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areas of the reproductive tract, including the cervix (opening to the womb), uterus (womb), and fallopian tubes (egg canals) in women, and in the urethra (urine canal) in women and men. The bacterium can also grow in the mouth, throat, eyes, and anus. Gonorrhea is a very common infectious disease. CDC estimates that more than 700,000 persons in the U.S. get new gonorrheal infections each year. Less than half of these infections are reported to CDC. In 2009, 301,174 cases of gonorrhea were reported to CDC. The infection is transmitted from one person to another through vaginal, oral, or anal sexual relations.
Men have a 20% chance of getting the infection by having sexual relations with a woman infected with gonorrhea. Women have a 50% chance of getting the infection by having sexual relations with a man infected with gonorrhea. An infected mother may transmit gonorrhea to her newborn during vaginal childbirth.
Ejaculation does not have to occur for gonorrhea to be transmitted or acquired. Gonorrhea can also be spread from mother to baby during delivery. People who have had gonorrhea and received treatment may get infected again if they have sexual contact with a person infected with gonorrhea. Some men with gonorrhea may have no symptoms at all. However, some men have signs or symptoms that appear one to fourteen days after infection. Symptoms and signs include a burning sensation when urinating, or a white, yellow, or green discharge from the penis. Sometimes men with gonorrhea get painful or swollen testicles. In women, the symptoms of gonorrhea are often mild, but most women who are infected have no symptoms. Even when a woman has symptoms, they can be so non-specific as to be mistaken for a bladder or vaginal infection. The initial symptoms and signs in women include a painful or burning sensation when urinating, increased vaginal discharge, or vaginal bleeding between periods. Women with gonorrhea are at risk of developing serious complications from the infection, regardless of the presence or severity of symptoms. Symptoms of rectal infection in both men and women may include discharge, anal itching, soreness, bleeding, or painful bowel movements. Rectal infection also may cause no symptoms. Infections in the throat may cause a sore throat, but usually causes no symptoms. Untreated gonorrhea can cause serious and permanent health problems in both women and men.
lower abdominal pain or pain with intercourse. This condition can be life threatening. gonorrhea can cause epididymitis. Other complications include perihepatitis. the most common result of untreated gonorrhea is pelvic inflammatory disease. rectum. Pregnant women should consult a health care provider for appropriate examination. In addition. Most men who are infected have symptoms such as urethritis associated with burning with urination and discharge from the penis. One of the complication of gonorrhea is systemic dissemination resulting in skin pustules or petechia. Treatment of gonorrhea as soon as it is detected in pregnant women will reduce the risk of these complications. the virus that causes AIDS. prostate gland (prostatitis) and urethral stricture (urethritis) can result from untreated gonorrhea. This occurs in between 0. chronic pelvic pain. inflammation of the epididymis (epididymitis). and infertility. This can cause blindness. or a life-threatening blood infection in the baby. gonorrhea is a common cause of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Ectopic pregnancy is a life-threatening condition in which a fertilized egg grows outside the uterus. A doctor or nurse can obtain a sample for testing from the parts of the body likely to be infected (cervix. meningitis or endocarditis. testing. she may give the infection to her baby as the baby passes through the birth canal during delivery. urethra. Half of women with gonorrhea are asymptomatic while others have vaginal discharge.000 women each year in the United States develop PID. chorioamnionitis during pregnancy. About 750. A quick laboratory test for gonorrhea in men with symptoms that can be done in .4 and 0.In women. In women. In men. or throat) and send the sample to a laboratory for analysis. The symptoms may be quite mild or can be very severe and can include abdominal pain and fever. joint infection. toes. septic abortion. PID can lead to internal abscesses (pus-filled “pockets” that are hard to cure) and long-lasting.0% of women and 0. If a pregnant woman has gonorrhea. wrists. In men.7% of men. Several laboratory tests are available to diagnose gonorrhea.6 and 3. The incubation period is 2 to 30 days with most symptoms occurring between 4–6 days after being infected. a rare complication associated with Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome. a painful condition of the ducts attached to the testicles that may lead to infertility if left untreated. HIV-infected people with gonorrhea can transmit HIV more easily to someone else than if they did not have gonorrhea. as necessary. and treatment. septic arthritis in the fingers. septic arthritis. PID can damage the fallopian tubes enough to cause infertility or increase the risk of ectopic pregnancy. Gonorrhea that is present in the cervix or urethra can be diagnosed in a laboratory by testing a urine sample. usually in a fallopian tube. and ankles. people with gonorrhea can more easily contract HIV. neonatal or adult blindness from conjunctivitis. Gonorrhea can spread to the blood or joints.
A Gram stain of a sample from a urethra allows the doctor to see the gonorrhea bacterium under a microscope. and successful treatment of gonorrhea is becoming more difficult(2011). health officials reported over 36. It has often been called "the great imitator" because so many of the signs and symptoms are indistinguishable from those of other diseases. with 339 new cases reported in 2005 compared to 349 cases in 2006. doorknobs. drug-resistant strains of gonorrhea are increasing in many areas of the world. but there may be multiple sores. Pregnant women with the disease can pass it to the babies they are carrying.000 cases of syphilis in 2006. hot tubs. Syphillis Is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. Many people infected with syphilis do not have any symptoms for years. transmission may occur from persons who are unaware of their infection.some clinics or doctor’s offices is a Gram stain. using two drugs) for the treatment of gonorrhea. The time between infection with syphilis and the start of the first symptom can range from 10 to 90 days (average 21 days). Although transmission occurs from persons with sores who are in the primary or secondary stage.756 cases of primary and secondary (P&S) syphilis. CDC now recommends dual therapy (i. Sores also can occur on the lips and in the mouth. In 2006. In the United States.6 to 5. or in the rectum. Sores occur mainly on the external genitals. The chancre is usually firm. 64% of the reported P&S syphilis cases were among men who have sex with men (MSM). swimming pools. shared clothing. However. Thus. Antibiotics can successfully cure gonorrhea in adolescents and adults(ceftriaxone). Transmission of the organism occurs during vaginal. Primary Stage The primary stage of syphilis is usually marked by the appearance of a single sore (called a chancre). anal.e.7 and among females between 2004 and 2006. anus. yet remain at risk for late complications if they are not treated. Syphilis cannot be spread through contact with toilet seats. the number of reported P&S syphilis cases increased 11. Reported cases of congenital syphilis in newborns increased from 2005 to 2006. Persons with gonorrhea should be tested for other STDs. round. or oral sex.8 percent. P&S rates have increased in males each year between 2000 and 2006 from 2. bathtubs. It appears at the spot where syphilis . small. Syphilis is passed from person to person through direct contact with a syphilis sore. including the United States. vagina. including 9. or eating utensils. many of these sores are unrecognized. The incidence of P&S syphilis was highest in women 20 to 24 years of age and in men 35 to 39 years of age. and painless. half of all P&S syphilis cases were reported from 20 counties and 2 cities. Between 2005 and 2006. and most P&S syphilis cases occurred in persons 20 to 39 years of age. In 2006.
muscle aches. red. patchy hair loss. paralysis. heart. Shortly after infection occurs. blood vessels. The characteristic rash of secondary syphilis may appear as rough. and can appear 10–20 years after infection was first acquired. The syphilis bacterium can infect the baby of a woman during her pregnancy.entered the body. the body produces syphilis antibodies that can be detected by an accurate. Sometimes rashes associated with secondary syphilis are so faint that they are not noticed. sore throat. and joints. safe. The rash usually does not cause itching. liver. Rashes associated with secondary syphilis can appear as the chancre is healing or several weeks after the chancre has healed. However. infection remains in the body. This damage may be serious enough to cause death. nerves. swollen lymph glands. Signs and symptoms of the late stage of syphilis include difficulty coordinating muscle movements. Some health care providers can diagnose syphilis by examining material from a chancre (infectious sore) using a special microscope called a dark-field microscope. However. she may have a high risk of having a stillbirth (a baby born dead) or of giving birth to a baby who dies shortly after birth. rashes with a different appearance may occur on other parts of the body. The chancre lasts 3 to 6 weeks. if adequate treatment is not administered. If syphilis bacteria are present in the sore. the infection progresses to the secondary stage. gradual blindness. Untreated babies may become developmentally delayed. and it heals without treatment. In the late stages of syphilis. headaches. and fatigue. numbness. if not treated immediately. sometimes resembling rashes caused by other diseases. the baby may develop serious problems within a few weeks. or reddish brown spots both on the palms of the hands and the bottoms of the feet. they will show up when observed through the microscope. the infected person will continue to have syphilis even though there are no signs or symptoms. However. A blood test is another way to determine whether someone has syphilis. The late stages of syphilis can develop in about 15% of people who have not been treated for syphilis. This latent stage can last for years. An infected baby may be born without signs or symptoms of disease. have seizures. and inexpensive blood test. eyes. the infection will progress to the latent and possibly late stages of disease. the disease may subsequently damage the internal organs. including the brain. weight loss. but without treatment. In addition to rashes. and dementia. or die. bones. The signs and symptoms of secondary syphilis will resolve with or without treatment. Secondary Stage Skin rash and mucous membrane lesions characterize the secondary stage. A low level of antibodies will likely stay in the . Depending on how long a pregnant woman has been infected. This stage typically starts with the development of a rash on one or more areas of the body. Without treatment. symptoms of secondary syphilis may include fever. Late and Latent Stages The latent (hidden) stage of syphilis begins when primary and secondary symptoms disappear.
such as syphilis. but only about 30% develop any symptoms of trichomoniasis. most women and men who have the parasite cannot tell they are infected.blood for months or years even after the disease has been successfully treated. vagina. The parasite is passed from an infected person to an uninfected person during sex. Persons with syphilis must notify their sex partners so that they also can be tested and receive treatment if necessary. Although symptoms of the disease vary. will cure a person who has had syphilis for less than a year. Because untreated syphilis in a pregnant woman can infect and possibly kill her developing baby. the most commonly infected part of the body is the lower genital tract (vulva. Additional doses are needed to treat someone who has had syphilis for longer than a year. A single intramuscular injection of penicillin.7 million people have the infection. In women. For people who are allergic to penicillin. the most commonly infected body part is the inside of the . it is important that persons be screened for syphilis on an on-going basis if their sexual behaviors put them at risk for STDs. Because effective treatment is available. Having other STDs is also an important predictor for becoming HIV infected because STDs are a marker for behaviors associated with HIV transmission. but it will not repair damage already done. other antibiotics are available to treat syphilis. and older women are more likely than younger women to have been infected. Trichomoniasis is considered the most common curable STD. or breaks in the skin or mucous membranes. Treatment will kill the syphilis bacterium and prevent further damage. There is an estimated 2. and when they come into contact with oral and rectal mucosa during sex. Trichomoniasis Is a very common sexually transmitted disease (STD) that is caused by infection with a protozoan parasite called Trichomonas vaginalis. and in men. Ulcerative STDs that cause sores. an antibiotic. or urethra). an estimated 3. every pregnant woman should have a blood test for syphilis.to 5-fold increased risk of acquiring HIV if exposed to that infection when syphilis is present. Syphilis is easy to cure in its early stages. In the United States. disrupt barriers that provide protection against infections. The genital ulcers caused by syphilis can bleed easily. There are no home remedies or over-the-counter drugs that will cure syphilis. increase the infectiousness of and susceptibility to HIV. ulcers. Persons who receive syphilis treatment must abstain from sexual contact with new partners until the syphilis sores are completely healed. Genital sores (chancres) caused by syphilis make it easier to transmit and acquire HIV infection sexually. Infection is more common in women than in men.
. It is unclear why some people with the infection get symptoms while others do not. Women with trichomoniasis may notice itching. or anus. burning. Trichomoniasis can be cured with a single dose of prescription antibiotic medication (either metronidazole or tinidazole). During sex. Men with trichomoniasis may feel itching or irritation inside the penis. Get checked again if your symptoms come back. mouth.penis (urethra). white. they can range from mild irritation to severe inflammation. When trichomoniasis does cause symptoms. HPV Genital human papillomavirus (also called HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI). Some people with symptoms get them within 5 to 28 days after being infected. trichomoniasis can cause genital inflammation that makes it easier to get infected with the HIV virus. but others do not develop symptoms until much later. It is not possible to diagnose trichomoniasis based on symptoms alone. To avoid getting reinfected. pills which can be taken by mouth. These HPV types can also infect the mouth and throat. burning after urination or ejaculation. Some people who drink alcohol within 24 hours after taking this kind of antibiotic can have uncomfortable side effects. but it can also be passed from a vagina to another vagina. like the hands. Trichomoniasis can increase the risk of getting or spreading other sexually transmitted infections. Infected people without symptoms can still pass the infection on to others. and wait to have sex again until all of your symptoms go away (about a week). redness or soreness of the genitals. There are more than 40 HPV types that can infect the genital areas of males and females. Having trichomoniasis can make it feel unpleasant to have sex. make sure that all of your sex partners get treated too. People who have been treated for trichomoniasis can get it again. About 70% of infected people do not have any signs or symptoms. but it probably depends on factors like the person’s age and overall health. About 1 in 5 people get infected again within 3 months after treatment. For example. or some discharge from the penis. yellowish. or from a vagina to a penis. the infection can last for months or even years. Without treatment. It is not common for the parasite to infect other body parts. For both men and women. or greenish. the parasite is usually transmitted from a penis to a vagina. discomfort with urination. Most people who become infected with HPV do not even know they have it. It is okay for pregnant women to take this medication. Symptoms can come and go. or a thin discharge with an unusual smell that can be clear. or to pass the HIV virus on to a sex partner. your primary care doctor or another trusted health care provider must do a check and a laboratory test to diagnose trichomoniasis.
genital warts might go away.Most people with HPV do not develop symptoms or health problems from it. HPV may also be passed on during oral sex and genital-to-genital contact. less common but serious cancers. vagina. anus. Warts can appear within weeks or months after sexual contact with an infected partner—even if the infected partner has no signs of genital warts. penis. HPV can be passed on between straight and same-sex partners—even when the infected partner has no signs or symptoms. vagina. anus. and oropharynx (back of throat including base of tongue and tonsils).cancer. For signs and symptoms of these cancers. There is no way to know which people who get HPV will go on to develop cancer or other health problems. Screening tests can find early signs of disease so that problems can be treated early. They can be small or large. penis. Health care providers can diagnose warts by looking at the genital area during an office visit. warts in the throat -. A person can have HPV even if years have passed since he or she had sexual contact with an infected person.gov . Cervical cancer and other. remain unchanged. When this occurs in children it is called juvenile-onset RRP (JORRP). In 90% of cases. They will not turn into cancer. These growths can sometimes block the airway. Genital warts usually appear as a small bump or group of bumps in the genital area. and oropharynx (back of throat including base of tongue and tonsils). The types of HPV that can cause genital warts are not the same as the types that can cause cancers. But. It is also possible to get more than one type of HPV. or RRP. it is important for women to get regular screening for cervical cancer. raised or flat. see www. RRP is a condition in which warts grow in the throat. HPV is passed on through genital contact. the body’s immune system clears HPV naturally within two years. For this reason. sometimes. most often during vaginal and anal sex. or increase in size or number. Most infected persons do not realize they are infected or that they are passing the virus on to a sex partner.a condition called recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. If left untreated. HPV infections are not cleared and can cause: • • • Genital warts Rarely. causing a hoarse voice or troubled breathing. . These include cancers of the vulva. or shaped like a cauliflower. before they ever turn into cancer. Cervical cancer usually does not have symptoms until it is quite advanced. Other HPV-related cancers might not have signs or symptoms until they are advanced and hard to treat. including cancers of the vulva.
Approximately 20 million Americans are currently infected with HPV. Very rarely. and people with weak immune systems (including those who have HIV/AIDS). the child can develop juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (JORRP). This includes gay and bisexual men. It is estimated that less than 2.000 children get juvenile-onset RRP every year in the U. you cannot see or feel these cell changes. there are about: • • • • • 1.000 women get cervical cancer in the U. HPV (the virus). Cancer often takes years to develop after getting HPV. Cervical cancer.500 men who get HPV-associated anal cancer 1.600 men who get HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancers (cancers of the back of throat including base of tongue and tonsils) [Note: Many of these cancers may also be related to tobacco and alcohol use. a pregnant woman with genital HPV can pass HPV to her baby during delivery. .S.500 women and 5..S. the body fights off HPV naturally and the infected cells then go back to normal.] Certain populations are at higher risk for some HPV-related health problems. Genital warts. Other cancers that can be caused by HPV are less common than cervical cancer.Rarely. about 12. These vaccines are given in three shots. But in cases when the body does not fight off HPV. HPV can cause normal cells on infected skin to turn abnormal. HPV can cause visible changes in the form of genital warts or cancer. have genital warts at any one time. About 1% of sexually active adults in the U. There are several ways that people can lower their chances of getting HPV: • Vaccines can protect males and females against some of the most common types of HPV that can lead to disease and cancer. HPV is so common that at least 50% of sexually active men and women get it at some point in their lives. Most of the time. Another 6 million people become newly infected each year.S. Almost all of these cancers are HPV-associated. Each year.700 women and 1. Warts can appear within weeks or months after getting HPV. The vaccines are most effective when given at 11 or 12 years of age. RRP is very rare. It is important to get all three doses to get the best protection. Each year in the U.500 women who get HPV-associated vulvar cancer 500 women who get HPV-associated vaginal cancer 400 men who get HPV-associated penile cancer 2. In most cases.S.
Either vaccine is recommended for 11 and 12 year-old girls. 9 through 26 years of age. That's why the only sure way to prevent HPV is to avoid all sexual activity. For those who choose to be sexually active. This is because anal cancer is more common in those populations. Preventing Penile Cancers: There is no approved screening test to find early signs of penile cancer. An HPV DNA test. But even people with only one lifetime sex partner can get HPV. And it may not be possible to determine if a partner who has been sexually active in the past is currently infected. such as genital warts and cervical cancer. It is recommended to get the same vaccine brand for all three doses. they should be used with every sex act. Gardasil has also been shown to protect against anal.so condoms may not fully protect against HPV. o Boys and men: One available vaccine (Gardasil) protects males against most genital warts and anal cancers. o There are ways to prevent the possible health effects of HPV. may also be used with a Pap test in certain cases. Preventing Cervical Cancer: There are two vaccines (Cervarix and Gardasil) that can protect women against most cervical cancers (see above).• • Girls and women: Two vaccines (Cervarix and Gardasil) are available to protect females against the types of HPV that cause most cervical cancers. cervical cancers. This vaccine is available for boys and men. who did not get any or all of the shots when they were younger. These vaccines can also be given to girls beginning at 9 years of age. including the two most common problems: genital warts and cervical cancer. but not all. from start to finish. limiting their number of sex partners. • • • • Preventing genital warts: A vaccine (Gardasil) is available to protect against most genital warts in males and females (see above). The Pap test can find abnormal cells on the cervix so that they can be removed before cancer develops. whenever possible. condoms may lower the risk of HPV. and for females 13 through 26 years of age. One of these vaccines (Gardasil) also protects against most genital warts. However. To be most effective. which can find HPV on a woman's cervix. People can also lower their chances of getting HPV by being in a faithful relationship with one partner. and choosing a partner who has had no or few prior sex partners. vaginal and vulvar cancers. Screening for anal cancer is not routinely recommended because more information is still needed to find out if screening and follow-up interventions prevent these cancers. some experts recommend yearly anal Pap tests to screen for anal cancer in gay and bisexual men and in HIV-positive persons. But HPV can infect areas that are not covered by a condom . Preventing Anal Cancers: A vaccine (Gardasil) is available to protect against most anal cancers in males and females. Cervical cancer can also be prevented with routine cervical cancer screening and follow-up of abnormal results. Even women who got the vaccine when they were younger need regular cervical cancer screening because the vaccine protects against most. . Condoms may also lower the risk of developing HPV-related diseases.
There is no general test for men or women to check one’s overall "HPV status.cancer. for cervical cancer. but there are treatments for the diseases that HPV can cause: Visible genital warts can be removed by the patient him or herself with prescribed medications. Some people choose not to treat warts." nor is there an approved HPV test to find HPV on the genitals or in the mouth or throat. .org ] Preventing RRP: Cesarean delivery is not recommended for women with genital warts to prevent juvenile-onset RRP (JORRP) in their babies. Cervical cancer is most treatable when it is diagnosed and treated early. The HPV tests on the market are only used to help screen women at certain ages and with certain Pap test findings. Prevention is always better than treatment. RRP can be treated with surgery or medicines. Other HPV-related cancers are also more treatable when diagnosed and treated early. But women who get routine Pap tests and follow up as needed can identify problems before cancer develops.• • Preventing Oropharyngeal Cancers: There is no approved test to find early signs of oropharyngeal cancer[see www. It can sometimes take many treatments or surgeries over a period of years. This is because it is not clear that cesarean delivery prevents JORRP in infants and children. They can also be treated by a health care provider. No one treatment is better than another. There is no treatment for the virus itself. but to see if they disappear on their own.
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