”
Electronics and Circuit Analysis using MATLAB.
Ed. John Okyere Attia
Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC, 1999
TWOPORT NETWORKS
I1 I2
+ +
Linear
V1 twoport V2
network
 
I 1 and V1 are input current and voltage, respectively. Also, I 2 and V2 are
output current and voltage, respectively. It is assumed that the linear twoport
circuit contains no independent sources of energy and that the circuit is initially
at rest ( no stored energy). Furthermore, any controlled sources within the lin
ear twoport circuit cannot depend on variables that are outside the circuit.
7.1.1 zparameters
V2 = z 21 I 1 + z 22 I 2 (7.2)
V1
z11 = I2 =0 (7.4)
I1
V1
z12 = I1 = 0 (7.5)
I2
V2
z 21 = I2 =0 (7.6)
I1
V2
z 22 = I1 = 0 (7.7)
I2
The zparameters are also called opencircuit impedance parameters since they
are obtained as a ratio of voltage and current and the parameters are obtained
by opencircuiting port 2 ( I 2 = 0) or port1 ( I 1 = 0). The following exam
ple shows a technique for finding the zparameters of a simple circuit.
Example 7.1
I1 Z1 Z2 I2
+ +
V1 Z3 V2
 
Using KVL
V1 = Z1 I 1 + Z 3 ( I 1 + I 2 ) = ( Z1 + Z 3 ) I 1 + Z 3 I 2 (7.8)
V2 = Z 2 I 2 + Z 3 ( I 1 + I 2 ) = ( Z 3 ) I 1 + ( Z 2 + Z 3 ) I 2 (7.9)
thus
V1 Z1 + Z 3 Z3 I1
V = Z Z 2 + Z 3 I 2
(7.10)
2 3
Z1 + Z 3 Z3
[Z] =
Z 2 + Z 3
(7.11)
Z3
7.1.2 yparameters
I1
y12 = V1 = 0 (7.16)
V2
I2
y 21 = V2 = 0 (7.17)
V1
I2
y 22 = V1 = 0 (7.18)
V2
The yparameters are also called shortcircuit admittance parameters. They are
obtained as a ratio of current and voltage and the parameters are found by
shortcircuiting port 2 ( V2 = 0) or port 1 ( V1 = 0). The following two exam
ples show how to obtain the yparameters of simple circuits.
Example 7.2
V1 Ya Yc V2
 
Solution
Comparing Equations (7.19) and (7.20) to Equations (7.12) and (7.13), the y
parameters are
Ya + Yb − Yb
[Y ] =
Yb + Yc
(7.21)
− Yb
Example 7.3
Figure 7.4 shows the simplified model of a field effect transistor. Find its y
parameters.
I1 I2
+
C3 +
V1 C1 gmV1 Y2 V2
 
Using KCL,
Comparing the above two equations to Equations (7.12) and (7.13), the y
parameters are
7.1.3 hparameters
where
I 1 and V2 are independent variables and
V1 and I 2 are dependent variables.
V1
h11 = V2 = 0 (7.28)
I1
V1
h12 = I1 = 0 (7.29)
V2
I2
h21 = V2 = 0 (7.30)
I1
I2
h22 = I1 = 0 (7.31)
V2
Example 7.4
V1 β I1 Y2 V2
 
Solution
V1 = I 1 Z1 (7.32)
I 2 = βI 1 + Y2V2 (7.33)
Comparing the above two equations to Equations (7.25) and (7.26) we get the
hparameters.
Z1 0
[ h] = ` (7.34)
β Y2
I 1 = a 21V2 − a 22 I 2 (7.36)
where
V2 and I 2 are independent variables and
V1 and I 1 are dependent variables.
V1
a11 = I2 =0 (7.38)
V2
V1
a12 = − V2 = 0 (7.39)
I2
I1
a 21 = I2 =0 (7.40)
V2
I1
a 22 = − V2 = 0 (7.41)
I2
Z1
I1 I2
+ +
V1 V2
 
Solution
By inspection,
I1 = − I 2 (7.42)
Using KVL,
V1 = V2 + Z1 I 1 (7.43)
V1 = V2 − Z1 I 2 (7.44)
a11 = 1 a12 = Z1
(7.45)
a 21 = 0 a 22 = 1
Find the transmission parameters for the network shown in Figure 7.7.
I1 I2
+
+
V1 V2
Y2
 
Solution
By inspection,
V1 = V2 (7.46)
I 1 = V2 Y2 − I 2 (7.47)
Comparing Equations (7.46) and 7.47) to equations (7.35) and (7.36) we have
a11 = 1 a12 = 0
(7.48)
a 21 = Y2 a 22 = 1
Using the describing equations, the equivalent circuits of the various twoport
network representations can be drawn. These are shown in Figure 7.8.
Z11 Z22
I1 I2
+ +
V1 V2
Z12 I1 Z21 I1
 
(a)
V1 Y12 V2 Y21 V1 V2
Y11 V1 Y22 V2
 
(b)
h11
I1 I2
+ +
 
(c )
+ +
+ V1' [Z]1 V2' +
 
V1 V2

+ + 
 V1'' [Z]2 V2''
 
I1'' I2''
[Y] 2
I1 Ix I2
+ + +
V1 [A]1 Vx [A]2 V2
  
[ Z ] eq = [ Z ]1 + [ Z ] 2 + [ Z ] 3 + ...+[ Z ] n (7.49)
[Y ] eq = [Y ]1 + [Y ] 2 + [Y ] 3 + ...+[Y ] n (7.50)
When several twoport networks are connected in cascade, and the individual
networks have transmission parameters [ A]1 , [ A] 2 , [ A] 3 , ..., [ A] n , then the
equivalent twoport parameter will have a transmission parameter given as
Example 7.7
Find the equivalent yparameters for the bridge Tnetwork shown in Figure
7.10.
Z4
Z1 Z2
I1 I2
+ +
V1 Z3 V2
 
Solution
I1 I2
+ Z1 Z2
+
V1 Z3
V2
_ 
N2
Z1 + Z3 Z3
[Z ] =
Z3 Z2 + Z3
Z 2 + Z3
y11 =
Z1Z2 + Z1Z3 + Z 2 Z3
− Z3
y12 =
Z1 Z2 + Z1Z3 + Z2 Z3
(7.52)
− Z3
y 21 =
Z1Z2 + Z1Z3 + Z 2 Z3
Z1 + Z3
y 22 = −
Z1 Z2 + Z1 Z3 + Z2 Z3
a11 = 1 a12 = Z4
a21 = 0 a 22 = 1
1
y11 =
Z4
1
y12 = −
Z4
(7.53)
1
y 21 = −
Z4
1
y 22 =
Z4
1 Z 2 + Z3
y11eq = +
Z4 Z1 Z2 + Z1 Z3 + Z2 Z3
1 Z3
y12 eq =− −
Z4 Z1 Z2 + Z1Z3 + Z 2 Z3
(7.54)
1 Z3
y 21eq =− −
Z4 Z1Z2 + Z1Z3 + Z2 Z3
1 Z1 + Z3
y 22 eq = +
Z4 Z1Z 2 + Z1Z3 + Z2 Z3
Example 7.8
Z1
Y2
Z1
Y2
N1 N2
a11 = 1 a12 = Z1
a 21 = 0 a 22 = 1
a11 = 1 a12 = 0
a 21 = Y2 a 22 = 1
Find the transmission parameters for the cascaded system shown in Figure
7.14. The resistance values are in Ohms.
I1 2 4 8 16 I2
+ +
V1 V2
1 2 4 8
 _
N1 N2 N3 N4
Solution
Figure 7.14 can be considered as four networks, N1, N2, N3, and N4 con
nected in cascade. From Example 7.8, the transmission parameters of Figure
7.12 are
3 2
[a ] N 1 =
1 1
3 4
[a ] N 2 =
0.5 1
3 8
[a ] N 3 =
0.25 1
3 16
[a ] N 4 =
0125
. 1
The transmission parameters of Figure 7.14 can be obtained using the follow
ing MATLAB program.
diary ex7_9.dat
% Transmission parameters of cascaded network
a1 = [3 2; 1 1];
a2 = [3 4; 0.5 1];
a3 = [3 8; 0.25 1];
a4 = [3 16; 0.125 1];
a=
112.2500 630.0000
39.3750 221.0000
Zin
Zg
I1 I2
+
+
Vg V2 ZL
V1
 
In the Figure 7.15, Vg and Z g are the source generator voltage and imped
ance, respectively. Z L is the load impedance. If we use zparameter repre
sentation for the twoport network, the voltage transfer function can be shown
to be
z12 z 21
Zin = z11 − (7.57)
z 22 + Z L
I2 z 21
=− (7.58)
I1 z 22 + Z L
I1
I2
+
+ +
Ig Yg [Y] V2 ZL
Vg V1
  
y12 y 21
Yin = y11 − (7.59)
y 22 + YL
I2 y 21YL
= (7.60)
I g ( y11 + Yg )( y 22 + YL ) − y12 y 21
V2 y21
=− (7.61)
Vg y 22 + YL
Zin
Zg
I1 I2
+
+
[A]
Vg V2 ZL
V1
 
The voltage transfer function and the input impedance of the transmission pa
rameters can be obtained as follows. From the transmission parameters, we
have
I 1 = a 21V2 − a 22 I 2 (7.63)
V2 = − I 2 Z L (7.64)
Substituting Equation (7.64) into Equations (7.62) and (7.63), we get the input
impedance,
a11 Z L + a12
Zin = (7.65)
a 21 Z L + a 22
V1 = V g − I 1 Z g (7.66)
Substituting Equations (7.64) and (7.66) into Equations (7.62) and (7.63), we
have
a12
Vg − I 1 Z g = V2 [a11 + ] (7.67)
ZL
a 22
I 1 = V2 [a 21 + ] (7.68)
ZL
a 22 a12
Vg − V2 Z g [a 21 + ] = V2 [a11 + ] (7.69)
ZL ZL
V2 ZL
= (7.70)
Vg (a11 + a 21 Z g ) Z L + a12 + a 22 Z g
The following examples illustrate the use of MATLAB for solving terminated
twoport network problems.
Example 7.10
I3 R3
I1 2 kilohms
2 kilohms I2
R2 1 kilohms
R4 +
R1
+
V2
1
___
V1 C = 0.1 microfarads
sC
 
Solution
Using KVL,
I1
V1 = R1 I 1 + (7.71)
sC
V2 = R4 I 2 + R3 I 3 + R2 I 3 (7.72)
I1
R2 I 3 = (7.73)
sC
Substituting Equation (7.73) into Equation (7.72), we get
V2 =
(R 2 + R3 )I 1
+ R4 I 2 (7.74)
sCR2
Comparing Equations (7.71) and (7.74) to Equations (7.1) and (7.2), we have
From Equation (7.56), we get the voltage gain for a terminated twoport net
work. It is repeated here.
V2 z 21 Z L
=
Vg ( z11 + Z g )( z 22 + Z L ) − z12 z 21
R3
(1 +
)Z
V2 R2 L
= (7.76)
Vg ( R4 + Z L )[1 + sC ( R1 + Z g )]
V2 2
= (7.77)
. * 10 − 4 s]
V g [1 + 105
%
num = [2];
den = [1.05e4 1];
w = logspace(1,5);
h = freqs(num,den,w);
f = w/(2*pi);
mag = 20*log10(abs(h)); % magnitude in dB
semilogx(f,mag)
title('Lowpass Filter Response')
xlabel('Frequency, Hz')
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY
EXERCISES
7.1 (a) Find the transmission parameters of the circuit shown in Figure
P7.1a. The resistance values are in ohms.
1 2
(b) From the result of part (a), use MATLAB to find the transmission
parameters of Figure P7.2b. The resistance values are in ohms.
1 2 2 4 4 8 8 32
4 8 16 32
I1 2 2 I2
+ +
V1 V2
10 4 10


7.3 (a) Show that for the symmetrical lattice structure shown in
Figure P7.3,
z11 = z 22 = 0.5( Z c + Z d )
z12 = z 21 = 0.5( Z c − Z d )
ZC
ZC
Zd
2H 2H
+ +
10 Ohms
0.25 F
 
5 Ohms 5 Ohms
+ +
V1 C C C V2
 
I2 C I2
+ +
V1 R1 L L R2 V2
 
7.7 For the op amp circuit shown in Figure P7.7, find the yparameters.
R3
I1 R5 I2
+ +
R4
V1 V2
R2
R1
 