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1. Chapter-1

1.2 INTRODUCTION TO GREEN MARKETING Meanings & concepts Importance of green marketing Goals of Green marketing Benefits of Green Marketing Golden Rules of Green Marketing

2. Chapter-2


4. Chapter-4





7. Chapter-7



9. Chapter- 9

Questionnaire Bibliography


Pantaloons is the largest Indian retailer having an established presence in all the retail verticals and operating multiple retail formats,viz. Pantaloon, Central, Big Bazaar and Food Bazaar, Globally, organized retail contributes about 80% of the overall retail sector. Unlike the developed nations, the organized retail penetration is low in developing countries. with Indian penetration estimated at a modest 6%-8% as of 2007. Key factors such as strong economic growth, favorable demographics, increasing number of dual income families, changing lifestyle, rising aspirations of young consumers and increase in discretionary income expected to drive growth in the Indian organized retail market. We expect the organized retail sector to grow rapidly and reach a 15% penetration level by 2013. Pantaloon has successfully tapped the opportunities within the retail space, especially in the value formats. The Company has been able to leverage on its multi-formats-multi-brand stores, secure prime locations at the best possible prices and command a strong bargaining power with suppliers, which provide it an edge over its competitors.

Pantaloons ability to understand the Indian consumer psyche, its experience in managing growth, massive expansion plans, excellent execution capabilities, sound financial performance and huge growth opportunities (offered by the organized retail boom in India) augur well for the Companys overall future prospects. Notwithstanding the inflationary trends in the economy, the management has indicated that it is confident that they will be able to control increases in average rentals. Management confirmed in multiple discussions with RRG analysts that they are confident of their growth\ prospects, though the current real estate environment has resulted in minor delays in properties coming on-stream. The stock trades at less than 8x 2010 EV/EBITDA. We maintain our positive outlook on the stock and recommend a BUY with a target price of Rs 561, an upside of 65% from current levels.


The global retail sector posted a CAGR of 5% for the last five years (2003-2007) to reach a value of USD9.1 tn in 2007. Food, apparel

and technology retailing dominate the sector, accounting for about 59.9% of the Soverall market size. The organized retail sector is largely dominated by developed countries such as the US, Japan and the European nations, where it contributes over 80% of the total retail revenue. Developing countries such as China, India and Brazil are coming up the ladder experiencing a rapid growth in organized retail. However, the level of penetration varies from 5% to 30%, against 75-85% in developed countries.

In China, the share of organized retail rose to 20% in 2006 from less than 5% in 1990, growing at a CAGR of 24.2% to USD196.6 bn.

Traditionally dominated by mom and pop stores the Indian retail sector valued at USD309.7 bn, contributed about 34.2% of Indias GDP in 2007.

In India, organized retail has very low level of penetration, estimated at only 6-8%. However, the country is catching up, with the sector witnessing a high growth similar to the one observed in the telecom sector over the last 10 years.



In today's business world environmental issues plays an important role in marketing. All most all the governments around the world have concerned about green marketing activities that they have attempted to regulate them. For example, in the United States (US) the Federal Trade Commission and the National Association of Attorneys-General have developed extensive documents examining green marketing. In my research there has been little attempt to academically examine environmental or green marketing. It introduces the terms and concepts of green marketing, briefly discuss why going green is important and also examine some of the reason that organizations are adopting a green marketing philosophy. It also focuses some of the problems with green marketing.

Besides this, this report also stresses upon the effect of green marketing on the consumers. The data has been collected from the respondents through surveys and a detailed questionnaire was designed for that purpose. The interviews have been conducted from the respondents at different locations in Kolkata. The sample size includes 50 respondents. The data gathered has

been analyzed on a question-by-question basis. The details of the research findings are mentioned after the analysis, and recommendations are given based on the research findings. Finally I can say Green marketing isn't just a catchphrase; it's a marketing strategy that can help a company to get more customers and make more money. But only if you do it right.


Meanings & Concepts: According to the American Marketing Association, green marketing is the marketing of products that are presumed to be environmentally safe. Thus green marketing incorporates a broad range of activities, including Product modification, Changes to the production process, Packaging changes, as well as Modifying advertising.

Yet defining green marketing is not a simple task where several meanings intersect and contradict each other; an example of this will be the existence of varying social, environmental and retail definitions attached to this term. Other similar terms used are Environmental Marketing and Ecological Marketing. The term green marketing came into prominence in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The American Marketing Association (AMA) held the first workshop on "Ecological Marketing" in 1975. The proceedings of this workshop resulted in one of the first books on green marketing entitled "Ecological Marketing" Thus green marketing incorporates a broad range of activities, including product modification, changes to the production process, packaging changes, as well as modifying advertising. My definition which encompasses all major components of other definitions is: "Green or Environmental Marketing consists of all activities designed to generate and facilitate any exchanges intended to satisfy human needs or wants, such that the satisfaction of these needs and wants occurs, with minimal detrimental impact on the natural environment." This definition incorporates much of the traditional components of the marketing definition that is "All activities designed to generate and facilitate any exchanges intended to satisfy human needs or wants".

So, in simple terms Green marketing refers to the process of selling products and/or services based on their environmental benefits. Such a product or service may be environmentally friendly in it or produced and/or packaged in an environmentally friendly way. The obvious assumption of green marketing is that potential consumers will view a product or service's "greenness" as a benefit and base their buying decision accordingly. The not-so-obvious assumption of green marketing is that consumers will be willing to pay more for green products than they would for a less-green comparable alternative product - an assumption that has not been proven conclusively, specially the mild effect which it had on consumers has washed away by the present recession (2008-09) only. Green marketers though argue that it is a way to use the environmental benefits of a product or service to promote sales. Many consumers will choose products that do not damage the environment over less environmentally friendly products, even if they cost more. With green marketing, advertisers focus on environmental benefits to sell products such as biodegradable diapers, energy-efficient light bulbs, and environmentally safe detergents. People buy billions of dollars worth of goods and services every year many of which harm the environment in the way they are harvested, made,

or used. Environmentalists support green marketing to encourage people to use environmentally preferable alternatives, and to offer incentives to manufacturers that develop more environmentally beneficial products.

Importance of green marketing Man has limited resources on the earth, with which she/he must attempt to provide for the worlds' unlimited wants. There is extensive debate as to whether the earth is a resource at man's disposal. In market societies where there is "freedom of choice", it has generally been accepted that individuals and organizations have the right to attempt to have their wants satisfied. As firms face limited natural resources, they must develop new or alternative ways of satisfying these unlimited wants. Ultimately green marketing looks at how marketing activities utilize these limited resources, while satisfying consumers wants, both of individuals and industry, as well as achieving the selling organization's objectives. When looking through the literature there are several suggested reasons for firms increased use of Green Marketing. Five possible reasons cited are: Organizations perceive environmental marketing to be an opportunity that can be used to achieve its objectives

Organizations believe they have a moral obligation to be more socially responsible Governmental bodies are forcing firms to become more responsible Competitors' environmental activities pressure firms to change their environmental marketing activities Cost factors associated with waste disposal, or reductions in material usage forces firms to modify their behavior. Goals of Green Marketing Eliminate the concept of waste. Reinvent the concept of product. Make prices reflect actual and environmental costs. Make environmentalism profitable. Bringing out product modifications. Changing in production processes. Packaging changes. Modifying advertising.

Benefits of Green Marketing Todays consumers are becoming more and more conscious about the environment and are also becoming socially responsible. Therefore, more

companies are responsible to consumers aspirations for environmentally less damaging or neutral products. Many companies want to have an early mover advantage as they have to eventually move towards becoming green.

Some of the advantages of green marketing are: It ensures sustained long term growth along with profitability. It saves money in the long run, though initially the cost is more. It helps the companies market their products and services keeping the environment aspects in mind. It helps in accessing the new markets and enjoying the competitive advantage. Most of the employees also feel proud and responsible to be working for an environmentally responsible company.

Golden Rules of Green Marketing

1. Know Your Customer: Make sure that the consumer is aware of and concerned about the issues that your product attempts to address, (Whirlpool learned the hard way that consumers wouldnt pay a premium for a CFCfree refrigerator because consumers dint know what CFCs were.).


2. Empower Consumers: Make sure that consumer feel. By themselves or in concert with all the other users of your product, that they can make a difference. This is called empowerment and due to this main reason consumers will buy greener products. 3. Be Transparent: Consumers must believe in the legitimacy of the product and the specific claims made in regard. 4. Reassure the Buyer: Consumers must be made to believe that the product performs the job its supposed to do-they wont forego product quality in the name of the environment. 5. Consider Your Pricing: If youre charging a premium for your product and many environmentally preferable products cost more due to economies of scale and use of higher-quality ingredients-make sure those consumers can afford the premium and feel its worth it. Thus leading brands should recognize that consumer expectations have changed. It is not enough for a company to green its products; consumers expect the products that they purchase pocket friendly and also to help reduce the environmental impact in their own lives too.



2.1 Challenges in Green Marketing

NEED FOR STANDARDIZATION It is found that only 5% of the marketing messages from Green campaigns are entirely true and there is a lack of standardization to authenticate these claims. There is no standardization to authenticate these claims. There is no standardization currently in place to certify a product as organic. Unless some regulatory bodies are involved in providing the certifications there will not be any verifiable means. A standard quality control board needs to be in place for such labeling and licensing.

NEW CONCEPT Indian literate and urban consumer is getting more aware about the merits of Green products. But it is still a new concept for the masses. The consumer needs to be educated and made aware of the environmental threats. The new green movements need to reach the masses and that will take a lot of time and effort. By Indias ayurvedic heritage, Indian consumers do appreciate the importance of using natural and herbal beauty products. Indian consumer is exposed to healthy living lifestyles such as yoga and natural food


consumption. In those aspects the consumer is already aware and will be inclined to accept the green products.

PATIENCE AND PERSEVERANCE The investors and corporate need to view the environment as a major long-term investment opportunity, the marketers need to look at the longterm benefits from this new green movement. It will require a lot of patience and no immediate results. Since it is a new concept and idea, it will have its own acceptance period.

AVOIDING GREEN MYOPIA The first rule of green marketing is focusing on customer benefits i.e. the primary reason why consumers buy certain products in the first place. Do this right, and motivate consumers to switch brands or even pay a premium for the greener alternative. It is not going to help if a product is developed which is absolutely green in various aspects but does not pass the customer satisfaction criteria. This will lead to green myopia. Also if the green products are priced very high then again it will lose its market acceptability.



Green marketing has been widely adopted by the firms worldwide and the following are the possible reasons cited for this wide adoption:

1) OPPORTUNITIES - As demands change, many firms see these changes as an opportunity to be exploited and have a competitive advantage over firms marketing non-environmentally responsible alternatives. Some examples of firms who have strived to become more environmentally responsible, in an attempt to better satisfy their consumer needs are:

McDonald's replaced its clam shell packaging with waxed paper because of increased consumer concern relating to polystyrene production and Ozone depletion.

Tuna manufacturers modified their fishing techniques because of the increased concern over driftnet fishing, and the resulting death of dolphins.

Xerox introduced a "high quality" recycled photocopier paper in an attempt to satisfy the demands of firms for less environmentally harmful products.

2) GOVERNMENTAL PRESSURE - As with all marketing related activities, governments want to "protect" consumers and society; this protection has significant green marketing implications. Governmental regulations relating to environmental marketing are designed to protect consumers in several ways, 1. Reduce production of harmful goods or by-products

2. Modify consumer and industry's use and/or consumption of harmful goods 3. Ensure that all types of consumers have the ability to evaluate the environmental composition of goods Governments establish regulations designed to control the amount of hazardous wastes produced by firms. For example, New Delhi, the India's capital was getting polluted gradually at a very fast pace till Supreme Court of India forced a change of fuel on it. In 2002, a directive was issued to completely adopt CNG in all public transport systems to curb pollution.


3) COMPETITIVE PRESSURE - Another major force in the environmental marketing area has been firms' desire to maintain their competitive position. In many cases firms observe competitors promoting their environmental behaviors and attempt to emulate this behavior. In some instances this competitive pressure has caused an entire industry to modify and thus reduce its detrimental environmental behavior. For example, it could be argued that Xerox's "Revive 100% Recycled paper" was introduced a few years ago in an attempt to address the introduction of recycled photocopier paper by other manufacturers. In another example when one tuna manufacture stopped using driftnets the others followed suit.

4) SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY- Many firms are beginning to realize that they are members of the wider community and therefore must behave in an environmentally responsible fashion. This translates into firms that believe they must achieve environmental objectives as well as profit related objectives. This results in environmental issues being integrated into the firm's corporate culture. There are examples of firms adopting both strategies. Organizations like the Body Shop heavily promote the fact that they are environmentally responsible. While this behavior is a competitive advantage, the firm was established specifically to offer consumers

environmentally responsible alternatives to conventional cosmetic products. This philosophy is directly tied to the overall corporate culture, rather than simply being a competitive tool. Fund managers and corporate developers too, are taking into account the environmental viability of the company they invest in Venture Capitalists are investing in green business because they believe it's a growth opportunity. Britain based HSBC became the world's first bank to go carbon neutral late last year and is now turning its 11000 buildings in 76 countries worldwide into models of energy efficiency." our customers have told us that they decide where they shop based on whether the business is a good neighbor ". Says David North, Tescos community director. An example of a firm that does not promote its environmental initiatives is Coca-Cola. They have invested large sums of money in various recycling activities, as well as having modified their packaging to minimize its environmental impact. While being concerned about the environment, Coke has not used this concern as a marketing tool. Thus many consumers may not realize that Coke is a very environmentally committed organization. Another firm who is very environmentally responsible but does not promote this fact, at least outside the organization, is Walt Disney World (WDW). WDW has an

extensive waste management program and infrastructure in place, yet these facilities are not highlighted in their general tourist promotional activities.

5) COST OR PROFIT ISSUES - Firms may also use green marketing in an attempt to address cost or profit related issues. Disposing of environmentally harmful by-products, such as polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated oil are becoming increasingly costly and in some cases difficult. Therefore firms that can reduce harmful wastes may incur substantial cost savings. When attempting to minimize waste, firms are often forced to reexamine their production processes. In these cases they often develop more effective production processes that not only reduce waste, but reduce the need for some raw materials. This serves as a double cost savings, since both waste and raw material are reduced. In other cases firms attempt to find end - of - pipe solutions, instead of minimizing waste. In these situations firms try to find markets or uses for their waste materials, where one firm's waste becomes another firm's input of production. One Australian example of this is a firm who produces acidic waste water as a by-product of production and sells it to a firm involved in neutralizing base materials.


PRODUCT Entrepreneurs wanting to exploit emerging green markets either: Identify customers environmental needs and develop products to address these needs or will develop environmentally responsible products to have less impact than competitors. The increasingly wide variety of products on the market that support sustainable developments are: Products made from recycled goods, such as Quick N Tuf f housing materials made from recycled broccoli boxes. Products that can be recycled or reused. Efficient products, which save water, energy or gasoline, save money and reduce environmental impact. Products with environmentally responsible packaging, McDonalds, for example, changed their packaging from polystyrene clamshells to paper. Products with green labels, as long as they offer substantiation. Certified products, which meet or exceed environmentally responsible criteria.

Organic products-many customers are prepared to pay a premium for organic products, which offer promise of quality. Organic butchers, for example, promote the added qualities such as taste and tenderness. A service that rents or loans products-toy libraries. Whatever the product or service, it is vital to ensure that products meet or exceed the quality expectation of customers and is thoroughly tested. PRICE Pricing is the critical element of the marketing mix. Most customers will only be prepared to pay a premium if there is a perception of additional product value. This value may be improved performance, function, design, visual appeal or taste. Environmental benefits will be often be the deciding factor between products of equal value or quality. Environmentally responsible products, however are often less expensive when product life cycle coast are taken into consideration, for example fuelefficient vehicles, water efficient printing and non-hazardous products. PLACE The choice of where and when to make products available will have significant impact on the customers you attract. Very few customers go out of their way to buy green products merely for the sake of it. Marketers looking to successfully introduce new green products should position them

broadly in the market place so they are not just appealing to a small green niche market. The location must also be consistent with the image you want to project and allow you to project your own image rather than being dominated or compromised by the image of venue. The location must differentiate you from the competitors. This can be achieved by in-store promotions and visually appealing displays or using recycled materials to emphasize the environmental and other benefits. PROMOTION Promoting products and services to target markets include paid advertising, public relations, sales promotions, direct marketing and on-site promotions. Smart green marketers will be able to reinforce environmental credibility by using sustainable marketing and communication tools and practices. For example, many companies in the financial industry are providing electronic statements by email; e-marketing is rapidly replacing more traditional marketing methods and printed materials can be produced using recycled materials and efficient processes such as waterless printing. Retailers, for example are recognizing the value of alliances with other companies, environmental groups and research organizations. When promoting their environmental commitment to reduce the use of plastic bags

and promote their green commitment, some retailers sell shopping bags and promote their green commitments.



(3.1)Moving Towards Green Marketing

The era of green marketing has begun. It has already been granted wide acceptance by all stakeholders. However, there is a need to lay down the standards and practices, in order to bring in objectivity in the judgment of various national and international agencies. This will not only encourage the activities of green marketing but shall also provide the much needed level playing fields to all. DEVELOPMENT OF ISO 14000 SERIES OF STANDARDS. ISO has been developed to help any company in any country to meet the goal of sustainable development and environmental friendliness. The ISO 14000 family of standards ( i.e. ISO 14001, 14004, 14010, 14011 and 1412) were published as an official document in 1996. The ISO series aims to provide guidance for developing a comprehensive approach to environmental management and for standardizing some key environmental tools of analysis such as labeling and life cycle assessment. ECO-LABELING INITIATIVES Eco label provide information regarding the environmental performance of products. The objective of eco-labeling is to provide authentication to


genuine claims regarding the environmental impact of products and processes by manufacturers. In India the government has introduced the eco-mark scheme since 1981. The objectives of the Scheme are: To provide incentives to manufacturers and importers to reduce the adverse environmental impact of products. To reward genuine initiatives by companies to reduce adverse impact of environmental impact of products. To assist consumers to become environmentally responsible in their daily lives by providing them information to take account of environmental factors in their daily lives. To encourage citizens to purchase products which have less environmental impact. ECO-LABELLING SCHEMES IN INDIA The Ministry of environment and forest of government of India has prescribed the following criteria for products: That they cause substantially less pollution than comparable products in production, usage and disposal, That they are recycled and/or recyclable whereas comparable products are not.

That they contribute to a reduction on adverse environmental health consequences. That they comply with laws, standards and regulations pertaining to the environment. That their price is not exorbitantly higher than comparable products.


The color GREEN, until recently was associated all over the world with emerald. In the modern age, however, GREEN is getting associated with sustainable development. Being green is no longer a matter of choice; its marketing is a must, or else enterprise may run the risk of losing customers, employees and shareholders. It has become almost a necessity to maintain a green lifestyle. The possibility of oceans rising and claiming coastal lives, climate change, and polluted air and water are beginning to gain momentum towards the green movement. Today there is an increasing concern among the business houses towards the challenges posed by the environment. Green consumerism is playing a catalytic role to bring in environmentalism and make business green

oriented. Also it has been noticed that there has been an increasing trend of consumers demanding for a Green Image of an enterprise. The most feasible option available for the business houses is to put into practice the process of Green Manufacturing. It involves product recovery activities as well as reverses logistics. Product recovery concept is applied on the returned product so as to translate it to a usable one, for example remanufacturing, refurbishing or even recycling. Whereas reverse logistics focuses on inbound supply and distribution of used goods and inventory. Companies like ABB, MUL, Ranbaxy and many more have taken up green projects. They sponsor huge amount and in return earn a lot of goodwill, low cost publicity, and an environment conscious image. Scores of such enterprises have responded to environmental concerns with several strategic versions of green business, which are enumerated below: Adopting products/packages to make them environmentally sound. Making realistic environmental claims about existing products through the advertisements. Linking brands with environmental causes to create goodwill. Introducing entirely new range of products explicitly designed to appeal environmentally conscious consumers.


Green washing is the process of making products and services Green in all respects. To make products and services green the businesses need to focus on bringing the green in various aspects such as: Supply Chain Packaging Raw Material Product Innovations It is not enough just to develop a brand or a logo, or invest in an advertising campaign, and then position a product as Green before consumers. Like any other new concept, marketers must first educate the public about going green, ensure product credibility, and establish trust. Moreover, since Green aspect of the product is not a tangible attribute that the consumers receive the consumer has to be convinced about the benefits of the green benefits of the product. It is also important to understand how companies across the globe are innovating and creating Green products.


GREEN RAW MATERIALThis refers to using recycled material or using material, which does not have a negative impact on natural resources like resulting in problems such as deforestation and pollution. Example: Grid core Systems International demonstrated the use of Recycled Building Material. The company was looking for an alternative building material in-order to reduce the impact on environment. While researching they discovered space board, a new type of building panel developed by the Forest Products laboratory. Space board can be manufactured from various recycled or agricultural fibers, and due to a honeycomb the interior design is just as strong as and several times lighter than conventional fiberboard.

GREEN IN MANUFACTURINGThis focuses on using renewable energy for production and minimizing air and water pollution during the manufacturing process. Example: Energy Star is helping businesses and consumers save money and check pollution.


Energy star has its own pre defined parameters and gadgets which conform to the energy efficiency standards. The businesses that join hands with energy star sign an MOU and upgrade their facility as per the requirement outlined by Energy Star. There are about 2,400 corporations, hospitals, schools and other organizations, which are energy star compliant in the US today. The real estate developers, architects and environmentalists across the globe are working together to create the next wave of modern eco-friendly projects: green buildings and manufacturing facilities. They are using energy conservation appliances and recycling building products and water harvesting techniques in their projects.

GREEN IN PRODUCT DEVELOPMENTThis refers to either environment friendly or environment efficient products as demonstrated by the following examples. Example: Kodaks Recyclable Camera When Kodak created its first disposable camera it also solved the waste disposal problem by initiating a camera take back scheme during picture processing. This not only reduced the waste disposable problem, it also saved Kodak the manufacturing costs for new cameras. This made it completely recycled camera.

Example: Philips Earthlight Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs With relentless efforts on research and development the company was successful in producing compact fluorescent light bulbs, which are the most energy efficient bulbs.

GREEN BY USING ALTERNATIVE INGREDIENTS TO REDUCE HEALTH RISKS Example: AFM Safecoat and Safechoice Paints to meet the markets demand for non-toxic paints, the California based company invested in Research and Development and developed a full line of non-toxic coatings, paints, stains and adhesives.

GREEN IN SUPPLY CHAINExample: McDonalds is often blamed for polluting the environment because much of their packaging finishes up as roadside waste. It must be remembered that it is the uncaring consumer who chooses to dispose of their waste in an inappropriate fashion. With the intent to cut costs and work on eco-friendly image and practices McDonalds tried to reduce the amount of material disposed by its stores.

McDonalds asked the supplier to do away with the cartons for napkins. The supplier suggested a better way and came up with dimpling pattern on napkins, which enabled the supplier to pack 25% more napkins in one box and reduction in shipping cost accordingly. McDonalds also allied with Environment Defense Fund (EDF) and created a waste reduction plan. It also made a Paper Task Force to focus on paper waste reduction and better solid waste management. Some food chain retailers are working on Green Procurement program to help purchasing officers to buy products and services that have a lower environmental impact than comparable products and services.

GREEN IN PACKAGINGPackaging is a key element of marketing mix for promoting Green washing. It can also be an effective tool to display the Green component of the product. Natural Package for a Natural Product When creating product materials, markets need to remember that a Green product is appealing to consumers for its benefits to the environment and for its roots in natural resources. There should be a consistent look for the product package, or materials that appear natural, not glossy or extravagant.

Green consumers tend to appreciate consistence in package and product. They will appreciate the usage of recycled paper and other environment friendly materials. That will help manufacturers/suppliers gain customer loyalty and product credibility. Third Party Certification Seal on Package In order to win consumer trust and for product credibility many companies go in for a third party certification. This helps build trust and acceptability by the consumer. A third party seal guarantees the consumer that the product fulfills its promise and is true to his claim. One such third party in the USA is the Green-e Program of the Center for Resource Solutions. Certification provides an independent third-party review of the program similar to the ISO 9000 or CMMI Six Sigma level of certifications, which mat help build consumer confidence. Once a green product earns certification, they can publicize this achievement and promote their certification through the use of the Green-e logo on their marketing materials and website.

GREEN IN SERVICESWith increased demand for value-based marketing, there is also growing demand of Green services. Global customers are not only interested in

cost cutting through outsourcing but are also looking for energy efficient IT operations. Example: ITC InfoTech is a good example to understand how to package the services Green ITC InfoTech is a Bangalore based independent Subsidiary of ITC Ltd. At corporate level ITC is working to establish itself as a carbon free company. The company is working on Triple Bottom Line i.e. social, economic and environmental capital. The company is involved in many community driven initiatives. It is one of the 10 companies globally and first one from India to start publishing sustainability report in compliance with G3 guidelines of Global Reporting Initiative. The company is investing in large-scale plantations to wash away its carbon positive image. It is also focusing on water harvesting and working towards zero solid waste by recycling. 36 Cigarette warehouses were converted to make ITC InfoTechs global development campus in the heart of Bangalore. The company has used recycled material and virtualization tools for optimizing energy usage in its data centers. It is also working on digital infrastructure to connect the rural farmers to the Internet using solar panels for power, so that the Indian farmers can get information on crop research and monitor weather trends. The company is using these as a service differentiator and positioning itself

as Green service Provide. The corporate image of ITC Ltd. is further enhancing the True Green Image.

(3.4)Green Strategy Formulation

As in formulation of green strategy, a firm may evolve it from a SWOT analysis or Environmental Audit. SWOT ANALYSIS STRENGTHS 1. Marketers get access to new markets and gain an advantage over competitors that are not focusing on greenness. 2. Marketers can charge a premium on products that are seen as more ecoresponsible. 3. Organizations that adopt green marketing are perceived to be more socially responsible. 4. Green marketing builds brand equity and wins brand loyalty among customers. E.g. research and development capabilities for clean processes and green products and human resources committed to environmental protection.


WEAKNESS 1. Most customers choose to satisfy their personal needs before caring for environment. 2. Overemphasizing greenness rather than customer needs can prove devastating for a product. 3. Many customers keep away from products labeled Green because they see such labeling as a marketing gimmick, and they may lose trust in an organization that suddenly claims to be green. E.g. products cannot be recycled, and hazardous wastes) of a company. OPPORTUNITIES 1. Marketing to segment which are becoming more environmentally aware and concerned. These consumers are demanding products that conform to these new attitudes. 2. Organizations perceive green marketing to be a competitive advantage, relative to the competitors. Firms, therefore, strive to improve upon their societal awareness. This complements the increase in consumers socially conscious behavior and will therefore give them an advantage over competitors who do not address these issues.


E.g. offering an environmental friendly product and saving resources, and relating them to internal strengths. EXTERNAL THREATS 1. Uncertainty as to the environmental impact of present activities, including that is perceived to be less environmentally harmful. 2. Uncertainty as to which green marketing activities are acceptable from a government perspective. 3. The possibility of a backlash from consumers or government based on existing green marketing claims, threat one and two above may cause backlash to arise. E.g. competitors gain market shares with green products and increased environmental regulations).




It is important in todays world because mankind has limited resources on the earth and if we want long term sustainability of human life on this earths surface, then companies has to learn to conserve these scarce natural resources and create products that have less environmental damage. Otherwise the very existence of humankind will be under question mark.

Corporate are going green from the grassroots level to sustain and win the customers expectations. The environment is becoming increasingly important part of the corporate reputations and they are actively participating in greening the corporate strategy. Companies have converted almost all the products to make them eco-friendly products. Following are the recent environment friendly initiatives taken by the companies.

Sony: Green ODO Digital Camera Sony has recently launched developed and launched a range of innovative products named as ODO line products also called as Eco-chic. These products do not require AC adapter as they were powered by kinetic or solar

energy. Sony has used simplified packaging and recycled plastic in the manufacturing of ODO products as a Sustainable Product initiative. The ODO line products comprise of five products: 1. Spin N Snap: The spin and snap is a digital camera. It has two holes which are used as View finder and chargers. On spinning the camera on ones fingers generates kinetic energy and charges the device. 2. Push Power Play: Push power play is a display device with a roller on the base. The rollers are used to charge the device by the friction of the device with hard surface.

3. Crank N Capture: Crank and Capture is a digital video camera with a crank used to operate and generate power. 4. Pull and Play: The pull and play is a stereo headphone with a cord to simply pull and use.


5. Juice Box: The juice box is a credit card sized object used to recharge the other ODO products. Sony has also added a new Twirl N Take hand powered digital camera to the ODO line series. Twirl N take digital camera has a sleek stem circle design. It is recharged by rolling the round wheel on the hard surface. Sonys ODO line product series are the most innovative eco -friendly products which are very safe and handy. Even children can also use these products.

Cipla: CFC-free Inhaler Cipla-Indias second largest drug company by market share has planned and started replacing all its CFC contained drugs to meet the international standard and Montreal Protocol ban deadline. The CFC depletes the ozone layer and also is a major cause of global warming. Cipla has updated the necessary technology to avoid the CFC and has also done its clinical trial in India and overseas. The Rota haler and the Asthalin inhaler are environment friendly inhalers, used by asthma and bronchitis patients. These inhalers are using HFA (Hydro Fluro Alkaline) technology. The Rotahaler is a powder based inhaler, different from regular inhaler which contains propellants.

Bharat Petroleum Bharat Petroleum launched a campaign to position itself as a responsible corporate green entity. Foraying into renewable energy-solar and wind power-it installed solar panels on its service stations. It also ran a program to cut production of greenhouse gases by 10% across its units worldwide and achieved it much ahead of schedule. Cleaner fuels such as Greener Diesel (ultra low sulphur content) and BP Auotgas were developed. Almost all of its plants are ISO 14001 certified. Currently it is running a program to contain its net emissions at current levels for ten years.

Hindustan petroleum Hindustan petroleum owns a massive e-waste recycling plants, where enormous shredders and granulators reduce four million pounds of computer detritus each month to bite-sized chunks-the first step in reclaiming not just steel and plastic but also toxic chemicals like mercury and even some

precious metals. HP will take back any brand of equipment; its own machines are 100 percent recyclable. Nokia: The Take-Back Campaign The Take-Back campaign is running successfully in 85 countries. It was recently launched in India, specifically in Bangalore, Delhi, Gurgaon and Ludhiana, with over 1,300 recycling bins distributed just in the first months.

Other companies: LG has insisted mainly on power management, While Nokia has centered its attention on the use of recyclable materials. Samsung has produced marketing-friendly green devices

like its Restore and Reclaim and has mainly focused on producing phones with reduced toxins, by removing BFRs (bromide flame retardants) last year. It also plans to remove most other toxins by the end of 2012. Sony Ericsson, with its Green Heart line, concentrates mainly on packaging. Videocon-

The company has changed its logo, appeal and also its corporate strategy in order to adjust to the recent global environment and stay in the race. Videocon changed it logo from the traditional giant solid silver V to a more fluid lava type V. With this new logo, it is visible that the company is trying to portray itself as an eco friendly company with a fresh outlook and to give a feel that the Videocon always on the move. Using the color of nature,


i.e. green, Videocon has give a feel that it product are environmentally aware and with respect to world environmental standards. IDEA AD CAMPAIGNING- SAVE PAPER. SAVE TREES. SAVE THE WORLD IDEA Cellular, the 3rd largest GSM mobile service operator in India, has its own way to promote the brand. IDEA has launched an ad: Use Mobile, Save Paper. This ad also features IDEAs brand ambassador Abhishek Bachchan, but as a tree! This new ad is sixth in the series. The preceding campaigns were Championing a world without caste, Championing a world in which no one suffers from the disability to communicate; Education for All,

Participative Governance, and the last Walk When You ,Talk.



Save our Tigers campaign is collaborative effort from Aircel and WWF India to save the wildlife especially tigers worldwide.

Amitabh Bachaan has joined the initiative as the campaign ambassador Dhoni who roars for our Tigers in Aircel Save our Tiger Ad

Kiran Bedi, Suresh Raina and Baichung Bhutia follow the same. DELL-

For the past three months, Dell has been working towards bringing a path-breaking initiative for our consumers in India - the Dell Go Green Challenge. It is designed to promote a green approach towards technology adoption for consumers in India, by asking them to share their ideas and stories about how they aim to change the way technology is being used in our homes and offices. As our economy is growing and technology penetration is increasing, e-waste is one of the biggest challenges we as a nation are facing, and


recycling is still not an option that most consumers are either aware of, or interested in taking up. As one of the worlds leading providers of technology, they recognize our responsibility to ensure that technology is recycled at the end of its usable life. Dell was in fact the first computer company to offer consumer free recycling worldwide and both these initiatives are designed to create awareness among consumers on recycling of PCs in India. Dell has launched the Dell Go Green Challenge in an effort to raise awareness and community involvement in green initiatives in India. The challenge invites consumers to share photographs, videos and other innovative depictions of key issues, concerns or thoughts on green technology at


The contest has provided a platform to build a Dell Go Green community of green technology and lifestyle enthusiasts, to connect with each other online, and share ideas, thoughts and visions on the issue of e-waste and sustainable technology. We have got over over 600 ideas over the last three months. These ideas have been voted on by the community and we look forward to the winners being announced shortly




Carbon labels show consumers the Carbon Content of an individual product. An items content is the total amount of carbon dioxide emitted from very stage of its production and distribution, from source to store. This is also known as embedded carbon, or a carbon footprint. Todays consumer is more ethically and environmentally aware than ever before, and increasingly so with regard to the consumption of food and drink. In the media, on the shelves, the focus on reducing our carbon footprint is constantly present, and the push to understand where our food is from increasing. Carbon labeling is a really recent development. The focus on reducing carbon footprint is constantly present, and the push to understand what they are purchasing and consuming. But to make it a success, the understanding regarding: a) What they are purchasing?


b) How are they prioritizing- between organic, fair trade, carbon friendly and so on? c) Whether the consumers are getting what they want to purchase? Study Findings on the Basis of Literature Regarding Consumer Behavior: Consumers show different attitudes to issues like: a) Food quality is shoppers most important concern. Price is also very important for those on lower incomes. b) Whether health, environmental and social issues are very important in relation to the food they buy. c) Concerns for health, environmental and social issues vary with household income or not. d) Concern for health, environmental and social issues increase with age or not. e) Women do most of the shopping, and they are more concerned about health, environmental and social issues than men. f) Attitudes vary regionally, and there is particularly strong concern in the South West. Familiarity with labels for different consumers is different: How familiar are you with each of the following types of information on product packets on the basis of:

a) Most people are at least somewhat familiar with most forms of product information. b) Familiarity with the product information is much higher among people who think the issues are very important. Use of labels had different perceptions for different consumers: Use of the following types of information when making decisions about what consumers buy is different for every consumer on the basis of: a) Product information is used by many consumers. b) There is a clear link between concern about health, environmental and social issues and use of relevant product information. c) The gap between attitudes and behavior is wider in relation to environmental and social issues that in it is with the mainstream health. d) There is little variation with income, except organic labels are used more by people with higher incomes. e) Product labeling is generally used more by older people. f) Women use nutrition information more, but broadly similar numbers of men and women use organic and Fair trade information. g) Different patterns of use in different regions. Barriers to greater integration into shopping behavior on the basis of changing patterns of consumption mean that increasingly

consumers are considering the social, environmental and health issues associated with production and consumption: a) Products too expensive is the number one barrier. b) Takes too much time is the second biggest barrier to choosing healthy food. c) I dont know enough about it is the second biggest barrier to choosing environmentally friendly and socially responsible food. d) Other barriers are significant or not, like: Unavailability of products (either altogether, or of sufficient quality). Lack of understanding in about the the issues product in general.




Concerns about the reliability of the product information.


Environmentally Conscious Consumer Behavior Environmentally Conscious Behavior (ECCB) is consumer behavior based on some awareness of the environmental impacts associated with a product or service, and a desire to reduce those impacts. Many researchers in the

field of consumers psychology and market research have demonstrated a substantial grow thin ECCB across a range of markets. It has been demonstrated through case studies that how product developers and marketers have capitalized on this positive attitude and effectively differentiated their product in terms of their environmentally friendly character. The term environmental consciousness does not have a standardized definition in the body of academic literature; the reason can be due to arousal of the term out of political and everyday language. Environmental consciousness is the desire to protect flora and fauna, willingness scrutinize the consequences of economic activity and a willingness to combine long term withshort term planning.

Green Buyers and Green Consumers Research about the identity and nature of green consumer has been the central character in the development of green marketing, as business attempt to understand and respond to external pressures to improve their environmental performance. Marketing practitioners and academics are attempting to identify and understand green consumers and their needs, and to develop market offerings that meet these needs. SEGMENTATION OF GREEN CONSUMERS58

True-Blue Greens- The most environmentally active segment of the society. Greenback Greens- Those most willing to pay the highest premium for green products. Spouts- Fence-sitters who have embraced environmentalism more slowly. Grousers- Uninvolved or disinterested in environmental issues, who feel the issues are too big for them to solve. Apathetic- The least engaged group who believe that the environmental indifference is main stream.

Apart from this, Natural Marketing Institute (NMI) divides the market into following categories: Lohas- Very progressive on environment and society, looking for ways to do more; not too concerned about price. Naturalites- Primarily concerned about personal health and wellness, and use many natural products; would like to do more to protect the environment. Conventional- Practical, like to see the results of what they do; interested in green products that make sense in the long run.


Drifters- Not too concerned about the environment, figuring weve got time to fix the environmental problems; dont ne cessarily buy a lot of green products. Unconcerned-Have other priorities, not really sure what green products are available and probably wouldnt be interested anyway; they buy products strictly on price, value, quality and convenience.

Consumer Information and Education If managers believe that consumers view greenness as a motivating variable, they should invest in conveying information through advertising, direct mailing, brand labels, in-store displays and pamphlets. The important points to be noted here are a. Firms willing to provide clear, comprehensive and credible information must ensure that consumers have low cost to access it. b. Governmental policies and stakeholder initiatives can be important in reducing consumers search, information or transaction costs. c. Regulators can publish and disseminate it to the media by press releases and post it on the internet. d. Stakeholders can use the media as well as use their organizationspecific vehicles such as newsletters.

Green marketing can be successfully implemented by use of ICT in cost effective way: By developing compelling, concise messages, plan innovative ways to repeatedly deliver, identify appropriate links within network of political, legislative, nonprofit organization and media, develop concept based programs and events. Utilize extensive relationship with local and national media to get a clients message to the right media targets. Identify venues, plan tours, identify audiences, and organize meals, speakers and press. Strategies and plan joint PR initiatives as well as joint advertising campaigns and events to cross-promote companies and organization campaigns. Help develop identify and branding for print, broadcast and digital mediums. Consulting and creation of a corporate design, brochures, leaflets, info materials. Develop web sites, e-mail campaigns, and banner advertising. Develop creative print, broadcast and digital advertising, identify advertising targets and purchase appropriate media slot


1. To understand the concepts and importance of Green marketing. 2. To understand the level of awareness regarding green marketing among consumers. 3. To understand the buying behavior of consumers related to green marketing. 4. To understand how green marketing helps Company to built its image. 5. To understand the success of green marketing as a corporate social responsibility.


Primary Data Collection:
The data has been collected from the respondents through personal interviews and a detailed questionnaire was designed for that purpose. The questionnaire was designed according to the research objectives; the questions fulfill the aim of determining the impact on consumers towards green marketing.

Secondary data collection:

Secondary data is very important to complete a project report. The purpose of this data was to supplement the primary data. The secondary sources of collecting data was Internet. Magazines. Size of sample: This refers to the numbers of items to be selected from universe to constitute asample. An optimum sample is one, which fulfills the requirements of efficiency, representativeness, reliability and flexibility. Sample size - 50 consumer


RESULTS: According to the analysis of questionnaire most of the respondents were not aware about green marketing but after reading the questionnaire they realized what it is all about. 1. Are you aware of the term green marketing? a. Yes b. No



No Yes








The above bar graph indicates that out of 50, 36 respondents are not familiar with the term Green Marketing. Many of them have a misconception with the term Green Marketing


2. Have you heard of any campaign related to Green Marketing? a. Yes b. No

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0



Yes No

From this bar chart we can say that most of the respondents are not aware of any campaign related to green marketing.


3. Have you been part of any such campaign? a. Yes b. No

47 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

Yes No 3

We can see here that out of 50 respondents only 3 has been part of such type of campaign.


4. Do you consider the environmental aspects of the products before buying them? a. Yes b. No c. Sometimes

yes 24%

Sometime s 48%
No 28%

The above chart indicates that only 48% i .e. the majority of respondents consider the Environmental aspect some times. And, only 24% consider the

environmental aspect of the product while buying it


5. Do you think that Green Marketing and advertising are good sources of information about green products and services? a. Yes b. No

No 6%

Yes 94%

From this pie chart, it indicates that 94% respondents think that green marketing and advertising are good sources of information about green products and services.


6. Do you think that Green Marketing activities are good at addressing environmental issues? a. Yes b. No

50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0




We can see most of the respondents feel that Green marketing activities are good at addressing environmental issues.


7. Do you think Green Marketing activities results in better products? a. Yes b. No









In this above bar chart it is clearly indicates that 82% of respondents think this strategy results in better products while 18% have different opinion.


.8. Do you think that Green Marketing strengthen companys image in the mind of consumers? a. Yes b. No

40 35 30 25 20 15 10


Yes No


The above chart indicates, majority of the respondents, i.e. 37 respondents feel that it strengthen companys image in the mind of consumers.



Do you think that companies that focus on environmental concerns

persuade consumers to buy products? a. Yes b. No

No 42%

Yes 58%

Most of the respondents feel that it helps to persuade consumers to buy products.


10. Do you think that by implementing green marketing strategy the companies are able to gain competitive advantage over others? a. Strongly agree b. agree c. disagree d. strongly disagree

25 20 15 10 5 0
strongly agree agree disagree strongly disagree

Most of them agree that by implementing green marketing strategy the companies are able to gain competitive advantage over others.


11. Do you think sometimes companies are trying to cheat customers in the name of green products? a. Yes b. No


35 30 25 20 15 10

Yes No

Here, we can say that most of the respondents have negative opinion. They feel that sometimes companies are trying to cheat the customers in the name of green products.


In my research work through the survey of questionnaire I find the following points-

1. Maximum numbers of respondents are not familiar with the term Green Marketing 2. Most of the respondents are not aware of any campaign related to green marketing 3. Maximum numbers of respondents sometimes consider the

environmental aspects of the products while purchasing. 4. Significant numbers of respondents feel that green marketing and advertising are good sources of information about green products and services. 5. Most of the respondents feel that this marketing strategy helps to persuade consumers to buy products. 6. Also this type of strategy helps a company to get the competitive advantage over others. 7. Many respondents feel that sometimes companies are trying to cheat the customers in the name of green products.




1. DEMOGRAPHIC CONSTRAINTS - will be a main issue of concern. This is due to the reason that the data collection will be restricted to the Kolkata

2. DATA RELIABILITY - As the data will be collected from various sources the accuracy of the data collected would be an area of concern. It would be an uphill task to validate the data consistency of the collection of that data.

3. UNAWARENESS People are unaware of Green marketing. So its a very challenging task for me.


Finite resources such as oil, metal, and even fresh water will become scarcer and more expensive. If businesses do not become more efficient in using these resources it will have a huge impact on the bottom line. Investing in Green Products thus changes from beyond doing good to ultimately good business sense. Thus they should:

Invest in research and create clean and environment friendly products. Recycle at every level. Educate masses of the environment issues because they are going to be the bulk consumers. Socially responsible investing in environment driven projects. Plant more trees.

The corporations must rethink: Their raw material and procurement strategies. They should develop new products They should redesign existing products and service.


They should realize that pollution prevention can be a cost saving activity. They should steer their product and packaging designs to use less material.


Green marketing covers more than a firm's marketing claims. While firms must bear much of the responsibility for environmental degradation, the responsibility should not be theirs alone. Ultimately green marketing requires that consumers want a cleaner environment and are willing to "pay" for it, possibly through higher priced goods, modified individual lifestyles, or even governmental intervention. Until this occurs it will be difficult for firms alone to lead the green marketing revolution. Having said this, it must not be forgotten that the industrial buyer also has the ability to pressure suppliers to modify their activities. Thus an environmental committed organization may not only produce goods that have reduced their detrimental impact on the environment, they may also be able to pressure their suppliers to behave in a more environmentally "responsible" fashion. Final consumers and industrial buyers also have the ability to pressure organizations to integrate the environment into their corporate culture and thus ensure all organizations minimize the detrimental environmental impact of their activities. Thus green marketing should look at minimizing environmental harm, not necessarily eliminating it.


Green marketing covers more than a firm's marketing claims. While firms must bear much of the responsibility for environmental degradation, ultimately it is consumers who demand goods, and thus create environmental problems. One example of this is where McDonald's is often blamed for polluting the environment because much of their packaging finishes up as roadside waste. It must be remembered that it is the uncaring consumer who chooses to disposes of their waste in an inappropriate fashion. While firms can have a great impact on the natural environment, the responsibility should not be theirs alone. It appears that consumers are not overly committed to improving their environment and may be looking to lay too much responsibility on industry and government. Ultimately green marketing requires that consumers want a cleaner environment and are willing to "pay" for it, possibly through higher priced goods, modified individual lifestyles, or even governmental intervention. Until this occurs it will be difficult for firms alone to lead the green marketing revolution. It must not be forgotten that the industrial buyer also has the ability to pressure suppliers to modify their activities. Thus an environmental committed organization may not only produce goods that have reduced their detrimental impact on the environment, they may also be able to pressure their suppliers to behave in a more environmentally

"responsible" fashion. Final consumers and industrial buyers also have the ability to pressure organizations to integrate the environment into their corporate culture and thus ensure all organizations minimize the detrimental environmental impact of their activities.





1. Are you aware of the term green marketing? a. Yes b. No

2. Have you heard of any campaign related to Green Marketing? a. Yes b. No

3. Have you been part of any such campaign? a. Yes b. No

4. Do you consider the environmental aspects of the products before buying them? a. Yes b. No c. Sometimes


5. Do you think that Green Marketing activities are good at addressing environmental issues? a. Yes b. No

6. Do you think that Green Marketing activities are good at addressing environmental issues? a. Yes b. No

7. Do you think Green Marketing activities results in better products? a. Yes b. No

8. Do you think that Green Marketing strengthen companys image in the mind of consumers? a. Yes b. No

9. Do you think that companies that focus on environmental concerns persuade consumers to buy products? a. Yes b. No


10.Do you think that by implementing green marketing strategy the companies are able to gain competitive advantage over others? a. Strongly agree disagree b. agree c. disagree d. strongly

11. Do you think sometimes companies are trying to cheat customers in the name of green products? a. Yes b. No



1. Philip Kotler & G. Armstrong. Principles of marketing. New Delhi, Prentice Hall. 2. Richa Agrawal, Green Marketing: An Emerging Trend (PMR, Vol.5,April 2000) 3. 4. 5. 6.