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Unit 1 WRITING DEFINITIONS When writing academic papers you will often have to define various terms and concepts. There are two major types of definitions: formal and expanded. 1. Formal definitions A formal definition usually contains the following elements: Concept/ Verb Class Term A bone A muscle Class is is one of the hard that form a frame inside the body of a human or animal. parts a tissue or organ of characterized by the ability to contract. the animal body Features Verb Concept Term The part of the that forms a frame inside the is called/ body The organ tissue of body of a human or animal. the contract may be defined as a muscle. or characterized by the ability to is known as a bone. Features

Definitions can also be written in the following way:

animal body 2. Expanded definitions Sometimes you may deal with terms or concepts that are too complex to be defined satisfactory in a simple sentence. In such cases you will have to add extra information to the definition. Below there are some techniques that can be used when writing an expanded definition: 2.1 Insert examples or explanations between brackets or dashes. e. g. Sports (football, basketball, tennis) are activities in which players or teams compete against each other. e. g. The success of a football team may be defined as the harmonious combination of individual skills - passing, marking, tackling - and team tactics - switching the attack, playing possession of the ball, defending at corners -.

2.2 A definition can also be expanded by giving an example of the use of the object or idea being defined. e. g. Aluminium is a metal which is light in weight. Consequently/Therefore, it can be used in the manufacture of aircraft. 2.3 Another way of expanding a definition is by stating the main characters of the object or concept. e. g. Football is a team sport. It is a game in which two teams of eleven players kick a round ball and try to score goals. e. g. Physiology is the study of the physical and chemical processes that take place in living organisms during the performance of life functions. It is concerned with such basic activities as reproduction, growth, metabolism, excitation, and contraction as they are carried out within the fine structure, the cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems of the body.

Unit 2 DESCRIBING 1. Read the following texts and find the words used to describe things. A. If you look at an octopus, it seems to be just a huge head with eight long, fearful arms. Its head is soft and rubberlike. Its eyes stick out on stalks so that it can see in all directions. Its mouth is on the underside of its body and has powerful jaws which are shaped like a beak. The long arms, or tentacles, have double rows of suckers. These can fasten onto objects with such suction that they cannot be pulled off. B. The liver is the largest organ in the body. It weighs a little more than three pounds in an adult. It is shaped like a wedge and it is situated under the diaphragm, mostly on the left side of the body. There it is protected by the lower ribs. The liver is a little like an intricate chemical factory. It takes the particles of glucose - which come from digested starches and sugars - and changes them into another kind of carbohydrate called glycogen. It then stores the glycogen. When you need sugar in your body, the liver turns the glycogen into glucose again and sends it to the body tissues through the bloodstream. When you describe things you will have to provide information on the position, weight, structure, colour, composition, size, shape and function of the object described . Position adjacent to/alongside/below/ beyond/facing (diagonally)/ parallel to/underneath/opposite/ in the middle of/on the right of/ on the left of/on the left of/near/close to/ touching/behind/in front of /under/ on top of/above/below/ level with/diagonally above/ vertically below A is between equidistant from Structure X is nailed/screwed/fixed/fastened linked/welded/tied/connected attached consists of contains includes Y and Z to Y by Z B B and C

held in place/ secured/ X is supported/ suspended joined mounted/placed/pivoted Colour X is dark/light/pale/bri ght/dull green/blue/red/ yellow

by Y to on

Talking and writing about colours shade = one of the different types of a particular colour, especially when describing how dark or light it is. e. g. a deep shade of red, subtle shades of blue and green tone = one of the different types of a particular colour. e. g. a delicate pink tone, eye shadow in tones of green and brow -ish = used with colours to make adjectives describing things that look a bit like that colour. e. g. reddish hair dark = used for describing colours that look more like black than white. e. g. dark green trousers deep = used for describing dark colours, especially when they look attractive. e. g. lovely deep blue eyes rich = used for describing dark colours that look beautiful and expensive. e. g. rich brown velvet sombre = dark in the way that seems suitable for a serious occasion and use. e. g. The men were wearing sombre suits and black ties. bright = strong and noticeable. e. g. bright yellow paint vibrant = bright in a way that looks exciting. e. g. curtains in vibrant shades of red colourful = brightly coloured, or having a lot of bright colours. e. g. wonderfully colourful curtains loud = bright in a way that you think looks silly or ugly. e. g. He tends to wear silk shirts and loud ties. gaudy = very brightly coloured, especially in a way that you think shows bad taste. e. g. Look at those gaudy purple sunglasses.

light = pale rather than bright. e. g. a light blue shirt pale = like white with a small amount of colour mixed in. e. g. pale grey feathers pastel = in a soft and attractive way. e. g. summer dresses in pastel shades. faded = something that is pale because it had been washed a lot or because it has been affected by light or the sun. e. g. faded blue jeans. The paintwork was faded in places. Composition X is made metal/steel/aluminium/cloth/silk/china. of wood/plastic/glass/ an alloy of A and B Size and weight X is 6 cm X is 6 cm in X is 6 kg in weight X has a length/height/width/ diameter weight X measures 6 cm X weighs 6 kg Shape square/round/rectangular/ triangular/semi-circular/ conical/spherical/hexagonal/ octagonal/oval/circular/irregular/ X is cubical/cylindrical/pyramidal spherical/tubular/spiral hemispherical/conical/bulbous tapering/concave/convex in shape 6 kg long/wide/high length/height/width/diameter weight is of 6 kg 6 cm

The length/height/width/diameter of X 6 cm

square/circle/rectangle X is a shaped like triangle/semi-circle a hexagon/octagon

diamond-shaped/kidney-shaped/UX is shaped star-shaped/bell-shaped/dome-shaped mushroom-shaped/Xshaped/crescent-shaped egg-shaped/pear-shaped/Y-shaped Function function purpose The aim of is objective the tripod thermometer measure the temperature the camera The thermometer is used for tripod Properties X is light/tough/soft/elastic/malleable/flexible/ soluble/a good conductor of electricity/heat/ corrosion resistant/combustible/transparent/ smooth/heavy/brittle/plastic/ductile/rigid/ insoluble/a bad conductor of electricity/not corrosion resistant/non-combustible/opaque rough measuring temperature holding camera the the to hold

Exercises I. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words or phrases: found, exhibit, is composed of, mediated, have, The smooth muscle 1_____ spindle-shaped cells, each having a central nucleus. The cells 2_____ no cross striations, although they do 3____ faint longitudinal striations. Stimuli for the contractions of smooth muscles are 4_____ by the autonomic nervous system. Smooth muscles are 5_____ in the skin, internal organs, reproductive system, major blood vessels, and excretory system. serve to, by, are attached to, forms, called, is made of, surrounded, sausage-shaped, containing, display, supplied, under control The skeletal muscle 1_____ long fibers 2_____ by a membranous sheath, the sarcolemma. The fibers are elongated, 3_____ cells 4_____ many nuclei and clearly 5_____ longitudinal and cross striations. Skeletal muscle is 6_____ with nerves from the central nervous system, and because it is partly 7_____ conscious 7_____, it is also called voluntary muscle. Most skeletal muscles 8_____ portions of the skeleton 9_____ connective-tissue attachments 10_____ tendons. Contractions of skeletal muscle 11_____ move the various bones and cartilages of the skeleton. Skeletal muscle 12_____ most of the underlying flesh of vertebrates. in response to, have, are composed of, produce, used, according to, are found in, such as, contain, is activated, resembling, is dependent on, made up, looks, classified Smooth muscles 1_____ organs 2_____ also of other tissues, 3_____ the heart and intestines, which 4_____ layers of connective tissue. Skeletal muscles are usually found in bundles, composing muscular structures 5_____ organs in function. These often ripple the skin visibly during muscular action. The shape of the muscular organ 6_____ its location and function. Such a muscle structure is named scientifically 7_____ its shape, function, or attachments: the trapezius muscle of the back, for example, is so called because it 8_____ like a geometrical figure known as a trapezoid; and the masseter muscle of the face is so called because it is 9_____

in chewing food. Muscle fibers have been 10_____ by function into slow twitch (type I) and fast twitch (type II). Most skeletal muscles 11_____ both types of fibers, although one type may predominate. The fast-twitch, darker-hued muscle fibers contract more rapidly and 12_____ bursts of power; the slow-twitch, lighter-hued muscle fibers 13_____ greater endurance. The contraction of a muscle cell 14_____ by the release of calcium from inside the cell, probably 15_____ electrical changes at the cell's surface. Homework. Using the language provided to you above describe the human heart

Unit 3 DESCRIBING PROCESSES and GIVING INSTRUCTIONS Read the following texts and find the words used to describe the process of papermaking. Pay attention to verbal tenses, voice and linkers. Printing is of little use without paper. Basically, a sheet of paper is a flattened mesh of interlocking plant fibres, mainly of wood and cotton. Making paper involves reducing a plant to its fibres, and then aligning the fibres and coating them with materials such as glues, pigments and mineral fillers. Firstly, trees are felled and then they are transported to paper mills as logs. Next, the bark has to be stripped off the logs, without damaging the wood. Then, the wood is pulped. Pulping reduces the wood to a slurry of loose fibres in water. The logs are first sliced into chips and then they are treated with chemicals in a digester. These chemicals dissolve the lignin binding the wood fibres together. Alternatively, machines may grind the logs in water to produce pulp. The pulp is then bleached. After that, the pulp goes to the mixer. The mixer is where materials are added to improve the quality of the paper. The additives include white fillers such as china clay, size for waterproofing, and coloured pigments. The mixer beats the fibres into a smooth pulp. Then, liquid pulp is fed from the flowbox onto the mesh belt. The water drains through the holes in the mesh, and suction is used to accelerate the drainage. The dandy roll then presses the fibres together into a wet ribbon known as a web. Belts move the web between the press rolls, which remove more water and compress the paper. Finally, the damp web moves through the dryer, where it passes between hot cylinders and felt-covered belts that absorb water. It then passes through the calender stacks before being wound on reels or cut into sheets. A process is a series of things that happen and have a particular result. When describing a process you are expected to give information on the sequence of events, the methods (how something is done), the position (where something happens) and the purpose (why something happens). Voice and verbal tenses The Passive Voice is frequently used in combination with the Active Voice in describing processes.


e. g. Trees are felled and then they are transported to paper mills as logs. The wood is pulped. The logs are first sliced into chips and then they are treated with chemicals in a digester. Usually the present tense simple is used in such descriptions. The past tense simple can also be used when describing processes which happened in the past. Sequence of events Firstly, First of all, To begin with, Initially Beforehand, Previously, Earlier, At the same time, Simultaneously, Secondly, Thirdly etc Next, Then, Subsequently, Later, Eventually, Lastly, Finally, In the last stage, During When this happens While After this, The next step is In the next stage, In the following stage, Following this, As soon as the committee has finished its work, ... ... until ... ... finishes with ... concludes with The last step is ... The first step is The first stage is ... begins with ... commences with Before this, Prior to this,


Methods in such a way that/ slowly, carefully, etc./ with care/precision/in a careful way/manner e. g. First of all, letters and packets are collected in bags from pillar boxes. This is done by placing them in the appropriate pigeon hole. The baskets are directed to the appropriate secondary sorting section by means of coding pegs. The drainage is accelerated by suction. The vapour is then compressed by means of a compressor. Position e. g. They are then taken to the sorting office, where the bags are emptied. The pulp goes to the mixer, where materials are added to improve the quality of the paper. The steam from the boiler is admitted into the cylinder in which there is a piston. Purpose so as (not) to, so that, in order (not) to e. g. Following this step, the letters are put through machines so that the stamps can be cancelled. This is then chemically etched to reduce its thickness. From there it is absorbed by plants to build carbohydrates in green leaves. In order to take heat out of the low-temperature interior of the refrigerator, work must be done. Giving instructions Instructions can be given in many ways. A list with the imperative form of the verb and words such as "first, "then, "next" is one common way. Continuous text using should + infinitive is another common way. Make sure you distinguish between giving instructions - that is, telling someone how to do something - and describing a process - that is describing how something happens. A. First, put the scores in order down the page. Then, work out the mean. Now calculate how much each deviates from the mean. Next, square each of these deviations. Add them all up. Now divide by the number of scores.


Lastly find the square root. This is the standard deviation. B. In certain accidents, if the patient's breathing stops, you can save life by using artificial respiration. This means that someone else causes air to enter and leave a person's lungs. The method of artificial respiration that the U.S. Army, the Red Cross, and the Boy Scouts of America recommend is a method of mouth-to-mouth breathing. First, place the victim face up. Tilt the victim's head back so that the chin is pointing upward. Next, if there is any foreign matter in the victim's mouth, wipe it out quickly with your fingers. Then, with your right-hand thumb, pull the jaw down to clear the tongue from the air passage in the back of the victim's mouth. With your left hand, pinch the nostrils to prevent the air you blow into the victim's mouth from escaping through the nose. Now, place your mouth tightly over the victim's and blow into his or her mouth until you see the chest rise. Remove your mouth, turn your head to the side, and listen to the out rush of air that indicates air exchange. Repeat blowing. For an adult, blow vigorously at a rate of about twelve breaths a minute. For a young child, take relatively shallow breaths, at a rate of about twenty a minute. When giving instructions you are expected to give information on the sequence of events, the methods (how something is done), the position (where something happens) and the purpose (why something happens). Use the same language structures (sequence of events, methods, position, purpose) as in the case of describing processes.


Unit 4 DESCRIBING CHARTS AND DIAGRAMS Look at the following figure and fill in the blanks with the following words: increasing, levelled off, reached a peak, covers, shows, fluctuated, increase, steady, fall, declined

If you look at Figure 1, you can see the sales of mobile phones per month. You can see that it 1_____the years 1998 to 2001. It shows that the sales of mobile phones 2_____ steadily in 1998, then remained 3_____ from May until the end of the year. As the graph 4_____, the sales then rose, more and more steeply, throughout 1999, and there was a large 5_____ at the end of the year. Sales 6_____ of 6,200 in February 2000. There was then a sharp 7_____, as you can see, but sales 8_____ at about 5,300 per month in April. They then 9_____ slightly through the year, and are now 10_____ again. As you can see We can see As the chart/diagram/table/ shows graph figures/statistics indicates show indicate in chart/diagram/table/ from the graphs/figures/ statistics/Table 1/ Figure 2/Graph 3 that


Table 1 Figure 2 From the figures/ chart/ diagram X can

see/show conclude/ that calculate/ infer by we may estimate/

increased/shot up/grew/rose decline/reduced/decreased/dropped/fell

X increased/shot up/ grew/rose decline/reduced/

slightly/slowly/gradually/ steadily/markedly/ dramatically/steeply/

decreased/dropped/fell sharply/rapidly/suddenly X reached a peak levelled off


Unit 5 CLASSIFYING/CATEGORIZING AND GIVING EXAMPLES When we classify, we arrange members of a group. For example, if we take the following list: Physics, Chemistry, Biology, French, German, Spanish it is quite clear that we have two different types of words. We have science subjects and languages. So it is simple to divide the list into two: Physics, Chemistry, Biology and French, German, Spanish. When we are classifying, we often need to say what our classification is and how we are making it. Read the texts and answer the following questions. What is the text classifying? How many types are there? What are the two types? How do we make the distinction? A. We can divide lavas into two contrasting types, acid and basic. Acid or siliceous lavas have a high silica content, about 70 to 75 per cent, and are stiff or viscous. They move slowly over the surface and solidify close to the vent. Basic lavas have a silica content of about 50 per cent. They are dark colored and fluid, and they flow more easily at lower temperatures and reach a greater distance from the crater than do acid lavas. B. Friedman and Rosenham first distinguished between Type A and Type B people. Individuals with certain behavioural traits were found to be more susceptible to coronary heart disease (Type A) than the low-risk Type B individuals. Type A people are characterized by extreme competitiveness, striving for achievement, aggressiveness, haste, impatience, restlessness. hyperalertness, explosiveness of speech, tenseness of facial musculature and feelings of being under pressure of time and under the challenge of responsibility. Type B were more laid back. A national sample in the United States of 3,400 men (without heart disease) was judged by a panel of psychiatrists and rated A or B. Two and a half years later Type A men aged between 39 and 49 had 6.5 times the incidence of coronary heart disease of the Type B men. Between 50 and 59 the incidence was 1.9 times higher. When a similar study was done on Benedictine and Trappist monks the same sort of difference emerged.


In 1976 Howard et al. looked at 236 managers and found that extreme Type A behaviour was associated with a range of known risk factors (high blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid, smoking and lack of fitness). There are types kinds two classes sorts varieties The types kinds Acidic and basic are classes categories sorts varieties We can according to on the basis of depending on the amount of silica present. of lava. of : acidic basic. are and acidic basic. are acidic and basic. and

categories lava These

classify lava


Giving examples Read the following texts paying attention to the way examples are given A. The quiet outpouring of lava is characteristic of basaltic lavas with about 50 per cent silica. The Hawaiian volcanoes are typical examples. On the island of Hawaii, Mauna Loa rises 13, 675 feet above sea level and 20 miles away is Kilauea 4,000 feet high. B. Though the authorities do not seem to have been aware of the scale and significance of capital flows within the sterling area, they were aware that the exchange controls in that area were not all that London hoped. For example, a major recipient of capital from the UK in this period, Australia, had notoriously "leaky" controls. C. Morgan was not interested in the terms for themselves but in the principles which they seemed to reveal when they were put together. For example, he would have been interested in the fact that the English word "uncle" can be used in speaking both of one's mother's brother and one's father's brother while in Swedish, for instance, two different words are used. D. A key experiment shows this. A hole is made in the shell and a small cube of cells is carefully cut out from the posterior margin containing the polarizing region and grafted into the anterior margin of the limb bud of another embryo. Language We show/exemplify/ illustrate For example/For instance An experiment shows/illustrates/ that exemplifies this by

This is shown by the following examples: The following are examples of this: The following is a case in point. Shoppers tend to think that high prices mean high quality. Electrical goods are a case in point. institutions such as the family


Unit 6


When you speak at university, you need to do much more than just give information. You should always be trying to do something with your speaking. One common function is comparing and contrasting, speaking about similarities and differences. There are many ways of expressing comparison and contrast in English. Example Look at the following table and read the text below. Pay attention to the comparisons and contasts. Price Processor Speed Screen Size Hard Disk RAM 17" 19" 19" 17" 40 GB 40 GB 57 GB 38.1 GB 256 MB 256 MB 256 MB 128 MB

Evesham Axis 1.33 SK 1,174 1.33 GHz Armani R850 P4. Mesh Elite 1.7GT Pro Elonex WebRider Pro 2,467 1.7 GHz 1,938 1.7 GHz 1,174 1.2 GHz

We compared three personal computers, the Evesham Axis 1.33 SK, the Armani R850 P4 and the Mesh Elite 1.7 GT Pro, with respect to the following factors: price, processor speed and size of hard disk. The Evesham Axis, which costs 1,174, is by far the cheapest of the three, the Armani and the Mesh Elite costing 2,467 and 1,938 respectively. The Evesham Axis has the same hard disk size as the Armani, 40 MB, whereas the Mesh Elite is the largest at 57 GB. Regarding the processor speed, the Armani and the Mesh Elite are similar - the processor speed, at 1.7 GHz, being 0.37 GHz faster than the Evesham Axis.


Language Comparison with The Evesham Axis is like the Elonex WebRider as respect regards to price. price. price. of price.

The Evesham Axis and the Elonex WebRider are similar as far as price is concerned. The Evesham Axis is similar to the Elonex WebRider regarding The Evesham Axis resembles the Elonex WebRider in terms The Evesham Axis is the same as the Elonex WebRider in that the price is the same. in price.

Both the Evesham Axis and the Elonex WebRider cost 1,174. The Evesham Axis is as expensive as the Elonex WebRider. The Evesham Axis costs the same as the Elonex WebRider. The Evesham Axis is the same price as the Elonex WebRider.

Similarly, it has a high capacity hard disk. Likewise, it has a high capacity hard disk. The Mesh Elite has a large screen. Correspondingly, it has a high capacity hard disk. It has a high capacity hard disk, too. It also has a high capacity hard disk. Contrast The Evesham Axis differs from the Armani with respect to price. The Evesham Axis is unlike the Armani as regards price. price. of price. The Evesham Axis and the Armani differ as far as price concerned. The Evesham Axis is different from the Armani regarding The Evesham Axis contrasts with the Armani in terms in price. 20

in price.

The Evesham Axis costs 1,174, whereas the Armani costs 2,467. The Evesham Axis costs 1,174, while the Armani costs 2,467. The Evesham Axis costs 1,174, but the Armani The The Armani Evesham is more is expensive not as than the as costs 2,467. Evesham the Axis. Armani. The Evesham Axis costs 1,174, in contrast to the Armani , which costs 2,467. Axis expensive

The Armani costs more than the Evesham Axis.

On the other hand, it is very fast and has a large screen. The Armani is expensive to buy. In contrast, it is very fast and has a large screen. Conversely, it is very fast and has a large screen. However, it is very fast and has a large screen.

Although the Armani is expensive to buy, Despite the high price of the Armani,

it is very fast and has a large screen.


Unit 7


Take the following sentence: The death rate from cancer is increasing. We might want to ask why this is happening. We want the cause of this. The reason, or the cause, is that: People are smoking more. The death rate from cancer is increasing is the effect. People are smoking more is the cause. Example Read the following text and observe the cause and effect relationships. There are several factors that we have to take into account when we study why some plants become weak or die. One reason is lack of water. If the soil is dry, it causes the leaves to wilt, and this may cause the plant to die. On the other hand, too much water may result in the leaves drooping, or becoming yellow. While plants need sunshine, if it is too strong, the soil may be baked and the roots killed. However, if there is no light, the leaves will become pale and the stems thin. Consequently the plant may die.

Lack of water Too much water Too strong sun Lack of light

dryness in the soil baked soil

leaves to wilt

death of plant. plant dies.

leaves droop or become yellow roots killed. pale leaves & thin stems

plant dies.


Language This relationship can be expressed in many ways: 1. Simply Emphasising cause. The death rate from cancer is increasing because owing to the fact that people are smoking more.

Emphasising effect. As Because people are smoking more, the death rate from cancer is increasing. Since

Therefore, So, Thus, Hence, People are smoking more. Consequently, Because of this, For this reason, As a consequence, As a result, as a result of which People are smoking more, as a consequence of which with the result that the death rate from cancer is increasing.


2. With some grammatical changes. Emphasing cause. The fact that the death rate from cancer is increasing is due to may be due to people smoking more.

The One

reason for cause of

the death rate from cancer increasing

is that could be that

people are smoking more.

one effect of one result of is An increase in the death rate from cancer one consequence of due to because of results from arises from people smoking more. may be caused by


Emphasing effect. Owing to people smoking more, the death rate from cancer is increasing.

One The

effect of result of consequence of people smoking more

is that the death rate from cancer is increasing. is to increase the death rate from cancer.

results in leads to produces People smoking more causes is the cause of gives rise to brings about an increase in the death rate from cancer.

resulting in (so) People smoke more, (thus) (thereby) leading to producing causing giving rise to bringing about an increase in the death rate from cancer.

If people smoke more the death rate from cancer will increase.


Unit 8 GENERALISING AND EXPRESSING DEGREES OF CERTAINTY A common organisational principle in academic speaking is the general-specific pattern. This patterns involves a general statement supported by specific examples or details. Example Look at the following examples of generalisations. In some cases the generalisations are supported by details or examples.: It is believed that the USA wanted a round-the-world air route with access to all countries including the Soviet Union, China, the Middle East, and Africa, as well as the British Commonwealth and Empire.

Marx and Engels followed their contemporaries in believing that the history of mankind usually went through the same sequence of technological improvement. The sequence, by and large, went like this: first gathering of plants and small animals, second fishing, third hunting, fourth pottery, fifth pastoralism, sixth agriculture, seventh metalworking.

Throughout most of known human existence the processes, materials and tools of production were available to individuals who were involved in both utilitarian and expressive work. But, since the Renaissance the exponential growth and sophistication of technology has made it impossible for the majority of artists to gain access to many potential tools for expression. Language Percentage Quantity 100% all/every/each most a majority (of) many/much usual(ly) normal(ly) general(ly) as a rule some on the whole Frequency always Certainty certain(ly) definite(ly) undoubtedly clearly presumably probably/probable should 26 likely ought to Verbs will is/are must have to

normal(ly) general(ly) as a rule some a number (of) several often frequent(ly) a minority (of) sometimes a few/a little few/little rare(ly) seldom hardly ever scarcely ever 0% no/none/not any never on the whole

presumably probably/probable should likely ought to

conceivably perhaps uncertain unlikely

can may might

possibly/possible could

occasional(ly) maybe

could not will not cannot is/are not

Some of the probability qualifications can he further qualified, e.g. certain likely probable very possible that unlikely rather unlikely almost quite certain It is quite likely



Sometimes generalisations may be introduced or qualified in the following way: the (vast) majority a large number In most some a few (+ other quantity words) Expressing degrees of certainty It is important when you are speaking to show how sure you are about something. In other words, you need to show the degree of certainty. Examples Look at the following examples: We do not known, and will probably never know, when he began writing poetry. The answer almost certainly lay in the sack of papers that Susan Owen, on her son's strict instructions, burnt at his death.

of cases,

Less finished, but more intimate, is a passage from a fragmentary "Ballad of a Morose Afternoon", which he most probably wrote some time after he had left Dunsden.

There were, broadly, two interrelated reasons for this. The first was related to Britain's economic and imperial difficulties, and the second to the internal dissension in all three parties. This was , perhaps , asymptom of the need for a realignment of political parties.


Language Verbs is (not) complete will (not) must (not) strong partial less strong can/cannot should (not could (not) may (not) might (not) It is said that ... impersonal (i.e. no commitment) It appears that ... A reports that ... There is evidence to suggest that (etc.) Degree of certainty certain(ly) definite(ly) clear(ly) undoubtedly probably (is) presumably likely/unlikely possibly (not) perhaps (not)


Unit 9 PRESENTING A SEMINAR PAPER 1. General remarks 1.1 Decide on a time limit for your talk. Tell your audience what it is. Stick to your time limit. This is very important. 1.2 Concentrate only on the main points. Ignore details. Hammer home the essence of your argument. If necessary find ways of making your basic points so that your audience will be clear about what they are. 1.3 Try to make your presentation lively and interesting . This does not mean telling jokes and anecdotes. But if you can think of interesting or amusing examples to illustrate your argument, use them. 1.4 Write out everything you have to say, including examples etc. Rehearse what you are going to say until you are happy with it. Your speaking style should be less formal and more personal than the written style. This style will be much easier to achieve if you speak from notes rather than reading a prepared talk. Speaking from notes allows you to be more flexible and to adjust your talk to the audience. 1.5 When you know exactly what you are going to say, reduce it to outline notes . Rehearse your talk again, this time form the outline notes. Write out your notes so you can use them easily. Use large writing, bold headings and colours, clear indentations, highlighting, bullet points and numbering. Make sure you can find your way easily from the outline notes to the full notes, in case you forget something. Many people make notes on 6cm x 10cm cards to guide them through their presentation. Usually, each card contains one main point and a few key words that are easily seen with a simple glance. Make sure you number your cards in case you drop them. 1.6 Look at your audience when you are speaking . First look at your notes and read the appropriate part silently. Remember one important idea. Then look up at your audience, make eye contact, and say what you have to say. It is useful to divide the audience into 4 or 5 large groups and make sure you look at every group regularly. While you look at your audience, try to judge what they are thinking. Are they following you? You will never make contact with your audience if your eyes are fixed on the paper in front of you. Speak loudly enough for everyone in the room to hear you. Speak slowly and clearly. Emphasise key words. Use silence for emphasis when you can.


1.7 Make a strong ending. One way of doing this is to repeat your main points briefly and invite questions or opinions. 1.8 Remember that listening is very different from reading . Something that is going to be listened to has therefore to be prepared in a very different way from something that is intended to be read. 1.9 Prepare well. During your preparation you will become completely familiar with every part of your presentation. Practise out loud, until you're comfortable delivering your presentation with your notes. Rehearse as many times as you need to. Practise in front of a mirror to get your eyecontact right. Do not try to memorise your whole presentation. Make sure your timing is right. Record yourself and listen. Practise on your friends. 2. Evaluation of the presentation A colleague can help you evaluate your presentation by answering the following set of questions. A. General 1. What were the strengths of the presentation? 2. What were the weaknesses of the presentation? B. Preparation 1. Was the objective clear? 2. Had I considered the audience? 3. Was the content relevant to the topic? C. Organisation 1. Comment on my introduction. 2. Did the presentation have a clear logical structure? 3. Did you conclude with a summary at the end of your talk? D. Delivery 1. What about my use of notes? 2. What about my use of visual aids? 3. Was the timing of the presentation well controlled? 4. What about the speed of speaking? 5. Could everyone hear?


6. What about the clarity of speaking? 7. Did you make eye contact with the listeners? 8. What about your body language (posture, position etc.)? E. Discussion 1. How well did I deal with questions? 2. What kinds of participation were most frequent/useful? F. Language If I had any difficulties in giving the talk, were they caused by: - Grammar? - Vocabulary? - Pronunciation? G. General What do you need to improve for future seminars? 3. Structure of the presentation Academic seminars and presentations often take the following form: A. Presentation 1. Introduction What you intend to do. How you intend to do it. 2. Main body State your points: information, arguments, examples. 3. Conclusion Summarize. Invite questions. B. Discussion/Questions


4. Language A. Presentation 1. Introduction 1.1 State what you will do What I'd like to do is to discuss What I intend to do is to explain In my talk today, My topic today is Today, I'm going to talk about I'm going to talk to you about My colleagues and I are going to give a short presentation on Today I want to consider In this talk, I would like to concentrate on The subject of this talk is The purpose of this talk is to This talk is designed to 1.2 State how you will do it I'm going to deal with three aspects of the subject I'm going to divide my presentation into three sections. I've divided my presentation into three sections. I thought it would be useful to divide my talk into three sections. This subject can be looked at under the following headings: I'll take about ... minutes. The talk should last about ... minutes. I'll be happy to answer questions at the end. If you have any questions, I'll try to answer them afterwards. If you have any questions, please feel free to interrupt. 2. Main body 2.1 Ordering points Firstly/To start with,/ First of all,/ Secondly/Next/ Then/ Thirdly/ Lastly/Finally


2.2 Giving examples For example, / For instance, And as proof of that, Remember You only have to think of 2.3 Emphasising Furthermore / What's more, /This supports my argument that / It follows, therefore, that 2.4 Referring back to what you have said As I said at the beginning, / In the first part of my talk, I said / As I mentioned earlier, / I told you a few minutes ago that 2.5 Putting in other words In other words, / That is to say, / To put it another way, / The point I'm making is / What I'm suggesting is ,/ Let me put it another way.

2.6 Using visuals On this graph, / Take a look at this./ Let's have a look at this./ I'd like you to look at this./ I'd like to draw your attention to / Here we can see / The represents / The graph illustrates / As you can see, / If you look closely, you'll see 2.7 Moving on I'd like now to move on to / Turning now to/ Moving on now to / Having looked at , I'd now like to consider / Now, let's turn to .../ I now want to turn to/ The next point is / Another interesting point is / The next aspect I'd like to consider is / I'd now like to turn to


3. Conclusion 3.1 Concluding So / We've seen that / First we looked at and we saw that / Then we considered and I argued / In short / In brief, we have looked at .../ To sum up / In conclusion, I'd like to emphasise that / I think that covers most of the point./ That completes my presentation./ Thank you for your attention. 3.2 Invite questions That covers the main points. If you have any comments or questions, I'll be happy to hear them. So that explains my main point. Does anyone have any comments or questions? I'd be glad to try and answer any questions. B. Discussion/Questions 1. Encouraging participation Does anyone have any comments or questions? So is this the same as your experience? Do you agree with what X has just said? So, Y, what is your opinion of this? 2. Interrupting If I could just come in here./ Sorry to interrupt, but / I'd just like to say that 3. Getting clarification I didn't understand what you said about I'm sorry, I didn't catch what you said about I'm sorry, could you repeat what you said about ? What does mean?/ I'm not sure what you mean./ I don't see what you mean./ Could we come back to that?/ Sorry, but I'm not quite clear on / I'd like to ask you about / What did you mean when you said ?


Could you be more specific about ? Could you expand a little bit on what you said about ?/ Could you give an example of ?/ Could you explain in more detail?/ So you're telling me that I can't ?/ So what you're saying is that ?/ So you mean that ?/ Are you saying that ?/ Am I correct in assuming that ?/ Let me just make sure your point is that If I have understood you correctly, your point is that 4. Following up a question That's not really what I was asking. My question is about Perhaps I didn't make my question clear. I fact what I asked was I think you've answered a slightly different question. What I would like to know is I understand that but what I actually had in mind was / Sorry, I'm still not clear about 5. Dealing with difficult questions is important but it's too complex for us to deal with here. I think the aim of this talk is to focus on rather than It's too early for us to say whether We don't have enough evidence to show that That's not something I've had time to deal with, but I'd prefer to deal with that point later. 6. Agreeing I couldn't agree more./I (quite) agree. On the whole, I think the speaker's arguments are fair. I think you're absolutely right. That's a very good point. You've got a very good point there. I fully support what you say./ I totally agree./ Exactly! 7. Doubt and reservation Well maybe possibly / I'm not so sure about that/ You may be right./ I don't think I'd say that./ Yes, but don't you think ?/ I can see your point, but / I think that's debatable./ Perhaps, but don't you think that / I see what you mean, but / I agree to some extent, but 36 / It seems to me .../ I tend to think

say that./ Yes, but don't you think ?/ I can see your point, but / I think that's debatable./ Perhaps, but don't you think that / I see what you mean, but / I agree to some extent, but / It seems to me .../ I tend to think 8. Disagreeing But don't you think that ? I see what you mean, but But isn't it really a question of But surely ? I take your point, but , But all the evidence suggests that I'm afraid I can't agree with you on this matter. I wouldn't say that. I don't agree at all. I can't accept that.




Introducing oneself
Name My name is John Smith. Age I am twenty (years old). Place and time of birth I was born in Braov in 1980. Family I have a brother/son whose name is Michael and a sister/daughter whose name is Cathy. Education I am a final-year student at the Faculty of Physical Education and Sport at the moment. The reason for choosing to attend the courses of this particular faculty is my passion for everything related to physical development and health. The topic of my diploma paper is Techniques of teaching swimming to beginners. Occupation I also work as a shop assistant in a supermarket in order to support myself but I dont intend to do this for the rest of my life. Hobbies In my spare time I like/love/enjoy swimming, playing football, reading and clubbing with my friends. My favourite football team is Manchester United. I watch their games whenever I have the time. The last book I read was a novel called The Wheel of Time by Robert Jordan. I dont like/dislike/hate waking up early in the morning and travelling by plane. Plans for the future After graduation I would like to continue my studies and obtain a Master of Arts Degree in physical education. Meanwhile, I would like to change my job and start working as a personal coach. My plans for the future also include getting married and starting a family.


Means of transport


TRAVELLING by bus by car to travel by plane by boat by train

TO TRAVEL 1. to go on a journey or visit different places, especially places that are far away from where you live or work: I wish I didnt have to travel so much. Matt spends much of his time travelling abroad. He is very well-travelled (=he has travelled a lot). travel to: Joe recently had to travel to Australia on business. travel in: We were travelling in Spain when Claire broke her leg. travel light (=not take many things with you when you travel): My advice is to travel light. travel the world/country etc: Bens dream is to travel the world. 2. to go from one place to another, especially in a vehicle: Did you have to travel far to get here? Most people are prepared to travel reasonable distances to work. We travelled 300 miles on Saturday. travel by car/bus/train/boat/plane: I usually travel by bus. travel on foot/horseback: The refugees had travelled on foot across the mountains for days. 3. to move at a particular speed: The car was travelling at about 50 miles per hour. TO RIDE 1. to sit on an animal, especially a horse, and control its movements as it moves along: A group of children were riding donkeys on the beach. 2. to sit on a bicycle, motorcycle, and control it as it moves along: The little kids were riding their tricycles around the playground. ride on: He rides to school on his bicycle. TO DRIVE to control a vehicle so that it moves somewhere: Usually, my sister drives and I read the map. TO SAIL to travel somewhere by boat or ship: He sailed to Greece aboard the SS Monterey. TO FLY to travel by plane: fly from/to: I flew from London to Amsterdam to meet the other members of the group.


Rhetorical functions Asking for opinions What do you think about ...? What are you views on ...? What do you feel about ...? What's your opinion of ...? What are your feelings about ...? Have you got any comments on ...? Could I have your reaction to ...? Do you have any particular views on ? Giving opinions To my mind/To my way of thinking It is my (firm) belief/opinion/view/conviction that I (firmly) believe that I am (not) convinced that I (do not) agree that/with It strikes me that My opinion is that I (definitely) fell/think that I am inclined to believe that It seems/appears to me As far as I am concerned, I'm sure that.... As I see it, .... I really do think that.... I think .... I consider .... I tend to think that .... Listing advantages One/Another/A further/An additional (major) advantage of is The main/greatest/first advantage of is Listing disadvantages One/Another/A further/An additional (major) disadvantage/drawback of is The main/greatest/first/most serious advantage of is Another negative aspect of is Introducing points/arguments for or against One (very convincing) point/argument in favour of /against A further common criticism of


Man and animals


A domestic animal is one that is kept as a pet or on a farm horse chicken domestic cow


A wild animal lives or grows on its own in natural conditions and is not raised by humans wolf lion wild tiger





A pet is an animal or bird that you keep in your home and look after rabbit turtle pets cat fish

Types of animals birds

animals can be





Mans attitude towards animals loves raises man admires breeds protects disrespects endangers natural habitat help animals need shelter clean water territory food domesticates harms man exploits fears hunts


Rhetorical functions

Asking for information

Could you tell me ...? Could you tell me how to ...? Would you mind telling me ...? Do you know ...? What happens if ...? Where can I ...? When can I ...? How can I ...? Something else I'd like to know is ....

Asking for clarification/more information

I didn't understand what you said about I'm sorry, I didn't catch what you said about I'm sorry, could you repeat what you said about ? Sorry, but I'm not quite clear on I'd like to ask you about I didn't understand the bit about the ... What does mean? I'm not sure what you mean. I don't see what you mean. Could we come back to that? Could you explain that again, please? What did you mean when you said ? Could you be more specific about ? Could you expand a little bit on what you said about ? Could you give an example of ? Could you explain in more detail? So you're telling me that I can't ? So what you're saying is that ? So you mean that ? Are you saying that ? Am I correct in assuming that ? Let me just make sure your point is that If I have understood you correctly, your point is that...


Growing up/Generations


GROWING UP AGE 1. the number of years that someone has lived: It was difficult to guess his age. The average age of the delegates was over 60. children under the age of seven reach the age of: Shell only inherit when she reaches the age of 18. at/from the age of: At the age of 10, I went to live with my aunt. at/from an early age (=a young age): The sisters have been playing music together from an early age. at your/his/her etc age (=because of how young or old someone is): At her age, she might be expected to take things easy. of all/different ages: The film is designed to appeal to people of all ages. difference in age: Her parents disapproved of the relationship because of the difference in age. be someones age or be the same age as someone to be as old as someone: Shes the same age as me. When youre my age, youll understand. 2. the time of life when you are allowed by law to do something: voting/retiring/school-leaving age: young people who have reached the voting age. raise/lower the age of something: They plan to raise the age of retirement for women to 65. under age (=too young by law to do something): He served wine to girls who were under age. 3. the state of being old or becoming old: His face is starting to show signs of age. with age: With age, your reactions get slower. Good wines improve with age. come of age: to reach the age when you are legally an adult. act/be your age: used for telling someone that they are behaving in a stupid way, as if they were much younger than they really are. GROW-UP 1. to change from being a baby or young child to being an older child or adult: Shes really starting to grow up now. I grew up in London. 2. to stop behaving like a child, and become wiser: It wasnt until my marriage ended that I really started to grow up. When will you grow up. 3. to develop TO RAISE to take care of children while they are growing up: raise a family: For most parents, raising a family is a positive challenge. born and raised: This seems strange to someone born and raised in the city. BRING UP to look after a child until he or she becomes an adult: RAISE She brought up three sons on her own. He was brought up by his grandmother. bring someone up to be/do something: Our parents brought us up to believe in our own abilities.




TO BE BORN: The time when you are born is your birth: Her grandfather died before she was born. born in: I was born in Tokyo. born on: The twins were born on 29 August, 1962. born into: Meg was born into a large family. born to: More children are now born to older women. BIRTH: the occasion of a baby being born: We are happy to announce the birth of our son Andrew. NEWBORN: a baby who has just been born SUCKLING: a baby or young animal that still drinks milk from its mother BABY: a very young child who cannot yet talk or walk. TODDLER: a very young child who is learning how to walk. INFANT: a baby or a very young child: Infants and elderly people are particularly at risk. CHILD: a young person from the time they are born until they are about 14 years old: The nursery has places for 30 children. only child (=someone who does not have any brothers or sisters): I was an only child and very lonely growing up. CHILDISH: behaving in a silly and annoying way, like a small child Its simply childish to refuse to talk to her. CHILDSHLY: You are a grown up, so stop behaving childishly.

TEENAGER: a young person between the ages of 13 and 19: a lovesick teenager TEENAGED: between the ages of 13 and 19: They have one teenaged daughter. TEENS: the years of your life between the ages of 13 and 19: in your teens: She became a tennis champion while still in her teens. YOUNG: someone who is young has lived for only a short time: Shes married with two young children. YOUNG MAN/WOMAN/PERSON used about adults who are not very old: THE YOUNG: children and young adults in general: Do you think the young have an easier life nowadays? YOUNGSTER: a child or a young person YOUTH 1. the time in someones life when they are young: In his youth, he travelled and saw much of the world. 2. a male teenager, especially one involved in violent or criminal activities: a gang of youths 3. young people in general: Sport provides a way for the nations youth to express themselves. ADULTHOOD: the period of your life when you are an adult ADULT: someone who is no longer a child and is legally responsible for their actions: Tickets are 2.50 for adults and 1.50 for children. ADULT=GROWN-UP The kids went to the park while we grown-ups sat in the garden.


OLD: someone who is old has lived a long time: A lot of old people live alone. THE OLD=THE ELDERLY: old people. OLD AGE: the period of time when you are old: More and more people are surviving into old age. GET/GROW OLD: I hope Ill still be able to play golf when I get old.


Rhetorical functions


I couldn't agree more. On the whole, I think the speaker's arguments are fair. I (quite) agree. I think you're absolutely right. That's a very good point. You've got a very good point there. I fully support what you say. I totally agree. Exactly!


But don't you think that ? I see what you mean, but . But isn't it really a question of . But what about ? But surely ? I take your point, but . Yes, but on the other hand .... But all the evidence suggests that . I'm afraid I can't agree with on this matter. I wouldn't say that. I don't agree at all. I can't accept that.


Having a meal


What would you like to have? breakfast a meal sth to eat a snack to have supper a picnic How do you eat? well a healthy diet like a horse like a bird to eat lunch


Where do you usually eat?

at a friends

out dinner to eat

at a restaurant


at home

What kind of diet do you eat? healthy properly vegetarian diet varied balanced lowcalorie What is you favourite food? salmon soups convenience French fries pizza cakes poultry bacon roast beef sausage crash

healthily sensibly

What kind of food do you eat? frozen healthy food tinned

comfort homemade

I like eating


meat seafood poultry (e.g. chicken, turkey) eggs

dairy products milk cream cheese butter ice cream yogurt

fruits apple orange pear plum apricot peach grapes

vegetables peas beans onion garlic carrot radish potato

cereal wheat maize oat (ovz) rye barley (orz)

drinks tea coffee milk juice wine brandy beer


Rhetorical functions MAKING COMPARISONS comparative superlative adjectives with one syllable adj + -er (+ than) the + adj + -est e.g. cheap The hamburger is cheaper than the The hot dog is the cheapest. cheeseburger. omit final e: e.g. safer omit final e: e.g. the safest ending in silent e: safe change y to i: drier change y to i: the driest ending in a consonant + y: dry double the final consonant: the ending in a single vowel + a single double the final consonant: bigger biggest consonant: big adjectives with two or more more + adj the most + adj syllables expensive The hamburger is more expensive The cheeseburger is the most than the hot dog. expensive. irregular adjectives good better the best bad worse the worst far further/farther furthest/farthest old older/elder oldest/eldest little less least many/much more most THAN Mary is better than Monica. Mary is a better player than Monica. JUST AS AS - things compared are equal Mary is just as good as Cathy. NOT AS AS - things are compared negatively Cathy is not as good as Mary. MORE, LESS This game is more interesting than the last one. I think this game is less interesting than the last one. COMPARING X is like Y X and Y are similar X is similar to Y X is the same as Y X resembles Y with respect to W. as regards W. as far as W is concerned. regarding W. in that W is the same. in terms of W. Both X and Y cost W. X is as expensive as W. X costs the same as Y. X is the same price as Y. 52

Similarly, it has a W. Likewise, it has a W. X has a Y. Correspondingly, it has a W. It has a W, too. It also has a W.

CONTRASTING X differs from Y X is unlike Y X and Y differ X is different from Y X contrasts with Y with respect to W. as regards W. as far as W is concerned. regarding W. in terms of W.

X costs 1,174, whereas Y costs W. X costs 1,174, while Y costs W. X costs 1,174, but Y costs W. X costs 1,174, in contrast to Y, which costs W. X is more expensive than Y. X is not as expensive as Y. X costs more than Y. X is expensive to On the other buy. hand/In contrast/However, it is W. Although X is It is W. expensive buy




What sports do you do? tennis basketball boxing skateboarding I do football athletics snowboarding spikes a gum shield Do you wear any special clothes or footwear?
trainers/ sneakers

a cap

trunks a mask gloves

I wear




Do you prefer team or individual sports? football baseball water polo hockey rugby team sports basketball handball volleyball motocross golf archery boxing gymnastics

athletics swimming weightlifting

individual sports

Can you name any extreme sports? sports? bungee jumping

What are the benefits that people can derive from practising

health surfing agility benefits strength

parachuting skydiving rock climbing

extreme sports skateboarding


flexibility fitness

socializing stamina


Rhetorical functions Describing places/landscapes Read the following texts paying attention to the words written in bold. 1. Oxford is an exceptionally old university town, on the river Thames, about 60 miles from London. Unlike modern university towns, where you usually find the university on the edge of the town, or on its own campus, Oxfords centre is the university; and all around the crossroads at the very heart of Oxford, Carfax, there are grey stone Colleges and other university buildings. In the centre you can also find interesting old pubs and paved passages. There are a lot of churches, and one or two really large and interesting buildings, such as the Ashmolean Museum, the round library, the Bodleian and the Radcliffe Camera, with its domed roof. Like all English towns, there are parks, and one The Parks, is the leafy home of university cricket in the summer months. As you leave the centre and go towards the outskirts of Oxford you can see industrial estates and car factory in one direction; and in another, attractive (and expensive) suburbs. There is, in fact, quite a lot of industry in Oxford. 2. My hotel room looks out across a main road which runs beside the river. To the left, about half a mile down the road there is a splendid-looking castle situated majestically on a small hill. The road bends right past this and crosses the river over a stone bridge, entering a small village, whose church dominates the skyline. This village is set on a small hill, and beyond there are rolling hills right to the horizon, intersected by one or two valleys. Useful language: down by the river/railway-station Location: on the River Thames near the bus station in the centre on the outskirts in the suburbs in the countryside below me very near a few metres away in the distance on the horizon on the skyline on the left to my right It is situated The village lies in a valley. The village is set on a small hill. Existence: There is/are There has/have always/never been The statue stands there You can find/discover/see a farm. Special features: one of the of the most interesting places is the is famous/popular for its history


Tourist attractions


What do you like visiting? churches waterfalls aquariums cathedrals museums I like visiting castles old buildings historical places waterfalls aquariums cathedrals museums There are What tourist attractions are there in this area? churches castles old buildings historical places

What entertaining opportunities does this area provide? watch films play billiards go to the theatre

What outdoor activities can tourists enjoy in this area? swimming rock climbing Tourists can enjoy pony trekking canoeing surfing sailing

You can

go to concerts

go clubbing

How would you like to spend your holiday? go camping

go sightseeing

What sort of accommodations do you have to offer? a lodge

I would like to go cruising

go trekking

caravans We offer you cabins

a hotel

a pension a campsite



Rhetorical functions Describing people 1 Faces and bodies Loose, wavy brown hair hangs down to her waist at the back. She has a fringe over her forehead that almost hides her pale blue eyes. The nose not her best feature is long but not ugly. She has a regular set of white teeth and she is full-lipped. Her round face looks rather sallow in complexion; she isnt very tall or slim, and she walks with slightly rounded shoulders. When I knew her she must have been in her early thirties, and she even had one or two telltale wrinkles round the mouth. 2 Clothes I first met him at a small party and he was dressed in a rather ill-fitting suit with patches on the elbows; underneath there was an opened-necked striped shirt. After that I dont think I ever saw him in a suit again. He mostly wore casual clothes faded jeans, T-shirts, and open sandals. He has a long coat on. Hes wearing an elegant suit. Shes dressed in a long dress. 3 Facial and bodily expressions People often think of him as looking irritable but that must be because of his somewhat pink complexion and his bloodshot eyes. He flaps his hands quite a bit and rarely looks relaxed or calm. However, his face changes dramatically when he smiles, perhaps it is more of a boyish grin than a smile and it alters ones view of him immediately. He is frowning / scowling. He often has a grin on his face. He is / looks / seems / feels happy / angry / puzzled / surprised / frightened / sad / tired / in love / embarrassed / bored / disappointed / guilty / worried / anxious / hurt / excited / frustrated / annoyed / guilty. He looks as if hes going to burst into laughter. Jack smiled as though he was enjoying a joke. 4 Character and habits She has the irritating habit of biting her nails but apart from that she is always positive and welcoming, once you know her well. If you dont, you might think her a bit stand-offish, but she isnt really. Actually, she isnt all that bright and often appears intensely puzzled by life. She is always She has the habit of 59

Transport in the city



How do you go to work? by car by taxi on foot by tube I go to work by bus by tram by trolley taxi I take the tube train trolley What do you take to get to work? car bus


by train

How long does it take (you) to get to work?

one hour

Words usually associated with traffic jam lights noise traffic cone rush-hour congestion

long It takes (me) 20 minutes half an hour

45 minutes

island warden

What can we do to solve the problems caused by the intense traffic in large cities? ride bikes instead of driving cars use cars propelled by electricity We can use public transport instead of personal cars

ban traffic from the city center build more suspension passages

build more underground passages


Rhetorical functions

Changing the subject/moving on

If we can now turn to .... Can we move on to the next point now. I'd like now to move on to . Turning now to. Moving on now to Having looked at , I'd now like to consider . I now want to turn to .... The next point is . Another interesting point is . The next aspect I'd like to consider is . I'd now like to turn to . What do you think about X?




Word family to pollute

People can combat tackle




reduce polluter prevent

cut monitor


Topics connected to pollution exhaust effluent acid rain carbon dioxide CFC sulphur dioxide toxic waste Our actions can affect protect

sanctuary recycling deforestation

g. house effect

smog biohazard climate change




global warming


preserve pollute Word family





environmentally friendly

environmentally sensitive area


Rhetorical functions 64


That's a good idea. That's a very good point. You've got a good point there. I agree entirely. That's exactly what we need. I'm not sure what you mean by .... That's an interesting point, but .... You might be right. That's all very well, but .... I'm not so sure about that. Yes, but don't you think .... I can see your point, but .... You seem to have forgotten .... Very interesting. How exactly do you propose to ..? I don't see how you can argue that ... I can't accept that at all.





package special interest adventure sightseeing holiday backpacking camping cruising sunbathing

comfort break relaxation breather respite



camp campsite village holiday home pension cabin

hotel motel

inn hostel




holiday activities







rock climbing


Rhetorical functions

Giving further information

Furthermore, .... An additional point is .... Another point is .... A further point is .... A similar point is .... In addition, .... Moreover, .... Similarly, .... Apart from ..., .... Not only , but .... We can add .... I could add that .... Further, .... As well as...,.... Besides, .... ..., as well. ..., too. ..., also.





Christmas christening Easter


pyjama theme fancy dress


office cocktail costume



New Years Eve




witness dress vows


bridegroom best man bridesmaid







hen night

stocking Eve dinner Day


cake card

Shrove Tuesday



Lent carol tree Holy Week

Easter Sunday Good Friday





Improvements in
entertainment space exploration

Destructive aspects
commu nication travelling pollution pesticides technology privacy invasion


atomic bomb

manufacturing data processing


The effects of technology can be

perilous harmful damaging beneficial healthy positive good negative

Words combined with technology

state-ofthe-art nano bleeding edge computer cuttingedge software military high



Word family technology











Please solve the Placement Test below. Then correct it in red pencil according to the Key. Mark it and bring the results for the teacher to see and comment. Name: _______________________________ Date: ____________________

Placement Test for Elementary, Intermediate, First Certificate and Advanced Language Practice
Circle the answer which best answers the question or fits the space. 0. Where are you from? A Im France. France. Im French. 1. How old are you? A I have 16. C I have 16 years. years. 2. Are you having a nice time? A Yes, Im nice. having it. D Yes, it is. 3. Could you pass the salt please? A Over there. C Help yourself. are. 4. Yesterday I went __________ bus to the National Museum. A on D with 5. Sue and Mike __________ to go camping. B in C by B I dont know. D Here you B Yes, Im C Yes, I am. B I am 16. D I am 16 B Im from C French. D A wanted made B said C D talked

6. Whos calling, please? A Just a moment. Parker. D Speaking. 7. They were __________ after the long journey, so they went to bed. A hungry lazy B hot D tired C B Its David C Ill call you back.

8. Can you tell me the __________ to the bus station? A road direction B way D street C

9. __________ you remember to buy some milk? A Have CShould B Do D Did

10.- Dont forget to put the rubbish out. - Ive __________ done it! A yet B still already C D even

11. You dont need to bring __________ to eat.


A some many

B a food D anything

A from D between

B with

C for

12. What about going to the cinema? A Good idea! month. D I think so. 13- What would you like, Sue? - Id like the same __________ Michael please. A that D had 14. __________ people know the answer to that question. A Few Least B Little D A little C B as C for B Twice a C Its Star Wars.

19. My car needs __________ . A repairing C to be repair B to repair D repair

20. Tim was too __________ to ask Monika for a dance. A worried selfish B shy D polite C

21. I havent had so much fun __________ I was a young boy! A when during B for D since C

22. Sorry, I dont know __________ youre talking about. A that which B what D why C

15. Its not __________ to walk home by yourself in the dark. A sure safe B certain D problem C

23. Im afraid you __________ smoke in here. A could not C are not allowed to be 24. Everyone wanted to go out __________ John. A apart B unless D except C however B dont have to D cant

16. __________ sure all the windows are locked. A Take Wait B Have D Make C

17. Ill go and __________ if I can find him. A see D tell 18. Whats the difference __________ football and rugby? B look C try

25. Honestly! I saw a ghost! Im not __________ it up!


A having C making

B laughing D joking

32. Police __________ that a terrorist group might be behind the kidnapping. A suppose suspect B fancy D accuse C

26. Eat everything up! I dont want to see anything __________ on your plate! A left put B missing D staying C

33. When Christopher smiles, he __________ me of his grandfather. A remembers C rethinks B recalls D reminds

27. Take the A20 __________ the roundabout, then turn left. A right along B as far as D heading north C

34. The wonderful smell of freshly __________ coffee hit us as we entered the store. A crushed C ground C B smashed D pressed

28. I really hope you can find a __________ to this problem. A result conclusion B way D solution

35. Mikes dad wouldnt __________ him go to school with a red streak in his hair. A allow accept B permit D let C

29. Could you watch my bag while I go and get a cup of tea? A Of course! matter. 30. In my country, it is __________ the law to watch an X-rated film if you are under eighteen. A under over B against D beyond C B Never mind. D It doesnt C If you dont mind.

36. If only I __________ made that phone call! A wasnt hadnt B didnt D havent C

37. I like Mary for her friendly smile and her __________ of humour. A sense way B manner D impression C

31. Rebecca had to __________ the invitation, as she was busy studying for her exams. A take off C turn down B put back D get away

38. These shoes are very __________ for walking in the mountains. A practical C realistic B functional D active


39. __________ of the credit for our success has to go to the Chairman, Peter Lewis. A Several Enough B Much D Sufficient C

off. A would should B had D did C

46. This game is __________ to be for five year-olds, but I think a two yearold could do it! A expected B required D supposed

40. We were surprised that over 500 people __________ for the job. A wrote enquired B applied D requested C

C obliged

47. Just put this powder down, and it should __________ any more ants from getting in. A prevent B avoid D forbid C refuse

41. The children watched in excitement as she __________ a match and lit the candles. A scratched C rubbed B struck D scraped

48. When Jonie __________ to do something, you can be sure shell do it, and do it well. A gets on C sets out B takes up D brings about

42. Sorry about Kates strange behaviour, but shes just not used to __________ lots of people around her. A had having B have D has C

49. __________ we get to the top of this hill, the path gets much easier. A At the time C Once B Eventually D Finally

43. Ivan kept running very hard __________ none of the other runners could possibly catch him. A even though C despite D as B however

50. Fifty-seven? No, that __________ be the right answer! A cant wouldnt B mustnt D neednt C

44. I did this painting all __________ my own, Dad, said Milly. A by D on 45. You __________ better check all the details are correct before we send it B with C for

51. __________ happens, Ill always be there for you! A However C Whatever B What D No matter


52. Can you __________ to it that no one uses this entrance? A see ensure B deal D get C

A true D honest

B good

C right

57. There has been so much media __________ of the wedding that Im completely fed up with it. A circulation C broadcasting B attention D coverage

53. A __________ debate ensued, with neither side prepared to give way to the other. A warm hot B heated D boiling C

58. If I were you I would __________ clear of the area around the station late at night. A stick D stand B steer C stop

54. Ive drunk milk every __________ day of my life, and its never done me any harm! A particular C single B individual D one

59. Turning back now is out of the __________ . A agenda question B matter D possibility C

55. The version of the film I saw had been __________ censored. A strongly C great B deeply D heavily

60. Joes fear of enclosed spaces __________ from a bad experience he had when he was a child. A stems starts KEY 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 B C D C A B D B leads D flows 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 B D C D A B A C D C

56. He promised to phone me at nine oclock exactly, and he was as __________ as his word.


17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50


51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60


Interpretation of marks
115 Elementary Language Practice 1630 Intermediate Language Practice 3145 First Certificate Language Practice 4660 Advanced Language Practice

Grammar Progress Test 1a

1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Underline the correct word or phrase in each sentence. What time go you/do you go to bed on Saturdays? I want a new computer, but I didnt save/I havent saved enough money yet. Dont worry, Im not going to be/I wont be late. Its very hot in here. Shall I/Will I open the window? How long have you been waiting/are you waiting? When I was younger I was going/I used to go to the seaside every summer. Ive lived/I lived in Barcelona all my life. While I was cleaning/I had cleaned my room I found this old photograph. You look sad. What are you thinking/do you think about? I go/Im going to my parents house next weekend. Do you want to come? Ive been looking for my bag, but I still didnt find/I still havent found it. I like your new room! When have you painted/did you paint it? Where will you be working/do you work next year? I know the play is boring, but we cant leave until it will finish/it finishes. Im seeing/I will see the doctor tomorrow at 10.00. Where are you go/are you going on holiday? Put each verb given into the present simple or continuous, or the past simple or continuous. Ugh, dont show me that picture! I (hate) hate mice! Where (you go) ______________________ for your holidays last year? At the moment Helen (read) ______________________ a book written by a Brazilian author. I left school around 5.00, (play) ______________________ football for a while, then went home. Mary (listen) ______________________ to the radio when her friend Barbara called. Mary (turn off) ______________________ the radio when her friend Barbara called. In her free time Helen (read) ______________________ a lot. Where (you spend) ______________________ your holidays next year? In France. What (you do) ______________________ when the rain started? We went inside.


9 10 11 12 13 14 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 4 0 1 2

When they arrived in the park a lot of people (play) ______________________ football. People (become) ______________________ more and more interested in solar energy. Where (you spend) ______________________ your holidays? Usually in France. She (become) ______________________ rich in the fashion industry and retired to Majorca. What (you do) ______________________ when the rain started? We were playing tennis. At the moment I (stay) ______________________ at a friends house. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. Steve left before my arrival. When I arrived, Steve had already left . This is my first visit to Italy. Ive ___________________________________________________________ . Your taxi arrived a moment ago. Your taxi has ____________________________________________________ . The film started before my arrival. When I arrived, the film ___________________________________________ . Would you like me to call back later? Shall ___________________________________________________________. Simone has been learning English for two years. Simone started ___________________________________________________ . I last went to Spain in 1998. I havent ________________________________________________________ . After the exam well go for a pizza. When the exam __________________________________________________ . I intend to speak to my boss tomorrow. Im ____________________________________________________________ . Put each verb given into the past simple or the present perfect. A: Whats the matter? B: I (cut) have cut myself. A: What did you do on your holiday? B: We (go) ______________________ to the disco most nights. A: How is the holiday going?


B: Great! We (go) ______________________ to the disco most nights. 3 4 5 6 7 8 A: Did you carry on working at the shop after your argument with the manager? B: No, I (leave) ______________________ . A: Are you still working at the shop? B: No, I (leave) ______________________ . A: Why are the police here? B: There (is) ______________________ an accident. A: Why did the metro stop running yesterday evening? B: There (is) ______________________ an accident. A: How are the unemployment figures this year? B: They (rise) ______________________ by 2%. A: How were the unemployment figures last year? B: They (rise) ______________________ by 2%.


Grammar Progress Test 1b

1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Underline the correct word or phrase in each sentence. That cant be right! I dont believe/Im not believing it. I was here/Ive been here since the beginning of June. No, I cant see the bird. Where are you looking/do you look? Your secret is safe with me. Im not going to say/I wont say anything. Its raining. Shall we/Will we take a taxi? Im meeting/I will meet Lisa for lunch tomorrow. Ive wanted to go to Paris all my life, but I still didnt go/I still havent been there. Im going to tell her, but I didnt see/I havent seen her yet. I play/Im playing tennis with John and Chris at the weekend. Do you want to join us? I think we have time for a coffee before the train arrives/will arrive. I havent seen you before. When have you started/did you start working here? Where will you be going/do you go for your holidays next year? While I walked/I was walking through the park a dog ran up to me and bit me. Look out of the window! How long has it been snowing/is it snowing? When I was a baby I was carrying/I used to carry a yellow blanket everywhere I went. When the film will end/ends, lets have a coffee. Put each verb given into the present simple or continuous, or the past simple or continuous. What (usually you do) do you usually do at the weekend? What (you get) ______________________ for your birthday last week? What are you doing? I (check) ______________________ this letter for spelling mistakes. I got to the station at 3pm, (wait) ______________________ for half an hour, then came back here. George (watch) ___________________ the television when I arrived at his flat. At the moment inflation (increase) ______________________ slowly. James (turn on) ______________________ the television so we could watch the football match. Every day Helen (check) __________________ her emails when she gets home. Where (you go) ______________________ ? To the shops. Do you want to come with me?


9 10 11 12 13 14 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

What games (you play) ______________________ when you were young? Hiding from people, trying to catch people, all the usual things. When I arrived at the checkout a lot of people (wait) ______________________ in the queue. Buy one next year prices (go down) ______________________ quite fast at the moment. Where (you go) ______________________ on Saturday afternoons? Shopping, with my mother. Prices (go down) ______________________ quite fast when other, similar models started to appear. What game (you play) __________________ just now? We were playing chess. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. Michael took a deep breath and dived into the water. After Michael had taken a deep breath, he dived into the water. The plane landed a few moments ago. The plane has ___________________________________________________ . Ive been playing the guitar for three years. I started ________________________________________________________ . After the start of the match, youll hear a lot of noise. When the match __________________________________________________ . This is my first time in the United States. Ive ___________________________________________________________ . Would you like me to get you a drink? Shall ___________________________________________________________ . I last saw Naomi in February. I havent ________________________________________________________ . I intend to email Paul this evening. Im ____________________________________________________________ . I thought the film looked familiar. I thought I ______________________________________________________ .


4 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Put each verb given into the past simple or the present perfect. A: When are you going to write to your grandmother? B: Dont worry. I (already write) Ive already written to her. A: Why was your flight late? B: There (is) ______________________ a delay. A: Why isnt our departure time showing on the screen? B: There (is) ______________________ a delay. A: Did you go to a nightclub after the meal in the restaurant? B: No, I (come) ______________________ home. A: Thanks for calling, John. Are you speaking from work? B: No, I (come) ______________________ home. A: Sandras just arrived. B: Yes, I know, I (see) ______________________ her. A: Sandra came into the office yesterday. B: Yes, I know, I (see) ______________________ her. A: How are you feeling today? B: My temperature (go) ______________________ down. A: How did you know you were getting better? B: My temperature (go) ______________________ down.


Grammar Progress Test 2a

1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 2 Underline the correct word or phrase in each sentence. If wed be/were late for class, our teacher will be angry. The teacher told/asked me if Id finished the test. My mobile phone needs recharging! I wish the battery wasnt/isnt flat. Peter must have left/cant have left the flowers for me. Hes been away. If I won/win the lottery, Id travel round the world. Your shoes are too small. You could/Youd better take them back immediately. Rita left a message to say that she would join/had joined you in the pub tonight. I think I must left/must have left my bag on the bus. If youd done/you did more revision, you wouldnt have failed the exam. I said/told to Steve that Id meet him at the swimming baths later. I was giving/was given the necklace by my aunt. I asked her if she would be/was from Switzerland, and she said no. I havent got an umbrella! If it rains, Id get/Ill get wet. I didnt know/wouldnt have known if you hadnt told me. We showed round/were shown round the art gallery by our teacher. Put one of the words or phrases from the box in each space. could must 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 3 have to mustnt had to dont have to ought to didnt have to should might have

must have

You ought to see a dentist if youve got toothache. Hes looking terrible. He ______________________ see a doctor immediately! Hes not looking too good. I think he ______________________ see a doctor. I ___________________ get my hair cut. Im having a job interview next week. If you need to make a call, you ______________________ use my phone. It ________________ been a disappointment when you failed your driving test. Sorry I couldnt come with you, I ______________________ go to the dentist. Theres no rush. We ______________________ be there until 9.00. These oysters taste strange. It ______________________ been a mistake to order seafood. We were lucky! We ______________________ pay! You ______________________ park your car here. Its not allowed. Decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits the space.

Going to the movies 79

I promised my friend Lucy that I (0) B her out to the movies for a treat if she (1) _____ her driving test. I found out yesterday that she (2) _____ the day before, so I called her last night and (3) _____ whether she wanted to see the new film with Matt Dillon. She (4) _____ that she (5) _____ it, but that she (6) _____ to see the Julia Roberts film instead. It (7) _____ very good reviews by the critics in the newspaper last week, so we decided to go. It was showing at the Scala cinema on the other side of town. So I (8) _____ if she (9) _____ give me a lift in her car because I cant drive. She didnt sound very happy but said she (10) _____ to my house and collect me. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 4 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 A had taken A would pass A would pass A asked her A asked me A loved A was given A told A would A had already come B would take B had passed B had passed B told her B told me B loves B has been given B said her B should B comes C take C will pass C was passing C said her C said me C will love C gave C asked her C must C would come D will take D passed D has passed D spoke her D spoke me D would love D gives D spoke D will D will come

A would already see B was already seeing C had already seen D already seen

Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first. Are you staying here all summer? the little girl asked me. The little girl asked me if/whether I was staying there all summer . I havent got a dog but I want one. I wish __________________________________________________________ . I think you should leave your job. Thats what Id do. If I ____________________________________________________________ . Somebody has stolen my wallet! My wallet _______________________________________________________ . Istanbul is my place of birth. I was __________________________________________________________ . Its not necessary for me to wear a tie at work. I dont _________________________________________________________ . It was possible for Marcus to get lost. Marcus could ____________________________________________________ .


Grammar Progress Test 2b

1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 2 Underline the correct word or phrase in each sentence. Im sunburnt. I wish I hadnt sunbathed/I didnt sunbathe for so long. This package delivered/was delivered this morning. Youre going the wrong way. Youd better/You might go back to the main square and ask. If I know/knew the answer, Id tell you. I said/told Angela that Id give her a call tonight. Lets hurry up! If we arrive early, well get/wed get a good seat. You were able to/would have been able to use the computer if you had had the password. The Finance Minister said that he doesnt increase/wouldnt increase taxes next year. It was been/has been a really lovely day! I asked/told Natasha if she knew anywhere to get a sandwich at lunchtime. If wed caught/we caught a taxi, we wouldnt have missed the train. I wish it isnt/wasnt so cold. Sacha must have left/cant have left the office. His computer is turned off. My parents are having their house redecorating/redecorated next week. I asked him where he was going/would be going, and he said to the library. Put one of the words or phrases from the box in each space. could must 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 have to mustnt had to dont have to didnt have to might have

must have should

should have

Im completely soaked! We should have taken an umbrella. If we arrive early, we ______________________ go for a drink before the play starts. I didnt get to sleep until 2am. I ______________________ tidy up the mess after the party. Its very relaxed at our company. We ______________________ wear formal clothes. The flowers are lovely, but you ______________________ bring them. I wasnt expecting anything! I cant see the shop anywhere. I ______________________ got the wrong address. I think you ______________________ visit Rome in the spring. Its beautiful at that time of year.


7 8 9 10 3

You ______________________ visit me in Rome! Itd be great to see you and well have lots of fun! You ______________________ use a mobile phone while you are driving its dangerous. I dont believe he passed the test! He ______________________ been cheating! We ______________________ collect the tickets at the airport. They wont send them to us. Decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits the space.

Meeting Mariana at the airport Mariana called me from the States and (0) B that her plane would land at 8pm this evening, if there (1) _____ any delays. When I got to the airport it was 8.15 and I knew that her flight (2) _____ As usual, she (3) _____ wait for a while for her luggage, so I wasnt too worried. However, I wished I (4) _____ a magazine to read and I was getting very hungry. I (5) _____ a man how long (6) ____ before the people from her flight had got through customs, and he said about forty-five minutes. In fact it was much less it (7) _____ more than fifteen minutes. I was delighted to see Mariana and she said that she (8) _____ a good flight. I (9) _____ going out to eat at the nearest restaurant but she said that she (10) _____ a surprisingly good meal on the plane and she wasnt hungry. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 4 0 1 2 A asked her A wouldnt be A must arrive A had to A would bring A asked to A it was taking A had had A invited A was given B told me B hadnt been B must arrived B should B bring B asked B would it take B was having B asked B has been given C said me C wont be C should have C brought C said to C it would take C would have C suggested C gave D spoke me D werent D was had to D had brought D told to D takes it D should have been D has D offered D gives

C must had arrived D must have arrived

A might have been B must have been C cant have been

Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. I dont know the answer, so I cant help you. If I knew the answer, Id help you. Imagine you had a yacht. Where would you go? Where _________________________________________________________ . Somebody will meet you at the airport. You ___________________________________________________________ .


3 4 5 6

When is your birthday? When were ______________________________________________________ . Im sure that isnt Geoffrey. That ___________________________________________________________ . We didnt buy a ticket, so we had to pay a fine. If we ___________________________________________________________ . Im sure she enjoyed herself. She must _______________________________________________________


Grammar Progress Test 3a

1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Underline the correct word or phrase in each sentence. I read the book you suggested. I didnt enjoy it, although/however. Why dont we cook/cooking pasta tonight? My sister isnt enough old/old enough to go to the disco. Jean, that/who I know very well, wouldnt do a thing like that. It was so/such nice ice-cream that I ate another portion. Although/In spite of the rain, we had a good holiday. This is my cat. Its/Its name is Sammy. I felt so/too tired that I went to bed. Could you tell me where the post office is/where is the post office? Do you like/Would you like some more coffee? I found your house easily, although/despite I didnt know the number. Would you mind to close/closing the door? The film that/what we saw was a bit disappointing. David ate so many/so much ice-cream that he felt sick. Im going to spend my holidays at/in Egypt. Put a preposition in each space. Choose from in, on, at, to, above, below. Janes sister has got a job at Manchester airport. Youll find the index ____________ the back of the book. My brother lives ____________ Milan. There was nobody ____________ the bus except me. I dropped the box and it landed ____________ my foot. There are twelve students ____________ my class. Walk ____________ the pavement its much safer. You cant see the ship any more its ____________ the horizon. Go down the street, and youll see the cinema ____________ the right. My grandmother is ____________ hospital at the moment. Theres a video shop ____________ the other side of the street. I went ____________ a small Greek island for my holidays. He shouldnt drive hes ____________ the alcohol limit.


3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. Patricia seems to have gone home. It seems that Patricia has gone home . Harry wanted to pass the exam, so he studied hard. Harry studied hard so that __________________________________________ . I have a lot of advice, and I dont know what to do. I have so _______________________________________________________ . There are too few glasses on the table. There arent _____________________________________________________ . Although it was raining, I went to the shops. Despite _________________________________________________________ . Please wait a moment. Would you mind _________________________________________________ . My advice is to travel before the rush-hour starts. If I ____________________________________________________________ . Near the beach is a small bar called Pedros Place. There __________________________________________________________ . How much does this cost? Could you tell me ________________________________________________ . The play was so boring that I fell asleep. It was __________________________________________________________ . Lets go fishing at the weekend. How ___________________________________________________________ .

4 0

Rewrite each sentence so that it contains the word in bold, and so that the meaning stays the same. I felt really tired, so I stayed at home and had a rest. because I stayed at home and had a rest because I felt really tired . A new student joined our class. She is called Joanna. who The ____________________________________________________________ . I have a friend. This persons father comes from Sweden. whose I have __________________________________________________________ . Jim gave me a book. It is really good. that The ____________________________________________________________ . 85

Jim gave me a book. It is really good which Jim ___________________________________________________________


Grammar Progress Test 3b

1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Underline the correct word or phrase in each sentence. Im very busy. Lets/Would you mind giving me a hand? Although/In spite of my bad back, I still play football. The guide book has so much/so many information that I cant decide where to go. Do you know what time does the film start/the film starts? The bus was too/so slow that I missed my interview. I enjoyed the party, despite/although I didnt know many people. Im going on an English course in/at Cambridge. It is so/such a good film that Ive seen it three times! Roberta, who/that is Claudias sister, is going to the same university as me. I cant reach. Im not tall enough/enough tall. We arrived at the cinema early in order to/so that we get a good seat. That idea what/that you had was fantastic! Has anyone seen my jacket? Its/Its front pockets have a design on them. Why dont we visiting/visit Leila at the weekend? Would you mind moving/to move along a bit so that I can sit down? Put a preposition in each space. Choose from in, on, at, to, above, below. Karen lives in London Street. Quick, get ____________ the train, the doors are going to close. Denise arrived with a bunch of flowers ____________ her hand. Leonora has moved ____________ another city. There are very few tigers left ____________ India. Youll see the monument ____________ your left. I looked ____________ the mirror and saw the mark on my face. Im going to stay ____________ home tonight. Ive got a lot of homework. From the plane I could see the coast of Italy ____________ us. Theres a beautiful old church ____________ the end of the road. Thats a beautiful picture over there, ____________ the sofa. I think her house is ____________ this side of the street. Hell stay ____________ prison for at least ten years.


3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. My town has two places to hear live music. There are two places to hear live music in my town . My advice is to get to the airport two hours before take-off. If I ____________________________________________________________ . I have a lot of work to do, and I dont know where to begin. I have so _______________________________________________________ . Lets invite Julia and Margaret to the party. How ___________________________________________________________ . Rebecca wanted to go to Japan, so she saved some money. Rebecca saved some money so that __________________________________ . The car was so old that it kept breaking down. It was __________________________________________________________ . Please speak more slowly. Would you mind _________________________________________________ . There are too few chairs in the room. There arent _____________________________________________________ . Where is the station? Do you know ____________________________________________________ . Although there were problems, we enjoyed ourselves. Despite _________________________________________________________ . Robert appears to have forgotten my birthday again. It appears _______________________________________________________ .

4 0

Rewrite each sentence so that it contains the word in bold, and so that the meaning stays the same. The woman teaches us music. She also plays in an orchestra. who The woman who teaches us music also plays in an orchestra . I go to a fitness centre. It also has yoga classes. that The ____________________________________________________________ . I go to a fitness centre. It also has yoga classes. which I go ____________________________________________________________ . I know a man. His brother is a record producer. whose I know _________________________________________________________ . 88

4 You were talking about a woman. I wanted to meet her. that I wanted ________________________________________________________


Grammar Progress Test 4a

1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 2 Underline the correct word or phrase in each sentence. I met Tina a day/one day last week. Im going to buy the/a new printer for my computer. Ive lived in this city for/since ten years. Im going out to buy any/some milk. Paris was so/as exciting as Madrid I enjoyed them both. I need to finish this work by/until the end of the week. Berlin is a lot bigger that/than Frankfurt. How many/How much time do we have until the train arrives? My worse/worst subject at school was mathematics. Monday or Tuesday, each/either day would be fine. Im meeting Jack the day after tomorrow/the next day. Could you give me some informations/information, please? Wheres a/the remote control for the television? Put a/an or the in each space or leave the space blank.

Its not difficult to find my house. If you come by (0) train, you come out of (1) _____ station and turn right. Youll see (2) _____ bank on (3) _____ corner of (4) _____ street. Carry on down (5) _____ road until you come to (6) _____ church. You cant miss it its one of (7) _____ biggest ones in (8) _____ Brighton. Just after (9) _____ church turn left. Its (10) _____ very small street and (11) _____ people often go past without noticing it. Youll see my house at (12) _____ end of the street its got (13) _____ red door. Try and get here in time for (14) _____ lunch. Give me (15) _____ call on your mobile if you get lost. Ill be waiting for you! 3 0 1 2 Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first. I didnt expect to see Darrel. Darrel was the last person I expected to see . This is as fast as I can go. I cant __________________________________________________________ . The restaurants were both expensive. Neither _________________________________________________________ .


3 4 5 6 7 8

Sue is better at History than Silvia. Silvia is not _____________________________________________________ . The Romanian capital is Bucharest. Bucharest _______________________________________________ Romania. Dan drives buses. Dan is __________________________________________________________ . Not all the answers are right. Some __________________________________________________________ . Nobody is better at History than Melanie. Melanie is the ___________________________________________________ . I wont leave before 7.00. Ill be here ______________________________________________________ .

4 0

Rewrite each sentence so that it contains a form of a phrasal verb using the word in bold. Make any other necessary changes. Dont leave the lights on when you leave the school. turn off Turn the lights off when you leave the school. I went through childhood in Belgium. grew ________________________________________________________________ I was talking to Jackie and we were suddenly disconnected. cut ________________________________________________________________ Alice is similar in appearance to her mother. take ________________________________________________________________ Im trying to find the word in the dictionary. look ________________________________________________________________ What are you trying to say? get ________________________________________________________________


Grammar Progress Test 4b

1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 2 Underline the correct word or phrase in each sentence. The fish was so tasty as/as tasty as the meat. I am younger than/that my brother. Can you give me an/some advice, please? How much/How many money do you need? Ive been off work since/for three days with a bad cold. We need to be there until/by 6.30. The other people werent very friendly no of/none of them spoke to me. We need some/any more cheese. Would you like to see a/the film with me next Friday? Michael went away to Ireland the other day/the day before yesterday. Ask James or Ted either/each one could help you. My worst/worse nightmare is to be in a room full of snakes. Its not as/so warm as it was autumn is coming. Put a/an or the in each space or leave the space blank.

We had (0) a great holiday in (1) _____ London. We arrived at (2) _____ airport late on Sunday evening, and we decided to take (3) _____ taxi, even though it was very expensive. (4) _____ taxi took us to our hotel, which was very nice, although (5) _____ rooms were quite small. On (6) _____ next day we woke up early and had (7) _____ enormous breakfast. I dont know how (8) _____ people can eat so much in (9) _____ morning! But it was good for us because eating out in (10) _____ London is expensive, and with such (11) _____ big breakfast we didnt need to have (l2) _____ lunch. After breakfast we went to (13) _____ art gallery. I cant remember (14) _____ name, but it was full of (15) _____ famous paintings and I really enjoyed it. 3 0 1 2 3 4 Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. David is a better runner than Paul. Paul isnt as good a runner as David . Michael teaches English. Michael is ______________________________________________________ . I wont be back before next Monday. Ill be away _____________________________________________________ . This is as far as we can go. We cant _______________________________________________________ . Nobody in the class swims more slowly than Josh. 92

Josh is the ______________________________________________________ . 5 6 7 8 The English captain is Beckham. Beckham _______________________________________________________ . Both of the brothers were tall. Neither _________________________________________________________ . All books must be returned to the shelves. Each ___________________________________________________________ . The police arrived too late to catch the robber. The police didnt arrive ____________________________________________ . 4 0 Rewrite each sentence so that it contains a form of a phrasal verb using the word in bold. Make any other necessary changes. You can come and stay with me. put I can put you up. I had to solve a very difficult problem at work today. deal ________________________________________________________________ Ill collect you in my car at 7.30. pick ________________________________________________________________ The plane left the ground exactly on time. take ________________________________________________________________ The football match has been cancelled. call ________________________________________________________________ Maria has recovered from her disappointment. get ________________________________________________________________


Grammar Progress Test 5a

1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 2 0 Underline the correct word or phrase in each sentence. Helen enjoyed/chose to learn Spanish. Look at/to that wonderful painting! Dont forget to turn off/turning off the lights. You can have or/either wine or beer. Im sorry, there isnt anything/nothing I can do. The shop assistant refused giving/to give me a refund. Is that milk still fresh? What is its/its sell-by date? I dont know if I can come with you. It depends of/on what my father says. This new detergent is strong, yet/as kind to your skin. We watched the seagulls to fly/flying behind the boat. I hope to go/going to University next year. They like to have saunas in countries for example/such as Sweden. Can you ask/ask for the key? Sorry, I forgot to post/posting your letter. Helena is an old friend of me/mine from school. Rewrite each group of words so that it contains the punctuation listed. first of all who is going to carry the suitcase asked emilie. (two capital letters, one full stop, one comma, one question mark, speech marks) First of all, who is going to carry the suitcase? asked Emilie. 1 i told marys son that he should be honest go the police and tell the truth (two capital letters, one full stop, one comma, one apostrophe) _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 2 hi alison said james whats happening (four capital letters, one question mark, three commas, one apostrophe, two pairs of speech marks) _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________


youll never believe what happened first of all we met up with peters friends from university then we all went to brighton for the day (five capital letters, one full stop, two commas, two apostrophes, one exclamation mark) _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________

Decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits the space.

Family holidays We used to have great family holidays when I was younger. There was always (0) D interesting to do, (1) _____ going to the beach, playing football, or going on rides at the fair. In the evenings we went to restaurants, and (2) _____ my brother and me (3) _____ staying up till late at night, listening (4) _____ the adults talking around the table. (5) _____ now, every time Im in a restaurant late at night it (6) _____ me of those days. A favourite memory of (7) _____ is going camping when I was about eight. I suppose we (8) _____ to stay in a hotel that year, but it didnt matter. (9) _____ , it was probably one of the best holidays I ever had with my family. I really (10) _____ sleeping outside under the stars. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 4 0 1 2 3 A everything A such as A either A couldnt stand A about A Even A reminds AI A couldnt help A As well A imagined B one thing B yet B also B wanted B at B Same B remembers B my B For example B enjoyed C anything C also C both C loved C to C Also C imagines C me C Except C chose D something D except for D as well D wished D on D Yet D seems D mine D denied D In fact D expected

B couldnt afford C admitted

For each question, complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first sentence, using no more than three words. There was nothing I could do. I couldnt do anything . Spiders make me afraid. Im afraid _______________________________________________________ . There was nowhere I could go. I couldnt go ____________________________________________________ . Do you think chemistry is interesting? Are you ________________________________________________________ . 95

Joanne said shed ask her mother about using the car. Joanne agreed ___________________________________________ her mother about using the car.

5 6 7 8

This dictionary belongs to Nicola. This is _________________________________________________________ . Chris was the only one who wasnt wearing a hat. Everyone was wearing a hat ________________________________________ . You are often in my thoughts. I often _________________________________________________________ . The police arrived too late to catch the robber. The police didnt arrive ______________________________________ to catch the robber.


Grammar Progress Test 5b

1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 2 0 Underline the correct word or phrase in each sentence. Mrs Davis taught us except for/instead of Mr Taylor. I stopped to smoke/smoking six months ago, and I feel much healthier now. Ill wait you/wait for you in the cinema foyer. Gina introduced me to a colleague of hers/her. I promise to pay/paying you back tomorrow. A lot of museums are closed today, yet/since it is Easter. She apologized for/of being so late. In/To my view, the United Nations does a very good job. Sheila offered helping/to help me with my homework. Lets go home. I dont know anyone/no-one at this party. I was tired and hungry too/both. She could feel her baby to breathe/breathing at her side. What a sweet little puppy! What is its/its name? I must remember posting/to post the letter. What are you talking in/about? Rewrite each group of words so that it contains the punctuation listed. were meeting uncle david on Tuesday evening at eight. (four capital letters, one full stop, one apostrophe) Were meeting Uncle David on Tuesday evening at eight. 1 hes won a thousand euros on the lottery however he wont even take us to pizzaria napoli to celebrate (four capital letters, one full stop, one comma, two apostrophes, one exclamation mark) _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 2 i asked alexandras mother about her childhood her time in africa and her experience of the war (three capital letters, one full stop, two commas, one apostrophe) _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 3 hello jackie said robert what time did you get back from the cinema (four capital letters, one question mark, three commas, two pairs of speech marks) _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 97

Decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits the space.

Having the builders in our house For a long time weve been talking (0) C having our kitchen modernized, and this year we finally (1) _____ to have the work done. The builders said there were two possibilities, (2) _____ they could start in March, or in July, and they said the work would take two to three weeks. We discussed it, and March (3) _____ to be the better choice (4) _____ we were going away in July and so (5) _____ would be in the house to supervise the work. They started in March as they had promised, and we got very excited (6) _____ having the kitchen done, but (7) _____ taking three weeks it took nearly two months! The problem was they (8) _____ disappearing every few days. (9) _____ , they made a terrible mess and we couldnt use the kitchen for all that time. Now the work is done, Im pleased (10) _____ the result, but it was a terrible time for us all. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 4 0 1 2 A on A fancied A or A imagined A as A one A of A instead of A wanted A Personally A of B with B pretended B either B began B although B everyone B for B except for B happened B As well as this B to C about C enjoyed C also C seemed C yet C anyone C about C such as C couldnt stand C Instead of this C for D in D decided D both D expect D while D no-one D at D as well as D kept D Although D with

For each question, complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first sentence, using no more than three words. Jeff was the only student who forgot the test. Everyone remembered the test except Jeff . Annie is a reliable person. You can ________________________________________________________ . Celia is buying a small apartment. Celia has decided ___________________________________________ a small apartment.

3 4 5

We havent got anything in the fridge. Weve got _______________________________________________ the fridge. I saw one of my teachers. I saw a _________________________________________________________ . Chemistry is Traceys best subject. Tracey is very ___________________________________________________ . 98

6 7 8

Patrick said hed stolen the bike. Patrick admitted __________________________________________________ . There were lots of people in the restaurant. The restaurant was ________________________________________________ . I havent got any money in my wallet. Ive got ______________________________________________




Vocabulary Test 1a
1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 about 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 3 0 1 2 3 Complete each sentence with a word formed from the word in capitals. My alarm clock didnt go off and so I overslept this morning. OVERSLEPT FOREIGN HAPPY EXPERIENCE FRIEND I had been in the country for a year, but I still felt like a ________________ . I have never felt such great ________________ since the day I got married. Hes only been in the job for one week so hes a bit ________________ . Ive known him since school days. Our ________________ is very strong.

It makes me feel bad to see so many________________ people sleeping in the street. HOME It hasnt rained for months and theres a great water ________________ . I dont like this job. Im ________________ and overworked. Smoking can be very ________________ to your health. Weve got all the modern ________________ in our factory. Im really sorry, I think there has been a ________________ . Complete each compound word with a word from the box. ache coat doors ground makers path table washer PAY MACHINE UNDERSTAND DANGER SHORT

Make sure you walk on the footpath , because the road is dangerous. Turn left at the next round________________. My time________________ this year is quite good Ive got nothing on Friday afternoon. Id prefer to stay in a hotel with holiday________________ , rather than business people. Has anyone got an aspirin? Ive got a terrible head________________ . Its cold outside, I think youll need an over________________ . To get into London from Heathrow airport just take the Under_____________ . You dont need to clean the plates yourself, we have a dish________________ . Its a lovely day. Lets eat our lunch out________________ in the park. Underline the correct word or phrase in each sentence. By 11.00 I felt so tired/tiring that I went to bed. How many photos did you make/take on holiday? I read a really interested/interesting article in the newspaper today. That meal we had yesterday was horrible. I particularly/properly disliked the fish.


4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Have you got any more clothes to put in the dishwasher/washing machine? Ive told you now/time and again to do your homework! John hates waiting more than ten minutes for a bus. He gets very impatient/unpatient. Sharon was early for her appointment so she read a magazine to lose/pass the time. Shall I turn the central conditioning/heating off. Its very hot in here. Marcus always said/told the truth. It was impossible for him to lie. It was awful/awfully difficult to read the sign as it was so dark.


Vocabulary Test 1b
1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 What is being defined? Write the word or words after the sentence. Storage place in a car where you put suitcases and bags. boot Small children wear them so that they dont sink when they are learning to swim. ________________ Person or team that comes second in a sporting competition. They come out of the back of a car and cause air pollution. ________________ ________________

Typically a person who lives far from their place of work and gets the train to work. ________________ An informal word meaning resigns, often used in newspaper headlines. ________________ If you are driving you must not exceed this. ________________ ________________ ________________ The line at which the earth and sky appear to meet. A rough, first version of, say, a report. A person who watches television.

Legal name for a person who pays rent to a landlord or landlady. ________________ ________________

Underline the word which forms a common collocation. This book is essential reading for anyone who has high stress levels/layers/rates at work. Representatives from the various governing authorities/associations/bodies of boxing met in Mexico City today. The organisers of the Fun Run hope to earn/raise/increase money for several charities. Climbing in the Himalayas was a far shout/scream/cry from hill walking at home in Ireland. If your hotel wasnt as described in the brochure, you should be able to get financial compensation/reward/return from the tour company. The river burst its banks, causing wide/extensive/thorough damage to surrounding buildings. My father values/boasts/prides himself on looking smart and neat. Much as I liked the flat, I noticed there was very little storage place/space/scope. My bike is not what you would call fast or sporty, but it serves its purpose/aim/reason. Customer/Market/Target research indicates that the companys products have a reputation for quality. I dont think there will be a change of government in the predictable/imaginable/foreseeable future.


3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Complete each sentence with a word formed from the word in capitals. Our city has some open spaces but they are not very accessible . ACCESS The ________________ effects of moderate amounts of red wine are well-known to health professionals. BENEFIT Richard is now a black belt in judo and has won several ________________ . COMPETE All the fighting and looting has brought life to a virtual ________________ in the capital city. STAND The lack of women in senior government posts is a rather ________________ issue at the moment. SENSE The so-called argument which the press reported between Kournikova and her coach was in fact simply a minor ________________ . AGREE There can be no ________________ whatever for violence like this! Were fortunate to live in such a quiet, safe ________________ . JUSTIFY NEIGHBOUR

There has been widespread public ________________ with the Prime Ministers controversial new education policy. SATISFY Im sorry, but I find your remarks totally ________________ . ACCEPT After my last ________________ attempt at making a cake, this time I think Ill just go and buy one. DISASTER


Vocabulary Test 2a
1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Choose the word on the right that best matches the descriptions. in the kitchen you find plates and cups in it in the kitchen turn it to get water ___ in the corner of the room, full of paper ___ the top part of the house where the chimney is ___ the top part of the room where the lamp hangs down ___ around the garden ___ at the end of the garden path, just before the street ___ covering the floor, from one wall to the other ___ on a bed, to make your head comfortable ___ on a sofa, to make your back comfortable ___ Underline the correct word in each sentence. When her bicycle was stolen, Jill became extremely angry/nervous. Do you like/fancy going out for a pizza this evening? A lot of my relatives/parents live in America. Those grapes look delicious. Ill have a large packet/bunch, please. She always shows good judgment. Shes very sensible/sensitive. My brother would really look good in that shirt/blouse. Can you borrow/lend me some money until tomorrow? I was absolutely fascinated/fascinating by his story about Africa. Happy anniversary/birthday, Oliver! Six years old today. Are you having fun? Youll find better prices/values in the shops if you wait until the sales. My car has broken down. Could you give me a hand/help? Waiter, here is my credit card. Can I have a receipt/bill please? This pullover is much too big for me. It feels really lose/loose. d a) bin b) carpet c) ceiling d) cupboard e) cushion f) fence g) gate i) roof j) rug l) step m) tap in the wall, where you get power for electrical equipment ___

between the front door and the garden, to help you get down ___ h) pillow

covering a small area of the floor, in the middle of the room ___ k) socket


Complete each sentence with a word from the box. One of the words is used twice. back down for in on out up with

after away 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Im longing for a few weeks holiday. Excuse me, Id like to try ________________ this jacket. Where are the changing rooms? Ill lend you the money but you must pay me ________________ by Friday. Christine said shed drop ________________ to see her aunt on the way home from Scotland. Do you think my new shirt will go ________________ these trousers? Paul promised to help me with the decorating today but hes gone to a football match instead. Hes really let me ________________ . Joanna put ________________ a thick pair of boots as it was snowing outside. Lets go ________________ to Paris for the weekend. Ive never been there. Did you know that Louise is going ________________ with my ex-boyfriend? Robbie wanted to dress ________________ as Batman for the party. Jack takes ________________ his father. Theyve even got the same


Vocabulary Test 2b
1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 What is being defined? Write the word or words after the sentence. Storage place in a car where you put suitcases and bags. A species of wildlife that no longer exists is called this. The noise made by a mouse or a door that needs oiling. A market traders shop is known as this. boot ________________ ________________


This noun means that an employee is given a higher position in a company. ________________ An informal word meaning that a customer bargains with a seller to try to get the price down. ________________ The person who you are engaged to. ________________ ________________ If you are a married man, this is your wifes mum.

The legal name for the crime of violently or sexually attacking someone. ________________ This verb means that a criminal or illegal immigrant is forced to leave a country. ________________ A wild plant that spoils a garden. ________________

Underline the word which forms a common collocation. This book is essential reading for anyone who has high stress levels/layers/rates at work A troop/herd/school of elephants was resting near the water hole. Water insufficiencies/shortages/droughts in the south-east of England led to a ban on garden hosepipes last summer. Brians boss gave him three more days to try to clinch/obtain/fasten the deal. When I applied for my job, I simply sent my CV with a covering letter/attachment/enclosure. You can either pay everything upfront for this car, or you can pay us in monthly subscriptions/installments/contributions. The train company did not refund the cost of my ticket, but sent me a 5 voucher as a goodwill statement/gesture/measure. I resisted/revolted/rebelled against my parents and the way they brought me up. Our relationship is going through a rather bad stretch/span/patch at the moment. As a policeman it is your duty to upkeep/enforce/execute the law. A secure unit is a kind of prison for young offenders/wrongdoers/sinners.


3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Complete each sentence with a word formed from the word in capitals. Our city has some open spaces but they are not very accessible . ACCESS VOLUNTEER POUR CLEAR The charity relies to a large extent on ________________ donations.

At 6 oclock the sky turned black and there was a torrential _______________ . You really need to ________________ what you mean by certain people. I left school without any ________________ at all. The salary for this post is not ________________ . QUALIFY NEGOTIATE BRING

I had a very traditional ________________ , with rather strict parents. Sarah accused Jack of a lack of ________________ to their relationship. It is ________________ to sell cigarettes to anyone under sixteen. Harper was convicted of four separate ________________ . OFFEND

John is very ________________ towards Mary; he seems a really nice guy.




Vocabulary Test 3a
1a 0 1 2 3 4 5 b 0 1 2 3 4 5 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Match the words in the box with the definitions. cruise journey tour travel trip voyage the general activity of moving from place to place (uncountable noun) travel going from one place to another, usually over a long distance or long time ________________ going to a place, staying there, and coming back again ________________ a circular journey during which you visit several places ________________ a holiday on a large ship ________________ a long journey by sea or in space ________________ Now complete each sentence with a word from the same box. Foreign travel is very popular these days. The sightseeing ________________ costs 15. You see Big Ben, the Tower of London and St Pauls. We drove from Germany all the way down to Italy. It was a two-day ________________ . The ________________ from England to America across the Atlantic took several weeks. My parents are going on a ________________ around the Caribbean Islands. Theyve just come back from a ________________ to Ireland. They had a wonderful time. The words in italics are in the wrong sentences. Find the best word for each sentence. We werent sure what to order for lunch, so we asked for the whistle. menu There are no cars in the city centre its a traffic-free menu. ________________ If you cant afford a hotel, why not stay in a youth crossing? ________________ The morning rush tyre lasts from seven until half past nine. ________________ We cant drive to Italy in one day. Well need to make an overnight hour. ________________ Sorry Im late. I was stuck in a traffic zone. ________________ Its safer to walk along the road a bit and use the pedestrian hostel. ________________ I had to push my bike all the way up the hill. I got a flat stop. ________________ The players must stop when they hear the referees jam. ________________


Decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each space.

Hi James Were on holiday at the moment and weve brought our (0) B with us. Its small but quite comfortable. Were (1) ______ in France for two weeks, right in the middle of the French (2) ______ . Theres some wonderful (3) ______ around here. Theres even a small (4) ______ where I can (5) ______ fishing. The place has certainly (6) ______ up to our expectations. Actually, were lucky to be here as a car (7) ______ into a lorry in front of us on the motorway in England and we nearly (8) ______ the boat. Sarah was ill for a short while and I had to go to the (9) ______ in the nearest village to get her some aspirin. She seems to have got (10) ______ her illness now, but I had to make all the (11) ______ for a couple of days. As you know, Im not the best (12) ______ in the world and while I was (13) ______ some bacon the pan was set (14) ______ fire. Luckily, we had a fire (15) ______ with us and it soon brought the fire under control. Were off to the beach now. Hope youre keeping well. All the best Dominic 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 A bungalow A passing A country A look A canal A do A kept A collapsed A arrived A chemists A from A courses A chef A baking A in A brigade B caravan B remaining B countryside B scenery B river B go B lived B crashed B caught B physician B off B food B chief B boiling B from B engine C castle C spending C land C sight C sea C make C seemed C hit C lost C surgeon C on C meals C cook C grating C on C extinguisher D cottage D staying D ground D view D stream D take D was D struck D missed D hospital D over D plates D cooker D frying D over D fighter


Vocabulary Test 3b
1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 What is being defined? Write the word or words after the sentence. Storage place in a car where you put suitcases and bags. boot A showing of a film to the press and celebrities before its general release. ________________ The words of a song. ________________ ________________ A political partys statement of policies, written before an election.

The police telling everyone to leave a building because of a bomb scare would be an example of this verb. ________________ Normally made of canvas, this is used to carry a sick or injured person. ________________ You go to the dentist to have this if you have a small hole in a tooth. Government money which pays for part of the cost of something. ________________ ________________

This may happen to a village or other small community, when all roads to it are blocked by snow or flooding. (phrasal verb) ________________ An adjective to describe a punishment which is light not severe. Grieve or feel great sadness because of someones death. Underline the word which forms a common collocation. This book is essential reading for anyone who has high stress levels/layers/rates at work. When the actor Christopher Reeve came on to collect his award, the entire audience gave him a rising/cheering/standing ovation. You cant apply for certain jobs if you have a criminal file/record/history. By early evening most people had administered/cast/selected their vote. The United Nations is considering military intrusion/interference/intervention . Contrary to popular belief/thought/impression, the fire service is a very badly paid profession. Mrs Murray is anticipating/expecting/waiting her third baby next week. As the flu epidemic/plague/outbreak enters its second month, doctors are urging pensioners to come forward for their vaccinations. Our goal is to reduce energy employment/application/consumption in this country by 20% over the next five years. It was clear from Davids facial look/expression/manner that he disapproved. Hunter admitted/pleaded/stated guilty to all three of the charges put before him by the judge. ________________ ________________


3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Complete each sentence with a word formed from the word in capitals. Our city has some open spaces but they are not very accessible . ACCESS When Sue was too ill to perform in the play, her ________________ replaced her. STUDY The project may be abandoned because of a ________________ of funds. SHORT In my country it is ________________ to wear a seat belt if your car is fitted with one. COMPEL Mr Collins paid so much attention to three members of the class that other pupils accused him of ________________ . FAVOURITE Unfortunately, there is absolutely no ________________ evidence for this claim. SCIENCE Alice gave ________________ to a healthy baby girl at 9.32. BORN There has been widespread unrest in the capital, following the ________________ of the currency yesterday. VALUE If ________________ fails, rest assured we are prepared to use force. DIPLOMAT Dont worry, Mrs Burgess. This spiders bite is quite ________________ , but you were right to get it checked out. HARM My old Maths teacher had lots of funny ________________ , which of course we used to try and imitate. MANNER


Vocabulary Test 4a
1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Complete each sentence with a word formed from the word in capitals. Nowadays its very important to get a good education . EDUCATE KNOW SHARP APPLY ENGINE I dont have much ________________ of European history. My pencil has broken! Have you got a ________________ ? Her brother works in the factory as an ________________ .

Tomorrow Im going to send off my ________________ form for the job.

The ________________ in this city has got worse. I find it difficult to breathe. POLLUTE Tony Blair is one of Britains most famous ________________ . If you go to court you will need a good ________________ . POLITICS EMPLOY Ive been out of work for ages. Its not much fun being ________________ . LAW

Our team is very ________________ . Weve won three international competition this year. SUCCEED Its very difficult to live in London on a low ________________ . Choose the word on the right to complete each sentence. Look! Its not working because the plug isnt in the j If the shelf is coming off the wall, try to tighten the ___ . Hang your coat over there on that ___ . When a lamp suddenly goes out, we need to change the ___ . If you need to climb onto the roof, use a ___ . If you get lost in the forest, use your ___ . This key doesnt work. They must have changed the ___ . To stop the alarm working, the burglars cut the ___ . In case of punctures, cars always carry a spare ___ . I need to have a shave, but I havent got a ___ . My mobile phone isnt working. I need to recharge the ___ . The envelope wont stick down properly. I need some ___ . . a) battery b) bulb c) glue d) hook e) iron f) ladder g) lock h) razor i) screw j) socket l) compass l) tyre m) wire My shirt got very creased in the suitcase. I need an ___ . COME


3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Underline the correct word in each sentence. Before we set off, we listened to the climate/weather forecast. My favourite/preferred time of year is Spring. Our main bureau/office is in Swindon. Can I just write that date down in my agenda/diary? Your hair is too long. Give me those cutters/scissors and Ill cut it. Im always pulling up crops/weeds in the garden. They get everywhere. At present people resign/retire at 65. In the future it may be different. The car has got a small engine/machine and is very economical to use. Lots of chemicals farmers use harm/spoil the environment. Julies studying to become a primary school professor/teacher. Bill thanked the guest/host for the party and went home.


Vocabulary Test 4b
1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 What is being defined? Write the word or words after the sentence. Storage place in a car where you put suitcases and bags. The sharp edge of a knife. ________________ ________________ ________________ boot

You might get this from touching faulty electrical equipment. A pencil needs sharpening when it is this.

This noun means that a pupil is forced to leave a school permanently for serious misconduct. ________________ Verb meaning to study for an exam by looking over ones coursework. ________________ Adjective describing handwriting that is so bad it is impossible to read it. ________________ An adjective which describes a ticket that hasnt been stamped or authorised. ________________ Noun meaning an agreement between two armies to stop fighting for a specified period. ________________ This synonym of genius could refer to a four year-old who can play a Beethoven symphony. ________________ A piece of electrical equipment usually found on a wall, into which you put a plug. ________________ Underline the word which forms a common collocation. This book is essential reading for anyone who has high stress levels/layers/rates at work. Rest assured that we have taken every possible safety protection/preparation/precaution . They sell all sorts of household machines/mechanisms/appliances: washing machines, dishwashers and so on. After just ten minutes in the rain, I was damp/wet/soaked to the skin. At my school you can do a work engagement/placement/arrangement in a local company in your final year. My two year-old son has a very short attention period/duration/span. I am very glad we no longer have capital/corporal/bodily punishment in my countrys schools. Sorry Mrs Atkins. I wasnt giving/paying/keeping attention, said Billy. Every morning I see kids from the local school taking/enjoying/playing truant down by the river. The Chairman described the pilot scheme as a part/partial/parting success. 113

10 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Sorry madam, but Im afraid your ticket is void/inoperative/invalid. Complete each sentence with a word formed from the word in capitals. Our city has some open spaces but they are not very accessible . ACCESS At the moment, I fear, we are ________________ to stop this epidemic from spreading. POWER Jude Parsons will be giving a ________________ on management techniques today at 4.30 in Room B. PRESENT Much of the ________________ in the factory needs replacing over the next year or two. MACHINE Our local bus service has come in for a lot of ________________ recently. The island boasts an amazing ________________ of animal species. CRITIC DIVERSE

She has such fantastic technique; she makes swimming look absolutely ________________ . EFFORT All ________________ should be careful to check the spelling and grammar on their forms. APPLY Yes, I know boxing is dangerous, but I still think its ________________ to something like motor racing. PREFER I think he knows ________________ more than hes letting on. CONSIDER The very idea of coastal cities being in danger from sea levels would have been ________________ just twenty years ago. THINK


Final Test a
1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Underline the correct word or phrase in each sentences. I can to meet/can meet you this evening at about 7.30. Im tired I think I go/will go home now. Weve finished decorating/to decorate the apartment. The life/Life is difficult sometimes. At the moment Im learning/I learn to play the guitar. My course finishes on next week/next week. The train leaves/it leaves at 9.30. Its important for to read/to read the contract carefully. Where you buy/did you buy those shoes? The film I saw last night was really interesting/interested. Ive worked at this company since/for two years. Can you tell me what time does the train leave/the train leaves ? You can come if you want to, but my parents will be/shall be there. England is not so/as big as Germany. There was a terrible plane crash it happened/has happened an hour ago. Adrian is a very good friend of me/mine. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. Lets go to the beach this weekend. How about going to the beach this weekend ? Last week I lent Hilary the Harry Potter book. Last week Hilary _________________________________________________ . There are twelve students in my class. My class ________________________________________________________ . The name of the film is Zero Hour. The film ________________________________________________________ . The film was very unpopular. Nobody ________________________________________________________ . Last night it rained a lot. Last night there __________________________________________________ . Ive got more DVDs than Simon. 115

Simons got _____________________________________________________ . 7 8 Shall we have a coffee break now? What about _____________________________________________________ . The President gave the news conference. The news conference ______________________________________________ . 3 Decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits the space.

Brussels Brussels is the main city (0) B Belgium, and it is the home of the European Union. It has a reputation for (1) _____ a little boring, but this is unfair. (2) ____ , it is a modern, lively city with some of the (3) _____ restaurants in Europe. Every evening its bars are (4) _____ with visitors and locals who come to (5) _____ the wonderful variety of different beers. Dont forget to visit the Grand Place. There arent many market squares (6) _____ this one in Europe. If you (7) _____ some free time you can visit Bruges, (8) _____ is only a short train ride (9) _____ Bruges is a medieval town with canals and beautiful old houses. It is really (10) _____ visiting. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 4 0 1 2 3 A at A be A Personally A delicious A full A attempt A beautiful than A have A whose A journey A worth B in B being B As well B good B occupied B experiment B as beautiful as B will have B who B far B value C to C to be C However C best C plenty C prove C are having C which C distant C good D for D been D In fact D better D lived D try D to have D that D away D recommend

C as beautiful than D so beautiful than

Underline the errors in these sentences. Rewrite each sentence. Liechtenstein, that has a population of 35,000, is between Switzerland and Austria.
Liechtenstein, which has a population of 35,000, is between Switzerland and Austria.

The weather is getting colder and more colder. ________________________________________________________________ I lived here for the last three years. ________________________________________________________________ Chinese restaurants are always easy to find them. ________________________________________________________________ 116

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Im going to visit my aunt and uncle on the weekend. ________________________________________________________________ I want to get home before the match will begin. ________________________________________________________________ Every of my three sisters has blond hair. ________________________________________________________________ We were enjoyed the party very much. ________________________________________________________________ Im sorry, youre not be allowed to park there. ________________________________________________________________ I watched the TV news while I eating my dinner. ________________________________________________________________ She sang the song really good. ________________________________________________________________ Im beginning feeling hungry. ________________________________________________________________ About what are you thinking? ________________________________________________________________ I usually just have a sandwich for the lunch. ________________________________________________________________ Laura catch the same bus as me in the morning. ________________________________________________________________

Decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits the space.

Picking mushrooms (0) C autumn, one of my favourite activities is picking mushrooms. Ive been doing it (1) _____ I was young we went out to the forest (2) _____ Sunday morning and we (3) _____ the day there. In the old days it was easy, but now you (4) _____ a licence from the local council. The problem was that commercial pickers took (5) _____ It was selfish, and ecologists (6) _____ it also destroyed the environment. With (7) _____ new system there is a limit on the amount you (8) _____ . Not (9) _____ thinks this is a good idea, (10) _____ , and many people pick the mushrooms illegally. 0 1 2 A All of the A during A at B All B while B on C Every C for C by D Through D since D for


3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

A occupied A need A all A tells A all A can take A someone A although

B passed B have need B told B the B can to take B everyone B though

C spent

D took D every thing D said Da D could take D every person D still

C have necessity of D is necessary C said us C one C can taking C some person C yet

B the everything C everything

For each question, complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first sentence, using no more than three words. My teacher wouldnt let me leave early. My teacher refused to let me leave early. She started working here three years ago. She has been working here ___________________________________ . They make cars in that factory. Cars ___________________________________ in that factory. I havent been fishing before. This is the first time that I ___________________________________ . The metro is cheaper than a taxi. A taxi is ___________________________________ the metro. How much do these shoes cost? What is ___________________________________ these shoes? I didnt see the tree and I drove straight into it. If I ___________________________________ the tree, I wouldnt have driven straight into it.

7 8

I havent got enough time to write the letter. Ive got ___________________________________ to write the letter. Youve passed your exam, Richard, said the teacher. The teacher told Richard that he ___________________________________ exam.


Final Test b
1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Underline the correct word or phrase in each sentence. Whether this new pay deal will satisfy the unions remains/will remain/is remaining to be seen. By the end of this month, Ill be/be being/have been in my job for twenty years. I could/would/must have thought the best thing to do is just ring them and explain the problem. Sorry, Im not really sure what youre getting at/over/on. My friend held the spider, but I dont/didnt/couldnt bring myself to do it. Ive been getting terrible headaches so far/for a while now/up to now. We are on/with/under no obligation to give you a refund. Holly was about to accept the strangers offer when she remembered/had remembered/was remembering her mothers advice. This cant/shouldnt/wont be north, because the suns in the wrong place. If you would/will/should come across any good stamps, please keep them for my collection. Im sorry, but these regulations have to be obeyed/complied/kept with. Complete each sentence with an appropriate word. I have never seen such a mess in all my born days! Its ages since I went to the gym Im getting really unfit. Its a very useful device which ____________ you to watch what youre recording on a TV monitor. I ____________ I didnt offend you the other day when I was talking about dogs being a nuisance. Ill assume youre not interested ____________ I hear from you by tomorrow. Id ____________ not go into any details about the project at this stage. I wish you wouldnt ____________ doing that thing with your fingers its so irritating! Janets business is doing so well shes going to ____________ on an assistant to help her. Actually, I havent seen Tim for the best ____________ of a year. I cant remember ____________ I locked the front door Id better go back and check. The match was cancelled ____________ to torrential rain.


3 0

Rewrite each sentence so that it contains the word in bold, and so that the meaning stays the same. In my country all adults are obliged to vote. obligatory In my country voting is obligatory for all adults. Until then Id never been abroad. first That was _____________________________________________ been abroad. I used to have more friends than I do now. as I dont __________________________________________________ I used to. I havent been to a zoo since I was six years old. last I was six years old _________________________________________ to a zoo. Apparently the Managing Director is thinking about introducing flexible working hours. considering The Managing Director is thought ____________________________________ of flexible working hours. Without the financial assistance of the government, the railway companies couldnt cope. was If ______________________________________________ they receive from the government, they couldnt cope. Its impossible for Heidi to have eaten all that food by herself! possibly Heidi ___________________________________ eaten all that food by herself! It is very important that you dress smartly; so please, no jeans or trainers. must On no _____________________________________________________ worn. Such was the pressure on the Prime Minister, that he had no alternative but to give in. much The Prime Minister was ___________________________________ that he had no alternative but to give in. We no longer subscribe to Farmers Weekly magazine. cancelled We have __________________________________________ Farmers Weekly magazine. Postal workers are to go on a one-day strike, according to an announcement today. announced Earlier today, postal workers ___________________________________ be a one-day strike.




I have been to all the museums in London except Madame Tussauds. only Madame Tussauds is ________________________________ I havent been to. Dont make any sudden movements or the lion cub may scratch you, the zoo keeper said to the school children. warned The zoo keeper _____________________________________ make any sudden movements near the lion cub. My daughters still visit me regularly, even though theyre all grown up now. basis I still see my daughters ___________________________________ even though theyre all grown up now. I thought you werent coming, so I havent reserved a parking place for you. impression Sorry, I was ________________________________________ that you werent coming, so I havent reserved a parking place for you. As a result of the petition, the Head Teacher agreed to review the uniform policy. in The petition ____________________________________ to review the uniform policy. Decide whether each sentence is grammatically possible or not. Write or X (correct or incorrect). If it hadnt been for David, I would being lost in the forest. X Id rather you dont use sticky tape on the walls. ___ He wont allow anyone to use his computer. ___ If youre going to the shops, may you get me a pint of milk? ___ Everyone on the course was sent a welcome letter. ___ Police are treating the series of fires as suspicious. ___ The goods I sent you last week were incorrectly priced. ___ My dad is always blaming me on everything! ___ The management and union are in dispute with working conditions. ___ Only after several hours searching I found what I was looking for. ___ The magician claimed to be able to make people vanish. ___





4 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10


5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 6

Complete each sentence with a suitable phrase of three words containing the word in capital letters. Oh well, I might as well have another drink, if no ones in a hurry to leave. I have every confidence in him; Im not worried ___________________________________ . SLIGHTEST Scarcely ___________________________________ off my coat when it started to pour down. HAD Never again ___________________________________ my family to that awful restaurant. WILL Saccharin is ___________________________________ sugar which you might consider. ALTERNATIVE Mark, youre ___________________________________ the drinks; make sure everyones glass is filled up. CHARGE It is ___________________________________ to sound your horn in residential areas at night. LAW If the Curry House and the Pizza Place are fully booked, we can always ___________________________________ that fish and chip restaurant. FALL

Bob Agar has kindly agreed to ___________________________________ Chris Wettens, who is likely to be off work for two months. STAND Ive had to work ___________________________________ this month, including weekends. SINGLE Well, John Bunn, I am ___________________________________ to understand how you can break two school windows in two days. LOSS Complete the letter by writing one word in each gap.

The Manager, Steins Camping Accessories Dear Sir/Madam, I am writing to express my dissatisfaction (0) with the service I received at your shop on Saturday 24 November when I came in with a rucksack which I had purchased (1) ____________ you in March. I have had (2) ____________ many bad experiences with cheap rucksacks, that I decided to buy an expensive one with a guarantee. So in March, I spent 25 (3) ____________a rucksack, which (4) ____________ with a three-year guarantee. However, the zip of the rucksack has regularly jammed; in fact, (5) ____________ time you do it up you have to take great (6) ____________ not to get the surrounding material stuck in the zip. Recently it became so completely stuck that I (7) ____________ patience with it and tore the zip open. The rucksack is now unuseable, but my point is that there is a basic design fault to it.


I pointed all (8) ____________ out to the sales assistant, and produced the receipt and guarantee. The assistant said that it was dirty, and that a replacement (9) ____________ not be issued. I explained that it was dirty because I use it every day to cycle in to work, and that on rainy days it gets splashed. But (10) ____________ it is dirty or not has nothing to (11) ____________ with my complaint, which was about the defective zip. Finally, the assistant said I should contact the manufacturers, and gave me their name and address. However, (12) ____________ consulted my local Citizens Advice Bureau, I find this (13) ____________ be wrong. It is the responsibility of the shop (14) ____________ the purchase was made to refund money (15) ____________ supply a replacement for faulty goods. Yours faithfully Brian Laws 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Correct the error in each sentence. Rewrite the sentence on the line below. The King is believed to be arrived in Rome three hours ago. The King is believed to have arrived in Rome three hours ago. The report says there were 80 people present, that is not strictly accurate. ________________________________________________________________ If it wasnt raining, we wouldnt have needed umbrellas. ________________________________________________________________ I remember to see the Queen when I was a young girl. ________________________________________________________________ My son is now in army. ________________________________________________________________ Dont worry, Ill see it that you manage to get on the plane. ________________________________________________________________ He explained to be having difficulties understanding the teacher. ________________________________________________________________ No sooner had I put the food in the oven when there was a power cut. ________________________________________________________________ It was not the most convincing story, but Jill fell through it. ________________________________________________________________ Hes a very strange bloke; I cant really make him up. ________________________________________________________________ For the time, all we can do is wait and see. ________________________________________________________________


Add ten suitable punctuation marks to the following text. The speaker is introducing a trade conference in Canada.

Id like to start by welcoming you all here today some of you have come from as far away as Morocco and Indonesia so its truly an international gathering before I do anything else let me just check that everyone has a conference pack now if you just open your pack for a moment you should find inside a booklet for delegates a conference timetable and a leaflet from our sponsors Davis International. 9 Find and correct the ten spelling mistakes in the text. A lawyer is talking to a client.

Look, Mrs Smith, I can assure you it is totaly unecessary for you to seek alternative advise from another lawyer. You will only be told the same things that I have just told you. I am very sorry if you have bought a car which turns out not to be to your satisfaction, but once you have handed over cash for a used car, thats it, especially if youve signed a receit for it. You see, second hand goods such as cars, when they are sold privately, are sold under the principal of Let the buyer beware. Broadly speaking this means that it is the prospective purchasers responsability to get the car chequed out by a qalified mechanic. In fact the seller doesnt in theory even need to tell you everything about the car, even though he must respond truthfully to your questions about it. A second hand car is sold as seen in the eyes of the law, in other words it is sold in the condition it is in at the time of sail, so if youve paid for it, you have no right to conpensation afterwards. Im sorry, but thats how it is. 10 Put each phrasal verb from the box in the appropriate place in the text. living up to turned up paid for ended up got on ran up look up pointing out take out

drop in push on

Kates Travel Diary We decided to (0) push on and try to reach Venice by Friday afternoon before the weekend hordes (1) ____________ . Susan was eager to see the city of waterways, as she had never been before, while I wanted to (2) ____________ an old friend called Davina, who was now studying Italian at university in Venice. Davina had given me an open invitation to more or less (3) ____________ at any time, and she was as good as her word, for she not only put us up, but also spent the whole weekend (4) ____________ the sights to us. She had never met Susan before, but they (5) ____________ immediately, which was a relief. My intention had been to pay her a flying


visit, and then head off to Trieste, but we had such a wonderful time, we (6) ____________ staying for four days. Venice did not disappoint, (7) ____________ its reputation as the most beautiful of cities. On a less triumphant note, poor Susan lost her handbag, including a large amount of cash and her bank cards. She (8) ____________ a huge bill phoning home and contacting her bank in London. At least shed had the good sense to (9) ____________ travel insurance, so this (10) ____________ the costs of most of the loss.