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TRMSLATED INTO ENGLISH BY GUSTAV ^. «n the year 1887. CANTUAR. MUS. Schirtner in the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington D. DOUBLE. SCHIRMER. C. m. by 6.MANUAL OF ^3 'S770 SIMPLE. DOC. LEIPZIG. TRIPLE and QUADRUPLE COUNTERPOINT BY S. HALL. . barber. ENT» STA. LEIPZIG. SECOND EDITION. Entertd according to Act of Congress.>**!«^-!i^|i^^ (TYSON-) WOLFF. NEW-YOKK. JADASSOHN. c 9 THIS yVORK IS COPYRIGHT. PBOFESSOR AT THE ROYAL CONSEEVATORIUM OF MUSIC. 1892. BREITKOPF AND HARTEL G. ^-::kS^" "^-^ >^V REVISED by e.


that the knowledge of the rules alone would suffice quickly these would be attained Only serious. are founded on the contrapuntal works of Bach. The subsequent Manual rules. double. who have written in our system of the major and minor keys. study can the pupil here. Let no one imagine. contains instructions for the study All the of simple. and other classical masters. and with further art.PREFACE. branches of Leipzig. as well as in all other Only when the student has mastered all the problems contained in this book in a thorough manner. Jadassohn. however. Handel. principles and remarks set forth in this volume. little trouble. S. triple and quadruple Counterpoint. who do not intend to become musicians by profession. will be enabled to penetrate more deeply into the works of the classical masters and to cope with the difficulties of their sublime creations. Dr. conscientious . These studies in Counterpoint are intended to prepare the student for the composition of Canon and Fugue. but those also. . will be be enabled to proceed to the study of Canon and Fugue.

at the same time seeking to clothe them with the correct English technical I terms. for and conscientiously represents the German text. E. Barber. hearty thanks to Mr. The correction of the first THE SECOND was only undertaken . all Leipzig. Barber of London. M. 1891. M. Jadassohn for his kindness and forbearance in repeatedly giving me the fullest and trust the result will prove useful alike to himself and his other pupils. November 1891. E.PEEFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. principles and remarks contained in understand completely my work. S. In conclusion. Jadassohn. Leipzig. Mr. . Dr. I wish to thank Dr. a very excellent his intelligent assistance and I hope that this revised to translation will enable the pupil the rules. I this was translation better and clearer a felt the necessity for moreover strengthened by the opinions all I heard expressed on sides. Barber. edition personally at the special request of the author. explanations. The English translation to the second edition of my Manual of Counterpoint has been revised and corrected in accordance with supervision my by my special request and under my immediate highly gifted pupil. It clearly I give my musician. Nov. REVISER'S PREFACE TO EDITION. have endeavoured to preserve unaltered the respected author's views as expressed in the German text. as his pupil.

notes in the Chapter III. Inversion of the § 21. Exercises. Note against note Examples. Double Counterpoint 57—67 Double Counterpoint in the octave in two parts. The Cantus in the firmus in the Soprano. 5.. 38—47 § 15. § IV. Examples. Examples. § 22. two notes Four notes against one. Simple Counterpoint. Bass against one of the Cantus firmus. Counterpoint in several parts Exercises. 53 Two-part Counterpoint Rules. firnius in the Bass. 2. Examples. 13. Examples. Counterpoint in Soprano. Examples. 6. § against one. Chapter V. 12. Examples. Exercises. Chapter VII. Counterpoint in Upper parts 10 21—38 § § and 11. two upper parts. Exercises. § 14.parts . cises. Pages Chapter I. Exer- 10—21 Counterpoint of two § 4. § Rules. Exercises. Two notes against one . — 56 § 19. ples. § 3. ExamCounterpoint in Alto or Tenor. 11. Chapter VI. Examples. PART SECOND. § Three part Counterpoint 17. in 18. § 16. 47—53 three .. Counterpoint in two or more parts. PART FIRST. Inversion of the two lower parts. 1—10 § The Cantus parts. Exercises. Exercises. Double Counterpoint in three parts. Chapter Four notes against one Counterpoint in one part. Examples. . § 20.CONTENTS. Note against note in four-parts § 1. alternately and simultaneously. Cantus firmus in Middle parts. Exercises. 7 and 8. Florid Counterpoint. The Cantus firmus Middle Chapter II.

in the twelfth. Soprano and Tenor. Chapter X. . seven and eight parts . in Tenth and Twelfth . Examples.— VI Chapter VIH. Practical use of Double Counterpoint in the tenth by Bach. . 87—98 Example. Double Counterpoint § 27. Seven-part writing. Examples. Exercises. § 28. . Example in four parts in 23 inversions. accompanied by two free parts.. Exercises. Triple Counterpoint in the octave in Three and Four parts § 75—86 Examples in 24. Tenor and Bass. parts are inverted five times. Five-part Counterpoint. Examples. CONTENTS. 99 117 Examples. and inversions of same.. Pages Double Counterpoint 67—75 Double counterpoint in the octave in Four parts. Quadruple Counterpoint in the octave with 23 inversions. . Chapter XI. Examples. Sixpart writing. Example Double Counterpoint Eules. Example with in- versions the same with one or two free parts.. Bass and Soprano. § 26. Examples in four parts the three upper § 25. Eight-part writing. Counterpoint in five. six. Three parts with to given Bass. Examples. § 23. § 29. Alto and Tenor. Soprano and Alto. two parts with inversions also three parts in different ways. Explanation. Eules. Exercises. five inversions. PART THIRD. Inversion of two parts : Chapter IX.

a rhythmical. in which two or more notes In are placed in one. the former the progression of parts will be independent only with the progression will respect to melody . a greater amount of care and consideration. in which only notes of equal duration are placed to a cantus tirmus. as well as a melodic respect.PART FIRST. — and Florid Counterpoint. § 1 . or several parts against the cantus firmus. or bass. tenor. in the progression of parts from a melodious point of view. but in florid counterpoint. Thus each part in its turn may become soprano. triple and quadruple counterpoint. CHAPTER I. We have already recommended to the student in the exercises in our book on Harmony (where we dealt with the structure and connection of chords. be independent The terpoint. We make a distinction between Simple Coimterpoint in Note against i Note. between the exercises in simple counin and our last studies in the "Manual of Harmony" 1 is that Jadassohn. Counterpoint. This enables us to change at will. Referring to this. only difference then. . of one or . we can at once begin with the exercises in simple counterpoint. In the last exercises in the was called to "Manual of Harmony" particular attention the formation of bass and soprano. alto.. must be woi'ked out independently each must be a perfectly constituted part of the whole. the relative position of the parts in double. . Simple Counterpoint. each of the parts or melodies thus united. Melody is therefore the characteristic feature of Counterpoint. Note against Note. taking into consideration a natural and correct connection of chords. The term Counterpoint implies the independent progression more melodious parts or voices with one another.

We commence our exercises as before in four-parts. and place which the student will have to should treat these in different ways. < 3. harmony employed is now free. im^^^ . 2. Cantus firmus. ~si ^^ The student is recommended to work his exercises always in the The following examples are printed on two merely to save space. §iE^ Note. § 1. or forced manner. By this means given of bestowing especial attention to a more melodious progression of each individual part.CHAPTER the choice of the the opportunity is I. find the three upper parts. four clefs. The treatment of the subjoined bass may serve as further explanation. and only allow himself by degrees the more rarely used harmonies. with respect to position and choice of chords. he will then be allowed to employ modulations but these however must not lead too far. 1. choosing at first as simple harmonies as possible. He few exercises. After the cantus firmus has been worked out several times with diatonic harmonies. It is intended that the student should only employ diatonic chords for the first to the cantus firmus in the bass. nor be introduced in an unnatural.

§ 1. 4. 7. . NOTE AGAINST NOTE.

. § 1.CHAPTFR I.

common chords. diatonic chords of the seventh are used in chord of and 16*^ the 9*^ and we find the secondary chords of the seventh of the key of C major on the 2'"^ and 7*^ degree. iSlES: ^3=p5=czs ^^^^^m. It is not positively necessary (as shown in examples of triads only in the following exercises. 10*^ examples. examples. in the third in only and eighth we b^^ find the 15*'^ the Dominant Seventh. the 4*^^ 6^^ 1^^ 14*'' . i^^^ . 1 and 2). ^^ 9^fai?=f^.§ 1. g!Eft=EE 30=1^ I^ 15= -^ <5 -| ^-1^1-^ 18. the chromatic alterations being effected. 3C ^eeS^^ ^—^A-TrT^-'SA-'S'-2CI? 22. 24. are sufficient to aid the student in working out his exercises. here however. only the 12*^ and 13*^ examples give transitorily some modulatory progressions to the dominant of a-minor allow . (alto) of course. 25.-^^ zzs: 1^ 23. jSL m 21. P^gg^gggi -«- 19. to make use Exercises. The cantus those given firmus woiud different ways of treatment . NOTE AGAINST NOTE. ^^^^^m '^--^r^^^lE iipBE -s>"=t*«- 20. with the altered fundamental note and altered third. in tl" 3 same part still to avoid false relation. 17.


§ 2.

For the guidance of the student the commencement of the
exercise No. 17


be as follows:









» •»

6 5




The Cantus flrmns
§ 2.

iu Soprano.




a cantus

firmus in the Soprano.



progression of the

bass will

require the greatest care.

Manual of Harmony

No new


are required





we here

give a few examples of the

commencement of the following cantus




















. ±. add two more workings out of the same cantus firmus in in which the tenor progresses more melodiously than in No. the alto . in The student can only obtain complete certainty on. intentionally formed in an awkward manner. JlESE 4h ffES: ^l ^ ^ 2z: ~^=^- z^szzzJZJ-. where it is only a replacement of the soprano. We m 39 a.:. NOTE AGAINST NOTE.-k^zgsr. four-part writing later when he has mastered more com- plicated contrapuntal problems. Cantus firmus in the Alto. £i. Exercises. ^ ^ ^ /=?•« :*_^_ Sj-^^S^ ^m^ We now give some a--^ exercises It is for the treatment of the cantus firmus in alto and tenor. not advisable to spend too much time on these exercises.§ 3. la: ^EgSi ^ ^ * ^ £L £L i^ or 223 -iS>-i-g m ^ { Z2?: 3^±:g -^ 396. 40. 3S.

48. just by this means the attention ist fixed upon the proper progression of the individual After the student has had sufficient practice in the managel)arts. pendently with respect to melody. to Each jiote counter- point has be purely harmonic. turn. § 4. against one of the cantus firmus. commence our between the different parts. in florid counterpoint however. ^' j^Bggaia^gjg gj f CHAPTER Florid Counterpoint. the independence of parts is considerably heightened by the freer rhythmical movement of one or more parts against the cantus firmus.) In simple counterpoint the parts can only progress inde§ 4.10 CHAPTER Cantus firmus in the Tenor 11. ment of each part alone. will have to as all other species in common or triple time Still we adhere to the procedure of at be reduced to these two. suspension take place well prepared by leap may be employed. and later on four. -'2-r-«2-. even 8 notes to one of the cantus at the beginning firmus. 3. still. II. partly alternative florid counterpoint. We now bass.-5' 45. 6. . Formerly one allowed 2. 4. Though it may prove more difficult to produce movement in one part only. ??-:-0 iB-<S*-. and practised this by adding one florid part only. first giving one florid part only although in practice it is more generally the case that more than one part employs motion in — — — — . This may . it will be an easy matter for him to work with freedom and certainty a partly simultaneous. studies by giving two notes of a the to the against one of the cantus firmus. Here it will suffice if the student first learns to write two notes. or simultaneously. *«• §^4lSil§illi fei^^^g|^|g|: ^T JN -«^rni 47. . In rare cases only. (Two notes against one.

. Ij IV 11- V n The third last bar of No. for instance: Commencement. The fundamental note of a chord of the seventh. either at the beginning. the introdnction of a suspension. as disturbing the motion in the bass has that the tying of it stands to reason be used with care only a note of one chord to the same note in another harmony. These three methods we see employed in the three following namely: method first in the first bar. first half. 1. Close. 3. A 2. can only as a rule. has been shown in the "Manual of Harmony". following a chord of the sixth. or shortly before the end of the 11 exercise. S: 49. be avoided altogether. be employed before the third of a chord. method third in the third bar. even if well prepared. If then a suspension. would make a disagreeable impression. has to to . as it That a suspension in the bass interrupts the motion of the bass. that we may but leave it out the of a chord on the second half of a bar. may in never be omitted in the of the seventh. occurring between the root of a chord and the third below it. The Passing Seventh. 50b shows. bars. method second in the second. . Only the three following rules will therefore be available. and only very exceptionally cases the fundamental a chord In of the a few exceptional note of a chord seventh can follow the root of a chord. 3^ l^E fe5" 3i3E In the middle of a movement. provided that re- tarded parallel octaves are not merely hidden by so doing. Leap from one to another note of the same chord.§ 4- FLORID COUNTERPOINT.

a. the strong beats in Ex. a. which occur between bar. 52. Bad. would be entirely unallowable. a few instances. with. Bad. Good. 51b. §4. Less good. -IJ — . such as the one in No.s>. -Si- i zrs27: ^^ISi .1 12 Ex. are not sufficiently concealed by the leap of a sixth on the weak beat Bad. the eflfect would be a good one. Bad._ 1=^^^ d. 52. 5P Good.. cannot be found fault No. the parallel octaves are suspended by This is the case when the bass. c. CHAPTER II. Still in the motion. 6. 6. z^EiiE^&EE t*g= 53. :^E^ 51. the sixth. 51'' i8 quite inadmissable. SB- s>s> — =i^ 7 -«' ^t^ iSiBEE^ ^^1^1^^ — -g*—^^ The bare consecutive fifths and octaves. of the first A counterpoint. bearing a chord of is succeeded by the fundamental note of the chord of If the seventh. especially in con- nection with two chords of the seventh (53*). contrary motion is employed.

A. D. other passing note except that of the seventh descending not is from the root of the chord. Towards the end.§ 5.. h. D {u-) A. F. major and F. ever contains motion. the bass may very well make a leap of an (last bar but one) octave. that. but the one at 57^ Bad. 54 bad. Good. D. B (viio^) G {\^). proceeding point. preferably upwards can also be employed advantageously. B (chord of the seventh on the first degree of C. Here the bass moves G. Such progressions should always be avoided. :& -(S- m . 54. at the beginning of the exerIn the middle of a movement. B. in the same direction . E. 6. taves should only be used exceptionally. the first bar can also do without occasionally the or: bass may commence on the second beat of the bar. 13 § 5. F. . bad. -g^ 56. at all admissable. ^ 6. -O- 132^ m The prois ifas: Any ^^-&- ZSeZH-Z -(^- e good. 57* a. rsrii :=a=::: Sas § I? last E if The bar seldom it. More than three notes belonging to the same chord and in the same direction should not be given to the counteris Consequently the progression of the bass in Ex. best however from below. FLORID COUNTERPOINT.) . is gression of the bass in No. 57. the notes C . progressions of occise (first bar). but also from the higher to the A leap of an octave lower octave. Iffi^ ''z^. C after — — 55.

§ ^ [^-~ .14 CHAPTER II.


The retarded


of one

parallel-octaves however, between the strong beat and the weak beat of the next, are permissible and completely covered by the intermediate notes.

i s






Between the weak beats of two successive bars, the parallelconcealed and retarded by the first note of the second bar, Example 62 is not to be censured, but can only occur once. Example 63, showing the same beginning, is bad, on account of
further progression.


be blamed.


§ 8.



give to the student some exercises of a countercantus firmus,

point of two notes against one of the



can be used for alto as well as for tenor. The Cantus firmus is in the Soprano.









in the

the seventh [F] in the alto has to proceed upwards,

on account of the passing seventh {F)

which must

has to proceed upwards, as the bass leaps to E^ the original note of reso(See

Likewise at NB.2,


seventh [F] in the alto

Manual of Harmony



The retarded

between the extreme parts NB.

on the weak beat,

are admissable.









Example No. 44.








give a working out of the

This example requires no further explanation. In Example 66 cantus firmus, No. 48, but in the

tenor and with two notes in the counterpoint.


6 5










The beginning

of example 65 might also

be done as follows:






order to give

we add

the student as much practical guidance as a few workings of the following cantus firmus;

only the last of them contains a modulatory deviation.






















18 CHAPTER II. § S- ':m '—^r 70. 9^=3^ qmu e 1^ 71. ^ iiE^ :=^ i ^t^ 1:1=^ 1^ . isEE -g^ -^- T=^- m ::=t. i =^: it^ :^ ^ '-^'- 91: Sf 72.

ascending from the natural tone. fe ^E^ ^^feEE?? Several of such chromatic progressions however.: 301 and 302. —St- 75. as in this case the progressions of the parts would become what old writers used to term a "howling progressiorL\ character. tionable. such a note then takes the character of an altered tone.— § 8. 73. Ex. The nature of The following true counterpoint is of a diatonic-melodic exercises would therefore be entirely objec§ (Compare Manual of Harmony 57.) Quite bad. I i±g: ^- ^^ ^^ NB. But this does not give an actual modulatory effect. in Ex. 2* ^ . The commencement of the foregoing cantus firmus can be treated in the following manner: 74. 19 73. can be used occasionally. should not be employed one after the other. 3^^ ?5" -e f ±1^ 9^=^^^ i^z One chromatic passing note. because chromatic. as at NB. z^ -t^ :F=fe=F £ H—s^: :^ m. FLORID COUNTERPOINT.


§ 9.




passing seventh in the alto, last bar but one Ex.
at the close.



always allowable in any upper part

a few exercises, by placing He may one of the cantus firmus. choose for the soprano, one or the other cantus firmus from exer48. In the treatcises 29 36, and for alto and tenor from 40


may now work

two notes

in the bass against

ment of these exercises

in florid counterpoint,

the pupil should not
in simple

try to find support in the exercises he has already done

employment of formerly used harmonies. He would not find his task easier, but more difficult. If he kept always to the same harmonic treatment, the mechanical patch-work of putting a second half note on the weak One also would soon observe, that beat, would be most inartistic. what was good and suitable for work in note against note, would
bind himself to
often be unsuitable for treatment in florid counterpoint.
tively noting

In atten72,


examples No. 64, 65, 66, 68, 69, 70, 71,
that in the counterpoint of



will not escape observation,



the leap to the

seldom been used.

on the weak beat, has but Now it is not in any (Examples 65 and 71.)

of a triad


forbidden to leap to the


of a triad


the following counterfifth

point cannot be censured,


shows the

of the chords

on the


and fourth degrees.






Such employments of the
either in the use of a


therefore not exactly foror the chord of the

common chord

seventh, where


form a


chord on the weak beat

but one

cannot lose sight of the fact that the frequent use of the fifth on halting and awkward the second half of the bar, gives a feeble

character to the counterpoint.
too frequent an



the pupil therefore,


Example 77 is any of the foregoing

employment of this progression. not to be recommended, although




does not violate











* in Ex.


of the

common chords, marked with

are easily avoidable as








the end of this chapter,

we wish



attention to the



not advisable to keep the
exercises are

pupil too long at these,


difficult exercises.

In practice mostly mixed counterpoint



repeated in two and


In instrumental or vocal

one would not

detain the student at the same exercises until he has mastered them
to perfection to

by progressing
as the





he will learn

overcome by degrees the preceding




in the


As soon


has attained some efficiency
in the


of counterpoint

with two notes




advisable to proceed to the next chapter.

Two Notes


the upper parts.


There are eight methods available



notes against one,

when they

are placed in an upper part



leap to another note of the same chord.

2. 3.




between notes of equal value, common


two con-

secutive chords in successive bars.

All passing sevenths, descending from the root of a chord
to the third below.



to the root of a

bass note

the third,

chord of the seventh, of which the thereby forming a \ chord on the


weak Leap




Dominant as well as where the minor

any minor or dimindiminished



serve to prepare a suspension.

The leap












in the course of

a sequence for instance,



prepare a suspension.
of the

The suspensions
the tonic

of the


dominant and subdominant resolution is employed by preparation

common chords when the note

of of


middle part.




the middle


should however be a ninth

below the suspension. The suspension prepared by means of the passing seventh, if the notes form part of a sequence or part of a series of bound notes.

Note. The reason why the seventh cannot be used for the preparations of suspensions, except In those cases mentioned unter No. 6 and 8, is easily recognizable. The sevenths are dissonances themselves, and as such need re-

Only the leap into the minor and diminished sevenths, gives strength and power of resistance to these intervals, to support and carry the succeeding Those instances mentioned under No. 6 and 8, are explained by dissonance.

the exceptional character of the Sequence.


to these eight rules:

The Leap.


IN THE VPPER PARTS. This method will be used but case complete seldom. may sometimes be used Not Good 6._^^ 7 7 8 7 8 6 5 i!£^: One can ^3 =i shown at write Sequences without hesitation as 81b. 84. ^eS P82 a. i^ 83. manner as demonstrated in No. are not recom- mendable. -J2JSU I^ -i^- i^ C: IV ZSL. IV-. parts as a such as those shown under No. iae C: IV ^m^^ 5 VIl"7 V7 I- . in this The chord in all its of the ^ must appear Progressions. <^ The fifth. and mostly in such a seventh chord. although they Not Good a. 83. TWO NOTES The Passinar Seventh. Leap to the root of the chord of the seventh. Not Good J 84. in practice. ? is explained as the seventh of an imperfect chord. has been heard same part. as the funda- mental note of the primary choi'd of the seventh jast before in the 5. 826. 23 4.§ 10. taken diatonically after the chord of the sixth. 8 =^ 7 i 8 j^.

for the purpose of preparing a suspension. and the suspension prepared by the major seventh in a sequence. chord. the third of the fundamental missing in the chord of the seventh on the first degree appears diatonically. therefore the effect is weak. iSES 6 -gg — g'- «W-^—^f—yr 4 2 J-tJ- m fi 6 5 2 6 5 4 3 i±^ C: II ^: a: T'li" vii"^ ee3S^ II- ( 7" . as the third which 4 the fifth of the fundamental chord is wanting. the sixth which -chord. and not as it ought to be by a leap.24 In example 84 is a. 6. CHAPTER the ? III. chord sounds empty is . is At b. At the fundamental note of the appears the bar. although the I chord c. i 85. § 10. complete with into all its intervals on the second half of The leap the minor and diminished seventh.

tlie fundamental note of the triad of do minant. . £ 87. _J-. j^ '^ 4 -^ o ^* 9 3 jr j -r^. NB. I i^: -^ Suspension of the fundamental dominant. 75- ^ "^ 4 ^4 3 6 5 zs: C. note of the triad of the sub- (tlr^-i 88. ^^--^^'^^^ *^^^-«=^ " 3^ ^7 :i2?: 8 -^ / I ^ .§ 11. TWO NOTES Suspension of the IN THE UPPER PARTS.

that Le is obliged to make use the eight methods in each individual exercise. the tie (especially when used in several consecutive bars. student need not imagine. the diatonic-melodic character of counterpoint. 4. Not good. terpoint The following coun- would not be advisable just for that reason^ does not violate any of the established rules. 3. although it . § 11. On the con- he is strongly advised to employ only the most usual ways. on account of too many leaps. We note them down in the order in which we consider them most suitable. which are 2. Therefore the suspension would be the best means. fe The of all -<g^^g ^-pg)- -fi^-F=_g ^-?-. More than two successive leaps are not in accordance with trary. 1. 6.) the one least adapted for counterpoint in two notes.26 CHAPTER in.

§ 11. Cp. Sequences in the counterpoint not be used oftener than three times in succession. 27 should nection self-understood. . 91. TWO NOTES is JN THE UPPER PARTS.

fXgZ^=^EJ^J^ ^^=r^— i±E^: :. c. Cp. — s: *4^ >^-<S- ^ g^ -<5>^S> ?si^T^. Cp. c. { «i J— (g'-T^ ^g- ^:* ±1^ :^^^ :2^ Pi^ . c. =1= ffi: -s> — 3 95.gl- ^ :X ^- 93. f. i!ES: -^ '^~ ^ or: Cp.— ^ CHAPTER III. Here follow some examples of a connterpoint the Boprano to a cantus firmus in alto and tenor. Cantus firmus in Alto.f.f. ? 28 § 12.T^^ 94. 3^^^ :i=s= =s= in § 12.

f.§ 12. the cantus for some preceding exercises may be treated over again counterpoint in soprano. in 29 Cautus firmus Tenor. ^Em ===t 12: 22: ^EE I ^^ The :^3i student may now following place a counterpoint of two notes in alto the soprano against the cantus firmus alternately in the bass. If necessary. . and tenor firmus of of the examples. . Exercises. I WO NOTES IN THE VPPER PARTS. C|?— yt. m 2: ja. is: -<s> \ Cp. c. 96.

__L-^z^z^ . 104 §Sj^'M ~s:i 105. iifgl^E^ ZSL Cantns firmus in Alto. § 13. I^b^ -^-tS^- -i2_. :3rr 106.(ffi—iis: 108.30 CHAPTER III._fij- szf:_^_ri^rc 107. Ji:^ . H:^ ^=^-.

for the direction of the pupil. ?Hie ZSl 114. Counterpoint in Tenor.^J_ f^ m IS Cantus firmus in Soprano. C. sis different ways of working out a cantus firmus in a middle part. TWO NOTES Bad on account permanently. f. -T & ^=^=^ f g^ :rfc -( g. Cp. C. Cp. 31 of too great a distance between the middle parts Here follow. a _G_ A i-i }-^ g §ig^ qzs: I l^^iE isi :22: nzs: -i — — =__e g—J-^ ^ — . Cantus firmus in Soprano. fe^SB <! -^^^-&- 113. Counterpoint in Alto. f. IN THE UPPER PARTS.§ 13.

major. iTi^s: :E=i=t:= X--^ ? ^1 to El^ Cantus firmus in Alto. Counterpoint . i ^ r i-^ -^^^. f. Cantus firmus in Tenor. c. § 13.32 CHAPTER III. Counterpoint in Alto. transposed in the Tenor.-^ 115. :l^^ Cp. n^^ W iSj zxnai ^^L^^^^^ePI^I ja Or these four bars.

2?=T x:t ^^ ^^ c. Counterpoint in Tenor. Counterpoint Cp. f. in Alto. . transposed to G major. md^ — =22= -g=^= =P=5= -^~— m Cantus firmus in the Bass.S TWO NOTES IN § 13. THE UPPER PARTS. ^ I -g? i g-J^ gt S 22: -t© 117. 33 Cantus firmus in Bass.

—& ^ .34 CHAPTER in. § 14.

<9 — -f2 — •«-- :t=t:: ippgpj S -^r is ^if=^ --<&- r The Cantus firmus in Bass.r — IN § 1-i- TWC NOTES THE UPPER PARTS. ^ 124. :zs: ^^=E:p=^ Sf ns: ^ IP-^b: •. S^ ^E^ ^^^^ -^ ^^^zt ' r—^ <5 P^ -«'-fi?=-t^i?-'fiTV- ^^ r^c -rSMS^ i!5fe? lai 3* . PsE F=^ (e^^ I 123. 35 1=221 zszd fclr a-i—lSL. .

^s>- g g^- -jb' -^-^^ g^" ~^ i^c iii^ 3e: #=^^ . § 14.— 36 CHAPTER III. S=^ 2^"s: 125.

^Ei Uri^-^j. g- 1 a :2 -•^ Tsr^ri' —2^ t. The cantus according firmus to may be transposed into other keys for bass or alto.^ § — IN li. ^^ '^^ ir^ :s=I=^ --^ 1*11 . E?. g* .~^^- ZSL 'W PS tZVlXi g ^p^ - is: . Exercises. the position of the parts. } §fe« W"- :^ j^ &_ -(^ ^ ^:'^r~^"]zzi — t=i: <g rJ — <9- "^. — * — I* :l2=: the The following manner shown exercises in are to be treated in accordance "with the examples No. 130. 122 — 129. 37 The Cantii3 firmus in Alto ti-ansposed to 128.>> 129. TWO NOTES THE UPPER PARTS.

Changing notes . contrapuntal work even in the canon and fugue as the note of change no matter whether introduced from above or below. some suitable cantus tirmus from former in the manner indicated in CHAPTER IV. and is therefore not suitable for really "pure harmonic-structure".i2. first note of each bar must be an harmonic one. sometimes produce one will do right to avoid them . the seldom and exceptionally. p. find their place in the more complicated exercises of the canon and Ordipossible in all fugue and can narily speaking. in the middle opposed to the second. They efi"ect. 1=1—]-»-*: m^^- . passing ones may be in- serted diatonically. will therefore not hold ffood. For the movement of four notes against one of the (four crotchets against a semi-breve. will always have the character of an ill-prepared Suspension. and every case its pre- paration must be introduced by leap. The following preparations -j— 133. 153) are to be beginning of a bar they would be incompatible with first rule. the tie is not permitted at in all. a very excellent if . In four notes against one. 3. avoided the in the (see "Manual of Harmony". — »i—•-T-g— — jj— 1< . But we will will not exclude them altogether from contrapuntal work. exercises the may be chosen and employed examples 122—129. Counterpoint of four notes against one of the cantus firmus.) the same rules parts. apply for 1.^ 4 38 CHAPTER If considered necessary IV. § 15. Between two harmonious notes. § 15. (Com- pare Manual of suspension Harmony § 57). all The 2. cantus firmus.

Also the Suspension. retarded in order to serve as a pre- paration for a suspension. { tzr^g. All such preparations of suspensions are bad. COUNTERPOINT OF FOUR NOTES etc. Good. for instance: -i#—•- :S: 134. Contrapuntal progressions of this kind exhibit. Many suspenand interrupt the flow of the movement. is Worst of all is as here the resolution of the passing seventh (which is moreover a major one). e _^ : il^ilp §!S: It is just H the necessity of the preparation by leap. Tolerably good.^m^^m Bad. the one at d. tonic step must moreover be formed by the last two crotchets. which in- jures the diatonic melodious progression of parts. for instance m^^t135. 39 -• — ^- P^^. must therefore forbid in a movement in crotchets. ±=e: .— § : 15. all figures of chords which do not contain at least one diatonic passing This diaseventh. really We m. perhaps also the ninth following the tenth." i3E employment will be best suited for the end. prepared by leap should be employed but seldom. for The requirements good counterpoint are always diatonic-melodious ones. so to speak. a more modern Its sions disturb manner than is usual in "sti'ict style" .

inasmuch as they could be so used to advantage. . 139. CHAPTER Good. -^—#- :t=^ Such ^T^^^^^^E3E^: figures formed from the triad as the following are to be totally abstained from. IV. Good. § 15. 137. inapt.— 40 Bad. ^^^i 138. H* \— g—f J \- 3=^ A tinued for several bars. mere circumscription of a semi-breve by four crotchets concannot be too carefully avoided. Circumscriptions of a semi-breve cannot always be avoided but in such a case a change of the following figures would be advisable. f—A— ^ J — —^ —— 9=b: i :^^ EE^J P^ :::^=J: *^ 3^ ^^ ^ *- t^ulas: -0 — ^- Such a progression as example 138 shows is totally . i By an -0—^ £ interchange of such figures one would be enabled at a pinch to circumscribe the following semi-breves.

But at our present exercises in simple counterpoint. Impossible. / (g. 41 IE^£ 140. are not always adaptable in florid counterpoint. while another part sustains the or vice versa. In employing the melodic minor scale. The melodic scale ist employed almost exclusively for diatonic progressions in the minor key. is: . scale contains in ascending (f|^) natural note. In employing the melodic minor scale moving we cannot too carefully avoid in the harmony of the bar. . The use of the augmented second In descendin the harmonic minor scale must always be avoided. we will discard it altogether. COUNTERPOINT OF FOUR NOTES eto. The minor scale. as are most suitable for note against note. and then circumscribing the semi-breve by four crotchets. we cannot be too careful. Such progressions. In most cases such counterpoints show their constrained origin very distinctly. that the moving part does not fitrike / a chromatically altered tone.) . *— t^E^ ilE$: f. it may be used sometimes in very complicated problems (canon and fugue). using notes which are not contained |^=s|-g 141. ing. and the in descending notes which do ' not belong to the chords of the in harmonic part. C.# § 15. M \ a: IV I V because the third of The F^t is impossible in the second bar.i^^ -•—#:t=F: :t:: SE& U-4—^-^ j=q=j=fe-«-r->-#—•• ( ZSL i mechanical £ i3! But even here we earnestly warn the stiideut against this purely manner of working these exercises first note against note.

the Cantus firmus in the Bass. m^\ We now counterpoint present a few examples of a cantus firmus in minor. in the fourth bar. Counterpoint in the Bass. 144. S^^ 142. in Soprano —« ^: 4=^i=i: —•—=l=i= i-ii-l \ —rH-iH— ^- -^—* 143. f. § 15. { ^4^ etc. c. the soprano the triad of the fourth degree is F One has therefore cannot strike G while the tenor sustains Gjj. for instance to arrange the counterpoint differently . f. IV. ii^ U^4 -^—«- -0—r ^—^- I— J— *— »H in p Cantus firmus G. f. being alternately divided between the four parts. in Soprano. { Cp m=f^=ij=^Er=r"F=E JlZSI :^ -0—W- i P^^^^^J^: .: : 42 CHAPTER . G. Counterpoint Cp.

t — — — > — etc. ^ ^ i£^^ —^ = 145. ii^?3= ^ —^ ^-t i^e: DZSZ 149. Cp. EE=f^=-=e: <! «^ -#—#- -n—m- ^ 140. §i^ -«>-— ^• S«s^- Tlie cantus firmus has to be transposed. . G. iiE6^ ::s: -^r ^ ^^B«=^= -f«—•- :az _&- Lt Exercises. COUNTERPOINT OF FOUR NOTES 43 Cantus firmus in Alto. Cp. 150. Counterpoint in Tenor.=j Cantus firmus in Tenor. -«> 147. C. Counterpoint in Alto. S^^^ :H 5^^ -•—^ « I ! . ^^ i izs: J J »i•— ! i^zd: iii— — iLM^ #^ isir 1 :t=. f. § 15. when allotted to other parts. ifE^: 148. f.

takes up and continues the motion. three firmus with motion in Cantus firmus in Soprano.1 I J J '^m —ta . In the preceding examples. i iB: H*— •- I P'i' t I I I I I i ^—0- 152. is free entrance of the ninth. / jj -i_•ziziMis: -uby the seventh. the pupil has bestowed his attention principally to the development of the part containing the counterpoint: he in may now advance to the following studies which to occur often reality. We show this in example 151.^ — CHAPTER IV. f. nately to the three The counterpoint has parts in such a manner be given alterfirst that one. .zMiZ. ff -0—f*- . At this times two must not otherwise the phrase would be overloaded by con- No new rules are required for this treatment . -. As guidance for the treatment we here show the student a cantus different parts. 151. ^^^ ^ #— — — —— I I I :q=fc|^ t— m The C. -0—^' c. but occur too often. § four notes . 16. trapuntal parts. f. of the succeeding examples. assisted marked by an*. or even three parts may have the crotchets. when they are assisted and attended by the seventh. and then the other. we wish only to recall to the memory of the student (Manual of Har- mony 56 example 291) that when the counterpoint moves in the major and minor ninth may enter freely by leap. '^>3$z :. § 44 § 16.

COUNTERPOINT OF FOVIi NOTES etc. r r-tf-r r . r- . 45 i\! " .§ 16.

P^=f^-^|=^=]=^ tzsnl: ::sr. 9-'-^^ . § 16. Exercises.: the last bars of example 155. 157. lend a peculiar charm to contrapuntal writing. 4=^dzJ=Jzq=^^ -0—1'- rr m Phrases of imitation.46 Cantus firmus iu Teuor.€2^zjt. CHAPTER IV. 156. as contained in -.

parts at once will have to be avoided may sometimes all take the the three Similar motion in . whether tenor or alto. although there are only three parts available for the representation of four- part harmony. . The middle .) affords more room for progression. feM^ But even gressions this can be occasionally allowed. 47 i © -^—•- -±±JL^ ^^ J Several successive chromatic notes should however he carefully avoided. (Manual of Harmony § 57 Examples 301 and 302. as the middle part. move more by leap especially in than was the case and this is advisable. they are dia- metrically opposed to the nature of counterpoint. matter. (no independent part will therefore be allowed to fourths and fifths. nay. Though such as pro- as follow. § Counterpoint in three-parts note against note should be that worked the harmony be clearly recognisable . but the chord of the sixth on the seventh degree may exceptionally descend to the chord of the sixth on the first degree. have to be always avoided. in four-part writing chord of the sixth on the seventh degree place of the chord of the seventh. THREE-PAR T CO VNTERPOINT. . The venth.) CHAPTER 17. so V. even occasionally to an eleBeginning and end will be best rendered in unisons. since by so doing. often This can be easily effected. Three-part Counterpoint.§ 17. iS^ F But the reverse is not so good. the The distance of the alto from the harmony can be made fuller. soprano may amount to a tenth.

Cantus firmus in Soprano. (#8=^^ . C. 163. the treatment of a cantus firmus in simple counterpoint in three parts. note). { i?fe ^ izr "2?- Cantus firmus in Bass. We will endeavour to illustrate in the parts requires more care. f. 36. CHAPTER V. f. when three in Moreover the student may be reminded that all kinds of hidden fifths or octaves will be much more noticeable in threeTherefore the treatment of the part than in four-part writing. three following examples. ^^ iiS3& c. the Hidden octaves parts finish cannot be avoided at the unisons. § 17. 161 -^ of the 22:1: The chord third.48 Bad. 162. seventh may be sometimes used without a § (Compare Manual of Harmony close.

THREE-PART COUNTERPOINT.§ 17. Cantus firmiis in Alto. 49 .

cp: s= ^-TiilE^ p-<5!_ |g-i |g j"^ - zrzc: ^=f=^ I 166. -^s—afi?- '^- -^- z^::js. f»^ ^ <! W^^^s)- 167. -^^Et =^=^3^ -:^X^^=^- —P-£&=g '^-Sh^fS^- ^^i^g^grrff=^Tnf * -«> :^ — P9f :tr=E I 12?:: £ . fuller has been omitted. NB. 56)..— CHAPTER V. in of resolution D. §17. ^<S. -(2 lis: the proper note At NB.. Cp iii^ %--«'«=±^<5'- rsl. 3j: c. f. -jgsi Cp. f.. -g. order § to make the harmony (Compare "Manual of Har- mony" C. i 9i ^«: :^3^^ _i — -^— S'-is^ ^.

as also with § 18. C.PART COUNTERPOINT.§ 18. The movement of four notes in the counterpoint against rules. Here follow three examples. 51 in alto or bass. THREE. — — -i- •- \—. the cantus firmus is in the alto. employed later. with this cantus any of the canti firmi firmus. 168. The treatment must be the same if the cantns firmus is situated The student may practise this. S¥& I — r^i i ' i^r 1 i-T-^ —TT-n . one of the cantus firmus will have to be considered also by the given for four-parts. f l^^^^_ { -i -•» -& -cr-m JSL. Cp.

and also with motion interchanged amongst 169. C. GJi is Old authors used modern. -1 — — \ I— _^ A— ±Z d. 9^p^H =ii^ ^^=1 173. f. § 52 18. NB. 171. The use of the se- P&= c^ii =*-^- ^ •-*-^- -*— i- 3Ee 170. the cantus firmus the of the following exercises has to be employed in simple counterpoint. -^—*- c. P^f^^^i=p :3r ^zsz\ 172. to employ the whole tone G. m. §i5JE^: n^ ^— -^=— o:q=i=: *-•— 33^^^^ :E3e£ P«-i^ — ^ -r—i- -*—»- Pi the cantus firmus i 1 \ — i»— »- • r-f-r-r t -(a £ The treatment has is to be continued in the same manner when placed in the soprano or bass. t- 'ISZ NB.I * * — CHAPTER V. monstrated in examples 161 — all parts as de- Exercises. f. §|Eg=p r^^ =^^=^=^ . mitone Cp.

§ 19. we or commence perfect fifth. No can perfect interval should found Unisotis octaves. have to be formed by contrary motion. . transitorily. When we have the to have to form in simi)Ie counterpoint or in two parts . perfect fifths. unison to on the octave. as It is the character of counterpoint. viz: i We 176. and fourths are imperfect there- fore to he excluded. Parts. c give now an example in simple counterpoint: ?:i§ . otherwise they would not mutually asAll hidden fifths and octaves have to be avoided: sist each other. Two § 19. g^ES '^^ CHAPTER Counterpoint in 'Z21 ^3 VI. COUNTERPOINT IN TWO PARTS. I The close will ESEEE 77^ iss: zs^. sometimes with unison the middle. ("Manual of Harmony"§ 59) One cannot therefore write thus: . even to approach the tonic from the leading-note by a hidden octave is forbidden. 53 i 175. and dissonances. not wise to . suitable for this species. the aug- mented fourths and diminished fifths. thirds and sixths. Successions of thirds or sixths. through more than two or contradictory to at the utmost three bars. remove the two parts further from one another than a tenth in florid counterpoint however an occasional transgression of this distance to the twelfth may be permitted. the and close by means he of the in octave. and the two parts may only be removed so far. We only employ consonances: the major and minor. are to be avoided. These intervals are the most suitable for making the harmonies in two-part writing most concise The minor seventh and major second are not and recognisable.

following by leap. We breves . Good. before augmented fourth. and the seventh before the sixth. The fifth and octave taken by leap on the weak beat. it contains a counterin soprano and one in the tenor.^ 3. 3^ Good. ^-. Good. 180. Bad. i^ the diatonically ii is In it return descending fourth is allowable. -Ci 178. One can make use the fifth of the suspensions of the fourth before the the third. for instance 179. § 19. give the subsequent rules for florid counterpoint in semi- 1. 2. ^^^m 5. as bears the character of a passing seventh and dissolved down- wards. O- :2fcl H The fourth below. This passing fifth takes and has to then the character of a passing seventh.: : 54 CHAPTER VI.. are permitted. 6. A Succession of two major thirds is The passing seventh allowable at the beginning. after the sixth. Bad. Bad. rJj. .j- point Here follows an example of this kind. must be avoided. ^^- ^^ -r=f 4. viz: descend dia- 177. 5=^ is :s2?: -^i prohibited. of the bar The perfect and diminished fifths on the second beat may be used.^M. both treating the same cantus firmus. Good. tonically. for instance 181. -^ . ^.

C. Cp.: ^—^-p-* £e£ * W • :[:==t: P C. bb 182. ^^^=1 ^1 i!=^^ h22- ZSL ZSEL Cp.: § 19. B3d^^E^. 184. ^^E^JEl -m. movement may be sometimes commenced with a viz 183. -(^—iS>- ^\-at—t '-Tf-^- t=^=^ z=s: is: S^ Conceruing the counterpoint of four notes. Cp. COUNTERPOINT IN TWO PARTS. f. W r—} \ =} -^—0 3^iiaS^ also apply here .-p—f . f. Cp. 184. against one of the cantus firmus. =*• ^ -^-. all rules already given. the third or a fifth . As for the rest. we show such a treatment under No.

p^tr^^f^i ^^^. subjoin here in tlie following remark.#--#-^ -f- • - ^— We bable. volume I of the "Wohltemperirte Clavier"). position in in effect. accustomed the use of full and rich harmony. we can Bach see this for in- (E minor fugue. No. » ffi T'=s: #. 185. A short intermezzo in a vocal composition of several voices. ing richer polyphonic figures We would then serve as a contrast to precedand so to speak. offer to the ear^ must regard a two-part instrumental comIt an the entirely different light.:=? "az. 10. § 19. a lengthy and elaborate contrapuntal movement will ever be written for two voices. to It is not very pro- that our time.-0-0-0.k » 56 CHAPTER -0 VI. (as for instance in a vocal fugue) might often be of very good a resting point. vs^-2=q-(S^ ^^^ -\—&-^—'^ JZ s> 186. =i^tf -0-f^ -I ¥' —'r f^p-n^f^ -!—. jEES^EfE. Exercises. ^^^i= 187. stance two-part fugues of Seb. JEJ^git^^^P .

It is quite another thing when . such a manner. A crotchet. find employment in actual practice. suitable to be inverted into so many different intercan only be formed under such very limited conditions. counterpoint . the tenth and twelfth. We call a counterpoint double. commence with two-part counterpoint in the octave. which could be placed to the cantus firmus in alto. We shall as has been hitherto done in simple by so doing the cantus firmus will become less rigid. is as much . Older treatises also contain rules for the double counterpoint in the ninth. We will not in future give the cantus firmus only in notes of equal value. CHAPTER § YII. that will they very rarely. as a soprano and also as a lower part. An inversion of parts into the double octave We would separate both parts too remotely from one another. "when it is 20. as to allow three kinds of double counterpoint : that in the octave . its formed in removal an octave.PART SECOND. however have to bestow especial attention on the formation so that it of the counterpoint. Double Counterpoint. give an example of a double counterpoint under No. vals. eleventh. tenth. or twelfth. such counterpoints. entering by step of second. perhaps never. as the effect of the inversion is We then lost. 18S. In this kind of florid cantus firmus a binding is allowed between two crotchets. We need only add to the rules already known for the treatment of two part counterpoint that neither part should be removed from the other more than an octave. thirteenth and fourteenth. as possible rhythmically contrasted with the cantus firmus. may also serve as a suspension. We have only to deal with above or below the cantus firmus.

f. which do not lead too from the principal key. Cp. . to the as the crotchets then stand to the same proportion all minims. C. We 189 another example of will kind of counterpoint. such as the augmented sixth. ^3=^=isf: -•==r^»-& ffffrr\ \ r-ffWWTfWWr r . Cp. that only those intervals and progressions disallowed in are possible which were available in two-part simple counterpoint. . ^ i^i»=i: fe^^^^ &=f -9-W- ^=4= :a=^q: 3^ Inversion. The student far will perceive that modulations. i^^s^i -fe-*- -P^ -^—0-9-Izut I i=I=::i| Inversion. 189. ^ ^Fff 14 f -S)-. as the minims semi- breves in the previous canti firmi. must be excluded in double counterpoint. we have minims in the in the cantus firmus. be serviceable. § 20. . 188. tE£S: =^=^ if^^ One Intervals will perceive. give under No.. . c. which are this simple counterpoint.58 CHAPTER VII.

which would Inversion Inversion Q 194. fourths. the counterpoint remains. . we must adhere to the following conditions: 1. can be used as tenor to the bass and alto. S^i To to the •T»-# :ss±^. in When we place a soprano and alto to a cantus firmus § 21. 5:55 ?-''3^- this alto the soprano has to moved be placed as counterpoint. 2. 192. Oouble counterpoint in the octave. 59 190. 191. such a manner that the soprano. S^e^ To is =pn g^ ^-f: ^r^jg^z^ zz: this cantus flrmus the cantus flrmus the lower part has to be added} in the inversion placed in the lower octave. the cantus flrmus remains. Soprano and alto must not be separated from one another more than an octave. form parallel They must not move in consecutive fifths when inverted viz . :^* -75^- -'S> — »- -^=rjr-ir ^g in 193. ^w --^ f--^ — \- i 3 -sx:i=^^=ithree parts.^ — . and to be relower octave. DOUBLE COUNTERPOINT. similarly in 192 and 193. § 21. Exercises. removed an octave lower.

Likewise the real suspension of 9 — 8 ought to be avoided. Cp. f. in this case still remains a suspension after the inversion. than as it would. Here follows an example of this kind of counterpoint. CHAPTER VII.itis= -*— »- .2^ZZ3 £ =!: f^ —g "It §a: 12: 1 Due attention must be bestowed on the formation of the alto. to one.-^ -. -<2-. inasmuch as after the inversion of the soprano into the lower octave it will become the upper part. as the result in the inversion would be. { idizi: ^ 1 9 8 2 -/9- ^^=^ When pension is the soprano as is two octaves from the bass. two Not Inversion F=g^^g— 197. the bass. § 21.g — 60 3. an octave. c. be placed underneath Not Inversion. ^t 4. Inversion ^ 198. { . m 196. when inverted. it this sus- allowable. The soprano cannot approach nearer to the bass. ti :J_J_ « ' ^ '-ri r —•— ' Tzrz ^- 199.

DOUBLE COIJNTEBPOINT.§ 22. ' 61 1 "V~?ll .

-n~T a^ptE §Lfagr=J=J~^ .. :t:: the example under No. — VII. m m^ The *— gi-q-^ ^ —~ H« #- r T following suspension would be equally wrong: li=^=^t i 3se: —T ^ - g^sH^ We therefore alter the counterpoint of the alto in this manner r^- p 0- fe^ We now reproduce firmus in the alto. ^«E^ <! — #- " ' i^ 201. : 62 CHAPTER The Inversion would be § 22. f. 201 with the cantus -«' C.

the Bass is placed two octaves higher. ^-— i —— — — I i ~ i -^. -•—•-\=Tr. fe^ -«^=d=^. Second manner of inversion. is placed two octaves oe 204. ^}-Su 75 .H«—•- -*— ipi- •—»H -hg-^- *— ^- higher. Soprano and Alto remain. q_<s2_ i^S .: 1 — 63 in § 22. DOUBLE COUXTERPOiyT. the Bass the Soprano an octave lower. An inversion of the bass and soprano would be effected the following manner s> jfeg^ s 202. '• #- *— ' 7^— mEM -#—#- First manner of inversion. . I ! 203.

with the care. In triple time the same rules are be enforced. which is a free part. an objectionable . (which by the by quite beyond we would alter the alto. -£. 205. --1: rr-r^^^ 206. § 22. laid down to above. Should we prefer to avoid the is slight crossing of parts objection) at NB. For the better comprehension of the pupil.64 CHAPTER VII. iH^Ml^^^i Z3l.7^6 ^—•- m In all -^ —— f it »- these examples is quite immaterial which exercises part re- ceives the cantus firmus originally. All are treated by the foregoing rules and principles. 205. in No. he will an example in triple learn from the preceding as well as from the followgive that we examples. great and such a manner that there may not consequently appear in one of the inversions. fifth of in the triad is introduced in all places. time ing .

m i: 208. . Bass and Alto remain. f. the Soprano remains. octave. -*— •- -221 d: J-. exercises. -^:z^ ^^^^ -^0- =f=*=i=q c. if the Alto be placed an octave higher and the Soprano remains as before.U • P m -n-»- fl •—p- Jadassohn. 2 chord. n^*- Xi: g^^ PS Be First 22- :•=*: -iS^ -t5>^ kind of inversion: The Soprano is lowered an octave. { ^ ::m >$'• ^^ 96>-'^*-» p »• vr r-f^ ^^ I 2ztc -^V # «- ^• PS H^ 33 Bass t The same kind of inversion will remain. Counterpoint.DOUBLE COVNTERPOINT. 65 This point should also find due consideration in these j= ^T^ -u207. Second kind of inversion. and Alto are inverted an ^^ 209.

§ 22. i^E^^^ -\r-^ -d lUi: A.=. .66 CHAPTER VII. Ife —O- 3-J. the Alto remains. Bass an octave higher. 3i^ •»' 210.M=J^3E3 -& ••- :zp=iz ^ ii^ Third kind ifc :a5 -«?— t: of inversion. & '-k «0^—^ r i> -M—Sz =r^f=^ !2-S: 211. m^^^m SEE* •^' -0—mit-ti: m^m -=i=^ f ^i^^ =w=t-t ££ :=t -0—9- . the . The Bass : is removed two octaves higher. :t: give parts ^—•:p=t: igi of inversion now the the fourth kind crossing we place the Soprano and to avoid two octaves lower. -G~- ^^ti m^^:. B^ We ££. the Soprano an octave lower the Alto remains.

Cp. and which must appear in a different form in . Exercises. a!ptn^=Ft^ ^^j^pggf :|5zt« f 214. As accompaniment to the two parts in double counterpoint. which are to be inverted he shall add to each exercise a third free VOice which need not be inverted. that the various inversions of each could he shown in connection with the original position. The alto and bass may be regarded as free parts. we have worked out example 199. CHAPTER Double Counterpoint § in VIII. as he would thereby only involve himself in unnecessary difficulties. 216. the Octave in Four-part writing. 23. the first position of each example. 9r^ g<- i=t #=^ t!5^ —— tzzit -F-^ m 1 213. ig^ For the sake of saving space. 201 a and 207 in such a manner. The pupil is not required to follow out this method. here. .: § 23. f. DOUBLE COUNTERPOINT IN THE OCTAVE. -^ a 67 212. The student can produce the simplest kind of Double- Counterpoint in four parts by forming a movement in such a manner that tenor and soprano can be interchanged. No new rules are in required force for this. C. Note. Here follows Those given at § 21 and 22 will remain an example in which the tenor is so placed to the cantus firmus in the soprano that both parts may exchange places. i±t P -C* la: 215.

point in the Soprano. the other parts which have not to be inverted. must here expressly remark that the pupil is not at all obliged to work his exercises in this manner. alto and bass. and lastly bass and five more inversions of . -2^7 J-(Si!- Z ^^ « (5>—\Gh 1 W- m t*>- f * -J J •^ •• ^^ 351 t. by which proceeding we gain still soprano and alto. . -*-#—#- P# to -© — 3s In example 216 however. Cp. are nevertheless also treated according to the rules of double counterpoint. But we . soprano. and in these exercises he will only have to treat two parts in such a manner that they can be inverted. this He is would cause him a great deal of unnecessary difficulty. We are therefore able also to interchange them.fi. . example 216. =2: m^ = !z: —^z^\ W T^. 216. he in may consider as He must work free. (besides those inversions already demonstrated) alto and tenor. I I I 217. § 23. the counterin the octave. c. is In the inversion the cantus firmus in the Tenor. Both parts are inverted Inversion of No. 3=3^ . tenor and bass. the two parts which are not meant be inverted. f. several examples by placing the cantus firmus another part.^ CHAPTER 68 VIII. only required at present to work but one contrapuntal part to the cantus firmus. without any regard to an inversion of the free parts.

for example: Inversion. Inversion.— § 23. Altogether unsuitable. 69 at example 216. and not only prove itself as a a harsh dissonance. always almost is eight suspension nine to the introduction and resolution of suspensions requires the greatest care. has the may practise this problem in the order indicated He "will perceive by the inversions. that the fifth of a chord pears in to be introduced with especial care when it apIn like manner the bass in one of the inversions. but at the inversion may also give rise to faulty progressions. DOUBLE COrNTERPOINT The student IN THE OCTAVE. ^^ 9^ [-^ — jt^- ^ i m- . This interval will present diminished third. The employment of the augmented itself sixth will prove alike difficult.

Sl I j ±i I i 1 J. . '• G>—i^ «--^ ISIZ the Alto The cantus firmus in the Soprano. the Bass that of the Tenor.1. the Alto replaces the counter- point of the Tenor.— CHAPTER The cantus firmus in Soprano the . -&L i —iH—^ ?-tf^ 9^=3: ^ '^ — e»—»- ^^ =^"S= The cantus £ ^ . The inversion has been transposed into A major for the sake of keeping the voices within their respective limits. the Bass that of the Alto. Sr-F'^^^^. -#—#- -^H *-^ firmus iu Soprano the Tenor takes the counter- point of the Bass. s. takes over the counterpoint of the Bass. J i I I J. § 23. -^ :p: . .2?--2r=3^ziz^ rfffr-^'^ !. 70 VIII. I "^M— J — I I. M a 219. i#i = ± M ^^^=t-- -(S^--5> •^—f^E^z^ isiai » 220. Tenor that of the Alto. I.

the alto with the cantus firmus in the alto or tenor. in order The pupil should .) the bass with the soprano.j. :siS5 the Soprano replaces the coun- The cantus firmus in the Bass terpoint of the Bass. I DOUBLE COUNTERPOINT IN THE OCTAVE. the alto . versions of the exercises should be written down always. 999 f ff r M- 1^ 1 — «?- 1 ^ A a pdt 9 . The practice of his own endeavours will prove clearly to him the necessity of the given rules. for in- change of the bass into the (having the cantus firmus in tenor. : l^^&:^ -ij ^ -e^" " •<«?•• J-/2- In the same manner other inversions can be worked. etc. prinThe inciples. fa =rtT zanz i ^ -r^sr 7^ ^— < g -^--= ' r H«— . Beginning with note against note in as simple a manner as possible. and remarks on this kind of double counterpoint. work out the following exercise. he may furnish the cantus firmus with a more florid counterpoint in the free parts and inversions. 71 S=^=i=:^.jO- <^ <g- ft ^-(2£: -f" f n^'Tff ^ i» P ^ stance bass.^ § 2. I g fi I # ig i :^ ^» Btza 2 ^^ = g^ - -^ -^2 ^' ^— g. 3?:qi5T: -^ i ^» 44. 42221.

Exercises.zsmz.± 1 = -^ I ^ 1 J ^ J-lJl ^H«- I ji -f-m- S^ Inversion. 224. § 23. The cantus firmus may be given to every one of the parts. real effect of the double formations of this kind They will often give rise to many corrections and alterations of the original work. Alto and ^ 223 a. Above all the student must give due attention to the inde- pendent melodic formation of each part. in Alto.— CHAPTER experience 72 that VIII. cantus firmus from No. ^ i -•-^t-\-0 is: 4 ^ -T-» -f=^- j W — l-w m ——*-- — i3Et4 ^- *- Ji giS Cantus firmus t5^* i 2: A^ J -0—P- T=£rF^ Counterpoint in H«-#. Counterpoint in Tenor. Bass are free parts. . We exemplify the manner of treatment with two free parts below. Tenor and Bass ai'e free. SeIe SlEEEEEp^IpEp# . may be gained of the of writing. and see that the distance of the parts be sufficient to allow for the inversion. Soprano.-G>- i^sM-ilJ — «9 #_i_5 ^ \ ^•r^i^ 2236. Cantus firmus in Soprano. { -»-T-# I ii. -j±.

5JE?£rS^ ^JJ a* Si^E^ _i_ii^J i^Es -«©^ -#—<^ -t— E£ gi^ i 1^.1 1^ I 1-^ i^ Cantus firmus in 15^: ~s>^ Soprano.J -^S^- -•-a-#-^ -^—G^ t^ etc.^ -•-i* — •- 2?: Cantns in Soprano. S 223c. --^-5^ ^-f= firnius 1EE=. ^ iJ: iHE^=r ijjj e: J. DOUBLE COUNTERPOINT Inversion. i-j^?'". f*4rr -^ ^ a •*— Z2Z.t ^ IN THE OCTAVE. ij-ii-«>— =hif= . the middle parts are inverted. 73 --i=i -5—#- J ! #— m. § 23. iE^ t 223 A -n—setc. Tenor and Bass inverted. p'.

. ^ ^i^i^^^i^f^ Remarks on these Exercises. §£E$=|ElE|^|^j^:JEiEfepi^ It does not matter if one the other of the finishes with the chord of the sixth. § 23. Bass aud Soprano inverted. Wz :^ 223 e. ii. ginning and close. I 226. CHAPTER VIII. I^^^^^^^l^ fc^iz^EE^ 225. inversions commences or The ^ chord must be avoided at the heAlso in the middle of the movement attention must be or 227. T-^- r— Jij §i -S-»— P n--G>- ^1 -<5i Vi -i^jtilz • • _^f :t=F ii H«—•:5 224. paid to what has been said regarding the introduction of the fifth of a chord. t=P ^&^ •#- Zfrr ^ »- P=i=i=^P! ^ ^—n^z: •• ^z tig=Jtz=i f • f^tl^l Inversion.— 74 Cantiis firraus in Bass.

Soprano. In these inversions one can. but this must not be continued through elBfect many bars. Position. ©. 3. for any length of time on the same note would be impracticable. Sopra»io. Position. 75 which when inverted. if occasionally one of the lower parts crosses a higher one for a few notes. 3. no other part should be placed the lowest part representing it even momentarily. TRIPLE COUNTERPOINT IN TEE OCTAVE. Alto. in order that none of the inversions commence. Triple Counterpoint In the Octave In three and four parts. 2. § 24. 3. otherwise this chord may easily sound weak or have a bad effect. This however would unless it be purposely meant as a pedal. 1. In the middle of the exercise.Tenor(orBass. Soprano. Tenor. At the beginning and close the fifth has to be avoided. 2.§ 24. 3. . other- Below the bass or an inversion would be lost. Alto. We here give an example of not sound well in three parts. 2. Alto. Soprano. or close wise the of . If iu three -part writing all the parts have been treated by the rules of double counterpoint. melody as each of them inverted in its turn in the soprano will For this reason the resting of one part become an upper part. 1.) 3. Position. 1. This chord cannot of course be avoided altogether. namely: 2. 2. Alto. Soprano. 2. Tenor. The student need not trouble himself too much to evade it. The cantus firmus first placed in the bass. would result in a ^. Tenor. 4. 3. the all movement with 4 the ^ chord. one has only to bestow sufficient care on its proper introduction. 1. Position.Position. triple is counterpoint with all the inversions. CHAPTER IX. Alto. ])lace (to avoid disagreeable crossings. Tenor.) one or the other parts two octaves higher or lower. 2. Tenor. Alto. the rules formerly given regarding the position and introduction of the chord. are to be observed. Soprano. five inversions can be ffirmed from 1. it. A suspension nine to eight. 5. 3. has always to be avoided. Position. In the ordinary inversion in the octave it does not matter. Every part must form an independent . 1. . 1.

Cp. g5^^«^=^3? M=^i=^=jq ^4i ' -»—#- & ' #— :^ 1 -* I —H _ ir H—r- 1 »—0- P ^ n ^fSi PEEE^"ESEE5Efe£E^ 3^S^|. 2 228. 3.^_I^^. :*z=Jz* s i r -^_5ii: 42. CHAPTER IX. § 24.5" ^- * ^ ^=^ g 5SE First inversion. ^ -^ - 'ff .' 'f: ^ §ifc S=^ *r ^7" W^ '(• f.Cf SfeE^ 12=1=12^: £ (2 "—^ h!^ . L-J <! 3. 1. 2.^?E5: -<g *r^? J- sr^ -i&^ O- . Is£ The Alto is »—f placed an octave lower and forms the Bass.^ 76 -I. p!E3?E3 l3ESEl^ ••• * i^^^ I I r- r r r T^" 229.

be transposed to the key oi G. ! 1 -] . This and the next inversion ought to and becomes the Soprano. 77 The Alto is placed in the higher octave Second inversion. -»»—«1. ^ ^^i*L S^E^ if:^^-^^ TJ J J -f^. TRIPLE COUNTERPOINT IN THE OCTAVE. EJ jgEB^J l=i^^=i=A { >— -#-#5^-f: -90' 230. ^^ m M.^ § 24. to render them more practicable for the voices.

S^Efe iii ^^ :!»=5=<: ^ ^^rti^f^^ *— 1^- S=i :^*:±^. 4—^ —w P-0 I 3l^ 1 J_Irgg=3^ 1 . the The Bass is Soprano.5r^ ^—fC ^ { W^- ^ y-h 1 '^. . Soprano an octave lower. the Soprano Bass. 2. iEE^^^: Fifth inversion. Alto forms the Bass in this inversion. — IX. 232. the 3. 78 §24. n . ffe 1^ #» ^1 } K T 233.•— i3=t=f lit: The Bass is placed an octave higher. Fourth inversion.^ CHAPTER :t:. 3. The Bass is placed an octave higher.__.

. of the parts quickly An occasional crossing passing in one of the five inversions would not be of any moment. we could introduce the ninth in fifths Even the suspension as of the the octave can be brought into requisition.I i I — 79 § 24. especially if will be Occasional transposition it were in the middle parts. of the three upper parts would to have to form the every- bass in any of the inversions. the task would be in some respects rather easier than in the foregoing three-part exercises. Exercises. ^iq^p 0—^ -1^ 235. be intended in four-part writing to place the three upper parts in triple-counterpoint in the octave to a cantus firmus. g£^ -<?— 1— 1 \ — r-i \ — r-l 1 1 <^ — . giig: — —— f^ I \ r 236. t ^" :?: #. TRIPLE COU.•-Ji ^ of these After the exercises. #.STERPOJNT IN THE OCTAVE. student has worked out the cantus firmus he may try to invent by himself similar phrases which five would allow If it inversions. As none where. we show the subjoined example. found necessary when the exercises are meant for voices. bars five and seven. 234.

J- j J ^± ^ Second inversion. f. 80 § 24. ^^ 2. ^=^=:: 1^ :^ -ft-ir i 238. 3. •^ -e- J ^ — — -• — -75 — f*^ = tJt f. §ipS . •—#237. I i C. 3. ^ ^i==^ First inversion (transposed to Cj. p j_jJ_-Jl C. J J V ^ §^E^ ±T-fe ^ •* -(J2_ ^^ r— -«>— 1-h5^- -J_. IX. £^ { -»>—» f-r 239. P=i=:=^ J: ^-P=f=^tf .r CHAPTER The Cautus firmus in the Bass. 11^ -^1-^ ig^ I _^L <g>T-tf— fL I Z^ ^ 2. f.

^ W «^ P5| I 1 (^) Fourth inversion.5 — 81 § 24. 1. fT -#-H2- ^iiiti ^ c. iJiHi * mssi 2^ 0 IE: c. 1^^ . -^! 1 I II ift^ 240. gg^ <^' -g.t -9. 2gZ^ 1 I ^^ =^ to Third inversion (transposed D). TRIPLE COUNTERPOINT IN THE OCTAVE.-<S>- -»—*-•-H^ ^:z22: 1^1 S. Counterpoint. jT 241. f. { :|: •-#:i: -X:. ^ U s r^rf 1^1 ^- — 0=^ iS" ^ijj -!S2- §5 Jadassohn. ^^-J-fF ^j \- zr-f==$- pp f I . f.

CHAPTER JX.82 Fifth Inversion. O'lt '^•i brH"" rD "^/^^ . § 25 Exercises.

We the therefore pupil not to stay too long at in this triple kind of double as counterpoint. (even if pass of a piece advise they should be perfectly usable. We urgently recommend practice as such movements very often occur in practice. TRIPLE COUNTERPOINT IN THE OCTAVE. twenty four changes inversions place. one would certainly never produce versions.) within the comThis would produce monotony. will To save we its only give the four . follows an example in quadruple counterpoint. we will see later Now space.§ 25. of music. most important of the possible we here give those in which each part 1 . all 83 the in- be seldom required. on in treating of the fugue. counterpoint.

itra^ :^:|:^ feLi/T:^ :^t: i=£ti i^ppE^^^ iiE^^ 245 d. J. ^— — tt-» J (- . J-t—fc i -^*-s^ J J I I E^^ §fpeJEg^£| ^^^£^^ --22— •. ^ 4. § 25. 4. w ^ ^-/IJ3t* -•-#1-T £: ^^•- =^^E^ ilfe fflt==q=s! ^zfe^^ ClJ(E|=p:^=^gEfe> £S Pi3 ^ • —/*. U ^J-- .84 CHAPTER IX. i^^ — ^-* «? J r-fTr T-f^ -lS'S>- »#ic^ 4:: 4= 245c.

iP^^^ 3. TRIPLE COINTERPOIST IN THE OCTAVE. •-— s: ^^^i^^ 'rrr ^^ £^5^1 I r #--«^ 245 e. 85 j=^-.§25.-•— r' =3 & ^ . ^^^'^ --t?^ P^^ ^r rr^nf r* w.

86 CHAPTER IX. _r_^ — i^E^^^I^^ ii=^=F-«-§^ 247. •- -|B »- 2*8- ifei^j^^^^^^^^^«=e3 The student may also invent such movements as can be worked in quadruple double counterpoint. show here also example 216 in the inversion ^=^^ i^: 3. .1^=^ :s i ^: -J ^^^^m f a T*f ^ i^ :z5: ^-» —•—I— <2- g^ T~P==^ isia' 9^=P^= ^ —12 ^ « 3tJ. i=^ S>—^ -(S- tS'- §M TII^ISL 4. •--T^- Exercises. § 25. 246. §±^^E|= ^. We 245 A 4.

87 CHAPTER Double Counterpoint § 26.§ 26. such The fourth and the seventh can only be used in passing in which in the a way that the fourth proceeds to the fifth . inversion. unisons or Inversion. in X. tg^ ^ j ^^=i=^ i r rt Inversion. result. to In double counterpoint in the tenth the question is invert a part a tenth or third. of two thirds. They would fifths. in the inversion in parallel octaves. i rt 1=^^ ^^^Si . intervals 4 5 The 6 in the 10 It is 98765432 3 7 8 9 10 1 evident that in this kind of counterpoint the succession tenths. DOUBLE COUNTERPOINT IN THE TENTH AND TWELFTH. inversion naturally becomes a seventh to a sixth: for instance: i-J-J-j- 3 ?^"T • ^ Inveision. the Tenth and Twelfth. or sixths should not take place. are shown 1 in 2 which appear the following table of numbers.

one will be able to invert a phrase treated in this manner. so that both proceed together in thirds. its on the other hand. of all four parts as a whole must be clear and Now provided the rules. that both proceed together in thirds And to the lower part icrite an upper. those rules are unquestionably correct. 249. as many years of experience has taught us. but in most cases they serve. and tenths have be excluded.88 CHAPTER of the ninth is X. Regard the subjoined example. suggest but one simple rule for the double counterpoint in the . suspensions and progressions which were be evaded or permitted. The harmony natural. in the tenth. f. and this all is required for so formation. put forward All Older treatises to a considerable number of rules concerning those intervals. thirds. £=zt: ^ te « SS 1*' 1=^? £^=g It is i^ motion in ^F=^ ^the clear. § 26. relating to double counterpoint in the octave have been taken into account. To the higher part write a lower. that in the double counterpoint in the thent only serve contrary intervals and to oblique can purpose. . as those generally used parallel motion: sixths. tenth only to embarrass the student. C. contains that We. The suspension resolved in this way: i -(2 -M Inversions.

we shall now be enabled to invert each part a tenth or examples. is what is equivalent a third.of inversion. in like thirds below the upper part. -(^ ^^^s^m 250. We show this in the following First kind. £E -0-^ >-#- g^=--=g t:f± ^^ To this W^^J=tU and also to the succeeding inversions. As the to the laws of are treated according double counterpoint in the octave. DOUBLE COUNTERPOINT IN THE TENTH. as in practice such counterpoints formed by two parts only. manner we may parts we have so arranged the lower part we may add thirds above it. The iipper part remains. the lower part remains. -g—&- -#-#- ^stiy?: i ^ -9~ 5 b ~' ^ -0-^ ^ . could not be used. Second kind of inversion. 1^^ 251. (or third) The upper part placed a tenth lower. the under part is placed a third (or tenth) higher.§26. one or two free parts have of course to be added. 89 I Here it will be seen that that also write with the cantus firmus.

the lower one a tenth higher. We only give the commencements . which contains one part worked in double counterpoint in the octave. i S^S^^^^^^ m Third kind tenth) T—. te w . Both parts are placed a third higher. —— i ^ • -0 ^ ^ (or of inversion. § 26. -#-•: r^ -»Htf^ Pj^i^g^^g^^g^r^^gs H P #-^-«- -^«»fi — — ^£e££S £^EE^gEE^^£E^ -#— We can treat this example in three parts in the following way. EeE^ 253 a. write out the whole example as well as the inversions. -^—^- -•-F- :t^. . ^* —g-^» • T ^ The upper part is placed a tenth lower. iipeE^^i^i -0 f 1—i — is: trrX f-P--0—» ^=f^ ^—•^ t »-a-J-* -p-0-^- 1 IT t~| T"—^ ^ Fourth kind of inversion. the student may for practice. . f-»- 252.h ^ ^ 90 CHAPTER X.

etc. ^1 ' ' ' L free part. { ^s iZZ^ ^ fi: ¥^M ^^=I=^S==1=^ m^ ^^-^^^^Ir'Uj:^ : . § 2G. il:e^3^^ 253 c._^- SiteE It is ^ ^ . In the same manner one can add two free parts in the double counterpoint in the tenth. DOUBLE COUNTERPOINT IN THE TENTH.* . iiiEBE^-^J^Ei^ Second manner. also practicable to add to the counterpoint another which need not be inverted but then the free part re- quires to be replaced as middle or lower part in each inversion. I -^ -l-a( <5- =S=5 etc. |£E^^^ 2536. in each inversion. parts to the two and reconstruct them We demonstrate this by furnishing example 250 (the free first in- version of 249) with one free upper part. i -^— . 91 First manner. inversion) with tiio and example 253a (fourth parts (Soprano and Tenor) i 253 d..

W-- a -._*. Sd^^ i^iii 3^ » ^0 ^ t=H=f I EEfcEEiji*^ |^35S ^ •*J- -«— •f^# —0^ E— :* i^g f=tfcilt?=^ :ii fj^zpz^^z-r . 253 e. § 26. \ We transpose the inversion of 253 o to A minor as more adaptable for voices.h 92 CHAPTER X.

LOIBLE COUNTERPOINT THE TENTH.J ^ ^**.U— 1— ^ r r-i ' i ^ ^^ 256.^a Mil ite . — I ^ ^^=^^g^^^ ^' *^ . V^-^ • P- 4-^ ^ f • £ » I t^ 2E£t — F-i*-#-^ §S=F=^ !^^ r. < ^ 4. >^ v^>^^i :tr=t <^»-^- -• .r =s=s= iei-:^ •M •— ^_g-S -^ • r^ -i— rB»- =5-fr^ *^-*— ?^: !3ESE&^=fei 9iM JEE^tHzpi^g^^l^ '^m^ 257. :^^ . 255.-. #-f-f= 0^ :?2- tfbk=EEM p=E-r^ ^t F-! — ^- -nTU>?^.^ § I # — JN — 93 26.

the "Stretto" Bach's fugue in B flat-minor (Wohltemperirtes Clavier. § 27. 12. -(2 -^ * — ^<2 — <*>• — 8. the eleventh and vice versa. 11. •«>• — 7. 1. II). 11. counterpoint. 9t=^ ST :5^ . m ^^ ^ 12. <g and fifths. Th. We double here add another example of the This is employment (Eugfiihrungj of in such Seb.94 CHAPTER X. l^l! 10 9. ^a—^ 10. In comparing the following tables of numbers and notes. 10. 4. 7. Double Counterpoint in the Twelfth. one will perceive that by inversion the unisons and octaves will be changed into twelfths the tenth into the third. 3. l=fet Se^ t^b^rt' The ^^ S=d: :s3 i Sge^li^^ student may now endeavour to compose little movements in double counterpoint in the Tenth on his own account. 9. into the second. § 27. 4. 3. t*- Inversion. 2. 7. 11. Inversion. 258.

S^ '*•• - -a i-^: Therefore the counterpoint is W of thirds ^ES^^E^i that is formed in such a manner. for instance Unprepared passing sixth. E^ 259.«-- The double counterpoint in the twelfth the progression of thirds or is based essentially on This monotonous combination requires to be cleverly concealed. by giving the contrapuntal part this to the student in the follow- a free movement. c. ing example. j^ "2— d- r ^ Inversions. f. m^ 2— . as a descending passing note it need not be prepared Prepared sixth. DOUBLE COUNTERPOINT IN THE TWELFTH. and tenths much as possible covered for instance 'mEi -^ 260 c. f.: : § 27. as the progression . ^^^ +— . * ^ O ^p -^ t»' » la: tenths. becomes a seventh ways prepared. it 95 must be al- As the sixth by inversion. We will show One generally adds to the notes of the cantus firmus only the third or tenth. and descend one step diatonically . .

C. ^ -^-1 The cantus firmus is placed a twelfth higher. 5^ . the cantus firmus remains.96 CHAPTER From this little X. First inversion. f. C. m^^^--^ P 4 ts^ -P-^ s 5^ ±±i^ -P—s^ ^^^m^^E^ Second inversion. 261. The counterpoint placed a twelfth lower. Cp. ^ i^£S T5^- 262. ^^^ hS?- p . phrase we could be able is to form the four following inversions. Cp. the counterpoint remains. § 27. f.

DOUBLE COUNTERPOINT IN THE TWELFTH. the Counterpoint an octave lower. Cp. ^M-. f. The fourth 97 manner is of inversion corresponds with the second fifth the Cantus firmus placed a higher. m^. § 27. id:. or two Free-parts.. to which we join two is free-lower parts. c. "m^-- g ^ J_^ ^l^E^E. g^^ # p :t= Z^ZZ !ir^ :f^ 263 6. ^ i±EEE To these is: -(S*— m •-*- 264. Jadassohn. to which we add one freethe inversion 263 a. example 260 a. and in can be added one. in H«— •- £=t=^ *- ^ two-parts this We illustrate middle part.f.^^^^^ :fe3 -id- i^- i x=^ Counterpoint. Cp. I- 2±L ISl. The Cantns firmiis placed an octave lower to leave room for the free-middle part. . . (i BJiitj:^ ^^ -^s>^ -( ^ #-» g * ^•- — 2606. C.

only in two I . will be also avail- Triple or quadruple counterpoint in the twelfth does not exist. The pupil is recommended to commence parts. To each example he can add one. have also to be discarded here. § 27. or even two free-parts. which we have already worked in Example 253. All those suspensions and passing dissonances which had to be evaded there. his and that even without especial regard to two-part writing. If one wished to add to a double counterpoint in the twelfth one or two invertible parts. i : I J able for the inversion of These two free-parts placed a fifth higher Example 262. one would have strictly to follow those rules given in quadruple counterpoint in the octave. as we have already shown in Example 260b and 263 b. studies in counterpoint in the twelfth.98 CHAPTER X. any more than in double counterpoint in the tenth.

) the less strict one need be in movements containing more The more numerous the parts are. ^ g -± eJ \ ^^m m^^ 7* [pE -#—1«-2^ S^^S^ . all in the course of a vocal composition of more than four the voices be reduced temporally to four. CHAPTER Counterpoint § 28. in XI. the preparation. the rules and principles and two-part writing. Five. Seven and Eight real Parts. it is occasionally allowed two lowest voices in octaves or unisons. or two parts. the more than four parts. be treated.PART THIRD. etc. freely can hidden fifths and octaves. Six. three. for instance: take the -*—#265. doubling of the leading note. to In seven or eight parts. (if the pupil makes any pretention of producing a good effect. and resolution of the sevenths. conscientiously all to The more of the "strict style" have be observed in three If parts. the rules and principles of this style will be again available.

266. and allow it to alternate amongst them. tenor and two basses. tenor and clever hands produce an excellent effect by its florid remarkable fullness of sound. laws of Five -part counterpoint. ZGIzcz:. therefore. would in and second soprano. Ife^SE^ Soprano II. are not so easily heard. than by splitting up the scarcer altos or tenors. § 28. t5'— 1 iS> — Soprano I. a better effect would be produced by more numerous soprauos or basses into two distinct groups. composed of bass.$: C. For this reason one would place the cantus tirmus mostly in the bass. We give an instance in counterpoint of Five-parts the cantus firmus being in the bass. and still more rarely in the middle parts. Experience teaches species us that in Choral Societies soprano-voices are the most abundant. SiEEE: Tenor. Five-parts. alto. iNuturally.sz^l Alto. or perhaps: soprano. tenor and bass. §!. alto. next to these the basses preponderate above the tenors and altos. f. alto. whose parts as a rule. . still it would be better to write two sopranos. dividing the To give motion to one part alone first . Though one could double any of the four parts. . ZC—STTL 3BE Bass. In florid counterpoint it would be most practical to divide the movement amongst the different parts. is not advisable in this case.100 Let us first CHAPTER elucidate the in this XI. not so often in the soprano.

I . f. : Soprano I. B^ -f—m-r-f '-t—0- Alto. i^s -<s^ ^^ T=^ EE3 Bass. ^ 11.§ 28. iaE— C. 63^ :=^: T-^- = iigl== m r-S*- i :^=i?Soprano 311^^ P zlT-^ -«l Alto 5^^ 3z: Hi Tenor gEg^=|^=g— g? <g—g- Bass. te i^^E^ c. Soprano I. lOf. COryTERPOlNT IN FIVE REAL PARTS. The same cantus firmus 101 counterpoint of two notes against one in the following might be treated in a manner: 267. ^^ The same 268. |^EdgE|?E^Ep= t-y-^ Soprano II. fr<^ Tenor. cantus firmus with a more florid counterpoint.

P' and 11"'^ bass. Tenor. «^ G> —\—^ 1—«>— Bass I. the division of two voices each in ex- § 29. We then write for I^^ and 11"*^ The cantus firmus of soprano. i^iisi --1 S> 1 <s- Bass II. .— — 102 -0 CHAPTER XL =-• ^ 0- § 29. i!^ i±si c.- <U—'2r~sr'z\ —g^q a.p arts in the following . . S^ fae tt iizig 1. Example 266 would be represented in six. a- Alto. alto and tenor. manner. SopranoII. Soprano I. 269. w w zzr. treme part would be most advisable. m V O- 1 For Six-parts. f.

Bass II. ^ f. ^^^ §3^ c. Soprano I. ^3^3^ -X- ^ P I * Bass I. i^ m |B$E iia: ¥^^^^^ Soprano II. -0—^ AJto. The same cantus firmus 103 more elaborated in the middle-parts: 270a.§ 29. w. COUNTERPOINT IN SIX REAL PARTS. :p=t= m Tenor. — rr .

S-Si —• 3^ii=e people. *—a^ com fort. Andante Soprano I. SH^—«dolce Tenor. -gi EeE^3E? -ir- s>^ pec - :ft pie. - :q=|: . .r.— te fort-. comfort fort. com-fort my 0- peo pie. tg: Com dolce. Com-fort. com-fort my com-fort ^^ >^ Soprano II. §^^^=^ Com ^ com-fort. sostenuto. MEG: 1^ ^-^. '^-- -^i fe£ ?— fort — •-f:: •- com-fort my e: peo pie. . dolce -0—ft- ifeE^E^ Com-fort dolce my peo dolce - pie. com- Bass II.^ — CHAPTER XI. 29. (i2— fS^ ii^zr-pz. dolce com -fort. 104 2705.ii fort. com- Alto. te=t=E=:=it= -^—r-# i==t : ' I tn m fort. com-fort my my people.

§ 30. The above cantus firmus would then appear In Seven-parts the assistance of a male 271. .. 105 we give the two sopranos and alto chorus of two tenors and two basses. Soprano I. COUNTERPOINT IN SEVEN REAL PARTS. § 30.

is permitted in an ascending . Soprano II. Bass II. (as demonstrated in the NB. last bar but one) will be permitted in seven parts as well as all other hidden octaves and fifths. . in conjunction suspension resolving downwards. counterpoint. m=t s>-- ~s^ _^_i- -JSl -<5^ Bass I.: 106 CHAPTER XL § 30. -^"Vp- ?^^ -•-T-^ Tenor I. could however be easily evaded by placing {D instead of G) in the I'^' tenor. z:zsiL . between the seventh and and between the root and the uppermost part third in an under part. as last note but one. the third octave. between the P* Tenor and the P* Soprano (at NB. 273. A succession of a diminished and perfect fifth. Tenor II. We here give the same cantus firmus with a more florid The above mentioned hidden in the . last bar but one) is allowable in pure writing (compare Manual of Harmony seventh. A with a alto at suspension resolving a whole tone upwards. Also the hidden octave above the § 55). Alto. forbidden in four parts. direction Also octave-parallels are allowable in contrary motion. Soprano I.


how fair t§"t^=e { -sIt- =4=T- :1" -25^:=C 3^^EH how 95i.fe ^i^^ig^s ?EE£ *=: =t =g=^ E5EJE^ S^^g^ .oth §?L^^-=* how fair '-£>- i= Sa - Lord ha - oth .—^- ha .:^:^^ H=" -t-- ^f-l-g ^.oth te?^ Thy dwellings Lord Sa - =E ha . Sa - ha . fair ^1 vgii.oth HE^^ are :^ ±=±rc— Thy dwellings Lord :t:: -<s^- Sa - ba - oth -jUi etc. :M oth =^1^ how -^^^fair -fi—^0 are ^m Thy ©1- r fc^=:|: :=i: gp^ fe-^ fe* t. -• — how fair Thy :t -<5'-- £|^EPEE Sa - are Thy dwellings Lord -ig.108 CHAPTER XL § 30. -»— ^dwel lings -«-=- -(2J It Lord Sa - ha - oth i^ dwel - lings Lord Sa - ha . tm fair i=tt=^fer=g=^ how fair Lord Sa - ha - oth PS^gieii^l^ Thy dwellings Lord ¥.oth.

ISI i^^^^l^ . One rarely employs one chorus for eight voices act. in part alternately. The student may carefully observe that none of the parts length of time. species form parallel fifths. Soprano I. Alto II. 1^1 Bass I. written in the basses of both choruses to move are in the sopranos of both choruses occasionally unison. every voice . two choruses of four voices each. Bass II. In eight parts. or octaves with one another. All these concessions are necessary on account of the extreme difficulty of manipulating eight perfectly independent parts for any this We show the way in which the pupil shall practise by an example in note against note. 275. as to form only one four-part chorus. COUNTERPOINT IN EIGHT REAL PARTS.30. 109 is doubled. making use of the same cantus firmus hitherto employed in five. m Tenor II. six and seven parts. One may sometimes allow octaves or unisons. Alto I. sometimes both choruses are written in such a manner. 1 1=1 -^ S> US' Tenor I. which in part simultaneously are more usually also written. ^ m^ tE is:. 1^ Soprano II.

^m passing notes. i^ C. firmus with a counterpoint of two notes. i^EEEEl^ t= Bass II. «' Bass I. 276. E^^£%g r—S>~ Alto II. f. :^ 13^ --S t- Alto I. ¥^- g igE it=t:: Tenor I.J 10 CHAPTER The same cantus XI. thus rendering the passage indistinct. Should a be given to the to florid the must counterpoint be required careful attention so that they do not lie too near harmony notes. S=^ fea^^ *»• ^-P 13=11: Tenor II. Soprano ^i^^m^m -(^ -f^ Soprano II. Here follows an example the same cantus firmus. § 30. .

COUNTERPOINT IX EIGHT REAL PARTS 111 277. 23^ §1=0^ m Bass I. '<5^- Tenor II.§ ^0. ^ E^: W^ ^—n-0. ^P^^^ ^ ^E^EE^ -0—^ l=t ^ £L --^ Soprano II. t. Bags II. ^ c.I^ Tenor I. Soprano I. S^^ . Alto II. Alto I.

and II Bass I. and II. 11 molt' espr. can be used in free composition. or tenors and basses to progress or the whole chorus to be treated in four parts only. .112 All the CHAPTER XL foregoing liberties § 30. in unison. is Here an example of this kind. Tenor I. allowing the sopranos and altos.

iS=g: a-men. § 30. 113 men. Counterpoint. a . . dolciss.^ COVyTERPOlM JN EIGHT REAL PARTS. u men. \ a men. ^^-flfarj: w ipfcs -men. IS-" ^=---^T=ir '4^-- M Hi -fii / -«? £P_-= !— —i_-s— it^3^ ^—4-ii>'—J- r__j x_ '9- Jadassohn. dolciss. \ V dolciss.

Ee=^ -W Alto.114 CHAPTER XI. One would however attain a mucli better effect. by writing two choruses in four parts each. here follows an example of a double chorus. Allegro moderato i^ f Soprano. § 30. Bass. 279. i^e^^S prano . •^S' r r—<e> • • Tenor.

couMERPOjyT ly eight real parts 115 praise ye the Lord. all ye .

— i/- ye lands. seven . I'* to regard the those voices of the chorus as P' Soprano. :zr. ^il=-^: ~S>^ all praise ye lands. =15: -#— v* -N !v ?= -* • i ^-^ *all praise ye the Lord praise the Lord ye lands. the second as IP*^ Soprano. Alto etc. all £EEf2=^=±=t ye • — -«'— m :|= lands. m praise -# -l y* 0>- ^=1= :[= all ye the Lord praise the Lord lands. 9^ -<s>--- m of praise all lands. all -'. six. § 30. -f^- '^=i-praise the Lord all lands. $. It is as well first in writing for a double chorus. -if—I* P^^=Tlands. 0-^0lands.f ^ 116 CHAPTER XI. ^ praise -<&— the m all Lord lands. all ye lands. The student may work for his exercises in five. IP^ Alto.

only then will his studies lead him to real beneficial results. one or another is 117 and eight parts Later on he dent. and the works of the classical authors such as Bach. After having and them the form of small rules Motets. CO L'NTERPOiyT IN EIGHT REAL PARTS. best suited for this a bass cantus firmus. cantus firmus from the former examples.§30. counterpoint him. will now acquired the of to . . to it be of the greatest benefit and importance study industriously Handei. others. to give may himself endeavour to invent such indepen- poly -part movements.

f.0. work the example /ltZZ§ ^ 34. page 8. as the bass takes its natural tone of (CompaTe Manual of Harmony § 45.Explanatory remarks and hints for the treatnieut of the Exercises in the Manual of Counterpoint with especial regard to self. We C.1 V resolution. in the following working out of the cantns firmus of No. The seventh ascends. f I IV IV I V7 I IINB. . o4 fifth has to be worked in E minor. E ^- '32i ST 1-- p % ^-TT-j^^ VI V- m^ A C. on account of the d^ in the as follows Ci : bar. 35 could be done manner: 3-. . . __^_ tO.. § 2. It is evident that the cantiis firmiis of Xo. f.instruction.

one can write the passage in the manner To § 12. page 30. ige=g=^z^=i When following breves in the two contrapuntal parts move in minims against semicantus firmus. pensions. we give a few hints. paration of a suspension in a similar minished seventh. For the working out of the cantus firmus No. which would make the paration of a suspension. in the third bar The dissonance of the . page 24. Example 85. note of resolution sound with the suspension. A leap into the major seventh has always to be avoided it cannot therefore be used for the pre. 119 § 10. manner to the minor or diExample 85 b shows the employment of the major seventh descending by step of second and used as the prein a sequence of susmajor seventh when used as a chord of the seventh with altered fifth appears less harsh but then the suspension becomes impossible on account of the altered fifth which requires resolving upwards. 108. .: EXPLANATORY REMARKS AND HINTS. the counterpoint of the soprano requires two minims against a semi-breve of the cantus firmus.

Ex. -^—-ziis: C. NB. 1086. ^ <! -<Sf 22:2: ^m 1 <s 108a. 25-5^- C. r: ii^ES KB. 131. See Manual of Harmony § 53. f.^\A. 257b.— 120 EXPLANATORY REMARKS AND HINTS. f. pag. > ^^s -^r E^ ^ ^ . 22 ::^^ ^-^^^=^X^ ^^^^=^^^3^^g f_ \.

3: -79 <S> or ^- j2:=r: .EXPLANATORY REMARKS AND HINTS. 121 2^ U^ 1^=2^1^^ 3 22: ^! 3iSB g53^ 11=22: ~^ ~~ ~l The hidden il fifths between tenor and bass are allowable on account of the contrary motion of the soprano.

. f $E^^^ { -^ j^- :*=i lOSd. f.a -gy-^b- -^ 108t^ or: r:: U) is: i!:^^iz. m <! l^Sr- -^-^—1 —2^ -g^ -^ i:^ — - §L^: 32: -s^' 3 ?zz): Pt C. f.^ 122 EXPLANATORY REMARKS AND HINTS.-zzzzr. fe { i^s: ^iE^ . C. 108c. isSSSE Fl=:i 1 •^-ri- ^ 2222: -g?- I ^ -5^ ^^ ilSZ C.

§5^ NB. -. ^ ^ -^ ^a: y:. f. 100 in tlie form of a sequence. 134 and 135. 257c. 12a iz — 'y : -s> — «» 22.EXPLANATORY REMARKS AND HINTS. harmonic ones. ise: ^^ "g" i 108/". Ex. 131. f. Ex. See Manual of Harmony § 53 pag. jSiczz: 9^ zs: -g- C. ^ 7—^ -t^ ^ c.-^S2_ itE$: I We -g ' g.^ !^ ^=::]:^ T=s: add a working out of the cantus firmus No. Both notes of a leap must be . m 100. To § 15.

chords are each time present in other parts. (e. D is sustained in the bass from on the third crotchet it becomes transitorily the subdominant [G. D) by the passing note G in the soprano. 201 the the third bar) fifth of the dominant {A. the ninth passing between the tenth and eighth. of the dominant. is struck in the soprano on the serves as a preparation to the crotchet.) appears (in in the bass on the fourth crotchet. To § 15. we of the major and minor chords in the last are always carefully prepared. C*. 136. This can only be done by the second inversion of the tonic chord in the preparation It either as passing note (best of a full close. be adon a weak beat) or prepared. E. The careful introduction of the and minor triad will here be found necessary. example. for instance ^^^ 9To § 22. 228. All that has been previously said concerning the preparation and introduction of the fifth applies to example 207. A. In Ex. in the sixth bar of the same example. 201. fourth crotchet. bar fourth) and the chord bar sixth) as passing notes on the the fundamental note and third of the respective (i. would here observe that As the in fifth the Ex. d. C^. The inversion of soprano and bass shows in the soprano the fifth of the chords on the second degree. Example 202. E. [A. visable to introduce this interval.: 124 EXPLANATORY REMARKS AND HINTS. Only bar but one (10). Ex. It will be perceived on that the distance of the bass from the may amount of the major will two octaves. /^. The fundamental and being itself is note [A) sustained. 202 and 207. g. The fifth a passing note. crotchet. less so. To § 24. In this case the most suitable note will be the diatonic passing seventh. . Ex. the first In the fourth bar. for instance after three notes of the same chord: f=^: :p= A chromatic progression after three notes of the same chord could only be available in rare cases. fifth in the chord of the bar second). B. in order that in the inversion. 201. The same occurs with the A in the alto. the sixth degree. to I ¥ iiE£ m observing this alto fifth Fx. first fifth. the ^ chord does not enter ill-prepared on a strong beat. In some cases a diatonic progression upwards can be used.

adapted for work To § 28. We add a few more basses. tentionally. to treat these at first note against note. in order to bring this exceptional case to notice. Ex. To § 25. One will observe from the probar 2) gression of the soprano. 6 and more parts. 237. between tenor and alto. To § 26. 29 and 30. in the prepared. the fifth fifth *l 125 it F is enters freely on the first crotchet. 245 in 5. where is well qualified to indicate the approaching conclusion and to prepare Moreover the fundamental note of the chord [B' Ex. 237. for 5. that the altered fifth can be emfifth ployed advantageously. fifth being a chromatic passing note of no latter could have been easily avoided. But here close it . Here the [c. in the inversion. 245 c) because of the The great moment. — - . ^ir. is A crossing of parts in an inversion can the naturally only occur.EXPLANATORY REMARKS AND HINTS. he will obtain an instance of an example in double counterpoint in the tenth. and afterwards in florid counterpoint. the soprano in the two If the student places the first G notes of first bars of this example an octave lower. we bad find free entrance of the fifth of the y) chord on the second degree eifect is not at all The on the third crotchet. only bar. also the preparation of the of the major and minor chords has the eighth been observed carefully. when distance between two upper parts greater 3. like No. it has been so placed ine'. bar than an octave in the original position. 249. especially The student is meant in more than four parts. alto) is used quite in its proper place. Ex. (Ex. 258. as in Ex. is the of the chord of the Tonic shortly before the and the especially chord the same. To § 24.

10. in four parts. 105. 10. Trqile. 57. cantus firmus in bass. of the augmented fifth and sixth. 5. Contrary motioTi in double counterpoint in the tenth. in five parts. in eight parts. 82. in two parts. 114. 64. in seven parts. 94. 53. in the twelfth. 67. Counterpoint.INDEX. 47. in the soprano. 109. double. 102. 19. 69. Double counterpoint in the tenth. . 69. Exercises for simple comiterpomt in four parts. 87. Crossing of parts. 11. in the twelfth. 94. 30. 1. florid. Cliords of the fourth and sixth. simple. 75 Quadruple. in crotchets. in three parts. cantus firmus in soprano. Eight-parts. 21. Double. in minims. double choruses. 99. 109. in the tenth. Bach. see Examples. 59. 87. 7. Cantus Jirmus. in six parts. 114. 94. in the octave. in the bass. 38. in the middle parts. 9. cantus firmus in alto or tenor. in three parts. Chromatic progressions. Chorus. 8. in two parts.

in four parts. four parts. Fifth. against one of the cantus firmus in any other pari. . alto and tenor. 11 l\vo notes in soprano. 33. for two in in 52. counterpoint in three parts. 75 — 79. Two notes in alto or tenor. 46 of triad-movements. 36. 59. 54. 83 — 86. partly simultaneous against one note of the cantus firmus in the soprano. the octave in two parts. 100 — 102. partly alternate. in Jive parts. in Jlorid counterpoint. 59. 44—47. (arpeggio) 40. 34. 100 in six parts. b' — 94. contrapuntal. in three parts. 38. 53 in — — double counterpoint in three parts. against one note of the cantus firmus. alternate. in the alto. 46. 30. 79. against one note of the cantus firmns in any other part. 30. Four notes in different parts. 82. in quadruple counterpoint. . 38 —43. partly against one note ot the cantus firmus. 58. 35. in quadruple counterpoint. 31. against one of the cantiis firmus in the bass. in the twelfth. 105 — 108. in tri2)le 74. 31. augmented. p)arts. 2 9. Five-part tvriting. against one of the cantus firmus in the bass 22 29. for double counterpoint in the octave. 86. Four Four 72otes in one part. in double counterpoint in the tenth. in triple counterpoint in three parts. 102 in seven j)arts. Two notes in soprano. 67 — 74. 29. tus firmus in soprano. Figures. for counterpoint in in three parts. — 102. 95—98. 48 56. against one of the cantus firmus in another part. 56. — — — in the bass. in eight p)(H'ts. 37. in simple counterpoint in four parts. two notes in the bass. alto or bass two notes in tenor or alto. partly alternate partly simultaneous. in two parts. of imitation. and simultaneous.INDEX. 35. — 104. 67. 52. against one of the can21. notes in simultaneous. in four parts. two parts. for three 2)arts. Two notes in different parts. different parts. partly alternate. Tico notes in different parts. 37. against one of the cantus firmus. two notes against one of the cantus firmus in alto or tenor. 59 — 67. 1 27 ^ Exercises for Jlorid counterpoint of two notes in the bass against one of the cantiis firraus in soprano. 80—82. in four parts. 109 — 115. in the tenor.


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MT 55 J2131 Jadassohn. Salomon Manual of simple. double. triple and quadruple counterpoint UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO I ^?yff'^^^ f-USJC JOHNSON LIBRARY .

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