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Chemistry and You
BUREAU OF SECONDARY EDUCATION
Department of Education DepEd Complex, Meralco Avenue Pasig City
Module 1 Chemistry and You
What this module is about
The study of chemistry is interesting for many reasons. It explains events in nature, it touches nearly every aspect of human life, and it plays a vital role in the daily activities we do at home or elsewhere. Chemistry has been called the central science because it is essential to the study of other sciences. Like all other sciences, the study of chemistry is fun. This module can help you look at the world in ways you have never imagined. It tackles the importance of chemistry in our daily lives. It also looks at the desirable qualities and attitudes of some Filipino and foreign scientists that lead them to develop new technologies. Lastly, it discusses scientific measurements and their applications. This module contains the following lessons: Lesson 1 – Chemistry: Its Beginning and Importance to Human Life Lesson 2 – Desirable Qualities and Attitudes of Scientists in the Field of Chemistry Lesson 3 – Scientific Measurements
Read this module and you will see why chemistry can and should play an important role in your life. So, start and enjoy.
What you are expected to learn
After going through this module, you are expected to: 1. discuss how chemistry started; 2. explain its importance to human lives; 3. apply desirable qualities and scientific attitudes in solving problems encountered everyday; and 4. discuss the importance of scientific measurement.
How to learn from this module
Here’s a simple guide for you in going about the module: 1. Read and follow the instructions carefully. 2. Answer the pretest in order to determine how much you know about the lessons in this module. 3. Check your answers with the given answer key at the end of this module. 4. Read each lesson and do all the activities that are provided for you. 5. Perform all the activities diligently to help and guide you in understanding the topic. 6. Take the self-tests after each lesson to determine how well you understood the topic. 7. Answer the posttest to measure how much you have gained from the lessons. Good luck!
What to do before (Pretest)
Multiple Choice: Choose the letter of the best answer. Write the chosen letter on a separate sheet of paper. 1. The science that tackles the study of matter, its structure and the changes in composition that matter undergoes is a. Astrology c. Ecology b. Chemistry d. Physics 2. When a chemist performs an experiment, the quantity that is being tested is the a. control c. theory b. law d. variable 3. Juan is comparing how many kilos of rice can be contained in a sack. What process is he doing? a. counting c. measurement b. interpolation d. testing 4. After making an observation and proposing a hypothesis, the next step that a scientist should do is to a. form a conclusion c. analyze the data gathered b. do another experiment d. state the conclusion
Which of the following steps in the scientific method did the doctor do? a. perseverance and curiosity. 6 d. The statement “Mercury is denser than water” is a ___________. Alexander Fleming d. in soil preparation c. All of the above 10. A scientist’s good characteristics include open-mindedness. What are they doing? a. a. Robert Boyle b. honest. in the use of soil fertilizer b. Jack and Rose gather information using their five senses. Basically. Scientists must follow a strict plan in order to make a successful result d. b. 5 c. composition of matter d. in the sowing technique d. John Dalton c. chemistry deals with the study of the following EXCEPT: a. urinalysis and stool test on a patient. Which of the following statements is CORRECT? a. 8 -4- . formulating a hypothesis d. properties of matter b. law c. How many significant figures are there in the measurement 9. observing 9. data-gathering c. a. testing the hypothesis b. changes that matter undergoes c. identifying a problem 12.5. gathering data through observation c. fact d. theory b. In what manner is chemistry of immediate use to an agriculturist? a. measuring the exact quantity compared to the other quantities 7.0052 kg? a. one tries to form his/her theory as quickly as possible. 7 b. This process is called _____________. During an experiment. generalizing d. forces 13. problem 8. A doctor performed several laboratory tests like X-ray. formulating hypothesis based on the gathered data d. A famous chemist has these words: “One may take it for granted that in every reaction there is an equal quantity of matter before and after. making a generalization c. Antoine Lavoisier 6. stating their conclusion b. hypothesizing b.” He was able to establish the science of Modern Chemistry. in selecting what seed to plant 11. Who was this famous chemist? a. complete blood count. Only the most brilliant people like scientists can make discoveries c.
secondary units d. nanometer 15. hypothesize. British System c. parallax d. -40°F 22. The scientific method of solving a problem follows the sequence: a. -32°F b. experiment c. area b. 6 x 101 b. 32°F c. c. The product of (2 x 103) and (3 x 103) is a. All of these 20. conclude. experiment b. This is called a. The system of measurement used by scientists around the world is a. When results of an experiment do not fit the hypothesis. temperature 17. serendipity b. meter c. volume c. What is the equivalent of -40°C in Fahrenheit scale? a. kilometer b. d. hypothesize. fundamental units b. conclude d. significant figures 18. Derived quantities are called such because they were based on the: a. centimeter d. People structure their lives on the principles of scientific method. precision b. invention c. but not the experimental design. discovery by luck 19. a scientist may ethically discard the results and repeat the experiment. experiment . 6 x 106 23. SI units c. hypothesize. Which of the following statements is TRUE about a scientific method? a.14. An appropriate metric unit to measure the distance from Manila to Jolo would be: a. innovation d. formula 21. hypothesize. experiment. 6 x 104 d. The number of digits by which a series of number is known with a degree of reliability is called: a. 6 x 103 c. Scientists report the experimental results. b. 40°F d. The scientific method is a continuous process by which people learn about the physical universe. -5- . Metric system b. density d. The ratio of mass to volume is called a. accuracy c. conclude 16. English System d. conclude. Discoveries are sometimes made through accident.
fire and water. chemistry d.C. Using the concepts. this module will open our world to the wonders of the things that surround and affect us. The years between 600 B.1 Read this lesson and begin to understand how chemistry started and became the central science. its structure and the changes in its composition is a. 1 Liter = 103 mL b. Empedocles’ idea was that the universe is made of four elements namely earth. Stimulated by social and cultural changes as well as curiosity. are called the “Golden Age of Philosophy”. and 400 B. a group of Greek philosophers became dissatisfied with these myths. Which equivalent factor does NOT describe a LITER? a. -6- .79 liters d. 1 Liter = 1000 cubic centimeters c.C. they began to ask questions about the world around them. principles and skills in chemistry. Thales believed that it was water and Anaximenes thought it was air. earth science b.C. 1 Liter = 1 m3 25. physics Key to answers on page 27. life science c.24. Chemistry: Its Beginning and Importance to Human Life Chemistry is a branch of science that helps us understand all forms of matter. air.. What you will do Activity 1. The Origins of Chemistry: Where It All Began The earliest attempts to explain natural phenomena led to fanciful inventions – to myths and fantasies – but not to understanding. Some of the Greek philosophers believed they could find a single substance from which everything else was made. 1 gallon = 3. They were able to discover basic truths of nature by thinking things through experiments. chemistry began in the prehistoric era and flourished in the modern time. Lesson 1. Around 600 B. Like all other sciences. The branch of science that deals with the study of matter.
1772. Chemistry Today The Greek philosophers continued to search for truth and while they were studying philosophy and mathematics. They called this art khemia. Antoine Lavoisier gained wide recognition when he refuted the then prevalent belief that water is converted into earth by repeated distillation.C and 420 B. he demonstrated that the solid matter came from the glass vessels and not from the water. he began to investigate the role of air in combustion. water. silver and copper. nitric acid. Speculating on the nature of the traditional four elements—earth. They were mining and purifying the metals gold. In 1770. The Forerunner of Modern Chemistry The modern age of Chemistry dawned in 1661 when Robert Boyle. His idea opposed the alchemists’ belief. On the other hand. They failed in both attempts but along the way. published his book The Sceptical Chymist. the metallic lead formed when -7- . Alchemists tried to find the “philosopher’s stone”. a supposed cure for all diseases. On November 1. Two thousand years later scientists proved that this idea was true. Robert Boyle. was known as the age of atomism when Leucippus and Democritus believed that matter was made of smallest particle which they called atom. a French chemist Antoine Laurent Lavoisier laid down the basic definition for testing whether a substance fitted its definition. air. the Egyptians were practicing the art of chemistry. If Robert Boyle laid down the basic definition of an element. They were making embalming fluids and dyes. Antoine Lavosier. This Egyptian word became the Arabic word alkhemia and then the English word alchemy. he stated that when burned sulfur and phosphorus increased in weight because they absorbed “air”. By carefully weighing both the earthy residue and the distilling apparatus. they were able to discover acetic acid. an English chemist. The Father of Modern Chemistry Innovative and scientific approaches paved the way for the rapid development of chemistry.The period from 440 B. a particle that could not be seen. and the “elixir of life” which would prolong life indefinitely. He formulated the law relating volume and pressure. Instead he proposed that scientists must start from basic principles and that theories about the world have to be proven by a series of experiment. and fire.C. ethyl alcohol and other substances used by chemists today.
Thomson Proposed the structure of the atom. Because of Lavoisier’s findings. On June 25.J. 1783. air. Cavendish Discovery of hydrogen A. His experiments paved the way for the flourishing of modern chemistry. 546 B. Ernest Rutherford.” He gave phlogisticated air the name oxygen.C. chemists tasted the first sound understanding of the nature of chemical reactions. fire and water combine in different proportions Leucippus and Idea of the atom or the Age of Atomism Democritus Robert Boyle The Sceptical Chymist H. John Dalton.C. -8- . Thus. This theory was later revised and now known as the theory of combustion. discovery of electron E.litharge was heated with charcoal weighed less than the original litharge because it had lost “air.” by decomposing water into its constituent gases. he became known as the Father of modern chemistry. chemists like Joseph Priestly. Lavoisier Discovery of the composition of air John Dalton Proposed the Atomic Theory John Jacob Devised the modern symbols of elements Berzelius Dmitri Periodic Law and designed the Modern Mendeleev Periodic Table of Elements Eugene Naming of cathode rays and discovery of Goldstein proton J. An English chemist named Henry Cavendish opposed this idea and later was able to produce quantities of hydrogen. Person Thales Anaximenes Empedocles Soon after. 1661 1766 1775 1800 1820 1869 1886 1897 1911 1913 Event Idea that water is the main form of matter Idea that air is the main form of matter Idea that the four elements – earth.C 450 B. Rutherford Proposed the nuclear atom. called “inflammable air. Time Line in Chemistry Date 600 B. or “acid producer” He explained phlogiston theory as the result of the combination of the burning substance with oxygen. These advancements led to many distinct branches of chemistry. discovery of a nucleus Niels Bohr Proposed the energy levels in atoms. 420 B. he also explained that water was the product formed by the combination of hydrogen and oxygen.C. the Curies and other scientists made new advancements in chemistry. Niels Bohr.
Some people view chemistry as a very technical subject that deals with formulas and mind-boggling computations. In medicine. however. pharmaceutical and textile industries. Organic Chemistry is the study of the compounds of carbon. Importance of Chemistry Chemistry plays a very important role in different areas of life. most chemists believed that there were two main branches of chemistry: organic and inorganic. It is concerned with the composition and chemical reactions that occur in the formation of living species. This branch of chemistry is important to the petrochemical. you will begin to appreciate its importance. All living organisms have traces of carbon. Analytical Chemistry deals mostly with the composition of substances. engineering. For example. the rules governing their classification have changed. It seeks to improve means of measuring chemical composition of natural and artificial materials. Inorganic Chemistry is the study of chemical elements and their compounds except carbon. agriculture. she/he needs to use a correct solution. but if you will try to look at things around you.Branches of Chemistry During the 1700s and early 1800s. c. The nutritional value of the food we eat is determined through chemical analysis. photography and other related fields. This may be true. this is the basis for clinical laboratory tests for disease diagnosis. -9- . 2. Chemistry also plays a very important role in medicine. b. The products of chemistry and technology are highly useful. Other branches: a. 3. Biochemistry is a science that fused biology and chemistry. 1. when you go to a beauty saloon and ask the hair stylist to straighten or curl your hair. or else it will not come out right. Physical Chemistry deals with the relations between the physical properties of substances and their chemical formations along with their changes. Analytical chemists analyze many household products. These two branches still exist today.
Desirable Qualities and Attitudes of Scientists The many wonders of chemistry have made it the central science. “false” chemistry n. What are some of the characteristics and attitudes that chemists generally have in common? Like us. father of modern chemistry d. study of the chemical properties of l. chemists ask how and why things happen. Lesson 2. 2. 8. proposed the phlogiston theory b. unlike most of us. for laboratory tests for disease diagnosis Chemistry Timeline 14. forerunner of modern chemistry e. study of the properties of substances and k. and 400 B. .C. 3. proposed the atomic theory g. believers of “false” chemistry f. started the age of atomism a. discovered hydrogen c. However.1 Match COLUMN A with COLUMN B. their chemical formations 12. alchemy Key to answers on page 27. 4. 6. a branch of chemistry that is used as basis m.10 - . properties and structure 11. 15. study of carbon and its compounds i.C. 7. Branches of Chemistry 9. COLUMN A Pioneers of Chemistry 1. its j. 5. substances particularly living organisms 13. wrote the Sceptical Chymist h. 10. Golden Age of philosophy COLUMN B Empedocles Leuccipus Anaximenes Henri cavendish John Dalton Robert Boyle Antoine Lavoisier Alchemist Organic Chemistry Inorganic Chemistry Physical Chemistry Biochemistry Analytical Chemistry Between 600 B.What you will do Self-Test 1. What distinguishes science from the other fields of study is the way in which it seeks answers to questions and the approach of scientists in solving problems. o. study of different chemical elements.
11 - DR. LIM-SYLIANCO . ALFREDO C. He did a lot of work on alkaloids from indigenous medicinal plants. An organic chemist who is concerned with the properties of starch and protein and other grain constituents in relation to grain quality of rice. DR. Some of her books published are used as textbooks in college chemistry. anti-mutagens and bio-organic reactions. BIENVENIDO O. LUZ OLIVEROS-BELARDO CLARA Y. JULIANO An organic chemist with an expertise on mutagens. CRUZ DR. monographs and related materials. JULIAN A. Some Famous Filipino Chemists A biophysical chemist who did the pioneering works on coconut as a source of chemicals and fuels.they are not satisfied with asking “why”. SANTOS She has made significant contributions to the biochemistry of toxic peptides from venom of fish-hunting Conus marine snails. books. They always have possible solutions to a problem. LOURDES J. He devised the process of extracting residual coconut oil by chemical means rather than by physical means He gained recognition for his researches on natural products. DR. She has written numerous scientific articles. . BANZON DR. Her studies led to the biochemical characterization of active peptides from Conus venom and the development of conotoxins as biochemical probes A pharmaceutical chemist who worked on the chemistry of natural products and essential oils from most Philippines plants. Her works resulted in the production of new flavors and herbal medications. They will not stop unless a problem is solved.
Perform this experiment designed for you: Materials: 2 jars with lid 1 medicine dropper 2 slices of bread Set-up: Medicine dropper Procedure: 1. Her analysis of cholesterol gave the Filipino the idea of the importance of diet especially on fats and cholesterol. Cover the jars tightly. 7.12 - . What you will do Activity 2. Do the activity below to get a feel of how it is to be a chemist. Moisten each half slice with ten drops of water. Put half a slice of bread into each jar. 3. Observations: Day Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Jar 1 Jar 2 Jar 3 Jar 4 JAR 1 bread JAR 2 . Keep one jar in sunlight and the other in a dark room or closet. Observe the jars daily for 1 week. 2.1 A. SOLITA CAMARA-BESA A medical doctor by profession. 4.DR. Repeat procedures 1 and 3 in the other jar. 5. she worked on sodium and potassium content of Philippine foods and established standards useful in the preparation of diets. 6. Write your observations on the table. Compare the results.
How will you answer the problem? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 3. What are the implications of the experiment in your everyday living? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ Key to answers on page 28.13 - . What could be the problem in the experiment? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 2. How do scientists solve a particular problem in his/her experiment? The problem in the experiment was solved step by step. The basic steps in the scientific method are: 1. Forming this would help you find out what the answer to your problem might be. It is a systematic way of problem solving used by scientists. B. STATING THE PROBLEM – identifying knowing what you want to investigate or study or 2. FORMING HYPOTHESIS – hypothesis is an educated guess. . The step-by-step approach is what we call SCIENTIFIC METHOD.Analysis of Observations: ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 1. GATHERING INFORMATION ON THE PROBLEM – jotting down important data or information gathered through observations 3.
STATING A CONCLUSION – this answers the problem stated. Which of the following pictures implies observation. What can you say about Picture A and Picture B? PICTURE A _________________________________ _________________________________ PICTURE B _________________________________ _________________________________ What made you say so? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 2. RECORDING AND ANALYZING DATA – interpret and evaluate the information gathered. try a new approach or perform another experiment. The pictures on the next page show a boy who is using a colored shampoo.2 1. hypothesis and prediction? . The smallest detail can sometimes be the most significant.14 - . What you will do Activity 2. Do calculations if needed to come up with your conclusion 6. Repeat the steps from the beginning until a solution may become clear. Examine the picture below. 5. If the problem is still unsolved. Scientists run an experiment setup and a control setup to make sure the results of the experiment were caused by the variable and not by some hidden factors. PERFORMING EXPERIMENTS TO TEST HYPOTHESIS – design and carry out an experiment to test your hypothesis. Try this activity and identify the different science processes. inference. Observe everything you can.4.
warm temperature.1 Analyze the following situations and answer the questions that follow.” Picture C: “The color of the shampoo doesn’t change hair color. She added no water to jar 2 and placed it on a windowsill in the kitchen. She placed a piece of orange peel in each of the two jars. What you will do Self-Test 2. By the end of the week. 1. She added 3 milliliters of water to jar 1 and placed it in the refrigerator. She concluded that light.” Picture D: “ Water will wash away all purple color in my hair. Discoveries in science sometimes occur by luck or by accident.“ Picture B: “Purple? Someone must have added color to my shampoo.A The boy says: B C D Picture A: “My shampoo is purple.15 - . What was Rachel’s problem? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ . This is called SERENDIPITY. she noticed more mold growth in jar 2. and no moisture were ideal conditions for mold growth.” _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ Key to answers on page 28. Rachel was doing an experiment.
Can you say that Rachel’s conclusion was correct? Why or why not? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Key to answers on page 28.16 - . Lesson 3. The development of its principles is based on carefully designed experiments carried out under controlled conditions. Scientific Measurement Chemistry is an experimental and a quantitative science. Read this lesson and learn to appreciate its importance. What were her observations? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 3. METRIC – The Universal Language of Scientific Measurement Measurement is the process of comparing a known quantity like a measuring device to an unknown quantity or the things or objects to be measured. It is the process of determining how many times a certain quantity is contained in a standard measuring device. This lesson will take you to the world of scientific measurements. At the heart of any quantitative experiment in our surroundings and in laboratories is the performance of operations called measurements. Measurements are made nearly everyday. What was her conclusion? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 5. How did she check her observations? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 4.2. . not only in the laboratory but in every establishment and even at home.
The different units of measurements are used in our day-to-day activities. 2. It is technically defined as the measure of the average kinetic energy of a body. An ammeter is used to measure current expressed as Ampere (A). There are seven basic or fundamental units considered in the SI. The second was originally defined in terms of the motion of the earth. the distances are measured in kilometers. Width (w) is also a length. derived units and supplementary units. the unit of measurement used is liter. kg. The most common measurements you will be using in the laboratory are those of length. Basic Types of Physical Quantities 1. It is based on units of ten. The unit of measure used to describe this is candela (cd). 6. Time (t) is the regular interval between two successive points. Temperature (T) is the measure of the hotness or coldness of an object. For volume. When you go the gas station to fill up your gas tank. 3. mass. volume and temperature. It is measured by using a metric ruler. milliliters or liters are used. The metric system is often referred to as the International System of Units. Amount of substance (n) is the number of moles. 4. The two subdivisions of the metric system are the mks (meter-kilogram-second) and cgs (centimeter-gram-second). The basic unit is the mole or mol. The scientific system of measurement is called the metric system. and height (h). is the vertical distance. 7. The standard unit of mass is the kilogram. 5.17 - . In the sarisari store or supermarket. Mass (m) is a basic property of matter. Length (l) is a distance between two distinct points. but it was revised and instead compared to vibrations of cesium atoms. It is measured using the triple beam balance or the equal arm balance. It is the measure of the amount of matter it contains. SI consists of three classes of units that form coherent set base units. Scientists throughout the world use the metric system of measurement. or SI. Fundamental Quantities are quantities that can be measured directly using measuring devices. One kilogram (kg) is the mass of 1 liter (L) of water at 4°C and a pressure of 1 atmosphere (atm). the units used for mass are grams and kilograms. On road markers. . The basic unit is the meter (m). Kelvin (K) is used as the basic unit. The mass of an object remains the same even if the position of the object is changed with reference to the earth’s center. Electric current (I) is the measure of the flow of electrons or charges. The standard unit of time is the second. Luminous intensity (E) is the amount of illumination received by an object.
dag hectometer. kg = 1 000 grams. m = 1 kilometer. Gm Metric – English Equivalents Metric 1 Liter. lb. L = 1000 cubic centimeter. kg Megagram. km Volume 1 Liter. mL 1 Liter. c 2.The Common Metric Units Length 1 meter. g 3. m = 1000 000 micrometers. mL 1 kilogram.000001 =10-6 0. oz. µg nanometer.2 pounds. 1 cup. mg microgram. cc Mass 1 kilogram.3 grams. kg = 1 metric ton Temperature °C = 5/9(°F – 32) or °C = (°F – 32)/ 1. qt.1 =10-1 0. gal. 1 ounce.79 Liters.001 =10-3 0. mg 1000 kilograms. cm 1 meter. hm kilogram. L = 1000 milliliters. m = 1000 millimeters. 1 gallon. g = 1000 milligrams.01 =10-2 0. L 250 milliliter. K = °C + 273 The Table of Prefixes Prefix Deci Centi Milli Micro Nano Deka Hecto Kilo Mega Giga Symbol d c m µ n da h k M G Powers of Ten 0. g 1 gram. mm 1 meter. Mg Gigameter. cm milligram. m = 100 centimeters. L English 1. .8(°C) +32 Kelvin. µm 1000 meters. kg 28.000000001 =10-9 101 = 10 102 = 100 103 = 1 000 106 = 1 000 000 109 = 1 000 000 000 Example decimeter.8 °F = 9/5(°C) +32 or °F = 1. dm centimeter. nm dekagram.06 quartz.18 - .
19 - .075 m × = 0. 75 mm × 2. milli = 10-3 Change the powers of ten to a prefix.32) (°F . The normal body temperature is 37°C. 2 x 109 bytes is equal to 2 Gigabytes or 20 Gb 5.6 + 32 = 98.075 m 1 000 mm 1 000 100 cm b. 1. Convert 75 millimeters (mm) to its corresponding length in a.32) or °C = 9 1.What you will do Activity 3.8 (37°C + 32) = 66.5 cm 1m 1m 1 km 7. What is its equivalent in °F and K? Formula: °C = 5 (°F .6 °F 5 K = °C + 273 = 376 °F = .30 x 10-1 3.075 × 100 cm = 7.1 Conversion Study the examples. 7. kilometers Solution: 75 m 1m = = 0.5 cm × × = = 0. it would be 4. meters b.5 km c. 430 x 10-3 grams By the use of scientific notation. Change 430 milligrams to grams From the Table of Prefixes . 0.79 Liters = 18.8 (°C) + 32 5 Kelvin.000075 m 100 cm 1 000 m 100 000 a. centimeters c.30 x 102 x 10-3 The final answer is 4.8 9 °F = (°C + 32) or °F = 1.95 liters gallon 4. 5 gallons of mineral is equivalent to how many liters? 5 gallons × 3. K = °C + 273 Solution: 9 (37°C) + 32 = 1.
7 x 102 (5.3 x 104) = . Example: 1.0 x 106 = 5.4 x 102) = 3.0032 = 4.or 98°F is equal to ____°C (°F . `To add and subtract numbers expressed in powers of ten. simply copy the common exponent and proceed as in addition or subtraction.32) or °C = 9 1.8 = 36. make them the same first before adding or subtracting) Add: (1.32) or °C = 1.2 x 105) + (1.32) 5 (°F .5 x 10-8 = 3. (If the exponents are not the same. 0.3 x 102) = 1. The density of water in the cgs is 1 g/cm3. simple and easy way of writing down very small and very large numbers using powers of ten.7 x 102 (4.67 °C °C = 6.8 66 = 1.32) °C = (98 .2 x 10-3 1. 0. The exponent tells the number of times the decimal point is moved from its original place to the right or from the original place to the left. 532 000 000 3.32 x 108 = 4. What is its density in mks? 1g (100cm)3 1 kg 1g (10 2 cm)3 1 kg × × = × × 3 3 3 3 cm 1m 1 000 g cm 1m 103 g 1g 10 6 cm3 1 kg = × × 3 3 cm 1m 103 g 10 6 kg 103 m3 103 kg kg = or 1 000 3 3 m m = SCIENTIFIC NOTATION is a compact.0 x 103) – (2.8 9 5 (98 .3 x 102) + (2. 4 000 000 2.000000045 4.20 - . The exponent is NEGATIVE if the decimal point is moved from left to right and POSITIVE if it is moved from right to left.
72 x 10-8 2.75 x 102 = 1.5 x 105) • (4. If the exponents are of different signs.3 x 10-5 = 1. To divide numbers expressed in powers of ten. Precision is the degree of the instrument’s exactness. meaning. (2. N is/are the number(s) after the decimal point. add them algebraically by subtracting the smaller number from the larger number and copying the sign of the larger number. then add the numbers and copy the common exponent.72 x 10-5 – 3 = 1.075 x 108+1 = 1. .72 x 10-8 2.33 x 105 2. (2.075 x 103 (2.5 x103 4.13 x105) = 5. change the sign of the number to be subtracted and then proceed as in addition.5 x 105) • (4. add the exponents. Accuracy and Precision Accuracy is a degree of agreement between a measured value and the true value.5 x10-3 Parallax . M.3 x 105 = 1. If the exponents are of different signs.075 x 10-1 3. one is positive and the other one is negative.72 x 105 – 3 = 1.3 x 103) = 10.N x 10n. where M is the only digit before the decimal point.(First make the exponent the same. Significant figures – the number of digits or figures that best represents the value of a measurement.3 x 103) = 10.2 x 105) + (0.75 x 10-2 = 1.72 x 10-5 – 3 = 1. one is positive and the other one is negative.75 x 108 = 1. meaning.72 x 102 2. subtract the exponents. To multiply numbers expressed in powers of ten.3 x 105 = 1.) (5.075 x 109 Final answer should be expressed in standard form.3 x 10-3) = 10. 4. and n is the exponent.5 x103 4.5 x 10-5) • (4.is the apparent shift in position of an object as it is viewed or observed at different angles.21 - .
17 kg to grams to decigrams c. a. 6.3 x 10-5) • (3.6 x 104) / (4 x 10-6) b.0 x 108) Key to answers on page 28. Graph . What is the density of the iron? 2. The density of alcohol is 0.000.Rules in Determining the Number of Significant Figures: All non-zero digits are significant. but 406. 3. A block of iron is 5. 4. 9) All zeros in between two non-zero digits are significant. All zeros to the right of a decimal point but to the left of a non-zero digit are NOT significant. (3. 1. 0. The two kinds of variables are the dependent variables plotted on the Y-axis or the ordinate and the independent variables plotted on the X-axis or the abscissa.2 L to gallons to quartz b.0 cm wide weighs 474 g. 5.0003068 has four (4) significant figures All zeros to the right of non-zero digit without an expressed decimal point following it are NOT significant. 2804 has four (4) significant figures.00003007 5. What you will do Self-Test 3. 406. 2 546 000 000 b.is a tool or mechanism to show the relationship between two variables. 4. 40°C to °F 4. Indicate the number of significant figures: a. 0. 3. Convert the following units: a. For example.8 g/cm3. (1. 2.0 cm long. 0.000 has three (3) significant figures. 8. 3.6 kg of alcohol. 1.1 Direction: Do the indicated operation. For example. 7.0 cm high and 4. Calculate the volume of 1. . (2.00000000150 c. has six (6) significant figures because of the indicated decimal point.22 - .
b. Age of Alchemy – the chemistry of mining and purifying the metals gold. In medicine. This theory was later revised and now known as the theory of combustion. A problem is a situation that seems to be missing some information. When that information is applied to some use. pharmaceutical and textile industries. This Egyptian word became the Arabic word alkhemia and then the English word alchemy. The nutritional value of the food we eat is determined through chemical analysis. c. Origin of Chemistry a. Biochemistry is a science that is concerned with the composition and changes in the formation of living species. Chemistry is a central science that deals with the composition of matter. Modern Chemistry – the stage when Antoine Lavoisier proposed the phlogiston theory as the result of the combination of the burning substance with oxygen. Pure science involves gathering information or the discovery of a pattern. This art is called khemia. Scientific Method is a systematic approach consisting of the following basic steps: . Inorganic Chemistry is the study of chemical elements and their compounds except carbon. Analytical Chemistry deals mostly with the composition of substances. 2. This branch of chemistry is important to the petrochemical. c. 4. Organic Chemistry is the study of the compounds of carbon. making predictions. Age of atomism when Leucippus and Democritus believed that matter was made of smallest particle which they called atom. Solving problems involves looking for patterns. b. a particle that could not be seen. It seeks to improve means of measuring chemical composition of natural and artificial materials. Analytical chemists analyze many household products. it becomes technology. and testing the predictions. silver and copper. Other branches: Physical Chemistry deals with the relations between the physical properties of substances and their chemical formations along with their changes.Let’s Summarize 1. An approach to problem solving used by chemists is called the scientific method.23 - . 5. Branches of Chemistry a. 6. All living organisms have traces of carbon. this is the basis for clinical laboratory tests for disease diagnosis. 3. its structure and the changes in composition that this matter undergoes.
SI. Repeat the steps from the beginning until a solution may become clear.a. A standard of measurement is an exact quantity that people agree to use as a basis of comparison. 10.24 - . 7. A scientific fact is a summary of many experimental results that describes a pattern in nature. 11. A theory. The smallest detail can sometimes be the most significant. Gathering Information on the Problem – jotting down important data or information gathered through observations c. 8. try a new approach or perform another experiment. . e. In International Systems of units. all measurements are compared to the same exact quantity – the standard. When a standard measurement is established. Observe everything you can. If the problem is still unsolved. A hypothesis is testable prediction. based on many observations. SI BASE UNITS / FUNDAMENTAL QUANTITIES Quantity Measured Unit Symbol Length meter m Mass kilogram kg Time second s Electric current Ampere A Temperature Kelvin K Amount of substance Mole mol Luminous Intensity candela cd 12. Stating a Conclusion – this answers the problem stated. Forming Hypothesis – hypothesis is an educated guess. prefixes are used to make the base units larger or smaller by powers of ten. 9. is the most logical explanation of why things work. Performing Experiments to Test Hypothesis – designing and carrying out an experiment to test your hypothesis. Recording and Analyzing Data – interpreting and evaluating the information gathered. Do calculations if needed to come up with your conclusion f. Forming this would help you find out what the answer to your problem might be. d. An experiment is an organized procedure for testing a hypothesis. Stating the Problem – identifying or knowing what you want to investigate or study b.
6. Rules in determining the Number of Significant Figures: a. 2804 has four (4) significant figures.1 =10-1 0.01 =10-2 0. 406 000 has three (3) significant figures. Significant figures – the number of digits or figures that best represents the value of a measurement. 9) b. nm dekagram.0003068 has four (4) significant figures. dm centimeter. mg microgram. 14. kg Megagram. 7. experiment d. For example. All non-zero digits are significant. c. 8. For example. scientific method . 15. cm milligram. Which refers to a step-by-step approach of a scientist in solving a problem? a.is a tool or mechanism to show the relationship between two variables. simple and easy way of writing down very small and very large numbers using powers of ten. The two kinds of variables are the dependent variables plotted on the Y-axis or the ordinate and the independent variables plotted on the X-axis or the abscissa. Choose the letter of the best answer. hypothesis b. µg nanometer. 0.25 - . but 406 000 has six (6) significant figures because of the indicated decimal point. All zeros to the right of non-zero digit without an expressed decimal point following it are NOT significant. d. 4 .000001 =10-6 0.Prefix Deci Centi Milli Micro Nano Deka Hecto Kilo Mega Giga Symbol d c m µ n da h k M G Powers of Ten 0. Gm 13. 5. Mg Gigameter. All zeros to the right of a decimal point but to the left of a non-zero digit are NOT significant. Write the chosen letter on a separate sheet of paper. All zeros in between two non-zero digits are significant. 3. conclusion c. (1. 2.000000001 =10-9 101 = 10 102 = 100 103 = 1000 106 = 1000 000 109 = 1000 000 000 Example decimeter. dag hectometer. hm kilogram. Posttest Multiple Choice. 1. Graph .001 =10-3 0. Scientific Notation is a compact.
26 - . The boiling point of water is 100°C. 16 cm2 2 d. making observations d. a number only b. kilometer d. kilogram c. 22 x 10-5 c. Which of the following equations shows an inverse relationship? a. 1. inverse square 10.0 x 105 and 3 x 108 is a.2 x 10-2 .2. 64 cm2 a.2 x 105 d.6 x 105 d. The basic unit of mass in the metric system is the a. 128 cm2 b. density d. A skill developed by performing laboratory investigations and observations is a. k = A/B b. 312 c. In nature. area b. inverse d. if one variable decreases as another variable increase. volume 12. a number and a unit d. A = kB c. The quotient of 66. k = AB d. What is its equivalent in Fahrenheit scale? a. 32 cm 4. B = kA 9. 212 d. 100 b. weight b. mass c. a prefix and a unit c. gram b.6 x 107 8. The amount of space an object takes up is its a. meter 5. temperature c.6 x 104 c. direct b. 6 x 101 b. The product of (4 x 103) and (9 x 103) is a. pressure d. 32 3. 2. using and manipulating equipment c. a unit only 6. The sides of a rectangle are 8 cm and 4 cm. the relationship between the two variables is said to be a. Gram/milliliter s a unit used to express a. vectors c. All of these 11. A meaningful measurement must have a. Its area is c. 2. 3. 22 x 1011 b. mass 7. working cooperatively b. 2.
an educated guess that has yet to be proven by experiment c. Make a guess about the answer and form your conclusion. c. c. 8 c. It is a science story about atoms and molecules.13. d. The pressure of a given gas increases as its temperature increases. a synthesis of collection of data that includes well-tested guesses d. something you believe is true because a friend told you about it b. 17. Proponent of the Age of Atomism . 6 b.05 cm has a mass of 13. an educated guess that has yet to be proven by experiment c. a. d. 108 18. b.50 kg. 5 20. Y Y Y Y X X X X 19. 14.8 b. It is a synthesis of large collection of information with well-tested guesses. Perform experiments to test predictions. b. b. Recognize a problem.27 - . a guess that has been tested over and over again and always found to be true 16. It is an educated guess that has yet to be proven.08 d. Repeat the experiments until the answers match the predictions. Which best describes a scientific fact? a. When plotted what will be the shape of the line graph? a. Forerunner of Chemistry b. 1. Antoine Lavoisier was known as the a. Advocate of “False” Chemistry d. Which best defines a hypothesis? a. a synthesis of collection of data that includes well-tested guesses d. Which of the following steps is NOT a part of scientific method? a. d. the long side of a right triangle b. 7 d. It is an agreement among competent observers of the same phenomena. 108 c.00045700 has _____ significant figures. What is its density in g/cm3? a. A metal block measuring 25 cm x 10 cm x 0. Which statement is TRUE about a theory? a. Father of Modern Chemistry c. 10. 0. c. a prediction that has been tested over and over again and always found to be true 15. The number .
kilogram b. problem b. Which of the following is NOT a derived unit? a. cubic centimeter d.21. milligram d. 4. b 7. 22. 15. 1. 3. centib. 13.57 b. data d. f 9. 18. 12. j 11. 5. b g d g f 6. 14. d d a c b 16. conclusion c. 5. Key to Answers Pretest 1.1 1. grams per milliliter Key to answers on page 29. nanoc. What is her height in meters? a. Rizza is 5 feet and 2 inches tall. c d c c c 21. 25.5 d. microgram c. i 10. 14. 1 c. kilo24. b 8. 1. procedure 23. 15. 4.59 22. h 7. 17. 24. e 8. a. 12. millid. square meter b. 20. 1. 19. nanogram 25. 13. c 9. d d b d b Lesson 1 Self-Test 1. meter c. 2.28 - . c 11. 2. 3. The SI prefix that means 1/1000 is a. The __________ describe(s) the steps followed in conducting an experiment. The symbol µg is read as a. k l m o n . c b c c d 6. a 10. 23.
Picture A – observation Picture B – inference or formation of hypothesis Picture C – prediction Picture D – experimentation or testing the hypothesis Self-Test 2. Follow the steps in scientific method.1 What are the conditions ideal for mold growth? That there were more mold growth in jar 2.0 cm w = 4. She concluded that light.2 1. 2. V = l x w x h = 60 cm3 Find: Density of the wood Formula: m D= V 474 g g D= = 7. warm temperature and no moisture were ideal conditions for mold growth. 4.29 - .0 cm h = 3. There are factors that affect the reactions like light and moisture Activity 2. 3. because it was stated in her observations 1. Lesson 3 Self-Test 3. Problem: What are the common factors affecting reactions? 2. 5. Given: m = 474 g l = 5.1 1. She compared her results with jar 1. 3. Yes.1 Possible Answers 1.Lesson 2 Activity 2.0 cm Compute for the Volume.9 3 60 cm cm3 . Picture A – shows that she feels hot (Look at the barometer reading in Picture B – shows that she feels cold both pictures) 2.
18.30 - .2 L to quartz 1.6 kg = 1600 g Find: Volume Formula: m m D = or V = V D 1600 g V = g 0.17 kg = 4. c d c b a . 40°C to °F °F = 9 9 (°C) + 32 = (40°C) + 32 = 72 + 32 = 104°F 5 5 4.2 L × c. 15. 2.17 × 103 g = 4170 g × 1g 1. 24. Given: D = 0. 7. d d c d b 16. b 9. 23. 1. d b b a c 6.8 g/cm3 m = 1.9 x 103 Posttest 1. 4. 22.2 L × = 1.5 x 10-9 b. 14.79 L 1.8 cm3 V = 2000 cm3 3. 4 b.2 L to gallons 1 gal = 0. 4. a. 25. 17. 20. a.272 qt 1L 10-1 dg = 417 decigrams or 417 dg b. a. 19. 6.2. b 10. 3 c. d 8. 13. 3. 5. 12.06 qt 1.3166 gal 3. d 11. 4 5. c 7. d d d d b 21.
(2003). & Freeman. Chemistry. & Religioso. Chemistry: The science of change. Philippines: SIBS Quezon City. W.C. Glenview. Lemay. H.H & Beall.H. (2002). (1998). Publishing. Oxtoby. J. (2001). Philippines: Abiva Nueva España. USA: Prentice Hall. (2004). Publishing.31 - . T. E. Quezon City. & Apostol. CA: Saunders College Publishing.A. Chemistry in the changing world. Quezon City.References Hagad. E. . Mendoza. D. R. R. Chemistry. Chemistry. Philippines: ALCO Printers.W.
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