al-Ømb kn\n-a-Ifn-eqsS Hcp bm{X

hvfmZn-t…mhv kv]n¬am≥ t]mf-

Zn ]nbm-\nÃv

hnP-b-Ip-am¿ ªmØq¿
32 imkv{X-tI-cfw

≠nse am{X-a√ bqtdm-∏nemsI {]ikvX-\m-b ]nbm-\n-Ãm-bn-cp-∂p. 1939
k]vXw-_-dn¬ hmgvkm tdUn-tbm-bn¬
Xs‚ ]cn-]mSn Ah-X-cn-∏n-®v sIm-≠ncn-t°-bmWv P¿Ω≥ t_mw_n-ßn¬
tdUntbm \nebw XI¿∂p t]mb-Xv.
PqX-\mb kv]n¬am-t‚bpw IpSpw-_Øn- s ‚bpw (t]m- f - ≠ nse PqX- c psSbpw) PohnXw \mkn-I-fpsS A[n\n-th-itØmsS \c-I-ambn Xo¿∂p.
Zpc-¥-ßsf√mw AXn-Po-hn®v _m°nbmb kv]n¬am≥ bp≤m-\-¥cw Xs‚
A\p-`-h-°p-dn-∏p-Iƒ "Hcp \K-c-Øns‚
acWw' F∂ t]cn¬ {]kn-≤o-I-cn-®p˛
]s£ A-\p-`-h-ß-fpsS kXy-k-‘amb Ah-X-cWw CjvS-s∏-SmØ A[nIm-cn-Iƒ AXv \ntcm-[n-®p. A≥]Xp
h¿j-߃°v tijw 1998 ¬ At±-lØns‚ aI≥ B Ipdn-∏p-Iƒ "Zn ]nbm\nÃv ' F∂ t]cn¬ Cw•o- j n¬
]p\{]kn- ≤ o- I - c n- ® p. h≥ {]Nmcw
t\Snb B IrXn ap∏pXp `mj-I-fn¬
IqSn {]kn-≤o-I-cn-°-s∏-´p.
Cu Hm¿Ω-°p-dn-∏p-Isf ASn-ÿm\-s∏-SpØn {]ikvX t]mfnjv kwhn[m-b-I-\mb sdma≥ s]mf≥kvIn 2002
¬ \n¿Ωn® kn\n-a-bmWv "Zn ]nbm\nÃv'. kam\ PohnXm\p-`-hß-fp≈
s]mf≥kv I nsb kw_- ‘ n- ® nStØmfw "Zn ]nbm-\nÃv' shdpw IY-b√. t]mfnjv PqX-\mb ]nXmhv, tdma≥
ImØ-en°v amXm-h v, ]nd-∂Xv ]mco-

XI¿∂-Sn-bp∂ tdUntbm
\ne- b - Ø n¬ \n∂pw ho´nte°v
hcn- I - b mWv
kv ] n¬am≥. {^m≥kpw
Cw•≠pw bp≤- { ]- J ym- ] \w
\S- Ø p- ∂ - t XmsS bp≤w
s]s´∂v Ah-km-\n-°p-sa∂
{]Xym-ib
- n-emWv kv]n¬ams‚
IpSpw_w.

Zpcn- X - ] q¿Æ- a m- b n- c p- ∂ p. hr≤- c mb
amXm- ] n- X m- ° fpw A\p- P \pw c≠v
ktlm- Z - c n- a mcpw AS- ß n- b - X mWv
kv]n¬ams‚ IpSpw-_w. tdmUn\p adphisØ ^vfm‰nse hr≤s\ D¥p-h-≠nbn¬ c≠mw \ne- b n¬ \n∂pw
P¿Ω≥Im¿ Xmtg°v D¥n- b n´v
sIm√p∂ cwK-Øn\v kv]n¬ams‚
IpSpw_w km£n-bm-Ip-∂p-≠v.
s{Sªn-¶-bnse \mkn-Iym-ºp-I-fnte°v amSp-Itft∏mse hmK-Wp-I-fn¬

sdma≥ t]mf≥kvIn

kn¬. \mkn tIm¨sk≥t{S- j ≥
Iymºn¬ AΩ sIm√-s∏-´p. Ip´n-bmb
s]mf≥kvIn {Imt°m-sK-tØm-bn¬
\n∂pw A—-t\m-sSm∏w Hfn-t®mSn.
]s£ th¿]n-cn™p t]mbn. bp≤w
Ign™v A—-\p-ambn IqSn-t®cpw hsc
A\m-Y-\mbn Im¿jnI IpSn-ep-I-fn¬
\c- I n®p Pohn- ® p. kv ] n¬ams‚
Hm¿Ω°pdn-∏p-I-fn¬ Xs‚ Hm¿Ω-IfpsS NqSpw Nqcpw tN¿Øv al-Ømb
kn\na Hcp-°m≥ s]mf≥kvIn°v AXpsIm-≠p Xs∂ km[n-®p.

P¿Ω≥ ]n¥p- W - b p≈
Fkv . - F kv Hm¿K- s s\- t kjs‚ Iogn-emb t]mf≠nse
PqX-cpsS F√m Ah-Im-i-ß-fpw -kzØp-°fpw ]Xps° ]Xps° ]nSn-s®Sp-°s∏Sp-∂p. PqX-sc∂v Xncn-®-dn-bm\mbn F√m ka-bhpw ssIØ-≠bn¬
\oe \£{Xw Xp∂nb _mUvPv [ncn®n-cn-°Ww. P¿Ω≥Imsc I≠m¬
Ip\n™p hW-ß-Ww, ^q´v]m-ØneqsS \S-°m≥ ]mSn-√, XpS-ßnb Ahtl-f-\-]-c-amb \n_-‘-\-Iƒ. F√m
kzØp-Ifpw I≠psI-´-W-sa-∂-Xmbn
]ns∂-bp≈ Hm¿U¿. Ah-km\w Ip{]- k n- ≤ - a mb "sKtØm'- b n- t e°v
PqXsc apgp-h≥ am‰n ]m¿∏n®p. \K-cØns‚ CSp-ßnb Hcp ÿew Bbn-c°-W-°n\v PqX¿-°m-bp≈ tImf-\nbm°n hmgvkm sKtØm-bnse PohnXw

IpØn-\n-d®v \qdp--I-W-°n\v PqXsc
sIm≠p t]mIp-∂p≠v sKtØm-bn¬
\n∂v . IpSpw_ kplr- Ø mb PpX
sKtØm t]meo-kp-Im-c≥ Ah-km\
\nanjw kv]n¬ams\ h≠n-bn¬ Ibdp-∂-Xn¬ \n∂pw XS™v c£-s∏-SpØp∂p. Iq´-°p-cp-Xn-°m-Wv A-hsc
sIm≠p t]mIp-∂-sX∂v kv]n¬am\v
Adn-bp-am-bn-cp-∂n√.
{]nb-s∏-´h
- c- n¬ \ns∂√mw th¿s]´p-t]mb At±lw hmgvkm sKtØm-bnte-°vXs∂ Xncn®p t]mcp-∂p. P¿Ω≥
sI´nS ]p\¿\n¿ΩmW {]h¿Ø- \ ߃s°m∏w ASn-a-∏Wn sNøp-∂p.
AXn-\n-S-bn¬ ]pXnb Adn-hp-I-fp-≠mIp-∂p˛ AXn-Po-hn-°-s∏-´Pq-X¿

Hfn-{]-h¿Ø-\-ßfneqsS Hcp Iem-]Øn\v tIm∏v Iq´p-∂p-≠v. kv]n¬am\pw
Ahsc klm-bn-°p-∂p. Bbp-[-߃
sKtØm-bn-te°v Hfn®p IS-Øm≥
Iq´ptNcp-∂p. Hcp L´-Øn¬ \mkn
t]men-kp-Im-cs‚ ]nSn-bn-e-I-s∏-Sp∂nSw hsc FØp- I bpw sNbv X p.
]s£ `mKywsIm≠p c£-s∏-´p.
]nbm-\nsÃ∂ \ne-bn¬ Xs∂
]cn-N-b-ap≈ PqX≥am-c-√mØ ]e
t]mf-≠p-Im-cp-sSbpw klm-btØmsS
]e hoSp-I-fnepw Znh-k-߃ Hfn®p
Xma-kn-®p. ]pdta \n∂p ]q´nb
apdn- ° - I Øv `£- W - a n- √ msX
\ni_vZw GIm-¥-ambn X≈n
\o°nb Zn\-߃ ac-W-Øns‚
Imsem® ImØp-sIm-≠v... B
GIm-¥XIfn¬ kv]n¬ams‚
sa√n®p \o≠ hnc- e p- I ƒ
km¶¬]nI ]nbm-t\m-bn¬ \ni_vZ-ambn knw^-Wn-Iƒ Be-]n°p-I-bm-Wv. \mkn-∏-Sbpw Fkv.Fkpw sXcp-hp-I-fnepw hoSp-Ifnepw \S-Øp∂ Iq´-°p-cpXnIƒ
kv]n¬am≥ Pme-I-Øn-eqsS Hfn®p
ImWp-∂p-≠v. Hfn®p Ign-bp∂ PqXsc
Xpc-Øn-∏n-Sn-°p∂ tPmk^v tªmjv
F∂ DtZym-K-ÿ≥am{Xw c≠m-bn-cØn-e-[nIw PqX-tc-bm-Wv shSn-sh®p
sIm∂-Xv. K¿`n-Wn-I-sfbpw Ip™p-ßsfbpw Hgn-hm-°msX.
amk- ß ƒ IS∂p t]mbn.
kv]n¬ams‚ HfnPohnXw \c-I-]q¿Æam-Wv. Hcp Zn\w ASpØ apdn-bnse
Xma-k-°m-c≥ PqX-\mb kv]n¬ams\
I≠p. ]´m-f-°msc Adn-bn-°p-sa-∂mb-t∏mƒ kv]n¬am≥ Xmakw am‰p-∂p.
P¿Ω≥ Bip-]-{Xn°v ASp-Øp≈ Hfnhn-S-Øn¬ sh®v a™-]nØw ]nSn-s]´
kv ] n¬am≥ ac- W sØ apJm- a pJw
sk]v‰w-_¿ 2008

33

ImWp∂p. ]´n-Wnbpw t]mj-Im-lm-c°p-dhpw Abm-sf ]gb kv]n¬ams‚
\ng¬ am{X-am-°n.
P¿Ω≥ A[n- \ n- t h- i - Ø ns\Xnscbp≈ PqX apt∂-‰-ambn 1944 ¬
"hmgv k A]v s sdknMv' Bcw`n-®p. \nch [ n
\mkn-Isf
A h ¿
sIm∂p
hogvØn.
] s £
P¿Ω≥ ]S
Xncn- ® - S n®v
A£- c m¿∞Ø n ¬
hmgv k m \nc- ∏ m°-s∏-´p. IsÆØm
Zqcw ]c∂p InS- ° p∂
\K-cm-h-in-jvS-߃°n-S-bn¬
kv]n¬am≥ am{Xw AXn-Po-hn-®p.
Hgn™ sI´n-S-ß-fn¬ `£Ww
tXSn Ae-bp∂ kv]n¬am\v A[nIw
XI- c mØ hen- s bmcp _w•m- h nse
ASp-°-f-bn¬ \n∂v A®m¿ Sn∂v e`n°p-∂p. sXcp-hn¬ hml\ i_vZw tI´v
sI´n-S-Øns‚ a®n-sem-fn® kv]n¬am\v
]nbmt\m i_v Z w tIƒ°p- ∂ p- ≠ v .
Bcp-an-s√∂p IcpXn Xmsg Cdßn
Sn∂v Xpd-°m≥ {ian-°p∂ kv]n¬am\v
Xs∂ Hcp P¿Ω≥ Iym]v‰≥ B apdnbn¬ {i≤n-°p-Ibm-sW∂v a\-kn-em-Ip∂p. ˛ acWw ASp- s Ø- Ø n- s b∂v
kv]n¬am≥ Dd-∏n-®p. "" \nß-fn-hnsS
F¥p sNøp∂p'' F∂ tNmZy-Øn\v
"]nbm-\n-Ãm-sW∂v adp-]Sn ]d-™t∏mƒ _w•mhnse Hcp apdn-bnse
]nbmt\m hmbn-°m≥ Iym]v‰≥ ]d-bp∂p. kv]n¬am≥ Xs‚ £oWn® hncep- I - f m¬ ]nbm- t \m- b n¬ am{¥nI

34 imkv{X-tI-cfw

kwKo- X - a p- b ¿Øp- ∂ p...... \o≠
bp≤°pcp- X n- I - f psS Imgv N - I - f n¬
\n∂pw kwKo-X-Øn-te-°p≈ kvt\lØn-te-°p≈˛ Hcp

Xncn®p t]m°v
..., t]mf≥kvIn Zo¿L-amb Hcp
ko\mWv kn\n-a-bn¬ Ah-X-cn-∏n-°p∂-Xv.˛ Iym]v‰≥ kv]n¬ams\ B sI´nS-Øn¬ Hfn®p Ign-bm≥ A\p-h-Zn-°p∂p. IqSmsX IrXy-ambn `£-W-saØn®p sImSp-°bpw sNøp-∂p.
djy≥tk\ hmgvk-bn-se-Øp-sa∂m-b-t∏mƒ P¿Ω≥ {Sq∏p-Iƒ ]n≥Xncn-bm≥ Xocp-am-\n-°p-∂p. bm{X ]d-bms\-Ønb Iym]v‰≥ kv]n¬amt\mSv
t]cv tNmZn-°p∂p P¿Ω-\n-bn¬ kv]n¬am≥ F∂m¬ ]m´p ]mSp- ∂ - b mƒ
F∂m- W ¿∞- s a∂v Nncn- ® p- s Im≠p
Abmƒ ]d-bp-∂p. hmgvkm tdUn-tbmbnse ]cn-]m-Sn-Iƒ tIƒ°m-sa∂pw
]d™v˛ Iptd `£-Whpw Abm-fpsS
P¿Ω≥ Hm^o-k¿ tIm´pw kv]n¬am\v
\¬Ip-∂p.
hmgv k m Xncn®p ]nSn® djy≥
tk\bpw t]mf-≠vtk-\bpw sXcp-hpI- f n- s e- Ø nbXdn™ kv ] n¬am≥

Bizm- k - ] q¿∆w ]pd- Ø n- d - ß p- ∂ p.
kv]n¬ams‚ P¿Ω≥ tIm´v I≠v
sX‰n-≤-cn®v Ah¿ shSn-sh°p∂p Xm≥ PqX- \ msW∂pw t]mf-≠p-Im-c\m- s W∂pw hnfn- ® p
]d™v kv]n¬am≥
Ahsc t_m≤y-s∏Sp-Øp-∂p.
sdUv B¿an
]nSn-Iq-Snb
P¿Ω≥ tk\mwK - ß s f
XmXv ° m- e n- I ambn ]m¿∏n®
apƒthen sI´nb
Hcp Iymºv Im´p∂p≠v
]n∂o- S v .
tIm¨sk≥- t {Sj≥ Iymºp- I fn¬ \n∂v tamNn-∏n-°-s∏´ PqX sNdp∏-°m-¿ Ah-cpsS tcmjhpw k¶-Shpw
P¿Ω≥Im-tcmSv hnfn-®p-]-d-™p-sIm≠v
AXp--hgn IS-∂p-t]m-Ip-∂p-≠v. AXnsem-cmƒ ]d-bp-∂p."" Rms\mcp aypknj-\m-bn-cp-∂p. \nß-sfs‚ hb-en≥
XI¿Øp.'' "Fs∂ \in-∏n®p' F∂.v
AXp tI´v P¿Ω≥Imcn- s em- c mƒ
Abmƒ°- c n- I n- s eØn \n߃°v
kv]n¬am≥ F∂ ]nbm-\n-Ãns\ Adnbptam F¶n¬ Fs∂ c£n- ° m≥
Abm-tfmSv ]d-bWw . Rm≥ Abmsf
ac-W-Øn¬ \n∂pw c£-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´p≠v.'' F∂p ]d-bp-∂p. (AXv kv]n¬amt\mSv kvt\lw Im´nb P¿Ω≥ Hm^ok-dm-Wv) AbmfpsS t]cv tNmZn-s®¶nepw hy‡-ambn tIƒ°m-\m-bn-√.
kv]n¬am≥ hmgvkv tdUn-tbmbn¬ ]cn-]mSn Ah-X-cn-∏n-®p-sIm-≠n-cn°p-∂-XmWv \mw ]n∂oSv ImWp-∂-Xv.
Xs‚ kl- { ]- h ¿Ø- I s\ ho≠pw
ImWp-tºmƒ kv]n¬ams‚ apJsØ
kt¥mjw kwKo-X-Øn-eqsS \sΩ

tIƒ∏n- ° p--∂ p- ≠ v . Xs∂ c£n®
P¿Ω≥ Iym]v ‰ s\ tXSn Xncn®v
kv]n¬am≥ FØp-tºm-tg°pw bp≤-XS-hp-Im-tcbpw sIm≠v djy≥tk\
t]mbv°gn-™n-cp-∂p. F{Xtbm XhW
kwkm-cn®n´p-s≠-¶nepw Abm-fpsS
t]cp tNmZn- ° m- \ p≈ ss[cyw
kv]n¬am-\p-≠m-bn-cp-∂n√

Zpcn-Xß-fptSbpw ImgvN-Iƒ tdma≥
s]mf≥kv I n Ah- X - c n- ∏ n- ° p- ∂ Xv
\njv]-£-am-bm-Wv. P¿Ω≥Im¿ apgph\pw {Iqc hwi-sh-dn-b≥am-c-s√∂pw
t]mf-≠p-Im¿ P¿Ω≥Im-tcm-sSm∏w
IqSn PqXsc H‰n-s°m-Sp-Øn-cp-s∂∂pw
a‰pap≈ kXy-߃ Cu kn\n-a-bn¬
ImWmw.

Zm\w In´nb Xs‚ c≠mw P∑Øn¬ \nc-h[n hmZy-°m-tcm-sSm∏w
\nd™p \n¬°p∂ kZ- n-\p-ap≥]n¬
tNmw]ns‚ hnJym-Xa- mb " {Km‚ v t]mfss\kv {_n√y‚ v' I¨sk¿´v ]nbmt\m-bn¬ hmbn-°p∂ kv]n¬ams‚
hnc- e p- I - f psS kao- ] - Z r- i y- t ØmsS
kn\na Ah-km-\n-°p-∂p. Xs‚ 88˛mw
hb- n¬ 2000 Pqsse 6\v acn°pw
hsc kv]n¬am≥ hmgvk-bn¬ Pohn®p
F∂pw 1952¬ tkmhn-b‰v bp≤ Ip‰hmfn Iymºn¬ sh®v kv]n¬ams\
c£n® Iym]v ‰ ≥ tlmkv ^ n¬Uv
sIm√-s∏-´p-sh∂pw FgpXn Im´p-∂p.

bp≤-Øn-t‚bpw ]´n-Wn-bp-tSbpw
GI- ¥ - X - b p- t Sbpw Xo£v - W X
s]mf≥kvIn hc-®n-´n-cn-°p-∂Xv AXy]q- ¿ - ∆ - a mb ko\p- I - f n- e q- t S- b mWv.sKtØm-bnse ]´n-Wn-°nSbn¬
Hcp kv{XobpsS ssIbnse CØncn
kq∏v X´n-∏-dn-°m≥ {ian-°p∂ Hcp
hr≤s\ ImWmw.. \neØp hoWpt]mb kq∏v \°n-°p-Sn°pI-bm-Wbmƒ.Hfn-hn¬ Ign-bp∂ kv]n¬am≥
Dt]- £ n- ° - s ∏´ Bip- ] - { Xn- b nse
Agp°p \nd™ sXm´n-bn¬ \n∂pw
sh≈w tImcn IpSn-°p-∂-Xpw.sXcphn¬ tdm¥p- N p- ‰ p∂ ]´mf°mcn¬
\n∂pw
c£- s ∏- S m- \ mbn ih߃s°m∏w acn-®Xpt]mse InS-°p-

A≥]-Xp-Ifn¬ \nch[n kn\n-a-IfmWv bp≤-{]-ta-b-߃ Ah-X-cn∏n-®p-sIm≠v dneokv sNøs∏-´X
- v.
]t£ ]eXpw GI-]-£o-bhpw
\ndw ]nSn- ∏ n® IY- I ƒ \nd™Xpw bp≤- I m- g v N - I fpsS
hn]Wn km[yX -am{Xw ap∂n¬
I≠-h-bp-am-bn-cp-∂p. F¶nepw
temI-kn-\n-a-bpsS hn-Imk Ncn{X-Øn¬ bp≤m\¥c kn\n-a-Iƒ
{][m\ \mgn-I-°-√p-I-fm-Wv.
" lntcm-jna tam¨ Aa¿'
apX¬ " jn≥Uvtegvkv enÃv'
hsc- b p≈ hyXy- k v X - a mb
D¬IrjvS kn\n-a-Ifpw A°q-´Øn-ep-≠v. Ah-bn¬ \ns∂√mw
thdn´p \n¬°p∂p "Zn ]nbm\nÃv'.
hwi shdn-bp-tSbpw bp≤

∂Xpw ad- ° m- \ m- h mØ ko\p- I - f mWv . ssIbnse Ah- k m\ ]Ww
sIm≠v hmßnb Hcp tNm°- t e‰v
anTmbn kv]n¬ams‚ A—≥ Ij-Wß-fm°n apdn®v hoXw sh°p-∂p-≠v.
B IpSpw-_-Øns‚ Ah-km\ AØmghpw AXm-bn-cp∂p
hmgvk-bnse sKtØm-bpsS Iq‰≥
aXn-e-\-∏pdØp \n∂pw `£W km[\-߃ Ip´n-Iƒ IS-Øn-s°m-≠p-h-cp∂p-≠v. Agp-°p-Nm-ense sNdnb ZzmcØn-eqsS saen™ Ip´n-Iƒ \qgv∂v IS°p-I-bm-Wv. kv]n¬am≥ aXn-en-\-cn-IneqsS \S-°p-tºmƒ Hcp Ip™ns‚
Ic-®n¬ tIƒ°p-∂p. aXn-ense ZzmcØn-eqsS Xncn-®p-I-S-°m≥ {ian-°p-IbmWv Hcp Ip´n. adp-]p-dØv t]meo-kpIm- c ≥ Ahs\ ASn- ° p- ∂ Xpw
tIƒ°mw. Zzmc-Øn¬ Cdp-ßn-t]mb
B Ip´nsb kv]n¬am≥ hen-s®-Sp-°p∂p. ]t£ Iti-cp-°ƒ th¿s]´v ]g¥pWnt]mse Ipg- ™ p- t ]mb B
Ip™v kv ] n¬ams‚ aSn- b n¬ acn°p∂p. t{]£-I-cpsS lrZ-b-Øn¬
hnd- b n¬ ]S¿Øp∂
Hcp Zriy-am-Wv.
2002se Im≥ Ne-®n{X-ta-fn-bn¬ tKmƒU≥
]mw Ahm¿Uv " Zn -]nbm-\nÃv' t\Sn. anI®
kwhn-[m-b-I-\p≈
A°m-Uan Ahm¿Upw
s]mf≥kvIn°v e`n-®p.
IqSmsX G‰hpw \√
\S- \ p≈ A°m- U an
Ahm¿Uv kv]n¬ams‚
thjw A`n- \ - b n®
A{Un-b≥ t{_mUnbpw
Ah-ew_ Xnc-°Y
- bv°v
s d m W m ƒ U v
lm¿hpUpw A¿l- c mbn.
"
sk]v‰w-_¿ 2008

35