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Better than Murder
While working to uncover a hidden acrostic in the list of bodily organ systems, I strung out the first letters of the 10 and immediately picked out MURDER, but had the letters N, I, C, I left over and did not want to suggest MURDER NICI because NICKI is also the name of my favorite ex-girlfriend. Then, I wrote out the first three letter of each and managed to create two phrases which are easy to recall and make remembering the ten systems a cinch! Ergo:

Sir: I'm nervous about reproducing with the rest. Uri must dig into the end.
The organ system names buried within the phrases are (in order): circulatory, immune, nervous, reproduction, respiratory, urinary, muscle, digestive, integumentary, andendocrine. Easy now?

Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) named and classified the various forms of life as a way of seeking order in diversity. He created taxonomy to do this, thus giving headaches to many generations of students. His system of kingdom (plant or animal), phylum (backbone?), class (mammal?), order (carnivore?), family (cat, dog, ape), genus (orangutan or human), species and variety is still used today, only slightly modified from the original. One easy sentence used is King Philip Conquers Our Fifty Grateful States. Two others: King Phillip's Class Of Family Geniuses Specializes in Variety and Kind Phillip's Class Orders Family-sized Gino's Special. Finally, Z.L. offers this hockey mnemonic: Kings Play Calgary On Friday. Gretzky Scores! Take your pick. The 5 kingdoms (used to be only 2 or 3) are protoctista, plantae, fungi, monera, animalia. I embedded them into neurons by: Protecting Plants is Fun, Mon Ami, which sounds like a slogan for a French environmental activist group.

Kingdom, phylum
Keep Perverts Cleverly Occupied, For Gosh Sake!! (Hallie Ray, Science Department, Rappahannock Community College Warsaw, VA)

Alimentary and Digestion

Ape Oil
The 5 sphincters found in the Alimentary Canal spell APE OIL: Anal, Pyloric, Lower Esophageal, Oddi,

and Ileocecum. Also, try An Odd Pile Lowers the Ileocecum.

Cars, Piles, and the Bay of Fundy

"The CAR is FUN `til the BODY PILES" I remember the 5 layers of the GI stomach: Cardiac, Fundus, Body, and Pylorus. The fundus looks like the Bay of Fundy (to me, anyway), and the pylorus is where the food piles waiting for the sphincter to open.

Some are Ugly

The 4 lobes of the liver -- quadrate, left & right, caudate -- bring to mind the newspaper headline of the wheelchair-bound fellow who left a party right after his ugly girlfriend departed: QUAD LEFT RIGHT after Cow Date.

Dow Jones and the Cannibal

We are supposed to remember the lengths of the first 3 parts of the digestive system after the stomach, so I came up with the story of a cannibal who consumes a dozen people, including an ailing stock market analyst. It goes: One Ate 12, including an Ill Dow Jones referring of course to 1, 8, 12-feet lengths for the Ileum, Duodenum, Jejunum. A really good device for recalling the bowels is to remember the market news: Dow Jones Industrial Averages Closing Stock Report whose initial letters also identify the Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum, Appendix, Colon, Sigmoid, and Rectum. It misses the cecum but is otherwise unforgettable.

Quick Peritoneum Facts

The idea is to relate key letters of related parts. E.g., stomach and omentum (which lays over the stomach) share the letters OM. o o o o o o The bacterium E. coli is found in Everybody's Colon The Omentum covers the stomach The Lesser Omentum holds the Liver and stomach The Mesentery holds the small intestine The mesoCOLON attaches the large intestine (colon) to the posterior abdominal wall The PERITONEUM, holds PERson's Intestines To Nearest wall.

Oh! Curling turns my Stomach Inside Out

This is what a housewife might say in reaction to her husband's sports selection, but it is a student's way of knowing the 3 layers of muscle around the stomach. The layers are: Oblique, Circular, Longitudinal from inside to outside.

PPL's Tonsils
People (PPL for short) have 3 tonsils: Pharyngeal, Palatine, and Lingual.

Digestive Juices
Bile Breaks fat into Blobs.

Chief stomach enzyme is Pepsin ... remember Geronimo drinking Pepsi to help his digestion. Parietal cells Produce Acid, Release Intrinsic factor, ET AL.

Causes of blood in the urine:

Given to me a few years back when I was in paramedic school, the six causes of blood in the urine: SHITTT -- Stones, Hematological Disorder, Infection, Tumor,Tuberculosis, Trauma. (thanks to Jason Cerovac <>)

Cell Biology
Charlie Foster and the Hot Blooded Whore
I learned the 8 functions of blood by the acrostic Old Charlie Foster Hates Women Having Dull Clothes for Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, Food, Heat, Waste, Hormones, Disease, and Clotting but I thought it would be easier to recall if I used the first few letters of each word to make a new sentence. Thus: Waste Ox Cart Food Disease makes Clot in Heated Whore. Of course, I related the hormones to "the whore moans".

Quick Blood / Cardio facts

Tricuspid valve is in The Right Inside part of the heart. Mitral is on Left side. B Cells Bite virus, T Cells Torpedo sick cells. You need more white blood cells after an immemorable weekend right? Then remember Lying Nude in Basement Early Monday has every white blood cell mentioned: Lymphocytes, Neutrophils, Basophils, Eosinophils, and Monocytes.

Centrioles are useful organelles which play a key role in cell division, namely pulling the chromosomes apart. Centrioles are ropes made of 9 groups of 3 fibres, a 9+3arrangement. How to remember this? Count the number of letters in "centriole", then count the syllables. You should get 9 and 3.

Into Insulin
Insulin gets sugar Into cells. Without insulin, a person can die from lack of sugar. Romans noticed bees attracted to the urine of diabetics and coined the term "diabetes" to describe the overflow of sugar. There are actually two forms of diabetes: insipidus and mellitus, and are not related. D. insipidus is characterized by excessive and watery urine production and is due to low anti-diuretic hormone level, often caused by a tumor at the hypothalamus. D. mellitus is characterized by high volumes of sugary urine caused by low levels of insulin due to faulty pancreas. Physicians used to tell the difference between the two types of diabetes by dipping a finger into the patient's urine and tasting it -- if it was sweet, he had mellitus.

Tubules & Filaments

Eukaryotic cells are held together by microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments. I find it

easy to remember what each does by matching key letters in each term with their respective duties. For example, Microfilaments are made of Actin, Move Food into MICROvilli, are responsible for Amoebal Movement, CytoplasmicStreaming, and Muscular Contraction, and they Move Fast. Microtubules on the other hand, are made of TUBulin, Move Slowly, and make the Chromosome fibres.

La Jeune Fils & cell junctions

A Frenchman gawking at a young lady dressed in form-fitting jeans might say Des Tight Gaps and REALLY be thinking about the three types of cell junctions:Desmosome, Tight, and Gap. Desmosome junctions, like good blue jeans, will stretch and are found in the lungs amongst other sites. Tight junctions are useful for containing liquids and make up much of the GI tract. Gap junctions allow cytoplasm exchange between cells and help smooth muscle fibres contract in sequence.

Meiosis Explained
"Meiosis" comes from the Greek "to reduce". Meiosis is the process of reducing the number of chromosomes by half. Without this crucial step in the formation of gametes, our cells would burst with DNA. The goal of meiosis is to make egg and sperm cells with half the number of chromosomes (23 instead of 46) so the egg and sperm can produce a zygote with 46 chromosomes instead of 92. Meiosis appears to be mitosis happening twice without the G1, S1, G2 phases, thereby splitting the chromosomes in half before they replicate. The reduced number of chromosomes is called the haploid state. In human sperm and egg manufacture, meiosis occurs much as mitosis, but instead of entering interphase after the cell splits, it swings back into prophase and runs through the process again and ends with two daughter cells, each holding 23 chromosomes (the haploid state). Ovum production is slightly different, producing only one ovum, whereas spermatogenesis makes four sperm cells. The difference occurs in telophase I, where the ovum shoves 23 chromosomes into a bud and gets rid of it (women, they hate competition!).

Skin and Tissues

I made up a mnemonic for the layers of the epidermis that worked for me. I started on the outside and worked my way in. This one uses the first 3 letters method: Cora Lucille's Granny Spins Baseballs are Corneum, Lucidum, Granulosum, Spinosum, Basele. Of course, you have to know that "Stratum" goes before each of the words. That part is easy. Using the 3 first letter method for cranial bones: Ethel, the Parakeet, is Temporarily Occupied in Front of the Sphinx. Ethmoid, Parietal, Temporal, Occipital, Frontal, Sphenoid. Another 3 first letter method for the cranial sutures: Saggy Lambs Squash the Coroner. Sagittal, Lambdoid, Squamous and Coronal. Keep up the good work and the great page! Anne Ferguson

College Food
Students reciting College Lunch is Best or College boys Love Breasts know that 50% of cancers arise in three organs: Colon, Lungs, Breast.

4 Cancer Types
An easy way to relate four types of cancer to their cells of origin: Sarcoma means cancer of the muscle, and is found in Connective and Muscle tissues. (C, M are letters in sarCoMa) Carcinoma is cancer of epithelial tissue, and found in stomach and Intestines Lymphoma & Leukemia are cancers of blood Leukocytes and Lymphocytes

Anna has Large Breasts
I recall the mitotic phases of a cell easily by reciting "I Proposed Marriage to Anna by Telephone before I Sighted her Cleavage". That of course indicates the mitotic phases: Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase, and includes Cytokinesis (sighted) and cell Cleavage.

Understanding DNA/RNA
Although DNA and RNA are both nucleic acids, they do different jobs in the cell. Just remember that DNA Delivers the blueprint, RNA Reads it. Also, transfer RNA (tRNA) molecule is shaped like the letter T.

Mitosis & Meiosis

Easy way to tell the difference between the two types of reproduction at the cell level: mitosis makes Identical Twins, meiosis makes Egg and Sperm.

Brain Physiology
Memories of Girls' Bodily Parts
If you remember girls by their limbs, hip & the anus, hip & pussy, and ass, then you have the four memory centres: limbic, hypothalamus, hippocampus, association areas. BTW, memories are encoded at the neural synapses, usually by acetylcholine. The three key neurotransmitters of the limbic

system are dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin ... remembered as Limb Donors.

Proprioception, the ability to discern feedback from exertion, is located in the Post-Parietal Sensory cortex. (see how the sounds of proprioception are in post-parietal sensory?)

Brain is a Mystery
The six parts of the brain are a mystery -- murder mystery -- with clues hidden all over, some backwards, some misspelt. We have murder spelt backwards (cerebrum) and skeletons in the celler (CEREbeLLum controls skeletal coordination). There's a detective PONdering M.O. (pons, medulla oblonga), poisoned mulleb wine (in cerebellum), and someone will die before long (Diencephalon), probably some dyslexic dim-brain (mid-brain). Furthermore, forensics have discovered "brain stem" is made up of letters from midBRAIN, pons, and Medulla oblonga. As well, C+D+E=F because Cerebrum + Diencephalon = Forebrain. In reality, the 6 parts of the brain are: cerebrum, diencephalon, midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata, cerebellum. The major groups are forebrain (the most visible part), the brain stem (three parts piled atop the spinal cord and within the centre of the brain), and the cerebellum hanging off the back.

Maybe Cleopatra had No Brain?

Brain Cells Defended by ASP means the six valiant defenders of the cephalon are Blood-brain barrier, Cerebral spinal fluid, Dura mater, Arachnoid layer, Skull, and Pia mater.

Miscellaneous Brain Facts

Groups of nerve cell bodies are nuclei if they're in the CNS, and ganglia if in the peripheral nervous system. I remember the nuclei are in the CNS because they both have the letter C. Grey matter is central to white matter in the spinal cord, because the white stuff is fat wrapped around and protecting the grey nerves. What's the significance of glial cells? They nourish neurons, keep them from falling down, and provide tunnels for axons to route. In another perspective: Albert Einstein's brain had 30% more glial cells than average. Four types of glial cells are ependymal, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia. The mnemonic phrase is Every Asshole Owes Money.

Horny Office Temps
Six factors triggering smooth muscle contraction are oxygen, temperature, ions, hormones, stretch, and acid level (pH). The acronym is "SHIP TO" but the mnemonic phrase is much better: Office Temp's Eye On Whore Stretching Ass. Notice ion is encoded as eye on in this example.

Crossbridge Cycle
The most basic part of the functional muscle is the cross bridge site where muscular contractions occur. The process of myosin heads attaching to actin, bending, then releasing takes four steps: ready, coupling, bending, letting go. A different chemical triggers each step thusly: hydrolysis makes Ready; Calcium ions cause the Coupling; ADP bends the myosin head; ATP lets go. Sounds like a new dance to me.

Calico Cats' Calm Milk

"Calico Cats' Calm Milk" is the pathway of smooth muscle contraction: Calcium Cation attaches to Calmodulin, which binds to Myosin Light Kinase.

Eye and Vision

Eyeball parts
The sclera, choroid layer, retina and vitreous humor (SCRV) + eyeballs + outer layer add up to: SCREW your eyes out The lens, iris, pupil, cornea, aqueous humor, and ciliary body can be summed up in Len and Iris Acquire Puppies in the Corn Silk ... which is an old-fashioned way of saying they're screwing like dogs in the cornfield. Fovea, the part of the retina most densely packed with cones, is almost an acronym FOr Very Acute vision The cells of the retina -- rods, cones, ganglion, polar bodies -- are illustrated by Rods protected by a Gang of Lions and Polar Bears

Quick Auditory Senses

The four outer ear parts -- pinna, lobe, helix, meatus -- are easily expressed by a phrase of a lover turning on his girl He licks her helix like a lover pining for meaning Middle ear parts -- tympanic membrane, ossicles, eustachian tube, oval and round windows -are best compiled as Tim Observed Eunice's Tube from two Windows Inner ear pieces -- cochlea, sacculus, utriculus, semi-circular canals, 8th cranial nerve -- are summed up in the phrase 8th Nervember, I dropped my cock, my sack, and uterus into the semi-circular canal Cochlea sections -- vestibular, tympanic & cochlear canals, basilar membrane, organ of Corti -might be remembered by thinking of Organ of Corti plays Bass Notes on CTV channel if you admit that channel is another word for canal ... CTV (Canadian Television) are the cochlea, tympanic and vestibular canals, bass notes is basilar membrane, and the organ is the organ of Corti of course.

8 major hormones from the pituitary gland spell GOAT-FLAP: gonadotropic, oxytocin, antidiuretic, thyroid stimulating, follicle stimulating, leuteinizing, adrenocorticotropic, prolactin. The pituitary gland has two lobes: anterior and posterior. 6 of the preceding hormones come from the anterior lobe; oxytocin and anti-diuretic are secreted from the posterior one. The adrenal CORTex produces CORTisol, as well as androgens and aldosterone. The adrenal Medulla secretes stress hormones Epinephrine and Norepinephrine and, as all women know, men are a source of stress, so it is no surprise that medulla-epinephrinenorepinephrine make the acronym MEN. Adrenal Cortex hormones start with either of letters A, C -- just like adrenal cortex. They are: androgen, aldosterone, cortisol. Ovaries are RIPE with hormones: relaxin, inhibin, progesterone, estrogen make the acronym RIPE. Testes make TIM strong: "t.i.m." is acronym for the 3 hormones secreted by testes: testosterone, inhibin, and Mullerian-inhibiting hormones. Pancreas makes PIGS: Pancreatic polypeptide, Insulin, Glucagon, and Somatostatin hormones. Some secret gasses choke gipsy represent the 5 hormones of the (where do you think gas comes from?) gastrointestinal tract: somatostatin, secretin, gastrin, cholecystokinin, glucosedependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP). Melatonin makes penis pineal? Melatonin secreted from pineal gland represses sex drive. A Hypocritical Gun-Running Hero goes to Pit to release Long Hard Fish, but is turned off the the smell of Estrogen. That was the story of the hypothalamus secreting GnRH (Gunrunning hero) to stimulate the Pituitary gland into releasing LH and FSH. This process is regulated by the levels of estrogen. Products of the adrenal cortex, from outer to inner layer: "Salt, sugar, sex; the deeper you go, the sweeter it gets." (Salt=aldosterone, sugar=glucocorticoids, sex=sex hormones) To remember how osmosis works, remember that "Particles suck." Thus, tonicity (hypertonic, hypotonic) refers to concentration of particles, and water always goes toward the area of more particles. (thanks to Hallie Ray, Science Department, Rappahannock Community College Warsaw, VA)

Metabolic Rates
I came up with a rhyming verse that helps me remember how our bodies get warm.When we feel cold, the hypothalamus reacts by sending TRH to the pituitary gland, which sends TSH to the thyroid, which secretes T3Tr to reach the mitochondria, wherein the glycolytic pathway consumes more energy and consequently the Electron Transport System consumes more oxygen ... and we get warmer. A more easy way to remember:

O Cold Hippo in the Pit Thy Sugar Eats Makes Carbon and Heats
Keywords: Hippo (hypothalamus), Pit (pituitary), Thy (thyroid), Sugar (glycolytic pathway), Eats (ETS), Carbon (carbon dioxide).


Cochlea: inner vs. outer hair cell function

"Outer cells are Out of the brain. Inner cells are Into the brain": Outer hair cells are motor efferents to amplify signal. Inner hair cells are sensory afferents that actually pick up the sound.

Pituitary hormones
FLAGTOP: Follicle stimulating hormone Lutinizing hormone Adrenocorticotropin hormone Growth hormone Thyroid stimulating hormone Oxytocin Prolactin Alternatively: GOAT FLAP with the second 'A' for Anti-diruetic homone/vasopressin Note: there is also melanocyte secreting homone and Lipotropin, but they are not well understood.

Adrenal cortex layers and products

"Go Find Rex, Make Good Sex": Layers: Glomerulosa Fasiculata Reticulata Respective products: Mineralcorticoids Glucocorticoids Sex hormones Alternatively for layers: GFR (Glomerular Filtration Rate, convenient since adrenal glands are atop kidney).

Einthoven's Triangle: organization

Corners are at RA (right arm), LA (left arm), LL (left leg). Number of L's at a corner tell how many + signs are at that corner [eg LL is ++]. Sum of number of L's of any 2 corners tells the name of the lead [eg LL-LA is lead III]. For reference axes, the negative angle hemisphere is on the half of the triangle drawing that has all the negative signs; positive angle hemisphere contains only positive signs. See diagram.

Heart valves: sequence of flow

TRIPS BIAS: TRIcuspid Pulmonary Semilunar BIcuspid Aortic Semilunar Alternatively: "TRIPS, MI ASs!" (uses MItral instead of BIcuspid

Compliance of lungs factors

COMPLIANCE: Collagen deposition (fibrosis) Ossification of costal cartilages Major obesity Pulmonary venous congestion Lung size Increased expanding pressure Age No surfactant Chest wall scarring Emphysema All but L/A/E decrease compliance.

Progesterone: actions
PROGESTE: Produce cervical mucous Relax uterine smooth muscle Oxycotin sensitivity down

Gonadotropin [FSH, LH] secretions down Endometrial spiral arteries and secretions up Sustain pregnancy Temperature up / Tit development Excitability of myometrium down

Hyperthyroidism: signs and symptoms

THYROIDISM: Tremor Heart rate up Yawning [fatigability] Restlessness Oligomenorrhea & amenorrhea Intolerance to heat Diarrhea Irritability Sweating Musle wasting & weight loss

Hemoglobin and myoglobin: binding strengths, sites

"ABC" of glycosylated Hb (Hb1c): Glucose binds to Amino terminal of Beta Chain. "HbF binds Forcefully": HbF binds oxygen more forcefully than HbA, so Oxy-Hb dissociation curve shifts to left. Stored blood is SOS: Stored blood Hb binds to Oxygen Strongly because of decrease in 2,3 BPG. 2,3 BPG binding site is BBC: BPG binds to Beta Chain of Hb. Myoglobin binding strength is MOM: Myoglobin binds Oxygen More strongly than Hb.

Oestrogen: functions OESTROGEN SUX: Organ development (sex organs) Endocrine: FSH and LH regulation Secondary sex characteristics development Tropic for pregnancy Receptor synthesis (of progesterone, oestrogen, LH) Osteoporosis decrease (inhibits bone reabsorption) Granulosa cell development Endocrine: increases prolactin secretion, but then blocks its effect Nipple development Sex drive increase Uterine contractility increase oXytocin sensitivity increase

Electrical conductivity of tissues "Be Careful To Shock My Best Nerve": In order of least conductive to most conductive: Bones Cartilage Tendon Skin Muscle Blood Nerve Potassium: causes of potassium leaving cells A$$E$ Acidosis: H+ ions move in. Starvation: catabolism of cells. Stress: catabolism of cells (postoperative). Exercise: catabolism of cells. Sodium chloride lost: K+ replaces it and is then excreted.

Alap Christy
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Pituitary: anterior pituitary products: acidophilic vs basophilic

Acidophilic: GPA: Growth hormone Prolactin Acidophilic Basophilic: B-FLAT Basophilic FSH LH ACTH TSH
Erythropoiesis stages

"Powerful Businesses Pollute Our Reeling Environment": Proerythroblast Basophilic erythroblast Polychromatic erythroblast Orthochromatophilic erythroblast Reticulocyte Erythrocyte
Neutrophil's 2 distinctive physical features

1: There's up to 5 lobes of the nucleus joined by thin appendages. Tie this to it being a neutrophil nucleus by arranging the 5 lobes into a capital N for Neutrophil. 2: the chicken leg (Barr Body) sticking out. Say it out loud: chick-N. The chick-N leg is for Neutrophil.
White blood cell relative concentrations

"Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas":

From greatest to least: Neutrophils (65%) Lymphocytes (25%) Monocytes (6%) Eosinophils (3%) Basophils (1%)
Alternatively: "Nine Little Monkeys Eating Bananas". Alternatively: "Noone Likes My Educational Background". Alternatively: "Never Let Mamma Eat Beans". Can remember that Eosinophils is 3%, by the mirror image of E is 3.

Basophil morphology

Basophil has Big Blue Balls (granules).

Leukocytes: granulated and agranulated

"BEN Loves Money": Granulocytes: Basophil Eosinophil Neurophil Agranulocytes: Lymphocytes Monocytes
Alternatively: Granpa BEN..." to keep the granulated group straight. Mast cell primary granule contents

"Master, His Hepes Causes Choking & Gagging!": Mast = Mast cell His = Histamine He= Heparin C = Chymase Ch = Chemotactic factor for eosinophils Gag = GAGase
Basophil vs. eosinophils: effect for allergic persons

Basophils are "Bad-o-phils" because they contribute to our allergic reactions. Eosinophils are "Easy-on-me-phils" because they counteract our allergic reactions.
Muscle sarcomere: A vs. I as light or dark

There is only one vowel in "dark" and one vowel in "light". These one vowels match up to their one letter names: DArk band is the A band. LIght band is the I band.
Muscle sarcomere: H line vs. Z disc location

HAZI (Hazy): H line is in A-band. Z disc is in the I band.

Muscle cells: cardiac vs. skeletal's nuclei location/number

Nuclei location mirrors where the muscle is located in human body. Heart muscle is in the middle of body, so heart muscle has nucleus in middle. Skeletal muscles are at periphery of body, so nuclei are at periphery. Also, you have 1 heart, so usually only 1 nucleus per heart muscle cell, but have many skeletal muscles, so have many nuclei per long fibre.

Muscle sarcomere bands

"Zee Intelligent Animal Has Muscle": From the Z disk, working inward, remembering symmetry: Z I A H M H A I Z. Alternatively: "Zoe Is A Horny Momma".
Muscle fiber: types

Type 1: "1 slow fat red ox": -slow twitch -lipid accumulation -red fibers -oxidative Type 2: "2 fast skinny white breasts": -fast twitch -low lipid -white fibers, like chicken breasts
Haematology: key numbers

3 and 4 are key in in haematology: 1.34 cm3 of oxygen is carried by a gram of hemoglobin.

There's 3.4mg of iron in each gram of hemoglobin. There's an average of 3.4 lobes per neutrophil. There's 34mg bilirubin from each gram of hemoglobin.
Macrocytic anemia: causes

ABCDEF: Alcohol + liver disease B12 deficiency Compensatory reticulocytosis (blood loss and hemolysis) Drug (cytotoxic and AZT)/ Dysplasia (marrow problems) Endocrine (hypothyroidism) Folate deficieny/ Fetus (pregnancy)
Alkalosis: metabolic changes in alkalosis

"Al-K-loss, Al-Ca-loss": There is loss of K+ (hypokalemia) and Ca++ (hypocalcemia) in state of alkalosis.
Hemoglobin and myoglobin: binding strengths, sites

"ABC" of glycosylated Hb (Hb1c): Glucose binds to Amino terminal of Beta Chain. "HbF binds Forcefully": HbF binds oxygen more forcefully than HbA, so Oxy-Hb dissociation curve shifts to left. Stored blood is SOS: Stored blood Hb binds to Oxygen Strongly because of decrease in 2,3 BPG. 2,3 BPG binding site is BBC: BPG binds to Beta Chain of Hb. Myoglobin binding strength is MOM: Myoglobin binds Oxygen More strongly than Hb.
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Intrinsic vs. extrinsic pathway tests

"PeT PiTTbull": PeT: PT is for extrinsic pathway. PiTTbull: PTT is for intrinsic pathway.
Carotid sinus vs. carotid body function

carotid SinuS: measures preSSure. carotid bO2dy measures O2.

Heart valves: closure sequence

"Many Things Are Possible": Mitral, Tricuspid, Aortic, Pulmonic

Pituitary: anterior hypophysis hormones

FLATPiG: FSH LH ACTH TSH Prolactin ignore GH

Electrical conductivity of tissues

"Be Careful To Shock My Best Nerve": In order of least conductive to most conductive: Bones Cartilage Tendon Skin Muscle Blood Nerve
Compliance of lungs factors

COMPLIANCE: Collagen deposition (fibrosis) Ossification of costal cartilages

Major obesity Pulmonary venous congestion Lung size Increased expanding pressure Age No surfactant Chest wall scarring Emphysema
All but L/A/E decrease compliance. Alkalosis vs. acidosis: directions of pH and HCO3

ROME: Respiratory= Opposite: pH is high, PCO2 is down (Alkalosis). pH is low, PCO2 is up (Acidosis). Metabolic= Equal: pH is high, HCO3 is high (Alkalosis). pH is low, HCO3 is low (Acidosis).
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Horner's syndrome: Pregnant Mothers Appear Extra Large Ptosis,Miosis,Anhydrosis,Enophthalmos,Loss of ciliospinal reflex Visual n auditory pathway: She Looks-Superior colliculus,Lateral geniculate body in visual pathway I M hearing-Inferior colliculus,Medial geniculate body 4 hearing Erection n Ejaculation mediated by.. Point and Shoot.. Erection(point)-Parasympathetic; Ejaculation(shoot)-Sympathetic Feeding And Satiety centres.LATE night snack(snackin=feedin)So,FEEDING CENTRE IS (ventro)lateral;implies Satiety centre is (ventro)medial in hypothalamus...ALTERNATIVE-SaMe Satiety is Medial Wernicke's and Broca's areasBEWaRe:-Broca's defect-Expressive aphasia Wernicke's defect-Receptive aphasia

> PGI2 vs. TxA2 coagulation function TxA2 Aggregates platelets. PGI2 Inhibits aggregation. Note: full name of PGI2 is prostaglandin I2 or prostacyclin, full name of TxA2 is thromboxane A2. > Heart: -tropic definitions Lusitropic: loose is relaxed. Definition: relax heart. Inotropic: when heart wall contracts, moves inward. Definition: contract heart. Chronotropic: 'chrono-' means 'time'. Defintion: heart rate (of SA node impulses). Dromotropic: only one left, it must be conduction speed by default.

> Intrinsic vs. extrinsic pathway tests "PeT PiTTbull": PeT: PT is for extrinsic pathway. PiTTbull: PTT is for intrinsic pathway.

> Carotid sinus vs. carotid body function carotid SinuS: measures preSSure. carotid bO2dy measures O2.

> Hemoglobin and myoglobin: binding strengths, sites "ABC" of glycosylated Hb (Hb1c): Glucose binds to Amino terminal of Beta Chain. "HbF binds Forcefully": HbF binds oxygen more forcefully than HbA, so Oxy-Hb dissociation curve shifts to left. Stored blood is SOS: Stored blood Hb binds to Oxygen Strongly because of decrease in 2,3 BPG. 2,3 BPG binding site is BBC: BPG binds to Beta Chain of Hb. Myoglobin binding strength is MOM: Myoglobin binds Oxygen More strongly than Hb.

> Hb-oxygen dissociation curve shifts: effect, location Left shift: causes Loading of O2 in Lungs. Right shift: causes Release of O2 from Hb.

> Fluid compartments: volumes 12345: 12 liters of interstitial fluid 3 liters plasma volume and 30 liters inside cells 45 liters total body water

> Adrenoceptors: vasomotor function of alpha vs. beta ABCD: Alpha = Constrict. Beta = Dilate.

> Coagulation common pathway: factors in order 10 + 5 - 2 = 13 Coagulation common pathway: Factor X to Factor V to Factor II to Factor XIII

> Vitamin K dependent cofactors "Several Tend To Nicely Stop Clots": Factor Seven, Ten, Two, Nine. Protein S, Protein C.

> ADP: role in platelet aggregation ADP = Aggregation from the Dense bodies of Platelets.

> Protein C, Protein S: function C and S are: Clot Stoppers These proteins inhibit coagulation.