t try to use a calculator on every problem. TI-92 Plus. You must understand the problem first.g..g. intersection. rate. factors and multiples. PDA’s. consecutive numbers.Part I: Analysis and Strategies ■ ■ ■ Don’t try to share a calculator. interest.. first focus on how to solve that problem and then decide whether the calculator will be helpful. time. a calculator can save you time on some problems. elements) ■ ■ ■ ■ Algebra and Functions ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Operations with signed numbers Substitution for variables Absolute value Working with algebraic expressions Manipulating integer and rational exponents Solving rational equations and inequalities Working with linear functions—graphs and equations Solving radical equations 12 . and division to problem solving Arithmetic mean (average). odd and even numbers. distance. fractions. Also remember that a calculator will not solve a problem for you. Palm. Basic Skills and Concepts That You Should Know Number and Operations ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Operations with fractions Applying addition. subtraction. multiplication. prime numbers. price per item Number line: order. solving for: percents. Following is the Calculator Policy for the New SAT I as given by the College Board: “The following are not permitted: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Powerbooks and portable/handheld computers Electronic writing pads or pen-input/stylus-driven (e. mode. but also remember that each problem can be solved without a calculator. Don’t become dependent on your calculator. typewriter) keyboards (e. divisibility Word problems.e. and median Ratio and proportion Number properties: positive and negative integers. Casio ClassPad 300) Pocket organizers Models with QWERTY (i. averages. Voyage 200) Models with paper tapes Models that make noise or ‘talk’ Models that require an electrical outlet Cell phone calculators” Take advantage of using a calculator on the test. Remember. betweenness Sequences involving exponential growth Sets (union.

basic statistics and probability. geometry. Statistics. and word problems by using problem-solving insight. radius. and Probability ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Interpreting graphs. diameter Triangles: right. and the application of basic skills. segments. logic. median. area. and congruence Properties of tangent lines Problems in which trigonometry could be used as an alternate solution method Qualitative behavior of graphs and functions Transformations and their effect on graphs and functions Data Analysis. data interpretation. algebra I and II. angle measure. Ability Tested The Mathematics multiple-choice questions test your ability to solve mathematical problems involving arithmetic. area. angle measure of polygons Circumference. 45°–45°–90° Pythagorean theorem Volume and surface area of solids Coordinate geometry: coordinates. lines. and tables Scatterplots Probability Geometric probability Basic statistics (mean. slope Geometric notation for length. 13 . charts.Introduction to the Mathematics Section ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Basic factoring Direct and inverse variation Function notation and evaluation Concepts of range and domain Working with positive roots Solving quadratic equations Working with quadratic functions and graphs Geometry and Measurement ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Vertical angles Angles in figures Perpendicular and parallel lines Perimeter. mode. equilateral. isosceles. similarity Special triangles: 30°–60°–90°. rays. range) Multiple-Choice Questions You should have a total of about 42 to 46 multiple-choice questions spread throughout the three Mathematics sections that count toward your score.

not just x. 2 8 9 10 46 You should first circle or underline 4x + 1 because this is what you are solving for. Make sure that you are answering the right question. A list of data that may be used for reference is included. Then select the one correct answer of the five choices given and mark the corresponding circle on your answer sheet. Suggested Approach with Samples Circle or Underline Take advantage of being allowed to mark on the test booklet by always underlining or circling what you are looking for. The most common mistake is to solve for x. You should also notice that most of the other choices would all be possible answers if you made common or simple mistakes. or 9. then substituting into 4x + 1 gives 4(2) + 1. All scratch work is to be done in the test booklet. This will ensure that you are answering the right question. Some problems may be accompanied by figures or diagrams. Samples 1. Directions Solve each problem in this section by using the information given and your own mathematical calculations. there is never more than one right answer. although other answers may be close. C. You are looking for the one correct answer. and problem-solving skills. 14 .Part I: Analysis and Strategies Basic Skills Necessary The basic skills necessary to do well on this section include high school algebra I and II and intuitive or informal geometry. But remember. Use the available space on the page for your scratch work. The correct answer is C. D. B. These figures are drawn as accurately as possible EXCEPT when it is stated in a specific problem that a figure is not drawn to scale. therefore. then 4x + 1 = A. and mistakenly choose A as your answer. ■ Analysis of Directions 1. all figures and diagrams lie in a plane. E. Notes ■ ■ ■ All numbers used are real numbers. insights. No calculus is necessary. The figures and diagrams are meant to provide information useful in solving the problem or problems. Solving for x leaves x = 2. which is 2. you are solving for 4x + 1. Calculators may be used. 2. Logical insight into problem-solving situations is also necessary. If x + 8 = 10. Unless otherwise stated. get used to doing this because no scratch paper is allowed into the testing area.

” Now pulling out information gives you the following. . B. C. E. E. 4 8 12 24 32 First circle or underline x4 – y4. If x2 – y2 = 8 and x2 + y2 = 4. Now factor this difference of two squares. x4 – y4 = (x2 – y2)(x2+ y2) Next substitute in 8 for x2 – y2 and 4 for x2 + y2 = (8)(4) = 32 The correct answer is E. B. . then which of the following is a possible number of students in the drama class? A. D. If the ratio of boys to girls in a drama class is 3 to 2. D. What is the cost of the coat? A. you gain additional insight into the problem. b:g=3:2 Since the ratio of boys to girls is 3 : 2. 25. C. 10. D. . B. 16 18 20 24 28 You should first circle or underline “possible number of students. Samples 1. E. Tom purchased a hat and coat for a total of $125. $25 $50 $75 $100 $125 15 . C. The multiples of 5 are 5. then the possible total number of students in the class must be a multiple of 3 + 2 (boys plus girls). The correct answer is C. or 5. 20. . The coat costs $25 more than the hat. Pull Out Information “Pulling” information out of the word problem structure can often give you a better look at what you are working with. therefore.Introduction to the Mathematics Section 2. 15. Only Choice C is a multiple of 5. then what is the value of x4 – y 4 ? A. 2.

40 and 5 is . B. Or you could use your calculator and quickly find the decimals.Part I: Analysis and Strategies The key words here are cost of the coat. what are the possible values of x? A. then x + 25 = 75.52 B. Notice that $50 is one of the answer choices.80 You should first underline or circle between 2 and 5 ? If you know that 2 is . x = hat x + $25 = coat (cost $25 more than the hat) Together they cost $125. Since . (x + 25) + x = 125 2x + 25 = 125 2x = 100 x = 50 But this is the cost of the hat.65 D. To solve algebraically. . By the way. then do the work.40 and . Always answer the question that is being asked. D. C.625. .72 E. Samples 1. . the correct answer is A. so circle those words.625. Which of the following numbers is between 2 and 5 ? 8 5 A. . you might have insight 8 8 5 5 into the problem and should simply work forward.52 is the only number between. E. Circling the key word or words will help you do that.63 C. Work forward. If 3x – 6 < 3. Since x = 50. Work Forward If you quickly see the method to solve the problem. 2. Therefore. . . x<4 x<2 x>0 x>3 x<3 16 . the coat costs $75. B. which is Choice C. a quick peek at the answer choices would tip you off that you should work in decimals.

17 . 0 D. because it will at least eliminate some of the choices and could give you the correct answer. –2 B. 1 E. –1 C. Working from the answers is a valuable technique. what is the value of x? 2 4 4 A. you may use the work up from your choices strategy. What if x = 0? x+3=5 2 4 4 0+3!5 2 4 4 Since this answer is too small.” Now solve the problem as follows: 3x – 6 < 3 + 6 +6 3x < 9 3x < 9 3 3 x<3 Add 6 to each side. Plugging in 1 gives. a larger number.Introduction to the Mathematics Section First circle or underline “possible values of x. 0. This gives Now divide by 3. If x + 3 = 5 . Samples 1. Do not disregard this method. 2 If you cannot solve this algebraically. So The correct answer is E. try Choice D. x+3=5 2 4 4 1+3=5 2 4 4 Change 1 to 2 2 4 2+3=5 4 4 4 The correct answer is D. Work Backward In some instances. it will be easier to work from the answers. But start with C.

Part I: Analysis and Strategies

2. What is the greatest common factor of the numbers 18, 24, and 30? A. B. C. D. E. 2 3 4 6 12

The largest number which divides evenly into 18, 24, and 30 is 6. You could have worked from the answers. But here you should start with the largest answer choice, since you’re looking for the greatest common factor. The correct answer is D.

Use Your Calculator
Some questions will need to be completely worked out. If you don’t see a fast method but do know that you could compute the answer, use your calculator.

1. What is the final cost of a television that sells for $478.00 if the sales tax is 8%? A. B. C. D. E. $478.08 $478.80 $512.80 $516.24 $561.00

Since the sales tax is 8% of $478.00, 8% of $478.00 = (.08)($478.00) = $38.24 The total cost of the television is therefore $478.00 + $38.24 = $516.24 The correct answer is D. Your calculator would have helped with these calculations.

Substitute Simple Numbers
Substituting numbers for variables can often be an aid to understanding a problem. Remember to substitute simple numbers, since you have to do the work.

Samples
1. If x represents an even integer, then an odd integer is represented by which of the following? A. B. C. D. E. 3x 2x + 1 3x + 2 4x – 2 5x – 4

18

Introduction to the Mathematics Section

Since the question says that “x represents an even integer,” substitute 2 for x. You should remember to circle “an odd integer” because that is what you are looking for. So as you plug 2 into each choice, you can stop when you get an odd integer. 3x = 3(2) = 6 2x + 1 = 2(2) + 1 = 4 + 1 = 5 Since 5 is an odd integer, the correct answer is B. 2. If f(x) = 4x, which of the following CANNOT be a value of f(x)? A. B. C. D. E. –4 1 4 1 4 16

Notice that you are looking for “CANNOT be a value of f(x).” Try some simple numbers—0, 1, –1—and you will see that regardless of the values used for x, 4x cannot be a negative number (or zero). f ^0h = 4 0 = 1 f ^1h = 4 1 = 4 f ^ -1h = 4 - 1 = 1 4 So f(x) = 4x > 0, f(x) ≠ – 4 The correct answer is A.

Use 10 or 100
Some problems may deal with percent or percent change. If you don’t see a simple method for working the problem, try using the values of 10 or 100 and see what you get.

1. If 40% of the students in a class have blue eyes, and 20% of those students with blue eyes have brown hair, then what percent of the original total number of students have brown hair and blue eyes? A. B. C. D. E. 4% 8% 16% 20% 32%

First circle or underline “percent of the original total number . . . brown hair . . . blue eyes.” In this problem, if you don’t spot a simple method, try starting with 100 students in the class. Since 40% of them have blue eyes, then 40 students have blue eyes. Now, the problem says 20% of those students with blue eyes have brown hair. Since 20% of 40 is 8, then 8 out of 100 (you started with 100 students), 8%, have blue eyes and brown hair. The correct answer is B.

19

Part I: Analysis and Strategies

2. Tom is building a square wooden framework to pour cement. His first frame is too small, so he increases each side by 20 percent. After careful measurement, he realizes this frame is too large, so he decreases each side by 10 percent. The area contained by his final wooden frame is what percent greater than the original wooden frame? A. B. C. D. E. 10% 10.8% 16.64% 20% 40.44%

First circle or underline what you are looking for, in this case—area . . . percent greater . . . than original. Next, draw the diagram.

Now try some simple numbers. In this case 10":
1 0″

1 0″

100 sq. in.

Increasing this measurement by 20 percent gives a side of 12":
12″

12″

144 sq. in.

Decreasing this measurement by 10 percent gives 12 – 1.2 = 10.8. (10% × 12 = 1.2)
10.8″

10.8″

116.64 sq. in.

The area of the original was 100 sq. in. The area of the new figure is 116.64 sq. in. So the percent greater than the original would be 116.64 – 100 = 16.64 compared to the original 100 gives 16.64%. The correct answer is C. Your calculator could have been helpful in this problem.

20

Introduction to the Mathematics Section

Be Reasonable
Sometimes you will immediately recognize a simple method to solve a problem. If this is not the case, try a reasonable approach and then check the answers to see which one is most reasonable.

1. Will can complete a job in 30 minutes. Eli can complete the same job in 60 minutes. If they work together, approximately how many minutes will it take them to complete the job? A. B. C. D. E. 90 minutes 60 minutes 45 minutes 30 minutes 20 minutes

First circle or underline “work together, approximately how many minutes.” In a reasonable approach, you would reason that since Will can complete the job alone in 30 minutes, then if he received any help, that job should take less than 30 minutes. He’s receiving a fair amount of help, so the answer must be well below 30 minutes. The only choice less than 30 is Choice E, 20.

Sketch a Diagram
Sketching diagrams or simple pictures can also be very helpful in problem solving because the diagram may tip off either a simple solution or a method for solving the problem.

Samples
1. If all sides of a square are doubled, the area of that square A. B. C. D. E. is doubled. is tripled. is multiplied by 4. is multiplied by 8 remains the same.

One way to solve this problem is to draw a square and then double all its sides. Then compare the two areas. Your first diagram
S

S

21

Part I: Analysis and Strategies

Doubling every side
2S S S S S 2S

You can see that the total area of the new square will now be four times the original square. The correct answer is C. 2. What is the maximum number of milk cartons, each 2" wide by 3" long by 4" tall, that can be fit into a cardboard box with inside dimensions of 16" wide by 9" long by 8" tall? A. B. C. D. E. 12 18 20 24 48

Drawing a diagram, as shown below, may be helpful in envisioning the process of fitting the cartons into the box. Notice that 8 cartons will fit across the box, 3 cartons deep, and two “stacks” high: 8 × 3 × 2 = 48 cartons

8″ 4″ 2″ 16″

3″

9″

The correct answer is E.

22

Introduction to the Mathematics Section

Mark in Diagrams
Marking in or labeling diagrams as you read the questions can save you valuable time. Marking can also give you insight into how to solve a problem because you will have the complete picture clearly in front of you.

Samples
B

x
A

y
C

1. In the isosceles triangle above, AB = BC and ∠x is 70°. What is the measurement of angle y in degrees? A. B. C. D. E. 50° 60° 70° 100° 130°

First, circle or underline what you are looking for. “∠y.” Next, in the isosceles triangle, immediately mark in that AB and BC are equal. Then mark in ∠x as 70°. Since AB = BC, then ∠x = ∠y (angles opposite equal sides are equal). After you marked in the information, your diagram should look like this.
B

70 A

y C

The correct answer is C. 70° . Always mark in diagrams as you read descriptions and information about them. This includes what you are looking for.

23

Marking and/or redrawing will give you insight into what information you really have about the diagram. WZ = ZY s=t perimeter of ᭝WXZ = perimeter of ᭝ZXY area of ᭝WXZ = area of ᭝ZXY ∠XWZ = ∠XYZ Before doing anything else. In ᭝WXY above. mark the diagram and/or quickly redraw it differently.Part I: Analysis and Strategies Watch for Diagrams Not Drawn to Scale Diagrams are drawn as accurately as possible. Now mark the diagram as follows. E. since it’s evident that triangles WXZ and ZXY don’t necessarily have equal perimeters. But after you redraw the figure. 24 . X W s° t° Z Y Note: Figure not drawn to scale. WX = XY. quickly redraw it another way that still conforms to the given information. A quick look at the redrawn figure will help you eliminate Choice C as well. They don’t have to be equal. The same can be noticed of s and t. eliminating Choice A. D. Which of the following must be true? A. 1. you might think that WZ = ZY because they appear to be equal. C. eliminating B. In this case. since the figure is not drawn to scale. X \ \ W s° t° Z Y Notice that by looking at the way the figure is initially drawn.” That label is the tipoff that the diagram could be drawn differently or is out of proportion. you can see that WZ and ZY don’t have to be equal. underline or circle must be true. X \ \ W s° t° Z Y Next. unless a diagram is labeled “not drawn to scale. B.

9 = 1 ^Sh . 25 . E. equal angles are across from equal sides. Your markings in the figure remind you that this is true. This fact is also evident from your redrawing of the diagram.3 = 1 ^Sh 2 9 = 3 .9 = ^Sh 2 1 9 =S-3 2^ h Changing the word sentence into a number sentence (equation): Harold’s age is 3 years less than half Sue’s age. you may be asked to set up the equation or expression without doing any solving. D. Rather.Introduction to the Mathematics Section You can also eliminate Choice D because even though the heights of triangles WXZ and ZXY are equal.3 2 9 . C. Choice E is the correct answer because in any triangle. If Harold is 9 years old. 9 = 1 2 S−3 The correct answer is A. B. Glance at the Choices Some problems may not ask you to solve for a numerical answer or even an answer including variables. Samples Harold’s age is 3 years less than half Sue’s age. Suppose S represents Sue’s age. their bases could be different. so the areas could be different.1 ^Sh 2 1 3 . A quick glance at the answer choices will help you know what is expected. Which of the following equations can be used to find Sue’s age? A. how old is Sue? 1.

Directions with Analysis The following questions require you to solve the problem and enter your answer by carefully marking the circles on the special grid. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . there is no penalty for guessing or attempting a grid-in. Since you will not be selecting from a group of possible answers.Part I: Analysis and Strategies Grid-In Questions The New SAT I grid-in question type is very similar to the familiar multiple-choice question except that you will now solve the problem and enter your answer by carefully marking the circles on a special grid. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Decimal point (Notice that the decimal point is located in the shaded row. algebra I and II. so at least take a guess. Let’s start explaining the rules and procedures by analyzing the directions. Basic Skills Necessary The basic skills necessary to do well on this question type include high school algebra I and II and intuitive or informal geometry. No calculus is necessary. Skills in arithmetic and basic algebra I and II. along with some logical insight into problem-solving situations. and word problems by using problem-solving insight. are also necessary to do well on this question type. but the filled-in circles are most important because they are the ones scored. you should be extra careful in checking and doublechecking your answer. Understanding the rules and procedures for gridding in answers is important. just above the numbers. Also notice that the answer has been written in above the gridding. and application of basic skills. Also. keep in mind that answers to grid-in questions are given either full credit or no credit. it is important that you become familiar with the grid-in rules and procedures and learn to grid accurately. You will not be selecting from a group of possible answers.) Answer: 3. Before you begin working grid-in questions. geometry.) 26 . That is. You should always write in your answer. data interpretation. logic. basic statistics and probability.7 . No points are deducted for incorrect answers in this section. (Comments in parentheses have been added to help you understand how to grid properly. Ability Tested The grid-in questions test your ability to solve mathematical problems involving arithmetic. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . Examples of the appropriate way to mark the grid follow. Your calculator can be useful in checking answers. There is no partial credit. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 1 1 will be 2 read by the computer doing the scoring as 11 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Fraction bar . a fraction bar cannot be in the first or last column. This fraction bar is located in the shaded row and just above the decimal point in the two middle columns. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 (Either an improper fraction or a decimal is acceptable.5 or Change to 3 2 . Change to 1. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . Never grid-in a mixed number because it will always be misread. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .) 2 27 .) Answer: 1 1 2 Do not grid-in mixed numbers in the form of mixed numbers.Introduction to the Mathematics Section Answer: 1 2 . Obviously. For example. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 (Notice that the slash mark (/) indicates a fraction bar. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . Always change mixed numbers to improper fractions or decimals. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .

. Be careful to avoid this mistake. Example: Answer: 258 No credit!!!! . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 (Filling in more than one circle in a column is equivalent to selecting more than one answer in multiple choice. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 (You should try to grid your answers from right to left. Mark only one circle in each column. This type of answer fill-in will never receive any credit. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . answers may start in any column. you may start in any column. learning to be consistent as you practice. Each grid-answer below is correct. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . No credit will be given if more than one circle in a column is marked.) 28 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . But space permitting.Part I: Analysis and Strategies Answer: 123 Space permitting.) Note: Circles must be filled in correctly to receive credit. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .

You are not required to grid a zero before a fraction.2 or 0. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .88. Gridding this value as . you are required only to grid a zero in one column. can be gridded as .889 . or . 29 . Notice that you must be as accurate as the grid allows. but it is not required as long as they will fit in the grid. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .) Practice Grid-Ins The following practice exercises will help you become familiar with the gridding process. (Fractions can be reduced to lowest terms. be sure to erase the old gridded answer completely.Introduction to the Mathematics Section Answer: 8 9 Accuracy of decimals: Always enter the most accurate decimal value that the grid will accommodate. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . it is very important to ensure accuracy. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .889. Hand write and grid-in the answers given. . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . . Although writing out the answers above the columns is not required.) Be sure to write your answers in the boxes at the top of the circles before doing your gridding. Properly filled-in grids are given following each exercise. The acceptable grid-ins of 8 are 9 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 (Review “accuracy of decimals” a second time. .888 or .888 .8888 . For example.89 is considered inaccurate and therefore not acceptable. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . Grid-in questions contain no negative answers. Important: If you decide to change an answer. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . either . grid only one answer. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .8.2 is acceptable. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . If your answer is zero. Even though some problems may have more than one correct answer. For example: An answer such as .

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Answer: 2 3 Answer: 4 5 Answer: 9 2 .Part I: Analysis and Strategies Exercise Answer: 2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .5 .8 Answer: 20. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Answer: 5 1 4 Answer: 7 1 2 Answer: 3 1 7 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .4 Answer: . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 / .25 4 7 1 must be changed to 2 15 or 7. / . / . / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Answer: .5 2 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 5 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / / .4 2 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Answer: 5 1 4 2 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 5 1 must be changed 4 to 21 or 5. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 3 .14 7 31 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Answer: 2 3 2 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 4 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / / . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Answer: 9 2 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .Introduction to the Mathematics Section Answers to Exercise Answer: 2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 5 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 4 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Answer: 3 1 7 2 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 5 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 8 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Answer: 7 1 2 1 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2 / . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .5 2 31 7 must be changed to 22 or 3. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Answer: 20. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Answer: 4 5 4 / .8 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 7 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / / .

will also work on grid-in questions. Disregard the % sign when gridding your answer. You should also ■ ■ ■ Make sure that your answer is reasonable. 32 . Improper fractions or decimals can be gridded. 7 1 = 7.75 dollar. more than one answer is possible. grid in 6. Or if a question asks for dollars and you get an answer of 75 cents. Use your calculator when appropriate to solve a problem. the grid-in answer is the only one scored. Mark in diagrams. remember that 75 cents is . The use of your calculator on some problems in this section could enhance the speed and accuracy of your work. described and suggested in the multiple-choice section.5. Pull information out of word problems. Grid-in . Jot down your scratch work or calculations in the space provided in your test booklet. In some questions.25 m before being gridded. Draw/sketch diagrams or simple figures. or if it’s $95. Also consider when it would be appropriate to use a calculator to help you work out problems and to check the accuracy of your work. It’s wise to always write in your answer. ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Following are some sample grid-in questions. The scoring system cannot distinguish between 3 1 and 31 . grid-in 57. Although it may be difficult to get an answer correct by simply writing in a wild guess. or 8 but not more than one of them. If you work out a question and get the answer x > 5. Writing in your answer in the space provided at the top of the grid is for your benefit only. you should not be afraid to fill in your answer—even if you think it’s wrong. grid in 95.Part I: Analysis and Strategies Suggested Approaches with Samples Most of the following strategies. Make sure to answer what is being asked. Substitute numbers for variables to understand a problem. Mixed 2 4 numbers cannot. you will have to actually work out each answer. 2 2 Since you cannot work from answer choices that are given or eliminate given choices. or Disregard the $ sign when gridding your answer. There are some specific items and strategies that should be noted for grid-in questions: ■ There is no penalty for guessing on grid-in questions. If your answer is 68%. Follow the directions. but remember. or 7. Some questions will have a note in parentheses ( ) that says. Consider for each how you would grid-in the answer in the proper places on the answer sheet. 7 1 = 29 m or 2 4 2 2 4 4 decimals c 3 1 = 3. ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Circle or underline what you are looking for. not . grid in 68. Be sure to grid accurately and properly. Answers that are mixed numbers such as 3 1 or 7 1 must be changed to improper fractions c 3 1 = 7 . If the question asks for percent and you get an answer of 57%. Grid-in only one answer.75 not 75. Approximate or use your calculator to check your answers if time permits. Try simple numbers to solve a problem.57.

Your written-in answer is for your benefit.Introduction to the Mathematics Section Acceptable Answers Fraction and decimal forms are acceptable. Acme Taxi lists the following rates on its door: $1.) 2 Grid Carefully Your gridding is what counts. but not mixed numbers. m # n = . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .90 for each additional 1 mile 4 $6. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / / . Sample 1. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2 .5-mile taxi trip cost? (Disregard the $ sign when gridding your answer.” Notice how it is defined.5 Now you can fill in the top and grid in the answer. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 The correct answer is 5 or 2. 5 .c 1 m n = 4 .c 1 m ^ 3h 2 2 =4-11 2 1 =2 2 But you can’t grid in 2 1 . how much will a 1.00 per hour for waiting At these rates. 2 2 Your grid-in would look like this.c 1 m n .20 for the first 1 mile 4 $0. if there was a 15-minute wait at the bank.) 33 . (Either answer will receive full credit. Be accurate. Let m # n be defined m = .5. Sample 1. so you must change it to either 5 or 2. or “false operation. What is the value of 4 # 3? 2 This problem involves a made-up operation.

20 + $4. (You would not get credit for gridding 7.00 per hour. 7.50 = $7. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2 / . gridded as 7.50. The remaining 1 1 . How many hours will it take to mow all the lawns listed in the chart above? First.20 The correct answer is $7.) 7 . or 720. 4 4 4 or 5 miles will cost 5(.20.” Next set up the information as follows and multiply (use your calculator if you wish. / . The total bill will be the sum.50 + $1.) 3 × 25 = 75 7 × 30 = 210 9 × 35 = 315 12 × 40 = 480 34 .20.50.00. The first 1 mile will cost $1. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Answer the Question Make sure that you answer the question that is being asked. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . Your answer must be in the units asked for. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 .20. even if you had written the right answer above the grid circles.Part I: Analysis and Strategies You should solve the problem as follows: At $6. 72.90) = $4. underline or circle “how many hours” and “all the lawns. Sample Lawns in Hill Crest Village Street Name Pine Tamarind Randall Palmetto Number of Lawns 3 7 9 12 Mowing Time Per Lawns 25 minutes 30 minutes 35 minutes 40 minutes 2. a 15-minute ( 1 hour) wait will cost $1. 4 $1.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . x + 6 > 10 Subtracting 6 from each side leaves x + 6 > 10 –6 –6 x>4 so.” so divide 1. 6.080 minutes. . grid in only one answer.Introduction to the Mathematics Section Now total the minutes and you get 1. (if you assign a larger number to y. 8.) Your grid-in could look like the one that follows. and then carefully mark it in the grid. 7. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Grid Only One Answer Even if more than one answer is possible. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .) Now simply write in one answer. and see what you get. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 35 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . But the question asks for “hours. (Sometimes the units will be underlined in the question. in this case. Don’t put in more than one possibility. 5 . x is any integer greater than 4—that is 5. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 8 . . you’ll get other possibilities for x. If x and y are positive integers and x + y > 10. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . Sample 3.080 by 60 and you get 18 hours. 1 . Your grid could look like this. try plugging in 6 for y. say 5. what is a possible value of x if y > 5? Since y > 5. .

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PART II R EVI EW W ITH SAM PLE PR O B LE M S .

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Algebra and Functions. . Symbols. The final problem is a sample grid-in problem. Statistics. The first three problems for each topic are multiple-choice and range (in order) from easy to difficult. Positive and negative whole numbers and zero: . Formulas. . 3. which you should take to spot your weak areas. . . Number not divisible by 2: 1. . . After completing and reviewing the SAT-type questions for each topic. Geometry and Measurement. Then proceed to the Arithmetic Diagnostic Test. –1. Even if you are strong in the general topics—Numbers and Operations. carefully work through the SAT-type questions that follow. 3. . . Then use the Arithmetic Review that follows to strengthen those areas. 5. The counting numbers beginning with zero: 0. and general mathematical information. 0. –3. . 7. and General Mathematical Information Common Math Symbols and Terms Symbol References: = ≠ > < ≥ ≤ || is equal to is not equal to is greater than is less than is greater than or equal to is less than or equal to is parallel to is perpendicular to = Terms: Natural numbers Whole numbers Integers Odd number The counting numbers: 1. take the Measurement and Geometry Diagnostic Test and carefully read the complete Measurement and Geometry Review. Carefully work through these problems. 2. you should read through the complete review carefully. . it is wise to become familiar with basic mathematics terminology.A Quick Review of Mathematics The following pages are designed to give you a quick review of some of the basic skills used on the math sections of the New SAT I. Before beginning the diagnostic review tests. 1. 2. . 2. . (continued) 39 . and Probability—you might wish to skim the specific topic headings in each area to refresh your memory about important concepts. Again. Again. Next. 3. take the Algebra Diagnostic Test and again use the review that follows to strengthen your weak areas. . . 1. formulas. carefully work through the SAT-type questions that follow. –2. Each review is followed by sample SAT-type questions with complete explanations for each topic area. Terminology. and Data Analysis. If you are weak in math. These topics are covered in this chapter.

9. . 4. or h d 1 n 2 2 Circle Circumference = 2πr. .2 = . 36. or 2l + 2w Area = bh Trapezoid Perimeter = b1 + b2 + s1 + s2 b + b2 Area = 1 h _ b 1 + b 2 i . . . 3 × 3 = 9. 10. 3. . 8.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Even number Prime number Composite number Number divisible by 2: 0. 16. Examples of cubes are 1. 13. 11. 2. or πd Area = π r 2 Cube Volume = s ⋅ s ⋅ s = s3 Surface area = s ⋅ s ⋅ 6 Rectangular Prism Volume = l ⋅ w ⋅ h Surface area = 2(lw) + 2(lh) + 2(wh) Pythagorean theorem (a2 + b2 = c2): The sum of the square of the legs of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse. 27. 9. Number divisible by more than just 1 and itself: 4. .1 = 1% 100 1 = . (0 and 1 are neither prime nor composite) The results when a number is multiplied by itself: 2 × 2 = 4. Examples of squares are 1.10 = 10% 10 1 = 2 = . or 2b + 2h Area = bh. The results when a number is multiplied by itself twice: 2 × 2 × 2 = 8. 15.20 = 20% 5 10 40 . . 4. .1 = . . 3 × 3 × 3 = 27. 12. Square Cube Math Formulas Triangle Perimeter = s1 + s2 + s3 Area = 1 bh 2 Square Perimeter = 4s Area = s ⋅ s. Important Equivalents 1 = 0. 64 . . 25. or lw Parallelogram Perimeter = 2(l + w). . . 6. 7. 14. Number divisible by only 1 and itself: 2. 6. 8. . or s2 Rectangle Perimeter = 2(b + h). . 5.

875 = .125 = .66 2 = 66 2 % 3 3 3 1 = .80 = 80% 5 10 9 = .30 = 30% 10 2 = 4 = .75 = 75% 4 100 1 = .7 = .70 = 70% 10 4 = 8 = .5 = 3.9 = .90 = 90% 10 1 = 25 = .50 = 350% 2 Math Words and Phrases Words that signal an operation: Addition ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Sum Total Plus Increase More than Greater than 41 .00 = 100% 2 = 2.6 = .62 1 = 62 1 % 8 2 2 7 = .60 = 60% 5 10 7 = .A Quick Review of Mathematics 3 = .5 = .625 = .83 1 = 83 1 % 3 3 6 1 = 1.25 = 25% 4 100 3 = 75 = .50 = 50% 2 10 3 = 6 = .8 = .37 1 = 37 1 % 8 2 2 5 = .3 = .40 = 40% 5 10 1 = 5 = .00 = 200% 3 1 = 3.375 = .12 1 = 12 1 % 8 2 2 3 = .33 1 = 33 1 % 3 3 3 2 = .87 1 = 87 1 % 8 2 2 1 = .4 = .16 2 = 16 2 % 3 3 6 5 = .

(2 + 3) + 4 = 2 + (3 + 4) (a + b) + c = a + (b + c) The grouping has changed (parentheses moved). 3–1≠1–3 a–b≠b–a Associative means that the grouping does not make any difference. but the sides are still equal. 4 – (3 – 1) ≠ (4 – 3) – 1 a – (b – c) ≠ (a – b) – c 42 . Note: The associative property does not hold for subtraction.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Multiplication ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Of Product Times At (sometimes) Total (sometimes) Subtraction ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Difference Less Decreased Reduced Fewer Have left Division ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Quotient Divisor Dividend Ratio Parts Mathematical Properties Some Properties (Axioms) of Addition Commutative means that the order does not make any difference. 2+3=3+2 a+b=b+a Note: The commutative property does not hold for subtraction.

therefore. 3 + (–3) = 0. therefore. (2 × 3) × 4 = 2 × (3 × 4) (a × b) × c = a × (b × c) The grouping has changed (parentheses moved). therefore. –2 and 2 are inverses. 2×3=3×2 a×b=b×a Note: The commutative property does not hold for division. 43 . Note: The associative property does not hold for division. 3 and –3 are inverses. (8 ÷ 4) ÷ 2 ≠ 8 ÷ (4 ÷ 2) The identity element for multiplication is 1. a + (–a) = 0. Any number plus its additive inverse equals 0 (the identity). –2 + 2 = 0. 2 2 1 a # a = 1.A Quick Review of Mathematics The identity element for addition is 0. a and –a are inverses. Some Properties (Axioms) of Multiplication Commutative means that the order does not make any difference. 3×1=3 a×1=a The multiplicative inverse is the reciprocal of the number. a and 1 a are inverses. Any number multiplied by 1 gives the original number. 2 and 1 are inverses. 2÷4≠4÷2 Associative means that the grouping does not make any difference. 3+0=3 a+0=a The additive inverse is the opposite (negative) of the number. Any number added to 0 gives the original number. therefore. 2 # 1 = 1. Any number multiplied by its reciprocal equals 1. but the sides are still equal. therefore.

3(4 × 5 × 6) ≠ 3(4) × 3(5) × 3(6) a(bcd) ≠ a(b) × a(c) × a(d) or (ab)(ac)(ad) 44 . 2(3 + 4) = 2(3) + 2(4) a(b + c) = a(b) + a(c) Note: You cannot use the distributive property with only one operation.Part II: Review with Sample Problems A Property of Two Operations The distributive property is the process of distributing the number on the outside of a set of parentheses to each number on the inside.

32 × 35 = 36. 25. Data Analysis. . . Change 3 to a percent.5% to a fraction. 8 29. Is 93 prime? 30.5 × . 9.5 = 9 9 8. Change 12. 6 . –6 + 8 = 32. 7 . What is the median of the numbers 4.147 = 35.2 + . 8.9 = 34.001 × 2. –7 × –9 = 33.7 g .07 + 1.9 or 4.45 – . 3. 82 = 45 . 5. 1 # 1 = 6 6 11. 5.68 = 17. 2 3 # 1 5 = 8 6 12. and 1? 20. Change 5 3 to an improper fraction. . 2 + 3 = 5 5 6. . . The square root of 30 is approximately equal to: 37.20 = 3 22.3 = 19.002 g12 = 21. 2 3 7 '14 = 14.471 = 15. 39 out of 100 means: 24. 1 ' 3 = 4 2 1 13.24 – $31. 1 3 + 2 5 = 8 6 7. Statistics. 7.009 to a percent. Change 4% to a decimal. What is the percent increase in a rise in temperature from 80° to 100°? 31.3 3 = 4 4 10. Statistics.003 = 16. . 11 . and Probability) Questions 1. 27. 23. 1 of $7. 28.2 = 3 1 9. 46% of 58 = 26. 4 4.35. 28 × 39 is approximately: 2. Data Analysis. $78. Change 32 to a whole number or mixed number 6 in lowest terms. Change . Circle the larger number: 7. and Probability Arithmetic Diagnostic Test (Including Numbers and Operations.5 = 18.Numbers and Operations. 6 = ? 4 3.

1000 8 28. 2 32. 68 or 1 33 35 35 14.Part II: Review with Sample Problems 38.5% Misc. No.56 17.20% work How Timmy Spends His 24-Hour Day Answers 1.4023 19. 63 33. 6 13. 24 3.5% or 37 1 % 2 29.25 18. . 37 36. 5. how much time does Timmy spend doing homework? School 33% Sleeping 22% Eating 12.9% or 9 % 10 125 or 1 27. . $2.40 22. 25% 31. 5 or 1 5 6. 30.200 2. . .5 or 5 1 2 1 37.447 16. 9 8. 1. 23 4 4. 6. 36 11.741 15. 64 35. 39% or 39 100 24. 4 or 4. . 2 2 or 2 1 4 2 1 10.21 20. 7. 18. 4 5 24 2 7. 3 hours 46 .000 21. 209 or 4 17 48 48 1 12. 10 1 3 9. 5 2 or 5 1 3 6 5. 9 34.5% 12. Based on the following circle graph.04 25. 26. 1.68 26.5 2 38. 37.9 23. Home. $46.

47 298. 0 9 2 .021 rounded to the nearest thousand. 2. Arithmetic Review Place Value Each position in any number has place value. If it is 5 or higher.08 Estimating Sums. and 5 is in the ones place. place value is as follows: 3 .000 This works with decimals as well. Estimating Sums Use rounded numbers to estimate sums. Round to the nearest hundredth: 3. . and Quotients Knowing how to approximate or estimate not only saves you time but can also help you check your answer to see whether it is reasonable. 8 is in the tens place. Differences.000 928. and so on 47 . For example: Round to the nearest thousand: 345.499 becomes 928. Look to the immediate right (one place) of your underlined place value. If the number (the one to the right) is 4 or less. For example. .4678 becomes 3.Numbers and Operations .741 + 5. For instance. Underline the place value to which you’re rounding off. 4 is in the hundreds place. Identify the number (the one to the right).435. in the number 485.435. Thus. Products. round your underlined place value up 1. 4 3 6 2 9 7 0 2 tenths hundredths thousandths ten-thousandths hundred-thousandths millionths ten-millionths hundred-millionths hundred millions ten millions millions hundred thousands ten thousands thousands and so on hundreds tens ones billions Rounding Off To round off any number: 1. give an estimate for the sum 3. 8 7 6 .083 becomes 298. 3 4 5 . leave your underlined place value as it is and change all the other numbers to its right to zeros.678 becomes 346. 3.

700 # 300 = 210. 000 722 # 489 . 000 So If both multipliers end in 50 or are halfway numbers. which is the standard rule. 522 . For example. 900 ' 300 = 3 891 ' 288 . 4. . then rounding one number up and one number down gives a better estimate of the product. 300.115. 000 + 5. . 9. 317. 000 . 000 650 # 350 . 600 # 400 = 240. 722 # 489 . estimate the product of 650 × 350 by rounding to the nearest hundred. 3 So 48 . 753 . estimate the product of 722 × 489 by rounding to the nearest hundred. . 000 So Estimating Products Use rounded numbers to estimate products. 741 + 5. 000 = 200. 000 317. 650 # 350 . 522 . . give an estimate for the difference 317.000 650 # 300 . Estimating Differences Use rounded numbers to estimate differences. 021 . 891 ' 288 . 350. estimate the quotient of 891 ÷ 288 by rounding to the nearest hundred. 200. . 000 Note: The symbol ≈ means is approximately equal to.753 – 115. 700 # 500 = 350.000 So You can also round the first number down and the second number up and get this estimate: 650 # 350 .100. For example. 741 + 5. 210. 000 = 9.115.Part II: Review with Sample Problems So 3. 000 So In either case. 000 3. 753 . . Estimating Quotients Use rounded numbers to estimate quotients.522 rounded to the nearest hundred thousand. 240. this approximation is closer than if you round both numbers up. Round one number up and one down. 021 . For example. For example.

giving 7 . 5. For example. This is done by dividing both the numerator and the denominator by the largest number that divides evenly into both. 20 is reduced to 4 by dividing both the numerator and denominator by 5. For example. Fractions Fractions consist of two numbers: a numerator (which is above the line) and a denominator (which is below the line). Sometimes a fraction represents more than one. add the numerator and put the total over the original denominator.Numbers and Operations . multiply the denominator by the whole number. first change all denominators to their lowest common denominator (LCD)—the lowest number that can be divided evenly by all the denominators in the problem. Mixed Numbers When a term contains both a whole number (such as 3. 5 1 and 290 3 are both mixed numbers. For example: 18 = 3 3 5 5 3 5 g18 15 3 To change a mixed number to an improper fraction. 1 numerator or numerator 1 denominator 2 2 denominator The denominator indicates the number of equal parts into which something is divided. Thus. divide the denominator into the numerator. add fractions by simply adding the numerators (the denominator remains the same). it is called a mixed 2 4 4 number. 8. or 3 ). 1 . When all the denominators are the same. For example: 49 . 3 also 5 means 3 out of 5 equal pieces from the whole pie. . or 25) and a fraction (such as 1 . . if the fraction is 3 of a pie. For example: 41=9 2 2 2#4+1=9 Reducing Fractions A fraction must be reduced to lowest terms. 8 16 Likewise. 5 indicates that the pie has been divided into 5 equal parts. The numerator indicates how many of these equal parts are contained in the fraction. In other words. Common Fractions and Improper Fractions A fraction like 3 . where the numerator is smaller than the denominator. This is called an improper fraction. Sometimes it helps to think of the dividing line (in the middle of a fraction) as meaning out of. This is when the numerator is larger than the denominator. is less than one. of which 3 (the numerator) are in the fraction. Thus. 4 4 To change an improper fraction to a mixed number. then the denominator. 25 5 Adding Fractions To add fractions. 12 7 is more than one. This kind of fraction is called 5 a common fraction. 14 is reduced by dividing both terms by 2.

For example: 21⁄2 + 31⁄4 = = 2 2 ⁄4 3 1⁄4 5 3⁄ 4 change one-half to two-fourths remember to add the whole numbers Subtracting Fractions To subtract fractions. Then you need to add the numerators 3 and 4 2 8 7 to get . and then add the numerators to 8 7 get . if the denominators are already the same. For example: 7= 8 -1 = 4 7 8 2 8 5 8 3= 9 4 12 -1 = 4 3 12 5 12 Subtracting Mixed Numbers When you subtract mixed numbers. the same rule (find the LCD) applies. you have to change the 1 to 4 because 8 is the LCD. Of course. For example: 12 6 + 3 = 9 11 11 11 Adding Mixed Numbers To add mixed numbers. you must change both fractions to get the LCD of 12. but always add the whole number to get your final answer. just like you sometimes borrow from the next column when subtracting ordinary numbers. the same rule (find the LCD) applies. In the second example. sometimes you have to borrow from the whole number. just add the numerators. For example: 4 11 37 ⁄6 − 651 129 522 41 ⁄6 − 25 ⁄6 12 ⁄6 = 11 ⁄3 you borrowed one in the form 6 ⁄6 from the ones column you borrowed 1 from the tens column 50 .Part II: Review with Sample Problems 3 3 = 8 8 1 4 + = 2 8 7 8 one-half is changed to four-eighths 1 3 = 4 12 1 4 + = 3 12 7 12 change both fractions to LCD of 12 In the first example. except subtract the numerators.

For example: 1'1=1#5=5 6 5 6 1 6 1'1=1#3=1 6 3 6 1 2 51 . Then multiply as previously shown. Add this to the numerator of the fraction. For example: 6 − 31⁄5 55 ⁄ 5 = 3 1⁄5 = borrow one in the form of 5 ⁄5 from the 6 24 ⁄5 remember to subtract the remaining whole numbers Multiplying Fractions Simply multiply the numerators. To change mixed numbers to improper fractions: 1. For example: 2 # 5 = 10 3 12 36 reduce 10 to 5 18 36 This answer had to be reduced because it wasn’t in lowest terms. 3 1 # 2 1 = 10 # 9 = 90 = 7 6 = 7 1 3 4 3 4 12 12 2 Then. Reduce to lowest terms if necessary. first change any mixed number to an improper fraction. find a number that divides evenly into one numerator and one denominator.Numbers and Operations . 2 # 5 = 5 3 12 6 18 You can cancel only when multiplying fractions. invert (turn upside down) the second fraction and multiply. and then multiply the denominators. Then. 1 1 Multiplying Mixed Numbers To multiply mixed numbers. Canceling eliminates the need to reduce your answer. Canceling When Multiplying Fractions You could have canceled first. This is now your numerator. 2. . back to a mixed number and reduce if necessary. if it is in improper form. To subtract a mixed number from a whole number. change the answer. you have to borrow from the whole number. Thus: 2 # 5 = 3 12 6 Now that you’ve canceled. Multiply the whole number by the denominator of the fraction. In this case. The denominator remains the same. Dividing Fractions To divide fractions. reduce if necessary. . you can multiply as before. 3. 2 divides evenly into 2 in the numerator (it goes in one time) and 12 in the denominator (it goes in 6 times). 4. To cancel.

16 8 and 78. as follows: .002 325.002 325.7 = 7 10 .07 = 7 100 . For example: 23. reduce if necessary.6 = 6 = 3 10 5 .000.47 1 52 .002 = 23. these numbers must be combined into one number.007 = . Then.10 53.9 . 100.000.26 . and so on.1.75 + 300. For example: 28 + 14 = 42 or 26 + 17 43 1+1 1 2 3 4 2 = 4 + 4 = 4 = 3 # 12 = 36 = 9 = 1 2 7 7 1+1 4 3 4 7 28 7 3 4 12 + 12 12 Decimals Fractions can also be written in decimal form by using a symbol called a decimal point.0007 = 7 1000 7 10000 .6 1.352 and 54.37. 10.1.37. 1.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Simplifying Fractions If either numerator or denominator consists of several numbers. All numbers to the right of the decimal point are fractions with denominators of only 10.750 300.75 300.352 Adding zeros can make the problem easier to work: 23.26 .9 0 .43 = 78.25 = 25 = 1 100 4 Adding and Subtracting Decimals To add or subtract decimals.600 1.1 = 54. just line up the decimal points and then add or subtract in the same manner as when adding or subtracting regular numbers.6 + 1.43 41. All numbers to the left of the decimal point are whole numbers.

0372 4 digits Dividing Decimals Dividing decimals is the same as dividing other numbers.012 × 3 digits 1 digit 3. 0.25 g 5.05 = 5% Changing Percents to Decimals To change percents to decimals: 1. 1. Then move the decimal point in the dividend (the number being divided into) the same number of places. Eliminate the percent sign. Insert a percent sign. . = 125 g 500.1 total of 4 digits above the line that are to the right of the decimal point decimal point placed so there is same number of digits to the right of the decimal point 40012 120036 124. Then. or 13000. 2.Numbers and Operations .0 0 . 2. Whole numbers can have decimal points to their right.75 = 75% .57 Multiplying Decimals To multiply decimals. move it to the right as many places as necessary until it is a whole number. For example: 6 9 1 17 . count the total number of digits above the line that are to the right of all decimal points. Sometimes you have to add zeros to the dividend (the number inside the division sign). . .8.) 53 . multiply as usual. Move the decimal point two places to the left. Move the decimal point two places to the right. Conversions Changing Decimals to Percents To change decimals to percents: 1. Place the decimal point in the answer so that the number of digits to the right of the decimal is the same as it is above the line. = 2 g 26000. For example: 40.43 = 17. 4.8. except that when the divisor (the number you’re dividing by) has a decimal. (Sometimes adding zeros is necessary.002 g 26.43 8.

. Put that number over 100. 2. 20 do just that. 2.65 = 65 = 100 .23 .65 5= 8 .75 5% = .00 = . simply do what the operation says. 2. In other words. (Insert decimal points and zeros accordingly.002 Changing Fractions to Percents To change a fraction to a percent: 1.8 Write it: 8 10 Reduce it: 4 5 13 20 1 20 3 4 54 .65 20 g13.05 23% = .000 = . 3. So.75 = 75 = 100 Read it: . Divide the percent by 100.05 = 5 = 100 . 1 = 1 # 100 = 100 = 50% 2 c2m 2 2 = c 2 m # 100 = 200 = 40% 5 5 5 Changing Percents to Fractions To change percents to fractions: 1. Reduce if necessary. Insert a percent sign. Reduce if necessary.625 Changing Decimals to Fractions To change a decimal to a fraction: 1. 13 means 13 divided by 20. Eliminate the percent sign. Move the decimal point two places to the right. 3.) .625 8 g 5. 60% = 60 = 3 100 5 13% = 13 100 Changing Fractions to Decimals To change a fraction to a decimal.Part II: Review with Sample Problems 75% = . Multiply by 100.2% = .

for of substitute a multiplication sign. For what substitute the letter x. What is 15% of 60? x = c 15 m # 60 = 900 = 9 100 100 or . 18 is what percent of 90? 18 = x (90) 18 = x 90 1 =x 5 20% = x 2. What is 12% of 50? c 12 # 50 = 600 = 6 or .50(x) 10 = x .15(60) = 9 55 .005 # 18 = . For example: 1. What is 20% of 80? c 20 # 80 = 1600 = 16 or . change the percent to a fraction or decimal (whichever is easier for you) and multiply.12 # 50 = 6. For example: 1. .50 20 = x 3. Using Percents Finding the Percent of a Number To determine the percent of a number.00 = 16 100 m 100 2.00 = 6 100 m 100 3. whichever you find easier.09 100 200 200 100 Other Applications of Percent Turn the question (word for word) into an equation. What is 1 % of 18? 2 1 2 # 18 = c 1 m # 18 = 18 = 9 or . Then solve the equation. The word of means multiply.Numbers and Operations . Change percents to decimals or fractions.20 # 80 = 16. . 10 is 50% of what number? 10 = . for is substitute an equal sign.

numbers to the right of 0 are positive. use this formula: change # 100 = percentage change starting point For example: 1. Numbers to the left of 0 are negative. What is the percentage increase of Jon’s salary if it goes from $150 a month to $200 a month? change # 100 = 50 # 100 = 1 # 100 = 33 1 % increase 3 3 starting point 150 Signed Numbers (Positive Numbers and Negative Numbers) On a number line. What is the percentage decrease of a $500 item on sale for $400? change # 100 = 100 # 100 = 1 # 100 = 20% decrease starting point 500 5 2.25 + 20 ++ 3 + 23 56 . For example: +5 .3 -19 +. Adding Signed Numbers When adding two numbers with the same sign (either both positive or both negative).4 +8 -14 ++ 4 -10 -19 -+ 6 + 20 -. add the numbers and keep the same sign.7 ++ 72 -2 + 13 Subtracting Signed Numbers To subtract positive and/or negative numbers.59 +.3 + 12 . Given any two numbers on a number line. subtract the numbers and keep the sign from the larger one. regardless of its sign (positive or negative). For example: +5 -8 ++ 7 +. just change the sign of the number being subtracted and add.11 When adding two numbers with different signs (one positive and one negative). −3 −2 −1 0 +1 +2 +3 etc.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Percentage Increase or Decrease To find the percentage change (increase or decrease).6 . as follows: etc. For example: +12 -+ 4 -14 -.4 +12 +. the one on the right is always larger.

4 = 4 . The value of a number is written 3 = 3 and . For example: -8 = 8 3 . simply keep the base number and subtract the second exponent from the first. if the base numbers are the same. such as 3–2. simply keep the base number and add the exponents.9 = -6 = 6 3 . . It expresses the power to which the quantity is to be raised or lowered. an even number of negative signs produces a positive answer. For example: 21 = 2 20 = 1 31 = 3 30 = 1 Negative Exponents If an exponent is negative.2 = 12 = 1 9 3 Operations with Powers and Exponents To multiply two numbers with exponents. For example: 34 ' 32 = 32 9 3] 4 . In 43.Numbers and Operations . or the work must be done first within the absolute value signs. Multiplying and Dividing Signed Numbers To multiply or divide signed numbers. For example: 24 = 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 = 16 32 = 3 × 3 = 9 Remember that x1 = x and x0 = 1 when x is any number (other than 0)..6 = 3 . 43 is read four to the third power (or four cubed). 4 × 4 × 4 (multiplied by itself twice). if the base numbers are the same. treat them just like regular numbers but remember this rule: An odd number of negative signs produces a negative answer. . 3 is the exponent. Powers and Exponents An exponent is a positive or negative number placed above and to the right of a quantity. then the number and exponent can be dropped under the number 1 in a fraction to remove the negative sign.2 g = 9 4 9 C 92 57 . It shows that 4 is to be used as a factor three times.6 = -3 Note: Absolute values must be taken first. The absolute value of a number is always positive except when the number is 0. The number can be simplified as follows: 3 . For example: 23 × 25 = 28 7 ×7 =7 2 4 6 [(2 × 2 × 2) × (2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2) = 28] [2(3 + 5) = 28] To divide two numbers with exponents.2 g = 3 2 C 9 6 = 9 6 ' 9 2 = 9 4 9] 6 . For example: (–3)(+8)(–5)(–1)(–2) = +240 Absolute Value The numerical value when direction or sign is not considered is called the absolute value.

Thirty-six is called a perfect square (the square of a whole number). If a number with an exponent is taken to another power (42)3. Following is a list of perfect (whole number) square roots: 1=1 4=2 9=3 16 = 4 25 = 5 36 = 6 49 = 7 58 . and then perform the operation. For example.7 To find the square root of a number. . simplify each number with an exponent first. or 36. 6 squared (written 62) is 6 × 6. find some number that when multiplied by itself gives you the original number. 1. The symbol for square root is √. 1. Two approximations to remember are: 2 .Part II: Review with Sample Problems Three notes: ■ ■ ■ If the base numbers are different in multiplication or division. then. to find the square root of 25.4 3 . and then perform the indicated operation. Following is a list of some perfect squares: 12 = 1 22 = 4 32 = 9 42 = 16 52 = 25 62 = 36 72 = 49 82 = 64 92 = 81 102 = 100 112 = 121 122 = 144 . In other words. The square root of 25. . is 5. Square roots of nonperfect squares can be approximated. find the number that when multiplied by itself gives you 25. just multiply it by itself. simply keep the original base number and multiply the exponents. To add or subtract numbers with exponents. simplify each number with an exponent first. For example: (42)3 = 46 (34)2 = 38 [4(2 × 3) = 46] Squares and Square Roots To square a number. whether the base is the same or different.

Simplify 75. For example: ^ 4 h^ 25h = 4 # 25 = 2 # 5 = 10 or 100 = 10 Likewise with division: 64 = 4 64 8 = = 4 or 16 = 4 2 4 Addition and subtraction. 2 . 9. 49 and 64. 83 is a little more than 9. Because 83 is only two steps up from the nearest perfect square (81) and 17 steps to the next perfect square (100). 64 = 8 81 = 9 100 = 10 Square Root Rules Two numbers multiplied under a radical (square root) sign equal the product of the two square roots. 83 is 2 of the way to 100. however. 75 = 25 # 3 = 25 # 3 = 5 3 59 . Since 57 is between Simplifying Square Roots To simplify numbers under a radical (square root sign): 1. you should approximate.1 19 20 10 Therefore. . 9 10 81 < 83 < 100 Since 83 is slightly more than 81 (whose square root is 9). And because 57 is just about halfway between 49 and 64. are different.12 = 81 = 9 Approximating Square Roots To find a square root that is not a whole number. 1 = . one (or more) of which is a perfect square. For example: Approximate 57. The numbers must be combined under the radical before any computation of square roots is done. 57 is approximately 7 1 .Numbers and Operations . Leave the other factors under the . 2. 83 . Factor the number to two numbers. For example: 10 + 6 = 16 = 4 10 + 6 does not equal 7 ! A 10 + 6 93 . 19 2 . 3. 2 Approximate 83. . it falls somewhere between 7 and 8. Take the square root of the perfect square(s).1.

division. left to right) 92 + 28 = 120 An easy way to remember the order of operations after parentheses is: Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally. etc. parentheses 2. or PEMDAS (Parentheses. 200 = 100 # 2 = 100 # 2 = 10 2 Simplify 900. 60 . Addition. left to right For example: 10 – 3 × 6 + 102 + (6 + 1) × 4 = 10 – 3 × 6 + 102 + (7) × 4 = (parentheses first) 10 – 3 × 6 + 100 + (7) × 4 = (exponents next) 10 – 18 + 100 + 28 = (multiplication) –8 + 100 + 28 = (addition/subtraction. the order of operations is as follows: 1. left to right 4. Multiplication. 2. Everything inside a set of parentheses must be done before any other operations. 3} 3 is an element of the set of 1. addition 6. multiplication whichever comes first. For example: 6 – (–3 + a – 2b + c) = 6 + (+3 – a + 2b – c) = 6 + 3 – a + 2b – c = 9 – a + 2b – c Order of Operations If addition. parentheses. 3. powers. (exponents) 3. 3} An element is a member of a set. Basic Set Theory A set is a group of objects. multiplication. subtraction whichever comes first.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Simplify 200. 2. Division. numbers. 3 ∈{1. 900 = 100 # 9 = 100 # 9 = 10 # 3 = 30 Parentheses Parentheses are used to group numbers. {1. Subtraction). division 5. and so on are all contained in one problem. 2. Exponents.

4} Infinite sets are uncountable. 2. b. They stop. 6 . 4. 5 is the set with members 1. 0 or {}. A C B Types of Sets Finite sets are countable. 3 is a subset of the set of 1. 2. 3 . .1 #1. {1. they continue forever. . 3. 3 . 2. 5 - The union of sets with members 1. 5. } {Fred. . 2. 5 . .. 2. . 3. 61 . 3The set of 2. 4. 5.Numbers and Operations . 4. Special Sets A subset is a set within a set. c - Operations with Sets The union of two or more sets is all of the members in those sets. #1. 2. 3. Describing Sets Rule is a method of naming a set by describing its elements. {1. 2. is a whole number} {all students in the class with blue eyes} Roster is a method of naming a set by listing its members. {4. {1. 2. 1} Equivalent sets are sets that have the same number of members. 3} = {3. 2. . 4. The universal set is the general category set.} Comparing Sets Equal sets are those that have the exact same members. 3 and 3. # 3. The empty set. 3. or null set.= #1. Tom. 3. or the set of all those elements under consideration. 2. is a set with no members.+ # a. #1. . 2. Bob} Venn Diagrams (and Euler Circles) are ways of pictorially describing sets. # 2. 3. " x x > 3.

What is the probability of tossing heads three consecutive times with a two-sided fair coin? Because each toss is independent and the odds are 1 for each toss. 2.+ # 3. Three green marbles. the probability is 1 out of 10 or 1 . #1. 3 . The intersection of a set with members 1. 4. 5 . using the spinner shown above. two blue marbles. Again. or overlap. and five yellow marbles are placed in a jar. the probability of the occurrence of a given outcome can be found by using the following formula: probability= number of favorable outcomes number of possible outcomes For example: 1. 10 2. the probability is 3 out of 10 or 3 . 3 and a set with members 3. you need to multiply to find the favorable and/or possible outcomes. 5 is a set with only member 3. 2. What is the probability of selecting at random. 10 5 When two events are independent of each other.Part II: Review with Sample Problems The intersection of two or more sets is where they intersect. or 1 . When all outcomes are equally likely to occur. Some Basic Probability and Statistics Probability Probability is the numerical measure of the chance of an outcome or event occurring. Using the spinner shown below. 10 62 5 6 .= " 3 . what is the probability of spinning a 3 or a 5 in one spin? Since there are two favorable outcomes out of ten possible outcomes. 3. a green marble on the first draw? Since there are ten marbles (total possible outcomes) and three green marbles (favorable outcomes). what is the probability of spinning a 6 in one spin? 10 1 9 2 8 3 4 7 Since there is only one 6 on the spinner out of ten numbers and all the numbers are equally spaced. 4. the probability is 2 1#1#1=1 2 2 2 8 4. the probability is 2 out of 10 or 2 .

If the list contains an even number of items. 31. 8. and 45? 10 + 20 + 35 + 40 + 45 = 150 150 ÷ 5 = 30 The average is 30. average the two middle numbers to get the median. 10—the median is 7 1 . 3. Mode A mode is simply the number most frequently listed in a group of numbers. 21. 2—the mode is 9 because it appears more often than any other number. . gives the median. and 27? 25 + 27 + 27 + 27 = 106 106 ÷ 4 = 26 1 2 The average is 26 1 . and 45? 0 + 12 + 18 + 20 + 31 + 45 = 126 126 ÷ 6 = 21 The average is 21. 18. 4. 2. median. 12. and mode. What is the average of 10. 6. . 6. 9. 4. What is the average of 0. in the following list—5. in the following group—5. The three basic measures indicating the center of a distribution are: mean. 27. 9. 2 Median A median is simply the middle number in a list of numbers that have been written in numerical order. 2. the 2 average of the middle two. 24. 20. Because there is an even number of items. 9. Mean. For example. 20. What is the average of 25. 35. 7. Arithmetic Mean. 56—the number 9 is the median. 9. Divide by the number of items you added.Numbers and Operations . 6. If there are two modes. 63 . or Average To find the average of a group of numbers: 1. 27. 9. the group is called bimodal. 3. 7. 40. For example: 1. For example. 9. Add them up. The list has to be in numerical order (or put in numerical order) first. Statistics The study of numerical data and its distribution is called statistics. in the following list—3. There can be more than one mode. 7 and 8. The median is easy to calculate and is not influenced by extreme measures. 7. For example.

Some graphs list numbers along one edge and places. When answering questions related to a graph: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Examine the entire graph—notice labels and headings. You should also know the scatter plot. City W has approximately 500 billboards. Always try to determine the relationship between the columns in a graph or chart. refer to it. people. The bar graph for City Y stops about halfway between 100 and 200. dates. Pay special attention to which part of the graph the question is referring to. which is similar to a coordinate graph. 500 – 150 = 350 64 . low points. with the numbers given along the bottom of the graph in increases of 100. Focus on the information given. Do not memorize the graph. trends. For example: 1. So City W (500) has approximately 350 more billboards than City Y (150). Reread the headings and labels if you don’t understand.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Data Analysis: Graphs Information can be displayed in many ways. or things (individual categories) along the other edge. Consider that halfway between 100 and 200 is 150. and circle graphs (or pie charts). The names are listed along the left side. line graphs. The following bar graph indicates that City W has approximately how many more billboards than City Y? City W City X City Y City Z 0 100 200 300 400 500 Billboards The graph shows the number of billboards in each city. The three basic types of graphs you should know about are bar graphs. Bar Graphs Bar graphs convert the information in a chart into separate bars or columns. Look for major changes—high points.

5 million = 3.5 1992 = 3.500. answer these questions: A.0 . Referring to the All Sports bars. adding zeros does not add precision to the numbers. B. C.0 Number of Books in Millions 2. the number of books sold per year can be determined as follows: 1990 = 2. .4 Use a piece of paper as a straightedge to determine this last number. as it often is with graphs that use large numbers.5 1.Numbers and Operations .4. .5 1991 = 2.000).5 2.1 1992 = 3 65 . Based on the following bar graph.0 1. The number of books sold by Mystery Mystery from 1990 to 1992 exceeded the number of those sold by All Sports by approximately how many? From 1991 to 1992. Each single bar stands for the number of books sold in a single year. Since all measurements are in millions. the number of books sold per year is as follows: 1990 = 1 1991 = 2.5 3.5 1990 1991 1992 1990 1991 1992 1990 1991 1992 Mystery Mystery Reference Unlimited All Sports The graph contains multiple bars representing each publisher. Totaling the number of books sold for all three years gives 8. You might be tempted to write out the numbers as you do your arithmetic (3. 2. Writing out the numbers is unnecessary. the percent increase in number of books sold by All Sports exceeded the percent increase in number of books sold by Mystery Mystery by approximately how much? What caused the 1992 decline in Reference Unlimited’s number of books sold? 3. Answer to Question A: Regarding the Mystery Mystery bars.

: This question cannot be answered based on the information in the graph. Answer to Question B.9 The 1991 amount is the starting point. the multiple factors that could cause a decline in the number of books sold are not represented by the graph. change = percent change starting point In this case. the percent increase in number of books sold by Mystery Mystery can be calculated first. so: change = . the sharper the slope downward.1 So the percent increase of All Sports exceeded that of Mystery Mystery by 7%: 43% – 36% = 7% Answer to Question C. in data over a period of time. These lines show increases and decreases— the sharper the slope upward. and so on.9 change = . These points are then connected to show a relationship among items. dates. In this case. Totaling the number of books sold for all three years gives 6. Number of books sold in 1991 = 2. or changes. Never assume information that is not given. The formula for figuring either of these is the same. 43% starting point 2.9 = 4. the number of books sold by Mystery Mystery exceeded the number of books sold by All Sports by 2.5 Number of books sold in 1992 = 3.: Graph and chart questions might ask you to calculate percent increase or percent decrease. Line Graphs Line graphs convert data into points on a grid. So.1. use a piece of paper as a straightedge.5 The percent increase in number of books sold by All Sports can be calculated as follows: Number of books sold in 1991 = 2.3 million. Line graphs can show trends. 66 .4 Change = .28 . but don’t designate numbers beyond the nearest 10th because the graph numbers prescribe no greater accuracy than this. the greater the increase. times. the greater the decrease.9 = 36% starting point 2.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Again.1 Number of books sold in 1992 = 3 Change = . Notice the slopes of the lines connecting the points.

when the plant grew from 40 centimeters to 80 centimeters.000 $200.000 to about $250.: The information along the left side of the graph shows the property value of Moose Lake Resort in increments of $100.000. The numbers on the left give the height of the plant in centimeters.000 on the left. .000. Using a sheet of paper as a straightedge helps to see that the dot in the 1970 column lines up with $500. For example: 1. The sharpest upward slope occurs between week 3 and week 4. the property value was about $500.: Since the slope of the line goes down from 1920 to 1930. If you read the actual numbers. In what year was the property value of Moose Lake Resort about $500. answer these questions: A. you notice a decrease from $300.000 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 Years Answer to Question A.000 $400. Answer to Question B.Numbers and Operations .000? In which 10-year period was there the greatest decrease in the property value of Moose Lake Resort? $800. In 1970.000.000 $100.000 $300. there must have been a decrease in property value. B. Based on the following line graph. According to the following line graph.000 Total Value $600. a total of 40 centimeters growth. 2.000 $700.000 $500. The bottom of the graph shows the years from 1920 to 1990. the tomato plant grew the most between which two weeks? 100 90 80 70 Centimeters 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Weeks The numbers at the bottom of the graph give the weeks of growth of the plant. . 67 .

how much do they spend on dances in a year in which the total amount spent is $15. If Smithville Community Theater has $1. how much is spent on set construction? What is the ratio of the amount of money spent on advertising to the amount of money spent on set construction? Answer to Question A. advertising = 15% of 1000 = 150 = 3 set construction 20% of 1000 200 4 Notice that 15% reduces to 3 . $1. B. items 25% staff salaries 15% advertising 10% physical plant A.000 is $200.: The theater spends 20% of its money on set construction.400 student store supplies $10. you must use the information in the graph to make a ratio.200 dances $2. or pie chart.100 misc. For example: 1.000? The amount of money spent on field trips in 1995 was approximately what percent of the total amount spent? 68 . 20% 4 2. Answer to Question B. Based on the following circle graph: Smithville Community Theater Expenditures 20% set construction 20% costumes and props 10% misc. If the Bell Canyon PTA spends the same percentage on dances every year. Based on the following circle graph: $2.000 Total Expenditures A. B.: To answer this question. the higher the percentage. shows the relationship between the whole circle (100%) and the various slices that represent portions of that 100%—the larger the slice. so $200 is spent on set construction.000 to spend this month. Twenty percent of $1.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Circle Graphs or Pie Charts A circle graph.400 student awards $2.900 field trips $1.

22 × 15. one quantity decreases as another increases. Answer to Question A. 3 × $1.100 out of every $5.000 is spent for dances.000. Answer to Question B.0 4 8 12 16 20 Days absent from school 69 .000) gives the right answer. .300.000.300 or $3.22 .000 is spent for dances. 000 100 Multiplying 22% by the new total amount spent ($15. For example: Biology test score (out of 100 possible) 100 90 80 70 60 50 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Number of hours studying If the line goes down to the right.: By carefully reading the information in the graph. If $2.: To answer this question.900 was spent on field trips. and then apply this percent to a new total. that is. you find that $2.300 You could use another common-sense method. Because $2. The graph is typically placed in one part of a coordinate plane (the upper right quarter called Quadrant I). For example: Grade point average 4. Since $15.000.000 is 3 × $5. . In 1995. If the line goes up to the right. the approximate percentage is worked out as follows: 3.100 is $3. 000 = 30 = 30% 10.Numbers and Operations . a linear relationship is suggested.0 1.200 out of $10. 200 = 22 = 22% 10.0 2. then the relationship is called a negative correlation. one quantity increases as another increases. 22% = . 000 100 Scatter Plot A scatter plot is a graph representing a set of data and showing a relationship or connection between the two quantities given. The information describing the graph explains that the total expenditures were $10.200 on dances. usually a relationship can be seen. then the relationship is called a positive correlation. If the points appear to form a line. When the data is placed on the scatter plot.000 = 3. that is. the PTA spent $2. $1.900 is approximately $3. you must find a percent. This can be calculated as 22% of the total spent in 1995 by the following method: 2.0 3.

Part II: Review with Sample Problems If the data does not appear to show any line or any relationship between the quantities. For example: 100 Math test score (percent right) 90 80 70 60 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 Time spent listening to music (minutes) 70 . the scatter plot is said to show no correlation.

D. C. C. 2 ' c 2 m + 3 ' 4 ' c 4 m = 3 5 A. . multiply 9 4 2 by 4 1 . C. the LCD for all the fractions. E. B. If the coffee company fills an order for 4 1 cases 2 how many pounds of coffee will the company need to fill this order? Explanations 1.20 19 4 3 = : = = . If 2 of 2 ' 5 is divided by 3 . Sample SAT-Type Problems Now you can try actual SAT-like problems in each topic area. B. The product is 9. after inverting and multiplying. E. 17 12 19 12 7 2 19 4 17 2 1 15 12 25 8 15 5 3 125 27 4. Next. what is the 3 6 10 5 resulting value? A. in the fraction computation. 4 5-1 5 1 m 12 10 .m -12 31 4 3 12 39 . 2 c 2 ' 5 m ' 3 = 2 : 2 : 6 : 10 = 8 . where appropriate.5. 5-1 6 2 A.5. D. Number and Operations Operations with Fractions 1. 2 2 2 2 71 . 31 -12 4 3 = 2. A coffee 4 company packages 12 of these packages in a case.Numbers and Operations . 81 or 40.6 c 6 2 6 2 top and bottom of the complex fraction by 12. 1 5 11 15 47 60 3 13 30 12 3. multiply the 2. To get rid of all the fractions in the second step. 3. the denominators all cancel out. B. E. 13 5 c . . Multiply 3 by 12. The correct answer is 81 or 40. 10 5 3 5 3 15 5 3 6 4. after canceling. 2 ' c 2 m + 3 ' c 3 m + 4 ' c 4 m = 2 : 3 + 3 : 4 + 4 : 5 = 3 + 4 + 5 = 12 3 4 2 3 4 5 In the second step. The weight of coffee in a bag is 3 pound. D. This product is ^ 9hc 9 m = 81 . Note: Remember that multiple-choice problems range from easy to average to difficult. which is the weight of coffee in one case. C. D. E.

C. During a sale Arianna purchases a sweater listed at $100. D. The sum is $67.00. D. His profit per DVD is therefore $17. He then sells them to his customers during a special sale. Triple each integer. 33.01 for 3 DVDs.100 – $125 = $975. B.37 for tomatoes.67 – $13. If 10 boys averaged 78% on a test for which 15 girls averaged 89%.01 ÷ 3 = $17. subtract $67 from $100.60 6.54 per DVD. and Median 9. 20% of $100 is just $20. An electronics store owner purchases DVDs from his supplier. 7 8 9 13 15 8. After making a down payment of $125.54 = $4. D. and $14. 7% tax on $80 is (.60 = $85. Mode. $17.8% 10. E.80 ÷ 20 = $13.80 for avocados. how much did she pay for the discounted sweater? A. C. it will take $975 ÷ $75 = 13 months. charging $53. Subtract 5 from the largest integer.55 for bread. Add 11 to the largest integer. With 20% off and 7% sales tax. $73. 8. How much profit. Add 3 to the smallest integer. E. The difference is $33.100.80 for 20 DVDs. The store charges the sandwich shop $11. A. Add the following amounts: $11.33 $13.67. E. 6. which is the correct answer.00 $80.28 + $23. how much change should he receive in dollars? Explanations 5. The store owner pays $270. A grocery store sends an order to a local sandwich shop.60. what is the test average for all 25 students? A. In a set of 15 different integers.00 $85.30 7. 76. Next. he will pay off the remainder in monthly payments of $75.60. per DVD. B. B. So the sale price is $100 – $20 = $80.55 + $17.60 $87.54 $17. D.80.00 $88. and Division to Problem Solving 5.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Applying Addition. Subtract 7 from each integer. B.2% 87. E. Multiplication. B.67 $82. does the owner make during the special sale? A. D. $1. which of the following changes would NOT effect the value of the median of these 15 integers? A. Arithmetic Mean (Average). $4. He sells them for $53. C. C. How many months will it take for Franco to pay off the new washing machine? A. If the sandwich shop owner paid with a $100 bill. D. 7. $23. E. The total price is then $80 + $5. 72 . paying $270.13. At $75 per month.07)$80 = $5.6% 86. C. C.37 + $14.5% 84.28 for lettuce. Subtraction.13 $9.4% 83. Franco decides to purchase a new washing machine that sells for $1.

B. . A. you have: 6. The other option—which is not one the given choices—would be to subtract some positive integer from the smallest number in the set. C. Since the median is the middle of the list of the set of integers. 10. 9. 3 10 B. 11. Notice that since you have an even number (10) of shoe sizes. How much greater than the mode is the median? A. 8 15 D. A special snack mix uses raisins.6% 25 25 10.5. E.Numbers and Operations . 5 6 15 E. 12. A certain brand of paint consists of water and paint concentrate. 10.5 10 12. . 12. How much concentrate would be needed to produce 3 gallons of this paint? 73 .5 5 9.) Explanations 10 ^ 78%h + 15 ^89%h 780% + 1335% = = 84. 0 0. Since the average is the sum of these temperature points. D. 2 5 C. since this is the most exact number the grid field will accommodate. D. 11. Next. The average temperature in May of that year was 9. C. 10.5°C. E. how many ounces of peanuts are used? A. what is the value of r ? 14. 9. 6. Each gallon of paint contains 1 4 part water. 7.76. and chocolate candies in the ratio 1 : 2 : 5. and 7. the average is: 240 + 294. B. you had to find the average of the fifth and sixth shoe sizes (9 and 10) to compute the median. adding 11 to the largest integer will not affect the median. peanuts. 80 70 50 16 14 r = 2 and m = 4 . divided by 61 (the number of days in April and May combined).5 temperature points for the month of May. 8.5 = 8. B. B. Which of the following could NOT be the total number of people at the party? A. 11. Listing the shoe sizes from small to large. 7. In a snack mix of 112 ounces. E. 8. Begin by determining the number of temperature points for the month of April: 30 × 8 = 240 temperature points for the month of April.0°C. C. the ratio of males to females is 3 : 4. The shoes sizes of 10 men are 8. The average daily temperature in a city during the month of April was 8. which gives 9. respectively. 7. B.5 = 294. What is the average temperature in this city for the months of April and May? (There are 30 days in April and 31 days in May. 14 35 44 63 70 15. 9. Ratio and Proportion 13. D.76. At a party. The median (the middle of the list) would be the average of 9 and 10. The class average can be found as follows: 11.7622 °C 61 The answer must be 8. 10. 10. determine the number of temperature points for the month of May: 31 × 9. 12 The mode (most frequent shoe size) is 10. 10. 8 16. If m c 5 c 3 A.

B. C. 4 6 10 11 24 18. C. which of the following must be even? A.25 gallons 4 Number Properties: Positive and Negative Integers. 3. Prime Numbers. and 8. Odd and Even Numbers. If you write your raisins to peanuts to candies ratio as 1x : 2x : 5x. Notice that m c c ratios on the left in the equation above. E. The prime factorization of 360 can be written in the form ambncr. x+y x–y (x + 3)(y – 4) x+y–6 4(x + y) – 2 20. C. How many two-digit positive integers are multiples of both 2 and 5? A. 16. 9 or 2. A number is divisible by 2. it must be 3 parts paint concentrate. If the paint is 1 water. then there are 3 times 3 or 2 1 gallons of paint concentrate in 3 gallons of paint. D. Factors and Multiples. Substituting the numerical values for the 14. Therefore the number of ounces of peanuts will be 5x = 5(14) = 70.25. D. See the proportion below: 4 4 3 gallon 4 1 gallon x gallons 3 gallons The correct answer is x = 3 gallons. What is the value of a + b + c – mnr? A. D. E. Since the ratio of males to females is 3 parts to 4 parts. you have 2 # 4 = 8 . the number of people at the party must be a multiple of 7 parts. is not a multiple of 7.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Explanations 13. B. B. C. r # m = r . If x and y are positive integers. E. 3 5 15 15. 44. Choice C. Divisibility 17. C. you will have 1x + 2x + 5x = 112 8x = 112 so x = 14. which is the ratio you are trying to find. If there are 3 parts paint in one gallon of 4 4 4 4 paint. 4 = Solving for x by cross multiplication. and are not both even. What is the smallest three-digit number that is divisible by this number? 74 . 5 6 9 45 48 19. E. x = (3) 9 gallons or 2.

you have: 4(x + y) – 2 = 4(any number) – even = even – even = even 19. Serena has $500 in a savings account that pays 4% simple interest per year. 3 × 2 × 1 = 6. Interest. x + y = odd + even = odd. What was the percent increase in the price of a gallon of regular unleaded gasoline? A. 3. Explanations 17. 30.00 $562. 18. B. the value of (a + b + c) – m × n × r = 10 – 6 = 4. 3. or x + y = even + odd = odd B. it must also be a multiple of 15. Distance.50/gallon to $2. You are comparing this to am × bc × cr. x + y – 6 = odd + even – even = odd or x + y – 6 = even + odd – even = odd E. So Choice C does NOT have to be even.37 $560. The smallest three-digit multiple of 24 is 120. Look for the smallest number that is divisible by all three numbers. Just to double-check.00 $512. . $512. x – y = odd – even = odd. 9% 10% 20% 25% 90% 22. and 8.43 $566. Begin by finding the least common multiple (LCM) of 2. . 360 10 2 2 5 5 4 36 9 2 2 3 3 Therefore. D. how much money will be in Serena’s savings account after 3 years? A. If she does not deposit or withdraw from this savings account. A. you find the prime factorization of 360. and 8. And the product m × n × r is just the product of the exponents. and the smallest three-digit multiple of 96 is 192. you have: A.75/gallon. D. the answer is 120. the smallest three-digit multiple of 72 is 144. 360 = 23 × 32 × 51. E. 120. or x – y = even – odd = odd C. 24 is divisible by 2. So our two-digit multiples of 15 are: 15. Price per Item 21. Word Problems: Solving for Percents. 2 + 3 + 5 = 10. the price of regular unleaded gasoline went from $2. the smallest three-digit multiple of 48 is 144. So the sum (a + b + c) is just the sum of the bases. Time. So our correct answer is 6 two-digit multiples of 15. 45. 60. C. E. Rate. E. The correct number is 24. Choice E must therefore be correct. Since you are looking for the smallest three-digit number. Trying each of the choices one at a time. 75. C. Finally. B. By default. D. (x + 3)(y – 4) = (odd + odd)(even – even) = (even)(even) = even or (x + 3)(y – 4) = (even + odd)(odd – even) = (odd)(odd) = odd. No smaller number is divisible by all three numbers. B. and 90. Making a “factor tree”. 20. If the positive integer is a multiple of both 3 and 5. In a one-week period. Average.84 75 .Numbers and Operations .

E.6 0. point D is between points A and E. It took Esteban 1 minute and 20 seconds to travel one mile.50 10 22. what is the distance from M to N? A. B. E C. The difference between 66 and 45 is 21. Betweenness 3.04) × 3 I = 60 60 + 500 560 dist 23. D. you need 40 + 40 8 + 10 18 9 total 4 5 dist to use time = rate . E. d. A. D. Multiplying both fractions by 60 to convert to miles per hour.25 3. E. in miles/hour. On a number line. Simple interest = principal × rate × time 21. B. Then I = 500 × (. 20 9 40 9 9 2 80 9 9 24.50 = $0. D.0 F 25. for the entire trip? A. If M is the midpoint of AB and N is the midpoint of DE .75 – $2. If he then drives this one-mile distance in 55 seconds. Average rate = timetotal = 40 + 40 = 80 = 80 = 40 . D D. What is his average rate. To compute the time going and returning. which of the following is a possible order of the points A. A. Number Line: Order. If Esteban travels one mile in 1 minute and 20 seconds (80 seconds).25 1 = = 10% increase in price of gasoline $2. and F are equally spaced on the number line. E 76 . A. B.6 3. E C. Fractions. and E have respective coordinates a. how much faster is he driving in miles per hour? Explanations $0. points A.8 26. B. he will travel 60/80 (3/4) miles in one minute. E. 21. D. If c < d. point A is between points C and D.25. Consecutive Numbers. C. B C. and E? A. Ling rides his bicycle a distance of 40 miles in 5 hours and then returns the same distance in only 4 hours. B. points A. B. If he travels one mile in 55 seconds. he will travel 60/55 miles in one minute. B. 24. C. b. A. D. D. C. the speeds will be 45 mph in the first case and 66 mph in the second case.Part II: Review with Sample Problems 23. E.0 A B C D E 4. 0. B. C. and e but not necessarily in that order. $2. E. c. B. C. C. C. A. B.75 3. D. C. D. B. B. D. In the diagram above. C.

the numbers are 104. 5 77 . v. 3. combined with the figure above. y. x – 4. can be located anywhere. and E have been labeled with their respective coordinates: 3. Since N is the midpoint of DE .6. If x – 4 = z. corresponding with Choice A. which is 108.1 = 0.0 A M 3.8 E 4.1. the final order is as follows: y. 28. w. 108. you have the series below: y. Using the given relationships between coordinates and points. y. and 112. x. y<z<v<x<w v<z<y<x<w z<v<x<w<y z<y<x<v<w v<w<z<y<x 28. The correct answer is 108. v. 27. and 3.4. points B. The other numbers would be two greater. Therefore. . 106. The sum of five consecutive even integers is 536. y + 6 = x. x. and four less. four greater. Therefore. z. and z? A. y + 6 = x. D. 3. x + 4. w. let the numbers be: x. the coordinate of point M is 3. you get x = z + 4. two less. x + (x + 2) + (x + 4) + (x – 2) + (x – 4) = 540 5x = 540. as shown below: z.2. the middle number must be 540 divided by 5 (the average).Numbers and Operations . E. x. D. with coordinate b. x – 2. and x = 540 = 108 . you know there are two other odd integers between x and y.0 F In the figure above. 108. 110. 27. D. __. . Since the five numbers add to 540. __. and z are consecutive odd integers. 3.6 26.8. __ Then since w > v. C. which of the following is the correct order for the integers v. and there is one other odd integer between z and x.7 3. and w > v. Therefore the distance from M to N is 3. What is the middle number of the five numbers? Explanations 25. w. x From the second piece of data. C. B. A. z. x + 2. the coordinate of point E is 3. A.4 C 3.6 D N 3. not necessarily in that order. Choice D is the only choice given a possible order.7 – 3. x – 4 = z. From the first piece of data. you have the following order of the coordinates: c a d e Point B.7. so z is less than x. Since M is the midpoint of AB .2 B 3.1 3. Using an equation to solve the problem. x.

So after 120 minutes. 64.000 when first measured.024 2. A culture of 207 bacteria triples every 12 minutes. This is 10 of the 12-minute time periods in which the bacteria triples. t(0) = 25. What is the change in population during the fifth hour? Explanations 29. Start by making a chart showing the population for each hour. 207 × 32 207 × 36 207 × 310 207 × 312 207 × 313 30. 32. After 6 years. The population at the end of the first hour is 5.92 $141. 32. What will the bacterial count 2 hours after the original culture of 207 was established? A. In a laboratory experiment a culture of bacteria contained a population of 25. at the end of the second hour is 1. D. . What is the tenth integer in this sequence? A. C.000. 20 128 512 1. C. the initial count of 207 will grow to 207 × 310.000 t(3) = 200 t(4) = 40 The change in the fifth hour is the difference between 40 and 8.85 32.03 times the previous year’s value. 128. B. . 8.000. and so forth. Therefore. 512.000 t(1) = 5. E. E. 4.37 $125. t(5) = 8 32 is the correct answer.03)6 = $119. . B. C. 4. What is the accumulated value of this deposit 6 years after the day of the initial deposit? A. The integers double as you move from one term of the sequence to the next. D. 30. D.048 31.41. . B. $118.00 $119. 32.41 $121. 78 . 2.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Sequence Involving Exponential Growth 29. E. the account will be worth $100 × (1. 2.000 t(2) = 1. the first ten integers in the sequence are: 1. 16. C. B. Yuri deposits $100 into a new savings account that pays him 3% interest compounded annually. 31. 1024. Since the annual interest rate is 3%. A 2-hour time period represents 120 minutes. C. The first four numbers in a patterned sequence of positive integers are 1. 8. the value of the account one year is 1. The bacteria population decreased such that each hour the population was 1 that of the 5 preceding hour.

II. 3. M is the set of integers that can be written as n . 4. 9.3. 7. . and T is the set of positive multiples of 3 less than 21. C. 15} {6. III. C. 11. 48. 15. D. 18. 3. B. 35. 15. If A is the set of positive odd integers less than 21.3 = 4 5: 5 can be written as 64 . 7. what is A . 9. 8. 17. 19} {} 36. 5. What is the smallest threedigit member of the intersection of sets A and B? Explanations 33. Which of the following integers is a member of set M? I. {3. 49.3 = 7 . Remember that a prime number is only divisible exactly by one and itself. 34. 81} {1} {1. S + C is the “intersection” of the two sets. 15. 3. II. E.3 = 5 7: 7 can be written as 100 . 9. A. Sets: Union. 11. 6. 3. 81} {1. A = the set of prime numbers and B = the set of positive odd integers. etc. 4. 9. where n is a nonzero integer. {1. T is the “union” of the two sets. 64}. 4. Find a few prime numbers that are greater than 99. 36. 8. 18} {1. because all three of the numbers are in set A. Since 101 is prime and 100 is not. B. E. 6. 7. 11. If S is the set of perfect squares less than 100. 5. T ? A. 9. D. A . E. 19}. D. . 64} {64} 35. 16. 7. 13. 107. 25. You can use the divisibility rules for 2. 64. 9. These include 101. 15. 25.3 = 10 . So the correct answer is the set {1. Elements 33.3 = 7 Therefore. 27. 17. 8. 17. 18. 4 5 7 I only II only III only I and II only I. III. C. 9. 27. 10 to help in finding the prime numbers. 19} and T = {3. 9. B. The integers common to both sets are only 1 and 64. S = {1. D. 15. The integers belonging to either one of the sets are {1. 12. 18}. 64}. Checking the answer choices one at a time. 11. 3. 13. 12. 13. E. 81} and C = {1. 36. II. 79 . 101. C. A = {1. 25. 36. 49.Numbers and Operations . 17. 64. 9. 9. you have: I. and C is the set of perfect cubes less than 100. 101 is the correct answer. and III 34. 5. 5.3 = 8 . 19} {1. 16. the correct answer is Choice E. 6. 6. 4: 4 can be written as 49 . what is S + C? A. Intersection. 13. 5.

and Tables 10% UTIL. Charts. C.250 80 70 TEMPERATURE (˚C) 60 50 40 30 20 10 SUN MON TUES WED THUR FRI SAT DAY OF THE WEEK 38. D.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Interpreting Graphs. B.040 $1.000 $1. between which pair of consecutive days did the greatest change in temperature occur? A. D. Sunday and Monday Monday and Tuesday Tuesday and Wednesday Wednesday and Thursday Thursday and Friday 80 . $40 $800 $1. 25% FOOD 25% SAVINGS RENT 37. E. Nicole spends her monthly salary as shown in the graph above. E. B. If she earns $2.500 per month. how much does spend each month on rent? A. According to the graph above. C.

Numbers and Operations . . .

Commission from sales ($)

70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000

1997

1998

1999

2000 2001

2002 2003

39. According to the graph above, the percent increase in commission from sales from 2001 to 2002 is approximately how much greater than the percent increase in commission from sales from 1998 to 1999? A. B. C. D. E. 2 12 1 2 21 25 33 1 3

CRIME INCIDENTS FOR SELECTED LARGE CITIES 11 CRIME INCIDENTS IN THOUSANDS 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1960 1970 1980 YEAR 1990 2000

40. According to the bar graph (above), what was the percent decrease in crime between the years 1980 and 1990 in selected large cities?

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Part II: Review with Sample Problems

Explanations
37. C. % spent on rent = 100% – (25% + 10% +25%) = 40%. Then money spent on rent = 40% of $2,500 = $1,000. 38. D. Since the bar graph is a “scale” drawing, visually the biggest changes occur between Monday and Tuesday, an increase of 15°, and between Wednesday and Thursday, a decrease of 20°. So the greatest change is Choice D. 39. C. 2002 comm. = $60, 000 2001 comm. = $45, 000 inc. in comm. = $15, 000 1999 comm. = $55, 000 1998 comm. = $40, 000 inc. in comm. = $15, 000 amt. inc m : 100 %inc. = c amt . org. amt. inc. : 100 %inc. = d amt . orig. n =d =c 15, 000 : 100 = 33 1 % 3 45, 000 n 15, 000 : 100 = 12 1 % 40, 000 m 2

So the difference is 33 1 - 12 1 = 21, approximately. 3 2 2 or 22.2 First, analyze the graph for important details. Note that the number of crime incidents for 1980 is 40. 9 9,000 and for 1990 is 7,000. The vertical axis indicates that these figures are in thousands. The method to calculate percent increase or percent decrease is the difference in the two amounts divided by the original amount. In our figure, the expression for this method is: 9000 - 7000 9000 This is equal to 2 or about 22.2 percent. The correct answer is 2 or 22.2%. Note: The expression could have been 9 9 9 - 7 , and the same answer would have occurred. 9

82

Numbers and Operations . . .

Scatter Plots
90 72 70 80 HEIGHT (inches) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 13 14 15 16 17 18 STUDENT TEST SCORE 68 66 64 62 60 58 56

70

60

AGE (years)

41. The scatter plot above shows the score on each of three tests for seven students. Which of the following could be the median score for all seven students? A. B. C. D. E. 65 71 78 81 91

42. The scatter plot above shows the heights of three randomly selected students from each of six age groups. According to the data in this plot, which of the following statements is true? A. B. C. D. E. There are only two students having heights 68 inches. Of the students who are 72 inches tall, none is 13 or 14 years old. More 18-year-old students than 15-year-old students have heights greater than 66 inches. Half of the students have heights greater than 66 inches. There are no 17- or 18-year-old students having heights less than 66 inches.

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Part II: Review with Sample Problems

45 TIME (hours) TO COMPLETE JOB 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
DAUGHTER’S HEIGHT IN INCHES

69 68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 MOTHER’S HEIGHT IN INCHES

NUMBER OF WORKERS

43. The scatter plot above shows the time it took one or more workers to complete a particular job. In some cases, the workers made just one attempt to complete the job; in other cases, the workers made multiple attempts to complete the job. Based on the data presented, which of the following functions best states the relationship between t, the time in hours to complete the job, and w, the number of workers? A. B. C. D. E. t ^ w h = - 4 w + 40 5 t(w) = –4w + 40 t(w) = –w + 35 t ^ w h = 3 w + 40 4 1 t ^ w h = w + 35 2

44. In the scatter plot above, mothers’ heights are compared to their daughters’ heights. This was done at a parent meeting, for 15 junior girls who were participating in the graduation ceremony. According to the graph, which height for mothers had no daughter’s height given?

84

Numbers and Operations . . .

Explanations
41. D. The median test score is the one score above and below which half of the scores lie. Note that 10 scores are below 80, which means that 11 scores are above 80. So the median score should be a little above 80, as in Choice D. 42. C. Checking the answer choices one at a time, it will be noted that C is correct. 43. B.
45 TIME (hours) TO COMPLETE JOB 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

NUMBER OF WORKERS

A line has been sketched that seems to best fit the data presented. Since the line travels downhill to the right, our function, t(w), must have a negative slope, as in A, B, and C. Next, the t-intercept appears to be closer to 40 than to 35, as in A and B. Last, you must compute the slope of the best-fit line, using the two circled points. Going from left to right down hill, the vertical decrease is 4 squares (but each square represents 5 units) or –20; the vert. change - 20 = = - 4. horizontal change is 5 squares (here, each square is just 1 unit) or +5. So the slope = horiz. change + 5 Therefore, the equation of our line of best fit is: t(w) = –4w + 40 44. 69 or 70. Looking above the values for the mothers’ heights that are expressed along the horizontal axis, the frequency of heights are 2, 2, 1, 2, 3, etc. There are no entries above a mother’s height of 69 or 70 inches. Therefore, the correct answer is 69 or 70.

Probability
45. On a true-false quiz having just four questions, what is probability of guessing and getting all four questions correct? A. B. C. D. E. 1 16 1 8 1 4 1 2 2 46. A marble is to be selected at random from a jar that contains marbles of five different colors. If the probability that a red marble will be selected is 2 7, which of the following could NOT be the number of marbles in the jar? A. B. C. D. E. 14 35 42 65 70

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Part II: Review with Sample Problems

47. A jar contains three green, four red, and five blue marbles. In four successive draws, with no replacement of marbles that have been already drawn out, what is the probability of drawing a green, a red, another green, and then a blue marble in exactly that order? A. B. C. D. E. 5 (approximately 0.009) 576 1 (approximately 0.010) 99 1 (approximately 0.015) 66 7 (approximately 1.167) 6 2711 (approximately 1.369) 1980

48. Five students are chosen to attend a student nominating convention for their school election to represent their geometry class. In how many ways can the five students be arranged in the five chairs that are reserved for their seating?

Explanations
45. A. The probability of guessing a give question correct is 1 . So the probability of getting all four correct is 2 1:1:1:1= 1. 2 2 2 2 16 46. D. If the probability of selecting a red marble is 2 7 , then the total number of marbles has to be multiple of 7, the denominator. Therefore, 65 cannot be the total number of marbles, since it is not a multiple of 7. 47. B. Probability of drawing a green first = 3 , 3 green out of 12 total marbles. 12 4 Probability of drawing a red second = , 4 red out of 11 marbles left in jar 11 Probability of drawing a green third = 2 , 2 green remain out of 10 marbles 10 Probability of drawing a blue fourth = 5 , 5 blue out of 9 marbles left 9 Then the final probability is just the product of the 4 probabilities found above: 3 : 4 : 2 : 5 = 1 , when 12 11 10 9 99 completely reduced. 48. 120. Since this is an arrangement problem, the solution is the number of permutations of five students arranged five at a time. If your calculator has a permutation option, this can be calculated on the calculator using the appropriate sequence of keystrokes. In a non-calculator method, you use the following: Make five consecutive blanks in a line to represent the five seats. Next, there are 5 ways to pick the person for the first seat. Once that person is selected, there are 4 ways to pick the person for the second seat, then 3 ways to pick the third seat, then 2 ways, and then 1 way to pick the last seat. Since this is a permutation problem, the arithmetic will be: __ __ __ __ __ 5 × 4 × 3 × 2 × 1 = 120

86

” five letters are chosen at random to form a “word.039) 700 9 (approximately 0. 10. 9. what is the probability that the point will be in the smaller square? 87 . Within each suit. A small square is located in the interior of a larger square as shown in the diagram above.970 51. D.185 0. 5. D. 4. 8. Queen.82. B.278) 18 17 (approximately 0. cards are labeled as 2.261) 23 5 (approximately 0. a King. respectively. . E. Geometric Probability 49. 27 (approximately 0. Using the letters of the word “EXCLUSION. in specifically that order? A. King. basketball. Jack. D. If a point is randomly selected from the region of the large square. and 0.554 1. . What is the approximate probability that both the volleyball and softball teams win their league titles.180) 50 6 (approximately 0. A deck of playing cards has 52 cards in 4 different suits—Clubs. B. with 13 cards in each suit.90. C.Numbers and Operations . and Spades. E.75. a Club. 0.354) 48 3 8 52. 6. Diamonds. any arrangement of the five letters. B.005 0. 7. 0. The large square is 8 units on a side and the small square is 3 units on a side. E. What is the probability that the “word” chosen begins with a vowel and ends with a consonant? A. 3. and Ace.” that is. but basketball does not? A. C. and then another Club. The probability of a high school’s girl’s volleyball.014 0. and softball teams winning their league title this year is 0. C. 4 52 4 52 4 52 4 52 45 52 # 13 # 51 13 # # 51 # 12 # 51 # 12 # 51 12 # # 51 4 50 4 50 4 50 4 50 4 50 # 12 49 11 # 49 # 11 49 # 10 49 # 9 49 50. If one card is randomly drawn from the deck in each of 4 successive draws—with no replacement of cards after each draw—which of the following could NOT be a possible probability of drawing an Ace. Hearts.

00 – 0.82. So you only need to look at the second and fourth fractions to locate which could NOT be possible. the requested probability is the ratio of 4200 = 5 = 0. the probability of drawing a Club is 13/51. there are 10 Clubs left – so the probability of drawing a Club on the fourth draw is 10/49. you have the following (where #1 through #4 represent the choices you made above): #1 #3 #2 5 18 4×(7×6×5)×5 9×8×7×6×5 #4 = after completely reducing.120 Last.90. there are 11 Clubs left – so probability of drawing a Club on the fourth draw is 11/49.82) = 0. Choice E is NOT possible.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Explanations 49. The word “EXCLUSION” has a total of nine letters—four of them vowels and five of them consonants.185 50.25. Probability of the volleyball team winning = 0. there are 13 clubs left – so the probability of drawing a Club on the second draw is 13/51.200 Choice #4—The number of five-letter “words” that can be chosen with no conditions on our choices is: 9 × 8 × 7 × 6 × 5 = 15. there are 12 Clubs left – so the probability of drawing a Club on the fourth draw is 12/49. Note: The number of five-letter “words” that can be chosen under the given conditions is the product of our three choices above: 4 × 210 × 5 = 4. So by default. In C: If the Ace of Clubs is chosen. Note that the first and third fractions for each answer choice are the same. you have only seven letters remaining. there are 12 Clubs left – so the probability of drawing a Club on the second draw is 12/51. of which you have to select three). D. You want a five-letter “word” that begins with a vowel. These just represent: For the first fraction: 4 out of 52 cards are Aces. Also note that the denominators decrease by one as you move from the first to the second to the third and then to the fourth fractions since there is one card less in the deck after the preceding draw has been made. If the King of Clubs is chosen. If the King of Clubs is not chosen.25)(0. 15120 18 To do this all in one step. Choice #2—Select a consonant: This can be done in five ways. Probability of the basketball team losing = 0. If the King of Clubs is not chosen. there are still 13 Clubs left in the deck of 51 remaining cards. but ends with a consonant. In D: If the Ace of Clubs is chosen. If the King of Clubs is chosen. Therefore. In A: If the Ace of Clubs is not chosen. this is just 1. there are 11 Clubs left – so the probability of drawing a Club on the fourth draw is 11/49. there are 12 Clubs left – so the probability of drawing a Club on the second draw is 12/51. 51. Choice #3—Select the remaining three letters to complete the five-letter “word”: This can be done in 7 × 6 × 5 = 210 ways (after choosing a vowel and a consonant. 88 . In B: If the Ace of Clubs is not chosen. E. Choice #1—Select a vowel: This can be done in four ways.278 approximately.90)(0.75. The requested probability is the product of the three probabilities above: (0. C. Probability of the softball team winning = 0. For the third fraction: 4 out of the remaining 50 cards are Kings – 50 cards because 2 have already been drawn during the first 2 draws.

which is equal to 64 square units. the mode. C. C. 64 Basic Statistics (Mean. The average (arithmetic mean) of a set of six two-digit even integers is 17. and 81% on his last four tests. D. The range is the difference between the largest and smallest of the numbers in the set. 11. 9 or 0. What score does he need to earn on his next test in order to average 80% on all five tests? A. Probability is defined as the numbers of ways the event (a point in the small square) can occur divided by the total ways a point can be selected (sample space) for the larger area. The following numbers were obtained in a statistical experiment. If the misplaced number is k. 16. The area of the 64 smaller square is 32. what is the value of k? Explanations 53. D. 11. B. Mode. Let T be the score on Jahwad’s next test. 16. 78%. C. The average (arithmetic mean) of the 5 smallest numbers is increased by 7. the probability is: P = 9 or gridded as approximately 0. What is the largest possible even integer in this set? A. the other numbers are 14. The mode is increased by 7. and the mean is known to be 16. The median of the 13 numbers is increased by 7. you have: 85 + 78 + 73 + 81 + T = 80 5 371 + T = 80 5 317 + T = 5 80 5c ^ h 5 m 317 + T = 400 T = 83 54. Therefore. 20 22 32 34 40 54. 73%. D. E. D. Range) 53.Numbers and Operations . 52. B. If 7 is added to each of 13 different numbers. D. 21. . 26. Jahwad earned grades of 85%. E. 89 . The average (arithmetic mean) of the 6 largest numbers is increased by 7. which is 9 square units. B.14 The area of the larger square is given by 82.14. 56. median. which of the following statements would NOT be true? A. The range of the 13 numbers is increased by 7. If 7 is added to each member of the set. and mean are all increased by 7. Median. E. so the new range would be found by: (largest number + 7) – (smallest number + 7) = largest number + 7 – smallest number -7 = largest number – smallest number = original range Thus range is not affected. 75% 79% 80% 83% 84% 55. Then to earn an 80% average on the five tests. . but one of the numbers was misplaced. 17.

The process in finding a mean requires finding the sum of all the numbers that are being added. C. 12. Therefore.Part II: Review with Sample Problems 55. The sum of these five numbers is 70. If the average of the six positive even integers is 17. k = 144 – 132 and k = 12 The correct answer is 12. The smallest that the first five positive even two-digit integers could be: 10. then the total of the six integers is: 6(17) = 102. 16. 12. and 18. the sixth and largest possible even integer would be: 102 – 70 = 32. Therefore. 132 + k = 16 and 132 + k = 9 16 × 9 = 144. This value must be 16 × 9 since there are nine numbers that figure into the mean. 56. 14. 90 .

The sum of a number and 9 can be written: 2. Solve for x: 5x + 7 = 3x – 9. Solve for x: r x = t. If x = 3. Evaluate: 3x2 + 5y + 7 if x = –2 and y = 3.–3)? 26. 5. Simplify 8xy2 + 3xy + 4xy2 – 2xy. 7.Algebra and Functions Algebra Diagnostic Test (Algebra and Functions) Questions 1. Solve for x: 2x + 3 ≤ 11. 16. Solve for x: x .6) and (2. Factor x2 – 5x – 14. 18. What is the equation of the line passing through the points (3. 11. x–5 = 13. 19. y 9. What is the slope and the y-intercept of the equation y = 6x + 2? 25.3 < 6 . 5 20. Graph x + y = 6 on the following graph: y s 8.4 = 8 . 6. Simplify 6x (4x y). Solve for x: 4x + 9 = 21. Solve x2 + 7x = –10. 12. 2 3 4 3 2 1 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 x 1 2 3 4 5 24. 3. Simplify (4x – 7z) – (3x – 4z). Solve for x: mx – n = y. Solve for x: x . then what is the value of f(x) if f(x) = x2 + 3x + 7? 91 . 15. Solve for x: 2 x + 4 $ 8 . 21. Simplify (5x + 2z) + (3x – 4z). 22. Factor ab + ac. Solve for y: 3 7 = 8. 17. 14. 10. 4. Solve for x: 3x + 4 ≥ 5x – 8. Solve for x: x + 5 = 17. Solve this system for x and y: 8x + 2y = 7 3x – 4y = 5 23.

a(b + c) 16. x – 3z 15. (x – 7)(x + 2) 17. x = –8 6. 15 x 13.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Answers 1. 8x – 2z 14. 34 3. x = s 3 9. x ≥ 2 or x ≤ –2 22. x = 12 or –12 7. x = 3 5. x = 19. y-intercept = 2 25. x ≤ 4 x 1 2 3 4 5 24. x = 1. 12xy2 + xy 11. y 5 4 3 2 1 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 _ y + ni m rt 8. x = 12 4. Slope = 6. 25 92 . y = 24 7 or 3 7 10. 24x5y 12. x ≤ 6 20.1 2 23. x = –2 or x = –5 18. n + 9 or 9 + n 2. –3 < x < 9 could also be written x > –3 and x < 9 21. y = . y = 9x – 21 26.

For example: Verbal Expression (a) the sum of a number and 7 (b) the number diminished by 10 (c) seven times a number (d) x divided by 4 (e) five more than the product of 2 and n Algebraic Expression n + 7 or 7 + n n – 10 7n x/4 2n + 5 or 5 + 2n These words can be helpful in making algebraic expressions.Algebra and Functions Algebra Review Variables and Algebraic Expressions A variable is a symbol used to denote any element of a given set—often a letter used to stand for a number. Variables are used to change verbal expressions into algebraic expressions. Key Words Denoting Addition sum plus more than greater than larger than gain increase enlarge rise grow Key Words Denoting Subtraction difference minus lose less than smaller than fewer than decrease drop lower diminish reduced Key Words Denoting Multiplication product multiplied by times twice of Key Words Denoting Division quotient divided by ratio half 93 .

insert the value for the unknowns and do the arithmetic. Solve for x: x – 5 = 23 To solve the equation x – 5 = 23.^.2 = 6 + 4 . add 5 to both sides: x . the equation is still balanced. ab + c if a = 5.4h . or center. subtract.4h . therefore. and the equation does not change. get x by itself on one side. For example: Evaluate each of the following.x .4 -4 3x = 15 94 . Solve for x: 3x + 4 = 19 Subtract 4 from both sides to get the 3x by itself on one side: 3x + 4 = 19 . add 5 to each side).-4 . first you must get the variable you are looking for on one side of the equal sign and everything else on the other side. 1. For example: 2. To solve an equation. For example: 1. If x = –4.6 = 10 . with the equal sign (=) being the fulcrum. b = 4 and c = 3 5(4) + 3 = 20 + 3 = 23 2.^.x . or divide both sides of an equation by the same (nonzero) number. Sometimes you have to use more than one step to solve for an unknown.5 = 23 + 5 +5 x = 28 In the same manner.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Evaluating Expressions To evaluate an expression. Thus.6 = 4 Equations An equation is a relationship between numbers and/or symbols.2 = 10 . 2x2 + 3y + 6 if x = 2 and y = 9 2(22) + 3(9) + 6 = 2(4) + 27 + 6 = 8 + 27 + 6 = 41 3. multiply..2 = 6 . then 6 . It helps to remember that an equation is like a balance scale. if you do the same thing to both sides of the equal sign (say.

For example: 1. Solve for x: x + 2 = 5 Isolate the absolute value x +2= 5 -2 -2 x = 3 x=3 x = –3 Set the contents of the absolute value portion equal to +3 and –3. for multiplication.4x 2x = 2 Divide each side by 2: 2x = 2 2 2 x=1 Remember: Solving an equation requires using opposite operations until the variable is on one side by itself (for addition. Solving Equations Containing Absolute Value To solve an equation containing absolute value.Algebra and Functions Then. and so on). set its contents equal to both + and – the other side of the equation and solve both equations. divide both sides by 3 to get x: 3x = 15 3 3 x=5 3. subtract. Solve for x: 3 x .4x . x=3 x = –3 Answer: 3. divide. Solve for x: 6x + 3 = 4x + 5 Add –3 to each side: 6x + 3 = 4x + 5 -3 -3 6x = 4x + 2 Add –4x to each side: 6x = 4x + 2 .1 = 11 Isolate the absolute value.1 . –3 2. 95 . isolate the absolute value on one side of the equation. Then.

1 = 11 +1 +1 Divide by 3 3 x-1 3 x-1 3 x-1 = 12 = 12 3 =4 Set the contents of the absolute value portion equal to +4 and –4.X = Y +X +X QP =Y+X Then. –3 x . (a)b means a times b. Bring the denominators up next to the numerators on the opposite side. divide both sides by P: QP Y + X P = P X Q= Y+ P Again opposite operations were used to isolate Q. Parentheses also represent multiplication. Thus. 2. x-1= 4 +1 +1 x =5 Answer: 5. Thus. they are understood to be multiplied. A raised dot also means multiplication. For example: Solve for Q: QP – X = Y First add X to both sides: QP . cross multiply. 8x means 8 times x. and 18ab means 18 times a times b.1 = -4 +1 +1 x = -3 Understood Multiplying When two or more variables. are written next to each other. b= p x q bq = px 96 .Part II: Review with Sample Problems 3 x . Thus. To cross multiply: 1. Cross Multiplying p Solve for x: b x=q To solve this equation quickly. 6 ⋅ 5 means 6 times 5. ab means a times b.1 . only symbols (variables). Multiply. Solving for x. Literal Equations Literal equations have no numbers. or a number and variables.

such as x–3. 9x. x . then the variable and exponent can be dropped under the number 1 in a fraction to remove the negative sign. divide both sides by p to get x alone: bq px p = p bq bq p = x or x = p Cross multiplying can be used only when the format is two fractions separated by an equal sign. subtract the exponents of like terms: y 15 = y 11 y4 Remember: x is the same as x1. x5 y2 = x2 y x3 y 36a 4 b 6 = .18x 2 yz . as follows. y2 – x2. follow the same rules as with regular signed numbers. and 3mpxz2 are all monomials. A polynomial consists of two or more terms. Proportions Proportions are written as two fractions equal to each other.3x yz 2 3x + 2x = 5x Multiplying and Dividing Monomials To multiply monomials.4a 3 b 5 . p Solve this proportion for x: q = x y This is read “p is to q as x is to y. provided that the terms are alike: 15x 2 yz .3 = 13 x 97 . x + y. 4a2. add the exponents of the same terms: (x3)(x4) = x7 (x ⋅ x ⋅ x)(x ⋅ x ⋅ x ⋅ x) = x7 To divide monomials. For instance. Adding and Subtracting Monomials To add or subtract monomials. and x2 + 3x + 5y2 are all polynomials.” Cross multiply and solve: py = xq py xq q = q py py q = x or x = q Monomials and Polynomials A monomial is an algebraic expression that consists of only one term.Algebra and Functions Then.9ab Working with Negative Exponents If an exponent is negative.

2 i = 3 .3 i_ a . then simply bring the number or variable up and drop the negative sign. just arrange like terms in columns.1 b 4 i = ab R 2 -1 V Sa : a = a W S Sb. a 4 = 31 4 b a b 3.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Another example: a . _ a 2 b .b 2 98 . 5. and the number below the bar is the root For example: 3 2 = 2 31 = 3 (2 is understood in the square root) A few more examples: 5 3 = 3 51 = 3 5 6 3 = 3 6 2 = 3 36 2 2 = 2 2 3 = 8 reduces to 4 =4 4 =4 4 1 1 4 3 2 1 1 -2 2 -2 4:2=2 2 Adding and Subtracting Polynomials To add or subtract polynomials.2 : x .2 b = b2 a -3 2.3 : b 4 = b W W T X If the negative exponent belongs to a number or variable below the fraction bar. a . 4. _ 3x .2 = 3 . 1 = x2 x-2 x6 = x6 : x3= x9 x-3 4 -2 6.2 : x 4 = 1 : x 4 = x 9 9 7. and then add or subtract: Add: Add: a 2 + ab + b 2 3a 2 + 4ab . c 1 m = 1 2 = 1 = 9 = 9 3 1 1 1 c m 9 3 Or simply invert the fraction and drop the negative sign: 1 3 c m =c m =9 3 1 If the exponent is a fraction.2 : . then the number above the bar is the power.2b 2 4a 2 + 5ab .5 = 15 a A few examples including some with multiplication and division follow: 1.

2.h 2a .2a 2 + b 2 .) 2y3 – 6y = 2y(y2 – 3) Another example: x5 – 4x3 + x2 = x2(x3 – 4x + 1) Factoring the Difference between Two Squares Factor x2 – 144. (The second factor is a polynomial. (x )(x ). of the form Ax2 + Bx + C: 1. a2 – b2 = (a + b)(a – b) 9x2–16y2 = (3x + 4y)(3x – 4y) Factoring Polynomials That Have Three Terms: Ax2 + Bx + C To factor polynomials that have three terms. x2 – 144 = (x + 12)(x – 12) Another example: Another example: Note: x2 + 144 is not factorable.2a 2 6x 2 . use double parentheses and factor the first term. For example. Find the largest common monomial factor of each term.2a h = 2x . Find the square root of the first term and the square root of the second term. and place the factors in the right sides of the parentheses. Then.2a 2 similar to 23 # 19 207 230 427 Factoring To factor means to find two or more quantities whose product equals the original quantity. 2. Check to see if you can monomial factor (factor out common terms). the first term is simply x2). multiply each term in one polynomial by each term in the other polynomials. 2. 99 .6ax 6x 2 .Algebra and Functions Subtract: a2 + b2 a2 + b2 2 2 ^ . Factor the last term. 1. Factoring Out a Common Factor Factor 2y 3 – 6y. Place these factors in the left sides of the parentheses.a 2 + 2b 2 Multiplying Polynomials To multiply polynomials. if A = 1 (that is. Express your answer as the product of the sum of the quantities from step 1 times the difference of those quantities.b " +.4ax . Divide the original polynomial by this factor to obtain the second factor. Then simplify if necessary: ^ 3x + a h^ 2x . 1.2a # 3x + a + 2ax .

the signs of both factors are +. First check to see if you can monomial factor (factor out common terms).10 2. For example. do the following: If the sign of the last term is negative: 1.Part II: Review with Sample Problems To decide on the signs of the numbers. (x + 3)(x + 5) Notice that 3 × 5 = 15 and 3 + 5 = 8. the coefficient of the middle term.3x . 1.5x x 2 . x-5 # x+2 + 2x . which is –3. use double parentheses and factor the first terms as follows: (x )(x ). 100 . the first term has a coefficient—for example. Factor x2 + 8x + 15. Next. the sign of the middle term. then additional trial and error is necessary. however. To check your work: (x + 3) (x + 5) + 3x + 5x + 8x (the middle term) If.10 x 2 . 5 must take the negative sign and 2 must take the positive sign because they then total the coefficient of the middle term. Also.) Add the proper signs. 2. factor the last term (10) into 2 times 5. leaving: (x – 5)(x + 2) Multiply the means (inner terms) and extremes (outer terms) to check your work. 4x2 + 5x + 1). and give the opposite sign to the other factor. (x − 5)(x + 2) − 5x + 2x − 3x (which is the middle term) To completely check. A ≠ 1 (that is. Find two numbers whose product is the last term and whose difference is the coefficient (number in front) of the middle term. Give both factors the sign of the middle term. multiply the factors together. 2. If the sign of the last term is positive: 1. Find two numbers whose product is the last term and whose sum is the coefficient of the middle term. Factor x2 – 3x – 10. (Using the preceding information. Because this is not possible. Give the larger of these two numbers the sign of the middle term.

Factor. Solve each of these equations. 4. 4. This time. Solve x2 – 6x = 16. Factor 5x3 + 6x2 + x. To solve a quadratic equation: 1. To check your work: (5x + 1) (x + 1) + 1x + 5x + 6x (the middle term after x was factored out) Solving Quadratic Equations A quadratic equation is an equation that could be written in the form Ax2 + Bx + C = 0. Checking for the middle term: (4x + 1) (x + 1) + 1x + 4x + 5x Therefore. (2x + )(2x + ) might work for the first term.Algebra and Functions 3. using 1’s as factors to get the last terms gives (4x + 1)(x + 1). leaving zero on the other side. try (4x + )(x + ). Following the steps. Set each factor equal to zero. (x – 8)(x + 2) = 0 x – 8 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x =8 x = –2 101 . factor as usual giving x(5x + 1)(x + 1). 2. 1. Factoring out an x leaves x(5x2 + 6x + 1). Put all terms on one side of the equal sign. Factor 4x2 + 5x + 1. Factoring. 4x2 + 5x + 1 = (4x + 1)(x + 1). 3. Check by inserting your answer in the original equation. x2 – 6x = 16 becomes x2 – 6x – 16 = 0. (2x + 1) (2x + 1) + 2x + 2x + 4x Therefore. But when 1’s are used as factors to get the last term—(2x + 1)(2x + 1)— the middle term comes out as 4x instead of 5x. Now. 5. For example.

Solve x2 – 16 = 0. 2. Solve x2 + 6x = 0. 3. (x + 4)(x – 4) = 0: x+4=0 x = –4 To check: (–4)2 – 16 = 0 16 – 16 = 0 0=0 4. Factoring. Solve y2 = –6y – 5. (y + 5)(y + 1) = 0 Setting each factor to 0: y+5=0 y = –5 To check: (–5)2 = –6(–5) – 5 25 = 30 – 5 25 = 25 or or or (–1)2 = –6(–1) – 5 1=6–5 1=1 or or y+1=0 y = –1 A quadratic equation with a term missing is called an incomplete quadratic equation. Setting all terms equal to zero: y2 + 6y + 5 = 0 Factoring. x(x + 6) = 0: x=0 x=0 To check: (0)2 + 6(0) = 0 0+0=0 0=0 or or or (–6)2 + 6(–6) = 0 36 + –36 = 0 0=0 or or x+6=0 x = –6 or or or (4)2 – 16 = 0 16 – 16 = 0 0=0 or or x–4=0 x=4 102 . Factoring.Part II: Review with Sample Problems To check: 82 – 6(8) = 16 64 – 48 = 16 16 = 16 or or or (–2)2 – 6(–2) = 16 4 + 12 = 16 16 = 16 Both values 8 and –2 are solutions to the original equation.

such as 3 x .y2 = 3 3 = x -y _ x . Reduce x 3 x+3 x 2 + 2x + 1 = ^ x + 1h^ x + 1h = ^ x + 1h ^ x + 1h 3x + 3 3 ^ x + 1h 3 ^ x + 1h = x+1 3 x2 .Algebra and Functions Algebraic fractions are fractions using a variable in the numerator or denominator.1h 4 2 + 2x + 1 3. Reduce 3x . Examples: 3 1.1h = 3 ^ x . then cancel (or divide out) common factors.yi_ x + yi = x+y x 2 + xy + y 2 103 .1h 4 ^ x .y i_ x + y i x2 .1h = 3 4x . variables in the denominator have certain restrictions. Operations with Algebraic Fractions Reducing Algebraic Fractions ■ To reduce an algebraic fraction to lowest terms.y i_ x 2 + xy + y 2 i _ x .y i _ x + xy + y i 2 2 _ x .b ! 0 h so a cannot equal b ^ a ! b h 2 x-3 3 a-b 4 a2b ^ a ! 0 and b ! 0 h a cannot equal 0 and b cannot equal 0 Be aware of these types of restrictions.y3 4.b cannot equal 0 ^ a . Reduce _ x . Since division by 0 is impossible.4 3x . first factor the numerator and the denominator. The denominator can never equal 0. Therefore in the fractions 5 x x cannot equal 0 ^ x ! 0 h x cannot equal 3 ^ x ! 3h a .3 4x .4 4 ^ x .y2 x3 .3 = 3 ^ x . Reduce 4x 2 8x 1 4x 8x 2 3 2 1 =1x 2 2.

x : 3y 3x 3y 3x 9 y+2 y+2 x+1 = x+1 : = 3. first factor the numerator and denominators that are polynomials. then cancel where possible. x . Multiply the remaining numerators together and denominators together. simply keep the denominator and combine (add or subtract) the numerators. Examples: 2 y 3xy x 3x 2 y 3x 2 1. 5y + 10 : 2 + x 1h^ x + 1h x + 2x + 1 5 _ y + 2 i ^ y+2 1 : = 5 _ y + 2 i ^ x + 1h ^ x + 1h 5 ^ x + 1h x+1 1 1 Dividing Algebraic Fractions ■ To divide algebraic fractions.) Examples: y y 2xy 1. 3x ' 2 y = 5 : 2x = 5 : 2x = 10 5 1 2. 4 x+ x= x =x 2. Remember you can cancel only after you invert.4 + 3 = x . 2x : = 2x : = 3 5 3 5 15 2 2y x 2 2y 2x = : = 2. your answer will be in reduced form. Reduce if necessary.1 x+1 x+1 x+1 x+1 104 . For example: x+1 ! x+1 ! 1 x+2 x+2 2 or x+6 ! x+6 !x 6 6 Multiplying Algebraic Fractions ■ To multiply algebraic functions.2h 3 : = 4 =2 -2 2 62 x 1 1 1 Adding or Subtracting Algebraic Fractions ■ To add or subtract algebraic fractions having a common denominator.2 h : 3 = 3 x-2 x-2 6 6 6 4 ^ x .4 + 3 = x . invert the fraction following the division sign and multiply. Examples: 5 4+5 9 1.2 = 4x .8 : 3 = 4 ^ x .Part II: Review with Sample Problems Warning: Do not cancel through an addition or subtraction sign. 4x .8 ' x . (If you’ve canceled properly.

3y y2 y y y2 y2 y2 4. 3. 2 -3= y2 y LCD = y 2 2 . Reduce if necessary.Algebra and Functions x 2x .3y = 2 . reverse the direction of the sign. as in an equation.^ 2x .1h = 3x . when you multiply or divide both sides by a negative number. treat them exactly like equations. If there is a common variable factor with more than one exponent. x + y = LCD = xy 2 : y + 3 : x = 2y : 3x = 2y + 3x x y y x xy xy xy x+2 + x-3 = 3x 6x LCD = 6x x + 2 : 2 + x .3 = 2x + 4 + x . then combine each numerator. Instead of using an equal sign (=). except. For example: 105 .2x + 1 = x + 1 3. 3 y . change each fraction to an equivalent fraction with the common denominator. use its greatest exponent.3 = 2x + 4 + x . first find a lowest common denominator (LCD).3 : y = 2 .1 3x . When working with inequalities.y = y y y ■ To add or subtract algebraic fractions having different denominators. it is often necessary to factor the denominators and proceed as follows. 4 + 3 = x 3 y xy 2 LCD = x 3 y 2 2 4 : y + 3 : x 2 = 4y + 3x 2 = 4y + 3x 3 2 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 y x y xy x x y x y x y To find the lowest common denominator. Example: x + 2x = x + 2x 3x + 3 x + 1 3 ^ x + 1h x + 1 LCD = 3 ^ x + 1h x x 6x + 2x : 3 = + = 3 ^ x + 1h x + 1 3 3 ^ x + 1h 3 ^ x + 1h x + 6x = 7x 3 ^ x + 1h 3 ^ x + 1h Inequalities An inequality is a statement in which the relationships are not equal. you use > (greater than) and < (less than). or ≥ (greater than or equal to) and ≤ (less than or equal to).3 = 3x + 1 3x 2 6x 6x 6x 6x 6x 2. Examples: 2 3 1.

A dot is used if the number is included.10 -2 -2 3x $ 5x .12 Divide both sides by –2 and reverse the sign. . . 2x + 4 > 6 .5x .5x .4 -4 2x > 2 2x > 2 2 2 x > 1 2. . . Solve for x: 2x + 4 > 6. x is an integer} . -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 . . Divide by –7 and reverse the sign.Part II: Review with Sample Problems 1. 3. dots are used. When graphing inequalities involving real numbers. Graph the set of x such that x ≥ 1. Graph the set of x such that x > 1. . -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 . .12 . rays. 1. 106 . and dots are used. Solve for x: 3x + 2 ≥ 5x – 10. -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 . Graph the set of x such that 1 ≤ x ≤ 4 and x is an integer. {x: 1 ≤ x ≤ 4. lines. .7x < 14 -7 -7 x <-2 3. . {x: x ≥ 1} . . .2x # . A hollow dot is used if the number is not included.2x $ .12 -2 -2 x#6 Graphing Inequalities Examples: When graphing inequalities involving only integers. {x: x > 1} . 2. . Solve for x: –7x > 14. 3x + 2 $ 5x . . .

-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 . 1. . . Solving Inequalities Containing Absolute Value To solve an inequality containing absolute value. + 2. Isolate the absolute value. |x – 1| > 2 Set the contents of the absolute value portion to both 2 and –2. Solve for x: |x – 1| > 2. . -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 . Be sure to change the direction of the sign when using –2. {x: x < 4} . x-1> 2 x . 3 x -2# 1 + 2 +2 3 x 3 x 3 x # 3 # 3 3 # 1 Set the contents of the absolute value portion to both 1 and –1. follow the same steps as solving equations with absolute value. except reverse the direction of the sign when setting the absolute value opposite a negative. . Solve for x.1 < -2 + 1 +1 or + 1 +1 x >3 x < -1 Graph answer: . .Algebra and Functions 4. + 107 . -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 . . For example. . Graph the set of x such that x < 4. The hollow dot distinguishes an open ray from a ray. . Isolate the absolute value. This ray is often called an open ray or half line. Solve for x: 3|x| –2 ≤ 1. x ≤ 1 and x ≥ –1 Graph answer: . . . Be sure to change the direction of the sign when using –1. . .

There are three common methods for solving: addition/subtraction. 3x + 3y = 24 3(2x ) + 3(y) = 3(13) Now you can subtract equations. 3. Simply add or subtract. Multiply one or both equations by some number to make the number in front of one of the variables (the unknowns) the same in each equation.3y = . 4. 2 ^ 5h + y = 13 10 + y = 13 -10 -10 y=3 Answer: x = 5. Add or subtract the two equations to eliminate one variable. 2.6x +.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Solving for Two Unknowns—Systems of Equations If you solve for two equations with the same two unknowns in each one. 3x + 3y = 24 . 2. Now the y is preceded by a 3 in each equation. Solve for the other unknown. Addition/Subtraction Method To use the addition/subtraction method: 1.3x . if the number in front of a variable is already the same in each equation. Solve for x and y: x+y=7 x–y=3 2x + y = 13 108 . Solve for x and y: 3x + 3y = 24 2x + y = 13 First multiply the bottom equation by 3.39 . you can solve for both unknowns. you do not have to change either equation.15 -3 =5 3x + 3y = 24 6x + 3y = 39 Now insert x = 5 in one of the original equations to solve for y. y = 3 Of course. substitution and graphing. eliminating the y terms. Insert the value of the first unknown in one of the original equations to solve for the second unknown. For example: 1.3x -3 x = -15 = .

the same. 4. Solve for p and q: 3p + 4q = 9 2p + 2q = 6 Multiply the second equation by 2. q = 0 109 .Algebra and Functions x+y= 7 x-y= 3 2x = 10 2x = 10 2 2 x =5 Now. you can plug in 3 for p in either of the two original equations to find q. ^ .4q = -12 3p + 4q = 9 -p p = -3 = 3 Now that you know p = 3. 3p + 4q = 9 3(3) + 4q = 9 9 + 4q = 9 4q = 0 q=0 Answer: p = 3. (2)2p + (2)2q = (2)6 4p + 4q = 12 Now subtract the equations. the system is unsolvable. y = 2 You should note that this method does not work when the two equations are. In this instance. Solve for a and b: 3a + 4b = 2 6a + 8b = 4 The second equation is actually the first equation multiplied by 2. inserting 5 for x in the first equation gives: 5+y= 7 -5 -5 y= 2 Answer: x = 5. in fact. 3.h 4p + .

From the first equation. For example. Now solve for y. finding a third point is a good way of checking. If you are unfamiliar with coordinate graphing. find three values for x and y that satisfy each equation. 1. substitute (y + 8) for x in the second equation. The coordinates of the intersection are the solution to the system. carefully review the “Basic Coordinate Geometry” section before attempting this method. Simplify by combining y’s. x=y+8 x = 10 + 8 x = 18 Answer: y = 10. This method involves substituting one equation into another.) x=4+y x 4 2 5 x − 3y = 4 x 1 4 7 y 0 –2 1 y –1 0 1 110 . (Although only two points are necessary to determine a straight line. solve the following system by graphing: x=4+y x – 3y = 4 1.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Substitution Method Sometimes a system is more easily solved by the substitution method. 4y + 8 = 48 -8 = -8 = 40 4y 4y 4 y 3. (y + 8) + 3y = 48 2. First. Solve for x and y when x = y + 8 and x + 3y = 48. x = 18 = 40 4 = 10 Graphing Method Another method of solving equations is by graphing each equation on a coordinate graph. Now insert y = 10 in one of the original equations. For example.

or ordered pairs.Algebra and Functions 2. 4. The point at which the two lines intersect is called the origin and is represented by the coordinates (0. Basic Coordinate Geometry Coordinate Graphs (x–y Graphs) A coordinate graph is formed by two perpendicular number lines.0) x (4.and y-axes. These lines are called coordinate axes. they do not intersect. and there is no solution to the system. Numbers are not usually written on the x. If the lines are parallel. 0). y (0. 0) is the solution of the system. Now graph the two lines on the coordinate plane. Notice the placement of points on the following graph and the coordinates. The horizontal axis is called the x-axis or the abscissa. often marked simply 0. The vertical line is called the y-axis or the ordinate. that show their location.0) x−3 y=4 3. Note: If lines are parallel. The point where the two lines cross (4. as shown in the following figure. they have the same slope. ••• 111 . y ••• x= 4 + y 5 4 3 2 1 ••• −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 ••• 0 x 1 2 3 4 5 Each point on a coordinate graph is located by an ordered pair of numbers called coordinates.

then try 1.Part II: Review with Sample Problems +y • (3. don’t combine the ordered pair of numbers. Graphing Equations on the Coordinate Plane To graph an equation on the coordinate plane. Repeat this process to find other solutions.−3) • (−5. graph the solutions. x is always negative and y is always negative.−5) − On the x-axis.) Then. The first number in the ordered pair is called the x-coordinate and shows how far to the right or left of 0 the point is.3) • (−4. as the point (3. The coordinate graph is divided into four quarters called quadrants. or ordered pairs. 3). x is always positive and y is always negative. y Quadrant II Quadrant I x Quadrant III Quadrant IV ■ ■ ■ ■ In quadrant I. In quadrant II. 2) is different from the point (2. In quadrant IV. In quadrant III. 112 .−4) • (1. The coordinates. These quadrants are labeled as follows. (When giving a value for one variable. find the solutions by giving a value to one variable and solving the resulting equation for the other variable. The order of these numbers is very important. The second number is called the y-coordinate and shows how far up or down the point is from 0. x is always negative and y is always positive. y).−2) • • (2.5) (−3. and so forth.1) +x (−3. On the y-axis. numbers above 0 are positive and numbers below 0 are negative.2) • − 0 • (1. x is always positive and y is always positive. start with 0. Also. the numbers to the right of 0 are positive and to the left of 0 are negative. are shown as (x. because they refer to different directions.

0) x These solutions. x 0 1 2 y 6 5 4 Now. when plotted. Graph the equation x + y = 6. If x is 0. ^2h + y = 6 -2 -2 y= 4 Using a simple chart is helpful. ^1h + y = 6 -1 -1 y= 5 If x is 2. then y is 5.Algebra and Functions For example: 1. Equations whose graphs of their solution sets form a straight line are called linear equations. form a straight line. plot these coordinates as shown in the following figure. (0) + y = 6 y=6 If x is 1. involve variables with square roots. show division by a variable. then y is 6. then y is 4. These are called nonlinear equations. or have variables multiplied together do not form a straight line when their solutions are graphed. 113 . y (0. Equations that have a variable raised to a power.

0) x These solutions.Part II: Review with Sample Problems 2. the terms of the equation must be in a certain order. x 0 1 2 y 4 5 8 Now. when plotted. y = (2)2 + 4 y=4+4 y=8 Use a simple chart. The more points plotted. y (0. y = (0)2 + 4 y=0+4 y=4 If x is 1. If x is 0. Graph the equation y = x2 + 4. give a curved line (nonlinear). then y is 4. then y is 8. and the other involves the point where the line crosses the y-axis. plot these coordinates as shown in the following figure. then y is 5. y = (1)2 + 4 y=1+4 y=5 If x is 2. 114 . To see either of these relationships. One involves the slope of the line. the easier it is to see the curve and describe the solution set. Slope and Intercept of Linear Equations Two relationships between the graph of a linear equation and the equation itself must be pointed out.

x – y = 3 –y = –x + 3 y=x–3 2. +1 and –2. y y (0.Algebra and Functions (+)(1)y = ( )x + ( ) When the terms are written in this order. For example: Write the equations in y-intercept form. the lines cross the y-axis at –3. x – 2y = 4 –2y = –x + 4 2y = x – 4 y= 1 x-2 2 As shown in the graphs of the three problems in the following figure. the equation is said to be in y-intercept form or slope intercept.0) x (1) y (2) (0. y = –2x + l (already in y-intercept form) 3.0) x (0. y-intercept form is written y = mx + b. the last term in each equation. and the two relationships involve m and b. 1.0) x (3) 115 .

1. b is the y-intercept. it should be evident that the slope of the line is the same as the numerical coefficient of the x term. Pick two points.1 .x B = = = = -2 A B 1+1 2 ^1h . 2). y at point A . and calculate the slope. and calculate the slope.x B = A B x at point A .^ .3h . there is no difference in the slope. 2.^2h . To find the slope of the line. State the equation in y-intercept form.x B = = =1 A B ^ 3h . The slope of a line is defined as: the change in y the change in x The word change refers to the difference in the value of y (or x) between two points on a line. 1. Locate the y-intercept on the graph (that is.2 2.y at point B y -y slope in line AB = x A . 1. 4. such as A(1. 0) and B (5.Part II: Review with Sample Problems If a linear equation is written in the form y = mx + b. ^ 0h . 116 .^1h . and use it to locate other points on the line.x at point B Note: Points A and B can be any two points on a line. y = –2x + 1 slope = –2 y-intercept = 1 3. Write the slope as a ratio (fraction). ^ .3 . y = 1/2 x − 2 slope = 1/2 y-intercept = −2 Graphing Linear Equations Using Slope and Intercept Graphing an equation using its slope and y-intercept is usually quite easy. pick any two points on the line. such as A(3. one of the points on the line). 1). y=x−3 slope = 1 y-intercept = −3 2.4 y -y slope = x A . 3.1h Looking back at the equations for examples 1.2 y -y slope = x A . Find the slope of x – y = 3 using coordinates.^ 5 h . Draw a line through the points. 2 and 3 written in y-form. Find the slope of y = –2x – 1 using coordinates. –3) and B(–1.

2 ` go 1 to the leftj -1 117 . from this point.Algebra and Functions For example: 1. Graph the equation 2x – y = –4 using slope and y-intercept. 2x – y = –4 –y = –2x – 4 y = 2x + 4 Locate +4 on the y-axis and.0) +1 +1 −1 −1 y = −2 x 2. count as shown in the following figure: slope = 2 ` for every 2 up j or 2 1 ` go 1 to the rightj ` for every 2 down j or . count as shown in the following figure: slope = 1 ` for every 1 up j or 1 ` go 1 to the rightj 1 ` for every 1 down j or . from this point. Graph the equation x – y = 2 using slope and y-intercept.1 ` go 1 to the leftj -1 y (0. x–y=2 –y = –x + 2 y=x–2 Locate –2 on the x-axis and.

y = –4x + 3 Change the slope-intercept form to standard form Ax + By = C. Substitute m = –3 and the point (6. Substitute the slope and intercept into the slope-intercept form. m = –3 (given) Find the y-intercept. 1. m. b. Since y = –4x + 3 Adding 4x to each side gives: 4x + y = 3 2. b. Find the y-intercept. 4) into the slope-intercept form to find b. m = –4 (given) Find the y-intercept. 2. Find the equation of the line passing through the point (6. b = 3 (given) Substitute the slope and intercept into the slope-intercept form y = mx + b. m. 118 . Ax + By = C. For example: 1. use the following approach. Find the slope. m. 3. Find the slope.0) x Finding the Equation of a Line To find the equation of a line when working with ordered pairs.Part II: Review with Sample Problems y +1 +2 y=4 −2 −1 (0. slopes and intercepts. 4. 4) with a slope of –3. y = mx + b. Change the slope-intercept form to standard form. Find the slope. Find the equation of the line when m = –4 and b = 3. b.

4 + 2 . then f(x) is 1. plug in values for x (the domain) and work out the result (f(x)). Since y = –3x + 22. Substitute the slope and either point into slope-intercept form. y = –3x + 22. In a function.4 h . adding x to each side gives x + y = 1.2 h . Functions Definition of a Function A function is a formula or rule that shows the association between elements in one set to the elements in another set. and x = 6 4 = (–3)(6) + b 4 = –18 + b 18 + 4 = b 22 = b Substitute the slope and intercept into the slope-intercept form: y = mx + b. Find the slope. Since y = –x + 1. For example: 1. simply plug in values for the domain (if not already given) and find the range (results). Since m = –1 and b = 1. m. –2). b. (You could think of this as y = x + 1.) Now. change in y ^ . y = –1x + 1 or y = –x + 1. Then.^ 3h Find the y-intercept. –4) and (3. f(x) = (0) + 1 f(x) = 1 119 . x = 5. place these “ordered pairs” in the coordinate graph. 3.2 m= = = = = -1 2 2 change in x ^ 5 h . all of the elements of the domain are unique or different. m = –3. The elements from the first set are the ones that are being plugged in (the domain). Change the slope-intercept form to standard form: Ax + By = C. and y = –4 –4 = (–1)(5) + b –4 = –5 + b 5 + –4 = b 1=b Substitute the slope and intercept into the slope-intercept form: y = mx + b.Algebra and Functions y = mx + b where y = 4. Graphs of a Function To graph a function. Since m = –3 and b = 22. Find the equation of the line passing through points (5. If x is 0. Change the slope-intercept form to standard form: Ax + By = C. adding 3x to each side gives 3x + y = 22. Graph the function f(x) = x + 1. y = mx + b where m = –1. and the elements from the second set are the outcome or result (the range).^ .

f(x) = (2) + 1 f(x) = 3 and so on. Graph the function f(x) = 3x – 2. then f(x) is 2. f(x) = (1) + 1 f(x) = 2 If x is 2. plot the points as follows: y x (0. then f(x) is 3. plug in values for x (the domain) and work out the result (f(x)). x 0 1 2 3 –1 –2 f(x) 1 2 3 4 0 –1 Next.0) Since this is a linear equation or linear function.Part II: Review with Sample Problems If x is 1. 120 . Now. 2. Using a simple chart is helpful. you could have plotted only three points.

x 0 1 2 f(x) –2 1 4 Next. f(x) = 3(1) – 2 f(x) = 3 – 2 f(x) = 1 If x is 2. then f(x) is –2. you need to plot only three points. 121 . Using a simple chart is helpful. Notice that when x is 0..0) Since this is a linear equation or linear function. for example: 1.Algebra and Functions If x is 0.. Take a look at a few quadratic functions. f(x) = 3(2) – 2 f(x) = 6 – 2 f(x) = 4 and so on. plot the points as follows: y x (0. the graph would cross the x-axis at that point. Plug in simple values for x and you get. then f(x) is 1. f(x) = 3(0) – 2 f(x) = 0 – 2 f(x) = –2 If x is 1. If y were 0. then f(x) is 4. the graph crosses the y-axis at that point. Graph the quadratic function y = x2 + 2.

y = (0)2 + 2 y=2 If x is 1. then y is 6. Using a simple chart is helpful. then y is 3. y = (–1)2 + 2 y=1+2 y=3 If x is –2. then y is 2. then y is 6. y = (–2)2 + 2 y=4+2 y=6 and so on. y = (1)2 + 2 y=1+2 y=3 If x is 2. x 0 1 2 –1 –2 y 2 3 6 3 6 122 . then y is 3. y = (2)2 + 2 y=4+2 y=6 If x is –1.Part II: Review with Sample Problems If x is 0.

then f(x) is 1. 2. however. Graph the quadratic function f(x) = x2 – 2x + 1 Now plug in values for x (the domain) and work out the result (f(x)). plot the points as follows: y x (0. f(x) = (1)2 – 2(1) + 1 f(x) = 1 – 2 + 1 f(x) = 0 If x is 2. f(x) = (3)2 – 2(3) + 1 f(x) = 9 – 6 + 1 f(x) = 4 If x is –1.0) These quadratic functions. when plotted. give a curved line (nonlinear).Algebra and Functions Next. the easier it is to see the curve and describe the solution set (or range). then f(x) is 4. f(x) = (0)2 – 2(0) + 1 f(x) = 0 + 1 f(x) = 1 If x is 1. The more points plotted. They do. If x is 0. then f(x) is 1. Fortunately. f(x) = (2)2 – 2(2) + 1 f(x) = 4 – 4 + 1 f(x) = 1 If x is 3. you will not actually be graphing or plotting points on the SAT since the questions are multiple choice or grid-in. then f(x) is 4. ask for a possible solution or solution set. then f(x) is 0. f(x) = (–1)2 – 2(–1) + 1 f(x) = 1 + 2 + 1 f(x) = 4 123 .

0) Finding the Value of Functions The value of a function is really the value of the range. then f(x) is 9. Using a simple chart is helpful.Part II: Review with Sample Problems If x is –2. x 0 1 2 3 –1 –2 f(x) 1 0 1 4 4 9 Next. plot the points as follows: y x (0. f(x) = (–2)2 – 2(–2) + 1 f(x) = 4 + 4 + 1 f(x) = 9 and so on. For example: What is the value of f(x) = 5x – 7 if x = 4? 124 .

so x = 2 or –2. the special symbol (something like #. You could be asked to solve for x. Don’t be alarmed.Algebra and Functions Plugging in 4 for x gives f(x) = 5(4) – 7 f(x) = 20 – 7 f(x) = 13 So f(4) = 13 in this function. 125 . @. For example: What are the possible values of x in the function f(x) = x2 – 4 if f(x) = 0? Plugging in 0 for f(x) gives 0 = x2 – 4 Next. what is the value of 2 # 3? Take a careful look at the given function: x # y = 3x + y2 Notice the positions of x and y and simply plug in 2 for x and 3 for y in the definition: = 3x + y2 = 3(2) + (3)2 =6+9 = 15 So 2 # 3 = 15. (You could have also solved the original equation [function] by adding 4 to each side. The key to solving special symbol problems is focusing on the definition (watch for the “=” if the words “defined as” are not used). solve the equation by factoring the difference of two squares: 0 = (x + 2)(x – 2) 0 = (x + 2) or 0 = (x – 2) So x could equal 2 or –2. leaving 4 = x2. For example: If x # y = 3x + y2. *) will be defined in terms of operations with which you are familiar.) Function Involving New “Symbols” and Definitions You could be given a special symbol in a function and asked to solve the function.

1 = . E. A.6h ^ 5 . C. 5.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Sample SAT-Type Problems Now you can try actual SAT-like problems in each topic area.7h^ . C. C.8 + 4 h ? 2 .c negative (a – b) (c – b) = (negative) (positive) = negative 4. ^ 5 . (c – b)3 = (positive)3 = positive (a – c)2 = (negative)2 = positive (c – a) b = (positive)(unknown) = ?. The value of the expression A. cannot tell whether answer is positive or negative a .7h^ .6h 3.c = negative = positive b . Begin by substituting –3 into the expression. D. E.33 -4 -4 2 .32 . (c – b)3 (a – c)2 (c – a) b a-c b-c (a – b) (c – b) 2.75 20. –8 –1 2 3 1 8 ^ 5 . you try each answer choice: A. B.4 h 8 = = =1 8 8 2 .^.^.6h 3. What is the value of A.^.^. The correct answer is 5.2 h^ . Algebra and Functions Operations with Signed Numbers 1.5 4. Using the given information a < b < c.25 23. D. E. B.5 7. B.6h ^ 5 . B. If x = –3. which of the following must be less than 0? A. Note: Remember that problems range from easy to average to difficult.8 + 4 h = ^ . The result is –(–(3 + 2)) = –(–5). If a < b < c. 126 . C.5 = . D.8h^ 4 h + 9 . 2.7h^ .7h^ .8 + 4 h is 2 . then –(–(–x + 2)) = Explanations 1. E.32 + 4 = . D. D.8 + 4 h ^ . E. –33 –28.

6 5 E.2 h 3 . Substitute –2 for x. b1 = 11. What is the value of 2 .75 or 35 .x . C. then 3(a + b) = Explanations 5.2 ? A.4 -1 1 N= 3-x = = -7 = -7 = 7 x . If N = 3 . E. what is the value of N when x = –2? x-5 12 A. D. Substitute 4 for a and 5 for b. and b = 1. If | x | = –x. 4 Absolute Value 9. If a 5 b = A. 3 D. If 3a = 4b. 4b + 3b = 7b.3 +.5 ^. -5 2 -4 5 2 5 5 4 5 2 a+b-b . C.^ . you have 7(1. 1 7 1 C. what is the value of 4 @ 5? a'b 6. Substituting the quantity 4 4b for the quantity 3a gives the expression of 4b + 3b. b1 = 11. If A = h _ b 1 + b 2 i . positive nonnegative negative nonpositive zero 127 . a5b= a+b-b = a'b 4+5-5 3-5 = = ^. 28 32 45 58 70 8. 2 3 .Algebra and Functions Substitution for Variables 2 5. D. E. C. By substitution of 1.75 or 35 . D.25. -7 B. Substitute h = 7. 8. A.5 2 6.2h . then x must be A. and b2 = 9? A.2h : 5 = .25 for b. E. B.5 4 4 2 4'5 5 8.25) = 8. 12 7 7. B. –2 –1 0 2 4 10.5 . C. B. E. B. B. what is the value of A when 2 h = 7. Applying the distributive property to the expression 3(a + b) gives 3a + 3b. D. and b2 = 9 A = h _ b 1 + b 2 i = 7 ^11 + 9h = 7 ^ 20 h = 70 2 2 2 7. E.

Part II: Review with Sample Problems

11. If 3 - 2x = 7 , then x = A. B. C. D. E. –5 only –2 only 2 only 2 and –5 only 5 and –2 only

12. If - 3x - 1 = 8 , what is one possible value of x?

Explanations
9. D. 2 - 5 - 3 +- 2 = - 3 - 1 = 3 - 1 = 2 10. D. x = - x . Since the absolute of a number cannot be negative, the absolute value must be nonnegative. If –x is nonnegative, then x must be nonpositive. 11. E. 3 - 2x = 7 . This breaks down into two separate equations: 3 – 2x = –7 3 – 2x –3 = –7 – 3 –2x = –10 - 2x = -10 -2 -2 x=5 or 3 – 2x = 7 3 – 2x – 3 = 7 – 3 –2x = 4 - 2x = 4 -2 -2 x = –2

or 7 12. or 2.33 For an equation of this type, let the expression inside the absolute value symbol equal either 8 or – 8. 3 Solving the two equations below, implies that –3x = 9, and x = –3 or –3x – 1 = –8 implies that –3x = –7, and x = 7 3 7 The correct answer would be either –3 or or 2.33. So you would grid either 7 or 2.33. 3 3 –3x – 1 = 8

Working with Algebraic Expressions
13. How much greater than 5 – 7x is 3x + 2? A. B. C. D. E. 3 – 10x 7 – 10x –3 – 4x 10x + 3 10x – 3
2

15. (x + 3)(x – 4) – (x + 2)(x + 5) = A. B. C. D. E. –8x –22 –8x – 8 –6x – 22 –22x – 8 6x – 22

_ 2xy 2 i_ 5x 2 y i 14. = 15xy 3
A. B. C. D. E. 2x 2 3y 2x 4 3y 2x 5 3y 10x 4 3y 35x 4 y

= x - 2 , then what is one of the values 16. If 5 - 2 3 x 3 5 of x?

128

Algebra and Functions

Explanations
13. E. 3x + 2 – (5 – 7x) = 3x + 2 – 5 + 7x = 10x – 3.

_ 2xy 2 i_ 5x 2 y i 2xy 2 : 25x 4 y 2 50x 5 y 4 10x 4 = = = 14. D. 3y 15xy 3 15xy 5 15xy 5
2

15. A. (x + 3)(x – 4) – (x + 2)(x + 5) = x2 – x – 12 – (x2 + 7x + 10) = x2 – x – 12 – x2 – 7x – 10 = –8x – 22 6 16. 1.2 or . Since the two sides of this equation are of the same format, and the left side has a 5 in the numerator of 5 one of the fractions, try 5 for x in the right member of the equation. Also, since the bottom of one of the fractions in the right member has a 5 in the denominator, try 5 for x in the left member of the equation. The statement will look like: 5-2=5-2 3 5 3 5 This is always true because of the reflexive property of equality. 5 is one of the solutions. Solving this equation is a more difficult approach. Arriving at the quadratic equation of 3(5x – 6) (x – 5) = 0, it follows that (5x – 6) = 0 and x = 6 . Therefore, 6 (or 1.2) is a correct answer also. 5 5

Manipulating Integer and Rational Expressions
= 17. a + x b y A. a + x b+y B. C. D. E. ay + bx 2by ab + xy by ay + bx by ay + bx 1 = z+ 1 y 19. If 8x + 15y x x + y = 10 , what is the value of y ? 2 5 10 23 23 10 5 2 It cannot be determined from the given information.

A. B. C. D. E.

18. If x > 0, y > 0, and z > 0, then x + A. B. C. D. E. xz + yx + 1 z xy + zy + 1 xzy + x + y zy + 1 xzy + 1 y xzy + x + y y

20. If 2 3/2 : 2 1/3 = 2 x , what is the value of x?

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Part II: Review with Sample Problems

Explanations
y ay bx ay + bx =a: + x :b= + = 17. D. a + x b y b y y b by by by x+ 18. C. 1 = x + 1 = x + y = x : zy + 1 + y zy + 1 zy + 1 zy + 1 zy + 1 z+ 1 y y xzy + x y xzy + x + y = + = zy + 1 zy + 1 zy + 1

19. D.

8x + 15y 8x + 15y 10 x + y = 10 Rewrite this as: x + y = 1 8x + 15y = 10x + 10y 8x + 15y – 8x = 10x + 10y – 8x 15y = 2x + 10y 15y – 10y = 2x + 10y – 10y 5y = 2x 5y 2x = 2y 2y 5=x 2 y

Then, cross multiplying yields: 1(8x + 15y) = 10(x + y)

20. 11 . Since this is a product of two numbers with the same base, the rule is to add the exponents. 6 3 + 1 = 9 + 2 = 11 The correct answer is 11 . 2 3 6 6 6 6

Solving Rational Equations and Inequalities
21. If x + x = 7 , what is the value of x? 3 4 12 A. 1 12 B. 1 7 C. 1 D. 49 24 E. 7 2 22. Which of the following is a possible solution to x+3 $ 3-x ? 4 3 A. –5 5 B. 7 C. 0 D. 2 9 E. 7 8
2 23. If x + 7x + 12 = 3 - x , what is the value of x? 5x + 15

A. B. C. D. E.

–6 6 11 11 10 11 6 2

5 24. If a = 3 and 3 x + a = 7 , what would be the value of x?

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Algebra and Functions

Explanations
21. C. x + x = 7 Get rid of the denominators by multiplying all terms by 12 to get: 3 4 12 12 : x + 12 : x = 12 : 7 3 4 12 4x + 3x = 7 7x = 7 x=1 22. E. x + 3 $ 3 - x Get rid of the denominators by multiplying both sides by12. 4 3 12 : x + 3 $ 12 : 3 - x 4 3 3(x + 3) ≥ 4(3 – x) 3x + 9 ≥ 12 – 4x 3x + 9 + 4x ≥ 12 – 4x + 4x 7x + 9 ≥ 12 7x + 9 – 9 ≥ 12– 9 7x ≥ 3 7x $ 3 7 7 3 7 x$ 3 7 The only answer choice $ 7 is E, 8 .
2 23. D. x + 7x + 12 = 3 - x Factoring numerator and denominator of fraction on left: 5x + 15

^ x + 3h^ x + 4 h =3-x 5 ^ x + 3h x+4 = 3-x 1 5

cross multiplying yields x + 4 = 15 – 5x x + 4 + 5x = 15 – 5x + 5x 6x + 4 = 15 6x + 4 – 4 = 15 – 4 6x = 11 6x = 11 6 6 11 x= 6 24.

1(x + 4) = 5 (3 – x)

9 . Begin by substituting 3 for a. Next, subtract 5 from each member of the equation. You should have the 3 16 16 . Next, multiply both members by 3x. 3x is the least common denominator for the = following equation: 3 x 3 equation. You should now have 9 = 16x. Solving for x, you get x = 9 . 16

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Part II: Review with Sample Problems

Working with Linear Functions—Graphs and Equations
25. The graph of y = - 3 x + 7 is perpendicular to the 4 graph of which of the following equations? A. B. C. D. E. y= y= y= y= y= -3 x - 7 4 -4 x + 5 3 3x + 8 4 -4 x - 7 3 4 x + 12 3 27. What is the y-coordinate of the point at which the graph of 2x – 3y = 12 crosses the y-axis? A. B. C. D. E. –12 –4 –3 3 12
y

4 3 2 1 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 -1 -2 -3 -4

26. If the point (6,y) is on the graph of the equation y = 2 x - 5 , what is the value of y? 3 A. B. C. D. E. –9 –4 –1 1 33 2

1

2

3

x

28. If the line shown in the graph above is reflected about the y-axis and then translated upward 4 units, the resulting equation is y = ax + k. What would be the value of k?

Explanations
25. E. The graph of an equation of the form y = mx + b has a slope of m. So the slope of the graph of the equation y = - 3 x + 7 has a slope of - 3 . 4 4 Two lines are perpendicular if their slopes are opposite reciprocals. Therefore the slope of the line perpendicular to the graph of the given equation is 4 . The only equation among the answer choices having the correct slope is 3 Choice E. 26. C. If the point (6,y) is on the graph of the equation y = 2 x - 5 , substituting 3 2 6 for x gives y = : 6 - 5 = 4 - 5 = -1. 3 27. B. The point at which the graph crosses the y-axis will have an x-coordinate of 0. Substitute 0 for x. 2(0) – 3y = 12 –3y = 12 - 3y 12 = -3 -3 y = –4 2x – 3y = 12

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Algebra and Functions

28. 2. The y-intercept of the line in the graph is at –2 or (0, –2). The reflection of (0, –2) about the y-axis remains (0, –2). When this point is translated upward by 4 units, the y-intercept will then be at 2. Since k in the equation represents the y-intercept, k = 2.

Solving Radical Equations
29. If A. B. C. D. E. x - 3 = 6 , what is the value of x? 9 16 25 49 81 31. If A. B. C. D. E. 32. If x + 4 = x - 2 , what is the value of x? –3 only 0 and –3 0 only 0 and 5 5 only x + 2 - x = - 4 , what is the value of x?

30. For which of the ordered pairs (x, y) is x - y = 3? A. B. C. D. E. (1, 16) (3, 0) (25, 64) (64, 25) (100, 64)

Explanations
29. E. x -3=6 x -3+3=6+3 x =9
` x j = 92
2

x = 81 30. D. Using the given equation A. B. C. D. 31. E. x - y = 3, you try each answer choice. (1, 16) 1 - 16 = 1 - 4 ! 3 (3, 0) 3 - 1 = 3 - 1 ! 3 (25, 64) 25 - 64 = 5 - 8 = - 3 ! 3 (64, 25) 64 - 25 = 8 - 5 = 3 , so Choice D is correct. x + 4 = x - 2 . Squaring both sides, you get:
` x + 4 j = ^ x - 2h
2 2

x + 4 = (x – 2)(x – 2) x + 4 = x2 – 4x + 4 x + 4 – x – 4 = x2 – 4x + 4 – x – 4 0 = x2 – 5x 0 = x(x – 5), so it appears that x = 0 or x = 5 If you were to substitute each of these values of x in the original equation, only x = 5 actually works. The answer of x = 0 is known as an extraneous root.

133

what is the value of x + y? A. Factoring the left side. 36. C.Part II: Review with Sample Problems 32. Since x + 2 is a factor of x2 + kx + 8. –3 0 4 9 It cannot be determined from the given information. If x2 – y2 = 12 and x – y = 3. the original equation is true. Solving this equation by factoring the trinomial you get (x – 2)(x – 7) = 0. 36. which implies x = 5. The correct answer is 7. the statement is false. c must equal 5. 3x . D.4 5x . E. The new equation is x + 2 = x2 – 18x + 16. The equation will be 0 = x2 – 9x + 14. Therefore. (x + 2) (x + ?) = x2 + kx + 8 You know the product of 2 and ? has to equal 8. Therefore. –2 2 4 6 8 34. The sum of cx and –2x is equal to 3x. C. D. 25x – 50 3 5 1 3x . If (x + c)(x – 2) = x2 + 3x – 10. Therefore. So 2 + 4 = 6. E. 7. B. D. 5. Substituting 2 for x in the original equation. You can also use –2x = –10. First isolate the radical term by adding x to each side of the equation.10 5 A.6 + 2 = 5x . _ x + y i : 3 12 = 3 3 x+y=4 35. B. what is the value of k? A. C. Substitute 3 for x – y. set the equation equal to zero. E. what is the value of c? Explanations 3 ^ x . C. B. you have: (x + y)(x – y) = 12. The correct answer is 5.5 8 5 35. so ? = 4. If x + 2 is a factor of x2 + kx + 8.10 5 5 ^ x . _ x + y i : 3 = 12 134 . C. D.2h 2 3 2 + = + =1 33. cx = 2x + 3x = 5x. so 2 isn’t a solution for the original equation. Substituting 7 for x. Setting each binomial equal to zero. where k is a constant. you get x = 2 or x = 7.6 + 2 = 5x . 3x . Next. Next square both sides of the equation. Basic Factoring 33. k = 6. x2 – y2 = 12.2 h 5 5 5 34. You also know that the sum of 2 and ? has to equal k.

If m is directly proportional to r3. and holding the car at a constant speed of 60 miles per hour according to the speedometer. what is the value of m when r = 3 ? 2 2 2 A. 15 B. w = c x . and w = 1 9 when x = 6. 18 5 38. 9 8 12 D. what is the value of h when x = 1 3 3 and y = 1 ? 2 2 A. 1=c Substituting w = 1 and x = 6: 9 6 9 1 6: =6: c 9 6 2 =c 3 2 c m 3 w= x So our equation is now: 2 c m 3 3 =2:4=8 Substituting x = : w = 4 3 3 9 3 c m 4 135 . If w is inversely proportional to x. should the passenger calculate for the car to travel the second mile? Explanations 37. 3 39. 8 9 C. 2 35 E. During the next mile. Speed varies inversely with elapsed time. 3 11 C. but inversely proportional to y. B. Using the speed check signs along the road that are one mile apart. in minutes. 7 E. If h is directly proportional to x2. the passenger finds it takes 60 seconds to travel one mile. 4 15 D. 4 9 C. 1 3 E.Algebra and Functions Direct and Inverse Variation 37. the driver holds the speed at a constant 72 miles per hour. and m = 1 12 when r = 1 . where c is some constant. Since w is inversely proportional to x. 9 4 15 D. what is the value of w when x = 3 ? 4 3 A. and h = 9 when x = 1 and 8 2 1 y = . 3 B. 8 B. How much time. 3 2 40.

h = 9 when x = 1 and y = 1 : 9 = 8 2 3 8 1 3 9 =c: 1 : 3 8 4 1 9 =c: 3 8 4 4 : 9 =c: 3 : 4 3 8 4 3 3 =c 2 So our equation is now: 3 x2 h = 2y 3 1 2c3m h= 1 2 2 Substitute x = 1 and y = 1 : 3 2 h= 3 : 1 : 2 = 1 2 9 1 3 40. t = 3600 . D. If the speed is 72 miles per hour. where c is some constant. m = cr3. 2 h = cx y for some constant c. Since the speed varies inversely with time. but inversely proportional to y. 2 cc1m 2 Then. Since m is directly proportional to r3. 72 136 . Since h is directly proportional to x2. C. the model for calculation is speed × time is constant (st = k) The constant k is (60) (60) or 3600. 50. The correct answer is 50.Part II: Review with Sample Problems 38. then 72 t = 3600. Substituting m = 1 and r = 1 : 12 2 1 = c: c1m 12 2 3 1 =c: 1 12 8 1 8: =c: 1 :8 12 8 2 =c 3 So our equation is now: Substitute r = 3 : 2 m = 2 r3 3 3 m = 2 c 3 m = 2 : 27 = 9 3 2 3 8 4 39.

f ` g ^ x hj = f c x + 2 m = 3 c x + 2 m . 9x + 1 y 3 2 1 -3 -2 -1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 f g 1 2 3 4 x 42. Concepts of Range and Domain 45. D. B. E. C. x < –2 x ≥ –2 x≥0 x≥2 all real numbers 46.9 = x . which of the following is 2 in the range of function f ? A. Mapping the values for g(2) and f(2) you get –1 and –3 respectively. Substitute –2 for x: f(–2) = (–2)2 + 5(–2) = 4 + –10 = –6 42. If f(x) = 3x – 9 and g^xh = x + 2 . E. The correct answer is 2. For which of the following functions will f(–2) = f(2)? A.3 3 3 44. f(x) = x2 + 5x. –14 –6 6 14 16 43. B. D. what are values of x for which f(x) is real number? A. E. f(–2) and f(2) will be equal only if all powers of x in the function are even or in the case of any absolute values of the variable. 43. D. B. C. the functions f and g are lines. B. what is the value of f(–2)? A. C. D. C. E. 2. If f(x) = x2 + 5x. x – 7 B. x – 1 D. What is the value of g(2) – f(2)? Explanations 41. -2 1 5 -3 4 0 1 8 5 17 137 . In the graph above.7 9 E. f(x) = 4x3 f ^xh = x 5 f(x) = 3x – 1 f ^xh = 5 + x f(x) = x3 – 4 44. this applies to the function f(x) = 5 + | x | in Choice D. x . Subtract: –1 – (–3).Algebra and Functions Function Notation and Evaluation 41. x – 3 C. If f ^xh = 5 x + 2 . then f(g(x)) = 3 A. D. If f ^xh = x 2 + 3 x + 1 .9 = x + 6 . B. B.

6 = 3 A. B. 49. 87 7 3 7 6 21 29 3 138 . f ^xh = x + 5 48. the value of f ^ 0 h = 1 . Therefore. When substituting negative numbers for x in f ^ x h = x 2 + 3 x + 1 you always get positive values for f(x). The problem is really just asking for the domain of the function f. E. the greatest value of the range is 4. E. If this function is reflected about the y-axis and then translated downward two units. The 2 smallest value of f(x) will occur when x = 0. in this case. The correct answer is 4. E. Therefore all values of f(x) will 2 be greater than or equal to 0. since you cannot find the square root of a negative number in the real number system. A. Working with Positive Roots. C. 4. Which of the following functions have the same domain as well as identical ranges? I. D. E. C. C. and III None have the same domains and identical ranges. f ^ x h = 5 x + 2 only has meaning when the term x + 2 ≥ 0. III. Only Choice E fits this condition. 47. Since x + 2 ≥ 0. D. you have x ≥ –2. 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 6 3 50. 48. B. g^ x h = x + 3 domain: x ≥ –3 2 f ^ x h = x + 5 domain: all real numbers range: f(x) ≥ 0 range: h(x) ≥ 0 range: g(x) ≥ 0 h(x) = (x – 2) domain: all real numbers Therefore the functions in I and III have the same domains as well as the same ranges. B. II. 12 + 75 = A.Part II: Review with Sample Problems 47. The range will not change as a result of reflection about the y-axis. B. The range of the function y = f(x) is defined by –2 ≤ y ≤ 6. Determining the domain and range for each function yields: I. When this function is moved downward two units. g^xh = x + 3 h(x) = (x – 2)2 I and II II and III I and III I. the range values will all decrease by two units and be defined by –4 ≤ y ≤ 4. what will be the largest value in the range? Explanations 45. D. II. III. II. 46. C.

6 2 52. If 3 is one of the roots of the equation x2 – kx – 15 = 0. If the volume of a cube is 64.3 j` 6 . –2 only –2 and 5 2 only 10 3 2 and –5 54. B. C.Algebra and Functions 51. D.2 9 : 2 =9 . ` 6 . B. what will be the volume of the resulting cube? Explanations 49. E. E. –4 only 4 only –4 and 4 21 only 16 only 55. If x2+ 3 = 19. E. 3 9 9-3 2 9-5 2 9-6 2 52.3 j = ` 6 .2 18 =9 .2 18 + 3 = 9 . C. E. 216. B. 3 6 3 = =2 3 3 3 12 + 75 = 4 : 3 + 25 : 3 = 2 3 + 5 3 = 7 3 2 51. The volume of a cube with an edge of 6 units is 6 cubed. E. The volume of a cube is 64. If x2+ 3x = 10. –15 –5 –3 3 5 56. The correct answer is 216.3 j = 6 . ` 6 . where k is a constant. C. what is the value of x? A. the edge length will be the cube root of 64 which is 4 units. 6 = 6 : 3 3 50.3 j = 2 A. Increase this edge length by 2 units to obtain the edge length of the new cube. C. what is the other root of the equation? A. what is the value of x? A. If the edge length of this cube is increased by 2 units. or 216.2 : 3 2 =9 . This value is 6 units. A function is defined by y = x2 – 5x + 6. D. Solving Quadratic Equations 53. What is the smallest value of x where this function crosses the x-axis? 139 . B. B. D. D. C.

or x = –5 55. b<x<c x < b. obtains the equation x2 – 5x + 6 = 0. the other solution comes from x + 5 = 0. B. The correct answer. A portion of a quadratic function f(x) is shown in the figure above. so ? must equal 5 so you know (x – 3)( x + 5) = x2 – kx – 15 = 0 Therefore. E. Since one or both factors must equal 0. x> c a ≤ x ≤ b. A graph crosses the x-axis where y is equal to zero. C. x2+ 3 = 19 x2+ 3 – 3 = 19 – 3 x2 = 16 x = ±4 54. E. x is equal to 3 or 2.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Explanations 53. so the equation can be written (x – 3)( x – 2) = 0. D. is 2. 2. The left member if the equation is factorable. since the question asked for the smallest. Working with Quadratic Functions and Graphs y y = f (x) a b c d 57. c ≤ x ≤ d b≤x≤c a < x < b. C. B. so x = 2 and x = –5 56. For what value of x will f(x) ≥ 0? A. Setting y equal to 0. Since 3 is a root (or solution) of the equation x2 – kx – 15 = 0. x – 3 must be a factor of x2 – kx – 15: (x – 3)( x + ?) = x2 – kx – 15. c < x < d 140 . x2+ 3x = 10 x2+ 3x – 10 = 10 – 10 x2+ 3x – 10 = 0 (x – 2)( x + 5) = 0.

If f(x) = x2 – 2x – 3. what is the y coordinate of the function at the point on the axis of symmetry of the graph? 59. In the figure above. For which of the following values of x will their y-coordinates be equal? A. 3). C. If f(x) = –x2 – 4x – k and contains the point (–4. –1 and 1 1 and 4 2 and 5 –2 and 7 –3 and 9 141 .Algebra and Functions 58. a portion of the graph of y = ax2 + bx + c is shown. D. E. which of the following could be the graph of f? (A) y (B) y (C) y x -3 1 -1 3 x -3 1 x (D) y (E) y x -1 3 -1 3 x y y = ax2+bx+c x 0 6 60. B.

These regions can be described by: a ≤ x ≤ b and c ≤ x ≤ d. the two points on the x-axis that are on the graph of the function are equidistant from the axis. D. exactly match each other. Begin by substituting the point into the function for x and f(x). The only answer choice that has two values of x meeting this condition is E. For the graph of f(x) = x2 – 2x – 3. so the graph of f crosses the x-axis at –1 and 3. the x-coordinate of its vertex must be 3. points with x-coordinates equal distances left and right of this line of symmetry must have the same y-coordinate. 59. its x-intercepts can be found by setting f(x) = 0 and then solving for x. Because of the symmetry of the parabola around the vertical line x = 3. y Line of symmetry 3 -3 0 Vertex 6 units 6 units 6 9 x 60. when folded along this axis line. note that –3 is 6 units left of the line of symmetry at x = 3. y x a b c d In the figure above. x2 – 2x – 3 = 0 (x + 1)( x – 3) = 0. while 9 is 6 units right of the line of symmetry. E. as in Choice D. 1.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Explanations 57. f(x) ≥ 0 in the dark shaded regions—above or on the x-axis. For this reason. The equation will be 3 = –16 + 16 – k. 58. Since the coefficient of the x2 term is positive. Since the graph of the parabola y = ax2 + bx + c crosses the x-axis at 0 and 6. the graph of f must open upwards. 142 . C. The axis of symmetry is the line through the vertex of the graph that divides the graph into two pieces that.

143 . and the factored form is f(x) = –1(x + 1)(x + 3). evaluate f(–2). The function is f(x) = –x2 – 4x – 3. The values for x where the graph intersects the x-axis is the values where the factors (x + 1) and (x + 3) are equal to 0.Algebra and Functions From this equation the value of k is –3. The correct answer is 1. the axis of symmetry is all points where x = –2. Since the axis line must pass through the midpoint of these numbers. The y coordinate of the vertex point is another method to solve the problem. Now substitute –3 into the function for k and factor the resulting polynomial. This value is –(–2)2 – 4(–2) – 3 or –4 + 8 – 3. Therefore this graph passes through –1 and 3. To find the value of the function where x = –2.

.

Name each of the following polygons: A. Lines that meet to form 90° angles are called _______ lines. What is the length of BC in the preceding figure? D C 145 .Geometry and Measurement Geometry Diagnostic Test (Geometry and Measurement) Questions 1. What is the length of AC in the preceding figure? A 10″ B 26″ D. 2. AC must be smaller than _______ inches. A B. A C A 3. A B D B 15″ C C 4. C A B 5. A B D C E. Lines that stay the same distance apart and never meet are called _______ lines. A 8″ D C C. B 18″ B 22″ C B 6. In the preceding triangle.

RS is called the _______. Find the area and perimeter of the preceding figure: A. Find the area and circumference for the circle in the preceding figure ( π . 22 7 ): A. (Use 3. B. area = B. What is the surface area and volume of the preceding cube? A. area = perimeter = 10″ 12″ 7″ 11. B. What is the area of ᭝ABC in the preceding figure? 146 . AB is called the _______.Part II: Review with Sample Problems D B S A 4″ D 3″ 6″ B R C C A 7.14 for π): 8. B. 10. Find the area and perimeter of the preceding figure (ABCD is a parallelogram): A. Fill in the blanks for circle R in the preceding figure: A. surface area = volume = y C 9. area = perimeter = A B x 13. B. C. CD is called a _______. circumference = 16″ 15″ 12″ 30″ 13″ 4″ 4″ 4″ 12. Find the volume of the preceding figure if V = (πr2)h.

D. 8. 12 The area of a triangle is 1 × base × height. C. volume = (πr2)h triangle square parallelogram rectangle trapezoid radius diameter chord B. Volume = side × side × side. area = bh = 6(3) = 18 square inches perimeter = 6 + 4 + 6 + 4 = 20 inches = (π ⋅ 102)(12) = 3. A. A. 40 inches (Since AB + BC = 40 inches.) 4. E.Geometry and Measurement Answers 1. A. Since ᭝ABC is a right triangle. A. 7. or 16 square inches because each surface is a square. B. because r = 7") = 22 7 (14) = 22(2) = 44 inches area = 1 ^ a + b h h 2 = 1 ^16 + 30 h 12 2 = 1 ^ 46 h 12 2 = 23(12) = 276 square inches perimeter = 16 + 13 + 30 + 15 = 74 inches A 4 10. 16(6) = 96 square inches is the surface area. All six surfaces have an area of 4 × 4. Therefore. area = πr2 = π(72) = 22 7 (7)(7) = 154 square inches circumference = πd = π(14) (d = 14". so the area of triangle = 1 × 4 × 6 2 = 1 × 24 2 = 12 9. or 43 = 64 cubic inches. parallel 2. AC < AB + BC and AC < 40 inches. The height of the triangle is 6 units. 2 y C 6 B x B. 11. 147 . A. B. perpendicular 3. Base AB of the triangle is 4 units.14(100)(12) = 314(12) = 3. C. AC = 17 inches 5. A. B. 13. B.768 cubic inches 12. use the Pythagorean theorem: a2 + b2 = c2 102 + b2 = 262 100 + b2 = 676 b2 = 576 b = 24" 6.

4 In the diagram. ∠1 and ∠2 are adjacent angles. 148 . ∠4 is an obtuse angle. b In the diagram.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Geometry Review Types of Angles Adjacent angles are any angles that share a common side and a common vertex (point) A 1 2 D B C In the diagram. Any angle the measure of which is less than 90° is called an acute angle. A right angle has a measure of 90°. ∠BAC is a straight angle (also called a line). in the interior of an angle designates the fact that a right angle is A 90° B C In the diagram. A straight angle has a measure of 180°. Any angle whose measure is larger than 90° but smaller than 180° is called an obtuse angle. The symbol formed. ∠ABC is a right angle. ∠b is acute. 180° B A C In the diagram.

∠1 and ∠2 are complementary angles. A 1 2 B C In the diagram. ∠2. line l and line m intersect at point Q. Two angles whose sum is 180° are called supplementary angles. adjacent angles. ∠3 and ∠4 are supplementary angles. If ∠3 = 122°. ∠1. C B 1 A 2 D In the diagram. Vertical angles are always equal. its complement. because ∠ABC is a right angle. Therefore. ∠4. its supplement. ∠3. would be: 180° – 122° = 58°. Therefore. Those angles opposite each other are called vertical angles. A 3 4 B C In the diagram. since ∠ABC is a straight angle. AB is the angle bisector of ∠CAD. A ray from the vertex of an angle that divides the angle into two equal pieces is called an angle bisector. ∠2. again. If ∠1 = 55°. Four angles are formed. 149 . and ∠4 are formed. If two straight lines intersect. Those angles sharing a common side and a common vertex are.Geometry and Measurement Two angles whose sum is 90° are called complementary angles. would be 90° – 55° = 35°. ∠1 = ∠2. ∠1 + ∠2 = 90°. ∠3 + ∠4 = 180°. they do so at a point. Therefore. Two adjacent angles that form a straight line are supplementary. l 4 Q 2 3 m 1 In the diagram.

Part II: Review with Sample Problems ∠1 and ∠3 ∠2 and ∠4 ∠1 and ∠2 ∠2 and ∠3 ∠3 and ∠4 ∠1 and ∠4 are vertical angles are adjacent angles Therefore. l Q m In the diagram. Parallel lines never meet. The symbol is used to denote parallel lines. line n is the transversal. cut by a transversal. l m . l m In the diagram. l m In the diagram. In the diagram below. The symbol = is used to denote perpendicular lines. Eight angles are formed. ■ Two lines that meet to form right angles (90° angles) are called perpendicular lines. ■ Two or more lines that remain the same distance apart at all times are called parallel lines. There are many facts and relationships about these angles. it is termed parallel lines. lines l and m intersect at Q. l = m . ∠1 = ∠3 ∠2 = ∠4 Types of Lines ■ Two or more lines that cross each other at a point are called intersecting lines. That point is on each of those lines. n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 l m 150 . and lines m and l are parallel. Parallel Lines Cut by Transversal ■ When two parallel lines are both intersected by the third line.

Geometry and Measurement 1. ∠3 = ∠5 = 180° ∠4 and ∠6 are consecutive interior angles. ∠4 = ∠5 ∠2 and ∠7 are alternate exterior angles. Likewise: ∠2 = ∠3 ∠5 = ∠8 ∠7 = ∠6 3. ∠1 + ∠2 = 180°. Adjacent angles. Using all of these facts. ∠3 = ∠6 ∠4 and ∠5 are alternate interior angles. Angles 1 and 2 are adjacent and they form a straight line. therefore. 151 . Therefore: ∠3 and ∠6 are alternate interior angles. Interior angles are those contained within the parallel lines. Vertical angles. Angles 1 and 4 are vertical angles. therefore. the angles that would coincide with each other would be equal in measure. They are called corresponding angles. Alternate angles are on the opposite side of the transversal. ∠2 = ∠7 ∠1 and ∠8 are alternate exterior angles. the other angle measures can all be determined. If we could physically pick up line l and place it on line m. if we are given the measure of one of the eight angles. Therefore: ∠3 and ∠5 are consecutive interior angles. they are supplementary. Corresponding angles. ∠1 = ∠4. Therefore: ∠1 = ∠5 ∠3 = ∠7 ∠2 = ∠6 ∠4 = ∠8 4. ∠4 = ∠6 = 180° The sum of the measures of each pair of consecutive angles = 180°. even if you cannot remember the rules. Consecutive interior angles. you can see which angles are equal. Consecutive interior angles are on the same side of the transversal. Likewise: ∠2 + ∠4 = 180° ∠7 + ∠8 = 180° ∠3 + ∠4 = 180° ∠5 + ∠7 = 180° ∠1 + ∠3 = 180° ∠6 + ∠8 = 180° ∠5 + ∠6 = 180° 2. Exterior angles are those on the outsides of the parallel lines. Alternate interior and exterior angles. ∠1 = ∠8 5. For example: 83˚ a b c d e f g l l m m Note that since the lines are parallel. they are equal.

A triangle having none of its sides equal is called a scalene triangle. In the diagram of ᭝ABC: A AB + BC > AC AB + AC > BC AC + BC > AB B C 152 . A triangle is a three-sided polygon. (Poly means many.) Triangles This section deals with those polygons having the fewest number of sides. The following figure shows ᭝ABC: B A C There are various types of triangles: ■ A triangle having all three sides equal (meaning all three sides having the same length) is called an equilateral triangle. The symbol for triangle is ᭝. Every height is the perpendicular (forming a right angle) distance from a vertex to its opposite side (the base). It has three angles in its interior.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Polygons Closed shapes or figures with three or more sides are called polygons. thus. AE = BC . A B E C ■ In this diagram of ᭝ABC. A triangle having a right (90°) angle in its interior is called a right triangle. A triangle is named by all three letters of its vertices. polygon means many sides. ■ ■ ■ Facts about triangles: ■ Every triangle has a base (bottom side) and a height (or altitude). and AE is the height. The sum of the lengths of any two sides of a triangle must be larger than the length of the third side. A triangle having two sides equal is called an isosceles triangle. The sum of these angles is always 180°. gon means sides. BC is the base.

and 15–20–25 are also Pythagorean triples. For example: Find the length of x in the triangle. b = 4. the relationship between the lengths of the sides is stated by the Pythagorean theorem. For example. The three lengths a. and c = 5: a2 + b2 = c2 32 + 42 = 52 9 + 16 = 25 25 = 25 4 5 3 ■ ■ Therefore. A knowledge of the use of algebraic equations can also be used to determine the lengths of the sides. ■ The side opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (side c). and c that always work. The sum of these interior angles is always 360°.Geometry and Measurement Pythagorean theorem: ■ In any right triangle. (The hypotenuse is always the longest side.) The other two sides are called the legs (sides a and b). 9–12–15. 3–4–5 is called a Pythagorean triple. There are other values for a. Some are 1–1– 2. A b c C a B The parts of a right triangle are: ∠C is the right angle. There are four angles in its interior. and c are always numbered such that: a2 + b2 = c2 For example: If a = 3. a2 + b2 = c2 x + 102 = 152 x2 + 100 = 225 x2 = 125 x = 125 125 = 25 × 5 = 5 5 So. the lengths of these sides can be determined easily. If perfect squares are known. 153 . multiplying the 3–4–5 solution set shows that 6–8–10. b. b. 5–12–13. A quadrilateral is named using the four letters of its vertices. and 8–15–17. Any multiple of one of these triples also works. x = 5 5 2 x 15 10 Quadrilaterals A polygon having four sides is called a quadrilateral.

AE is the height.Part II: Review with Sample Problems The following figure shows quadrilateral ABCD. BE is the height. A b a B b D E a C ■ AE is the height of the parallelogram. AB CD . A B D E C 154 . A B D C Types of quadrilaterals ■ A square has four equal sides and four right angles. and consecutive angles supplementary. AB DC . Every parallelogram has a height. A rhombus has a height. A rhombus is a parallelogram with four equal sides. B a a C a a A ■ E D A trapezoid has only one pair of parallel sides. opposite angles equal. A trapezoid has a height. and AD BC . A a B a a D ■ a C A rectangle has opposite sides that are equal and four right angles. A a B b b D ■ a C A parallelogram has opposite sides equal and parallel.

An octagon is an 8-sided polygon.Geometry and Measurement Other Polygons ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ A pentagon is a 5-sided polygon. Area Area (A) means the amount of space inside the polygon. The formulas for each area are as follows: Triangle: A = 1 bh 2 h b or h b For example: A = 1 bh 2 18" 24" A = 1 ^ 24 h^18h = 216 sq. The total distance around is the sum of all sides of the polygon. in. The perimeter of any polygon can be determined by adding the lengths of all the sides. A decagon is a 10-sided polygon. A nonagon is a 9-sided polygon. Perimeter Perimeter means the total distance all the way around the outside of any shape. A hexagon is a 6-sided polygon. 2 Square or rectangle: A = lw w l w l or l w l w 155 . No special formulas are really necessary.

in. 12" 5" A = l (w) = 12(5) = 60 sq. in. in. Trapezoid: A = 1 _ b 1 + b 2 i h 2 b1 h b2 For example: 8" A = 1 (b1 + b2)h 2 A = 1 (8 + 12)(7) 2 = 1 (20)(7) = 70 sq.Part II: Review with Sample Problems For example: 4" 4" A = l (w) = 4(4) = 16 sq. in. 2 7" 12" 156 . Parallelogram: A = bh h b For example: A = b(h) 10" 6" 5" 6" A = 10(5) = 50 sq.

An arc is a piece of the circle. Arcs are measured in degrees. Parts of a Circle ■ Radius is the distance from a center to any point on a circle. all points on which are equidistant from the center point. The symbol " is used to denote an arc. Each diameter is two radii. E F 157 . A ■ M B Diameter is the distance across a circle. the minor arc is assumed. M is the center point because it is the same distance away from all points on the circle. $ This is EF $ Minor EF is the shorter distance between E and F. It is written on top of the two endpoints that form the arc. R M V S ■ The diameter is the longest chord in any circle. $ When EF is written. MA is a radius. $ Major EF is the longer distance between E and F. CD is a diameter. An arc is the distance between any two points on the circle itself. is called a circle. D A AB is a diameter. M This is circle M. UV is a chord. U RS is a chord. B ■ M C The chord is a line segment whose end points lie on the circle itself. There are 360° around a circle.Geometry and Measurement Circles A closed shape whose side is formed by one curved line. In any circle. all diameters are the same length. all radii (plural) are the same length. Circles are named by the letter of their center point. In any circle. MB is a radius. through the center.

but are not identical in size. For example: All squares are similar. Corresponding sides are those sides that are across from the equal angles. The following triangles are congruent. The formula for circumference is: C = πd or C = 2πr. π (pi) is a Greek letter that represents a specific number. M 10" Congruence and Similarity Two plane (flat) geometric figures are said to be congruent if they are identical in size and shape. They are said to be similar if they have the same shape.14 or π ≈ 22 7 .14(8) = 25. 158 . a formula is needed. A = π(r2) = π(52) = 3. d = 8 because r = 4.5 sq. in. For example: In circle M. A more precise working definition of similar figures follows: ■ Similar figures have corresponding angles equal and corresponding sides that are in proportion. For example: In circle M. C = πd = π(8) = 3.14(25) = 78.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Circumference and Area ■ Circumference is the distance around a circle. Since there are no sides to add up. In fractional or decimal form. r = 5 because d = 10. the commonly used approximations are: π ≈ 3.12 inches M 4" ■ The area of a circle can be determined by: A = πr2.

you can set up the following proportion to find PM. A few more examples: N 8 O 5 12 M Q P 1. The corresponding sides in the case are AD and AC. what is the length of PM? N 8 O 5 12 M Q P In the figure above. and ∠AED and ∠ABC. Therefore. AD = DE or AD = 2 AC CB AC 3 6 = 2. Therefore. and AE and AB. Because the proportion of side DE to side CB is 4 to 6 or 4 . DE and CB. since MN and OQ are both perpendicular to PM. the corresponding sides are in proportion. AC 3 Cross multiplying gives: 6(3) = 2(AC) 18 = 2(AC) Divide each side by 2. which reduces to 2 . If side AD = 6. DE CB . and since AD = 6.Geometry and Measurement For example: Triangles ADE and ACB are similar C D Side DE = 4 and corresponding side CB = 6. they are parallel to each other. If AD = 4. triangles ADE and ACB are similar and the problem can be solved as above. 159 . ∠ADE and ∠ACB. and AD = 6. then side AC = A E B Since the triangles are similar. Therefore. what is the length of AC? A line parallel to one side within a triangle produces similar triangles. Since OQ to NM is in the ratio 5 to 8. In the figure above. 18 = 2 ^ AC h 2 2 9 = AC or AC = 9 Please note that this question could have been introduced as follows: In the triangle shown. triangles OPQ and NPM are similar. the 3 6 same ratio holds for all corresponding sides. CB = 6. The corresponding angles are ∠DAE and ∠CAB.

the only real difficulty is matching the corresponding parts. are corresponding.2 5 B A D C 2. since triangles ADB and BDC are similar. The volume of any prism (a three-dimensional shape having many sides. Since ∠DCB = ∠DBA. (Note that BD is used twice. In the figure above. Since ∠BAD = ∠CBD. as it is part of both triangles). 5 ^ PM h 96 = 5 5 PM = 19 1 or 19. BD and DC. What is the length of DC? B 3 A 4 D C In the figure above. volume refers to the capacity to hold. they are corresponding and sides across from them. you can set up the following proportion and solve accordingly. AD and BD are corresponding. ∠DAB = ∠DBC. Because BD to AD is in the ratio 3 to 4. BD = DC or 3 = DC AD BD 4 3 3 ^ 3h = 4 ^ DC h 9 = 4 ^ DC h 9 = 4 ^ DC h 4 4 1 2 = DC or DC = 2 1 or 2.25 4 4 Three-Dimensional Shapes Volume In three-dimensional shapes. The formula for volume of each shape is different.Part II: Review with Sample Problems OQ PQ 5 12 NM = PM or 8 = PM Cross multiplying gives 5(PM) = 8(12) 5(PM) = 96 Divide each side by 5. triangles ADB and BDC are similar. but two bases) can be determined by: Volume (V) = (area of base)(height of prism) 160 . and ∠ABD = ∠BCD.

yd. 10" 5" 4" 2. 1 7 1 1 r = 2" h = 14" 161 . Cylinder 14 22 2 2 2 # # # V = πr h = = 22(8) = 176 cu. S S S = 8 yards 2 3. Cube V = s3 = 8 × 8 × 8 = 512 cu. for a cylinder (circular bases): r S h V = (πr2)h = πr2h Volume is labeled in cubic units. for a rectangular solid: V = (lw)(h) = lwh h l w S S The formula for the volume of the cube is often written V = s × s × s = s3 Specifically. Some examples: Find the volumes of the solid figures below whose dimensions are indicated.Geometry and Measurement Specifically. Rectangular Solid V = lwh = (10)(5)(4) = 200 cu. in. 1. in.

4" 18" 6" To determine the surface area of a right circular cylinder. Adding the three parts gives the surface area of the cylinder: For example: 5' Find the surface area of a cylinder with radius 5' and height 12'. Coordinate graphs can be used in measurement problems. The rectangle’s area equals circumference times height. Note that the length of the rectangle equals the circumference of the circle. Find the area of each surface. The area of each circle equals πr2. The surface area of a rectangular solid can be found by adding the areas of all six surfaces. The area of the bottom circle is the same. r h r circumference r height Now find the area of each individual piece. it is best envisioned “rolled out” onto a fat surface as below. For example: 162 . The area of the circle = π(r2) = π(52) = 25π. For example: The surface area of this prism is: top: 18 × 6 = 108 bottom: 18 × 6 = 108 left side: 6 × 4 = 24 right side: 6 × 4 = 24 front: 18 × 4 = 72 back: 18 × 4 = 72 408 sq.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Surface Area The surface area of a three-dimensional solid is the area of all the surfaces that form the solid. and then add those areas. in. Coordinate Geometry and Measurement Refer to “Basic Coordinate Geometry” in the “Algebra Review” section if you need to review coordinate graphs. Totaling all the piece gives 25π + 25π + 120π = 170π. 25π. or 2πr = 2π(5) = 10π. Therefore the area of the rectangle equals its height times 10π = 12 × 10π = 120π. 10∼ 5' 12' The length of the rectangle is the circumference of the circle.

the base is 5. and the distance to point A from the y-axis is 2. Since point A is at (0. the first.5) x 0 1. 5) and (3. The distance to point B from the y-axis is 3. 2 163 . y C(2. (–2 is 2 in the negative direction.Geometry and Measurement y A (−2.5) B (3. 0). y D (0. What is the area of rectangle ABCD in the preceding graph? The formula for the area of a rectangle is base × height. Since point D is at (0.3) 0 x B(2. What is the length of AB in the preceding graph? Since the coordinates of the points are (–2. 3).3) C (5.) So 3 + 2 gives a length of 5.−3) A(−2. or x-coordinate is the clue to the distance of each point from the y-axis.−3) 3. 0) and point B is at (5. the height is 3. What is the area of ᭝ABC in the preceding figure? The area of a triangle is 1 × base × height. 5).0) A 0 B x 2. so the area is 5 × 3 = 15.

y A 3 3 C O 3 B(3.0) x 164 .Part II: Review with Sample Problems y C(2. You know that radius OB is 3 units long. Therefore. The OA and OC are each 3 units because they are also radii.−3) x A(−2. Note that ∠B is a right angle. what is the perimeter of ᭝ABC inscribed within the semicircle with center O? To find the perimeter of the triangle.−3) 4 Base AB of the triangle is 4 units (because from A to the y-axis is 2 units and from the y-axis to B is another 2 units).3) O 6 B(2. side AC of the triangle is 6 units. In the preceding figure. Height BC of the triangle is 6 units (3 units from B to the x-axis and another 3 units to C). So area of triangle = 1 × 4 × 6 2 = 1 × 24 2 = 12 y A 0 B(3.0) C x 4. you need the lengths of the three sides.

) By symmetry.Geometry and Measurement In triangle AOB. you wouldn’t have needed to use the Pythagorean theorem. So CB = 3 2 and perimeter = CA + AB + CB = 6+3 2 +3 2 = 6+6 2 165 . you know that AB = CB. a2 + b2 = c2 (OA)2 + (OB)2 = (AB)2 32 + 32 = (AB)2 9 + 9 = (AB)2 18 = AB 18 = AB 9 # 2 = AB 3 2 = AB (If you spotted that triangle AOB is an isosceles right triangle with sides in the ratio 1 : 1 : 2 . From the Pythagorean theorem. you know that OA is 3 and OB is 3.

E. and GH = GI . What is the value of x? A. In the figure above. B. FD = FE . D. B. what is the value of x? A.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Sample SAT-Type Problems Now you can try actual SAT-like problems in each topic area. D. Geometry and Measurement Vertical Angles A 120° 3x° C 65° B 1. C. Note: Remember that problems range from easy to average to difficult. E. what is the value of x + y? A. CA = CB . In the figure above. C. 20 30 40 90 120 D 55° F G x° H E 50° I 3. E. In the figure above. 45 55 60 65 70 l x° y° 2. B. What is the value of x° + y° in the figure above? 166 . C. 50 75 100 110 130 x° 40° z° 30° y° m 4. D.

in ᭝GHI: r + 2x = 180 60 + 2x = 180 2x = 120 x = 60 substitute 60 for r to get 167 . ∠D = ∠E = 55. 50° 50° x° x° y° y° Since vertical angles have equal measure. x. so x + y = 130. C. Since vertical angles have equal measure: 3x = 120. and GH = GI . In ᭝ABC: 65 + 65 + m = 180.Geometry and Measurement Explanations 1. E. 2. ∠A = ∠B = 65. and y. FD = FE . so y = 70 In ᭝FCG: m + y + r = 180. A 65° 65° m° C m° y° y° F 55° E r° G r° x° I B D 55° x° H Since CA = CB . so m = 50 In ᭝DEF: 55 + 55 + y = 180. 3. and ∠H = ∠I = x. so r = 60. so x = 40. Then x+ y + 50 = 180. C. then substitute 50 for m and 70 for y to get 50 + 70 + r = 180. Finally. the interior angles of the triangle have measures 50.

y = 20°. B. In the regular hexagon above with center at point C. D. E. In the figure above. 70. B. Since lines l and m form an angle of 40 degrees. What is the difference between x and y in the figure above? 168 . It follows that 50° + 20° = 70°. E. x = 50°. % What is the degree measure of BC ? A. It follows that 40° + 30° + y° = 90° and therefore. the angle across (vertical angle) is also 40 degrees. B. Therefore. D. 15 30 40 45 60 8. 14 28 70 150 230 l m H C x° A x 75° N G 65° y n 6. D. C. what is the value of x? A. Angles in Figures B 132° D x° 40° A C E A 21° B C 5.Part II: Review with Sample Problems 4. x° is the complement of 40°. E. C. the measure of angle z is also 40 degrees. In circle C above. C. what is the value of x? A. the ratio of the degree $ % measures of DC to AB is 5 to 2. z° + 30° + y° = 90°. Also. The correct answer is 70°. 40 50 60 80 90 E X 7. Since there is an indicated right angle.

Solving for y. the value for y is 115°. therefore. The 65° angle and y form a straight angle (or linear pair). 21 = 1 ^ 3x h 2 2 : 21 = 2 : 1 ^ 3x h 2 42 = 3x 42 = 3x 3 3 14 = x $ % % 132 + AB + DC + BC = 360 % 132 + 2x + 5x + BC = 360 Then. 8.2x h An angle formed by 2 secant lines intersecting outside of the circle is one-half of the difference 2 of the 2 arcs intercepted by the secants. 75. B. D. the angle opposite the 65° angle is 65°. so 40 = 1 BE . Therefore. Since ∠C is a central angle. D. Using vertical angles. Now subtract these two values and the correct answer is 75°. the value of x is 40°. 2 6. 65° + x + 75° = 180°. so ∠XGN is 90° also. ∠A is an inscribed angle. 132° D A 21° 2x° B 5x° C 21 = 1 ^ 5x .Geometry and Measurement Explanations $ $ $ 5. Solving for x. BE = EC = 80 . Since ΔNCG is equilateral. so these angles are supplementary and their sum is 180°. 169 . BE = 80 . 7. ∠ENG is 90°. all angles of this triangle are 60°. In particular ∠CGN is 60°. Then ∠CGN + x = 90°. Therefore x = 30. % 132 + 7x + BC = 360 % 132 + 7 ^14 h + BC = 360 % 132 + 98 + BC = 360 % 230 + BC = 360 % BC = 130 Substitute 14 for x.

E. and ∠3 = 60°. D. AE = EB . 20 50 60 70 125 C B 35° D A 60° x° E m l l r 1 10. m || r. AD = DC . What is the measure of angle 4? 170 . B. 40 50 60 130 150 D C 11. What is the value of x? A. ∠1 = 120°. what is the value of x? A. and BD = BC. In the figure above. 35 55 65 115 125 k 2 4 5 6 3 s Note: Figure not drawn to scale. 12. k = m . In the figure above. C. B.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Perpendicular and Parallel Lines A 50° l 20° x° m E x° B 9. What is the value of x in the figure above? A. In the figure above with l || m. D. C. E. B. E. C. D.

∠5 = 60° because of vertical angles. the corresponding angles have to be equal. Angle 2 and angle 3 form an angle that is an alternate exterior angle with angle 1. C B 35° y° A 60° x° E D l Since CE = AD . y + 35 = 90. ∠A + ∠ADC + ∠C = 180 20 + 90 + ∠C = 180. C. y = x = 130. In ᭝ADC: Substitute 20 for ∠A and 90 for: ∠ADC Since BD = BC. ∠2 + ∠3 = 120°. 30°. Since l || m. it follows that angle 6 must be a right angle. Because 6 is a consecutive angle with the intersection of k and m. By substitution. Since ∠3 = 60° and ∠2 = 60°. so y = 65. so x = 65. The triangle consisting of angles 4. The correct answer is 30°. ∠BDC = ∠C = 70. A 20° E x° B D C Since AD = DC . 10. 12. ∠ADC = 90. y° 50° l x° m y + 50 = 180. Since m || r and k = m . Then. ∠6 = 90°. Therefore. D. Substitute 65 for y: 65 + 60 + x = 180. so y = 130. D.Geometry and Measurement Explanations 9. Therefore. 5. 115 + x = 180. y + 60 + x = 180. ∠AEC is also a right angle. so ∠C = 70 BE and DC are both perpendicular to AD . so BE DC . 171 . and the measure of angle 4 is 30°. Therefore. so ∠1 = ∠2 + ∠3. thus x = ∠BDC = 70. 11. and 6 is a 30 – 60 – 90 right triangle.

C. 2 7 3 15 4 16. Radius. the shaded region has an area of 11π. What is the ratio of the circumferences of these two circles? Explanations 13. D. so r = 8. Area of circle is found by using the formula A = r2. Substitute 8π for A: 8π = πr 2 8π = πr 2 π π 8 = r2 8=r 2 2=r The circumference = 2πr = 2π : 2 2 = 4π 2 . E. D. Circumference of a circle is found using the formula c = 2πr. E. D. then: Areashaded = Areabig circle – Areasmall circle 11π = πr2 – π(2)2 11π = π2 – 4π 11π + 4π = πr2 – 4π + 4 π 15π = πr2 15π = πr 2 π π 15 = r 2 15 = r 172 . The ratio of the areas of two circles is 9π to 4π. C. E. What is the radius of the larger circle? A. Area. C. Substitute 16π for c: 16π = 2πr. 14. E. 2 2 4 4 2 2π 2 8π 15. B. with center at C. If r is the radius of the larger circle. Diameter 13. What is the circumference of a circle whose area is 8π? A. B. What is the radius of a circle whose circumference is 16π? A.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Circumference. E. D. For the concentric circles above. 2 2 4 4 2 6 8 2 C 14. B. 15.

D. Circumference of a circle is equal to 2πr. Since the ratio of the areas is 9π . E.12) A F B P 4 E G x° D 4 C 18. the regular hexagon has a perimeter of 72. 36 45 60 72 It cannot be determined from given information. Therefore. Quadrilateral ABCD is a square with sides of 4 units as shown above. What is the area of the shaded region? 173 .47) 216 3 (approximately 374. and area is πr2 for a circle. 19.5 135 20. C. 4π 2 Perimeter. In the figure above. C. what is the value of x? A. In reduced form.5 45 60 67. Triangle FDC is isosceles such that DF = CF. 3 . D. 108 108 3 (approximately 187. D. 22. E. In the regular octagon above. E is the midpoint of FD and G is the midpoint of FC . What is the area of the hexagon? A. B. the radius of the larger circle must be 3 and the 4π 2 radius of the smaller circle must be 2. what is the value of x? A. B. B. with center at C. with center at P. Angle Measure of Polygon C x° 17.06) 216 216 2 (approximately 305. the ratio is 3 . C.Geometry and Measurement 16. In the regular pentagon above. Area. the ratio of the circumference must be 6π . E.

b2 = 2. CD would be 6 3. C 30° 12 12 60° A 6 D 6 B 12 Side of regular hexagon = 72 = 12 . 20. With hexagon center at C. An alternate solution would be to find the area of isosceles trapezoid DEGC using the area formula A = 1 _ b 1 + b 2 i h where b1 = 4. you have the altitude of triangle DFC. 6. Then ᭝CDB is a 30°–60°–90° triangle. 2 174 .Part II: Review with Sample Problems Explanations 17. The altitude of the smaller triangle is half of the altitude of the larger triangle. the answer is 6. The altitude is perpendicular to DC . By constructing an altitude from F to the midpoint of DC . With DB = 6. So ᭝ACB has area: 4 4 The hexagon will then have area 6 times this: 6 : 36 3 = 216 3 . EG is half the length of DC and is 2 units also. P x° A x° B 45 + x + x = 180. so 2x = 135. EP = 360 = 45 . D. ᭝ACB is equilateral. and therefore x = 67. Then the hexagon will have an area 2 6 times this: 6 : 36 3 = 216 3 . E. and h = 2. Method II: In ᭝ACB. this altitude is the same length as the sides of the square. 8 – 2 = 6 2 2 Using the area formula for both triangles and subtracting. Since the polygon is a square. x = 360 = 72 5 18.5 19. The area of ᭝ FDC = 1 ^ 4 h^ 4 h = 8 and the area of ᭝ FEG = 1 ^ 2 h^ 2 h = 2 . ∠PAB = ∠PBA = x. D. the altitude to base AB bisects the base at point D. So ᭝CAB has area 1 : 12 : 6 3 = 36 3 . 8 In ᭝APB: 45 + ∠PAB + ∠PBA = 180. The altitude of the large triangle also serves as the altitude of the smaller triangle. 6 s2 3 Method I: The area of an equilateral triangle with side length s is found by using the formula . The altitude is 4 units. Since PA = PB. 4 12 2 3 144 3 = = 36 3 .

2x + 5 = 15. B. E.Geometry and Measurement Triangles—Right. Isosceles. B. and DF = 2. E. 175 . C. C. 5 30 45 60 It cannot be determined from the given information. B. Angle Measure. what is the measure of AC ? x y° 5 x 22. If BC = 7. What is the value of y? A. In the diagram above. EF = 3. D. E. In the figure above. In the figure shown above. D. What is the measure of the largest angle of this triangle? A. what is the value of x? A. 20° 40° 60° 80° 100° B E D A F C 70° 5 21. D. C. The measures of the interior angles of a triangle are in the ratio 2:3:4 respectively. BC EF and DF AC . 4 15 15 4 17 53 48 5 24. Equilateral. Similarity 6 20° 8 x 23.

Part II: Review with Sample Problems Explanations 21. 176 . D. Therefore 3AC = 14 and AC = 14 . the statement should be: 7 = AC . so the lengths of their sides are proportional. ᭝ABC ≈ ᭝DEF. the missing angle in the second triangle is 70°. by the AA postulate for similarity. 3x° 2x° 4x° Labeling the angles in the triangle above as 2x.66 Since there are two pair of parallel segments. The two right triangles are therefore similar. D. 23. and 4x. we have: 2x + 3x + 4x = 180 9x = 180 x = 20 Then the largest angle has measure 4x = 4(20) = 80. 3 ∠ABC = ∠AEF and ∠BAC = ∠BDF. y = 60. By substitution and solving this proportion by the product of the means is equal to the product of the extremes (cross multiplying). the triangle is equilateral. Since these AC triangles are similar. their corresponding sides are proportional so that BC EF = DF . there are corresponding angles that are congruent. 8=6 5 x 8x = 30 8x = 30 8 8 15 x= 4 2x + 5 = 15 Cross multiply: 22. C. Solving for x: 2x + 5 – 5 = 15 – 5 2x = 10 x=5 Since the lengths of all 3 sides of the triangle are 5. Therefore. 3 2 3 14 The correct answer is 3 or 4. Therefore. 24.66. 14 or 4. The missing angle in the first triangle is 20°. 3x.

B. E. If OB = 6 and AB = 6 3 . E. 51 5 37 + 7 37 + 7 37 + 14 51 + 7 5 2 +7 3 2 2 +7 3 A B C O D C 26. Circle O contains diameter CB as is shown in the diagram above. C. In the figure above. D.Geometry and Measurement Special Triangles 30°–60°–90°. B. In the figure above. 45°–45°–90° A 60° 10 A 8 B 45° B C D C E 25. C. D. D. C. In the figure above. 12 12 2 24 24 2 36 28. E. square ABCD is inscribed within a circle of radius 3 2 . ABCD is a rectangle having a perimeter of 30. what is the length of AC ? 177 . what is the length of BC ? A. B. What is the perimeter of ABCD? A. 5 5 5 10 10 2 3 2 3 30° F A B 27. What is the perimeter of the figure above? A.

Therefore. C. if AB = 6 3. A 8 B 7√2 45° D 8 C 7 7 7 E 7√3 30° 14 F To find the length of AD : 30 = 2(AD) + 2(AB) 30 = 2(AD) + 2(8) 30 = 2(AD) + 16 14 = 2(AD) 7 = AD In the 45°–45°–90° triangle. Now. the diameter CB is 12. If (AC)2 = 36. 28. ∠CAB = 90° and the triangle is a right triangle. CE = BC = 7 and BE = 2 ^ BC h = 7 2 . AC = 6. 178 . Finally. C. AB = 1 AC = 1 ^10 h = 5 . This makes ᭝CAB a 30°–60°–90°. which is also the diagonal of square ABCD. 27. In the 30°–60°–90° triangle. and the measure of a semi-circle is 180 degrees. Therefore the perimeter of the square is 4(6) = 24. It follows that (AC)2 = 144 – 108. Using the 30°–60°–90° pattern. If the OB = 6. C. 6. A B 6√2 3√2 45° D C Since the radius of the circle is 3 2 . and that (AC)2 = 36. 26. then AC = 6. (AC)2 = (BC)2 – (AB)2. In a circle. the perimeter of the figure is 8 + 7 + 8 + 7 3 + 14 + 7 2 = 37 + 7 3 + 7 2 . (AC)2 = (12)2 – (6 3)2. an inscribed angle is equal to one half the measure of the intercepted arc. Using the 45°–45°–90° pattern.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Explanations 25. that is the length of the shortest side multiplied by 3 for a 30°–60°–90°. Since ∠CAB is inscribed in a semi-circle. BF = 2(CE) = 2(7) = 14. If the Pythagorean theorem is used. each side of the square is 6. and CF = 3^CE h = 7 3 . 2 2 Then BC = 3^ BC h = 5 3 . its diameter is 6 2 .

E.66) 10 (approximately 6. finishing up with an 11-mile southerly ride ending up at point B. B.32) x √3 √21 1 New Route 8 miles 30. Using the Pythagorean theorem: 22 + x 2 = 62 4 + x 2 = 36 x 2 = 32 x = 32 = 16 : 2 = 4 2 30.47) 6 3 7 (approximately 7. B. D.92) Old Route 17 miles 32. In the figure above. riding his bicycle. C. C. Miguel starts at point A. B. D. D.80) 5 35 (approximately 5. followed by a 5-mile easterly ride.46) 2 (approximately 5.83) 3 (approximately 3. A jogging trail is being constructed to re-route runners around the exterior of an endangered plant reserve. what is the value of x? A. C. E. The plan showing the old trail and the new trail is shown above. What is the distance from point A to point B directly? A. what is the value of x? A. x √3 y √21 1 179 . 2 3 (approximately 3. How many extra miles will the runner have to run once the new route is put into service? Explanations 29. C. E. then north for 7 miles. D.Geometry and Measurement Pythagorean Theorem 6 2 x 31.46) 2 5 (approximately 4.94) 26 29. 2 17 (approximately 4. 2 2 4 2 32 2 (approximately 2. traveling west for 3 miles. In the figure above.12) 23 (approximately 4.

and 17 miles. The difference is 6 miles. x2 = 225. 15. and x = 15.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Using the Pythagorean theorem for the triangle on the left: ` 3 j + 12 = y 2 2 3 + 1 = y2 4 = y2 2=y Then for the triangle on the right: Substitute 2 for y. Therefore. 5 7 11 A 2 3 x 4 C B Creating right ᭝ACB. 6 miles. x2 = 289 – 64. Solving for x. 180 . The length of the new route is 23 miles and the length of the old route is 17 miles. AC = 5 – 3 = 2. B. Using the Pythagorean theorem: 2 2 + 4 2 = ^ ABh 4 + 16 = ^ ABh 20 = ^ ABh 20 = AB 4 : 5 = AB 2 5 = AB 32. y 2 + ` 21j = x 2 2 2 2 + ` 21j = x 2 2 4 + 21 = x 2 25 = x 2 5=x 31. This is also a special right triangle (Pythagorean triple) of 8. 8 miles New Route 2 2 2 17 miles Old Route The new route and the old route form a right triangle as shown. The Pythagorean theorem states that the sum of the squares of the shorter sides is equal to the square of the longest side in a right triangle. 82 + x2 = 172 . and CB = 11 – 7 = 4.

C. C. what is the radius of the cylinder? A. E. D. If the volume of the cylinder is 54π. 3 9 36 54 63 36. with circle center at point P. D. What is the difference between the surface area of a right rectangular prism with dimensions of 3 × 4 × 8 and a right circular cylinder having dimensions of r = 2 and h = 8 as is shown in the figure above? Find the difference to the nearest whole number.10) 3 3 (approximately 5. B. What is the total surface area of a right circular cylinder having radius 2 and height 3? A. what is the total surface area of the cube? A. D. In the right circular cylinder in the figure above.24) 26 (approximately 5. E. AC = PT.20) 6 181 . 8π 10π 14π 16π 20π r=2 8 8 3 4 34. B. 3 3 2 (approximately 4. E.Geometry and Measurement Volume and Surface Area of Solids 33. C. A P C T 35. If the volume of a cube is 27. B.

Volcylinder = πr2h 54π = πr 2 : 2r 54π = 2πr 3 54π = 2πr 3 2π 2π 27 = r 3 3=r 182 . 27 = e3 3=e Then total surface area = 6e2 = 6 ⋅ 32 = 54 35. Substitute 54π for volume and 2r for h. Therefore h = 2r. the height of the cylinder is twice the radius of the cylinder. A.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Explanations 33. e e e With edge length e. Volcube = e3 Substitute 27 for volume. E. D. r P r A C 2r T Since AC = PT. Total area of cylinder = 2πr2 + 2πrh = 2π ⋅ 22 + 2π ⋅ 2 ⋅ 3 = 8π + 12π = 20π 34.

Doubled. E.60 square units. To the nearest whole number. This is the circumference multiplied by the height. What is the length of the longest side of ᭝MNP? A. What are the coordinates of point B? A. C. –1) and (7. D. 3) x 37. –3). B.5) (6. 2 3 3 5 1 5 3 8 3 183 . The difference is 136 – 125. First find the surface area of the prism. ᭝ABC has its vertices at A(–1. (–1. ᭝MNP has its vertices at M(–3. 5). Together the area is 112 + 24 = 136 square units. B. 10).Geometry and Measurement 36. 32π + 8π = 40π. 5). y) 39. 8). D.6 or 10. and P(1. Now find the area of the tube-like side. This is 14 × 8 which is 112 square units. 1. What is the length (to the nearest tenth of a unit) of the shorter distance—the distance between (–2. Next find the surface area of the cylinder. E. D. 6) or the distance between (2. In a similar manner. Midpoint Formula y B (x. Distance Formula. 40π is approximately 125.24) 2 2 (approximately 2. –6)? 38.5) (1.82) 5 34 (approximately 5. the answer is 10. the area for both ends is 8π. so the tube-like area is 4π units. there are two ends and the tube-like side. This area is made up of three parts (two ends and the area around the prism). Coordinate Geometry—Coordinates. 11) 40. Slope. C. 8 units × 4π units = 32π square units. The area of the base is πr2.83) 173 (approximately 13.4 square units. 7). so both ends have an area of 24. so this value will be 4π. point M is the midpoint of AB .15) M (4. E. The circumference is 2πr. 17) (10. N(0. B(2. and C(5. What is the slope of AC ? A. 5 (approximately 2. B. 3. 5) (2. In the figure above. The area of an end is 12. C. –1) and (–8. 10. 7) A (−2. The area of the sides is calculated by the perimeter of the base multiplied by the height.

{} {A. D. 11. C. or by setting the distances up as hypotenuses of triangles.3h 10 5 y -y = = .5h = 4 2 + 3 2 = 16 + 9 = 25 = 5 2 2 MN = ` 0 . This is approximately 11.8h = 12 + 2 2 = 1 + 4 = 5 2 2 Therefore. C. E. AC ? A.1 or 125.2 = 4 2 x +2 =2:4 2c 2 m x +.^ -1h 6 3 39.1 Using the distance formula.2 = 8 x = 10 y+3 =7 2 y+3 2d =2:7 2 n y + 3 = 14 y = 11 and 7 .3hj + ^10 . BC . the lengths can be found as follows: One triangle will have dimensions of 9 in the horizontal direction and 7 in the vertical direction. 40. B. the horizontal distance is 10 and the vertical distance is 5.x 1 = 2 1 5 . 38. –3) and C(5. B. The distance is found by finding the length of the hypotenuse.1 units.–1) and (–8. Since the coordinates of the midpoint are found by averaging the coordinates of the midpoints: x +. –6). so this distance is 81 + 49 = 130 . MP = `1 . Rays and Congruence 41. 8) M (−3. For the other triangle.^ .4 units. Segments. P (1. 10) So point B has coordinates (10. which of the following statements must be true? A. D. If AB = BC. This distance is 11.^ . 11).Part II: Review with Sample Problems Explanations 37. D. E.^ . Points A. N (0. Lines. For points A(–1. D. B. Here the distance between the two points is 100 + 25 . E.1h + ^10 . Geometric Notation for Length. and C are noncollinear. 7) slope of AC = x 2 . The shortest distance is between the points (2.5h = 3 2 + 5 2 = 9 + 25 = 34 2 2 NP = ^ 0 . B is between A and C AB + BC = AC AB = BC AB .3hj + ^8 .C} ∠BAC ᭝ABC AC 42. MN = 34 is the longest side. What is AB . The correct answer is about 11. BC = AC B is the midpoint of AC 184 .B. 5) Compute the lengths of the 3 sides of ᭝MNP.

Geometry and Measurement 43. results in which of the following geometric figures? A. If AB = BC. B A C The union of all 3 segments in the figure above is just ᭝ABC. C.1. D is a point that lies three times further from B than from E. D. 43. 45 . 44. then the segments must be congruent. D. 44. 1 of 15 is 15 so the distance between D and E is 15 and the distance between B and D is 3 4 2 8 8 times 15 or 45 .13 . the distance between B and E is . The midpoint of AE is –4. The union of points A and B and all point C. E. The correct answer is 45 . 2 2 2 2 2 15 this distance is .4 = . C. B. . such that C is between A and B. The union of points A and B and all the points between A and B is just a segment with its endpoints at A and B.13 . and E lie on a line as shown above.1 = . Points A. 8 8 8 8 185 . AB AB CA AC BC A −9 B C −4 E 1 Note: Figure not drawn to scale.13 .15 Since distances are not negative. all 3 points must be collinear. It follows that BD = 45 . there is no guarantee that points A and B are even collinear. C is the midpoint of AE and B is the midpoint of AC . For C to be between points A and B. What is the distance BD? Explanations 41. B. B. The midpoint of AC is 8 .9 +. C. D. This distance must be divided into 4 parts. This eliminates all answer choices but C. 42. three of which are between C and D and the fourth 2 between D and E. Now. The coordinate of B is found by using the midpoint formula. If the distances are equal. Therefore the correct answer is B.

4) C P x l B m l 46. E. A. lines l and m intersect at point P and are tangent to circle C at points B and A respectively. what is the measure of the third arc formed? 186 .24) 3 3 (approximately 5. what is the radius of circle C? A. C. B. If AB = 6 and AD = 2.20) 2 13 (approximately 7. B. In the figure above. D. -4 3 -3 4 3 4 4 3 It cannot be determined from the given information. E. what is the length of AP ? 45. 47. B 4 3 2 (approximately 4. D. C. C.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Properties of Tangent Lines A y P (3. AB is tangent of circle C at point B.21) 8 C D A In the figure above. D. E. A secant line and a tangent line of a circle intersect in the exterior of a circle to form an angle of 64°. If the ratio of the intercepted arcs between the tangent and the secant is 11:3. If the diameter of circle C is 6 and PC = 5. 4 6 8 10 12 48. B. What is the slope of line l? A. l is tangent to the graph of x2 + y2 = 25 at point P. In the figure above.

Then using the Pythagorean theorem: 32 + (AP) 2 = 52 9 + (AP) 2 = 25 (AP) 2 = 16 AP = 4 You could also have just used a 3–4–5 right triangle. The slope of line l is the opposite reciprocal of the slope of CP . 0) l The center of the given circle is (0.x 1 = 3 2 1 -0 3 4 46.Geometry and Measurement Explanations 45. 4) x C (0. Then CP = l . label this point C. Thus the slope of line l is . y P (3. Slope of CP = x 2 . ∠CAP is a right angle – a radius drawn to a point of tangency creates a right angle. 187 . y -y 4 . its radius is 3. A 3 l C P 3 B m Since the circle’s diameter is 6. A.3 . 0).0 = 4 . B.

Since the measure of two arcs is 224.86) 16 5 30° 50.31) 8 13 (approximately 13. the remainder of the circle must measure 136. 5 3 (approximately 8. C. Problems in Which Trigonometry Could Be Used as an Alternate Solution Method 49. B. What is the length of the square’s diameter? A. 4 2 (approximately 5.66) 8 8 2 (approximately 11. E. the Pythagorean theorem gives: r2 + 62 = (r + 2) 2 r2 + 36 = r2 + 4r + 4 r2 + 36 – r2 = r2 + 4r + 4 – r2 36 = 4r + 4 36 – 4 = 4r + 4 – 4 32 = 4r 8=r 48. It follows that 11x = 176 and 3x = 48.73 188 . What is the area of the figure above? A.65) 2 25 3 (approximately 43. The measure of an angle formed by a secant and a tangent is 1⁄2 the difference of the intercepted arcs.3x = 64 and x = 16. and all 2 three arcs measure 360.Part II: Review with Sample Problems 47. E. A square has a perimeter of 32.68) 2 25 3 (approximately 21. B r 6 C A 2 r+2 D r Labeling r as the circle’s radius and noting that ∠ABC is right angle.66) 25 2 (approximately 17. D. C. C. D. 11x . The correct answer is 136.30) approximately 51. Therefore. B. 136.

C.31 _ approx. What is the measure of ∠R? Explanations 49. We could have used the Law of Sines instead of soh-cah-toa: sin of angle sin of angle = opp.06) T 1 R X S 52. side opp. sin 45c = sin 90c 8 d d(sin45°) = 8(sin90°) d = 8 sin 90c = 11.31 approximately. Using right triangle trigonometry (soh-cah-toa): sin i = opposite hypotenuse Therefore sin 45c = 8 d d ^ sin 45ch = d c 8 m d d ^ sin 45ch = 8 d ^ sin 45ch = 8 sin 45c sin 45c d = 8 = 11. C. 45° d 8 45° With a perimeter of 32.31 approximately sin 45c Note that 8 2 = 11. What is the area of a regular hexagon having a perimeter of 36? A.Geometry and Measurement 51. In the figure above. The diagonal of the square forms two 45°–45°–90° triangles so we could find the length of the diagonal as just 8 2 . 54 54 2 (approximately 76. RT = 3 TX . B.37) 54 3 (approximately 93. each side of the square is 8. side Cross multiplying yields: d ^ sin 45ch 8 ^ sin 90ch = sin 45c sin 45c 50. E.53) 108 108 3 (approximately 187. ∠S = 90° and ∠1 = 60°.i sin 45c 5 30° x 189 . D. B.

Therefore. 2 2 tan 30c 2 ^ tan 30ch 51. Since ᭝TSX is a right triangle with ∠1 = 60°. It follows that sin R = 2 TX .53 approximately. TS = 2 3 TS . 2 Then the area of the hexagon is just 6 times the area of the triangle ᭝ACB. 30°.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Using a 30°–60°–90° triangle. the side labeled x is just 5 3. 3 TX . RT = 3 TX .65 approximately. So ∠C = 60° and the length of each side is 36 = 6 . Area of hexagon = 6 (Areatriangle) = 6 ⋅ 18 (sin 60°) = 93. it follows that angle R must be a 30° angle. If 52. it is a 30°–60°–90° triangle. then using our 30°–60°–90° pattern. E. If the ratio of 2 the opposite to the hypotenuse is 1:2. 25 The area of the triangle = 1 bh = 1 c 5 m 5 = = 21. ᭝ACB is equilateral. tan 30c = 5 x x^ tan 30ch = x c 5 xm x^ tan 30ch = 5 x^ tan 30ch = 5 tan 30c tan 30c x= 5 tan 30c This is the base of the triangle. 190 . C 6 60° 6 A 6 B a Θ b 1 absin Θ Area Δ = — 2 In the regular hexagon above. We could instead have drawn an altitude from C to AB . height of ᭝ACB would be 3 3. 25 3 Then the area of the triangle = 1 bh = 1 : 5 3 : 5 = = 21. approximately. The correct answer is 30°.65 . 6 The figure on the right above shows how to find the area of a triangle given the lengths of 2 sides and their included angle. then sin R = RT 3 TX TX will cancel in both numerator and denominator. 2 2 2 Using right triangle trigonometry (soh-cah-toa): tan i = opposite adjacent Therefore. and the remaining fraction will reduce to 1 . Area of hexagon = 6 ` Areatrianglej = 6 : 9 3 = 54 3 . Using this formula for ᭝ACB: Area of ᭝ACB = 1 : 6 : 6 : sin 60c = 18 ^ sin 60ch . Area of ᭝ACB = 9 3.

C. D. II. What is value of m? A. B. in which case substituting –x for x will just change the sign of the answer. What is the value of f(g(–2))? A. E. B.Geometry and Measurement Qualitative Behavior of Graphs and Functions 53. C. II. B. For f(x) = x2 – 5x + 7. and III 55. B. E. f(x) = 4x3 f ^xh = -12 x2 f(x) = 5x – 7x3 I only II only III only I and III only I. so f(–x) = –f(x). f(g(–2)) = f(1) = 0. Answer Choice II. Using graphs of the function f and g: 55. the functions have only odd powers of the variable. In the graph above. III. In this case. For which of the following functions will f(–x) = – f(x)? I. –1 0 1 2 3 Explanations 53. A. 54. D. C. C. f(m) = f(m + 2) for some constant m. The given function is: We are told that: 2 f(x) = x – 5x + 7 2 f(m) = f(m + 2) m – 5m + 7 = (m + 2) 2 – 5(m + 2) + 7 m2 – 5m + 7 = m2 + 4m + 4 – 5m – 10 + 7 m2 – 5m + 7 = m2 – m + 1 m2 – 5m + 7 – m2 = m2 –m + 1 – m2 –5m + 7 + 5m = –m + 1 + 5m 7 = 4m + 1 6 = 4m 6 = m so m = 3 4 2 191 . –6 2 3 3 2 2 3 y y = f (x) y 3 x 1 2 3 −1 −3 −2 −1 −2 −3 2 1 x 1 2 3 y = g (x) y = g (x) x y = f (x) −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 −3 y 3 2 1 56. f(–x) = f(x). D. f ^ x h = -12 . For answer x2 choices I and III. E. In how many cases are f(x) and g(x) equal? 54. the functions f(x) and g(x) are shown. has an even power of the variable x. D.

Functions are equal where they intersect. 2. Transformations and Their Effect on Graphs and Functions 57. y 3 x −3 −3 3 The graph of y = f(x) is shown above.Part II: Review with Sample Problems 56. Since f(x) and g(x) intersect in two points. Which of the following could be the graph of y = f(x – 1)? (A) 3 x −3 −3 3 −3 −2 3 y (B) y 3 x (C) 3 y (D) 3 x y x −3 −3 3 −3 −3 3 (E) 3 −3 y x 3 −3 192 . the correct answer is 2.

The graph is first reflected about the y-axis and then translated upward 4 units. 58. –3) is on the graph of the function y = f(x). 7) is moved to the point (2 – 3. f(2) = 7. the graph of y= f(x) is shown. the y value will be increased by 4 and will then be 2 + 4 or 6. The correct answer is 6. C. In the figure above. The point P(2. 193 . Since the point (–1. (0. as in Choice D. The transformation y = f(x – 2) + 5 moves point P to which of the following new locations? A. –3) gets moved to the point (2 + 2. D. 7). 2 units to the right and 5 units up. D. 2) B x 1 2 3 4 59. Therefore. The reflection of point B about the y-axis will change the coordinates to (–4. g(–1) = 11. So the point (2. The transformation y = f(x – 2) + 5 moves every point on the graph of y = f (x). The graph of y = f(x – 1) will be the same shape as that of y = f(x) but will move 1 unit to the right. If g(x) = f(x + 3) + 4. 2). –3 + 5) = (4. D. one of the points on the graph of f is (2. 2) (4. 3 6 10 11 12 60. D. When the point is translated upward 4 units. C. the point (2. E. –8) (0. E. B. 2) (4. what is the value of g(–1)? A. 1) A (4. 11) is on the graph of g. B. 6. C. –5) y 4 3 2 1 (1.Geometry and Measurement 58. The function g(x) = f(x + 3) + 4 is just a transformation of the graph of f(x) for which each point on the graph of f is moved 3 units left and 4 units up. 11). 59. 2). –8) (5. What will be the y-coordinate of point B after this procedure? Explanations 57. Since f(2) = 7. For the function f. 60. 7 + 4) = (–1.

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try to simulate the test conditions by following the time allotments carefully.PART III MATH PR A CTI C E TE STS T hre e Simulate d Full-Length Practice Mathematics Tests This section contains three simulated full-length practice new SAT I math tests. and number of questions are similar to those on the new SAT I. They are not labeled on the actual SAT I. explanations. and analysis techniques. The SAT I is copyrighted and may not be duplicated. . Since the test is new. levels of difficulty. and these questions are not taken directly from the actual tests or released sample problems. question structure. The format. The sections in these practice exams are labeled by subject for your convenience in reviewing. the number and order of question types may vary. The practice tests are followed by complete answers. When you take these exams.

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0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 197 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / ....... / ........... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / ...... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 13. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ........ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / ............. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ........... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10.... / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 14. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .CUT HERE .. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 18. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . / ..... / .. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 15. / ... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . / .... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ..... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / ... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ..... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11.- Test IA 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E Test IB 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E 9.. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ... / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 12. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 17........ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / ......... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 16.. / ........ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ...... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ..... / . / .... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .

................................................CUT HERE ..................................................................- A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E Test IC 198 ...................

Choice Questions 199 . 18 Questions (8 Multiple.Choice Questions Practice Test I B: 25 Minutes. 16 Multiple.Practice Test I Practice Test IA: 25 Minutes. 20 Multiple.Choice and 10 Grid-in) Practice Test I C: 20 Minutes.

All numbers used are real numbers. Some problems may be accompanied by figures or diagrams. Data That Can Be Used for Reference Area rectangle A = lw triangle A = 1⁄2 bh circle A = πr 2 C = 2 πr r h l b M Pythagorean Relationship A b c a2 + b2 = c 2 w C a B Special Triangles 30° − 60° − 90° 30° 45° − 45° − 90° x 45° Volume rectangular solid V = lwh h l w right circular cylinder V= πr 2h r x√3 2x 60° x√2 45° x x h A circle is composed of 360° A straight angle measures 180° The sum of the angles of a triangle is 180° 200 . Notes 1. 2. 3. The figures and diagrams are meant to provide information useful in solving the problem or problems. Unless otherwise stated.Part III: Math Practice Tests Practice Test IA Time: 25 minutes 20 multiple-choice questions Directions: Select the one correct answer of the five choices given and mark the corresponding circle on your answer sheet. Calculators may be used. These figures are drawn as accurately as possible EXCEPT when it is stated in a specific problem that a figure is not drawn to scale. all figures and diagrams lie in a plane. Your scratch work should be done on any available space in the section.

C. In the figure above. what is 6% of n? A. a circle of radius r is inside a rectangle with dimensions as shown.6 10. Which of the following could be the graph of f? A. B. 3. E. 6 19 33 48 52 0 x C. y 2. lw – 2πr 2l + 2w – πr2 2l + 2w – πr lw – πr2 lw – r2 0 x B.11 333. In terms of l. B.Practice Test I l r w 4.33 D. If 18% of n is 60. where m is a positive constant and b is a negative constant. 0 x y 0 x E.8 20 111. E. y Practice Test I 1. E. The linear function f is given by f(x) = mx + b. what is the area of the shaded region? A. B. C. D. D. y 0 x GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 201 . C. D. How many two-digit positive integers are multiples of both 3 and 5? A. y 3. w. and r.

270 300 540 600 800 202 . E. 3z + 3 3z – 6 3y – 3 3x + 6 3y −6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 x 1 2 3 4 5 6 6. If x. A rectangle and a square have equal perimeters. 6 30 45 60 90 7. E. E. For what values of x is f(x) positive? A. E. How many positive four-digit integers are multiples of 5 and less than 4. y.Part III: Math Practice Tests 5. B. D. –10 –5 0 5 10 10. 3 13 37 3 19 21 y y = f(x) 9. E. In a class of 35 students. 87% 88. D. C. B. what is the value of y? A. D. what is the x-coordinate of the point of intersection of the lines whose equations are y = 2 x . C. D. What is the average for the entire class on this test? A. . C. C. B. D. If the rectangle has width 8 and length 12. which of the following is a possible value of x? A. D. B. If 3x – 2 = 7. If 2x . E. C. D. C.5% 89. D.5% 90% 92% 12. E.3 x + 12 ? 3 2 A. E. B. B. In the xy-plane. C. E. B.000? A. what is the area of the square? A. what is the value of 5x + 4? A. D.66 5 11 5 6 12 18 13. 25 girls averaged 92% on the last test. 0 < x < 60 –2 < x < 3 and 4 < x < 6 –5 < x < 2 and 3 < x < 4 0≤x≤6 –2 ≤ x ≤ 3 and 4 ≤ x ≤ 6 x y° 6 x 11. If the perimeter of the triangle above is 18. while the 10 boys averaged 85% on the same test.3 < 9 . and z are consecutive integers with x < y < z.1 and y = . C. Shown above is the graph of f(x) for –5 ≤ x ≤ 6. B. which of the following could be equal to x + y + z? A. 10 40 48 96 100 8. C. B.

In parallelogram EFGH. After spending $10. E. B. 1 6 1 3 1 2 2 3 5 6 x . CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS SECTION ONLY. D. How far does he ride on his return trip? A. what is the number? A. and finally 9 miles north.00 on a belt. On a shopping trip. STOP 203 . Milo rides directly from point B back to point A. Using the data from the graph above. Which of the following represents f? A. f(x) = 3x2 – 7 f(x) = 2x2 + 1 f(x) = x2 – 1 f(x) = x2 + x + 1 f(x) = x2 + 1 16.00 $100. C. and soccer teams win their league titles this year are 80%. D. E. E. C. C. C. what was the percent increase in profits from 1996 to 1997? A. Amal spent 1 of his money 5 to buy a hat. How much money did Amal start out with before he went shopping? A. –8 2 3 3 2 8 3 3 19. 75%.00 17. followed by a ride of 13 miles east. points A and B trisect HG . What is the probability that. then 3 miles south.00 $60. If 5 less than some number is 3 more than twice the number. $110. D. E. D. At Smallville High School. E. Starting from point A. wrestling. C. C. D. C. ending up at point B. B. 20% 25% 40% 45% 80% IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED. D. respectively. What is the ratio of the area of ABFE to the area of EFGH? A. and 60%. basketball and soccer will win league titles but wrestling will NOT? A.Practice Test I 14. B. B. 30 13 10 9 5 E H A B G Practice Test I F 18. After resting for a while. he then had $12. Milo rides his bicycle 5 miles east. B. DO NOT WORK ON ANY OTHER SECTION IN THE TEST. The table above gives values of the quadratic function f for some values of x. for these three boys’ teams. and then used 1 of his remaining 2 money to purchase a coat. E.00 left. D. B. 3 25 3 20 9 50 9 25 2 5 PROFIT (thousands of $) 50 40 30 20 10 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 20. B.00 $55. E. the probability that its boys’ basketball.00 $50.2 -1 0 1 f^ xh 5 2 1 2 15.

Part III: Math Practice Tests Practice Test IB Time: 25 minutes 18 questions: (8 multiple choice and 10 grid-in) Directions: This section is composed of two types of questions. Data That Can Be Used for Reference Area rectangle A = lw triangle A = 1⁄2 bh circle A = πr 2 C = 2 πr r h l b M Pythagorean Relationship A b c a2 + b2 = c 2 w C a B Special Triangles 30° − 60° − 90° 30° 45° − 45° − 90° x 45° Volume rectangular solid V = lwh h l w right circular cylinder V= πr 2h r x√3 2x 60° x√2 45° x x h A circle is composed of 360° A straight angle measures 180° The sum of the angles of a triangle is 180° 204 . For Questions 1–8. 2. All numbers used are real numbers. select the one correct answer of the five choices given and mark the corresponding circle on your answer sheet. Use the 25 minutes allotted to answer both question types. Unless otherwise stated. Notes 1. Your scratch work should be done on any available space in the section. Calculators may be used. 3. These figures are drawn as accurately as possible EXCEPT when it is stated in a specific problem that a figure is not drawn to scale. The figures and diagrams are meant to provide information useful in solving the problem or problems. Some problems may be accompanied by figures or diagrams. all figures and diagrams lie in a plane.

–6) 2. 20 3. 6) (2. 5 which of the following functions describes the cost. c(m) = . 465 miles C. 930 miles D. In the figure above. E. What is the length of arc AMB? A. C. 20 80 100 120 160 A M 60° C B 4. If 4x + 3 > 27. B. then the value of m – r = x A. of this taxi ride in dollars? A.90 for the first 1 mile 5 and $. C.90 + . D.90 + . For circle C above.90 + .60[5(m – 1)] c(m) = . D. which of the following CANNOT be the value of x? A. –2) (1. E. 2) (5. On a map. m – 2 = A.60(m – 1) c(m) = . –x2 + 2x + 5 x2 – 2x – 5 –x2 + 2x – 5 –x2 + 2x + 1 –x2 – 2x – 1 8. c(m). B.60 for each additional 1 mile. the scale is 2 inches equals 120 miles. If point A has coordinates (3. 420. B. 0) (–5. (1. C. 8 D.60(5m – 1 ) 5 B z° C m° D E F m 7. If x 5 = x 7 and (xr)3 = x12. 4 C. D.860 miles E. the area of the shaded sector CAB is 6π. BC and DF are parallel. then in terms of x.75 miles B. B. E.650 miles A x° 6. The midpoint of AB is point M. 2). 12 E. –2) and point M has coordinates (–1.60m – 1 c(m) = . D. 1. E.Practice Test I 1. D. 3 7 11 12 17 5. 3 B. C. D. what are the coordinates of point B? Practice Test I A.90 + . If m + 3 = x(2 – x).90 + . 2 π 2π 12 12π GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 205 . If a 5 customer rides in this cab for m miles c m > 1 m . C. How many miles apart are two towns if the distance between them on the map is 7 3 inches? 4 A. B. 4. C. E. what is the value of x + z? A.60(5m – 1) c(m) = . If m = 100 and x = 20. B. A taxicab charges $. E.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . Answer 3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . Always change mixed numbers to improper fractions or decimals. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 or 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 206 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Fraction bar . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Answer 2 1 2 Do not grid-in mixed numbers in the form of mixed numbers. / .Part III: Math Practice Tests Directions for Student-Produced Response Questions (Grid-ins): Questions 9–18 require you to solve the problem and enter your answer by carefully marking the circles on the special grid. Examples of the appropriate way to mark the grid follow. . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Decimal point . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .7 Answer 1 2 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Note: Circles must be filled in correctly to receive credit. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . Practice Test I . Each grid-in answer below is correct.Practice Test I Answer 123 Space permitting. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . Mark only one circle in each column. Example: Answer 258 (no credit) . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 207 . answers may start in any column. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . No credit will be given if more than one circle in a column is marked. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .

. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . The acceptable grid-ins of 8/9 are: . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .889. If a given student can win only one prize. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Be sure to write your answers in the boxes at the top of the circles before doing your gridding. grid only one answer. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . Although writing out the answers above the columns is not required. . and third place. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .89 is considered inaccurate and therefore not acceptable. in how many different ways can the three prizes be given away in this contest? 11.Part III: Math Practice Tests Answer 8/9 Accuracy of decimals: Always enter the most accurate decimal value that the grid will accommodate. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . second. . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . Gridding this value as .888 or .8.88. or . Five students are entered in a contest that will award prizes of first. can be gridded as . Grid-in questions contain no negative answers. it is very important to ensure accuracy. The polygon above is a regular hexagon. For example: An answer such as . What is the value of x? 10. Even though some problems may have more than one correct answer.8888. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . what is the average (arithmetic mean) of the number of phone calls per day for the week Monday through Sunday? 208 . According to the data in the graph above. Number of Phone Calls Per Day 6 5 4 3 2 1 MON WED SAT TUES THUR SUN FRI x° 9. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .

The marbles are all the same size and the same weight. what is the probability that he/she would draw a red. what is the value of x y? 15.) 18. 180 take Spanish and 150 take French. and five green marbles. A sack contains three red. and then a red marble in exactly that order? IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED. STOP 209 . DO NOT WORK ON ANY OTHER SECTION IN THE TEST.Practice Test I 12. The sum of four consecutive odd integers is 456. then what is the value of 12 5 3? b 125° A Note: Figure not drawn to scale. If a blindfolded person were to reach in the sack and draw one marble on each of three successive tries (with no replacement). In the figure above with AC and BD . a blue.a . If m2 – n2 = 24 and m – n = 6. y° B C 17. what is the value of a + c + w + y? 14. In a school having 300 students. If a 5 b = ab . If 2x + 3y is equal to 80% of 5y. What percent of the students in this school took Spanish but not French? (Do not include the % symbol in your answer. What is the sum of the smallest and largest of these integers? 16. CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS SECTION ONLY. four blue. what is the value of m + n? D c° Practice Test I w° a° 13.

all figures and diagrams lie in a plane.Part III: Math Practice Tests Practice Test IC Time: 20 minutes 16 multiple-choice questions Directions: Select the one correct answer of the five choices given and mark the corresponding circle on your answer sheet. Calculators may be used. Your scratch work should be done on any available space in the section. 2. These figures are drawn as accurately as possible EXCEPT when it is stated in a specific problem that a figure is not drawn to scale. All numbers used are real numbers. 3. Notes 1. The figures and diagrams are meant to provide information useful in solving the problem or problems. Some problems may be accompanied by figures or diagrams. Unless otherwise stated. Data That Can Be Used for Reference Area rectangle A = lw triangle A = 1⁄2 bh circle A = πr 2 C = 2 πr r h l b M Pythagorean Relationship A b c a2 + b2 = c 2 w C a B Special Triangles 30° − 60° − 90° 30° 45° − 45° − 90° x 45° Volume rectangular solid V = lwh h l w right circular cylinder V= πr 2h r x√3 2x 60° x√2 45° x x h A circle is composed of 360° A straight angle measures 180° The sum of the angles of a triangle is 180° 210 .

C. and D are equally spaced between A and E on AE . C. B. D. Xena bought a new refrigerator costing $625. D. D. If f(x) = x2 – 3x + 5. D. D. C. 4 5 6 7 9 M A 2 B x C D E 2 1 2 C. If M is the midpoint of BC . D. C. 4 12 15 22 23 5. 4. D.3 = 5 is true for which value of x? A. C. B. E. B. B. 4x2 – 6x + 5 2x2 – 6x + 10 2x2 – 6x + 5 x2 – 6x + 5 4x2 – 6x + 5 3. E. what is the value of c? A. She paid $100 as a down payment and will pay the remainder $75 per month. C.Practice Test I 1. What is the total of all the girls’ and boys’ ages combined? 12g + 17b A. g+b B. Points B. The length of one side of triangle is 35. g+b 29 12g + 17b 29 12g + 17b 12g + 17b 2 Practice Test I 2. E. If 3x + 15 = 36. The length of another side of the same triangle is 10. C. D. B. C. How many months will it take for Xena to pay off her new refrigerator? A. what is the value of x? A. 24 27 31 39 43 8. E. If 2a + 6b = 16 and a + 3b + c = 12. E. E. –4 4 8 28 It cannot be determined from the given information. B. Which of the following could NOT be the value of the third side of this triangle? A. E. then x + 5 = A. then f(2x) = A. E. The equation 2 x . 2 1 16 2 3 32 2 3 16 21 4 3 2 8 7. The average (arithmetic mean) of the ages of 12 girls is g and the average of the ages of 17 boys is b. B. 6. 0 4 9 16 25 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 211 .

y c = 5m . 3) and (4. If 2x . D. 1 2 B. 2 15 m+y B. 13 15 2 13 2 26 13 13. What is the value of f(g(3))? A. A. E. C. C. If x is an odd integer and y is an even integer. II. C. B. What is the radius of the circle? A. 212 . 2 5m + 3 + y 2 12m + y 2 15m + y 2 12. B. what is x in terms of y and m? 5m + 3 + y A. 1 C. 3 E. the endpoints of a diameter of a given circle are (–2. The graphs of g and f are shown above. xy (x + 2)(y – 5) yx I only II only III only I and II only I and III only C. 2 D. E. In the xy-plane. which of the following must be an even integer? I. E. 0 1 3 4 5 10.Part III: Math Practice Tests y 5 y = g(x) y 5 y = f(x) −4 4 x −4 4 x −5 −5 9. 7). D. D. III. D. What is the radius of a circle for which its area and circumference are numerically equivalent? A. 4 11. B. E.

B.50 3. 3. E. 4 6 8 10 12 IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED.50 16. Maria hiked a distance of 15 miles at a rate of 5 mph. –3 –1 1 2 4 T Practice Test I 8 r P 4 M C 15. B. C. D. What is her average rate for the entire hike? A.75 4. If f(x) = 3x2 – 5. PT is tangent to circle C at point T. In the diagram above. STOP 213 . CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS SECTION ONLY. D.25 4. what is an integral value of r for which f(2r) = 7r? A.25 3. E. C. D. and then returned the same distance at a rate of 3 mph. DO NOT WORK ON ANY OTHER SECTION IN THE TEST. C. what is the radius of circle C? A. B.Practice Test I 14. If PT = 8 and PM = 4. E.

D 5. B 2. C 16. A 7. 1 or . 50 15. B 6. 125 18. C 15. C 5. 60 10.Part III: Math Practice Tests Scoring Practice Test I Answer Key for Practice Test I Practice Test IA 1. C 11.5 2 Practice Test IC 1. A 2. D 5. 4 13. 32 14. E 12. B 7. D 12. D 6. D Practice Test IB 1. A 8. E 16. B 214 . C 9. 1 or . D 2. E 11. D 4. E 13. D 7. B 17. D 8. 60 11. C 15. B 3. E 10. D 3. E 14. B 9. A 20. C 4. D 6. C 9. A 3. C 4. D 14.018 55 17. 228 16. D 10. A 13. E 18. 4 12. C 8. D 19.

The complete process of analyzing each subject area and each individual problem should be completed for each practice test. These results should then be reexamined for trends in types of errors (repeated errors) or poor results in specific subject areas. Now that you have taken the practice test and checked your answers. This reexamination and analysis is of tremendous importance to you in assuring maximum test preparation benefit. Practice Test I Mathematics Analysis Sheet Section A Multiple Choice Subtotal Section B Multiple Choice Grid-Ins Subtotal Section C Multiple Choice Subtotal Overall Math Totals Possible 20 20 Possible 8 10 18 Possible 16 16 54 Completed Right Wrong Completed Right Wrong Completed Right Wrong Analysis/Tally Sheet for Problems Missed One of the most important parts of test preparation is analyzing why you missed a problem so that you can reduce the number of mistakes. compare it to other practice tests to spot other common mistakes. Reason for Mistakes Total Missed Section A : Math Section B : Math Section C : Math Total Math Simple Mistake Misread Problem Lack of Knowledge Lack of Time Reviewing the preceding data should help you determine why you are missing certain problems. 215 .Practice Test I Analyzing Your Test Results The charts on the following pages should be used to carefully analyze your results and spot your strengths and weaknesses. carefully tally your mistakes by marking them in the proper column. Now that you’ve pinpointed the type of error.

D. You are not done yet. 90. 216 . y m>0 x b 5. D. This is where f(x) is positive. B. 5x + 4 = 5(3) + 4 = 19 6. 4. so the graph of the line should cross the y-axis below the x-axis (where y-intercept will be negative). Another way to look at it is: 18% of n = 60 18% of n = 60 3 3 = 20 Divide both sides by 3. or just 20.πr 2 2. 45. it must also be a multiple of 15. D. The two-digit multiples of 15 are: 15. . These regions correspond to x values in the intervals –2 < x < 3 and 4 < x < 6. with m being the slope of the line and b the y-intercept. You are told that m is positive. 60. If the integer is a multiple of both 3 and 5. Area shaded = Arearect. 6% should be 1/3 of 60. y f(x) > 0 −5 −2 x 3 4 6 In the figure above. So there are 6 such integers. But you are also told that b is negative. as in choices A. The equation f(x) = mx + b can also be written as just y = mx + b. C. you still need to find the value of 5x + 4. which is known as the slope-intercept form of a linear equation. or C. so the graph of the line will rise uphill from left to right. 3. Only Choice D fits both conditions. Noting that 6% is just 1/3 of 18%. dark portions of the graph of y = f(x) are above the x-axis. the heavy. To solve this equation: 3x – 2 = 7 3x – 2 + 2 = 7 +2 3x = 9 3x = 9 3 3 x=3 Add 2 to each side to isolate the variable. 30. Divide both sides by 3.Areacircle = lw . A. D. 75.Part III: Math Practice Tests Complete Answers and Explanations for Practice Test I Practice Test IA Explanations 1.

Add 6 to both sides to isolate the variable. you need to set the equations equal to each other and then solve for x.6 < 2x < 12 2 2 2 –3 < x < 6 Divide all parts of the inequality by 2. class average = total of girls’ scores + total of boys’ scores total number of students 25 ^ 92 h + 10 ^85h = 25 + 10 2300 + 850 = . If you use x for the smallest integer. 9. 217 . C. you will have: x = the first integer then x + 1 = the second integer and x + 2 = the third integer The sum of the 3 consecutive integers would then be: x + (x + 1) + (x + 2) = 3x + 3 This is not one of your answer choices. Multiply both sides by 6 to get rid of fractions. 35 = 3150 35 = 90 Practice Test I 8.1 = .3 x + 12 3 2 2 6 c x . E. in Choice D. and 9 or as with 23. Distribute the 6 through the parentheses. 24. 2 x .1m = 6 c . D. You have three possibilities with which to work: i.3 < 9 breaks up into the multiple inequality: –9 < 2x – 3 < 9 –9 + 3 < 2x – 3 + 3 < 9 + 3 –6 < 2x < 12 . 10. Consecutive integers are one apart from each other—as with 7. Add 3 to all parts of the inequality. Notice that you could also have solved this by just trying the choices A through E until you found a number that made the inequality true. you must break it up into the multiple inequality: –N < “stuff” < N So the given absolute inequality 2x . Choice D. again that would have been x = 5. The only answer that fits is 5. 8. and 25.3 x + 12 m 3 2 4x – 6 = –9x + 72 4x – 6 + 9x = –9x + 72 + 9x 13x – 6 = 72 13x – 6 + 6 = 72 + 6 13x = 78 13x = 78 13 13 x=6 Divide both sides by 13.Practice Test I 7. To find the x-coordinate of the point of intersection of the graphs of the two lines. Add 9x to get the variable on just one side. D. So your answer must be between –3 and 6. To solve an absolute value inequality of the form "stuff" < N .

you can find the perimeter of the rectangle by adding the lengths of its sides to get 8 + 12 + 8 + 12 = 40. y = 60°. iii. D. one side of the square is just 40 = 10 . since you are told that the perimeter is 18. x=6 60° 60° 60° 6 6=x y 12. The perimeter of the triangle is found by adding the lengths of its three sides. E. if you had used z for the largest integer. you will have: y – 1 = the first integer then y = the second integer and y + 1 = the third integer The sum of the 3 consecutive integers would then be: (y – 1) + y + (y + 1) = 3y This IS one of your answer choices. the triangle is equilateral. as in the figure below. So your 4 square looks like the one in the next figure. 12 8 12 8 In the figure above. Choice E. you would have had: z – 2 = the first integer then z – 1 = the second integer and z = the third integer The sum of the 3 consecutive integers would then be: (z – 2) + (z – 1) + z = 3z – 3 This was not one of your answer choices. If you use y for the middle integer. each angle is 60°. In particular.Part III: Math Practice Tests ii. you have the following equation: 2x + 6 = 18 2x + 6 – 6 = 18 – 6 2x = 12 2x = 12 2 2 x=6 Divide both sides by 2. therefore. 11. so the perimeter of the square is also 40. Just for the record. With all sides of a square being equal. Subtract 6 from both sides to isolate the variable Since each side of the triangle is 6. You are told that the perimeters of the rectangle and the square are equal. 218 .

or 3 if the number is to be less than 4. Your series of blanks now looks like: 3 __ __ 2. After “sketching” Milo’s bike ride with its many right angle turns.000. The legs of this right triangle are found by subtracting the east and west distances (13 – 5 = 8) and by subtracting the south and north distances (9 – 3 = 6). E. So you can choose your first digit in only 3 ways. They must be less than 4. 15. f(x)) into each answer choice is probably the most efficient way to arrive at the correct answer choice.000. D. your number must end in a 0 or 5 if it is to be a multiple of 5. using condition #2. B 6 9 d A C 8 5 3 13 A right triangle is chosen having AB as its hypotenuse. So you can create 600 different four-digit integers that satisfy conditions I and II above. your number must begin with the digit 1. Substituting a few of the given ordered pairs (x. 2. Your series of blanks now looks like: __ __ __ 2. They must be multiples of 5. So you can choose the last digit in only 2 ways. where 2 represents the number of ways to choose the last digit (0 or 5) Next. 0 through 9. f(x)= 3x2 – 7 Use (–2. You set up four blanks. 14. the other side is 8. each representing one digit of your 4 digit number: __ __ __ __ Using condition #1. So here goes! A. So your completed series of blanks becomes: 3 10 10 2 Your answer is just the product of these four numbers. 3) The remaining digits can be any one of 10 digits. where 3 now represents the number of ways to choose the first digit (1. You then have a multiple of a 3-4-5 right triangle: one side is 6. (3)(10)(10)(2) = 600. 2. You must form four-digit integers that satisfy two conditions: I. so the hypotenuse must be 10. 5): Does 5 = 3(–2)2 + 7? 5 = 12 + 7 false 219 . 13. the figure looks like the one below. C. Thus AB = 10.Practice Test I 10 10 10 10 Practice Test I The area of the square above is just 10(10) = 100. II.

Subtract 3 from both sides to isolate the variable.000 = 20.000 = 20 # 100 25 20 = # 100 25 = . 5): Does 5 = (–2)2 + (–2) + 1? 5=3 false E. which equals . Using n for the number mentioned in the problem. and then proceed as follows: profits in 1997 45.000 increase in profits amount of increase # 100 % increase= amount original 20. 5): Does 5 = 2(–2)2 + 1? 5=9 false C. Choice E must be the correct function.80 25 5 220 . Add n to both sides to get the variable on just one side. By default.000 = # 100 25.profits in 1996 . f(x) = x2 – 1 Use (–2. Just for the record: If one of choices A through D had worked for the point (–2. you can translate the given problem into the following equation: 5 – n = 2n + 3 5 – n + n = 2n + 3+ n 5 = 3n + 3 5 – 3 = 3n + 3 – 3 2 = 3n 2 = 3n 3 3 2 =n 3 Divide both sides by 3. E. f(x) = x2 + x + 1 Use (–2. From the table. f(x) = 2x2 + 1 Use (–2. B.000 . 5): Does 5 = (–2)2 – 1? 5=3 false D.25.Part III: Math Practice Tests B. you find the profits for the years 1997 and 1996. you would then have had to try it for the other 3 points to be sure the function worked for all 4 points in the table.80 × 100 = 80% You can reduce 20 to 4 . 17. 16. 5).

D. AREA Thus the ratio of their areas is: AREA ABFE = 2hb = 2 3bh 3 EFGH 19. you have: Amal spent 1 of his money: He spent 1 M . or . 2 2 EFGH is a parallelogram. you can make each of the segments HA . 2 So with height h. so he now has 2 M left. A. 5 5 5 1 1 4 2 He spent of his remaining money: c M m = M . you just multiply the probabilities of the individual events: Basketball wins 4 5 # Wrestling loses 1 4 # Soccer wins 3 5 = 3 25 20. he has $12 left: M . 2 5 2 2 5 M = 55 So Amal had $55 before he started his shopping trip.Practice Test I 18. Its area is: A = bh. you then solve this equation 5 2 M . and b2 = b. 5 1 Probability of wrestling losing is 25%. ABFE is a trapezoid. So your figure appears like the one below: b H A b B b G Practice Test I h E 3b F You now find the area of each requested figure and then determine their ratio. Letting M be the amount of money that Amal had before he spent any money on his shopping trip. and BG have length b. so he had 4 M left. Probability of basketball winning is 80%. So with height h. Its area is: A = 1 h _ b 1 + b 2 i . AreaEFGH = (3b) = 3bh. b1 = 3b. D. 5 To find the requested combined probability. Since points A and B trisect HG . AREAABFE = 1 h ^ 3b + b h = 1 h ^ 4b h = 2hb . 2 2 5 5 5 2 After spending $10. or 4 . and base 3b. Suppose the base of parallelogram EFGH is 3b and its height is h. or . AB . the reciprocal of 2 . (Note: 100% – 75% = 25%) 4 3 Probability of soccer winning is 60%.10 = 12 .10 = 12 5 Add 10 to each side to isolate the variable term. + 10 + 10 2 M = 22 5 5 c 2 M m = 5 ^ 22 h Multiply both sides by 5 . 221 .

Choice A CANNOT be one of the values of x. Since BC and DF are parallel. the 120 on top is just 60 times the 2 on the bottom. you note that: x + z = 20 + 100 = 120 4. the measure of ∠ACB is also 80. B. 4 3. m + 3 = x(2 – x) m + 3 = 2x – x2 –3 –3 Distribute the x on the right side of the equation. and then find m – 2. then on the left side. Subtract 2 since you want to get m – 2. If you note that on the left. so z = 100. since m = 100. M on top should be 60 # 7 3 on the bottom. 4 3 So. 4x > 24 4x > 24 4 4 x>6 Since x can be any number greater than 6.Part III: Math Practice Tests Practice Test IB Explanations 1. Referring to the figure in the problem. and measure of ∠ACB being 80. the measure of ∠CED is 80. with x = 20. –2 m – 2 = x + 2x – 5 222 . You can set up and solve a proportion to answer this question. C. 2. To solve this inequality: 4x + 3 > 27 –3 –3 Subtract 3 from each side to isolate the variable term. A. 60 c 7 m = 60 ^ 7. m = 2x – x2 – 3 m = – x2 + 2x – 3 –2 2 Write the terms in descending order. Subtract 3 from both sides to isolate the m. 120 miles 2 inches = M miles 7 3 inches 4 Divide both sides by 4. the measure of ∠ABC must be 80. You will solve the given equation for m. In ᭝ABC. z is just the supplement of ∠ABC. Finally. D.75h = 465 miles. A x 20° B z 80° 100° 80° C m 80° 100° D E F To finish the problem.

60(5m – 1) 5 5 Cost of total trip: c(m) = . Multiply the exponents on the left. 223 . D. your figure looks like the one below: B (x.Practice Test I 5. x = –5 and y +.2 =2 2 y + –2 = 4 y=6 Therefore. 3r = 12 r=4 Set the exponents equal and then solve for r. −2) To find the coordinates (x. *Cost for first 1 mile: . y) of the endpoint B.90 + . B. Using the given data and drawing a rough sketch in the xy-plane.60(5m – 1) ( just the sum of * and ** above) 7.90 5 Number of 1 miles in m miles: 5m 5 Number of 1 miles beyond the first 1 mile: (5m – 1) 5 5 1 **Cost of the additional miles beyond first 1 mile : . Add the exponents on the right. y) y Practice Test I M (−1. xm = x7 x5 m x 5 c x 5 m = x 5_ x 7 i x xm = x12 So m = 12 (xr)3 = x12 x =x 3r 12 Multiply both sides by x5. and then find the value of m – r. the coordinates of point B are (–5. m – r = 12 – 4 = 8. Therefore. 6. you use the midpoint formula to solve for x and y as follows: x + 3 =. 6). solve the second equation for r. C. 2) x A (3. You will solve the first equation for m.1 and 2 Then x + 3 = –2 So.

360 So you have 6π = 60 _ πr 2 i 360 6π = 1 _ πr 2 i Reduced 60 to 1 6 360 6 6 ^ 6π h = 6 . AREAlength = x ^ 2πr h . To help you determine the number of ways to give away the three prizes among the five people. Divided both sides by π. you have: measure of ext. 6 10. where x is the measure of the central angle and r is the radius. where x is the central angle and r is the radius. 360 Then you have: AREAlength = 60 ^ 2πr h 360 = 1 ^12π h 6 = 2π 9. you will find the radius of the circle and use that to determine the length of the requested arc. the measure of an exterior angle = 360 n . So. arc length M A 60° C r B You are given the area of the shaded sector in the diagram above. 1 _ πr 2 i E 6 36π = πr2 36 = πr 2 π π 36 = r 6=r So the radius of the circle is 6. C. E = 360 = 60 . one for each prize: 1st 2 nd 3rd Since you have five people. your blanks look like: 5 1st 2 nd 3rd 2 Multiplied both sides by 6. any one of these five could win first place. where n is the number of sides. 60. 224 . From the area. find the length of arc AMB. with n = 6. you set up three blanks. for your hexagon. For any regular polygon (all sides are equal and all interior angles are equal). therefore. AREAsec tor = x _ πr 2 i . Next. 60.Part III: Math Practice Tests 8.

32. 50. you have: 5 st 4 1 2 nd 3rd Since you selected one person for first and one more for second place. Since there are only 300 students in the school. you end up with 330 students. 300 You could also have used the Venn Diagram. Using the data from the graph. there are only four people left. If you add the 180 students taking Spanish to the 150 students taking French. 11. 13. “ 5 .30 taking both 150 taking JUST Spanish Therefore. the average can be computed as follows: 3 + 4 + 6 + 3 = 28 = 4 average = 5 + 2 + 5 + 7 7 12.12 3 = 36 – 4 = 32 14. 4. You are given that m2 – n2 = 24 and m – n = 6.a b 12 5 3 = ^12 h^ 3h .Practice Test I After one person has been chosen to win first place. Divide both sides by 6. Notice that you can factor the expression m2 – n2 m2 – n2 m2 – n2 = (m – n)( m + n) 24 = 6(m + n) 24 = 6 ^ m + n h 6 6 4=m+n a 5 b = ab . Now. to sort out the necessary data.” is defined by the given equation: To find 12 5 3 . 150 = 50% of the students are taking Spanish but not French. Spanish 180 −30 150 Both 30 French 150 −30 120 225 . there must be 30 students taking BOTH languages (330 – 300 = 30). The operation. You can then sort out the rest of the data as follows: 180 taking Spanish . shown below. 4. you only have three people left from which to win third place—your blanks are now filled out as follows: 5 st Practice Test I 4 nd 3 3rd 1 2 Your answer is just the product of these numbers—so (5)(4)(3) = 60. you let a = 12 and b = 3 in the given equation.

This is obviously not an odd integer.Part III: Math Practice Tests 15. find the average. 16. D c° w° r° a° 125° A m° B y° C 226 . since 3 of the 12 marbles are red. Let n = the first odd integer. as well as the two odd integers after this. therefore. Since their sum is 456. 111 + 117 = 228 Another method that works with any type of consecutive integer problem (consecutive integer. 4n = 444 4n = 444 4 4 n = 111 Divide both sides by 4. 3 # 4 # 2 = 24 = 1 or . or consecutive odd integer) is to divide the sum of the integers by the number of integers. Then sum of smallest and largest is 111 + 117 = 228.e. 115. i. and 117. while n + 6 = the fourth odd integer.. 11 2 The probability of the third marble being red is: . and n + 4 = the third odd integer.018 You have 3 + 4 + 5 = 12 marbles in the sack. consecutive even integer. 113. but you merely list the two odd integers before this. Your final answer is just the product of these individual probabilities: Thus. your equation becomes: n + (n + 2) + (n + 4) + (n + 6) = 456 4n + 12 = 456 –12 –12 Combine like terms of the left side of equation. In this problem you will use the following property three times: The measure of an exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the measures of the two nonadjacent interior angles of the triangle. Subtract 12 from each side. So our 4 consecutive odd integers are 111. namely 111 and 113. The sum of the smallest and largest is. 125. then n + 2 = the second odd integer.018. 1 or . namely 115 and 117. since 4 of the remaining 11 marbles are blue. 228. For our problem. 12 11 10 1320 55 17. since only 2 of the remaining 10 marbles are red. 12 The probability of the second marble being blue is: 4 . 456 ÷ 4 = 114. 55 The probability of the first marble being a red is: 3 . remember 10 you already drew one red marble on your first draw.

$100 left to pay off $525 At $75 per month it will take Xena 525 = 7 months to pay off her new refrigerator.80(5y) 2x + 3y = 4y –3y –3y 2x = y 2x = y y y 2x = 1 y 1 2x = 1 1 2c y m 2^ h x=1 y 2 Multiply both sides by 1 to get x y by itself. 16 16 16 Divide both sides by 3. and then make substitutions using the second and third equations. point C will be at 2 2 .5 Translating the given sentence into an algebraic equation. Since points B. C. 75 3. refrigerator cost $625 . and point D at 2 3 .Practice Test I First: Second: Third: 125 = r + m by the property on the preceding page r = w + c by the same property m = a + r by the same property Practice Test I If you take the first equation. Divide both sides by y since you are trying to get x y. To find the 8 8 8 coordinate x of point M. B. Between A and E is a distance of 1 . D. This means point B will be at 2 1 . 2 Subtract 3y from both sides of the equation. you need to find the number halfway between 2 1 and 2 2 . C.down payment . Therefore. Practice Test IC Explanations 1. you get: 2 2x + 3y = . you have 2 2 and 2 4 . you divide the distance from point A to point E into 4 equal parts. you can just divide the first expression by 3. 227 . which you will write as 4 since you have to 2 8 divide into 4 equal parts. and D are equally spaced between A and E on AE . If you change each of these 8 8 fractions into sixteenths. 125 = r + m. x would be 2 3 . To get from the expression 3x + 15 to the expression x + 5. So: 3x + 15 = 36 3x + 15 = 36 3 3 x + 5 = 12 2. 1 or . you have: 125 = (w + c) + (a + r) 125 = a + c + w + y re-order the terms 18.

If the girls’ average is g. Choice A. D. The triangle inequality theorem in geometry relates the lengths of the sides of any triangle in the following way: The difference of other two sides < one side of triangle < sum of other two sides. Likewise. then their total is 12g. A. So the total ages for both groups is: 12g + 17b. x = 16 5. To solve this equation: 2 x -3=5 +3 +3 2 x =8 2 x 8 = 2 2 x =4 ` xj = 42 2 Add 3 to each side of the equation. Square both sides to get rid of square root on left. you then have f(2x) = (2x)2 – 3(2x) + 5 = 4x2 – 6x + 5 7. 6. D. if the boys’ average is b. For the triangle in this problem with its given side lengths. The only number choice not in this interval is 24.Part III: Math Practice Tests M A 2 2 2 1 8 2 16 B x C D E 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 x= 2 2 8 4 16 3 16 2 3 8 2 4. To find f(2x). Divide both sides by 2. you find that the third side of this triangle is between 25 and 45. With f(x) = x2 – 3x + 5. 10 35 35 − 10 < x < 35 + 10 or 25 < x < 45 228 . A. then their total is 17b. you substitute 2x for each x in the given function.

you notice that the first two terms. You are given that the area and circumference are equal—so you write and solve the following equation: area = circumference πr2 = 2πr πr = 2πr π π 2 Substitute appropriate formulas for area and circumference. a + 3b + c = 12. Replaced the (a + 3b) with 8. To find f(g(3)). the y-coordinate is 5. the y-coordinate is –1. a + 3b. You proceed as follows: Practice Test I 2a + 6b = 12 2a + 6b = 16 2 2 a + 3b = 8 This is the first given equation. Divide both sides by 2. B. In the second given equation. C. is exactly 1 of the left 2 side of the first equation: 2a + 6b = 16. r2 = 2r r 2 = 2r r r r=2 Divide both sides of equation by r. Divide both sides by π.Practice Test I 8. 229 . 10. you are trying to get a + 3b. −4 4 x −4 4 x −5 −5 From the left graph: g(3) = –1 Using the right graph: f(–1) = 5 For an x-coordinate of 3. E. You then substitute this into the second equation: (a + 3b) + c = 12 8 + c = 12 Then c = 4 9. For an x-coordinate of –1. you first find g(3) and then find f of this value. y 5 y = g(x) y 5 y = f(x) Parentheses added for emphasis.

so our answer must include III. The data given is shown in the figure below: B (4. 13. 3 n 2x – y = 15m +y +y 2x = 15m + y 2x = 15m + y 2 2 15m + y x= 2 Divide both sides by 2. You are looking for an integral value of r. Factored the left hand side. so Choice II is NOT an answer. just 13 is the radius. 230 . E. so half of this. II. 3) You first find the distance between points A and B. and the left factor will give you a fractional value. C.Part III: Math Practice Tests 11. xy = odd ⋅ even = even. the correct answer is I and III. A. yx = (even)odd = even. Examining each of the choices I. III.2 h + ^ 7 . (x + 2)(y – 5) = (odd + 2)(even – 5) = odd ⋅ odd = odd. you can solve the following equation: f(2r) = 7r 3(2r) 2 – 5 = 7r 3 ⋅ 4r2 – 5 = 7r 12r2 – 5 = 7r –7r –7r 12r2 –7r – 5 = 0 (12r + 5)(r – 1) = 0 12r + 5 = 0 or r – 1 = 0 r=1 Subtract 7r from both sides. 14. Choice E. With the function f(x) = 3x2 – 5. since you have a quadratic equation. so our answer must include I. you will set it equal to 0 and then factor. Add y to both sides. so you can exclude answer choices B and D since they both involve II. the radius will just be 1 2 of this distance.y = 5m 3 2x . 12. To solve this equation. E. and III you have: II. Therefore.3h = 62 + 42 = 36 + 16 d = 52 = 4 : 13 = 2 13 Remember this is the diameter. which gives you the circle’s diameter. 2 2 Using the distance formula: d = ^ 4 -. you isolate the x: 2x . I. Substituted 2r for x in the original function formula. Set each factor equal to 0. you are solving for x. 7) d A (−2.y 3d = 3 ^ 5m h Multiply both sides by 3.

Practice Test I 15. –16 Subtracted 16 from both sides of the equation. you find the average rate: average rate = 15 + 15 = 30 = 3. so that t = d r 15 miles 15 miles timegoing = = 3 hours and timereturning = = 5 hours 3 mph 5 mph Now that you have all the necessary data. Expanded (r + 4) 2 as (r + 4)(r + 4) and used “FOIL. 231 . C.” Subtracted r2 from each side. remember d = rt.75 8 3+5 16. To find the average rate for the entire trip you use the formula: average rate = total distance for trip total time for trip Practice Test I You first find the time for each part of the trip. Since PT is tangent to the circle at point T. In right ᭝PTC. PT = TC . T r 8 C 4 P r+4 r You have added in the radius from point C to point T. 2 2 You can now solve this equation. you use the Pythagorean theorem to create the following equation: 82 + r2 = (r + 4) 2 64 + r = r + 8r + 16 –r2 –r2 64 = 8r + 16 –16 48 = 8r 48 = 8r 8 8 6=r Divided both sides by 8. B.

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 13. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ....... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 233 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ... / .. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . / ... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . / ..... / .....CUT HERE . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 14. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / ... / ..... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .. / .......... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ..- Test IIA 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E 9.. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ........ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 17...... / .. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 15.. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 16.. / .. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / ............ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / ..... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / ...... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ........... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / ... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . / ...... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .......... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 12..... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ...... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .... / .............. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 18.

...................CUT HERE ..........................................................................................- Test IIB 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E Test IIC 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E 234 ........................

20 Multiple.Choice Questions Practice Test I I C: 20 Minutes. 16 Multiple. 18 Questions (8 Multiple.Choice and 10 Grid-in) Practice Test I I B: 25 Minutes.Choice Questions 235 .Practice Test II Practice Test I IA: 25 Minutes.

All numbers used are real numbers. Data That Can Be Used for Reference Area rectangle A = lw triangle A = 1⁄2 bh circle A = πr 2 C = 2 πr r h l b M Pythagorean Relationship A b c a2 + b2 = c 2 w C a B Special Triangles 30° − 60° − 90° 30° 45° − 45° − 90° x 45° Volume rectangular solid V = lwh h l w right circular cylinder V= πr 2h r x√3 2x 60° x√2 45° x x h A circle is composed of 360° A straight angle measures 180° The sum of the angles of a triangle is 180° 236 . Some problems may be accompanied by figures or diagrams. select the one correct answer of the five choices given and mark the corresponding circle on your answer sheet. The figures and diagrams are meant to provide information useful in solving the problem or problems.Part III: Math Practice Tests Practice Test IIA Time: 25 minutes 18 questions (8 multiple-choice and 10 grid-in) Directions: This section is composed of two types of questions. Your scratch work should be done on any available space in the section. Unless otherwise stated. all figures and diagrams lie in a plane. Notes 1. Use the 25 minutes allotted to answer both question types. 2. For Questions 1–8. These figures are drawn as accurately as possible EXCEPT when it is stated in a specific problem that a figure is not drawn to scale. 3. Calculators may be used.

4 2 5x + 3y = xy . The equation 2x . D. B. E.3y = xy . 1 3 5 7 9 m° 6. The average (arithmetic mean) of 5x and 3y is equal to 4 less than the product of x and y. The number that results from 3n. D. C. what is the value of m + n? A. What is the x-coordinate of this point? A. E. if x = 50. 2 2 2 4 4 2 8 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 237 .xy 2 O D x Note: Figure not drawn to scale. B. A discount of 20%. 33% 40% 45% 55% 60% 2. C. 5x + 3y = 4 . where k is some positive constant. what is the value of x? A. D. –12 –4 0 3 4 A 4. 2 only 5 only 2 and 5 –2 and 5 2 and –5 y V B C y=k−x2 Practice Test II 3. D. A.Practice Test II 1. is equivalent to a single discount of what percent? n° x° Note: Figure not drawn to scale.3 = 7 is true for which value(s) of x? A. E. E. In the figure above. where n is a positive integer. 50 65 75 110 130 7. C. E. If 7x – 5 = 4x – 17.4 2 5x . B. B. the line with equation y = 3x – 12 crosses the x-axis at one point. followed by another discount of 25%. In the xy-plane. C. E. B. D. B. D. what is the value of k? A. D. B. C. and if the area of ABCD is 16. CANNOT end in which of the following digits? A. E. E. –6 –4 1 4 5 5. C. 8. B. If V is the midpoint of side BC of rectangle ABCD. C. D.xy 2 5x + 3y xy = 2 4 5x . C.3y = 4 . The figure above shows the graph of y = k – x2. Which of the following equations states the relationship given in the previous sentence? A.

7 Answer 1/2 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Fraction bar . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . Examples of the appropriate way to mark the grid follow. Answer 3. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 or 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 238 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . .Part III: Math Practice Tests Directions for Student-Produced Response Questions (Grid-ins): Questions 9–18 require you to solve the problem and enter your answer by carefully marking the circles on the special grid. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Decimal point . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Answer 2 1/2 Do not grid-in mixed numbers in the form of mixed numbers. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . Always change mixed numbers to improper fractions or decimals. / .

. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . Mark only one circle in each column. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . No credit will be given if more than one circle in a column is marked. Example: Answer 258 (no credit) Practice Test II . Each grid-in answer below is correct. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Note: Circles must be filled in correctly to receive credit.Practice Test II Answer 123 Space permitting. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 239 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . answers may start in any column.

If 5 = 2 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .8. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . For example: An answer such as . If x 10. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Be sure to write your answers in the boxes at the top of the circles before doing your gridding. Even though some problems may have more than one correct answer.889. If m2 + n2 = 29 and if mn = 7. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .8888 . . Although writing out the answers above the columns is not required. what is the value of xy? 1 240 . what is the value of x y? 2x 3y -1 3 = 2 and if y 2 = 2 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . grid only one answer. Gridding this value as . it is very important to ensure accuracy. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . Dividing a number by 2 and then multiplying the 5 result by 4 gives the same result as just dividing 3 the original number by what fraction? 11. 9. The acceptable grid-ins of 8/9 are: . can be gridded as .888 or . . then the value of (m + n)2 = 12. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .89 is considered inaccurate and therefore not acceptable. . Grid-in questions contain no negative answers.Part III: Math Practice Tests Answer 8/9 Accuracy of decimals: Always enter the most accurate decimal value that the grid will accommodate. or .88.

CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS SECTION ONLY. STOP 241 . What is the largest of 5 consecutive even integers whose sum is 170? 16. DO NOT WORK ON ANY OTHER SECTION IN THE TEST. where a. The figure above consists of three circles having the same center. If 720 = ambncr. AB is tangent to the circle at point B. If m2 + 2mn = 3n – 4w.Practice Test II 13. and c are different positive prime integers. 3. What is the area of ᭝ABC? IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED. B (11. 2). What is the slope of AB ? 17. what is the value of n when m = 3 and w = –5? y x A C B (9. what is the value of m + n + r? 15. and C (11. In the figure above. Their radii are 2. 2). The shaded area is what fraction of the area of the largest circle? Practice Test II 18. ᭝ABC in the xy-plane has vertices at A (5. the circle with center C and radius 5 is tangent to both the x and y axes.−8) 14. b. 6). and 4.

3. Data That Can Be Used for Reference Area rectangle A = lw triangle A = 1⁄2 bh circle A = πr 2 C = 2 πr r h l b M Pythagorean Relationship A b c a2 + b2 = c 2 w C a B Special Triangles 30° − 60° − 90° 30° 45° − 45° − 90° x 45° Volume rectangular solid V = lwh h l w right circular cylinder V= πr 2h r x√3 2x 60° x√2 45° x x h A circle is composed of 360° A straight angle measures 180° The sum of the angles of a triangle is 180° 242 . 2. Calculators may be used. all figures and diagrams lie in a plane. Some problems may be accompanied by figures or diagrams. Unless otherwise stated. Notes 1.Part III: Math Practice Tests Practice Test IIB Time: 25 minutes 20 multiple-choice questions Directions: Select the one correct answer of the five choices given and mark the corresponding circle on your answer sheet. Your scratch work should be done on any available space in the section. The figures and diagrams are meant to provide information useful in solving the problem or problems. These figures are drawn as accurately as possible EXCEPT when it is stated in a specific problem that a figure is not drawn to scale. All numbers used are real numbers.

D. 8. If 3(2x + 4)(5 – x) = 0. B. D. B. The radius of one circle is 1 the radius of a 3 second circle. 1:9 1:3 3:1 6:1 9:1 9. . c<h<r<m r<c<h<m h<r<c<m c<h<r<m h<c<r<m 2. D. C. which of the following correctly represent the order of their heights? A. What is the tenth term of this sequence? A. c. C. D. –4 –3 -3 4 4 3 12 Practice Test II 3. the line l is perpendicular to the graph of the equation 3x + 4y = 12. B.Practice Test II 2. B. C. what is the value of m when r = 6? A. When x = 2. 1 2 5 C. what is the value of 1 +1+ 1 ? x+1 x x-1 A. E. 1 5 6 D. what are all the possible values of x? A. 1 #y# 1 3 8 1 #y# 1 3 5 4 ≤ y ≤ 24 3<y<5 3≤y≤5 4.3 f ^ xh = 6 + x 4 10. 13. C. Mark is taller than Rebecca. and 5 0. C. Which of the following is the slope of line l? A. 5 E. E. B. Charles. 5. B. If 2 ≤ x ≤ 6 and 6 ≤ xy ≤ 30. 0 only –2 and 5 only 2 and –5 only 0. what is the value of x? A. its value represents the sum of the two terms preceding it. D.5h ! f ^ 5h ? A. C. C. and –5 5. 2 5 5 2 14 5 22 5 9 8. E. E. D. 11 7. The quantity m varies inversely as the square of the quantity r. D. and h represent the heights of Mark. B. 2. C. B. and Charles is shorter than Rebecca but taller than Harriet. 4 6 36 64 144 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 243 . E. In the xy-plane. 3. If 5(x + 3) = 17. and Harriet respectively. . –2. The first term in the sequence above is 2 and the second term is 3. 1. E. D. E. Rebecca. If m. For each term after the second term. B. What is the ratio of the area of the smaller circle to the area of the larger circle? A. C. D. If m = 9 when r = 4. f ^ xh = x f ^ xh = 7 f ^ xh = x 3 + 5 f ^ xh = x 2 . . 34 55 89 144 233 6. E. 1 6 B. r. which of the following gives the range of all possible values of y? A. For which of the following functions does f ^ . E.

what is the value of m? 1 A. −3) B x° C Note: Figure not drawn to scale. What is the measure of the largest angle of a triangle. E.47) 17. D. 2 2 4 3 2 2 (approximately 2. D.Part III: Math Practice Tests x 11. C. 1 C. (5. E. C. with y ≠ 0. C. If x᭝y = y .24) 5 (approximately 4. 10 35 50 70 75 14. –3) is its vertex. F feet. Mr. E. what is the length of AD ? A. D.82) 3 (approximately 3. How many inches are there in a distance of Y yards. B. B. 3Y + F + 12I 36Y + F + 12I 3Y + 12F + I 36Y + 12F + I 3Y + 12F + 12I y A O x x° D (5. in which the degree measure of its angles have a ratio of 5:6:7? A. For the parabola above. 2 B. D. 2 D. What is the area of the triangle? A. They select a row on the side having only five seats. 13. C. D.46) 2 (approximately 4. B. If each of the parents must sit at either end of the row. and I inches? A. in how many different ways can the Franklin family be seated in the five seats? A. 2 C. and Mrs. E. D. E. If the length of AB = 2 and the length of BC = 2 . In the figure above. E. B. 9 2 9 3 18 244 . 8 E. C. B. and if 4᭝m = 16᭝2. 16 12. 3 6 12 24 120 15. Which of the following are the x-coordinates of two points on the graph of the parabola for which their y-coordinates are equal? A. 4 and 7 2 and 9 0 and 8 –1 and 11 1 and 10 16. 9 2 9 2 B. Franklin took their three children to a theatre to watch a movie. AB = BC and AC = CD . The perimeter of an equilateral triangle is 18.

30° A F E Note: Figure not drawn to scale. 20. D. 18. C. For which values of m will f(2m) = 15? A. DO NOT WORK ON ANY OTHER SECTION IN THE TEST. Let the function f be defined by f(x) = x2 – 2x. B. m r m+r m m+r mr mr m+r It cannot be determined from the given information. E.3 and 5 2 2 3 and –5 –3 and 5 3 only Practice Test II IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED. CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS SECTION ONLY. STOP 245 . If m and r are constants and if (x + m)(x + r) = x2 + cx + w. C. D. where c and w are constants. what c in terms of m and r? is w A. 3: 2 2: 1 3:2 3: 1 2:1 E. D.Practice Test II B C 19. B. E. What is the ratio of the area of ᭝ABF to the area of ᭝CED? A. In the figure above. BC AD . 45° D B. C. –2 only .

Unless otherwise stated. Calculators may be used. Your scratch work should be done on any available space in the section. all figures and diagrams lie in a plane. The figures and diagrams are meant to provide information useful in solving the problem or problems. Some problems may be accompanied by figures or diagrams. These figures are drawn as accurately as possible EXCEPT when it is stated in a specific problem that a figure is not drawn to scale. Data That Can Be Used for Reference Area rectangle A = lw triangle A = 1⁄2 bh circle A = πr 2 C = 2 πr r h l b M Pythagorean Relationship A b c a2 + b2 = c 2 w C a B Special Triangles 30° − 60° − 90° 30° 45° − 45° − 90° x 45° Volume rectangular solid V = lwh h l w right circular cylinder V= πr 2h r x√3 2x 60° x√2 45° x x h A circle is composed of 360° A straight angle measures 180° The sum of the angles of a triangle is 180° 246 . 2. All numbers used are real numbers. 3. Notes 1.Part III: Math Practice Tests Practice Test IIC Time: 20 minutes 16 multiple-choice questions Directions: Select the one correct answer of the five choices given and mark the corresponding circle on your answer sheet.

A 10 CAND. E. B. 5 12 11 10 9 8 CAND. B. 75° 115° 120° 150° 165° 3. what is its total surface area? A. B. C. then the value of f(–2) = 4. D. B. The graph above shows the number of votes received by each of four candidates in an election. 7 4 D. 6 and 9 10 and 5 8 and 15 12 and 4 9 and 12 2. 6 8 16 18 24 . E. 2 3 5 6 7 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 247 . If f ^ x h = 7 -x A.3x 2 . D. what is 35 the numerator of the fraction? A. 3 6 C. D. The denominator of a fraction is 3 more than its numerator. B. Y 40 CAND.Practice Test II 1. What fraction of the votes did candidate Y receive? A. C. . C. B 20 5. E. Which of the following pair of numbers is “relatively prime?” A. Two positive integers are called “relatively prime” if their only common factor is 1. what is the degree measure of the angle between the hour and minute hands on the traditional clock above? A. D. E. 3 12 E. If the fraction is equal to 14 . 1 6 1 4 1 3 1 2 2 5 6. At 5:00pm. C. E.12 5 -4 B. D. C. X 50 7 1 2 3 4 6 5 Practice Test II CAND. If the volume of a cube is 8.

is m° 3x° Note: Figure not drawn to scale. m). then the other number. E. what is the value of m? A. x2 < x III. C.5 2 6m – 10 – x 6m – 5 – x 6m .Part III: Math Practice Tests 45° x° 9.10 x 6m – 10 + x 10. In the figure above. C. What is the value of r? A. –3 –1 2 3 4 8. D. D. D. x3 – x2 > 0 A. D. the graphs of y = 2x + 7 and y = –3x + r intersect at the point (–2. B. which of the following statements must be true? I. I only II only III only I and II only II and III only 248 . B. A. E. In the xy-plane. If one of the numbers is 3m – 5. B. 7. C. E. E. 15 30 45 60 75 x + 3m . 1 x >x II. C. If 0 < x < 1. The average of two numbers is x. in terms of x and m. B.

Practice Test II y y = f (x) x −3 −1 4 6 Note: Figure not drawn to scale. Which of the following could be the graph of y = f ^ x h ? y (A) y (B) x −3 −1 4 6 x −3 −1 4 6 Practice Test II y (C) (D) y x −3 −1 4 6 −3 −1 4 6 x y (E) x −3 −1 4 6 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 249 . The graph above is that of the equation y = f(x). 11.

E. 3x + 6 = 72 3y = 72 3z – 6 = 72 I only II only I and II only I and III only I. B. 2 16. D. II. III. B. If x represents the smallest. II. 64 – 16π 32 – 8π 16 – 4π 8 – 2π 4–π 14. C. y the middle. D. The radius of a right circular cylinder is doubled.Part III: Math Practice Tests 12. D. CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS SECTION ONLY. B. 1 12 1 6 1 3 1 2 6 15. and its height is tripled. C. In the xy-plane. how many different integer pairs (x. E. What is the ratio of the volume of the original cylinder to the volume of the new larger cylinder? A. and if 2 then xy must be A. B. The sum of three consecutive even integers is 72. E. C. which of the following equations could be used to represent the first sentence of this problem? I. B. E. E. A. What is the area of the shaded region? A. 4 5 8 12 13 IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED. If x + 4 is an integer. y) are in the solution set of x + y # 2 ? A. 250 STOP . and III y-3 is an integer. a circle is inscribed within a square having a perimeter of 32. D. C. DO NOT WORK ON ANY OTHER SECTION IN THE TEST. D. C. an even integer a negative integer an odd integer a multiple of 12 a positive integer 13. In the figure above. and z the greatest of these even integers.

B 5. C 14. 1 or .66 or 3. A 13. B 2.07 14 11. E 4. C 6. B Practice Test II Practice Test IIC 1. D 5. D 14.312 or . 5 or . 4 or 1. B 12. E 8. D 9. E 10. D 16. B 10. A 7. B 5. D 6.5 2 13. E 3. C 15. D 18. D 2. 15 or 1. A 11. B 12. C 7. C 4. D 3. D 13. D 19. 7 Practice Test IIB 1. C 20. B 7. 3 10 10. 11 or 3. E 3. B 17. E 15.33 3 15. 43 12. C 2.313 16 18. C 9. 12 16. C 6. A 251 . A 4. A 9. D 8.Practice Test II Scoring Practice Test II Answer Key for Practice Test II Practice Test IIA 1. E 8. 38 14. A 11.67 3 17. E 16.

Now that you’ve pinpointed the type of error. compare it to other practice tests to spot other common mistakes.Part III: Math Practice Tests Analyzing Your Test Results The charts on the following pages should be used to carefully analyze your results and spot your strengths and weaknesses. carefully tally your mistakes by marking them in the proper column. These results should then be reexamined for trends in types of errors (repeated errors) or poor results in specific subject areas. 252 . Reason for Mistakes Total Missed Section A : Math Section B : Math Section C : Math Total Math Simple Mistake Misread Problem Lack of Knowledge Lack of Time Reviewing the preceding data should help you determine why you are missing certain problems. This reexamination and analysis is of tremendous importance to you in ensuring maximum test preparation benefit. Now that you have taken the practice test and checked your answers. Mathematics Analysis Sheet Section A Multiple Choice Grid-Ins Subtotal Section B Multiple Choice Subtotal Section C Multiple Choice Subtotal Overall Math Totals Possible 8 10 18 Possible 20 20 Possible 16 16 54 Completed Right Wrong Completed Right Wrong Completed Right Wrong Analysis/Tally Sheet for Problems Missed One of the most important parts of test preparation is analyzing why you missed a problem so that you can reduce the number of mistakes. The complete process of analyzing each subject area and each individual problem should be completed for each practice test.

D. The sum of the angles in the triangle must be 180°. Add 5 to each side to isolate variable term. B. To solve the equation: 7x – 5 = 4x – 17 7x – 5 – 4x = 4x – 17 – 4x 3x – 5 = –17 3x – 5 + 5 = –17 + 5 3x = –12 3x = . so you have: 50 + m + n = 180 50 + m + n – 50 = 180 – 50 m + n = 130 3.12 3 3 x = –4 2. m° Subtract 4x from each side to get variable on just one side. So you then have: 0 = 3x – 12 0 + 12 = 3x – 12 + 12 12 = 3x 12 = 3x 3 3 4=x 4. you get: 5x + 3y = xy . Our given relationship reads something like the following: “average of 5x and 3y is equal to product of x and y. When the graph of the equation y = 3x – 12 crosses the x-axis. then 4 less than this. E. Divide both sides by 3. Subtract 50 from each side. its y-coordinate will be 0.” Translating this into an algebraic equation. so they are the same measure.4 2 Add 12 to both sides of the equation.Practice Test II Complete Answers and Explanations for Practice Test II Practice Test IIA Explanations 1. E. 253 . the two angles marked 50° are vertical angles. Practice Test II 50° 50° x n° In the figure.

Part III: Math Practice Tests

5. C. Just try different values of n and see what you get for the last digit of the answer. For n = 1: 31 = 3; number ends in a digit of 3 For n = 2: 32 = 9; number ends in a digit of 9 For n = 3: 33 = 27; number ends in a digit of 7 For n = 4: 34 = 81; number ends in a digit of 1 So the number cannot end in a digit of 5, Choice C. 6. B. 20% off means that 4 of the price remains. 5 3 25% off means that of that price remains. 4 So a discount of 20% followed by a discount of 25% would leave 4 : 3 = 3 of the original price, meaning 2 , or 5 4 5 5 40% has been discounted. 7. D. To solve an equation of the form "stuff " = N , break it into two parts: “stuff” = –N or “stuff” = N So the given equation 2x - 3 = 7 turns into the 2 parts: 2x – 3 = –7 2x – 3 + 3 = –7 + 3 2x = –4 2x = - 4 2 2 x = –2 or x = 5 8. C. By setting x = 0 in the given equation y = k – x2, you get that y = k is the y-intercept of the graph of this equation. So the parabola crosses the y-axis at k. Thus the height of the rectangle ABCD is also just k, as shown in the figure below.
y B V C

or or

2x – 3 = 7 2x – 3 = 7 + 3 2x = 10 2x = 10 2 2 Divide both sides by 2. Add 3 to both sides.

k

A −√k 2√k +√k

D

x

By setting y = 0 in the given equation, you can find where the graph of the parabola crosses the x-axis. y = k – x2 0 = k – x2 0 + x2 = k – x2 + x2 x2 = k therefore x = ! k Add x2 to both sides of the equation.

254

Practice Test II

So you know that the parabola crosses the x-axis at - k on the left and + k on the right. Thus the base of the rectangle is 2 k . The area of the rectangle ABCD is given as 16, so you have: Arearect. = base × height 16 = 2 k : k 16 = 2 k : k 2 2 8= k :k 82 = ` k : k j 64 = k × k2 64 = k3 4=k 9. 3 10 Letting N be the given number, you have: N : 4 = N : 5 : 4 = N : 10 2 3 2 3 3 5 So after dividing your number N by 2 and then multiplying by 4 , you end with just the number N multiplied by 10 . 3 3 5 The question asks what you should divide the original number N by to get N : 10 . 3 If you divide N by 3 , you will get N = N : 10 . So divide by 3 . 10 3 3 10 10 10. 15 or 1.07 14 Starting with the original proportion: 5 2 7x = 3y 5 ⋅ 3y = 7x ⋅ 2 15y = 14x 15y 14x y = y x 15 = 14 y 1 : 15 = 1 : 14x 14 14 y 15 = x 14 y Multiply both sides by 1 . 14 Divide by y, since you want to get x y. Take the diagonal products (cross-multiply).
2

Substitute the base and height. Divide both sides by 2.

Square both sides to get rid of the radical.

Practice Test II

You could also write the answer as a decimal: x y = 1.07 11. 43 First, expand the term (m + n)2: (m + n) = (m + n) (m + n) = m2 + 2mn + n2 = m2 + n2 + 2(mn) = 29 + 2(7) = 29 + 14 = 43 Reordered terms for purpose of next step. It is given that m2 + n2 = 29 and mn = 7.

255

Part III: Math Practice Tests

12. 1 or .5 2 First, solve the given equations for x and y; then you can find the value of xy. x
-1 -1 3 -3

=2 You have taken the –3 power of both sides so that the exponent of x on the left will then be just 1.

a x 3 k = 2 - 3.
x1 = 2–3 x = 13 . 2 1 x= 8 Next, solve for y. y2=2
1

Remember that, in general, ^ number h

negative

=

1 positive . ^ number h

a y 2 k = 22.
1 2

Take the second power of both sides; you want just y1 on the left.

y=4 Finally, xy = xy = 1 : 4 = 1 8 2 You could also write the decimal .5 13. 38 Let n = first even integer. Then n + 2 = second even integer, so n + 4 = third even integer, and n + 6 = fourth even integer, with n + 8 = fifth even integer. Since their sum is 170, you have the equation: n + (n + 2) + (n + 4) + (n + 6) + (n + 8) = 170 5n + 20 = 170 5n + 20 – 20 = 170 – 20 5n = 150 5n = 150 5 5 n = 30 So your five consecutive even integers are 30, 32, 34, 36, and the largest one 38. Another shorter approach works as follows: Divide the sum of the integers by the number of integers . . . so 170 ÷ 5 = 34, which gives the middle of our list of numbers. So the two above this are 36, and the largest 38. Combine like terms on the left side. Subtract 20 from both sides.

256

Practice Test II

14. 4 or 1.33 3
y x A

C (5, −5)

B (9, −8)

Since the circle is tangent to both axes, located in the fourth quadrant, and it has a radius of 5, you know that its center has coordinates (5, –5) as in the figure above. Since AB is tangent to the circle at point B, you also know that AB = CB . Remembering that the slopes of perpendicular lines have opposite reciprocal slopes (for example, 2 and - 3 ); you have to find only the slope of CB and take its opposite reciprocal. 3 2 slope BC = - 8 -- 5 = - 3 So the slope of AB is just 4 or 1.33 4 3 9-5 15. 12 Below is a rough sketch of the points in the xy-plane.
y C (11, 6) h=4 A (5, 2) b=6

Practice Test II

B (11, 2) x

Since points A and B have the same y-coordinate, they lie on a horizontal line segment, and since points B and C have the same x-coordinate, they lie on a vertical line segment as shown in the figure above. You can easily see that the base of the triangle is just 6 and height is just 4. Therefore, its area = 1 bh = 1 : 6 : 4 = 12 . 2 2 11 16. or 3.66 or 3.67 3 m2 + 2mn = 3n – 4w 32 + (2 ⋅ 3 ⋅ n) = 3n – (4 ⋅ –5) 9 + 6n = 3n + 20 9 + 6n – 3n = 3n + 20 – 3n 9 + 3n = 20 9 + 3n – 9 = 20 – 9 3n = 11 3n = 11 Divide both sides by 3. 3 3 n = 11 or 3.66 or 3.67 3 Subtract 9 from each side of the equation. Subtract 3n to get the variable on just one side. Substituted given values of m = 3 and w = –5.

257

Part III: Math Practice Tests

17.

5 or .312 or .313 16

2 3 4

Using the figure above, you see that the shaded area is just the difference between the areas of the medium and small circles: Areashaded = Areamed. circle – Areasmall circle = π(3)2 – π(2)2 = 9π – 4π = 5π Also, Areabig circle = π(4)2 = 16π AREAbig.circle 5π The requested ratio is: AREA = = 5 or .312 or .313 16π 16 shaded 18. 7 Using a “factor tree,” you find the prime factorization of 720 in the form of am × bn × cr.
720 10 2 5 4 2 5 2 2 8 2 2 72 9 3 3 3 3

Since 720 = 24 × 32 × 51, the desired numbers m, n, and r are just the exponents 4, 2, and 1. If you wrote the factored form as 720 = 32 × 24 × 51 instead, the desired m, n, and r would still be the exponents 2, 4, and 1. Since you are finding the sum of m, n, and r, the order of the exponents makes no difference. So, in any order, m + n + r = 4 + 2 + 1 = 7 always.

Practice Test IIB Explanations
1. D. The first few terms of the sequence are 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, . . . The third term, 5, is the sum of 2 and 3, the two terms preceding it. The fourth term, 8, is the sum of 3 and 5, the two terms preceding it. The fifth term, 13, is the sum of 5 and 8. Continuing in this manner, you get: The sixth term = 8 + 13 = 21. The sequence is now 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21.

258

Practice Test II

The seventh term = 13 + 21 = 34. The sequence is now 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34. The eighth term = 21 + 34 = 55. The sequence is now 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55. The ninth term = 34 + 55 = 89. The sequence is now 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89. The tenth term = 55 + 89 = 144. The sequence is now 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144. 2. D. To find the slope of 3x + 4y = 12, solve for y, expressing the equation in slope-intercept form: 3x + 4y = 12 3x + 4y – 3x = 12 –3x 4y = 12 –3x 4y 12 3x = Divide all terms by 4 to get y by itself. 4 4 4 y = 3 - 3 x , or in slope-intercept form, y = - 3 x + 3. 4 4 3 The slope of the line above is . Since perpendicular lines have opposite reciprocal slopes, the slope of line l is 4 . 4 3 3. A. To solve this equation: 5(x + 3) = 17 5x + 15 = 17 5x + 15 – 15 = 17 – 15 5x = 2 5x = 2 5 5 x= 2 5 Distribute the 5 on the left. Subtract 15 from each side to isolate the variable term. Divide both sides of equation by 5. Subtract 3x from each side to isolate the y term.

Practice Test II

4. B. If 3(2x + 4)(5 – x) = 0, then one of the two factors containing x could be 0. So either 2x + 4 = 0 or 5 – x = 0 2x = –4 or 5 = x x = –2 or x = 5 5. C. To determine if f(–5) does NOT equal f(5), substitute –5 for x and 5 for x to see if the answers are the same. A. For f ^ x h = x , You can easily see that when either –5 or 5 are put in for x, the answer is 5 both times. B. For f(x) = 7, the answer is 7 no matter what the value of x; so once again the answers are the same: 7 both times. C. For f(x) = x3 + 5, you get: f(–5) = (–5)3 + 5 and f(5) = (5)3 + 5 = –125 + 5 = 125 + 5 = –120 ≠ 130 So in this case, f(–5) ≠ f(5); thus Choice C is the answer.

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m varies inversely as square of r → m = k2 . but Charles is taller than Harriet → h < c. The requested ratio is 3 then: AREAsmall AREAlarge = π c 1 r 2m π c 1 r 2m 3 9 = =1 9 πr 2 πr 2 You could also have used 3 for the radius of the large circle and 1 for the radius of the small circle and obtained the same result. E. not >). 8. you end up with the compound inequality: h < c < r < m. With the operation ᭝ defined by the equation x᭝y = y . A. which is Choice E.Part III: Math Practice Tests 6. B. Putting these three inequalities together: h < c and c < r and r < m. The second inequality is: 6 ≤ xy ≤ 30 The first inequality is: 2 ≤ x ≤ 6 If you divide these inequalities. E. Mark is taller than Rebecca → m > r or can also be written as r < m (note that all answer choices involve <. 2 m =2 m=1 260 . If you let the radius of the larger circle be r. 9. r2 = 144 = 4 With r = 6 . the relationship between m and r can be expressed as: m = 144 . which is Choice E. you can solve the equation: 4᭝m = 16᭝2 4 16 m = 2 2 4 m = 2 Simplified each square root in previous equation. 10. r Substituting the given values m = 9 and r = 4. then the radius of the smaller circle is 1 r . term by term. C. you obtain: 3 ≤ y ≤ 5. where k is some constant. 7. A. 4 9= k 16 16 : 9 = 16 : k Multiply both sides by 16. you then get: 9 = k2 . you have: m = 144 36 62 x 11. 1 +1+ 1 x+1 x x-1 = 1 +1+ 1 2+1 2 2-1 1 = + 1 +1 3 2 = 2+3+6 6 6 6 = 11 = 1 5 6 6 Substitute 2 for each x in the expression in the first line. Charles is shorter than Rebecca → c < r. Change all fractions to common denominator of 6. 16 144 = k Therefore.

Choice D has just such a pair of numbers: –1 and 11. The person to sit at the left end of the row can be chosen two ways (one of the two parents) and the person to sit at the other end can be chosen only one way (the remaining parent must sit there). Below is a series of five blanks. Divide both sides by 18. So to answer the given question. Since the ratio of the angle measures is 5:6:7. 6x. 14. and finally the last child seat can only be filled one way (the last un-chosen child must sit there). The dashed vertical line passing through 5 on the x-axis is called the “axis of symmetry” for the parabola. or C for child. and 7x as in the figure below. –1 is 6 units left. The points on the parabola to the left of the axis of symmetry are just mirror images of the corresponding points on the parabola to the right of the axis of symmetry. For example.Practice Test II 12. 6x° 5x° 7x° Then. D. 2 × 3 × 2 × 1 × 1 = 12 261 . the parabola has vertex at the point (5. therefore. So your series of blanks now looks like: 2 1 PCCC P Next you need to seat the three children. Your final answer is just the product of these numbers. then the next seat only two ways (one of the remaining two children). you are looking for two numbers that are same distance—left and right—from 5. The first child seat can be filled three ways (any one of the three children). one for each seat in our row of five seats: P C C C P Under each blank is the letter P for parent. Practice Test II 0 −1 5 (5. So you find the value of 7x = 7(10) = 70. you have the equation: 5x + 6x + 7x = 180 18x = 180 18x = 180 18 18 x = 10 But you want the measure of the largest angle of the triangle. you see that the parabola passes through the origin. C. –3). since that is just 5 units to the right of the axis of symmetry. −3) 10 11 x In the figure above. 13. Your series of seating choices now is complete: 2 3 2 1 1 P C C C P . which is 5 units left of the axis of symmetry. the parabola must cross the x-axis at 10 also. D. and 11 is 6 units right of the axis of symmetry as shown in the figure above. you can label the angle measures of the triangle with 5x. y 6 left 6 right Combined like terms on left.

D. Since AB = 2. x 2 . labeled y in the diagram. A z x° 2 y 2 x° B 2 C D In the figure above. you know that AB = 2 2 . the altitude drawn to the base of the triangle will bisect the base and bisect the angle at the top of the triangle. F feet = 12F inches. F feet. since the equilateral triangle has a perimeter of 18. then BC = 2 also. and I inches = 36Y + 12F + I inches 16. 17. So the length of AD is 2 3. the length of each side is 6. The area of the triangle is then 1 b : h = 1 : 6 : 3 3 = 9 3 .Part III: Math Practice Tests 15. each angle has a measure of 60°. Using your 3 pattern for this type of triangle. D. forming two 30°-60°-90° triangles. B. multiply by 36 (1 yard = 36 inches) To change feet to inches. you can find the height of the equilateral triangle to be 3 3. Since the triangle is equilateral. Therefore a distance of Y yards. To change yards to inches. 2 2 262 . ᭝ABC is an isosceles right triangle. x. ᭝ACD is a right triangle. so you use the Pythagorean theorem to find the length of AD : y2 + 22 = z2 `2 2j + 2 2 = z 2 2 Replace y with 2 2 . multiply by 12 (1 foot = 12 inches) So Y yards = 36Y inches. x. Using the pattern for an isosceles right triangle. 30° 6 3√3 60° 3 6 6 Referring to the figure above. 8+4=z 12 = z 4$3=z 2 3=z 2 12 = z2 Take the square root of both sides. the base of the equilateral triangle is obviously 6.

Since CE is x. Practice Test II For the left side and right side polynomials to be equal. So you have: c = r + m. B 60° x 30° A x√3 F E x x C 45° 45° D In the figure above. C.3 and m = 5 2 2 Factor the left hand side. let the height CE of the isosceles right ᭝CED be x. Notice that ᭝AFB is a 30°-60°-90° triangle. you find the base AF of this triangle is just x 3. Then the base ED will also be x. which is the same as m + r . so you have: x2 + cx + w = (x + m)(x + r) x2 + cx + w = x2 + rx + mx + mr x2 + cx + w = x2 + (r + m)x + mr x + cx + w = x + (r + m)x + mr x 2 + cx + w = x 2 + ` r + m jx + mr 2 2 Expand the right side (FOIL).Practice Test II 18. 2 Put 2m in for x in the given function. Choice C. You can now find the requested ratio: w mr mr 20. so using the 3 pattern. You are told that the given expressions are equal. the coefficients of their respective terms must be equal. Factor x out of the 2 middle terms. coefficient of the x term on left = coefficient of x term on right w = mr. you want to set the equation equal to 0 and then factor it later. Using the given function f(x) = x2 – 2x. Just write in left side of the equation. Subtract 15 from each side. BF will also be x and this will be the height of ᭝AFB. constant term on left = constant term on right c = r + m . Add underlining for the next step. B. you have the following equation to solve: f(2m) = 15 (2m) – 2(2m) = 15 4m2 – 4m = 15 4m2 – 4m –15 = 15 – 15 4m2 – 4m –15 = 0 (2m + 3)(2m – 5) = 0 2m + 3 = 0 and 2m – 5 = 0 2m = –3 and 2m = 5 m = . 263 . Set each factor equal to 0. you can find the requested ratio using the area of triangle formula 1 bh . 2 1 :x 3:x AREA$ ABF 2 3 AREA$ CED = 1 : x : x = 1 or 3: 1 2 19. Now that you have the base and height for each triangle. D.

3 ^ . X 50 CAND. 8 and 15 only have a common factor of 1. So they are NOT relatively prime. Checking each of the answer choices. B 20 From the circle graph above. C. 2. 10 and 5 have common factors of 1 and 5. CAND. A.4 f ^. the total surface area will be the area of the shaded side square multiplied by 6.2h = = = = 9 9 3 7 . 120 3 3x 2 . E. Since you are told the volume is 8. you find the product of the length. So these ARE relatively prime. you have x3 = 9. Using the given function f ^ x h = 7-x 2 . C. x x x To find the volume of the cube in the figure above. width.2h 264 . So they are NOT relatively prime. you are looking for a pair of numbers whose only common factor is 1. so the total area is 6 × 4 = 24. B. so candidate Y received 40 = 1 of the votes. so x = 2.2 h . the total number of votes cast was 50 + 40 + 20 + 10 = 120. 3. Y 40 CAND. B.^. A 10 CAND. C. you find f(–2) by putting –2 in place of x: 4. Candidate Y received 40 of those votes. and height. The area of the shaded square is 2 × 2 = 4. 2 2 2 In the figure above. since there are 6 equal faces to the cube. getting volume equals x3.3 $ 4 -12 . 6 and 9 have common factors of 1 and 3.Part III: Math Practice Tests Practice Test IIC Explanations 1.

Subtract 15 from each side. So 5:00 would represent 5 of the clock. Divide both sides by 21. 265 .Practice Test II 5. 12 12 a circle. 12 6. 3x° m° In the left right triangle in the figure above: 3x + 45 = 90 3x + 45 – 45 = 90 – 45 3x = 45 3x = 45 3 3 x = 15 Divide both sides by 3. D. so 5 : 360c = 150c. is equal to 14 . 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 x° 4 12 1 2 3 In the clock above. In the right triangle in the right side of the figure above. E. 45° x° Cross multiply to solve the given proportion. then n + 3 = the denominator of the fraction. you know that: x + m = 90 15 + m = 90 15 + m – 15 = 90 –15 m = 75 Substitute x = 15 from above. If you let n = the numerator of the fraction. Practice Test II Subtract 14n from each side to isolate the variable term. The clock. Subtract 45 from each side. The problem says your fraction. You then solve: n+3 35 n = 14 n + 3 35 35n = 14(n + 3) 35n = 14n + 42 35n – 14n = 14n + 42 – 14n 21n = 42 21n = 42 21 21 n=2 7. A. has 360°s. each hour represents 1 of the clock. which is now n . Distribute the 14 on the right side.

use x = 1 and try each choice. Distribute the 2 on the right side. Subtract x from both sides—you are solving for N. II. you have > 1 .5 2 2 c x + N m = 2 ^ 3m . A. you must get a true statement. These are the regions in which f(x) is negative. so you have: y = 2x + 7 and use the point (–2. In particular. and III. The only viable choice is D. x > x → with x = . when substituted into the first equation. Note that the positive regions of y = f(x) would change 266 . When substituted into the second equation. On the left is the average of x and N. So the portions of the graph of y = f(x) that are below the x-axis would end up above the x-axis for the graph of y = f ^ x h . D. you must get a true statement. If you took the absolute value of these negative numbers. 2 y = –3x + r and use the point (–2. Above is the graph of y = f(x) with portions of the graph below the x-axis dotted. 3). y y = f (x) Substitute 3 for y and –2 for x. m). you have c 1 m < 1 . x2 < x → with x = 1 . they would turn into positive numbers instead.5h 2 x + N = 6m – 10 x + N – x = 6m – 10 – x N = 6m – 10 – x 10. 3) 3 = –3(–2) + r 3=6+r –3 = r 11. II. which simplifies into 1 < 1 : TRUE 2 2 2 4 2 So your answer must now include both I and II. which simplifies into 2 > 1 : TRUE 2 1 2 2 2 So your answer must include I. you then have: x + N = 3m . this point must lie on the graph of EACH of the equations. 2 1 1 1 I. You don’t even need to try III. m) m = 2(–2) + 7 m = –4 + 7 m=3 So the point of intersection is now (–2. x −3 −1 4 6 their location since their absolute value would still be positive for the graph of y = f ^ x h . B. Since x is between 0 and 1. Multiply both sides by 2. I.Part III: Math Practice Tests 8. rather than solid. If you let the other number be N. Since the graphs of the two equations intersect at the point (–2. as in the figure below. 9. so you now have: Substitute m for y and –2 for x. thus eliminating Choice E. B.

267 . and then find 1 4 of this result.Practice Test II y y = f (x) x −3 −1 4 6 12. 3h h r Practice Test II 2r VOL original πr 2 h πr 2 h πr 2 h 1 VOL new = π ^ 2r h 2 ^ 3h h = π : 4r 2 : 3h = 12πr 2 h = 12 13. 2 r=4 8 Then AREAshaded = AREAsquare . so r = 4. If the perimeter of the square is 32. you find the difference in areas of the square and circle.16π 4 = 16 – 4π Divide each term in expression above by 4.AREAcircle 4 Area square = (side)2 and area circle = πr2 2 2 =8 -π:4 4 = 64 . C. 4 the radius of the circle is just 1 of this. A. To find the area of the shaded region. the length of one of its sides is just 32 = 8 . With the radius of our cylinder doubled and its height tripled. you end up with the original and new cylinders as shown below. As can be seen in the figure below.

2 −2 2 −2 Graph of | x | + | y | = 2 (solid line segments) The integer pairs (x. and III work. E. as in Choice A. then y = medium even integer. 15. If x + 4 is an integer. then z – 2 = medium even integer. Their sum would be: (z – 4) + (z – 2) + z = 3z – 6. Their sum would be: x + (x + 2) + (x + 4) = 3x + 6. and z = largest even integer. 268 . also works. that means y – 3 must be even. y) that satisfy the inequality x + y # 2 are those on the figure above with an open circle around them—count them all and you count 13 such points. II. their product xy will be even. Therefore I. so the correct answer choice is E. So 3y = 72. In the figure below. 2 Then with x even and y odd. so x is even. With x = smallest even integer. then x + 2 = medium even integer. as in I.Part III: Math Practice Tests 14. So 3x + 6 = 72 works. so y is odd. as in III. 16. A. as in II. With z – 4 = smallest even integer. and y + 2 = largest even integer. that means x + 4 must be even. E. So 3z – 6 = 72 also works. the four dark segments forming the diamond represent the graph of the equation x + y = 2 . Their sum would be: (y – 2) + y + (y + 2) = 3y. 2 y-3 If is an integer. and x + 4 = largest even integer. With y – 2 = smallest even integer.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ... / .... / .... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 12.. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 18..... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / ........ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . / ... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ............... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 269 .. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / ... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .. / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .. / .... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 14. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 13..... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / ... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ....- Test IIIA 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E Test IIIB 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E 9. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 16..... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 17.. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11........ / . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .......... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ..... / .. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 15.. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ... / ....... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / ..CUT HERE . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ....... / ... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .......... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . / .......

..........................- A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E Test IIIC 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E 270 ...................................................................CUT HERE ........................................

Practice Test III Practice Test I I IA: 25 Minutes.Choice Questions Practice Test I I I B: 25 Minutes.Choice and 10 Grid-in) Practice Test I I I C: 20 Minutes. 16 Multiple. 18 Questions (8 Multiple.Choice Questions 271 . 20 Multiple.

Some problems may be accompanied by figures or diagrams. 3. The figures and diagrams are meant to provide information useful in solving the problem or problems. Data That Can Be Used for Reference Area rectangle A = lw triangle A = 1⁄2 bh circle A = πr 2 C = 2 πr r h l b M Pythagorean Relationship A b c a2 + b2 = c 2 w C a B Special Triangles 30° − 60° − 90° 30° 45° − 45° − 90° x 45° Volume rectangular solid V = lwh h l w right circular cylinder V= πr 2h r x√3 2x 60° x√2 45° x x h A circle is composed of 360° A straight angle measures 180° The sum of the angles of a triangle is 180° 272 . Unless otherwise stated. These figures are drawn as accurately as possible EXCEPT when it is stated in a specific problem that a figure is not drawn to scale. Calculators may be used.Part III: Math Practice Tests Practice Test IIIA Time: 25 minutes 20 multiple-choice questions Directions: Select the one correct answer of the five choices given and mark the corresponding circle on your answer sheet. Notes 1. All numbers used are real numbers. 2. Your scratch work should be done on any available space in the section. all figures and diagrams lie in a plane.

what is the value of f(5)? 6. According to the data in the graph above. D. If 3x – 5 = 16. 7 C. D. 3). 3. D. D. then x = A. D. E. 7) 2 4 9 2. B. If x + x = 7 . 2 B. 5) (–5.Practice Test III 1. E. B. If f ^ x h = x 5 A. 0 11 5 22 5 33 5 4 100° A C Temperature (°F) 20° 70° 60° 50° 40° 30° 20° 10° TUES SUN WED THUR MON SAT FRI Note: Figure not drawn to scale. B. In the xy-plane. a circle has its center at point C (0. E. –1) (–3. C. 0) and contains the point P (–3. where will point P be located after this translation? A. B. 35 B x° ^2 . C. 15 36 40 45 50 7. 1) (1. 4). At a flooring center. 2) (–4. D. (–1. C. C. between which two consecutive days of the week was the percent increase in temperature the greatest? A. Sunday to Monday Monday to Tuesday Wednesday to Thursday Thursday to Friday Friday to Saturday Practice Test III 273 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . 20 50 60 80 140 4. How many different style-color combinations are possible at this flooring center? A. C. E. 14 D. –7 11 3 4 7 18 5. In the figure above. 21 E. what is the value of x? 31 A. Under the translation that moves point C to (–2.x h + 3 . B. C. B. E. what is the value of x? A. E. you can purchase carpet in one of five styles and in one of 10 colors.

what is the value of x? A. E. E. It takes Lisa h hours to walk a distance of m miles. C. D.65 r . which of the following could 4 NOT be the number of students in this class? A. and m? m 10. At this same rate. 12. D. 14. If the length is 10. 6 15 16 32 60 -b + c . E. 2 3 4 5 6 13. C.Part III: Math Practice Tests 8.mh 2 b 11. y = –1 m2x2 – b2 (x – m + b)2 xm + b (mx + b)2 2 ^ x . Which of the following inequalities could be used to decided if a motorist driving at a rate of r mph is within legal limits? A. B. An employee had to take a pay cut of 20%. C. D. D. y = 1 x = –1. D. If the average (arithmetic mean) of x. D. 6. x = –6. y = 9 2 x = –2.10 # 10 # 10 # 10 < 10 # 55 274 . B. The ratio of the length of a rectangle to its width is 5:3. C. r . C. 3x – 2y = –12 and x + 3y = 7 For what values of x and y are the equations above both true? A. y = –3 x = 4. y = 3 x = 10.55 r . E.45 r . how many hours will it take her to walk a distance of d miles? A. C. A while later. B. and the maximum speed is 65 mph. dm h dh m mh d d mh m hd 15. B. what is c in terms of x. C. Her new salary after the pay raise was what percent of her salary before the pay cut? A. B. If x = A. D. C. B. B. The minimum speed on a given stretch of freeway is 45 mph. E. b. E. If the ratio of the number of boys to the number of girls in a class is 3 . 21 28 33 42 49 9. 10. she received a pay raise of 25%. what is the area of the rectangle? A. and 10 is equal to 3x.55 r . 45% 55% 80% 95% 100% 12. D. E. B. E. 5x.

y D.Practice Test III y y = f (x) 0 x 16. y B. y 0 x 0 x E. y 0 x 0 x C. Above is the graph of y = f(x). y 0 x Practice Test III GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 275 . Which of the graphs below is that of y = f(x + 1) + 3? A.

1 4 1 3 4 6 20. D. B. 5) C (9. CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS SECTION ONLY. Its height h. E. 6 4 3 6 2 8 10 18. B. circles A and B are tangent at C. E. C. C. How many seconds pass between these two times? A. If the radius of circle A is 2 and the radius of circle B is 6. what is the value of x? A. If 82x = 44x – 3. and line l is tangent to circles A and B at points P and Q respectively. In the figure above. The rocket is 80 feet above the ground twice—once on the way up and then again on the way down. In the figure above. in feet. AB = BC . y) Q P l B (3. 276 STOP . D. C. after t seconds. What is the value of y? A. A C B Note: Figure not drawn to scale. 1 2 3 4 5 IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED. E. what is the length of PQ ? A. 17. A small rocket is fired into the air from the top of a tower.Part III: Math Practice Tests y A (1. is given by: h(t) = –16t2 + 64t + 32. E. B. D. DO NOT WORK ON ANY OTHER SECTION IN THE TEST. C. B. D. -3 2 2 3 2 6 12 19. 2) x Note: Figure not drawn to scale.

The figures and diagrams are meant to provide information useful in solving the problem or problems. Calculators may be used. Notes 1. For Questions 1–8. all figures and diagrams lie in a plane. These figures are drawn as accurately as possible EXCEPT when it is stated in a specific problem that a figure is not drawn to scale.Practice Test III Practice Test IIIB Time: 25 minutes 18 questions (8 multiple-choice and 10 grid-in) Directions: This section is composed of two types of questions. Some problems may be accompanied by figures or diagrams. All numbers used are real numbers. select the one correct answer of the five choices given and mark the corresponding circle on your answer sheet. 2. Use the 25 minutes allotted to answer both question types. Unless otherwise stated. Data That Can Be Used for Reference Area rectangle A = lw triangle A = 1⁄2 bh circle A = πr 2 C = 2 πr r h l b M Pythagorean Relationship A b c a2 + b2 = c 2 w C a B Special Triangles 30° − 60° − 90° 30° 45° − 45° − 90° x 45° Volume rectangular solid V = lwh h l w right circular cylinder V= πr 2h r x√3 2x 60° x√2 45° x x h A circle is composed of 360° A straight angle measures 180° The sum of the angles of a triangle is 180° Practice Test III GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 277 . 3. Your scratch work should be done on any available space in the section.

3 D. D. which of the following represents an odd integer? A. E. 1 6 1 C. 1 . In the figure above. -4 9 5 36 9 4 36 5 It cannot be determined from the given information. E. 7) 3. and 1 ? 2 3 6 1 A. 5 12 2. 4 Note: Figure not drawn to scale. D.07) 2 13 (approximately 7. B. 12 + 75 = A. 4) C (7. D. 2 2 8 16 16 2 32 y B (4. C. If (x + m)(x + n) = x2 – 5x – 36. B. E. 278 . E. C. 1 2 E. D. In the right triangle above. E. what is the area of the square? A. B. 3n + 2 n2 + 3 (n + 4)2 5n – 4 7n + n2 A (3. D. B.21) 7. In ᭝ABC above.Part III: Math Practice Tests 1. what is the value +n of m mn ? A. B. square ABCD is inscribed within circle P. If n represents an even integer. C. AB = BC . E. 87 7 6 7 3 10 3 29 3 A B P D C 5. what is the value of x? A. If the area of the circle is 8π. 6. 2 2 5 (approximately 4. –2 –1 -1 2 1 2 4. C. C. What is the product of the slopes of the sides of ᭝ABC? 6 x A. What is the average (arithmetic mean) of the numbers 1 . D. B. C.47) 5 5 2 (approximately 7. 22 B. 6) x Note: Figure not drawn to scale.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Practice Test III GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 279 . Answer: 3. D. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . a rectangle is inscribed within a square of side length 4. E. What is the area of the shaded region? A. B. C. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 16 10 6 3 2 2 Directions for Student-Produced Response Questions (Grid-ins): Questions 9–18 require you to solve the problem and enter your answer by carefully marking the circles on the special grid.7 Answer 1/2 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Fraction bar . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Decimal point . In the figure above. Examples of the appropriate way to mark the grid follow. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .Practice Test III 3 1 3 1 8.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .Part III: Math Practice Tests Answer 2 1/2 Do not grid-in mixed numbers in the form of mixed numbers. Always change mixed numbers to improper fractions or decimals. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 280 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . / . . answers may start in any column. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . Each grid-in answer below is correct. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 or 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Answer 123 Space permitting. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .8. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Practice Test III Be sure to write your answers in the boxes at the top of the circles before doing your gridding. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . Grid-in questions contain no negative answers. Even though some problems may have more than one correct answer. Mark only one circle in each column.Practice Test III Answer 258 (no credit) Note: Circles must be filled in correctly to receive credit. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . The acceptable grid-ins of 8/9 are: . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Answer 8/9 Accuracy of decimals: Always enter the most accurate decimal value that the grid will accommodate. Although writing out the answers above the columns is not required. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . For example: An answer such as . GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 281 . it is very important to ensure accuracy. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . No credit will be given if more than one circle in a column is marked.8888 . . Gridding this value as . can be gridded as .88. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .888 or . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .89 is considered inaccurate and therefore not acceptable.889. Example: . grid only one answer. . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . . or . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .

If the median of a list of seven consecutive odd integers is 23. 282 STOP . what is the greatest possible difference between the largest and the smallest of these five integers? IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED. point C is the center of the circle. If each digit can be used only once in each of the numbers. In the figure above. 5.Part III: Math Practice Tests 9. CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS SECTION ONLY. In the figure above. If the radius of the circle is 5. If 12(m + n)(c – r) = 72 and 3(m + n) = 9. The digits 2. rectangle ABCD is inscribed in the circle with center at the origin in the xyplane. 3. What is the value of x? D + 15m m 12. If x = 4. DO NOT WORK ON ANY OTHER SECTION IN THE TEST. If the average (arithmetic mean) of five different two-digit positive integers is 20. Point C with coordinates (3. If the current bacteria population is 1. how many minutes ago was the bacteria population only 32? 18. how many of these five-digit numbers can be created? 25° C x° A y B Note: Figure not drawn to scale. The population of bacteria in a culture doubles every 10 minutes. The area of the new rectangle is what fraction of the area of the original rectangle? 15. what is the value of c – r? 17.5y 2 2 16. x C (3. and 6 are used to create fivedigit numbers that begin and end with an even digit. what is the value of 3xy 2 ? x y 2 . y) is located on this circle. what is the value of x ? Note: Figure not drawn to scale. what is the difference between the largest and smallest of these integers? 10.024. The length of a rectangle is decreased by 25% while its width is decreased by 20%. 4. If 10x x + m = 12 . 13. what is the area of rectangle ABCD? 14. y) 11.

The figures and diagrams are meant to provide information useful in solving the problem or problems. Your scratch work should be done on any available space in the section. All numbers used are real numbers. 3. Data That Can Be Used for Reference Area rectangle A = lw triangle A = 1⁄2 bh circle A = πr 2 C = 2 πr r h l b M Pythagorean Relationship A b c a2 + b2 = c 2 w C a B Special Triangles 30° − 60° − 90° 30° 45° − 45° − 90° x 45° Volume rectangular solid V = lwh h l w right circular cylinder V= πr 2h r x√3 2x 60° x√2 45° x x h A circle is composed of 360° A straight angle measures 180° The sum of the angles of a triangle is 180° Practice Test III GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 283 . Notes 1. Some problems may be accompanied by figures or diagrams. 2. Calculators may be used.Practice Test III Practice Test IIIC Time: 20 minutes 16 multiple-choice questions Directions: Select the one correct answer of the five choices given and mark the corresponding circle on your answer sheet. Unless otherwise stated. These figures are drawn as accurately as possible EXCEPT when it is stated in a specific problem that a figure is not drawn to scale. all figures and diagrams lie in a plane.

In ᭝ABC above. 5 8 12 C. D. Note: Figures not drawn to scale. ᭝ABC and square MNOP have equal perimeters. E. 5 12 B. what is the value of m 3r 5 A. What is the length of MP ? A. In the figures above. B. C. E. the number obtained is 24. If the area of a circle is 9π .3y 2x r? 2. B. D. x–y x2 – y2 1-1 x y –(y – x) . AB = BC . 3. 16 24 2 24 3 48 3 144 4. D. 2 4 5 8 16 7. What is the given number? A. What is the area of ᭝ABC ? A. D. B. C. 11 3 29 3 7 12 13 C B M P A x° B Note: Figure not drawn to scale. 5 D. C. The quantity 5x – 7 is how much larger than the quantity –10 + 5x? A. E. E. 81π 256 81π 16 3 2 3π 2 3π 284 . If 0 < x < y < 1. B. 3 2 N 7 3 A 6 C O 6. D. which of the following must be positive? A. x = 30. what is its 4 circumference? A. what is the value of 2m – 2n – 7? A. If 2m = 8 . and the length of AC is 8 3. If m – n = 11. C. E. C. B. B. C. D. D. –17 –3 3 7 17 8. C. When a given number is decreased by 5 and this result is tripled. B.Part III: Math Practice Tests 1. E. 4 71 2 15 22 29 5. 5 8 E. E.

CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS SECTION ONLY. E. The accumulated value of her investment t years later is given by the function A. B. For what positive value of x will y = 7? A. C. a given circle with center at the origin contains the point (–3. E. x + (2x – 1) = 2x + 1 x2 + (2x – 1)2 = (2x – 1)2 x2 = (2x – 1)2 + (2x + 1)2 x2 + (2x – 1)2 = (2x + 1)2 x(2x – 1) = 2x + 1 12. D. ` 7. (3. What are all the possible points on this circle having an x-coordinate of 9? A. Rachelle invested $1. 2 3 4 5 6 16. E. C. x . –2) (9. 14. STOP 285 .02? A. B. 7) only 10. 3) lie on a circle with center A and radius 5. If x 3/4 = y 3/8 . 4). B. what is x in terms of y? A. 4) (0. B. which of the following could NOT be the value of x + y? A. 1 2 3 4 5 11. D. C. Which of the following points is NOT on the given circle? A. D. In the xy-plane. C. In the xy-plane. B. E. E. E. 8) only (9. B. –2) only (9. D. If 0 < x < 1. DO NOT WORK ON ANY OTHER SECTION IN THE TEST. –5) (3. –1) (9. 8) and (9. 7) and (9. the set of points 5 units from the point A (6. D.000 in an IRA paying 6% per year. which of the following equations could be used to find the value of x? A. If xy = 6 . 1 < x<3 x 3 x<1 x< x<3 x< x x 1 x 1 3 x< x< x 1 <3 x< x x 15.Practice Test III 9. D. 5j is a point on the graph of the equation y = x2 + k. and the length of the hypotenuse is one more than twice the length of the shorter leg. 37 20 18 15 13 Practice Test III IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED. 1 y y y y3 y6 2 13. In how many years will Rachelle’s investment be worth $1. If the length of the shorter leg is x. B. In the xy-plane.191. –4) (0. B. C.000(1. C. E. and 1 x? A. (9. C. C. 7) None of the above points are on the given circle. The length of the longer leg of a right triangle is one less than twice the length of the shorter leg. E. D.06)t. where A(t) = 1. D. which of the following gives the correct order of 3 x .

C 8. 48 18. C 3. D 8. D 11.666 or . B 8. D 18. B 16.09 11 11. E 6. D 286 . C 3. or 1. E 9. 65 12. C 2. B 12. 2 or . 12 16. C 10. E 7. C 19. B 20. C 5. 50 15. B 13. 36 17. C 2. 2 14. C 6. B 12. B 4. D 4.Part III: Math Practice Tests Scoring Practice Test III Answer Key for Practice Test III Practice Test IIIA 1. B Practice Test IIIB 1. E 5. C 14. C 7. D 10. 44 Practice Test IIIC 1. 3 5 12 10. B 4. C 11. A 3. B 15. C 13. E 14.667 3 13. B 9. C 7. E 9. C 6. C 16. D 2. B 5. D 15. C 17.

These results should then be reexamined for trends in types of errors (repeated errors) or poor results in specific subject areas. 287 . carefully tally your mistakes by marking them in the proper column. Mathematics Analysis Sheet Section A Multiple Choice Subtotal Section B Multiple Choice Grid-Ins Subtotal Section C Multiple Choice Subtotal Overall Math Totals Possible 20 20 Possible 8 10 18 Possible 16 16 54 Completed Right Wrong Completed Right Wrong Completed Right Wrong Analysis/Tally Sheet for Problems Missed One of the most important parts of test preparation is analyzing why you missed a problem so that you can reduce the number of mistakes. Reason for Mistakes Total Missed Section A : Math Section B : Math Section C : Math Total Math Simple Mistake Misread Problem Lack of Knowledge Lack of Time Practice Test III Reviewing the preceding data should help you determine why you are missing certain problems. This reexamination and analysis is of tremendous importance to you in ensuring maximum test preparation benefit.Practice Test III Analyzing Your Test Results The charts on the following pages should be used to carefully analyze your results and spot your strengths and weaknesses. Now that you’ve pinpointed the type of error. Now that you have taken the practice test and checked your answers. The complete process of analyzing each subject area and each individual problem should be completed for each practice test. compare it to other practice tests to spot other common mistakes.

Subtract 7x from each side to the variable on just one side. Divide each side by 3. the new x-coordinate). the two angles marked 20° are equal because they are vertical angles. after being moved 2 units left (–3 + –2 = –5). D. E. You are making two types of choices: style and color of carpet. B x° Add 5 to each side to isolate the variable term. Divide both sides by 2.). 3) moves the point 2 units left (0 – 2 = –2. style color 5. 4. which is 50. the new y-coordinate. To solve the equation: 3x – 5 = 16 3x – 5 + 5 = 16 + 5 3x = 21 3x = 21 3 3 x=7 x+4 = 9 x 7 7(x + 4) = 9x 7x + 28 = 9x 7x + 28 – 7x = 9x –7x 28 = 2x 28 = 2x 2 2 14 = x 3. The translation that moves point C from (0. E. 0) to (–2. you can make a style-color choice in the following manner: 5 : 10 Your answer is just the product of 5 and 10. Then you know that 100 = 20 + x. you have: style color Since you have five styles and 10 colors from which to choose. 4). and then 3 units up (0 + 3 = 3. 100° A 20° C 20° In the figure above. So the point P (–3. Distribute the 7 on the left side. To solve this equation: Cross multiply to solve the proportion. you see that x = 80. Using blanks to help solve this problem.Part III: Math Practice Tests Complete Answers and Explanations for Practice Test III Practice Test IIIA Explanations 1. 288 . since the measure of an exterior angle of a triangle equals the sum of the measures of the two nonadjacent interior angles. 7). So by simple subtraction. C. 2. and then 3 units up (4 + 3 = 7) will end up at the point (–5. D.

Wednesday to Thursday: 10 10 25 D. Another way to do the problem is to pick a salary. C. Friday to Saturday: 45 Notice that the fractions for choices A. Original salary –20% pay cut New salary + 25% pay raise 100 –20 80 +20 100 Final salary . After a 20% (or 1 ) pay cut. Monday to Tuesday: 15 25 C. C.x h +3 x 5 2 so f ^ 5h = ^ 2 . she will make just 4 P dollars. 4 4 5 Therefore. A.Practice Test III 6. D. say $100. Subtract 6x to get all the variables on one side. Therefore Choice D will have the greatest percent increase in temperature. so it’s 100% of original. Practice Test III 289 . C. Suppose that the employee was originally paid P dollars. and E are all less than or equal to 1. 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 2 2 7. Sunday to Monday: 5 20 B. $100. you need to substitute 5 for x in the f(x) formula: f ^ xh = ^2 . E. her new salary after the pay cut and then the pay raise will be exactly what is was before the cut and raise. she will make 5 c 4 P m = P dollars. Writing the average of the numbers equals 3x.5h ^ . 5 5 1 After the next 25% (or ) pay raise. You need to compare the temperature change between the two days to the temperature on the first day of the two-day pair. is the same as the original. So she will have 100% of her original salary. B. 8. Multiply both sides by 6. To find the value of f(5). you have: x + 6 + 10 + 12 + 5x + 20 = 3x 6 6 c x + 6 + 10 + 12 + 5x + 20 m = 6 ^ 3x h 6 x + 6 + 10 + 12 + 5x + 20 = 18x 6x + 48 = 18x 6x + 48 – 6x = 18x – 6x 48 = 12x 48 = 12x 12 12 4=x Combine like terms on the left side. Thursday to Friday: 20 25 E.3h +3= + 3 = 9 + 3 = 12 = 2 2 . but greater than 1 for Choice D. 9.

Since the ratio of boys to girls is 3 . 10 6 Put 3 in place of y. Choice C.21 –11y = –33 -11y . as follows: 3x – 2y = –12 x + 3y = 7 3x – 2y = –12 –3(x + 3y) = –3(7) 3x . 11.Part III: Math Practice Tests 10. Notice that the x’s cancelled out (3x + –3x = 0 ). Cross-multiply to solve the proportion. To find the corresponding value of x. E.9y = . use the formula t = d to get the r h hours following: t = d miles = ^ d milesh # h hours = dh hours m miles m miles m h hours Notice in the work in the line above that the “miles” labels will cancel out just like numbers. This is the sum of the pair of equations in previous step. 12.3x . 13. and then solve that for x. D. So the number of students in the class must be a multiple of 7. substitute y = 3 into either of the original equations. Divide both sides by –11. you must first try to eliminate one of the variables. leaving you with just an “hours” label for the final answer. you can set up and solve the following proportion: 5 = 10 3 w 5w = 30 w=6 Your rectangle now looks like the figure below. To find how many hours it took her to walk a distance of d miles. you must have: 4 3 parts girls + 4 parts boys = 7 parts total. is NOT a multiple of 7. To solve the system of linear equations. The area of the rectangle above is now 6 × 10 = 60 290 .2y = -12 . So her rate was: m miles . 33. The original second equation looks like less work: x + 3y = 7 x + 3(3) = 7 x+9=7 x = –2 Therefore the point of intersection is (–2. With a length to width ratio of 5:3 and a length of 10. Lisa walked a distance of m miles in a time of h hours. 3). B. C.33 = -11 -11 y=3 Distribute the –3 through the bottom equation. You will multiply the bottom equation by –3 to make the coefficients of x opposites in the top and bottom equations.

move graph of y = f(x) DOWN k units. This relationship can be expressed with an absolute value inequality: r .b + c +b + b mx + b = c ^ mx + b h = ` c j 2 2 Add b to both sides to isolate the c term. You solve the following equation for c. in terms of x. you move the graph of y = f(x) 1 unit LEFT and 3 units UP to arrive at the graph below. if k > 0. 45 and 65. if h > 0. The constants h and k affect the graph of y = f(x) as follows: i. b. D.Practice Test III 14. move graph of y = f(x) UP k units. y y = f (x) 2 x Above is the graph of y = f(x). C. B. If h < 0. If k < 0. which can be translated as: “the distance between r and 55 is less than or equal to 10. (mx + b) = c 15. x= -b + c m -b + c p m Multiply both sides of the equation by m. you can write an inequality that represents the range of legal speed limits r: 45 ≤ r ≤ 65. the graphs of any equation y = f(x) and y = f(x+h) + k. In general.55 # 10 . and m. is just 10 units either left of right of 55. With a minimum speed of 45 mph and a maximum speed of 65 mph. move graph of y = f(x) RIGHT h units. Notice that half-way between these two numbers is 55. The only difference is where they are located in the xy-plane. ii. You want to find the graph of y = f(x+1) + 3. So each of these rates. Square both sides to get rid of the radical. So with y = f(x + 1) + 3.” 16. have exactly the same shape. move graph of y = f(x) LEFT h units. m:x=m: f mx =. where h and k are constants. Practice Test III y y = f (x + 1) + 3 x 291 .

Part III: Math Practice Tests Note that an easy check is to see that the “vertex” was moved left 1 and then up 3 with the graph in the same vertical orientation. 82x = 4x4x – 3 (23)2x = (22)4x – 3 26x = 28x – 6 6x = 8x –6 6x – 8x = 8x – 6 –8x –2x = –6 . Replace 8 with 23 and 4 with 22. Cross-multiply to solve the proportion. 17. Add 6 to each side to isolate the variable.2x = . and then solve for y.5 = . On each side. set it equal to . To solve the equation 82x = 44x–3. 2) x Since AB = BC . multiply the exponents. since the bases are equal. Then the slope of BC has to be 2 (the opposite reciprocal of . In the line above. and then solve the resulting equation. C. 8 and 4. find the slope of AB and use that to help you find the value of y. notice that both bases.6 -2 -2 x=3 Divide both sides by –2.3 3-1 2 292 . the exponents are equal. 5) B (3. Distribute the 3 on the left side. find the slope of BC in terms of y.3 ). Slope of AB = 2 . 3 2 2 Next. 3 y-2 2 = Slope of BC = 9-3 3 y-2 2 = 3 6 3(y – 2) = 12 3y – 6 = 12 3y – 6 + 6 = 12 + 6 3y = 18 3y 18 = 3 3 y=6 18. So you will first change both sides of the equation to the same base. Subtract 8x from each side to get variables on just one side. y C (9. First. y) A (1. are powers of 2. D. you know that their slopes are just opposite reciprocals.

you have: in right ᭝ATB: x2 + 42 = 82 x2 + 16 = 64 x2 + 16 –16 = 64 – 16 x = 48 x = 48 x = 16 # 3 = 4 3 20. Notice that the length of AB is 8. so Choice B IS correct. B. So using the Pythagorean theorem. AT has been drawn perpendicular to radius QB to form a rectangle PATQ and a right triangle ATB. you set h(t) = 80 and solve for t. 2 Subtract 16 from each side of the equation. you are looking for is the same as side AT in the right triangle. Practice Test III Practice Test IIIB Explanations 1+1+1 3+2+1 6 2 3 6 = 6 6 6 = 6 =1 1. B. x. Factor t2 – 4t + 3 into (t – 3)(t – 1) Set each factor equal to 0. B. you have: (A) 3n + 2 = 3(even) + 2 = even + 2 = even. so Choice A is not correct. (B) n2 + 3 = (even)2 + 3 = even + 3 = odd. Subtract 80 from both sides to get 0 one side. Each of these is perpendicular to line l since line l is tangent to the circle at points P and Q. Take out common factor of –16. radii AP and QB have been drawn. Take the square root of both sides. 3 3 3 3 2. just the sum of the two radii 2 and 6. 293 . Trying the choices one at a time. 80 = –16t2 + 64t + 32 80 – 80 = –16t2 + 64t + 32 – 80 0 = –16t2 + 64t – 48 0 = –16(t2 – 4t + 3) 0 = –16(t – 3)(t – 1) t–3=0t–1=0 t = 3. with n being even. C. C. The difference between these times is 3 – 1 = 2.Practice Test III 19. To find the times at which the rocket is 80 feet above the ground. and then again at 3 seconds. x = 12 + 75 = 4 : 3 + 25 : 3 = 2 3 + 5 3 = 7 3 3. Q x P l 2 A 2 8 6 B 2 T 4 In the figure above. t = 1 So the rocket is 80 feet above the ground at 1 second. The distance.

C. Take square root of both sides. or approximately 4. Divide both sides of equation by π. or 4 2 . So with your x.Part III: Math Practice Tests 4. 6) A (3. x. y B (4. C. 8π = πr 2 π π 8 = r2 8=r 2 2=r Simplified 8 = 4 # 2 = 2 2 Since the radius of the circle is 2 2 . 6 x 4 In the right triangle above. 6. 4) x 294 . Thus the area of the square is 4 × 4 = 16. B. x 2 pattern. ᭝DBC is an isosceles right triangle (45°-45°-90°) with a hypotenuse of 4 2. its diameter is twice this. d = 4√2 As you can see in the figure above. A 45° P 45° D 4 C 4 B 2 Subtract 16 from each side of the equation. x = 4 # 5 = 2 5 . The area of the circle is given as 8π. you know that each side of the square is now just 4. Therefore 8π = πr2 Area of a circle is found by the formula πr2. the Pythagorean theorem gives us: x2 + 42 = 62 x2 + 16 = 36 x2 + 16 – 16 = 36 – 16 x = 20 x = 20 Take the square root of each side. 7) C (7.47 5.

+ n -5 5 So the ratio is m mn = . Since the two polynomial are equal. i. So all you have to do is find the slope of AC . 2 2 7-3 4 2 7. and this will give you the product of all three slopes of the sides of ᭝ABC. the coefficient of the x terms on the left and right sides of the equation must be equal. then you know that m + n = –5. If you decrease this by 25% (or by 1 of L).1 # 1 = . specifically. each triangle at each corner of the figure is an isosceles right triangle.36 = 36 . and the last constant terms on the left and right sides of the equation must be equal.6 = 10 9. multiply that by –1. = 4 # 4 . So the product of all 3 slopes is just . you know that the product of their slopes is just –1. B. Slope of AC = 6 .36 2 2 Expand left side (FOIL). Add underlining for next step. Then you have Areashaded = Areasquare – Arearect. B. 1 1 45° √2 3√2 45° 3 3√2 √2 45° 3 1 45° 3 3 1 In the figure above. x 2 pattern. you find the width of the rectangle is 2 and the length of the rectangle is 3 2 as shown in the figure. 4 4 1 4 Let the width of the original rectangle be W. you have only remaining.1 . So you have: n + m = –5 and mn = –36 + n -5 5 Thus the ratio is m mn = .Practice Test III Since AB = BC . So using your x. If you decrease this by 20% (or by of W). since that’s how factoring works. x. 5 Let the length of the original rectangle be L.36 = 36 8. 5 5 Practice Test III original rectangle W new rectangle (3)L 4 ( 4 )W 5 L 295 .5x . and mn = –36.2 # 3 2 = 16 . their respective terms must be equal. you have only 3 remaining. Shorter Method: If (x + m)(x + n) = x2 – 5x – 36. ii. Longer Method: (x + m)(x + n) = x2 – 5x – 36 x2 + nx + mx + mn = x2 – 5x – 36 x2 + (n + m)x + mn = x2 – 5x – 36 x + ` n + m j x + mn = x .4 = 2 = 1 . 3 . Factor 2 middle terms on left.

But if you do some factoring first.09 11 At first glance. thus the two angles are marked x° in the figure. So the angles opposite these two radii are equal. its associated arc. it appears that you need to know the value of both x and y to find the value of the expression 3xy 2 . 5 12 10. so their lengths are equal.Part III: Math Practice Tests Then you have: Areaoriginal = LW and AREAnew = c 3 L m c 4 W m = 3 LW 4 5 5 So the area of the new rectangle is just 3 of the area of the original rectangle.5 2 As you can now see. its measure is the same as that of arc AB .5 11 11. Notice that since C is the center of the circle.09 x 2 .5i x . as follows: 2 x y 2 . Then. 296 . A 25° x° C 50° x° B 50° $ Since the 25° angle is an inscribed angle. segments CA and CB are both radii of the circle. 3x = 3 # 4 = 12 = 12 or 1. 65. Subtract 50 from each side of the equation. you only need to know that x = 4 in order to find the value of this last expression. we have in ᭝ACB: x + x + 50 = 180 2x + 50 = 180 2x + 50 – 50 = 180 – 50 2x = 130 2x = 130 2 2 x = 65 Divide both sides by 2.5 4 2 . AB is twice that.5 16 . as marked in the figure. $ Since ∠ACB is a central angle. The sum of the measure of the angles of a triangle is 180.5y y _ x 2 .5y 2 y 2 ^ 3x h 3xy 2 3x = 2 2 2 = 2 x y . which is 50°. you find that all of the y’s will cancel out. or 1. or 50°.

2 50 minutes ago. and 29. There are a couple of ways to approach this problem—one shorter and one a bit longer.666 or . the list of consecutive odd integers is: 17. you put a 9. we want to get m x on one side. Factor the expression on the left this way so you get one factor as 3(m + n). So the difference between the largest and smallest of these is 29 – 17 = 12. Your goal is to find the value of c – r from the equation below. 12(m + n)(c – r) = 72 3 × 4(m + n)(c – r) = 72 3(m + n) × 4(c – r) = 72 9 × 4(c – r) = 72 36 × (c – r) = 72 36 # ^ c . 10 minutes ago. 50. the population was 1024 = 512 . Shorter Method: For any problem with consecutive integers and consecutive odd/even integers. 25. In your case. 19. whose value you are given. Current population is 1. with 23 being the median. 2 Doubles every 10 minutes into the future. 297 . having an odd number of integers (as in this case. 2 128 40 minutes ago. In place of the 3(m + n) above.Practice Test III 12. 2. Multiply both sides by 1 . 12. 2 30 minutes ago. Subtract 12m from both sides. 27. the median is always the middle number in the list of the consecutive integers. the population was 256 = 128 . seven integers). Practice Test III 15. 10x + 15m –10x = 12x + 12m – 10x 15m = 2x + 12m 15m – 12m = 2x + 12m –12m 3m = 2x 3m = 2x x x 3m = 2 x 1 c 3m m = 2 # 1 3 x 3 m=2 x 3 Subtract 10x from each side. 2 or . 21. 23. 14.667 3 You are asked to find the value of m x from the following equation: 10x + 15m = 12 x+m ^ x + m hc 10x + 15m m = 12 x + m ^ h x+m 10x + 15m = 12x + 12m Multiply both sides by (x + m). the population was = 64 .024. the population was 64 = 32 .r h 72 = 36 36 c–r=2 Divide both sides by 36. Divide both sides by x. the population was = 256 . 3 13. i. 2 512 20 minutes ago.

5. If your integers are a. (2. so the horizontal leg of the right triangle is 3 and its vertical leg y. The average of the five different two-digit positive integers is 20. 25. then the one and only one remaining digit. you have n + 6 = 23. 4. and since y = 4. the length of the hypotenuse of the shaded right triangle in the figure above is labeled as 5. n + 4. you can choose the last digit in only one of two ways—the other two remaining even digits. and 6 to create five-digit numbers beginning and ending with an even digit. 27. you would then have: 10 + 11 + 12 + 13 + e = 100 46 + e = 100 e = 54 The difference between the largest and the smallest would be 54 – 10 = 44 Multiply both sides by 5. b.Part III: Math Practice Tests ii. 23. 298 . 16. b = 11. and e. d. and once you choose one of these even numbers. 17. 36. y A B 3 y x 2y 5 D 2(3) = 6 C (3. and d = 13 were the values of the 4 smallest two-digit positive integers. then two of the remaining digits. The digits in the middle can then be any one of three remaining digits (since you have already picked two). Since the median of the list of the seven terms is n + 6 and you are told that this is 23. and n + 12. n + 10. The difference between the largest and smallest is 29 – 17 = 12. Therefore the area of the rectangle is 6 × 8 = 48. then you can write: a + b + c + d + e = 20 5 a + b + c + d + e m = 5 # 20 5c 5 a + b + c + d + e = 100 If a = 10. or a 6. So the first and last digits must be with a 2. 3. You are using the five digits 2. y) Since the circle has a radius of 5. 21. and 29. 4. Then your seven consecutive odd integers are 17. You can choose the first digit in any one of three ways. 19. 18. 6). y). Longer Method: Let n = first odd integer. you have even even . so 3 × 3 × 2 × 1 × 2 = 36 different five-digit numbers. 44. 4. its height is 2y. so n = 17. n + 6. 48. n + 8. This is just a 3-4-5 right triangle. 3 3 even 2 1 2 even Our answer is just the product of these numbers in the blanks. If you use a series of blanks to indicate the choices to 3 2 be made in creating your five-digit numbers. so the y must be 4. the height is 8. c. Notice from the figure that the base of rectangle ABCD is just 6. then the next 6 consecutive odd integers after this will be n + 2. c = 12. Point C has coordinates (3.

E. 4 2 6. C. The perimeter of ᭝ABC is 3 + 6 + 7 = 16. use some convenient fractions for x and y (they are both between 0 and l ). So the length of side MP is 16 = 4 . Practice Test III Divide by 3. 3. so Choice C is correct. C. the perimeter of square MNOP is also 16.2 = 2 . x 299 . So (5x – 7) – (–10 + 5x) = 5x – 7 + 10 –5x = 3. Add 15 to each side. To find how much larger one quantity is than another.y 2 = c 1 m . 4 4.1 . you have: a given number decreased by 5 → n – 5 the result is tripled → 3(n – 5) the number obtained is 24 → 3(n – 5) = 24 3n – 15 = 24 3n – 15 + 15 = 24 + 15 3n = 39 3n = 39 3 3 n = 13 7. you have: 4 2 A.c 1 m = 1 .y = 1 . 4 2 2 4 B. So suppose you let x = 1 and y = 1 . Multiply by 3 (the reciprocal of 2 ) to get m r by itself. 4 2 4 16 4 16 1 1 1 C. x . You can write the expression 2m – 2n – 7 as 2(m – n) – 7 by factoring a 2 out of the first 2 terms. which is positive.Practice Test III Practice Test IIIC Explanations 1. which is negative since 1 is greater than 1 . If you let the number be n. 2 3 On the right. B. reduce the product 24 to 12 .1 = 4 . Then trying each of the choices. which is also negative since 1 greater than 1 . 2(m – n) – 7 = 2(11) – 7 = 22 – 7 = 15 2. you just find their difference.y = 1 . C. 5. 10 5 Take the reciprocal of both sides of the equation. Since the triangle and square have equal perimeters. 8√3 30° 4 60° 4√3 2 2 Distribute 3 on left. A. Since 0 < x < y < 1. Then. To solve the proportion: 2m = 8 3r 5 3 # 2m = 3 # 8 2 3r 2 5 m = 12 r 5 r 5 m = 12 You were told that m – n = 11 in the problem. C. x 2 . 1 x .1 .

B. y (−3. Multiply both sides by π Find the square root of both sides. But point (0. you can tell that the points (3. the correct order is Choice C: 8 4 x= x<3 x< 1 x 11. From the symmetry of the circle. 1 = 1 = 64 . −5) (3. The circumference = 2πr = 2π # 3 = 3π . D. Then you have: 3 x = 3 1 = 1 64 4 1 = 1 . C. With AC = 8 3 and using your x. Area = πr2 9r = πr 2 4 1 9π 1 2 π c 4 m = π _ πr i 9 = r2 4 3 =r 2 1. Using your 3-4-5 right triangle pattern. select a convenient value of for x. 2 9. say x = 1 . Knowing the area. and then. 4). so this point is not on the circle. –4) and (3. 2 2 8. 5=7+k –2 = k 300 . −4) In the figure above. from that you can find the circumference. 4) 5 4 x 3 (3. you can find that BC = 4 3 . 5) is on the graph of y = x2 + k. you can find the radius of the circle. 4) (0. since you can easily find both its cube and 64 square roots. Since the circle’s radius is 5. –5) is on the circle also. you can see that the circle’s radius is just 5. 2x pattern. √7) D (0. the circle with center at the origin contains the point (–3. x 1 64 8 64 Since 1 < 1 < 64. x 3. 7) is between 2 and 3 units from the circle’s center. 4) are also on the same circle. Then AB = ` 4 3 j # 3 = 12 . point (0. Since 0 < x < 1. Since the point ( 7. 10.Part III: Math Practice Tests Since AB = BC and x = 30°. E. you should get a true statement when substituting the point into the equation: y = x2 + k 5 = ` 7j + k 2 Replace y with 5 and x with 7. The area is ΔABC = 1 bh = 1 # 12 # 4 3 = 24 3 . you know that ᭝ABC is a 30°-60°-90° triangle.

Choice C. B. Add 2 to both sides of the equation.Practice Test III Therefore. y + 1 = 0 y = 7. x = y 1/2 = y 13. 3 Multiply the powers on each side. 9: 4 + 9 = 13 6. 3) and have x-coordinate 9. Using the distance formula. The factor pairs of 36 and their respective sums are as follows: 1. 301 . you have: AP = 5 = ^ 9 . Practice Test III 5 = 9 + _ y . C. and then use FOIL. you have: Take the 4 power of both sides to get x to just the first power. Factor the right-hand side. –1). y) and (6. 6: 6 + 6 = 12 So the sum you CANNOT have is 18. 3). 3) A 5 (9. y) 5 (6. it would then have coordinates (9. y = x2 – 2 7 = x2 – 2 9=x 2 Replace y with 7. you get xy = 36. 12: 3 + 12 = 15 4. (9. Set each factor equal to 0. Take the square root of both sides. 14. If xy = 6 . 36: 1 + 36 = 37 2. In the xy-plane. To solve the equation for x.6 h + _ y . there are two points that could be 5 units from the point A (6. y = –1 2 Therefore. 3=x x 3/4 = y 3/8 _ x 3/4 i = _ y 3/8 i 4/3 4/3 12. Subtract 25 from both sides to set the equation equal to 0.3i 25 = 9 + (y – 3)2 2 2 Square both sides of the previous equation. y). Expand (y – 3)2 = (y – 3)(y – 3). So you are looking for factors of 36 (their product is 36) whose sum CANNOT be one of the numbers in choices A through E. y) If you let your desired point be P. Add the 9 + 9 on the right. 25 = 9 + y – 6y + 9 25 = y2 – 6y + 18 25 – 25 = y – 6y + 18 – 25 0 = y2 – 6y – 7 0 = (y – 7)(y + 1) y – 7 = 0. 7) and (9. and then simplify.3i 2 2 Find the distance between (9. 18: 2 + 18 = 20 3. then by squaring each side. B. the points are (9.

which is Choice D.000(1. you have: x2 + (2x – 1)2 = (2x + 1)2.000(1. 2x + 1 x 2x − 1 Referring to the figure above.191. so Choice C is correct. C. 16.000(1. A(t) = 1. Using the given equation.60 C.Part III: Math Practice Tests 15. t = 2: A(1) = 1. t = 1: A(1) = 1. you can then use the Pythagorean theorem to create the equation: (short leg)2 + (long leg)2 = (hypotenuse)2 Substituting the appropriate pieces in terms of the variable x.000(1.06)2 = 1. NOTE: This is one of the few problems where you really need to have a calculator to do the problem quickly. t = 3: A(1) = 1. then 2x – 1 = length of longer leg and 2x + 1 = length of hypotenuse.06) = 1. substitute values of t until you arrive at the desired amount of money.123. With x = length of short leg of right triangle. 302 .06)t A.06)3 = 1. D.02.060 B.

4.SAT I Score Range Approximator The following charts are designed to give you only a very approximate score range. Using your scores: _________________ – ___________________________________ = _____________________ total correct answers wrong answers on multiple choice ÷ 4 raw score 7. not an exact score. The total number of incorrect responses for the multiple-choice questions should be divided by 4. 6. Subtracting this adjustment factor of 4 from the original 30 correct gives a raw score of 24. Subtract this adjustment factor from the total number of correct responses to obtain a raw score. giving you an adjustment factor (round off to the nearest whole number). Use the following table to match your raw score for Mathematics and the corresponding approximate score range: Raw Score 49–55 41–49 26–40 11–25 5–10 1–4 4–0 Approximate Score Range 710–800 640–700 500–630 380–490 310–370 240–300 200–230 Keep in mind that this is only an approximate score range. Needless to say. Add the total number of correct responses for the three Mathematics sections. This raw score is then scaled to a range from 200 to 800. however. When you take the actual new SAT I. 5. 2. Add the total number of incorrect responses for the multiple-choice questions only. Example: If the total number of correct answers is 30 out of a possible 45 and 16 multiple-choice problems were attempted but missed. Note: No deduction is made for incorrect grid-in responses. This raw score is then scaled to a range from 200 to 800. dividing 16 by 4 gives an adjustment factor of 4. this may affect your scoring range. 3. 303 . some questions may be slightly easier or more difficult. How to Approximate Your Score in Mathematics 1. you will see questions similar to those in this book.

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