BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEX SPACES

NORTH-HOLLAND MATHEMATICS STUDIES Notas de Matemstica (113)

131

Editor: Leopoldo Nachbin
Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rio de Janeiro and University of Rochester

NORTH-HOLLAND -AMSTERDAM

NEW YORK OXFORD *TOKYO

BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEX SPACES
‘Pedro PEREZ CARRERAS Jose BONET
Departamento de Matematicas Escuela TkcnicaSuperior de lngenieros lndustriales Universidad Politecnica de Valencia Valencia, Spain

1987

NORTH-HOLLAND -AMSTERDAM

NEW YORK

OXFORD *TOKYO

ElsevierScience Publishers B V., 1987
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrievalsystem, ortransmitted, in any form o r b y any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner.

ISBN: 0 444 70129 X

Published by: ELSEVIER SCIENCE PUBLISHERS B.V. P.O. BOX 1991 1000 BZ AMSTERDAM THE NETHERLANDS Sole distributors for the U.S.A. and Canada: ELSEVIER SCIENCE PUBLISHING COMPANY, INC 52 VAN DE RBlLT AVENUE NEWYORK, N.Y. 10017 U.S.A.

PRINTED IN THE NETHERLANDS

A mis padres A mis padres y a Encarna

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vii

INTRODUCTION

D u r i n g t h e f i r s t a u t h o r ' s a t t e n d a n c e t o t h e 1 4 t h Seminar i n Funct ona 1 A n a l y s i s h e l d a t t e s k y Krumlov (Czechoslovakla) i n May

1983, V. Pt6k asked
The

f o r a s h o r t s u r v e y on r e c e n t developments i n t h e t h e o r y o f b a r r e l l e d spaces (see P6rez C a r r e r a s , ( S ) ) and l a t e r , d u r i n g t h e f i r s t a u t h o r ' s s t a y a

U n i v e r s i t y o f Maryland (U.S.A.),

J. H o r v 6 t h suggested t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f

e n l a r g i n g t h e e x i s t e n t m a t e r i a l t o c o v e r a f a i r amount o f t h o s e aspects o f t h e s t r u c t u r a l t h e o r y o f l o c a l l y convex spaces i n w h i c h b a r r e l l e d n e s s p l a y s a r o l e (such as i n d u c t i v e l i m i t s and t e n s o r p r o d u c t s ) . P r o f i t i n g f r o m s e v e r a l t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e s and seminars p r e s e n t e d a t t h e Department o f Mathematics o f t h e Escuela T 6 c n i c a S u p e r i o r de l n g e n i e r o s ndustriales o f

V a l e n c i a (Spain) we w r o t e t h i s monograph w h i c h can be cons dered as a r a i s e d and e n l a r g e d v e r s i o n o f t h e a u t h o r s ' 1 i t t l e book "ESPACIOS U n i v e r s i t y Press). TONELADOS" ( S e v i l l a

Our aim i s t o p r e s e n t a s y s t e m a t i c t r e a t m e n t o f b a r r e l l e d spaces and o f those s t r u c t u r e s i n w h i c h b a r r e l l e d n e s s c o n d i t i o n s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t . W e must a d v i c e t h e reader t h a t t h i s i s n o t a book on a p p l i c a t i o n s o f b a r r e l l e d spaces t o d i f f e r e n t a r e a s o f F u n c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s b u t a r e a s o n a b l y s e l f - c o n t a ned s t u d y o f t h e s t r u c t u r a l t h e o r y
3f

t h o s e spaces v e r y much i n t h e s t y l e

o f K t l t h e ' s famous monographs. W e have c o n c e n t r a t e d on p r e s e n t i n g what we be i e v e a r e b a s i c phenomena i n t h e t h e o r y and we have t r i e d t o d i s p l a y a va i e t y o f f u n c t i o n a l - a n a l y t i c t e c h n i q u e s . To some e x t e n t we have been g u i d e d by what we c o n s i d e r u s e f u l b u t , on t h e o t h e r hand, we have i n c l u d e d s e v e r a l t o p i c s t h a t have caught o u r i m a g i n a t i o n i n t h i s r e s e a r c h f i e l d . W h i l e many a s p e c t s had t o be t o t a l l y s h e l v e d o r o t h e r w i s e a b r i d g e d c o n s i d e r a b l y ( m o s t l y based on c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e b u t a l s o t o keep t h e s i z e o f t h e volume w i t h i n r e a s o n a b l e bounds) we f e e l t h e r e i s enough v a r i e t y t o i n t e r e s t t h e r e s e a r c h b e g i n n e r w i t h an a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h t h e b a s i c f a c t s o f t h e t h e o r y

Vlll

...

INTRODUCTION

o f l o c a l l y convex spaces and t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s e a r c h e r .

The monograph c o 2 t a i n s t h i r t e e n c h a p t e r s . The l a s t one c o n t a i n s a s m a l l c o l l e c t i o n o f (what we t h i n k a r e ) open problems i n t h e f i e l d . Each o f t h e r e m a i n i n g c h a p t e r s c o n t a i n s s e v e r a l s e c t i o n always e n d i n g w i t h a "Notes and Remarks" s e c t i o n i n which c r e d i t f o r t h e r e s u l t s w h i c h appear i n t h e whole c h a p t e r i s g i v e n and f u r t h e r r e s u l t s a r e o u t l i n e d o r g i v e n w i t h f u l l p r o o f s . The g e n e r a l p o l i c y i s t h a t i f t h e p r o o f o f some r e s u l t r e q u i r e s more p r e r e q u i s i t e s t h a n those i n c l u d e d i n Chapter 0 o r i n former c h a p t e r s , we s h i f t
i t t o t h e "Notes and Remarks" s e c t i o n .

There i s n o t an i n c r e a s i n g l e v e l o f

d i f f i c u l t y a l o n g t h e e x p o s i t i o n b u t e v e r y c h a p t e r has i t s ups and downs: W h i l e t h e r e a d e r w i l l f i n d many r e s u l t s easy o r well-known he w i l l d i s c o v e r t h a t others r e q u i r e considerable e f f o r t .

Chapter 0 c o n t a i n s a s m a l l c o l l e c t i o n o f b a s i c o r i m p o r t a n t r e s u l t s i n d i f f e r e n t branches o f A n a l y s i s . W e p r e s e n t them w i t h o u t p r o o f s as t h e y a r e supposed t o be known and a r e a v a i l a b l e i n any s t a n d a r d book. Our r e f e r e n c e s a r e ENGELKING, ( E l f o r General Topology, LINDENSTRAUSS,TZAFRIRI, ( 1 ) Banach Space Theory, SCHAEFER, ( S ) phy. L e t and 0.5
US

for

HORVATH, ( H ) ;

KELLEY,NAMIOKA, (KN);

KOTHE, (K1 ,K2) and f o r I n f i n i t e Holomor-

f o r L o c a l l y Convex Spaces and D I N E E N , ( D I )

p o i n t o u t t h a t 0.2 and 0.6 w i l l be needed o n l y i n Chapter Eleven

i n Chapter Twelve.

Chapter One d e a l s w i t h B a i r e spaces. A f t e r some s t a n d a r d r e s u l t s o f topol o g i c a l n a t u r e ( i n c l u d i n g OXTOBY's r e s u l t s i n pseudo-complete spaces) we f o l low t h e model " c h a r a c t e r i z a t ions-permanence p r o p e r t ies-examples" w h i c h

w i l l be repeated i n Chapters Four, S i x and N i n e . W e concentrate i n l i n e a r
Bai r e spaces and t h e i r m o s t l y "bad" permanence p r o p e r t i e s ( c l o s e d subspaces,

dense hyperplanes and f i n i t e p r o d u c t s o f B a i r e spaces need n o t be B a i r e ) . The i n c i d e n c e o f B a i r e c a t e g o r y theorem i n t h e p r o o f s o f t h e u n i f o r m bounded ness p r i n c i p l e and t h e c l o s e d g r a p h theorem i s t r e a t e d . Banach's c l a s s i c a l

open-mapping theorem i s i n c l u d e d as w e l l as S c h w a r t z ' s b o r e l i a n graph theorem f o r SOUSLIN spaces and i t s companion open-mapping theorem. (non-complete) m e t r i z a b l e B a i r e 1 i n e a r spaces a r e p r o v i d e d . Examples o f

Our aim t o be s e l f - c o n t a i n e d j u s t i f i e s Chapter Two w h i c h i s unusual i n that i t c o n t a i n s a v a r i e t y o f d i f f e r e n t t e c h n i q u e s w h i c h w i l l have a s t r o n g

INTRODUCTION

ix

i n f l u e n c e i n subsequent c h a p t e r s and a r e i n t e r e s t i n g i n themselves. i n s t a n c e s we go f u r t h e r t h a t what

I n many

i s needed a f t e r w a r d s i n o r d e r t o p r e s e n t

what we f e e l a r e i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t s i n F u n c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s and r e l a t e d a r e a s . T h i s i s t h e case i n t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n where we e x p l o r e an o l d t e c h n i que ( t h e s o - c a l l e d s l i d i n g hump) and we p r e s e n t a r e c e n t f o r m u l a t i o n o f i t due t o Neumann and Pta’k w h i c h leads t o easy p r o o f s o f s e v e r a l b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s i n A u t o m a t i c C o n t i n u i t y . The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s c o n t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on c a r d i n a l i t y o f a l g e b r a i c bases, a s t u d y o f of separability i n the theory, (quasi)complements and t h e r o l e

t h i s l a s t aspect p r o v i d i n g some o f t h e Our l a s t s e c t i o n i s devoted t o t h e s t u d y o f t h e space

deepest r e s u l t s o f t h e c h a p t e r .

minimal spaces, mure p a r t i c u l a r l y , FrEchet spaces c o n t a i n s ded.

KN

. R e s u l t s e n s u r i n g when a
KN
as a q u o t i e n t a r e i n c l u -

KN

(complemented) o r has

Chapter Three has a l s o a b a s i c n a t u r e , A f t e r t h e necessary d e f i n i t i o n s we e x p l o r e c o n d i t i o n s on d i s c s t o ensure t h a t t h e y a r e absorbed by t h e b a r r e l s o f t h e space. A c l a s s i c a l t e c h n i q u e due t o Banach a l l o w s us t o p r o v e t h a t t h e complete bounded convex s e t s o f a space a r e absorbed by t h e b a r r e l s Examples o f non-closed Banach d i s c s a r e g i v e n as w e l l as an i n f i n i t e - d i m e n s i o n a l normed space whose Banach d i s c s a r e f i n i t e - d i m e n s i o n a l . An embedding

lemma i s a l s o p r o v i d e d which w i l l be c r u c i a l i n t h e s t u d y o f B -completeness (see Chapter Seven).

The a b s t r a c t t h e o r y o f b a r r e l l e d spaces i s developed i n Chapter Four. The f i r s t s e c t i o n d e a l s w i t h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between b a r r e ledness and t h e c l o s e d graph theorem and r e s u l t s due t o P t s k , Mahowald, K a l t o n and Marquina a r e i n c l u d e d . A f t e r t h e d e f i n i t i o n s and u s u a l c h a r a c t e r z a t i o n s , we s t u d y b a r r e l l e d and n o n - b a r r e l l e d c o u n t a b l e enlargements and he problem o f q u a s i -

-complementation o f subspaces whose t o p o l o g y i s dominated by a F r d c h e t space t o p o l o g y i n c l u d i n g r e s u l t s due t o Drewnowski and V a l d i v i a . The l a s t s e c t i o n i s devoted t o t h e s t u d y o f b a r r e l l e d n e s s o f c e r t a i n v e c t o r - v a l u e d sequence spaces. S e c t i o n

4

i s i n t r o d u c t o r y t o Chapter Seven.

Local completeness and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n s t o t h e i n h e r i t a n c e o f t h e Mackey t o p o l o g y t o subspaces i s t h e c o n t e n t o f Chapter F i v e .

The a b s t r a c t s t u d y o f b o r n o l o g i c a l and u l t r a b o r n o l o g i c a l spaces i s accomplished i n Chapter S i x . A deep theorem o f V a l d i v i a o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n

The s t a b i i t y o f barrelledness c o n d i t i o n s o f t o p o l o g i c a l tensor products . Chapter Seven i s devoted t o t h e s t u d y o f B. Chapter E i g h t d e a l s w i t h i n d u c t i v e l i m i t s . The s t u d y o f a b s o r b i n g sequences o f a b s o l u t e l y convex s e t s i n b a r r e l l e d spaces as dune by Raikov and o t h e r s has proved t o be v e r y u s e f u l i n t h e a b s t r a c t s e t t i n g . The l a s t s e c t i o n c o n t a i n s an example o f a non-B-complete B -complete space due t o V a l d i v i a . S e c t i o n m e t r i z a b l e (LF)-spaces. Chapter Ten d e a l s w i t h c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s o f b a r r e l l e d . b o r n o l o g i c a l and (DF) -spaces n t h e c o n t e x t o f spaces o f t y p e C ( X ) . After a complete s t u d y o f g e n e r a l i z e d i n d u c t i v e t o p o l o g i e s as done by G a r l i n g and Roelcke we d e a l w i t h weak b a r r e l l e d n e s s c o n d i t i o n s and we i n t e r p r e t e (gDF)spaces as spaces w i t h a fundamental sequence o f bounded s e t s and s a t i s f y i n g c e r t a i n b a r r e l l e d n e s s c o n d i t i o n s .d i m e n s i o n a l Bariach space i s g i v e n .1. m a i n l y (LF)-spaces. Our t r e a t m e n t h e r e i s v e r y e x p e d i t ve s i n c e t h e r e a r e e x c e l l e n t monographs devoted t o t h i s t o p i c (see SCHMETS (SM1)).t r i v i a l spaces a r e p r o v i d e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s . These c o n d i t i o n s p r o v i d e a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f (LF)-spaces and p r o v e T h i s i s t h e c o n t e n t o f Chapter Nine t o be r i c h enough t o deserve a t t e n t i o n . From s e c t i o n ve 1 i m i t s o f 4 onwards we u n d e r t a k e t h e s t u d y o f c o u n t a b l e i n d u c t i Regularity conditions l o c a l l y convex spaces.and B -completeness. a r e e x p l o r e d and c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e i r c o i n c i d e n c e a r e p r o v i d e d . examples o f 6-complete and non-Br-complete Some n o n . The f i r s t s e c t i o n d e a l s w i t h t h e d u a l i t y c l o s e d graph theorem. 7 d e a l s w i t h t h e e x i s t e n c e o f non-complete Completions and q u o t i e n t s o f (LF)-spaces a r e s t u d i e d M o t i v a t e d by t h e n e c e s s i t y o f h a v i n g " n i c e " c l o s e d graph theorems we introduce several s t r o n g barrelledness c o n d i t i o n s which a r e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e s t u d y o f a b s o r b i n g sequences o f a b s o l u t e l y convex s e t s as developed i n 8.X INTRODUCTION o f u l t r a b o r n o l o g i c a l spaces as i n d u c t i v e l i m i t s o f c o p i e s o f a f i x e d separab l e i n f i n i t e . A s h o r t i n t r o d u c t i o n t o w e l l .l o c a t e d and l i m i t subspaces i s t a k e n up i n s e c t i o n 6 b u t t h e deepest known r e s u l t s i n t h i s s u b j e c t a r e t o be found i n t h e "Notes and Remarks'' s e c t i o n . G r o t h e n d i e c k ' s (DF)-spaces a r e a l s o cons i d e r e d . i n s e c t i o n 8.

S e c t i o n 8 d e a l s w i t h t h e i n d u c t i v e l i m i t s t r u c t u r e i n t h e spaces o f c o n t i n u o u s f u n c t i o n s w i t h compact s u p p o r t and i n c l u d e s a n i c e example due t o Edgar. an easy p r o o f o f G r o t h e n d i e c k ' s i n e q u a l i t y and a s i m p l e p r o o f o f t h e Bishop-Stone-Weierstrass theorem. Some a s p e c t s o f t h i s t h e o r y a r e t r e a t e d i n s e c t i o n s 7 and 9 . Chapter Twelve d e a l s w i t h t h e h o l o m o r p h i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p e r t i e s o f l o c a l l y convex spaces as developed by Nachbin and o t h e r s . A c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f q u o j e c t i o n s v i a completed p r o j e c t i v e tensor products i s included. W e a l s o owe a measure o f g r a t i t u d e t o t h e e d i t o r o f t h i s s e r i e s who i n v i t e d us t o c o n t r i b u t e t h i s book. V i a t h e " d e s i n t e g r a t i o n theorem" (11. Section 3 i s devoted t o t h e study o f t h e b i .h y p o c o n t i n u o u s t o p o l o g y and t h e i n c i d e n c e of t h e bounded a p p r o x i m a t i o n p r o p e r t y i n t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f b a r r e l l e d n e s s by p r o j e c t i v e t e n s o r p r o d u c t s . .4. He q u i c k l y accepted o u r s u g g e s t i o n s and p o i n t e d o u t t o us what i s t h e c o n t e n t o f Chapter Twelve. The f i r s t s e c t i o n d e a l s w i t h p r o j e c t i v e t e n s o r p r o d u c t s b e i n g B a i r e o r SOUSLIN spaces and t h e second s e c t i o n e x p l o r e s t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f s t r o n g b a r r e l ledness c o n d i t i o n s by p r o j e c t i v e t e n s o r p r o d u c t s . The "Notes and Remarks" s e c t i o n c o n t a i n s a theorem o f Gelbaum and G i l d e Lamadrid c o n c e r n i n g t h e e x i s t e n c e o f Schauder bases i n p r o j e c t i v e t e n s o r p r o d u c t s . S e c t i o n 4 c o n t a i n s a s h o r t and n o t t o o d e t a i l e d account o f G r o t h e n d i e c k ' s tensornorm t o p o l o g i e s f o l l o w i n g Harksen. due t o D e f a n t and Govaerts. we a r e i n s i t u a t i o n t o e x p l o r e b a r r e l l e d n e s s c o n d i t i o n s on i n j e c t i v e t e n s o r p r o d u c t s i n s e c t i o n 5 .INTRODUCTION and t h e r e l a t e d q u e s t i o n o f c o m m u t a b i l i t y o f i n d u c t i v e l i m i t s and t e n s o r xi p r o d u c t s i s t a k e n up i n Chapter Eleven.46). I t i s a p l e a s u r e t o acknowledge o u r d e b t t o John Horva'th who f i r s t i n s i s t e d t h a t t h i s book s h o u l d be w r i t t e n . S e c t i o n 6 i s an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e s t u d y o f p r o j e c t i v e t e n s o r p r o d u c t s o f F r g c h e t and (DF)-spaces and c o n t a i n s m a i n l y r e s u l t s due t o Vogt and G r o t h e n d i e c k . I n t h e framework o f A p p r o x i m a t i o n Theory Nachbin i n t r o d u c e d w e i g h t e d spaces o f c o n t i n u o u s f u n c t i c n s w h i c h a r e a f r u i t f u l s o u r c e o f problems and examples i n t h e g e n e r a l t h e o r y o f l o c a l l y convex spaces as shown by B i e r s t e d t . Meise and Summers and w h i c h p r o v i d e an u s e f u l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f KLfthe co-echelon spaces. To o u r knowledge t h i s i s t h e f i r s t t i m e t h i s m a t e r i a l appears i n book f o r m and we have i n c l u ded s e v e r a l r e c e n t r e s u l t s o n l y t o be found i n r e s e a r c h papers.

xii INTRODUCTION Klaus D i e t e r B i e r s t e d t opened o u r eyes t o many f a c t s unknown t o us d u r i n g h i s s t a y a t t h e Escuela Tgcnica S u p e r i o r de l n g e n i e r o s l n d u s t r i a l e s and h i s ideas have been c o n s c i o u s l y and u n c o n s c i o u s l y i n c o r p o r a t e d . HARKSEN. Last.MATOS. I t i s h e r e t h e p l a c e t o t h a n k them a l l and a l s o t h e C o n s e l l e r i a de C u l t u r a . 9 V a l e n c i a .(4) (Chapter T-welve) k i n d l y s u p p l i e d by t h e e d i t o r o f t h i s s e r i e s Leopoldo Nachbin. (3) (Chapter Seven) .f i n a l v e r s i o n d u r i n g t h e f i r s t a u t h o r ' s s t a y a t t h e Department o f Mathematical Sciences (Kent S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y ) where c o l l e a g u e s 1 i s t e n e d p a t i e n t l y t o p a r t s o f t h e m a n u s c r i p t and p r o v i d e d t h e most f r i e n d l y atnosphere any a u t h o r c o u l d p o s s i b l y want. a 18 de J u n i o de 1986 Pedro P i r e z C a r r e r a s Josg Bonet . (Chapter E i g h t ) . t h i s work would n o t have been accomplished w i t h o u t t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e MATHEMATICAL R E V I E W S . BIERSTEDT. ( 2 ) (Chapter (3) (Chapter E l e v e n ) . but not least. FLORET. W e owe much t o Jean Schmets under whose guidance t h e f i r s t d r a f t o f c h a p t e r t e n was w r i t t e n d u r i n g t h e second a u t h o r ' s s t a y a t t h e I n s t i t u t e d e M a t h b a t i q u e ( L i 2 g e ) and t o Andreas Defant (Oldenburg) who read Chapter Eleven and c o n t r i b u t e d w i t h v a l u a b l e s u g g e s t i o n s . Hans Jarchow r z a d and c r i t i c i s e d t h e a l m o s t . ZENTRALBLATT FbR MATHEMAT I K and s e v e r a l e x c e l l e n t surveys which have been c l o s e l y f o l l o w e d d u r i n g t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of the m a n u s c r i p t : EBERHARDT.NACHBIN. ( 2 ) Eleven) k i n d l y s u p p l i e d by R a l f H o l l s t e i n and BARROSO. He was generous enoush t o s u p p l y us w i t h s e v e r a l u n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t s . Educaci6 i C i i n c i a f o r f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t a t KSU.

BARRELS AND D I S C S 81 Banach d i s c s 82 91 93 3..4 CHAPTER 4 .1 .3 4.3 1 .2 Barrels The space EB.3 2.Xlll .BARRELLED SPACES 95 4..2 1.5 2.1 3.7 - B A S I C TOOLS 33 33 The s l iding-hump t e c h n i q u e L i n e a r l y independent sequences i n FrCchet spaces B i o r t h o g o n a l systems a n d t r a n s v e r s a l subspaces The three-space p r o b l e m f o r FrCchet spaces Some r e s u l t s on separab i 1 i t y Some r e s u l t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e space K Notes and Remarks N 37 44 51 52 65 75 CHAPTER 3 .BAIRE LINEAR SPACES 9 9 13 28 30 Topological Preliminaries B a i r e l i n e a r spaces Some examples o f m e t r i z a b l e l o c a l l y convex spaces which a r e n o t B a i r e Notes and Remarks 1 .4 CHAPTER 2 2.6 2.1 2.4 2. Some Lemmata Notes and Remarks 3.2 2.3 3. TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction vii CHAPTER 0 -NOTATIONS AND PRELIMINARIES 1 CHAPTER 1 1.2 D e f i n i t i o n s and c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s Permanence p r o p e r t i e s I 95 103 .

b a r r e l l e d spaces Some examples o f b a r r e l l e d spaces B a r r e l l e d v e c t o r .4 8.v a l u e d sequence spaces Notes and Remarks 105 110 117 127 132 139 144 151 151 160 164 167 167 173 180 185 191 196 199 199 204 4.3 CHAPTER 6 - BORNOLOGICAL AND ULTRABORNOLOGICAL SPACES 6.LOCAL COMPLETENESS D e f i n i t i o n s and c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s S t a b i l i t y of Mackey spaces Notes and Remarks 5.6 8.3 6.7 8.6 CHAPTER D e f i n i t i o n s and c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s Permanence p r o p e r t i e s I Permanence p r o p e r t i e s I I Examples R e p r e s e n t i n g u l t r a b o r n o l o g i c a l spaces Notes and Remarks 7 - B.1 8.2 5.I N D U C T l V E LIMIT TOPOLOGIES 8. S t r i c t inductive 1 imits Regularity conditions i n countable inductive 1 i m i t s An i n t r o d u c t i o n t o we1 I .7 4.5 A B .1 7.6 4.3 4.x iv TABLE 0 F CONTENTS 4.2 6.5 4.5 8.2 7.1 5.9 CHAPTER 5 .8 General i z e d i n d u c t i v e 1 i m i t s Weak b a r r e l l e d n e s s c o n d i t i o n s (DF)-and (gDF)-spaces Countable i n d u c t i v e 1 i m i t s o f H a u s d o r f f l o c a l l y convex spaces: G e n e r a l i t i e s .and B -complete spaces Nun-B .8 4.c o m p l e t e space w h i c h i s n o t B-complete Notes and Remarks CHAPTER 8 .l o c a t e d and 1 i m i t subspaces Non-complete m e t r i z a b i e and normable (LF)-spaces Completions and q u o t i e n t s o f (LF)-spaces 26 7 28 1 303 309 315 .4 Permanence p r o p e r t es I I N e a r l y c l o s e d s e t s p o l a r top0 l o g i es and t h e b a r r e l l e d topology associated t o a given topology B a r r e l l e d enlargerr n t s Some examples o f n o n .3 The d u a l i t y c l o s e d graph theorem B .5 6.4 6.1 6.3 8.2 8.c o m p l e t e spaces 209 219 22 1 7.4 7.AND Br-COMPLETENESS 7.

3 9.LED SPACES BOOK REFERENCES I N THE TEXT REFERENCES TABLES INDEX 477 48 1 483 48 4 507 509 512 ABBREVIATIONS and SYMBOLS .TABLE OF CONTENTS XV 8.9 P r o j e c t i v e t e n s o r p r o d u c t s and t h e c l o s e d graph theorem S t r o n g b a r r e l l e d n e s s c o n d i t i o n s and p r o j e c t i v e t e n s o r products The b i .1 10.4 3 55 36 5 CHAPTER 10 .2 D e f i n i t i o n s and main r e s u l t s Permanence p r o p e r t i e s Examples Notes and Remarks 333 333 348 9.2 12.3 .BARRELLEDNESS CONDITIONS ON TOPOLOGICAL TENSOR PRODUCTS 11.9 Notes and Remarks 322 CHAPTER 9 .LOCALLY CONVEX PROPERTIES OF THE SPACE OF CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS ENDOWED WITH THE COMPACT-OPEN TOPOLOGY 10.5 11.STRONG BARRELLEDNESS CONDITIONS 9.8 11.1 11 .A SHORT COLLECTION O F OPEN PROBLEMS A TABLE O F BARREL.7 11.3 11.2 11.6 11.10 Notes and Remarks CHAPTER 12 12.4 11.1 9.h y p o c o n t i n u o u s topology 385 390 Tensornorm t o p o l o g i e s (a s h o r t and n o t t o o d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t ) L o c a l l y convex p r o p e r t i e s and t h e i n j e c t i v e t e n s o r p r o d u c t P r o j e c t i v e t e n s o r p r o d u c t s o f F r e c h e t and (DF)-spaces (an i n t r o d u c t i o n ) NACHBIN's w e i g h t e d spaces o f c o n t i n o u s f u n c t i o n s The space o f c o n t i n u o u s f u n c t i o n s w i t h compact s u p p o r t P r o j e c t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f weighted i n d u c t i v e l i m i t s 3 96 408 416 424 42 9 434 439 11.2 Main r e s u l t s Notes and Remarks 36 9 36 9 3 77 CHAPTER 11 .1 12.HOLOMORPHICALLY CONVEX SPACES SIGNIFICANT PROPERTIES OF LOCALLY 44 9 449 Prel iminaries Examples Notes and Remarks 457 4 74 CHAPTER 13 .

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L i n d e l U f space (E.271) and c o m p l e t e l y r e g u l a r space (E. 0.11.61).p. 0.F)=1 which a r e n o t i s o m e t r i c a l l y i s o m o r p h i c (see BANACH.ZjC). I f B i s a subset o f Xo t h e n t h e c l o s u r e and t h e s e q u e n t i a l c l o s u r e o f B c o i n c i d e .1).3.1.7).(Z).3. There e x i s t Banach spaces E and F w i t h d(E.3. F ) = m .5.F) i s d e f i n e d F isomorphism).2: (LINOENSTRAUSS.(l)) L e t ( X ( s ) : s & S ) be a f a m i l y o f t o p o l o g i c a l spaces s a t i s t h e f i r s t c o u n t a b i l i t y axiom and l e t 3 be a p o i n t o f T T ( X ( s ) : s E S ) = : X .1. realcompact space (E.1.3. 0.2: metrizable compact-LindeltJf pseudocompact 0.2).p.4€).p.2. t h e concepts o f hemicompact.1).3.3.2 BANACH SPACE THEORY 0. A Banach space E .30) c o u n t a b l e t o p o l o g i c a l sums o f L i n d e l t j f spaces a r e a g a i n L i n d e l t l f (E.JIT-1// : T:E+ E and F we w r i t e d ( E . pseudocompact space (E.1). 0.p. (b) f o r l o c a l l y compact spaces.1: For normed spaces E and F t h e BANACH-MAZUR d i s t a n c e d(E.27). Set X o : = ( % ( x ( s ) : s € S ) € X : x ( s ) # a ( s ) f o r a t m s t c o u n t a b l y many 5 ) .2. I . 6-compact and L i n d e l t l f { c ) e v e r y l o c a l l y compact space i s paracompact (E. I f t h e r e i s no isomorphism between b y f ( //Tll. spaces c o i n c i d e (E. ( E ) : hemicompact space (E.8).3: 9 paracompact top.263).5. paracompact space (E. X i s paracompact i f and o n l y i f e v e r y open c o v e r 1 of i t has a l o c a l l y f i n i t e p a r t i t i o n o f u n i t y s u b o r d i n a t e d t o i t .1 CHAPTER 0 NOTATIONS AND PRELIMINARIES 0.8). ( 9 ) A t o p o l o g i c a l space i s compact i f and o n l y i f i t i s pseudocompact and realcornoact (E.8.1.complete ealcornpact \ / normal 1 ------+ p-space fying (NOBLE. paracompact space can be r e p r e s e n t e d as t h e u n i o n o f d i s j o i n t open and c l o s e d subspaces each o f w h i c h i s L i n d e l t l f (and hence6-compact by ( b ) ) (E. 6-compact space (E. (d) e v e r y l o c a l l y compact.8C).3.1 GENERAL TOPOLOGY Our main r e f e r e n c e h e r e i s ENGELKING.3.PELCZYNSKl) Let 1 < pS m and 1s I(@. 5. (e) a r b i t r a r y t o p o l o g i c a l sums but only @ ( X ( s ) : s € S ) o f paracompact spaces a r e a g a i n paracompact (EJ.1: (a) A l o c a l l y compact space i s c o m p l e t e l y r e g u l a r (E.1. ( f ) f o r e v e r y T -space X .

l l n / H ) G 0. t ) t o p o l o g y on E such t h a t each J. 1+ & .d i m e n s i o n a l subspace N o f E t h e r e i s a f i n i 2. Then E : = ( ( E . t n + l ) . t n ) : n = 1 . Then f o r a l l C > C t h e r e i s T € L ( N . 0.2. Each (En.p. E ' i s t h e t o p o l o g i c a l dual o f ( E . E ) w i t h \lT*ll = llT/\and T*/G=T. Mackey and s t r o n g t o p o l o g i e s on E a r e denoted by s ( E . E ) and CO(E'. ) .2.5: l m ( A ) has t h e e x t e n s i o n p r o p e r t y (D.3: The LEBESGUE spaces LP(m) a r e ces a r e p r e c i s e l y t h o s e Banach spaces for a l l For K compact.tn) . If E is finiteBanach space E i s a q u o t i e n t o f some f o r a l l € 7 0 .2 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEX SPACES i s x c .tnj-+ is .. I f Jn n + l : E n + E n + l t h e c a n o n i c a l i n j e c t i o n s . 2 .1: L e t E be a l i n e a r space. t ) The weak. an i n c r e a s i n g sequence o f subs0. E ' ) r e s p e c t i v e l y . -spaf o r every E > O . t n + l ) is c o n t i n u o u s .E') i s t h e t o p o l o g y o f t h e u n i f o r m convergence on t h e s t r o n g l y bounded a b s o l u t e l y convex subsets o f E ' . ) = ( x ' .+ E t h e c a n o n i c a l i n j e c t i o n s . t h e r e i s some n and H C l l n such t h a t d ( E . An i n d u c t i v e sequence t i is strict if each J n .( E n + l .. The i s w r i t t e n as ( E . 0. ) i s c a l l e d an i n d u c t i v e sequence w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e mappings ? J n : n = l .T) i s t h e . t ) .6: Every dimensional. completion o f \ E .2.. I f F i s a 1 i n e a r subspace o f a space E . m(E.E) t h e r e i s T " t L ( F . isomorphic t o a H i l b e r t space.G) -C 1+ E ll(A). 2 .d i m e n s i o n a l subspace o f E l ' and H a f i n i t e . . x ' > ( ~ . .) are paces o f E and J n : E n . ..(Z). By DAY.71) Banach space E i s a subspace o f some I m ( A ) . Then ( E .2. E ' ) .3.2.lPdim(M))< E is ZP-space i f i t i s ZF-space f o r some 131. F i s endowed w i t h t h e t o p o l o g y induced by t h e o r i g i n a l t o p o l o g y o f E .+E -spaces €YO. Every dimensional. p c ( E ' .7: ( P a r t i c u l a r case o f t h e p r i n c i p l e o f l o c a l r e f l e x i v i t y (J. t ) is c o n t i n u o u s .tn) i s c a l l e d a s t e p o f 6 . C(K) i s x. G C F and T €L(G. t ) . L e t N be a f i n i t e .94 t h e i n j e c t i v e Banach spaces a r e p r e c i s e l y t h o s e Banach spaces w i t h t h e e x t e n s i o n p r o p e r t y .4: A Banach space E i s i n j e c t i v e i f i t i s complemented i n e v e r y Ranach space i n w h i c h i t i s embedded. t e dimensional subspace M o f E w i t h N c M such t h a t d(M. ~ . say ( E . suppose t h a t each En i s endowed w i t h a H a u s d o r f f l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y tn such t h a t each Jn. .s p a c e i f f o r e v e r y f i n i t e . . t ) stands f o r t h e subspace F endowed w i t h t h e t o p o l o g y induced by t and (E/F.n+l: (En.space zp.d i m e n s i o n a l subspace o f E ' . 0. 0.'. (En:n=1.3 LOCALLY CONVEX SPACES THEORY The word "space" means Hausdorff l o c a l l y convex space. A Banach space has t h e e x t e n s i o n p r o p e r t y i f : f o r a l l normed space F.E') and b ( E . I f E i s f i n i t e f o r a l l c ' r 0 t h e r e i s some n and G C I m n w i t h d(E.E) a r e t h e t o p o l o g i e s o f t h e u n i f o r m convergence on t h e a b s o l u t e l y convex precompact and compact subsets o f E r e s p e c t i v e l y .p. t ) . \\TI\ d l + € (Ek7 x ' E H and x " E N .p. E ) for all and ( T x ' ' .:(E. L e t E be an i n d u c t i v e sequence and l e t t be t h e f i n e s t l o c a l l y convex ( E . n + l i s an isomorphism o n t o i t s image and h y p e r s t r i c t i f i t i s s t r i c t and each En i s c l o s e d i n ( E n + l . ( F . X I ' ) such t h a t T / ( N / \ E ) = IdNnE. 2 0.389)) L e t E be a normed space. q u o t i e n t E / F endowed-wjth t h e q u o t i e n t t o p o l o g y 7 o f t .2. I f t h e o r i g i n a l t o p o l o g y o f E i s s p e c i f i e d . b"(E.

s(E.t) = s . t n ( k ) ) : k = 1 .. t h e n ( E .. t ) can be g i v e n by t h e s e t s a c x ( U ( U i : i = l . . E ) ) whose u n i o n i s t o t a l . .) ClT(En:n=1. t n Z p ) : p = l . t ) . I t i s w o r t h t o remark t h a t a c o n t i n u o u s l i n e a r mapping f f r o m an (LF)-space E i n t o an (LF)-space F=ind(Fn:n=1.) i s reduced i f each Pn(E) i s dense i n En. The c a n o n i c a l p r o j e c t i o n s E ..) and i f 0.n w i t h m b n l e t Pnm:Em-+En be a c o n t i n u o u s l i n e a r mapping such t h a t Pnn i s t h e i d e n t i t y The p a i r ( ( E n ) . L e t (En:n=1. 38).4 THE STRONGEST LOCALLY CONVEX TOPOLOGY 0. Z . ) ) .3..) needs n o t be open even i f i t behaves as one on each Fn. ( i i i ) f : ( E ..+ E n (x(m):rnl. ( i v ) U i s an a b s o l u t e l y convex subset o f E. Z . I f each s t e p i s m e t r i z a b l e ( r e s p .tn) o f an i n d u c t i v e sequence & i s a Banach ( r e s p . t ) i s s a i d t o be t h e s t r c t ( r e s p .+ F.t) I f ( E . ... = hs-ind E ). 0.Z.)H x ( n ) w i l l be denoted by Pn. FrBchet) space. = i n d ( ( E n .E')) (see FLORET.s(E.CHAPTER 0 3 c a l l e d t h e i n d u c t i v e i m i t o f t h e d e f i n i n g sequence € a n d we w r i t e ( E .).i n d E (resp.p-+E.). F b e i n g a space. t n ) n=1.. .) : Pnm(x(m))=x(n) f o r a l l m b n ) is called i t s projectiendowed w i t h t h e induced t o p o l o g y o f n ( E n : n = l . U i s u n i f o r m l y open i f t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r m and an open subset W i n E such t h a t U = P m w 1 ( W ) .3.2.2.p. t h e n U i s a 0-nghb i n ( E . Then e v e r y r e l a t i v e l y c o u n t a b l y compact subset o f (E.2. then !E. ) ve l i m i t and we w r i t e E = proj(En:n=1.) be a sequence o f spaces. . then ~ : ' ( ( E n ( k ) ..) i s a s t r i c t l y i n c r e a s i n g sequence o f p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r s .2. t n ) = i n d ( ( E n . .. t ) i f and o n l y i f each U A E ..4.4: L e t E be a space w h i c h a d m i t s a c o u n t a b l e f a m i l y o f r e l a t i v e l y comp a c t subsets i n ( E ' . . when a l l u n i f o r m l y open subsets o f E f o r m a b a s i s o f a l l open subsets o f E o r e q u i v a l e n t l y when t h e s e t o f a l l p i e p i E C S ( E ) i s d i r e c t e d and d e f i n e s t h e t o p o l o g y o f E ( p i ~ c s ( E i )f o r a l l i ) . For a l l m. i s a 0-nghb i n ( E n . ) . h y p e r s t r i c t ) . .2. I f each (En. p .) and we w r i t e E = = d-proj(En:n=1. i s a 1 i n e a r mapping. .2: mn(k):k=1.2. t i v e sequence ( p r o j e c t i v e spectrum) and t h e space E:=( (x(n):n=1.. then t i s t h e f i n a l topology w i t h r e s p e c t t o a l l c a n o n i c a l i n j e c t i o n s En. . 0. where each U i i s a 0-nghb i n ( E i .2..tn):n=1.3: 0.. ) i s a l s o a d e f i n i n g sequence f o r ( E . t ) . 2 .3. normable) i s c a l l e d an (LM)-space ( r e s p . E i s s a i d t o be t h e d i r e c t e d p r o j e c t i v e l i m i t o f ?En:n=1. t h e n f i s c o n t i n u o u s i f and o n l y i f each J n o f : ( E n ..1: The f a m i l y o f a l l a b s o l u t e l y convex a b s o r b i n g subsets o f a l i n e a r space E i s a b a s i s o f 0-nghbs f o r a c e r t a i n l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y t o n E w h i c h is c l e a r l y t h e s t r o n g e s t ( f i n e s t ) l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y on E.2... . (1 2) . I f E i s s t r i c t (resp.. t ) i s s a i d t o be an (LB)-space ( r e s p .. t n ) F i s c o n t i n u o u s . t ) = E.. t n ) . (LF)-space).2. ( i i ) each ( E n . E=proj(En:n=1. (LN)-space). t ) = ind((En.E')) i s r e l a t i v e l y compact i n (E.. h y p e r s t r i c t ) i n d u c t i v e l i m i t o f € and we w r i t e (E. . ( P n m ) m ? n ) i s c a l l e d a projecand PnmoPmS = Pns ( s > m > n ) .. = ind If i s a s t r i c t l y i n c r e a s i n g sequence of subspaces o f E we speak about p r o p e r i n d u c t i v e sequences o r l i m i t s .2.).. ( E . s ( E ' . . I f U i s an open subset o f t h e p r o j e c t i v e l i m i t E. t i s Hausdorff.. C l e a r ly. 2 . Thus a b a s i s o f 0-nghbs i n ( E . ...2. t i ) .

t ' ) . 1 . Indeed.E::) = m(E.l i n e a r ( r e s p .t). T . L(mE. . 5 ) . F ) . t ) be a space.F)) t h e space o f a l l symmetric m . c o n t i is nyous m .5. 0 .F) t o denote t h e f a m i l y o f a l l c o n t i n u o u s m-homogeneous p o l y n o m i a l s . i f t p r e i s A C x ( m E . Then: ( i ) e v e r y bounded subset o f E i s f i n i t e . : ( i ) t i s the t o p o l o g y on E.. i s t h e s e t o f a l l p e r m u t a t i o n s o f t h e f i r s t m p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r s . E induces on F i t s s t r o n g e s t l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y and e v e r y a l g e b r a i c complement o f F i n E i s a t o p o l o g i c a l complement and ( i v ) e v e r y q u o t i e n t o f E i s H a u s d o r f f and i t s t o p o l o gy i s i t s s t r o n g e s t l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y .E") and (v) ( E .a ) x g A f o r e v e r y a w i t h O S a < 1 . The c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s f r o m 0 . x belongs t o t h e l i n e a r span L o f C . f . L. e v e r y a l g e b r a i c boundary p o i n t o f C belongs t o t h e c l o s u r e o f C f o r t h e s t r o n g e s t l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y . B b e i n g f o r the t h e aforementioned c l o s u r e . I f A i s a b s o l u t e l y convex.E") i f and o n l y i f Given a subset A o f a l i n e a r space E .xm) := . and (E. ( i i i ) e v e r y subspace F o f E i s c l o s e d i n E . Clearly.s(E". ( i i ) e v e r y seminorm i s c o n t i n u o u s on space ( F . . 4 . t ) ' = E * and t=m(E.4. F ) .4. ( i v ) t o a d i r e c t sum o f one- 0. ( i i i ) f o r every i s continuous. A mapping p : E . 0.1: x(mE.(mE. i t s symmetrized s(A) i s d e f i n e d by S ( A ) ( X I . . e v e r y l i n e a r mapping f : ( E .2: BA R R E L L ED L OCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES L e t ( E .4. then i t s a l g e b r a i c boundary c o i n c i d e s w i t h A ( ( l + b ) A : b > 0 1. Set P("'E.6: Every a b s o l u t e l y convex subset C o f a l i n e a r space E c o n t a i n s t h e a l g e b r a i c c l o s u r e o f (1/2)C. A subset A i s a l g e b r a i c a l l y c l o s e d i f i t c o i n c i d e s w i t h i t s a l g e b r a i c boundary. t ) . s i n c e C i s a 0-nghb i n i t s l i n e a r span endowed w i t h t h e s t r o n g e s t l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y . e .F). 5 . S i n c e e v e r y subspace i s c l o s e d (0. ( F . 5 : The a l g e b r a i c boundary o f an a b s o l u t e l y convex subset C o f a l i n e a r space E c o i n c i d e s w i t h i t s c l o s u r e f o r t h e s t r o n g e s t l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o gy on E . t h e c l o s u r e o f (1/2)C f o r t h i s t o p o l o g y i s c o n t a i n e d i n C. 4 . (m!)-lx5:(x x(1) . . . . F ) such t h a t p ( x ) = A ( x . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e P o l a r i z a t i o n Formula ( D I . 0 . .l i n e a r ( r e s p .E) Then: ( i ) s(Ek. 4 ..5 0. x ) f o r a l l x i n E and we w r i t e p = A .4.l i n e a r ) mappings f r o m E i n t o F and zs(mE.+ F i s a rn-homogeneous p o l y n o m i a l .E) = m(E". a . s t r o n g e s t l o c a l l y convex (E. The a l g e b r a i c boundary o f A i s t h e s e t o f a l l a l g e b r a i c boundary p o i n t s o f A. The a b s o l u t e l y convex s e t C i s a 0-nghb i n L and hence x C fl(C+aC: a > O ) .4 0. INFINITE HOLOMORPHY 0. s ( A ) E xS("E. I f A E x ( m E . which i s the a l g e b r a i c closure o f C. l e t X E B .E)) i s isomorphic t o a spaces and ( i i ) s(E.3) s t r o n g e s t l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y .E) p r o d u c t o f one-dimensional E i s finite-dimensional i t s s t r o n g e s t l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y . and we w r i t e p ( P ( " ' E . c o n t i n u o u s symmetric rn-1 i n e a r ) mappings f r o m E i n t o F. ..3: L e t E be a space endowed w i t h i t s s t r o n g e s t l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y . 4 : L e t E be a space endowed w i t h = b(Ef:. .F) (resp.F) ( r e s p . t ' ) i s isomorphic ( E .d i m e n s i o n a l . . ( i i ) E i s complet e . C o n v e r s e l y . t ) dimensional sDaces.F)) i s t h e space o f a l l m . Indeed.. X x(m)) where 5. y t E i s s a i d t o be an a l g e b r a i c boundary p o i n t o f A i f t h e r e i s a p o i n t x C A such t h a t a y + ( l .

C l e a r l y . F ) A ? ( m E .v o i d open subset o f F and f G X ( V . e . 0...5.3: L e t f : U + F be a mapping.5. i s o f l o c a l c h a r a c t e r . d m ( B o f ) ( z ) = = Blo. F ) . f o r e v e r y q r c s ( F ) . 0.a. Moreover. F ) d e f i n e d by A H A induces a l i n e a r isomorphism between zs(mE. As a consequence o f NEWTON'S f o r m u l a f o r m .+ F i s amply bounded i f q o f i s l o c a l l y bounded f o r e v e r y q & c s ( F ) .F) and P(E.6: (i)f t Y ( U .r F i s a mapping and i f each f / V i E % ( V i . Then % ( ( U . t h e n p i s an e n t i r e f u n c t i o n .F) t o denote t h e f a m i l i e s o f a l l f i n i t e sums o f m-homogeneous and c o n t i n u o u s m-homogeneous p o l y n o m i a l s r e s p e c t i v e l y . c o n t i n u o u s mappings a r e amply bounded.3 i s s i m p l e t o check t h a t each f c x ( U .v o i d open subset s o n t a i n e d i n U. I t can be shown t h a t t h e TAYLOR c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e u n i q u e ( i t s p r o o f does n o t depend on t h e assumed c o n t i n u i t y o f t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s b u t on t h e f a c t t h a t t h e l i m i t s i n v o l v e d a r e u n i f o r m on neighbourhoods).s F -. 0. t h e n t h e r e s t r i c t i o n f / V o f f t o V belongs t o % ( V .F). ( F . t h e n p C P ( E . Moreover. The s e r i e s EP..) on E such t h a t . i f f o r e v e r y x i n U t h e r e i s a sequence o f c o n t i n u o u s m-homogeneous p o l y n o m i a l s (Pm:m=O.5. V a n o n .5.. F ) and between Ls('"E. by a p p l y i n g 0..F).F) and P ( " E ...4: (a) Since t h e TAYLOR c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e assumed t o be c o n t i n u o u s .G.bmA(b1xl+b2~2+. s i n c e E i s l o c a l l y convex and holomorphy i s a l o c a l p r o p e r t y .f.. be spaces. For p o l y n o m i a l s we have ( i ) p i s continuous. One has t h a t i f p g?(E.+bmxm) A : b i = z l .xm) = (2mm!)-' (blb2. f o r e v e r y x i n U and f o r e v e r y q c is c s ( F ) t h e r e i s a x-nghb V c o n t a i n e d i n U such t h a t s u p ( q ( f ( y ) ) : y h V ) finite.F). F ) i s c o n t i n u o u s .i"f(z) and dm(foA) ( x ) = a m f ( x ) o A 1 .(y-x) i s c a l l e d t h e TAYLOR s e r i e s o f f i n x. t ( l ) ) .5.F) and B1 sL(G.F) and P("E. ( i i i ) p i s amply bounded and ( i v ) p i s amply bounded a t 0 (see D l .i&m) t h e mapping $ ( m E . f i s s a i d t o be h o l o m o r p h i c i n U . we 0. There e x i s t holomorphic mappings whose TAYLOR s e r i e s i n any p o i n t o f U do n o t converge u n i f o r m l y on any neighbourhood o f t h e p o i n t . F ) and d m ( f / V ) ( x ) = d m f ( x ) / V . q ) ) f o r each q € c s ( F ) .F.F) and V i s a n o n . i f ( V i : i E l ) i s an open c o v e r o f U and f : U .v o i d open subset o f E. If ( i i ) l e t E.H) ) . e .2: A l o n g 0. ( c ) L e t t ( 1 ) and t ( 2 ) be two t o p o l o g i e s on E such t h a t t ( 1 ) i s c o a r s e r t h a n t ( 2 ) and s ( 1 ) and s ( 2 ) t o p o l o g i e s on F such t h a t s ( 1 ) i s f i n e r t h a n s ( 2 ) .(F.7: .l i n e a r mappings one can p r o v e 0. l 4 ) . 0.t(2)) . .F). i . and we w r i t e f 6 X(U. G ) and B o f L y ( V .. Set ?(E. G ) . ( F ..: 0. H ) .l ( V ) . A f u n c t i o n f : U .F) i s c o n t i n u o u s . t h e r e i s a x-nghb V:=V(q) c o n t a i n e d i n U w i t h 0- I i m q( f(y) fi - %pk(y-x) ) = o uniformly f o r Y C V . F ) and c o n v e r s e l y .5. l C.F). e . F ) i f and o n l y i f f G p ( U .e. i t (b) D e f i n i t i o n 0. i s c a l l e d t h e TAYLOR c o e f f i c i e n t o f o r d e r m o f f i n x and we w r i t e Each P dmf(x):= m!Pm. ( F . t.l. T h i s can be accomplished (F/q-l(O).q)--r Moreover.F).). s ( ~ ) ) ) .5. t h e n f C*(U.5.6 t o t h e c a n o n i c a l mappings U .H A : E 4 F and B:G--*H a r e a f f i n e c o n t i n u o u s mappings ( i . t h z n f o A E Y ( A . i .5: I f p LP(E. (ii)p i s continuous a t that i f p gY(E. When we w i s h t o d e t e r m i n e i f a c e r t a i n mapping f : U A F i s h o l o m o r p h i c i t i s c o n v e n i e n t t o as5ume t h a t F i s a normed space. l .CHAPTER 0 5 A(x. .5.E and F a r e complex H a u s d o r f f l o c a l l y convex spaces and U a n o n . i f f C'dc(U. t h a t i s p6P(E. A ( x ) = y + A l ( x ) and B ( z ) = r+B1 ( z ) f o r y and r v e c t o r s i n E and G r e s p e c t i v e l y and A1 GpL(E. s ( l ) ) ) C %((U.

9: T. Then f(x+cy)/cm+l ICI i ( i i ) Let f € y ( U . l i m q ( f(x+ba) - d b k P k ( a ) ) = 0.2. 0. 5 ) .(U.v o i d ) and !b) f vanishes on U i f and o n l y i f t h e r e i s a p o i n t x open subset o f l i n U such t h a t d m f ( x ) = 0 f o r e v e r y m. .F) w i t h U connect e d .f.12: ( i ) (LIOUVILLE'S THEOREM) I f f h x ( E . G .11: (CAUCHY INEQUALITIES) I f f & X G ( U . A b Both ( i ) and ( i i ) a r e v a l i d f o r G-holomorphic f u n c t i o n s r e p l a c i n g dm by ( i i i ) L e t f S 2 ( U .) o f in-homogeneous p o l y n o m i a l s on E such t h a t f o r e v e r y q < c s ( F ) and e v e r y a i n E we can f i n d g>O such t h a t . (CAUCHY INTEGRAL FORMULAS AND TAYLOR'S REMAINDER FORMULA) 0. %(U.a. F ) ded i n F . w r p h i c .h o l o w r p h i c ) and we w r i t e f E W G ( U . for a l l f(x) - rr &(k!)-ldAkf(y)(x-y) = (2xi)-l J f(y+ 2(x-y)) / (x-l)Xm+'dX then ix-j 0.F). I f t h e f u n c tion X C U H l f ( x ) l E R has a l o c a l maximum a t a p o i n t x i n U then f i s c o n s t a n t on U. satisfies that f(E) i s boun- ( i i ) (MAXIMUM MODULUS THEOREM) L e t fC?e(U.t F i s G . t h e n f i s c o n s t a n t on E.y ) G U Then f o r e v e r y n w i t h IX\&p Sm.f): f(U)CF). (m!)-'Gmf'(x)(y) (ZXi)-' dc f o r each n=1. ( i i i ) (UNIQUENESS OF HOLOMORPHIC CONTINUATION) L e t f €%(U.. Moreover.8. 0.h o l o w r p h i c . F ) i f f o r e v e r y f i n i t e . 0..x ) C U l c l C b.F) and t h e d e f i n i t i o n above i s independent o f t h e A n o n .: (i) f Eg(U. ( i i ) f C X G ( U .10: m t f E%(U. Then f(y) = (2nil-l XGU. F ) . Again i n t h i s i n s t a n c e .F) C')PG(U.n e c e s s a r i l y c o n t i n u o u s p o l y n o m i a l i s G-holoo r i g i n a l t o p o l o g y on E. 0.d i m e n s i o n a l subspace S o f E i n t e r s e c t i n g U t h e r e s t r i c t i o n f / ( S A U ) belongs t o p ( S n U .Z.8: f : U .5.F) . %(U. = for / (c-1) dc y C E and b y 0 such t h a t x+cy 6U i f I c l 4 b. ) depend on t h e e l e c t i o n of F.2.F) cM(U. x t U . y C U and j'>l such t h a t y+ l ( x .e. G m ( f / V ) ( x ) = = a m f ( x ) / V f o r e v e r y n o n .F) i s indepencjent o f t h e e l e c t i o n o f F b u t sincje we a r e d e a l i n g w i t h H a u s d o r f f spaAes F. f o r e v e r y x i n U t h e r e i s a sequence (Pm:mO. F ) . F ) . F ) and i t i s c o n t i n u o u s and and i t i s amply bounded. I' W r j t e s m f ( x ) : = m!Pm f o r each m. 2 .5.13: H(U.F):= ( f Cx(U. C l e a r l y . C l e a r l y . d m f ( . t h e r e i s a TAYLOR s e r i e s f o r G-holomorphic f u n c t i o n s (see D1.+ F i s GETEAUX-holomorphic o r f i n i t e l y h o l o m o r p h i c ( s h o r t l y .6 BARREL LED LOCALLY CON VEX SPACES may assume also t h a t U i s a b s o l u t e l y convex.F) ( i i i 7 fCg.v o i d open subset V c o n t a i n e d i n U.b): " I f f : U . F ) c o n s i s t s o f a l l f C H ( U . x and y p o i n t s o f U and b > l such t h a t x + c ( y .5.F) C H(U. A H(U. see D1..F). u n i f o r m l y f o r b c C w i t h I b l S f . f o r e v e r y q G c s ( F ) and e v e r y in -1 * m sup ( q ( (m!) 2 f ( x ) ( y ) : y G B ) d b-m sup( q ( f ( z ) ) : z c x + b B ) (see D I ..C) w i t h U connected. W e have t h a t T ( U . F ) w i t h . F ) .l. X C U .5. Then (a) f vanishes on U i f and o n l y i f f vanishes on some n o n . b > O and B a balanced subset o f E w i t h x+bBCU.5.5.

. then vofC%(U) f o r each v i n F ' . F ) i f and o n l y i f v ..E @I F) d e f i n e d by (x. F ) ) * (x.e. (iii) Let f:U--rF.x> L e t E and F be 1 i n e a r spaces and (Eo.F) A " ( x @ y ) = A(x.F?:)-X(F.6.3: .6.y0):E x F ..'c: (E QD Fo) @ (Eo $ .F).y)c--.6. The f o l l o w i n g two f a m i l i e s o f semi'(X:p(x) norms d e f i n e t h e r . 3 . I f A. F ) f o r e v e r y f i n i t e .f. y'€VO) 0. E @ F has t h e f o l l o w i n g u n i v e r s a l p r o p e r t y : L e t G be any 1 i n e a r space and B:ExF--.$41.4: (E @.(1)..). E @ F i s up t o i s o morphism t h e o n l y space w i t h t h i s p r o p e r t y .yo). There e x i s t s p r e c i s e l y one 1 i n e a r mapping B":E 8 F A G w i t h B" 0 @ = B . d f(x)(xl. Then f o r e v e r y 0. 0.5: A l o c a l l y convex space E has t h e bounded a p p r o x i m a t i o l i p r o p e r t y ( s h o r t l y t h e b. p ~ c s ( E )and q C c s ( F ) and U:= 5 1 ) and V : = ( y ~ F : q ( y ) L l ) . (A--rA(x.':(x..E$~) T ___+ T' (E>L. XI. E Q F i s t h e l i n e a r span o f 631 (ExF) i n xi y i with ((S(E.d i m e n s i o n a l subspace S o f E i n t e r s e c t i n g U and f i s amply bounded. G any b i l i n e a r mapping.5. Hence t h e 1 i n e a r i z a t i o n o f t h e b i l i n e a r mapping C : ( E @ F o ) x q E o @ F ) + E @ F d e f i n e d by ( z .t o p o l o g y and € .F'b-equicontinuous i f and o n l y i f i t maps a 0-nghb o f E i n a bounded s e t o f F.2: (x.p.CHAPTER 0 m 7 .xm) C F f o r each m and xm i n E.F. m e t f : U .F) can be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h ( E B F)*. Then f E H ( U . then B :. A subset o f ( E @ .y) = (Tx. ( 1 ) ) .E @ F d e f i n e d by (x0. f t x ( U ) for each v C F ' .j L e t E and F be l o c a l l y convex spaces..x' I m y')( : X ' C uo.F))". 0.a.1: One has (E t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a i n o f isomorphisms a F):: &(E.y)) i s b i l i n e a r .Fo) a dual p a i r .) i f t h e r e e x i s t s an e q u i c o n t i n u o u s n e t ( A t : t C T ! C L ( E . I (z.yoP denotes t h e 1 i n e a r i z a t i o n o f A(x.? C w i t h UCC".yo)EExFo t h e b i l i n e a r mapping A(x.d i m e n s i o n a l mappings c o n v e r g i n g p o i n t w i s e l y t o t h e i d e n t i t y .y )-A7':(x.y> (F~:.a.(x @ y) i s well-defined.6 TENSOR PRODUCTS d e f i n e d by L e t E and F be l i n e a r spaces. y o i ~ > .yo).F'b)' can be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h LB(E. Each v e c t o r z o f E d F can be w r i t t e n as z = x i C E .F) and (b) f C H ( U n S .1. 63(E. T.. 0.F) (see K2. 0.6.6. z ' ) I-+ (B"(z)) ( z ' ) i s a 1 i n e a r mapping C.14: ( i ) i f f CH(U.F) A" with + A I _ T X(E. y i E F and 1 4 i C n . ( xB i yj) . I n p a r t i c u l a r .F) = <T'y. E ) o f f i n i t e . The mapping @ : E x F + ( B ( E .t o p o l o g y r e s p e c t i v e l y (p~.q)(z):= (p &cq) ( z ) : = inf(zp(xi)q(yi) sup( : z = z x i c ~ ya i representation o f z ) 0.: (a) f EH(U.(4) and $ 4 1 . i n d i c a t e s t h e l i n e a r i z a t i o n o f t h e b i l i n e a r mapping B:ExFO--+z(Eoa@.F ' b ) ' i s E @. .y.y)<xo. F)-E Q F such t h a t E &J Fo and z I = x o j @ y j E Eo CBF one has yoi f o r a l l z= s x i I c"(Z B 2') = ~ < x o j .

E v e r y X P .E) s a t i s f y i n g : ( i ) P(n)eJn = I d f o r each n and ( i i ) ( j n o P ( n ) : E .--+E. ) i s e q u i c o n t i n u o u s and (iii) sup( I ( ~ . C m ) if t h e r e a r e P(n)CL(E. :IP.u(j)> = Z. E v e r y space c o n t a i n i n g an S'*lsubspace i s an Sm-space.6.d i m e n s i o n a l kp-spaces. .~ is f i n i t e ..p.6. I f E i s a l o c a l l y c o n v e x space and s g c s ( E 7 . l P n ) w i t h T(n)oS(n) ( i i ) G i s s a i d t o be an ?-space w i t h r e s p e c t t o a n i s o m e t r i c subspace H of G ' i f t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e r e a l A w i t h 0 4 X L 1 such t h a t f o r e v e r y n the r e a r e x ( 1 ) .430) L e t G b e a normed space.~I:~=I. we w r i t e Es f o r t h e c a n o n i c a l norrned space E / k e r ( s ) and by q s t h e c a n o n i c a l s u r j e c t i o n .7.) such t h a t for every s C c s ( E ) t h e r e a r e JnCL(1Pn.. L e t 1 I p b + m .S.6: 0. T(n) c L ( G .: Every 2 -space m has t h e b .6.lp. L(IPn..u ( n ) t H w i t h (xli). i I S ( n ) l l s 2 .a..R ( Y ' : n = 1 . l q .9: . 0.. l l . 2 ..) v e x space F ( s e e K 2 . G i s s a i d t o be a n SP-space i f t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e r e a l 2 w i t h X711 s u c h t h a t f o r e v e r y n t h e r e a r e S(n) C = I d and n T ( n ) l l . $ 4 3 .. F o r a Banach space E t h i s means t h a t E " c o n t a i n s l p n u n i f o r m l y complen m t e d " .G). 0. . 5 ) .6.~.u>t 1 f o r a11 j & 1 for a l l uLG' with IiullLl 0.8 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEX SPACES A l o c a l l y c o n v e x space E i s s a i d t o h a v e t h e S c h w a r t z a p p r o x i m a t i o n p r o i f F Q E i s dense i n F 6 E f o r e v e r y l o c a l l y c o n p e r t y ( s h o r t l y t h e S.. J. Ij tIu(j)ll L z/<x(i).x ( n ) € G and u ( 1 ) . O J . U p ) and by j t E e embedding o f l p n i n R " ) .p.8: The c l a s s o f SP-spaces c o n t a i n s a l l i n f i n i t e . p . A normed space G i s an S'-space i f and o n l y i f i t i s an Sm-space w i t h r e s p e c t to G ' .s p a c e b e l o n g s t o t h i s c l a s s (compare w i t h J . (DEFANT) For l g p < m we d e n o t e by R ( N ) t h e space R(') endowed w i t h t h e t o p o l o g y induced by ( l P . 3 ) . a . E i s c a l l e d an SP-space (1 L p . ( i ) ( c f .

1. Definition 1. Proposition 1 . - . // Proposition 1. A i s r a r e ( r e s p . Since U i s open in X. Proof: Only ( i ) needs d proof. then AAU i s dense i n U . then A / \ B i s r a r e in X and ( v ) I f A i s of f i r s t category i f l B. I t s u f f i c e s t o show t h a t !JCAAU. ( i v ) A i s of f i r s t category 3 B i f A is t h e countable union of subsets which a r e r a r e i n B. V i s open in X and VCAnU and t h a t i s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n . ( i ) A i s dense i n B i f contains B. .. 2 : ( i ) I f A i s dense i n an open subset U of X. o f f i r s t categorj/) i n X and ( i i ) I f A i s dense in X. A i s of second category in B i f i t i s not of f i r s t category i n B and ( v ) A has t h e Baire property? X i f t h e r e i s an open subset U of X such t h a t U \ A and A \ U are of f i r s t category ( i n X ) .3: ( i ) Let U be a non-void open suhset of X. n Y f f and o n l y i f A i s of f j r s t category i n i t z e l f . ( i v ) I f A i s r a r e in 5 . t h e n A is r a r e i n X.1 Topological Preliminaries. A i s of f i r s t category . - Prccf: (i) If A n U i s r a r e in X and i f A i s not r a r e i n U t h e c l o s u r e A f l U of A in U has non-void i n t e r i o r V in U . ( i i ) The i n t e r s e c t i o n of subsets which a r e r a r e i n X i s a l s o r a r e in X. of f i r s t category) i n ?I i f and only i f AA!I i s r a r e (resp. ( i i i ) A i s r a r e i n B if A n B i s r a r e i n t h e topological space B . 1.9 CHAPTER ONE BAIRE LINEAR SPACES In t h i s f i r s t s e c t i o n X denotes a Hausdorff topological space. then VAU i s an open x-nghb and hence (Vr\U)AA i s non-void from where t h e conclusion follows. 1 . IF x r U and V i s an open x-nghb. then AAB i s of f i r s t category in X .1. ( i i ) A i s rare i n X i f has void i n t e r i o r . ( i i i ) I f B i s r a r e in X and B contains A .1: Let A and B be subsets of X.

. . UnAcxnnA f o r somen. f i r s t observe t h a t eve- being r a r e i n X. P r o o f : ( i ) L e t A and A* be r a r e i n X . To check ( i i i ) . ) . i f A : = U ( A n : n = l . Thus i t s u f f i c e s t o check t h a t t h e f a m i l y o f a l l subsets h a v i n g t h e B a i r e p r o p e r t y f o r m an 6 . hand. 2 A\V c . t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f A w i t h t h e complement o f O(A) i s o f f i r s t category i n X...85) asserts t h a t the set o f p o i n t s a t w h i c h A i s o f second c a t e g o r y i s t h e c l o s u r e o f an open s e t O ( A ) . Thus U \ x * CA and..2. C l e a r l y .v o i d open a-nghb. A i s s a i d t o be o f second c a t e g o r y w i t h r e s p e c t t o a i f UAA i s o f second c a t e g o r y i n X f o r e v e r y n o n . C l e a r l y .1. I f A i s any s u b s e t o f X l e t AC be X \ A . Suppose and t h a t A has t h e B a i r e p r o p e r t y .2.v o i d open s u b s e t I f A U A * i s n o t rare i n X there i s = U w i t h U C AVA* AUK*. Thus AC has t h e B a i r e p r o p e r t y . On t h e o t h e r = Uc AC (V U >U) = (Ac \ V) \ > U and t h e r e f o r e AC \ V C ( U \ A ) U 2 U w h i c h i s o f f i r s t c a t e g o r y i n X s i n c e 2 U i s r a r e i n X . a r e open s u b s e t s (Un:n=1.. Our n e x t r e s u l t can be seen i n any t e x t b o o k i n General Topology. T h i s i s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n w i t h A* ( i i ) i s immediate.4: i s a l s o r a r e i n X. 2 . BANACH's c o n d e n s a t i o n theorem ( s e e KN.10 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEXSPACES ( i i ) Suppose t h a t ACU(An:n=l.p. S e t V f o r t h e i n t e r i o r o f U c . S i n c e A i s dense i n A i s dense i n U and hence UCUAA. a n o n . . t h e r e i s X.2. There w i t h An\ Un and U n \ An o f f i r s t c a t e g o r y i n X .) enough t o check t h a t each A . There i s an open s u b s e t U such t h a t A \ U U \ A a r e o f f i r s t c a t e g o r y i n X. .. UCx* s i n c e A i s r a r e i n X .) sion follows. Moreover. .v o i d open s e t where each A.) Take V : = u ( U n : n = l . ) f r o m where t h e c o n c l u - // O b s e r v a t i o n : I f ACX and a G X .a l q e b r a . ) be a sequence o f subsets w i t h t h e B a i r e p r o p e r t y . . Thus U C K A C x n A A C x n and t h a t i s a U such t h a t contradiction. and observe t h a t . s i n c e U\ i s open. (ii) The c o u n t a b l e u n i o n o f subsets w h i c h a r e o f f i r s t c a t e g o r y i n X i s a l s o o f f i r s t c a t e q o r y i n X and ( i i i ) Every Bore1 s e t i n X has t h e B a i r e p r o p e r t y . . X has t h e B a i r e p r o p e r t y . r y open s b b s e t has t h e R a i r e p r o p e r t y .2. . A\U=UC\ A C 3 V\Ac. L e t (An:n=l.. // ( i ) The f i n i t e u n i o n of subsets w h i c h a r e r a r e i n X P r o p o s i t i o n 1. a n o n . It i s i s r a r e i n A. and V \ A C U ( U n \ A n : n = 1 . I f t h i s i s n o t t h e case. 2 .. . U \ A = AC \ hence V \ A C i s o f f i r s t c a t e g o r y i n X . ) U(An\Un:n=1. i s r a r e i n X.

3 ( i ) ) . hence of f i r s t category i n U ( 1 . Proof: I f X i s not a Baire space. a c o n t r a d i c t i o n .1. 2 .. Clearly TCV.2. i f AnETnf o r each n such t h a t A n 3 $ . .1. ) of pseudo-bases f o r X such t h a t .2.CHAPTER 1 11 Definition-Theorem 1. I t is easy t o check t h a t as desired. t h e r e e x i s t s a non void open subset U of f i r s t category i n X (1. ( i i i ) X is pseudo-complete i f i t i s quasi-regular and t h e r e e x i s t s a sequence ( 7: n : n = 1 . r / 2 ) . Suppose AnC Fnwith An>An+l and t a k e x(n)EAn f o r each n.7: ( i ) X is quasi-regular i f every non-void open subset of X contains the closure of a non-void open subset of X. ( i i i ) t h e countable union of closed subsets of X w i t h void i n t e r i o r has void i n t e r i o r and ( i v ) i f A i s of f i r s t category i n X .6: Let Y be a topological subspace of X . i s open in Y and of f i r s t category i n X .d) i s pseudocamp1e t e . 1 .1. d(x(rn)..2. i t i s enough t o c o n s t r u c t a family ( 5 n : n = 1 . 1 . U i s enpty). . I f Y i s a B a i r e space dense i n X . r ) contained i n V . Since U n Y i s dense i n U . d ) . 1 . d ) and t h e r e f o r e conf o r each m and vergent t o some x in ( X . ) i s not void. ) i s a Cauchy sequence i n ( X . 5 ( i ) ) ( s i n c e Y i s dense i n X and U i s open in X . we have t h a t U n Y i s enpty ( 1 . ( i i ) the countable i n t e r s e c t i o n of open subsets which a r e dense i n X is dense i n X .5: X i s a B a i r e space i f i t s a t i s f i e s one of t h e following equivalent conditions: ( i ) every non-void open subset of X is of second category in X . Proposition 1.) # - n x€rm // . ( i i ) A family % o f non void open subsets of X i s a pseudo-basis f o r X i f every non void open subset of X contains a member of 3 . ( i i ) Every complete metric (pseudo-metric) space (X.)= (Am:rn=1.x(n))( 2/m. r ) w i t h xcX and r 4 n-’ f o r each n.1. . Proof: ( i ) i f V i s a non void open s e t of ( X . I f m & n . 2 . ( i i ) According t o ( i ) .1. . U n Y i s of f i r s t category i n UflY(1. .5( i ) ) . then X i s a Baire space. therefore x(n(Am:m=1. then n(An:n=l.d) i s quasiregular. . Set U:=B( x . Z .8: ( i ) Every metric (pseudo-metric) space (X. l e t x be a point of V. Since i s non void. then X \ A i s dense i n X . ) of pseudo-bases w i t h t h e required property. Set yn t o denote t h e c o l l e c t i o n of a l l non void open b a l l s B ( x .1. Since Y i s B a i r e and UAY i s open i n Y .3(ii)) and hence of f i r s t category i n Y ( 1 . U n Y U n Y // Definition 1. hence ( x ( n ) : n = l . + l . d ) .. .. Proposition 1. There e x i s t s a ball B ( x . 3 ( i ) ) . .

2. ) be a f a m i l y o f pseudo-bases f o r Xi..) where each B B n ( 11.v o i d open s e t o f X . ) and each :n=1.) empty s i n c e X is pseudo-complete..2.) o f closed b a l l s w i t h n. 5 ( i i ) .2. S i n c e X i s q u a s i . .. Then A o ~ A o A L I 1 ~ A l .) in 'm(l). ..2.2. t h e r e e x i s t s a p o l i s h space P and a c o n t i n u o u s s u r j e c t i v e mapping f : P . t h e r e e x i s t s a sequence (Bn:n=1. ) i s n o t empty.. e x i s t s a n o n .. a pseudo-basis f o r X .2.) // P r o p o s i t i o n 1.. Then X i s pseudo-complete. .v o i d open subset T1 whose closure i s contained i n AonU1.)~~(An:n=l.. Set Ao:=U. By t h e v e r y c o n s t r u c t i o n ...12: ( a ) i f X i s SOUSLIN. Fnsuch t h a t An3AnnUn+12Kn+l n(Un:n=1.n( k ) :=f(Bn( 1) . S i n c e U1 i s open and dense there Take 1 i s a n o n .n i s a c l o s e d b a l l o f r a d i u s l e s s t h a n 1/2 Set *n( 1) . ) I/ ( A (An( i):n=1. 1 . . t h e n X i s a B a i r e space. s e t Fn:=(l-J- f o r a l l i b u t a f i n i t e number o f i n d i c e s ) .r e a u l a r .2. 9 : I f X i s pseudo-complete. ..2.. A o n U i s n o t empty.12 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON V E X SPACES Theorem 1 . P r o o f : I t i s easy t o check t h a t X i s q u a s i ...n( k ) .k r a d i i l e s s t h a n 2 . . Consider A n : = T I t i s easy t o check t h a t each Fn i s Fnf o r (I).11: X i s SOUSLIN i f i t i s t h e c o n t i n u o u s i m g e o f a p o l i s h space ( i .. . Thus Un/\(Un:n=1.) be a sequence o f open dense subsets o f X ..1.. PL)(Bn:n=1..n n( 11. e .n(k) o f p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r s and p o i n t s x(m(k)) f o r each k .1.. .. O b s e r v a t i o n 1.I .v o i d open subset o f X .n( k ) .2.) f o r e i t can be covered b y a sequence (B S i n c e P i s m t r i z a b l e and seo f closed b a l l s w i t h r a d i i l e s s t h a n 1 c o v e r i n g P. p a r a b l e .2.n( k ) = u(Bn( 1) . ..2.+ X . (A(i):i EI):A(i)cFn(i). D e f i n i t i o n 1. . and i s noni s n o t emnty. Each B n i s a m e t r i z a b l e s e p a r a b l e space and t h e r e :k=1. which i s a l s o c o n t a i n e d i n A . . 2 .. . .... .2. i f U i s a n o n . . L e t ( F n ( i ) : n = 1 .):i xn+l(i) for EIJ = each n and i = 1 1 we have t h a t A ( A n ( i ) : n = 1 . .r e o u l a r . 2 . Then t h e sequence ( x( m( k ) ) :k=l. 1 . Accorn d i n g t o 1 .) i n X.10: L e t ( X i : i €1) be a f a m i l y o f pseudo-complete m a c e s and l e t X be i t s t o p o l o g i c a l p r o d u c t . F o r e v e r y n.) converges . I) i s n o t empty and hence X i s pseudo-conplete. a space which i s s e p a r a b l e and such t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s a m e t r i c on i t c o m p a t i b l e w i t h i t s t o p o l o g y f o r w h i c h i t i s c o m o l e t e ) .n( k ) ) ... each n s a t i s f y i n g An>An+l = fr(An+l(i):i Since A n ( i ) E F n ( i ) and c o n t a i n s .1. . i t i s enough t o show t h a t Unn(iin:n=1. Proceeding i n d u c t i v e l y . P r o o f : L e t ( U :n=1. 2 .. (An(i):iGI)E n(An+l(i):i A(i)=Xi i GI. c o n t a i n i n g Xi and s a t i s f y i n a t h e r e q u i r e d c o n d i t i o n o f pseudo-completeness. and s e l e c t a sequence (m(k):k=1.. Proceedinq i n d u c t i v e l y s e l e c t f o r each n . Then A ( A n : n = l . A1 E An( yl - such t h a t A1cT1. .

Since A A A * = # . Z .2 B a i r e l i n e a r spaces. * .n( k ) p o i n t s x( k ) CA n l ( k~ f o r k=1. f o r each k t h e r e e x i s t s t ( k ) E B m(1). ... . q u o t i e n t s and B o r e l subspaces. ( x ( m ( k ) : k = l . "n'( 1) I . j o i n t subsets o f X and i f C=U(Cn:n=l. n ' ( k p a contradiction... .. . i n A and A* r e s p e c t i v e l y .n( k ) x f x ' and. d k ) ~ ( r d k ) ) . then u( ~(B(m.1: i n E.. Z . I n what f o l l o w s E denotes a H a u s d o r f f t o o o l o o i c e l l i n e a r space..) . 6 . ) such t h a t e v e r y B o r e l p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r s (n(k):k=1.. .). P r o p o s i t i o n 1.. (t(k):k=1.):n=1.n):m=1. .. Z . and ( x ' ( k ) : k = l . . t h e r e e x i s t d i s j o i n t B o r e l subsets B and B* o f X such t h a t ( # ) i f C and C* a r e d i s .3) : SOUSLIM spaces a r e s t a b l e by c o u n t a b l e products.1. n( 11..B y c o n s t r u c t i o n and s i n c e P i s complete. l Z ( a ) . t h e r e e x i s t s a cornmn k such t h a t V 3 .2. . I f F i s a subspace of E. .2. .2.. s i n c e X i s Hausdorff.2. .) converpes . Assume t h a t e v e r y B o r e l s e t o f X which c o n t a i n s A i n t e r s e c t s A*. t h e n F i s e i t h e r dense o r r a r e . t a i n i n g Cn and d i s j o i n t f r o m C .2. c o u n t a b l e t o p o l o g i c a l sums.) Select intersects A n ' ( 1) . a Bore1 s e t which c o n t a i n s C and i t s complement ( w h i c h i s a l s o a B o r e l s e t ) Now suppose t h a t ' 1s:= ( A ) and U*:=(An(l) *) a r e subn( 11. . // 1..CHAPTER 1 13 with f ( t ( k ) ) = i n X : indeed. c o n t a i n s C*..13: A c B and A * C B * . . 2 and . C l e a r l y .. set containing A A c c o r d i n g t o ( # ) we can s e l e c t f i x e d sequences o f and ( n ' ( k ) : k = l . ) converges t o f(t) )~ in ( X . n ' ( k ) * f o r k=1... .. c o u n t a b l e p r o j e c t i v e and i n d u c t i v e l i m i t s . t h e r e e x i s t open neighbourhoods V and V* f r o m x and x' (hence B o r e l s e t s ) I $ . ) convercy t o some x and x ' t o l . r e s p e c t i v e l y w i t h V/\V*= An( 1) . We A(= ca : lJl I . (x(k):k=l. According n( l ) ..) . .. .n( k ) . I f A and A* a r e d i s j o i n t SOUSLIN subspaces o f X. Proof: F i r s t we observe t h a t and C*= conis i f f o r e v e r y v and n t h e r e e x i s t s a B o r e l s e t B(rn.2..2.n( k ) ( b ) SOUSLIN spaces have remarkable permanence p r o p e r t i e s ( s e e B 1 .. ..2.n( k ) and "( k. ..) u (Cn*:n=1. t o some t i n P and.. . . 6.. . .Z. c o u n t a b l e unions and i n t e r s e c t i o n s .n) L e t X be Hausdorff. . and V* 3 A n'( l). ) a s u b d i v i s i o n o f t h e SOUSLIN space X . . l .2.. P r o p o s i t i o n 1. . s i n c e f i s continuous.n( k) d i v i s i o n s o f A and A* r e s D e c t i v e l y .

14

BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES

Proof: I f

F i s n o t dense i n E , l e t H be i t s c l o s u r e i n E which i s a p r o -

p e r c l o s e d subspace o f E . I f H i s n o t r a r e i n E t h e r e e x i s t s a non v o i d open s e t G c o n t a i n e d i n H. I f x i s a v e c t o r o f G , t h e s e t G-x i s a 0-nphb i n E c o n t a i n e d i n H and hence E = u ( n ( G - x ) : n = l , Z , . . ) diction. i s contained i n

H, a c o n t r a -

//
The f o l l o w i n g t h r e e c o n d i t i o n s a r e e q u i v a l e n t : ( i ) E i s a

Theorem 1.2.2: B a i r e space.

( i i ) E i s o f second c a t e g o r y i n i t s e l f .

(iii) Every a b s o r b i n g

balanced and c l o s e d subset B o f E i s a neighbourhood o f some p o i n t . P r o o f : C l e a r l y ( i ) i m p l i e s (ii). I f E i s n o t a B a i r e soace, t h e r e e x i s t s a non v o i d open s e t 1 1 o f f i r s t c a t e g o r y i n E. I f x(U, implies ( i ) . c a t e g o r y i n i t s e l f . Thus (ii)
(i) i n p l i e s ( i i i ) , f o r i f 6 i s an absorbing, balanced, c l o s e d subspace of E

E=u(n(U-x):n=1,2,.
11,

.)

and s i n c e U-x and n(U-x) a r e o f f i r s t c a t e g o r y i n E f o r each

E is of first

t h e n E=U(nB:n=1,2,..)

and, s i n c e E i s B a i r e , t h e r e e x i s t s a c e r t a i n p such

t h a t @ has non v o i d i n t e r i o r , hence B i s a neighbourhood o f some p o i n t o f E .

To prove t h a t fiii) i m p l i e s (i), suppose t h a t E i s a c o ~ l e x topoloqical
l i n e a r space ( t h e r e a l case i s s i m i l a r b u t e a s i e r ) which i s n o t a B a i r e space. Then t h e r e e x i s t s a non v o i d open s e t W o f f i r s t c a t e c p r y i n E . I f ~ ~ € 1 4 then W-yo i s a 0-nghb o f f i r s t c a t e g o r y i n E and hence t h e r e e x i s t s a c l o s e d balanced 0-nghb V i n E which i s t h e u n i o n o f a c o u n t a b l e f a m i l y o f r a r e s e t s which can be taken closed. Since t h e y a r e d i s t i n c t f r o m E, E has n o t t h e t r i v i a l t o p o l o g y ar.d t h e r e f o r e t h e r e e x i s t s a v e c t o r x i n F: which i s n o t i n V . L e t U be a balanced c l o s e d fl-nghb i n E w i t h U+UCV. Since II i s a g a i n o f f i r s t c a t e g o r y i n E, l e t (An:n=1,2,..) n and A:=U(n-]Bn:n=l,2,..).!.le se u n i o n i s U. Set Rn:=U(ex~(2aki/n)(~(Ai:i=l,..,n):k=0,..,n-l) f o r each s h a l l prove t h a t A i s r a r e and a b s o r b i n q i n
E . If t h i s i s t h e case, B : = n ( b A : I b l 3 1 ~ i s an absorbing, balanced, c l o s e d

and r a r e s e t i n E and we a r e done.

A-1s-rare-ln-E: i f A i s n o t r a r e i n E, A c o n t a i n s an ooen nqhb R o f so!w v e c t o r y. F o r e v e r y p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r s, R C U ( n - b : n < s ) L I U ( n - b n : n ) / s ) = n u ( n - b n : n < s ) U d ( n - 5 : n > s ) . Then t h e open s e t R \ U ( n - ' B n : n ) / s ) i s contained i n which i s a f i n i t e u n i o n o f r a r e s e t s and hence r a n r e i t s e l f . Thus R C u ( n - ' B n : n > , s ) C S - ~ U f o r each s . Then t h e r e e x i s t s b>O 1 f o r each s . such t h a t y+bx(R and y - b x C R and t h e r e f o r e 2 b ~ ~ s - ~ U + s - ~ U V Cs-

Since V i s balanced we a r r i v e t o a c o n t r a d i c t i o n f o r a l l t h o s e s s a t i s f y i n q 2bs 71 1.

-

be a sequence o f c l o s e d r a r e s e t s i n E who-

CHAPTER I

15

A i s a b s o r b i n g i n E: l e t y be a v e c t o r i n E and s e t L:=sp(y). ------------------r e a l b)O and a complex number z such t h a t

Since U i s

a 0-nghb i n E, L A U i s a B a i r e space and hence t h e r e e x i s t s a c e r t a i n D, a f o r every a w i t h la-zlLb P On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e f u n c t i o n e x p ( i t ) i s u n i f o r m l y continuous on O , L t , L Z x and t h e r e f o r e t h e r e e x i s t s q;r/p such t h a t (2)
(3)

(1) ay(A

/exp(it)

-

exp(ir)l

5 b/21zl

if I t - r l c Z n l q IzI-b/2~lsl~\zl+b/2)

Suppose n q q . We s h a l l prove t h a t s y g B n f o r e v e r y s i n t h e annulus X:=(s: Indeed, i f shX i t i s enough t o show t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r k,

0 s k c n - 1 , such t h a t s y E (exp( 2 x k i l n ) ) A
s=lslexp(itl), According t o t h e n l s s k- 1
= Is-ul +

z = I z l e x p ( i t 2 ) and d e f i n e u : = l z l e x p ( i t l ) .

P

which i s c o n t a i n e d i n Sn. N r i t e There e x i s t s a po-

s i t i v e i n t e g e r k y O , C k C n - l , such t h a t

(Z), (exp((tl-t2)i) - e x p ( k k i / n ) l L- b / 2 1 z l . I f sk:=exp(2Tdti/n) - z I = I s - z s I ~ l s - u l + l u - z s ~= l Is-ul + I z l . l e x p ( i t l ) -exp(it2)skj
-

I ( t 1-t 2)
+ b/2

-

2 x k / n ( I 2xJn L- Wq.

k I z l .lexp((tl-t2)i)

ski< b/2

=

b.
If s satisfies

I f z=O, f o r e v e r y s w i t h 0

<Is1 4 b/2, s y € B n and hence A absorbs y . Ifzf
+b/2) and ( 3 ) i m p l i e s

0, s e l e c t a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r n07/q such t h a t I z l / ( n o + l ) < h / 2 .

I

zl/(no+l),C I s l & l z l / n o then n - l ( I z l -b/2)&lsl<n-1(lzi

t h a t A absorbs y. The p r o o f i s c o n p l e t e .

//
of
P

P r o p o s i t i o n 1.2.3:

I f E i s covered b y a c o u n t a b l e f a m i l y (En:n=1,2,..)

subspaces and i f E i s a B a i r e space, t h e r e e x i s t s a c e r t a i n D such t h a t E i s a B a i r e sDace and dense i n E. P r o o f : Since E i s B a i r e t h e r e e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r p such t h a t E n o t o f f i r s t c a t e g o r y i n E. Thus E P i n i t s e l f . A c c o r d i n g t o 1.2.1 and 1.2.2, E
P

is P i s n o t r a r e i n E and o f second c a t e g o r y i s dense i n E and a B a i r e space.

r/

C o r o l l a r y 1.2.4: B a i r e space. P r o p o s i t i o n 1.2.5:

I f E has i n f i n i t e c o u n t a b l e dimension, t h e n E i s n o t a

I f F i s a dense subspace o f

E and F i s a B a i r e space,

t h e n E i s a B a i r e space. P r o o f : I t f o l l o w s f r o m 1.1.6.

//

P r o p o s i t i o n 1.2.6:

L e t E be an i n f i n i t e - d i m e n s i o n a l B a i r e space. Then t h e -

r e e x i s t s a p r o p e r dense subspace which i s a B a i r e space.

16

BARRELLED LOCALLY CON VEX SPACES

P r o o f : L e t ( x( n) :n=l,2

,.. )

be a sequence o f 1 i n e a r l y independent v e c t o r s i s a baf o r each n. C l e a r l y (En:n=1,2,..)
P

i n E. Take a f a m i l y B o f v e c t o r s i n E such t h a t B u ( x ( n ) : n = 1 , 2 , . . ) s i s f o r E and s e t E n : = s p ( B U ( x ( l ) , . . , x ( n ) ) a B a i r e space. covers E. Then 1.2.3 shows t h e e x i s t e n c e o f some E

w h i c h i s dense i n E and

//

P r o p o s i t i o n 1.2.7: ( i ) L e t f : E - - * F be a l i n e a r mappino, F b e i n g any topol o g i c a l l i n e a r space. I f E i s B a i r e , t h e n f i s n e a r l y continuous. ( i i ) L e t f:E-F be a l i n e a r , continuous, s u r , j e c t i v e and n e a r l y open maoping where E i s B a i r e and F a t o p o l o g i c a l l i n e a r space. Then F i s a B a i r e space. L e t V he a 0-nghb i n F and U a O-n@b i n F w i t h U - U C \ I . Since Proof: (i) 1 1 f- ( U ) i s o f second c a t e g o r y i n E ( o b s e r v e t h a t E = U ( n f - (U):n=1,2,..) is 1 a B a i r e space and a o p l y 1 . 2 . 2 ( i i ) ) , f - ( U ) i s n o t r a r e i n E. Thus f-l(U)-f-'(u) i s a 0-nghb i n E . Since f - ( V ) - > ? l ( U ) n e a r l y continuous as d e s i r e d . ( i i ) Suppose F n o t a B a i r e space. There e x i s t s a sequence (An:n=1,2,..) of c l o s e d s e t s w i t h v o i d i n t e r i o r c o v e r i n g F. Then E i s covered by t h e f a m i l y 1 o f c l o s e d s e t s (f-I(An):n=1,2,..). Since E i s a B a i r e space, sow f - (Ap) i s n o t o f f i r s t c a t e g o r y i n E and hence n o t r a r e i n E. Thus f ( f - ' ( A ) ) = A = P P A i s n o t r a r e i n F, a c o n t r a d i c t i o n . // P

-1 -

-

f - l G ) 3 f - (U)

-1-

-1- f((I),

f is

-

C o r o l l a r y 1.2.8: I f M i s a c l o s e d subspace o f a B a i r e soace E , t h e n E/M i s a B a i r e space P r o p o s i t i o n 1.2.9: L e t F be a c l o s e d subspace o f c o u n t a b l e codimension o f be a cobasis o f F i n E and s e t E n : = s p ( F U ( x ( l ) , and, a c c o r d i n a t o 1 . 2 . 3 , i s c l o s e d i n E and hence
SO-

a B a i r e space E. Then F i s f i n i t e - c o d i m e n s i o n a l i n E and F i s B a i r e . P r o o f : L e t (x(n):n=1,2,..)
..,x(n))

f o r each n . C l e a r l y E = u ( E n : n = l , 2 , . . )

me E

P P c o i n c i d e s w i t h E. Thus F has f i n i t e codimension i n E and M : = s p ( x ( l ) , . . , x ( n ) )

i s dense i n E . Since F i s c l o s e d i n E, E

i s a t o p o l o g i c a l complement o f F i n E . Since F i s i s o m r p h i c t o E/M, 1.2.8
imp1 i e s t h e c o n c l u s i o n .

//

The f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t i s s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d P r o p o s i t i o n 1.2.10: - I f E i s Baire, the f o l l o w i n g conditions are equivalent ( i ) a l i n e a r f o r m on E i s continuous i f i t s k e r n e l i s o f f i r s t c a t e g o r y i n E.

CHAPTER 1

17

( ii)e v e r y dense hyperplane o f E i s a B a i r e space. (iii) e v e r y f i n i t e - c o d i m e n s i o n a l subspace o f E i s a B a i r e space.
L e t P be t h e 2-dimensional e u c l i d e a n space endowed w i t h t h e norm Ilxll:= (x,x)'/' and l e t el and e2 be t h e v e c t o r s o f t h e c a n o n i c a l b a s i s . I f x#O i s cost a v e c t o r o f P, l e t t : = t ( x ) be t h e unique r e a l number i n [ O p l s a t i s f y i n g
= (x,el)/l(x,el)l

. We

have t h e f o l l o w i n g s i m p l e

Lemm 1.2.11: and

Suppose b L l and l e t q be a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r . I f u and v Ilvll}q-' and nu-vll 4 bq-', then

a r e v e c t o r s o f P w i t h lIu\hq-l, (ii) t,<tg(t)<Zb,

(i) 0 St,< V2
To p r o v e

where t , : = l t ( u ) - t ( v ) l . q - l s i n t <fiullsint,< Ilu-vll <b/q.

Proof: (i) i s immediate.Clearly,

(ii) i t i s enough t o show t h a t llullcost,)/l/( 2q). Suppose Ilullcost,<l/( 2q). 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Then ilu-vll = IlulI sen t,+ ( IlvII - I l u l l c o s ~ ) b l l u l i s i n to+ ( llvll - 1/( 2 q ) ) 2 -2 -2 - 4 - l q - 2 4-lq-2 = q . Thus Ju-vll)q-l, a c o n t r a d i c t i o n . 9
+

//

I n o u r n e x t r e s u l t we s h a l l need MARTIN's axiom t o ensure t h a t t h e u n i o n o f l e s s than 2
s o

s e t s o f r e a l numbers o f L e b e s y e measure z e r o i s a g a i n o f

measure zero. The Continuum Hypothesis i m p l i e s MARTIN's axiom and t h i s axiom i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e o r d i n a r y s e t t h e o r y ( i n c l u d i n a t o Axiom o f Choice) b u t i s independent of t h e Continuum Hypothesis ( s e e SCHOENFIELD,( 1) f o r details). Theorem 1.2.12: a B a i r e space. P r o o f : I t i s enough t o c a r r y o u t t h e w o o f supposing E a r e a l l i n e a r space, f o r if E i s a complex space, l e t Er be t h e u n d e r l y i n g r e a l space and l e t L e t E be a s e p a r a b l e i n f i n i t e - d i m e n s i o n a l B a i r e space.

Assuming MARTIN's axiom, t h e r e e x i s t s a dense hyperplane o f E w h i c h i s n o t

H be

a dense hyperplane o f Er o f f i r s t c a t e g o r y i n Er.

Then H A i H i s t h e de-

s i r e d hyperplane f o r E. L e t ( z ( n ) :n=1,2,.

. ) be a sequence o f l i n e a r l y independent v e c t o r s o f E and

l e t ( U :n=l,Z,..) be a seauence o f balanced, open 0-nghbs i n E such t h a t z ( n ) n f o r each n . L e t Q:E-+F be t h e canodoes n o t b e l o n g t o Un and Un+l+Un+lCUn n i c a l s u r j e c t i o n o n t o F:=E/N, S e t t i n g Vn:=Q(Un)
N b e i n g t h e c l o s e d subspace A(Un:n=l,2,.

.).

f o r each n, F i s a separable i n f i n i t e - d i m e n s i o n a l B a i r e and Vn+l+V

space ( 1 . 2 . 8 ) w i t h n(Vn:n=1,2,..)=(0)

t h e r e e x i s t s a t o p o l o g y t on F such t h a t ( F , t )

c Vn f o r each n. Thus n+l i s m e t r i z a b l e and separable

18

BARRELLED LOCALLY CON VEX SPACES
* a

and hence dim( F ) :card(

F) = 2

.

Ifa dense h y p e r p l a n e H o f f i r s t c a t e g o r y

i n F can be found, o u r d e s i r e d r e s u l t f o l l o w s c o n s i d e r i n g O-'(H). Since F i s s e p a r a b l e , t h e r e e x i s t s a sequence ( x ( n):n=1,2,. (1.2.4).

.) o f vectors

i n F w h i c h i s dense i n F and such t h a t i t s l i n e a r soan i s d i s t i n c t f r o m F F o r e v e r y n, s e t Gn:=sp( x( 1 ) ,. . ,x( n)) and d e t e r m i n e a s e w e n c e o f p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r s , which we denote by d o u b l e i n d i c e s n such t h a t ( x ( j ) + V ( n , j ) ) " G n and L : = A ( L :n=l,Z,..),
= dfor j>

C( n , n + l ) ( (

n,n+2)(.

..

n. S e t t i n g Ln:= u ( x ( j ) + V ( n , i ) : j > n )

n

we have t h a t L n n G n

=$b, Ln

i s an open dense s e t i n

F and, s i n c e F i s B a i r e , F \ L i s o f f i r s t c a t e q o r y i n F. We s h a l l c o n s t r u c t
a dense h y p e r p l a n e H o f F c o n t a i n e d i n F \ L and t h u s H w i l l be o f f i r s t cat e g o r y i n F. Let

M

be an a l g e b r a i c c o r p l e m e n t o f G : = u ( G n : n = l , 2 , . . )

i n F and l e t ( y ( s ) : If cLa,

s ( a ) be a b a s i s o f M f o r an o r d i n a l a w i t h l , L c a r d ( a ) <dim(F)=Zi".
we s e t F C : = s p ( G u ( y ( s ) : s < c ) ) and Hl:=G. s p ( G W y ( 0 ) ) and HIAL=

H1 i s a dense h y p e r p l a n e o f F1:=
proceed b y t r a n s f i n i t e i n d u c -

$.
and f o r e v e r y s < g , suppose we have a l -

I f a = l , s e t H:=H1 and we a r e done. I f a > l ,
t i o n : f o r an o r d i n a l q w i t h O ( g ( a ready c o n s t r u c t e d a subspace Hs o f Fs such t h a t

1. HS i s a h y p e r p l a n e o f Fs
2. Hs i s d i s j o i n t f r o m L 3. i f s1 < s 2 < g , then H

i s contained i n H

s1 Now we c o n s t r u c t a subspace H
1'. H

s2
9

2'. H

g

o f F such t h a t 9 9 i s a hyperplane o f F i s d i s j o i n t from L t h e n Hs i s c o n t a i n e d i n H

9 ( a ) ....................... i f g i s a l i m i t o r d i n a l : we s e t H . = U ( H s : s < g ) , w h i c h i s a subsoace of g' F 2 ' and 3 ' a r e t r i v i a l l y s a t i s f i e d . I n o r d e r t o check l ' , c o n s i d e r a subs9' pace R o f F c o n t a i n i n g t! as a p r o p e r subsoace and a v e c t o r x i n R which i s 9 g S i n c e X G F i t can be w r i t t e n as x=y+z w i t h y i n HS and z i n Fs not i n H g' 9 f o r some s ( g . Then HS=H n F S i s c o n t a i n e d in R A F S and, s i n c e x E R T \ F s \ H s 9 and Hs i s a h y p e r p l a n e o f Fs, i t f o l l o w s t h a t Fs i s c o n t a i n e d i n R . If s ' 4 s t h e n F S , C F S C R . I f s ~ s ' t,h e n H S , = H g n F s l C P A F s , and, s i n c e x r G F s C F s , , then xERT\Fs, \Hsi. (b) Thus FS,=R and hence F = u ( F s : s < 9 ) c o i n c i d e s w i t h 9 . 9 t a k e a v e c t o r z( a) i n Fq-l\Hg-l
3 P be t h e D r o i e c t i o n o n t o P a l o n q Hg-l. 9 and a norm I . I such t h a t , i f x : = b y ( a - l ) +

9 3 ' . i f s (9,

If-s-ls-en_ordlra2_w~~~-~~~~~~~~~o~:
t h e n (x,v):=bd+ce

and s e t P:=sp(y( g - l ) , z ( 9 ) ) . L e t h:F On P d e f i n e a s c a l a r p r o d u c t (.,.)

c z ( g ) , y : = d y ( g - l ) + e z ( g) w i t h r e a l s b,c,d,e,

and / X I : =

CHAPT€R 7

19
L e t m:P\(O) -t[O,x]be t h e mappin9 d e f i n e d b y m ( x ) : = t ,
t being

(b2+c2)1'2.

t h e unique r e a l number s a t i s f y i n g cost=( x,y( g - l ) ) / \ ( x,y( g - l ) ) !

. L e t 3; be

t h e f a m i l y of a l l f i n i t e p a r t s i n t h e s e t ( s : s ( 9 ) and l e t be t h e f a m i l y of a l l subspaces of F of t h e form Gn+P+sp(y(s):sCJ) where n=1,2,.. and J€Z 9 Since card( g) card( a)< Zr0, 3 has c a r d i n a l l e s s t h a n 2 % . Yoreover, i f x E

<

L A F g y t h e n h(x)#O s i n c e LfiHg-l= G1+P+A,

6 and

thus t h e r e e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r €Jo)=:A. S e t t i n g D:=
(1<

q such t h a t / h ( x ) l > q - l and J o E s s u c h t h a t x ( s p ( y ( s ) : s
i t i s c l e a r t h a t D belongs t o 3

. Thus

LAFg =U(Lnya:D~~,q=1,2,..).

F i x i n g D and q, t h e r e s t r i c t i o n o f h t o D i s c o n t i n u o u s and hence, g i v e n T < 1 , t h e r e e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r r such t h a t I h ( x ) l L T q - l i f x t V r n D . The p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r r determines a sequence r Set LDYqyr:=(x<LrAD: v e c t o r s x and y o f x r + p Ih(x)l>q-').
+

< ( r,r+l)( ( r,r+Z) < .. . ...

.

For a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r D, t a k e any two

"(r,r+p)

zZqpv( r , r + l ) C
\h(x-y)l
t (tg( t)

2'-'Vr

and t h e r e f o r e

I h( x-y) I

Then x - Y " V ( r , r + ~ ) C V ( r , r + p - l ) '...*C i s l e s s t h a n h( x) s i n c e u:=h(x), v:=h(y),
b:=

< 21-pTq-1<q-1(
<

h ( x ) . S e t t i n g i n 1.2.11,

21-pT we o b t a i n t h a t t : = l moh(x)

-

moh(y)l s a t i s f i e s ( i ) 0 3 t<x/2 and ( i i )

Z2-'T. Thus t h e image o f L under t h e mapping moh i s c o j e r e d D,q,r b y a sequence of i n t e r v a l s whose u n i o n has Lebesgue measure l e s s t h a n z 2 2 - P T
= 4T and t h e r e f o r e rn.h(L

Since

a

) has Lebesgue measure z e r o s i n c e T was a r b i t r a r y . D,q has c a r d i n a l l e s s t h a n ZXo , MARTIN'S axiom i m D l i e s t h a t moh(LnFg)
m(u)

9 '

'

has Lebesgue measure zero. Thus a v e c t o r ufO i n P can be s e l e c t e d such t h a t m o h ( L n F ) and X - m ( u ) moh(LAF ) . We s e t H :=sp((u) 9 9 9 UHg-l). C l e a r l y , H s a t i s f i e s 1 ' , 2 ' and 3 ' . 9 F i n a l l y , s e t t i n g H:=u(H : g < a ) we have t h a t H i s a hyperplane o f Fa=F 9 which does n o t m e t L. Since H c o n t a i n s ( x ( l ) , x ( 2 ) , . . . ) , H i s dense i n F. O<n(u)<X/Z,

#

4

//

According t o 1.1.8, P r o p o s i t i o n 1.2.13:

1.1.9 and 1.1.10 we have

(i) Every (F)-space i s B a i r e .

(ii) If (Ei:iCI)

is a

non-void f a m i l y o f (F)-spaces, I l a r K i s a B a i r e space. P r o p o s i t i o n 1.2.14:

i t s topological product i s Baire. I n particu-

I f E=TT(Ei:i&

I ) i s B a i r e , t h e n Eo i s B a i r e . there i s Since Eo i s dense i n E, indeed, if t h e r e

Proof: Suppose t h a t Eo i s n o t a B a i r e space. A c c o r d i n g t o 1.2.2, a r a r e subset B i n Eo such t h a t E o = ~ ( n B : n = 1 , 2 , . . ) . the closure A o f B i n exists a vector x : = ( x ( i ) : i C I )

E i s r a r e i n E and E=U(nA:n=l,Z,..):

i n E w i t h x 4 n A f o r e v e r y n, s e l e c t f i n i t e

20

BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES

subsets (Jn:n=1,2,..)

i n I such t h a t x(Jn) + n ( E i : i L I \ J n )

does n o t meet

t o nA f o r e v e r y n. S e t t i n g J : = u J , : n = 1 , 2 , . . ) , Baire, a contradiction.

we have t h a t x ( J ) i s n o t i n

nA f o r e v e r y n and t h e r e f o r e n o t i n nPAEo = nB. Again hy 1.2.2,

E i s not

//

D e f i n i t i o n 1.2.15: A t o p o l o g i c a l l i n e a r space E has p r o p e r t y ( K ) i f e v e r y n u l l sequence ( x ( n ) : n = 1 , 2 , . . ) i n E c o n t a i n s a subsequence ( x ( n k ) : k = 1 , 2 , . . ) such t h a t r x ( n k ) i s c o n v e r g e n t i n E . O b s e r v a t i o n 1.2.16: ( a ) i f E i s normed and ( x ( n ) : n = 1 , 2 , . . ) quence, t h e r e e x i s t s a subsequence ( x ( n k ) : k = 1 , 2 , . t h e r e f o r e E has p r o p e r t y space. ( b ) t h e r e e x i s t non-complete norrred spaces w h i c h do n o t have D r o n e r t y ( K ) : t a k e E:=K(N) endowed w i t h t h e sup-norm. The sequence (n-'e(n):n=1,2,. b e i n g t h e c a n o n i c a l u n i t v e c t o r s , n=1,2,.., subseries o f n-'e(n) converges t o a v e c t o r o f E .

i s a n u l l seis

. ) such t h a t z \ \ x ( n k ) l l

c o n v e r g e n t . I f , i n a d d i t i o n , E i s complete t h e n z x ( n k ) i s c o n v e r g e n t and

(K).

This l a s t assertion i s also t r u e i f E i s a ( F ) -

.), e(n)

i s a n u l l sequence i n E b u t no

Theorem 1.2.17:

I f E i s r e t r i z a b l e and has p r o p e r t y

(K),

then E i s B a i r e .

P r o o f : L e t p( . ) be t h e F-norm on E d e s c r i b i n g i t s t o p o l o g y and l e t (Un:n=

l,Z,..)

be a d e c r e a s i n g sequence o f dense open subsets o f E . To show t h a t i s dense i n E, i t i s enough t o check t h a t 0 i s i n t h e c l o s u I f A i s any s u b s e t o f E , s e t Ao:=E and A1:=A. Given i n E and a sequence

n(Un:n=1,2,..) any b)O (i)

r e o f n(Un:n=1,2,..). (Vn:n=1,2,..)

we s h a l l c o n s t r u c t a sequence ( x ( n ) : n = 1 , 2 , . . ) o f open s u b s e t s o f E such t h a t : dx(n))<b2-n

( i)

VnCUn

( i i ) zeix(i)t. Once thoseils*equences
( x ( n :n=1,2,..)

nvieif o r a l l
6
G I
0%

e.=0,1 1

have been c o n s t r u c t e d , observe t h a t , a c c o r d i n g t o (i),

i s a n u l l sequence and hence has a subsequence (x(nk):k=1,2,.) belonqs t o V

such t h a t x x ( n k ) converges t o some x i n E b y p r o p e r t v p ( x ) d b . According t o ( i i i ) , xx(n,,)

(K). Aaain by ( i ) , f o r a l l i w i t h 1 Gi,C m.

w
Thus x
1(=,

nk

=

nun.
n:4

w

'i S i n c e b>O was a r b i t r a r y , t h e c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s .
yr.4
h

We proceed b y r e c u r r e n c e . F o r n = l , choose x( 1) cU1 w i t h p ( x ( 1 ) )( b 2 - I . r e e x i s t s an open s e t V

The-

1

such t h a t x( l ) C V 1 andTICU1.

Suppose ( x ( l ) , . . , x ( f i ) )

CHAPTER 7

21

Vn) a l r e a d y c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h t h e d e s i r e d p r o p e r t i e s . Then V : = a % - ( ~eix(i!):ei=O,l) i s a 0-nghb, a c c o r d i n g t o ( i i i ) . Voreover,

n

x(n+l) ( U ’

m
i=4

Gi

xe.xti):e.=O,l)
1 1

i s a dense open subset o f E. Then t h e r e e x i s t s L em t U ’ be an open subset o f E w i t h
1 O,l). z *=ae i x ( i ) : e . =

n V w i t h p(x(n+l))<bZ-(”’).
and F C UAV. Set Vn+,:=U(U1+
m

Since FLU,

we have t h a t U ’ + Z e i x ( i ) C U

f o r ei=O,l. Hence ( i i ) h o l d s f o r n + l . By 4-3 n+ 1 , n t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f V and s i n c e x ( n + l ) EU’CV, we have t h a t Z e i x ( i ) + x ( n + l ) &
i‘4

n(Viei

:i=l,..,n)~V,+~

f o r ei=O,l

and (iii) follows f o r n+l.

/I

Theorem 1.2.18:

(UNIFORM BOUNDEDNESS PRINCIPLE) L e t E be a B a i r e space, F Then

a t o p o l o g i c a l l i n e a r sDace and H a p o i n t w i s e bounded subset o f L(E,F).

H i s equicontinuous. Proof: L e t V be a 0-nghb i n F and W a c l o s e d balanced 0-nghb i n F w i t h W+
WCV. Set A : = / \ ( f -

1 ( W ) : f C H ) which i s a c l o s e d s e t i n E. Since H i s p o i n t -

wise bounded, t h e B a i r e space E can be covered by t h e seauence (nAn:n=1,2,..) and hence pA has non v o i d i n t e r i o r f o r s o w p. Thus A has non-void i n t e r i o r , and s e t t i n g U:=A-A, U i s a 0-nghb i n E such t h a t f ( U ) = f ( A ) - f ( A ) C W - W C V f o r e v e r y f i n H. Thus H i s e q u i c o n t i n u o u s as d e s i r e d .

I/

Theorem 1.2.19: a (F)-space. i s continuous.

(CLOSED GRAPH THEOREM) L e t E be a B a i r e space and l e t F be i s a l i n e a r mapping w i t h c l o s e d qraph i n ExF, t h e n f

I f f:E*F

P r o o f : L e t V be a 0-nahb i n F. There e x i s t s a c l o s e d balanced 0-nghb W i n F w i t h WMCV. Set W o : $ l l . lanced 0-nghbs (Wn:n=1,2,. ding t o 1.2.7.(i)y
f

Since F i s w t r i z a b l e , s e l e c t a b a s i s o f c l o s e d ba+ Wn+lCWn

i s a O-n@b i n E f o r each n. Our c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s 1 1 1 by showing t h a t f (Wo) i s c o n t a i n e d i n f - (WooYdo) and hence i n f- ( V ) .

. ) such t h a t Wn+l 1

f o r n=0,1,.

. . Accor-

(121,)

L e t x be a v e c t o r o f f

1 (Wo). A sequence (x(n):n=O,l,..)

i n E can be se-

l e c t e d i n d u c t i v e l y such t h a t

( iI x( n ) Ef-l(Wn) ( i i ) x E ~ ( o ) + .+x(n)+f-l(Wn+l) .
The s e r j e s z ( f ( x ( n ) ) : n = O , l , . . )

f o r n=0,1,.

.

converges t o a c e r t a i n v e c t o r y i n F: indeed, The p r o o f i s

if r > n ,

~(f(x(i)):i=n+ly..,r)~Wn+l+..+WrCWn. Then y C f( z ( x ( i ) : i = l , . .

,n)) + W n f o r e v e r y n and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , y 4 f ( x ( 0 ) ) t W o C W o M o .

complete if we show t h a t ( x , y ) belongs t o t h e c l o s u r e o f t h e graph o f f i n ExF. L e t P and Q be neighbourhoods o f x and y i n E and F r e s p e c t i v e l y and s e l e c t a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r p such t h a t y+Ww+ld C4. A c c o r d i n g t o (i), there P+ 1

22

BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES

e x i s t s a v e c t o r u i n P such t h a t u - z ( d i ) : i = O , . . , p )

i s c o n t a i n e d i n f-l(Wp+l)

and hence ~ ( U ) C ~ M ~ + W Thus ~ +f ~ ( u. ) E Q and t h e p r o o f i s c o n p l e t e . / /

(GROTHENDIECK's FACTORIZATION THEOREM) L e t E be a C o r o l l a r y 1.2.20: (i) B a i r e space, F = ind((Fn,tn):n=l,2,..) spaces and f : E - + F a countable i n d u c t i v e l i w i t o f ( F ) a l i n e a r mapping w i t h c l o s e d graph i n ExF. There e x i s t s

a p o s i t i v e i n t e y r p such t h a t f ( E ) i s c o n t a i n e d i n F and f : E - - + ( F ,t ) i s P P P continuous. (ii) (I(6THE-GROTHENDIECK's CLOSED GRAPH THEOREM) L e t E and F be (LF)-spaces and f : E d F a l i n e a r napping w i t h c l o s e d graph i n ExF. Then f i s continuous. P r o o f : C l e a r l y ( i i ) f o l l o w s f r o r r ( i ) . To check ( i ) w r i t e E as U ( E n : n = l ,

Z,..) where En:=f- 1 (F,)

f o r each n and a p p l y 1.2.3 t o f i n d a p o s i t i v e i n t e -

yr p such t h a t E i s B a i r e and dense i n E. The r e s t r i c t i o n g o f f t o E has P P t ) i s continuous (1.2.19). c l o s e d graph i n E x(F ,t ) and hence g:ED-(F P' D P P P L e t us check t h e e q u a l i t y E=E * Indeed, i f x 6 E t h e r e e x i s t s a n e t ( x ( a ) : a c P' A ) i n E c o n v e r s i n g t o x i n E. Then ( f ( x ( a ) ) : a C A ) = ( g ( x ( a ) ) : a L A ) i s a P Cauchy n e t i n (FD,t ) and t h e r e f o r e i t converces t o a c e r t a i n y i n ( F t ) . P' P P C l e a r l y y = f ( x)' and hence x 6 E

P.11

C o r o l l a r y 1.2.21: Proof: Let (E,t)

No p r o p e r H a u s d o r f f (LF)-space i s a B a i r e space.
= ind((En,tn):n=l,2,.

. ) be a p r o p e r H a u s d o r f f (LF)-space

and suppose t h a t ( E , t )

i s B a i r e . A c c o r d i n g t o 1.2.3, t h e r e e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e

i n t e g e r p such t h a t ( E , t ) i s B a i r e and E i s dense i n ( E , t ) . The c a n o n i c a l ? P t ) has c l o s e d graph s i n c e t i s c o a r s e r t h a n t and i n j e c t i o n ( E ,t)-(E P P' ? P t i s a H a u s d o r f f t o p o l o g y . A c c o r d i n g t o 1.2.19, b o t h t o p o l o g i e s c o i n c i d e on
E and hence ( E , t ) = ind((En,tn):n=p,p+l ,...) i s a s t r i c t (LF)-space and P each En i s t h e r e f o r e c l o s e d i n ( E , t ) f o r each n > p . Since En i s dense i n (E,t)

f o r each n a p , t h e i n d u c t i v e l i r m ' t i s n o t proper, a c o n t r a d i c t i o n .

//

Lemna 1.2.22: L e t E and M be t o p o l o g i c a l l i n e a r spaces, F a subspace o f E and f:F-M a l i n e a r napping w i t h graph G . Then f has a l i n e a r e x t e n s i o n w i t h c l o s e d graph i f and o n l y i f no p a i r (O,y), yfO, belongs t o t h e c l o s u r e o f G

CHAPTER 1

23

i n ExM. P r o o f : The n e c e s s i t y i s o b v i o u s . Conversely, t h e c l o s u r e o f G i n FxY is t h e graph o f a l i n e a r mapping g w h i c h has c l o s e d graph: i f (x,y) and ( x , y ' ) b e l o n g t o t h e c l o s u r e o f G, i t s d i f f e r e n c e ( 0 , y - y ' ) oelongs t o t h e c l o s u r e o f G and, a c c o r d i n q t o h y p o t h e s i s , y - y ' = O and g i s w e l l - d e f i n e d .

//

D e f i n i t i o n 1.2.23: near mapping f:E-+F

L e t F b e a f a m i l y o f t o p o l o g i c a l l i n e a r spaces. w i t h c l o s e d graph i n ExF i s c o n t i n u o u s , i . e .

vs i s
the

t h e f a m i l y o f a l l t o p o l o g i c a l l i n e a r spaces E such t h a t , i f F t F , e v e r y lio p t i m a l domain c l a s s f o r a c l o s e d graph theorem whose range c l a s s P r o p o s i t i o n 1.2.24:

F s is i s y.

The c l a s s o f B a i r e spaces i s n o t o p t i m a l i n t h e sense

o f 1.2.23 w h e n F s t a n d s f o r t h e c l a s s of a l l (F)-spaces. P r o o f : The i d e a i s t o show t h a t i f a space belongs t o class

F s for

a certain

T , then

every finite-codimensional and f : H -

subspace o f i t belongs a l s o t o

Fs.

L e t E be a B a i r e space, H t h e non B a i r e h y p e r p l a n e c o n s t r u c t e d i n 1.2.12

(E i s assumed t o be s e p a r a b l e )

F a l i n e a r mapping w i t h c l o s e d graph
f has a l i n e a r e x t e n s i o n g If t h i s i s not the

G i n HxF i n t o a ( F ) - s p a c e F. A c c o r d i n g t o 1.2.22,

w i t h c l o s e d graph G . I f t h e domain o f g i s E, s e t g':=q. case, t a k e any l i n e a r e x t e n s i o n g ' t o E whose graph i s dimensional space and hence c l o s e d . I n any case,

G+P, R b e i n g a f i n i t e -

1.2.19 shows t h a t g ' i s

c o n t i n u o u s and hence i t s r e s t r i c t i o n f t o H i s a l s o c o n t i n u o u s . Should t h e c l a s s o f a l l S a i r e spaces be o p t i m a l , t h e n H would be a B a i r e space and t h a t

i s n o t t h e case.

//

Now we s h a l l t r e a t L. SCHWARTZ's b o r e l i a n graph theorem Lemma 1.2.25: L e t E be u B a i r e t o p o l o g i c a l l i n e a r space and A and B suband V\B

s e t s of E. I f t h e r e e x i s ? 0 8 i s j o i n t oDen s u b s e t s ( 1 and V w i t h I J \ A o f f i r s t c a t e g o r y i n E, t h e n A n B # Proof: Suppose A A B = + .

d.
Since both i s o f second c a t e g o r y i n

C l e a r l y , U A V= ( u A v ) \ ( A ~ B ) = ( U A V ) (~ E\(A
= (UnVA(E\ A))U(UAVA(E\B)).

AB))

= (UAV)/\((E\

A)U(E\B))

U A V i s an open subset o f E, 1.1.5 shows t h a t U/)V

E.

Since ( U A V O ( E \ A ) ) = ( U A V ) \ A C u \ A and ( U A V n ( E \ B ) ) C \ I \ B ,

s u b s e t s a r e o f f i r s t c a t e g o r y i n E and hence a l s o i t s u n i o n , a c o n t r a d i c t ' n.

)P

Lemma 1.2.26:

F o r a s u b s e t A o f E, A-A = ( x

cE:( x+A)AA

#

4).

26 shows e s h a l l see v o i d open subset o f E c o n t a i n i n g 0.2.28: L e t X.( B ) = P ~ ( P ~ . t h e n A \ U = A would be o f f i r s t c a t e g o r y i n E. 9 : L e t X.2. i t s t r a n s l a d a t e x(A-A as d e s i r e d .27. t h e r e e x i s t s an open subset U of E such t h a t A \ U and U \ A a r e o f f i r s t c a t e g o r y i n E.24 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES P r o o f : I f xCA-A. I/ Lemm 1.2.27: L e t A be a subset o f a t o p o l o g i c a l l i n e a r space E which i s o f second c a t e g o r y i n E. // is D e f i n i t i o n 1. I f x(U-11.1.26. f . V i s a B o r e l subs e t o f F and hence f . C l e a r l y . e . 1. f o r e v e r y B o r e l subset A o f Y .hence Borel-measurable. Thus xCA-A.l ( V ) i s a b s o l u t e l y convex) i s a 0-nghb i n E and t h e r e f o r e f . A maoping f : X + Y Prop. U-U i s a 0-nghb i n E. Since U \ A i s o f f i r s t c a t e g o r y i n E.F tinuous. f-'(A) o f X. and t h e r e f o r e AfI(x+A) t h e r e e x i s t y( A and z E A such t h a t x=y-z. Then f i s Borel-measurable. t h e n A-A i s a 0-nghb.( V ) i s a b s o r b i n g i n E and E i s a 1 B a i r e space.12(b) i t s continuous image by p1 i s a l s o SOUSLIN. 1 /I a mapping who- P r o p o s i t i o n 1 . 1 Proof: L e t B be a B o r e l subset of Y. Then f i s con- P r o o f : L e t V be a c l o s e d a b s o l u t e l y convex 0-nghb i n F. P r o o f : Observe t h a t i f A i s o f second c a t e q o r y i n E. A c c o r d i n g t o 1. i . I f A has t h e B a i r e p r o p e r t y . f-'(V)-f-'(V) = 1 2f-'(V) ( f . a c c o r d i n g t o 1. t h a t (x+U)AU# 4. Then 11-11 i s a non 1. r e pl:XxY-+X and p2:XxY+Y a r e t h e c a n o n i c a l p r o j e c t i o n s . i f y g A A ( x + A ) . t h e n E i s a B a i r e space.Y be t o p o l o g i c a l spaces. hence f.2. An( x+A)# 4 and. Continuous f u n c t i o n s a r e Borel-measurable (B1. s i n c e if U=d.2. 10).Y be t o p o l o g i c a l spaces. Since A has t h e B a i r e p r o p e r t y . Moreover.2. P r o p o s i t i o n 1. i s a B o r e l subset L e t E be a B a i r e l o c a l l y convex space.2.~ ( B ) A G whe).29: convex space and f : E . t h e r e e x i s t s z C A such t h a t y=x+z and t h e r e f o r e x=y-z. (x+U)\ (x+A) i s a g a i n o f f i r s t c a t e g o r y i n E and.3.l ( V ) i s a B o r e l subset o f E. Conversely. Borel-measurable i f . e v e r y B o r e l subs e t has t h e B a i r e p r o p e r t y . S i n shows t h a t i t i s a SOUSLIN subspace of G. U can n o t he v o i d . C l e a r l y f. ce G i s SOUSLIN. hence tinuous. f : Y + Y se graph G i s a SOUSLIN subspace o f XxY. hence X+Z EA ##.?6.25.( V ) i s a 0-nghb i n E. which a r e conThus p2-l(B)AG i s a B o r e l subset of G . W t h a t U-UCA-A f r o m where o u r c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s . F a l o c a l l y a Borel-measurable l i n e a r mapping. The s a w arqument a p p l i e d t o .( V ) i s o f second c a t e g o r y i n E. a q i n by 1.

F)) = (F'.. Then f i s continuous.2. B u t observe t h a t i f the r e s u l t i s t r u e f o r separable Banach spaces (1.32: Let E be an inductive l i m i t of Banach spaces. 1. 2 O ( i i ) i s not o p e r a t i v e . Z . According t o l .2. ExF is SOUSLIN and G a l s o . F ) ) = ( F ' . o w l e t F = ind(Fn:n=1. F a SOUSLIN l o c a l l y convex space and f : E .4) a n d hence a SOUSLIN space by 3.5.pc( Fn' .1.2.33: SOUSLIN spaces a r e separable and hence 1..) be a s t r i c t i n (F'. F ) ) i s t h e p r o j e c t i v e l i m i t o f t h e sequence ( Fn' .CHAPTER 1 25 X\f-'(B) shows t h a t X\f-'(B) i s SOUSLIN subspace of X .13 shows t h a t f-'(B) i s a Borel subset of X.12 and hence a Polish space. 2 . Since X i s t h e union o f f .r F a l i n e a r mapping w i t h Borel praph i n E x F .2.+ F a nearly continuous l i n e a r .32 does not contain l . l e t us check f i r s t t h a t a FrPchet-Monte1 space F has a SOUSLIN s t r o n g dual.2. F n ) ) ( see 8. Then ( F ' .b(F'. The G g subspace of E . N ductive l i m i t o f a sequence of FrPchet-Monte1 spaces. Proof: Clearly E i s i s a Baire SOUSLIN l o c a l l y convex space. I/ Observation 1.pc(F'.2. F ) ) i s t h e countable union of i t s equicontinuous s e t s each o f which is corrpact and rretrizable by ALAOGLU's theorem and K1. N o w we turn our a t t e n t i o n t o t h e c l a s s i c a l open-mpping theorem.2. l . By 1. proof of 1.30. Then f i s continuous.+ F a l i n e a r n a p p i n g w i t h graph G which i s a Borel subset of ExF.2.4 6 ) and X\f-'(B).b( F' . f . i ..29.31) then i t holds f o r any Banach space s i n c e one has t o prove t h a t f maps convergent sequences i n convergent sequences and hence i t i s enouc# t o check t h a t f i s continuous on t h e closed l i n e a r span of convergent sequences. Proof: Clearly we nay suppose t h a t E i s a Banach space.19 showed t h a t ( * ) i (F)-space and f : G . p c ( F ' . Z O ( i i ) ) a s a p a r t i c u l a r case).F)). /I Theorem 1. i f F i s t h e s t r o n g dual of a s t r i c t inductive l i m i t of FrPchet-Monte1 spaces ( t a k e F as t h e space D ' ( X ) ) which i s a SOUSLIN space: Indeed.2. // Corollary 1.32 can be applied t o s i t u a t i o n s where 1 . F @ a fE j s _a Hausdorff topological l i n e a r space.2. Yoreover.31: (SCMARTZ's BORELIAFI GRAPH THEOREM) Let E be a separable Banach space. F a SOUSLIN l o c a l l y convex space and f : E .31 does not contain 1. B u t on t h e o t h e r hand 1.2. f is Borel-neasurable and t h e r e f o r e f i s continuous according t o 1..2. l Z ( b ) . Clearly ( F ' .19 ( o r 1. 3 . ( 4 ) o r 2.2. f 2 1 . l Z ( b ) .pc( F' .

i f X and Y a r e t o p o l o g i c a l i s a mappina. Thus g i s open as d e s i r e d . .36: napping and g:E--f(E) (BANACH-SCHAUDER's OPEN-MAPPING THEOREM) L e t E be a ( F ) a continuous l i n e a r t h e induced s u r j e c t i o n . b e i n g k e r ( f ) . which i s onto. B i s c l o s e d i n f ( X ) i f and o n l y i f f-'(B) P r o p o s i t i o n 1.. F a H a u s d o r f f t o p o l o g i c a l l i n e a r space. a B a i r e subspace o f F) o r .2.34) c l o s e d i n (E/R)xF -f(E) (indeed.Y ExF. g-' open. 2 0 ( i ) Theorem 1.7) space.f ( E ) i s n e a r l y open. then f-'(f(A)) i s open i n X and ( 2 ) i f B i s a subset o f f ( X ) .2.y):=( XCR. R I f f i s n o t i n j e c t i v e c o n s i d e r t h e a s s o c i a t e d i n . f : E .2..y) sed i n F and t h a t and a p p l y 1. Moreover. // Note t h a t i f f ( E ) i s o f second c a t e g r y i n i t s e l f ( i .2. and t h e n g can be shown t o be n e a r l y open (proceed as i n t h e p r o o f o f 1. i f F i s a (F)-space. g-' i s c o n t i n u c u s and f ( E ) i s c l o s e d i n F. Thus 9 i s open.35 b u t u s i n g 1 .+ F f ( E ) i s o f s e c o d category i n c). Since E/R i s a (F)-space t h e graph o f ? i s by S ( x.+ F f restricted to E i n s t e a d o f ( * ) one has L e t E=ind(En:n=1. i s closed i n X. i f f ( E ) i s o f second c a t e g r y i n one gets Theorem 1. Then P i s open f o r sow p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r p. Then p i s open i f and o n l y i f f(E).34: spaces and f : X . a l i n e a r napping w i t h c l o s e d graph i n ExF such t h a t t h e induced s u r j e c t i o n g : E . 2 . then G i s c l os e d i n E and s continuous. j e c t i o n f:E/R-F. Then f ( E ) i s c l o s e d i n F and i s n e a r l y continuous s i n c e g i s n e a r l y i s c l o s e d i n FxE. A c c o r d i n g t o o u r p r e v i o u s rJ P r o o f : I f f i s i n j e c t i v e . ) be an (LFf-sDace. a i s open i f and o n l y i f f ( E ) i s c l o s e d i n F.35: n e a r space. Moreover t h e graph o f g-' r e m r k (*). F a H a u s d o r f f t o p o l o g i c a l li- L e t E be a (F)-space.2.f i- I t i s easy t o check t h a t . F a B a i r e space a l i n e a r napping w i t h c l o s e d graph i n ExF. what arroupts t o t h e sane. Proceeding as i n 1. f:E-+F g i s open.2. i t i s enou@ t o c o n s i d e r t h e open napping S:ExF-+ (E/R)xF d e f i n e d and t h e induced s u r j e c t i o n %:E/R r-' i s n e a r l y open.2. . t h e n f i s open i n t o and continuous i f and o n l y i f t h e f o l l o w i n g two c o n d i t i o n s a r e s a t i s f i e d : (1) i f A i s open i n X.37: and f : E . e .2. we a p p l y t h e i n j e c t i v e case t o o b t a i n t h a t f ( E ) = f ( E ) i s c l o - 5is open. .26 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEXSPACES napping with c l o s ed graph ~ -i n O b s e r v a t i o n 1.

. / / (NIKODYM) L e t A be a SOUSLIN s u b s e t o f X.31. Moreover.) i s o f f i r s t cateqory. n(1)' S e l e c t a sequence (n(k):k=1. f l y convex space and f : E . f o r n o t a t i o n .) be subsets o f a t o p o l o q i c a l space X and (O(An) :n=l. P r o o f : R e c a l l o u r o b s e r v a t i o n below 1.) i s o f f i r s t c a t e g o r y and so a r e M n( 1) .1. L e t us t r y a d i f f e r e n t approach which i s s u i t a b l e f o r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s . Then.38: l e t A: = L e t (An:n=1.2. Then. ~ as d e s i r e d .n(k) .2. k ) ) = x ( a .) .2. C l e a r l y .. n ( k ) w i t h f ( t ( a .>) i s a Cauchy n e t i n P and converges t o some t.k) if k ' t k n(l)..2.4 show t h a t O(A)Cu(O(An):n=1. It s u f f i c e s t o and U a n o n .2.. . . . P r o o f : L e t IJ be a c l o s e d a b s o l u t e l y convex 0-nghb i n E.39. Lemma 1.) M t h e r e i s n ( 2 ) such t h a t x C O ( A 41) ) and hence x(Tn l)... k ) C U a A A Set (a'. .. Then .n(k) for Given t h e p a i r ( a k)f LxN t h e r e i s some x ( a .2. M:=O(A)\ Proof: W e keep t h e n o t a t i o n s i n 1.... UnAn= I U n O ( A n ) ' j t l ~ ( A n \ O ( A n ) ) n U l i s o f f i r s t category.2 Take x(O(A) u(An: n=l.40: i s open. O( A ) \ . By 1..CHAPTER I 27 An open-mapping theorem f o r SOUSLIN spaces can be deduced f r o m 1.12(a) (J(O(An):n=1.2.2.k)CLxN. . t o check t h a t O ( A ) \ H C A because i n t h i s case O ( A ) \ A C H .. .38.. There i s some n ( 1 ) f o r which x C O ( A - Since X ~ A n ( l ) . By 1. . P r o p o s i t i o n 1. I t s u f f i c e s y+ . s i n c e A n \ O ( A n ) Thus..1.) the union o f a l l sets which i s a l s o a s e t o f f i r s t c a t e g o r y .n(2) each k and l e t (Ua:aCL) be a b a s i c system o f x-nghbs.39: O(A)\A i s o f f i r s t c a t e q o r y i n X and hence A has t h e B a i r e p r o p e r t y .+ F i s non-void and b y 1.. f(U)-f(U) // . F a B a i r e l o c a l a s u r j e c t i v e l i n e a r c o n t i n u o u s mapping.>) convercles t o x and t h e r e is t ( a y k ) c B n ( l ) .O(f(U)) \f(U) // L e t E be a l o c a l l y convex SOUSLIN space... 1 ) .n ):n=l..k) C LxN. hence a SOUSLIN space.27 = 2 f ( U ) i s a 0-nghb and hence so i s f ( U ) as d e s i r e d . S i n c e f i s continuous. UAO(An) # UAAn i s o f second c a t e g o r y ... f ( U ) i s SOUSLIN and o f second c a t e q o r y i n F s i n c e F i s B a i r e .. UAO(A ) i s o f second c a t e g o r y . .n(k)' and UalcUa. ¶.2.n( k ) ) \ ci(O(An(l) .).2..2. By BANACH's condensation theorem.. Theorem 1. and hence x a U ( O ( A n ) : n = l y 2 . k ) : (a. . w i t h X=A. n(l).Z. Let x(O(A)\H and hence x # M .k')>(a.2. O(f(U)) i s o f f i r s t c a t e g o r y and hence f ( U ) has t h e B a i r e p r o p e r t y ..2..v o i d open x t h e r e i s some n f o r which -nghb. f ( t ) = x and t h e r e f o r e x t A as d e s i r e d .k): (a. Then t h e n e t (x(a.k) and ( t ( a . Since UAA i s o f second c a t e g o r y ( i n X ) . and. n .n( k): = Take H as f o r k=1.n(2) such t h a t xCin(l) ) and hence x i s .

( i)l>land z(x+V.. E(h) b e i n g ( y : = ( y ( i ) : i = 1 ...i . each E n n E i s r a r e i n E.2. endowed e(S) be t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f u n c t i o n o f St?. ~ ) the linear t h e space o f a l l bounded. Thus E i s not Baire.2. ) & 1 c o n s i d e r t h e space E : = u 1: y ( i ) = O i f i d h ( N ) ) . 3 . ) E=U(nB:n=1.3.Z.2. 3 ..)(K N : y(i)=O i f i$!h(N)). Every Frechet space and e v e r y i n f i n i t e p r o d u c t of Frechet spaces i s a B a i r e space a c c o r d i n g t o 1. a ? 1. t h e n p n ( x ) .2. I n what f o l l o w s we s h a l l p r o v i d e some more examples o f non-complete m e t r i z a b l e spaces which a r e n o t B a i r e . E i s a l i n e a r space and can be covered b y t h e f a m i l y o f p r o p e r c l o s e d subspaces EnnE.3.3.1..a ) . C l e a r l y . Example 1 .Z. . . A c c o r d i n g t o 1..) endowed w i t h t h e t o p o l o g y d e f i n e d by t h e system o f seand s e t B : = ( x ( E : F l x ( i ) l minorms p n ( x ) : = z ( \ x ( i ) l :i=l. i f b.R) i s R .2. .x ) l 2. we have t h a t x+V does n o t meet B s i n c e . 3 : W i t h t h e same n o t a t i o n o f 1. According t o 1. I t i s easy t o check t h a t B i s r a r e i n E . Z . (E(h):hCF). Thus E i s n o t B a i r e and c l e a r l y i s m e t r i z a b l e . W e t u r n o u r a t t e n t i o n t o qon-complete normed spaces which a r e n o t B a i r e .. E(h) being (y:=(y(i):i=l. 2 .) + m .28 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES 1.a l g e b r a o f a l l subsets o f a s e t X and l e t Denote by v o ( X .2. Example 1.12. Example 1.. The sa- ire argument as above shows t h a t E i s n o t a B a i r e soace.6. S e t t i n g V:=(y$t:pn(y)& then F J z ( i ) l 3 p n ( z ) t Ipn(x) - p n ( z . te-dimensional Banach space has a dense hyperplane which i s n o t B a i r e .13. e . hence t h e r e e x i s t s a D o s i t i v e i n t e q e r n such t h a t pn( x) > a >l.3 Some examples o f n e t r i z a b l e l o c a l l y convex spaces which a r e n o t B a i r e . i f x i s n o t i n B .n) 51). Thus t h e r e e x i s t B a i r e spaces which a r e n o t meevery infinite-dimensional Banach space has a e v e r y separable i n f i - dense hyperplane which i s a B a i r e space and by 1. .1: Let E:=ll be t h e space o f a l l a b s o l u t e l y convergent sequen00 ces x : = ( x ( i ) : i = l . En b e i n g ( y e N K :y(n)=O) f o r each n. Example 1 . 4 : L e t A b e t h e 6 . .2. IIfll:=sup( ! f ( x ) \ : x E X ) . I t s s t r o n q dual f i n i t e a d d i t i v e measures on span o f t h e f a r i l y o f a l l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f u n c t i o n s endowed w i t h t h e sup-norm M(X. and B i s c l o s e d i n E: indeed. Set E : = u ( E ( h ) : h f 3 ) . f i n i t e a d d i t i v e s e t f u n c t i o n s m such t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s a c o n s t a n t M I 0 w i t h Im(S)l &?l f o r e v e r y S i n % ..2: h:N+N Let F b e the family o f a l l s t r i c t l y increasing functions = such t h a t l i m (h(n)/n:n=1. t r i z a b l e .

we w r i t e n i n 0 Consider B n : = ( f < m o ( X . If & i s s t e a d o f m(N.. For each n.). .n) : (S1..111) which i s n o t l o c a l l y co”nvex (3. .a sequences such t h a t z l x ( n ) l converges. q ) i s a g a i n 1 7 The .2..5: sed hyperplanes N. L e t M be an a l g e b r a i c complement o f q E n : n = 1. Pn(H) be a f i n i t e P r o o f : L e t H be t h e s e t o f a l l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f u n c t i o n s o v e r t h e p a r t s of p r o j e c t i o n s defined by P n ( x ) : = ~ ( x ( i ) e ( i ) : i = 1 . 1364 2-3-112 and 113). a B a i r e space. is c l o s e d i n F...l ( A k n ) f o r k=l.CHAPTER 1 29 w i t h t h e norm !mll:=\ml(X) partition of X). has a f i n i t e number o f d i f f e r e n t elements.. (e(n):n=l..2...4 t o reach t h e c o n c l u s i o n . t h e t o p o l o g i c a l dual o f ( l P . R ) : c a r d ( f ( X ) ) L n ) Thus f o r each n. O n t h e o t h e r hand. lP i s a dense subspace of 1’ w i t h i t s usual norm q. D e f i n i n g Ilxll : = Z I x ( n ) l P . m).s( n ) .A) c o i n c i d e s w i t h B D y a c o n t r a d i c t i o n . Accordinq t o L=FAE Pf 1 1 .@(N)).&) .3 Exanple 1.Z. i s a p-normed space ( R O Y Ch. Example 1.. l ~ . l ~ ) i s a (F)-space (completeness i s shown as i n t h e case and i t s t o p o l o g i c a l dual i s i s o w t r i c t o l”(W. 10.6. B n i s closed. 1. s i n c e E D+1 i s c l o s e d i n E. ( l p .2.) i n E and s e t Em:=MG3@(En:n=l .ll) If O<p<l.2.... . Z ... . L e t (Akn:k=l.. .F). because o t h e r w i s e t h e r e would e x i s t a no- s i t i v e i n t e g e r p such t h a t mo(X.2. Z . t h e c a n o n i c a l u n i t v e c t o r s and Pn:moa mo t h e continuous For e v e r y n 7 1 . = sup(z( ]dS. F i s a B a i r e space and. // A c l o s e d subspace L o f a m e t r i z a b l e B a i r e space F which i s N n o t a B a i r e space.s(n) which i s a c l o s e d subspace o f m0 o f f i n i t e con dinension i n m I f Hkn denotes a c l o s e d p r o p e r hyperplane c o n t a i n i n g Rkn f o r k=1..3. . balanced..Prob.6: shows t h e e x i s t e n c e o f sow Ep which i s dense i n E and B a i r e ... Since E = u ( E m :m=l. Ifwe p r o v i d e 1’ w i t h t h e norm q.Sn) a finite J t h e 6 .s(n)) enumeration o f a l l subsets o f Pn(H) h a v i n g l e s s t h a n n elements and s e t Rkn: =P ..2..s( n ) ) and t h e r e f o r e t h e c o n c l u s i o n f o l l ows. 5 .) covers w0( X .) mo can be covered b y a c o u n t a b l e f a m i l y o f p r o p e r c l o - . s a t i s f i e s Bn+BnC Bn2 and (Bn: n=l. mo(X...ll...) (lp. . .3.a l g e b r a o f a l l subsets o f N. The space mo has t h e f o l l o w i n g i n t e r e s t i n g p r o p e r t y P r o p o s i t i o n 1. S e l e c t a subspace L o f i n f i n i t e c o u n t a b l e dimension i n En+l and s e t F:=EP+L. ) w i t h En:=K f o r each n.Z. 2 .e) is n o t . Apply 1.2.3. n ) . 0 ‘ i t f o l l o w s t h a t Bn i s covered by ( Hkn:k=1.Z. Consider t h e space K which i s i s o m r D h i c t o E : = v ( E n : n = N l .7: x:=(x(n):n=1. denote by 1’ t h e l i n e a r space o f .)I:j=l.

q)_+(lp. suppose t h a t ( l p .4.( 1). Yore o r e c i s e l y 1.5: Assuming MARTIN'S axiom. We l i s t some p o s i t i v e answers t o t h i s problem: 1.b<W1.30 BARREL LED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES t o p o l o g y of ( lP.KUNEN. afb.6: L e t X and Y be m e t r i z a b l e spaces o f second c a t e a o r y non-separable a t each p o i n t .( 1) f o r an e x h a u s t i v e d i s c u s s i o n ) . t h e r e e x i s t s a dense B a i r e subspace X such t h a t X # XxX.4. The t e r m " B a i r e space" was c o i n e d b y BOURBAKI. .( 1) and was r e d i s c o v e r e d b y ANTOSIK and Y I K U S I N S K I . U s i n g techniques o f FLEISSNER.4. 1. COHEN.4. 1. ( l ) shows 1.7) was i n t r o d u c e d b y OXToRY.3: The p r o d u c t o f a non-void f a m i l y o f B a i r e spaces each o f which has a c o u n t a b l e pseudo-basis i s a B a i r e space Since a l o c a l l y convex space has a c o u n t a b l e pseudo-basis i f and o n l y i f i s separable and pseudo-rretrizable ( i t i s enough t o c o n s i d e r t h e a b s o l u t e l y convex h u l l s o f t h e members o f t h e pseudo-basis). c o n s i d e r t h e i d e n t i t y (lp.( 1) f o r a f u l l d i s c u s s i o n ) .(l).4.SWARTZ.d i m e n s i o n a l s e p a r a b l e (F)-space.2.1.1. q ) i s n o t B a i r e : indeed.(l). P O L .(l) and a deep s t u d y o f i t was p r o v i d e d by AARTS.4 Notes and remarks. B C Y o f second c a t e g o r y i n X and Y r e s p e c t i v e l y .( 1) and has t r i g g e r e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f r e s e a r c h 1.4: A p r o d u c t o f a non-void f a m i l y o f m e t r i z a b l e separable B a i r e l o c a l l y convex spaces i s a B a i r e space.( 3 ) g i v e s examples o f normed B a i r e spaces X a d Y such t h a t XxY i s n o t B a i r e . q ) i s B a i r e and a p p l y 1. The i d e a behind p r o p e r t y ( K ) can be used as a s u b s t i t u t e o f conpleteness and b a r r e l l e d n e s s a s s u n p t i o n s i n many c l a s s i c a l r e s u l t s o f F u n c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s ( s e e ANTOSIK.KUNEN. Our n e x t r e s u l t i s due t o OXTOBY. t h e n XxY i s a B a i r e space.2: I f X i s a m e t r i z a b l e B a i r e space and Y a m e t r i z a b l e complete space.4. P r o p e r t y ( K ) was i n t r o d u c e d b y MAZUR and ORLICZ. U s i n a a t e c h n i q u e due t o KROM.q) i s s t r i c t l y c o a r s e r than t h e t o p o l o g y o f (lpy 1. R e s u l t s 1.1 ) and t h i s f a c t can be used t o show t h a t ( l P . F and 1 0 a r e due t o OXTOBY. l.(l) shows t h a t o n l y t h e usual axioms of Set Theory a r e needed t o prove t h e e x i s t e n c e o f B a i r e spaces whose square is n o t B a i r e . such t h a t AxB i s o f f i r s t c a t e g o r y i n YxY.4. One o f t h e most d i f f i c u l t problems r e g a r d i n a B a i r e spaces i s whether ( f i n i t e o r i n f i n i t e ) t o p o l o a i c a l p r o d u c t s o f B a i r e spaces a r e a g a i n B a i r e spaces ( s e e HIWORTH.11) which has c l o s e d graph.) c o n t a i n s a f a m i l y (Ya:a<W1) o f d i f f e r e n t ! B a i r e subspaces such t h a t f o r a l l a. we have as a c o r o l l a r y 1.7: The H i l b e r t space 1 (0. XaxXb i s n o t B a i r e .( 1) which c o n t a i n s a l s o a b r i e f r e v i e w o f t h e h i s t o r y o f t h i s problem). t h e r e e x i s t s a c o m p l e t e l y r e g u l a r B a i r e space whose square i s n o t B a i r e .(l) m e t r i z a b l e B a i r e spaces n o t i s o m r D h i c t o t h e i r square can be c o n s t r u c t e d ( s e e a l s o FLEISSNER. There e x i s t B a i r e spaces which a r e n o t isomorphic t o i t s own square even i n t h e r e a l m o f t o o o l o g i c a l l i n e a r sDaces: POL shows t h a t i n ever y i n f i n i t e .LUTZER. then XxY i s B a i r e . Then t h e r e e x i s t s e t s A C X . 1.MCCOY. ARIAS DE REYYA. The B a i r e c a t e q o r y theorem ( e v e r y complete m e t r i c space i s B a i r e ) was f i r s t proved by BAIRE and OSGOOD i n d e p e n d e n t l y end t h i s r e s u l t was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n t h e p r o o f s o f some o f t h e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s on which F u n c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s r e s t s r e o l a c i n g o l d e r nethods 1ik e t h e s l itling-hump technique. Pseudo-completeness (1.1: I f X and Y a r e t o p o l o g i c a l B a i r e spaces such t h a t Y has a c o u n t a b l e b a s i s . 8.19 t o reach a c o n t r a d i c t i o n .

33 s i n q l e s out some imoortant e x a m l e s of SOUSLIN spaces and a l a r g e c l a s s of exanples can be seen i n L . Since SOUSLIN spaces a r e separable.PECK. SCWARTZ and has an open-napping companion theorem which reads a s follows 1.7 and i s due t o DREWPJCMSKI. 2 0 ( i ) i s due t o GROTHEVDIECK. .Ch.17 is due t o BURZYK. SCHJARTZ's theorems do not extend BANACH's c l a s s i c a l r e s u l t s . More information on the Borelian t h e o r e m can be found i n D E W ILDE. 2 ) and hence t h e HAHN-RANACH theorem f a i l s here.DREWNOWSKI. t h e r e e x i s t s a continuous l i n e a r form on a subspace which cannot be extended continuously t o t h e whole space 1 p .3.12).DIEROLF.(3). 1. 4 ) .11 and i n V. 16.EBERHARDT.2. Besides (F)-spaces.64.DAY.4).145.4. i .LIPECKI. has a s e p a r a t i n g dual (namely la .8).Ch. The idea behind 1.LURJE.2( i i i ) i s due t o SAXON. 1.8 and 1.19 contains t h e c l a s s i c a l closed graph theorem and 1. E an inductive l i m i t of a countable f a mily of Banach spaces and g : F + E a l i n e a r s u r j e c t i v e m a p p i n g w i t h Bore1 graph i n FxE.(l). MARTINEAU.64) and metrizable SOUSLIN spaces have property ( K ) i f and only i f they a r e complete. 1 .S. Ch. C h . The e x i s t e n c e of dense hyperplanes of f i r s t category i n separable Banach spaces was e s t a b l i s h e d by ARIAS DE REYNA. A 1 though r e f l e x i v e Banach spaces a r e K-SOUSLIN not every Banach space i s of t h i s c l a s s and again MARTINEAU's r e s u l t s do not extend t h e c l a s s i c a l ones.( 1).( 1). X a x X b and YaxYb a r e not B a i r e spaces whenever a.( 1 ) .(4) o r our 8 .4.8: Let E and F be non separable (F)-spaces.KLIS.5 i s due t o SAXON.j19.DIEROLF.4.4 appears i n Gyp.36 t h e c l a s s i cal open-mpping theorem of BANACH. S C H J A R T Z . Then t h e r e e x i s t f a m i l i e s ( X .2.2. The Borelian closed graph theorem (1.( 2 ) and 1.(8) 1. Then g i s open. ( l ) . 1. (1) solving t h e so-called KLEE-WILANSKY conjecture i n t h e negative and VALDIVIA. In f a c t .( 1 ) .2. Baire SOUSLIN spaces a r e separable Frechet spaces ( s e e V. e . Further comments on this line o f research i n t h e closed graoh theorem will appear i n t h e "Notes and R e d s " section of chapter 9 . On t h e other hand.2.S.2.(2) extended his r e s u l t s ( s e e 1.18 i s t h e uniform boundedness p r i n c i o l e which will be reproved i n 2 ..6 i s t a ken from ROELCKE.2. 2 .DIEROLF.3.(4)).p. 1.( 1) extends SCtWARTZ's t h e o r e m r e p l a c i n g SOUSLIN by K-SOUSLIN ( o r K-ANALYTIC) spaces.13 and Exercise 31. s t r i c t ( L F ) -spaces enjoy a l s o property ( K ) by an obvious a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e r e g u l a r i t y p r o p e r t i e s of those spaces a s proved by DIEUDONNE and SCHJARTZ. 1.ROBERTS.CHAPTER 1 31 The following i s an extension of 1.ex.( 1 ) ) and y e t has a closed subsoace dense i n t h e weak topology and a quotient w i t h t r i vial dual ( s e e KALTON.45 ( s e e a l s o P.4.31) i s due t o L .m ) ) which a r e n e i t h e r metrizable nor complete s a t i s f y a l s o property ( K ) and tRis f o l l ows e a s i l y from SCHURls lemm (see JM. : 4 L I l ) and (Ya:a(al) of subspaces of E and F r e s p e c t i v e l y such t h a t ( 1) Xa's and Ya's a r e pairwise d i f f e r e n t B a i r e spaces and ( 2 ) XaxYb.3.p. O(pC1. Our version i s taken from ROELCKE.(4) ( s e e a l s o Kl. 1. a ( F ) space i n which t h e HAHN-BANACH theorem holds i s l o c a l l y convex (KALTON e t alt.( 5 ) .2.(3).9: Let F be a SOUSLIN space.27.b<ul and a#b. spaces l i k e (lJys(l1.24 i s due t o IYAHEN.p.2.7 can be seen i n WILANSKY.( 1). i s l o c a l l y bounded. The m a c e l P .( 1) .3.1. 1. 1 using a s l i d i n g hump argument.

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l a . t h e Banach space j=f 1 J o f a l l convergent sequences. TOEPLITZ considered o n l y r o w .. P . The SHT can be t r a c e d back t o LEBESGUE.. Since l i m A ( i ) ( x * ) a p o s i t i v e M such t h a t j=l.) a sequence o f s c a l a r s and mA:=(x*: A ( i ) ( x * ) e x i s t s f o r each i and supIgaijx(j)ILf-). I l x * \ \ L l and A ( i ) ( x * ) & I I A ( i ) l \ L M .18 shows t h e e x i s t e n c e o f IIA(i)ll S M f o r a l l i. i s a c o n t i n u o u s l i n e a r form on c and (A(i.f i n i t e m a t r i c e s b u t h i s method y i e l d t h e general r e s u l t as observed by STEIN HA US.) be a m a t r i x o f s c a l a r s . 1.. I f j > N ..i):=O i f aij=O. Each A ( i .Z. x ( j ) f o r each con- . ( l ) ) ( c o n s i s t e n c y ) o f s u m m a b i l i t y m a t r i c e s . n ) verges p o i n t w i s e t o A ( i ) .2.Z. d e f i n e x ( j ) : = z a .Choose an i n t e g e r N and. namely and was used by TOEPLITZ. n ) ( x * ) : = n. X .. P r o o f : By hypothesis. x ( j ) f o r x * : = ( x ( j ) : J=I 1J 1J j=l. 1J 1. However.n):n=l.(^)) Theorem 2.1. f o r set x(j):=O. .. . ( i ) ( x * ) : = L a .. 1 - The f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t i s due t o TOEPLITZ and now i s a standard e x e r c i s e i n u n i f o r m boundedness ( i n f a c t .2... N.l i f a.. then s u p z l a . . l .. F i x i and s e t A ( i .( 1) t o p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n s t o ensure t h e r e g u l a r i t y c - L e t A=(a. 1 < t o . 1 Some aspects o f t h e SLIDING-HUMP TECHNIQUE (SHT).) e x i s t s f o r each x * & c . 2 .33 CHAPTER T W O B A S I C TOOLS T h i s c h a p t e r c o n t a i n s a c o l l e c t i o n o f techniques and r e s u l t s f r o m t h e geceral t h e o r y o f l o c a l l y convex spaces ( m a i n l y Fr6chet spaces) which s h a l l be needed i n t h e f o r t h c o m i n g c h a p t e r s . .j 1J Clearly. Since N was a r b i t r a r y t h e p r o o f i s complete. . . each A ( i ) i s a l i n e a r form on c.) E c .1: I f c c m A . t h e s e r e s u l t s a r e o f i n d e pendent i n t e r e s t and a r e t h e r e f o r e presented i n an o r g a n i z e d way.#O and x(. 7 251 1 . // .(l) (see N E D E R . x*:=(x(j):j=l.

f ( n ) I l x l \ C l and and f t % such t h a t I f t h e statement i s in %? there i s x t c o n s t r u c t two sequences (x(n):n=1. 2 .l ) ) ..!-in l l x ( j ) \0\ d0 1. . f o r each p r o p e r s u b f a m i l y R. .2. (N( f ( 1) .2 even i f each k e r n e l is a B a i r e space: L e t which i s B a i r e (proceed as i n 1 . .27.1. ... ) N(G) i s B a i r e ( 1 .2. Proof: F o r each x t E.n)) . Since F i s dense i n N(R).f(n)) that . f ( n ) ) t i n u o u s . 6 ) .34 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES SCHUR's lemna on t h e c o i n c i d e n c e o f convergent sequences i n 1' f o r t h e norm t o p o l o g y and t h e weak t o p o l o g y s ( 1 .. we have x ( j ) & N ( f ( n ) ) so t h a t .3: The h y p o t h e s i s " w i t h c l o s e d k e r n e l " cannot be dropped i n 2. N ( f ( n ) ) b e i n g closed. 5 ) ..) E and d e f i n e f ( n ) by f ( n ) ( a ( k ) ) = skn and f ( n ) / F = O . in E be an i n f i n i t e .' x ( j ) . F a normed space and family f(l)3. f o r each b)O N(f(l). .. "I+( For j > n + l .) i n E and (f(n):n=1. . . t h e v e c t o r v G N ( f ( n ) ) .mo) i s a good i l l u s t r a t i o n on how t h e SHT works (see JM. " c o n t i n u o u s " may be r e p l a c e d b y " w i t h c l o s e d k e r n e l " .. f ( n ) ( x ) = f ( n ) ( v ) t 7P . and each f i n i t e s e t f ( l ) . . The c o n t r a d i c t i o n i s reached v i a t h e f o l l o w i n g i n e q u a l i t i e s Ilf(n)(x)k 11 2 .1.1.// Observation 2. 2. where v:= Z 2 .) such t h a t (f(n):n=1.. . .2: (PThK's u n i f o r m boundedness p r i n c i p l e ) L e t E be a 1 Banach space.J x ( j ) and c l e a r l y IIxIIL1. . . I f 2 i s p o i n t w i s e bounded. .d i m e n be a cobasis o f F s i o n a l Banach space and F a countable-codimensional dense subspace o f E L e t (a(n):n=1. The c l a s s i c a l u n i f o r m boundedness p r i n c i p l e ( e v e r y p o i n t w i s e bounded f a m i l y o f c o n t i n u o u s l i n e a r mappings between a n o r med B a i r e space E and a normed space F i s e q u i c o n t i n u o u s ) can a l s o be proved u s i n g t h e SHT (see t h e l a s t r e s u l t o f t h i s s e c t i o n where t h e u n i f o r m boundedness p r i n c i p l e i s proved f o r E a F r 6 c h e t space).) i s p o i n t w i s e bounded on E and f o r e v e r y s u b f a m i l y G o f ( f ( n ) : n = l . The f a m i l y ( f ( n ) : n = l . 2 . By i n d u c t i o n we such . There i s no f i n i t e s u b f a m i l y R o f (f(n):n=1. I t i s n a t u r a l t o ask i f i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e u n i f o r m boundedness p r i n c i p l e as above..2. .2.13).j f ( n ) ( x ( j ) ) i l >2-n I l f ( n ) ( x ( n ) ) \ I >2-nl\f(n)(x(n))ll- 22-J /I f ( n ) ( x ( j ) ) l l 22-'M(x(j)) - '7/ n. T h i s i s t h e c o n t e n t o f o u r n e x t r e s u l t which i s o b t a i n e d v i a t h e SHT P r o p o s i t i o n 2. s e t M(x):=sup( l \ f ( x ) \ \ : f c % ) . l~f(n)(a(n))l~)2n(n+~2-jM(x(j))) D z f i n e x:= T 2 . . . x ( j ) L N ( f ( l ) .j f ( n ) ( x ( j ) ) "-4 m . t h e r e e x i s t s a f i n i t e o f members o f % such t h a t g / N ( f ( l ) ..there i s f ( m ) such t h a t f(m)/N(R)#O. Given n. \ \ f ( x ) \ \ > b .2.. f ( n ) ) i s f a l s e . f ( j .)/N(R) i s e q u i c o n t i n u o u s s i n c e . . n(f(k)-'( 0 ) :k = l ..n f ( n ) ( x ( n ) ) + T ~ ..f(n) % a f a m i l y o f l i n e a r mappings from E i s equicon- i n t o F w i t h c l o s e d k e r n e l .. . 2 ...

.1. If t h e claim i s t r u e . 1 . and this i s what was used in t h e proof o f 2. t h e r e i s a l C I and xlc V(ao) such t h a t x l # U ( a l . E V ( a n ) 3 J and c l e a r l y xn= 2"Zn-'xk-z. I f t h e claim i s not t r u e . p ( x k ) ) f o r a l l k .m) a balanced subset of E and l e t V(a) be a 6-convex subset of E . For a l l a c I and a natural number m y l e t U(a.V ( a ) ) . Then Proposition 2. . + ~ P ( X . a contradiction. f o r n 2 2 we may choose by i n duction a n ( I and x n 6 V ( a o ) A . Proof: W e claim the existence of q and f i n i t e l y many a l . 2 shows t h a t t h e SHT does n o t use completeness i n i t s f u l l force: i t i s only needed t h e convergence of a c e r t a i n s e r i e s . .V ( a l ) . ( 2 ) There i s a o E I such t h a t V(ao) c u r \ U ( a . .n). 2 via an a b s t r a c t formulation of t h e SHT: Let E be a topological l i n e a r space and I an a r b i t r a r y non-empty s e t .CHAPTER 2 35 f(m)/N(R) cannot be continuous A c l o s e look t o t h e proof of 2 .212).1. x:= q 2 . G u . apply ( 3 ) t o 4€I show t h a t t h e s e t on t h e right-hand s i d e i s contained i n U(a.that x .. Set n:=p(x) and observne_.. . Since x t U ( a n . t h e r e i s m and f i n i t e l y many a l Y .V(an) . Therefore we define Definition 2.~such ) that xn q!U(any 2nn+2n-1p(xl)+. Moreover. . 1 . A convex s e r i e s of elegments of A i s a s e r i e s of t h e form z b ( n ) x ( n ) .~ ) )- V(an) Since x k C V ( a o ) f o r a l l k . n ' ~ ' ( a ~ . W e s h a l l extend 2 . By ( 2 ) . . .~ ) ) . . + ~ p ( x . a r t I such t h a t $V(ak) c r \ ( U ( a . f o r every xCV(ao) t h e r e e x i s t s a natural number p ( x ) such t h a t x C U ( a .5: (NEUMANN-PTAK ABSTRACT SHT) Suppose t h e following ca conditions: (1) U(a.2nn+2n-1p(xl)+. I t i s not d i f f i c u l t t o check t h a t t h e closed u n i t ball of a Banach space i s 6-convex ( s e e JM.n) f o r a l l a 6 1 Then. 2 ) .4: Let A be a subset of a (normed) space. where x ( n ) GAY b ( n ) > O and T b ( n ) = 1. € V ( a n ) i f j > n . p ( x ) ) f o r a l l a C 1 . . A i s s a i d t o be d-convex ( o r CS-compact) i f every convex s e r i e s of i t s elements converges t o a point of A..m)+U(a.k x k 6 V(ao) s i n c e V(ao) i s d-convex. z r)(+l // .m+n) f o r a l l a t I and m .n) CU(a. .p. 2.q)+U(a. condition (1) y i e l d s x n CU(an.m). m ) *=4 OtT ( 3 ) There i s n such t h a t V(a)CU(a. 2 . n ) and x k t U ( a n . a . Hence z:= Z 2 J . . q ) . .1. From (1) i t follows t h a t m:=q+n has t h e required property. n = 1 .n x . . a r 6 1 such t h a t (iV(ak)C2rU(a.

. Suppose t h a t each Ta i s c o n t i n u o u s on some c l o s e d l i n e a r subspace Xa of E.15 as a s p e c i a l case o f t h e u n i f o r m boundedness p r i n c i p l e f o r l o c a l l y convex I n 2 .6: ( P T i K ' s UNIFORPI BOUNDEDNESS PRINCIPLE) L e t (Ta:a r1) be F f r o m a Banach space such a p o i n t w i s e bounded f a m i l y o f l i n e a r mappings Ta:E-. The c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s f r o m 2.. . W e s h a l l o b t a i n 2.1....F) w h i c h i s n o t e q u i c o n t i n u o u s .. O b s e r v a t i o n 2.1.. J 1 k=1. Then t h e r e e x i s t f i n i t e l y many al.m):=(x EE: i\Ta(x)ll'C rn) -1 ) . p o i n t w i s e boundedness and c o n t i n u i t y o f t h e mappings Ta r e s p e c t i v e l y . Theorem 2. "de a p o i n t w i s e bounded s u b s e t o f L(E.1.P X I < (1+ \ITa/Xa\\ ) m s e t U(a.2. functions (f(k):k=1. .(k)(x(k)) 2-k f o r k=1.1.) ( i ) q.) be an i n c r e a s i n g sequence o f c o n t i n u o u s semi- norms on E such t h a t U n : = ( x E E : q n ( x ) L 1 ) i s a b a s i s o f 0-nghbs i n E .. F any l o c a l l y convex space and Then i s equicontinuous. ( 2 ) and ( 3 ) o f // 2. . vector x(2) i n E with q (x(2))(2-' 4 l:ft%!) i s n o t a 0-nghb and f ( 1 ) c g w i t h p ( f ( l ) ( x ( l ) ) ) > l and Since f ( 1 ) i s continuous.1. .) o f p o s i t i v e integers. . M1:=sup(p(f(x(l)):fcx).2.... Our l a s t r e s u l t i s t h e p r o o f o f t h e u n i f o r m boundedness p r i n c i p l e f o r F r e c h e t spaces u s i n g t h e SHT. I f % i s a p o i n t w i s e bounded s u b s e t o f L(E. 2 ..9.7: v e c t o r groups.arCI t h a t ( T : a € I ) i s e q u i c o n t i n u o u s on t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n XaA a 1 P r o o f : F o r a & I and a n a t u r a l number and V ( a ) : = ( x E X a : \ l x \ \ .2 c a n n o t be r e p l a c e d by 'IF a m e t r i z a b l e space".2. t h e r e i s a c o n t i n u o u s seminorm p on F such t h a t ( x ( E : p ( f ( x ) ) i n E .36 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEXSPACES Theorem 2.) i n v a n d vectors (x(k):k=1.2.8: L e t E be a F r e c h e t space. .F).1.6 f o r F r e c h e t spaces E i n 4. .... Take x ( 1 ) E E w i t h q l ( x ( l ) ) < 2 ' ' set n ( l ) : = l . t h e r e i s a ( x ) f o r each x i n E ... A n(2) and a f u n c t i o n f ( 2 ) i n % c a n be seProceeding by r e c u r r e n c e d e t e r m i n e i n E such t h a t positive integer n(Z)>n(l) with p ( f ( l ) ( x ) ) ( q n(2) l e c t e d such t h a t p ( f ( Z ) ( x ( Z ) ) ) > 2+M1+1. P r o o f : L e t (qn:n=1. . 7 we s h a l l p r o v i d e an example w h i c h shows t h a t " F a normed space" in 2.5 correspond t o l i n e a r i t y . E i n t o a normed space F ..5.1. an i n c r e a s i n g sequence ( n ( k ) : k = 1 .2. M :=0 and M : = 0 k sup(p(f(x(k)):f(f) f o r k=1. < ( i i ) p(f(k)(x(k))) > I(-1 k + 1+ for XM.2. C o n d i t i o n s ( 1 ) .

2 .j+land t h a t i s a c o n t r a & t i o n s i n c e 2 i s p o i n t w i s e bounded.k 4 21-r.1: l y independent subset. .y ( U P’ P’ be a dense s u b s e t o f E and s e t F1:=sp(x(l)).2. There e x i s t s a v e c t o r x i n E \ F such t h a t x C U C l e a r l y . . t h e r e e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r s w i t h m c . ( i i i ) p(f(k)(x))$qn(k+l)(x) n ( s ) such t h a t .. // D e f i n i t i o n 2.2 L i n e a r l y independent sequences i n F r 6 c h e t spaces. Since L e t A:=( x(n):n=l.) observe t h a t . E stands always f o r an i n f i n i t e .2.. I n t h i s paragraph.2.. if r > s and r+i l-+t Given a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r m. F i r s t . t h e n E L F i s dense i n E : i n deed. b xpP(f(.2: A sequence ( x ( n ) : n = l .tt -r i s any p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r . f o r e v e r y bounded sequence o f s c a l a r s (b(n):n=1.P. ) 00 i n E i s s a i d t o be t o p o l o g i - c a l l y l i n e a r l y mindependent ( s h o r t l y . Every c o u n t a b l e dense s e t i n E c o n t a i n s a dense l i n e a r be a d e c r e a s i n g b a s i s o f O-nc$bs i n E . ) ( i i ) and i t i s c l e a r l y l i n e a r l y independent b y ( i ) . i f F i s a p r o p e r subspace o f E.) E i s i n f i n i t e .d i m e n s i o n a l Fr6chet space.CHAPTER 2 37 f o r x i n E and k=1.d i m e n s i o n a l . x( n( k ) 1) i s a l s o dense i n E b y ( i i ) x ( n ( k ) ) (x(k)+Uk f o r each k.2. . 0 hence t h e s e r i e s E x ( k ) converges t o a c e r t a i n x i n t. .2. il+. hence a v e c t o r x ( n ( 1 ) ) r (E\ F l ) n A can be s e l e c t e d such t h a t x( il(1)) e x ( l)+U1.Zqn(k)(X(k)) j+l. x+y does n o t b e l o n g t o F and ( x + y ) . c o n s t r u c t a sequence ( x ( n( k ):k=1.he Frechet space E... t a k e y i n F and f i x a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r p. ( E \ F 1 ) A A i s dense i n E. Since A i s dense i n E.3: E c o n t a i n s always a m-independent sequence..i)(x(k))) d+q > j+l - YMi 5 7 J+’ g2-k // 2..2.(k)(X(k))’l/. such t h a t z h ( n ) x ( n ) = 0.) i n A such t h a t ( i 1 x(n( k + l ) ) # s p ( x(n( 1)) .. we P r o o f : L e t (Un:n=1.2. P r o p o s i t i o n 2. %independent) i f . . ( x ( n ( k ) ) : k = l .. i t f o l l o w s 9 C l e a r l y . Z . Proceeding i n d u c t i v e l y .Z. We d i s c u s s . e v e r y m i n d e p e n d e n t sequence i n E i s l i n e a r l y independent Observation 2. i t f o l l o w s t h a t qm( G x ( k ) ) L z q n ( k ) ( x( k ) ) s z 2 .. p ( f ( j ) ( x j ) a p(f(j)(x(j))) - !4 ?0 p0 (f(j)(x(k))) TP(f(j)(x(k))) .) t h a t b(n)=O f o r each n. F o r a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r j ..

q. I f Fo:=E. ( b ) I f E has no c o n t i n u o u s norm ( s e e 2. Since each pn-’(0) i s a closed subspace o f E . W i t h o u t l o s s o f g e n e r a l i t y . 2 . t h e r e s u l t f o l l o w s by c o n s i d e r i n g t h e s e t ( a ( x ) : O ( x < l ) Proof: For E:=la’... C l e a r l y . o f l i n e a r l y independent v e c t o r s o f E d e f i n e d by a ( x ) ( n ) : = x n f o r each n. C l e a r l y . Theorem 2.) Since (x(n):n=2.):= dim( E)>din(l-)>c.’ ( 0 ) Since . i n ( a ) . For e v e r y a i n A. t h e r e e x i s t s a s e t A w i t h c a r d ( A ) $ c and a b i . for an i n - i s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e c l o s e d subspace F1 and s i n c e x(1)E F1. and c o n s t r u c t i n d u c t i v e l y a sequence ( Fn:n=O...38 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEXSPACES two ways o f c o n s t r u c t i o n which s h a l l be used l a t e r on. the series oo and a sequence o f v e c t o r s ( x ( n ) : n =l.. I f z b ( n ) x ( n ) = 0.2.) each n. q b ( n ) x ( n ) which i s i n < j e c t i v e b y mindependence. 2-n i f m c n ..3. t h e n d i m ( F ) I c i f card(B)=c. Take a non-zero continuous l i n e a r f o r m on E and s e t F1 f o r i t s k e r n e l ..) be a d e c r e a s i n g b a s i s o f 0-nqhbs i n € and s e t Vn:= 2-n-l Un f o r each n. ( a ) l e t (Un:n=1. we may suppose t h a t pn-’(0)#E. For a r b i t r a r y E.u( a)) #O.. pm(x(n))=O i f m < n .-’(0) f o r each n..v m t((b(n):n=1. Repeating t h e s a w argument we get b(n)=’l l e t (pn:n=1.2. j e c t i o n a- u ( a ) o f A o n t o ( u C B : I l u l l = l ) . 2 .) i n E w i t h x(n)CFn-l\Fn W f o r n=1.... ) o f c l o s e d subspaces o f E and x ( n ) & V n ..9).. as d e s i r e d . ) .(x(n))G o f scalars.. Thus . F i r s t observe t h a t i f F i s a normed space and B i s t h e c l o s e d u n i t b a l l o f F ’ . z b ( n ) x ( n ) converges i n E. i t f o l l o w s t h a t b( 1)=0. i s s t r i c t l y c o n t a i n e d i n pn-’(0) o.) i s a l s o a b a s i s o f 0-nghbs i n E and s e t qn f o r t h e gauge o f Un f o r each n. Proceeding as Now we d i s c u s s t h e dimension o f F r g c h e t spaces.2. Thus dim( F) & c . e .2.Z.l.)be c r e a s i n g sequence o f continuous s e m i n o r m d e f i n i n g t h e t o p o l o q y o f E. 3 ( a ) a l l o w s us t o c o n s t r u c t a l i n e a r mapDinn T : 1 0 J 4 E b. s e l e c t a sequence o f ( l i n e a r l y independent) v e c t o r s d n ) C pn -1( 0 ) \ ~ ~ + ~ .. l e t x ( a ) be a v e c t o r o f E such t h a t <x( a) .) i s m-independent. F=sp( x( a) :a E A). (x(n):n=1.. .2. Indeed.Z. i .2.’(O)#n and pn+..2..4: dim( E) >/c. t h e s e r i e s r b ( n ) x ( n ) converges i n E f o r any bounded sequence of s c a l a r s (b(n):n=l. t h e n -b( l ) x ( l ) = b(n)x(n). (Vn:n=1. i t follows t h a t card(F) 4 cso=c..Z. For any bounded sequence (b(n):n=l...6. Since every v e c t o r o f F i s l i m i t o f a sequence o f v e c t o r s i n s p ( x ( a ) : a C A ) . such t h a t each Fn i s a hyperplane o f Fn-l select a vector x ( l ) & F o \ F 1 .

.) Cauchy c o n d i t i o n ) i n P r o p o s i t i o n 2. I f (x(n):n=l.7: c o n d i t i o n i n E.. ...Z. with ArnAS=$if m i s continuous. w i t h x ( 1 ) C E \ u ( l ) L y x(n)c u(n-l)L\u(n)L t e d t o T.. . We i d e n t i f y @ ( N ) with {0. .3.2.2.@(N) i s endowed w i t h t h e d i s c r e t e can be t o p o l o g i z e d as a compact m e t r i c space (hence a B a i r e dense i n F(N) i s B(N).Z.) . i s S-surnmable ( r e s p . T(x):=( <x. .Z. Thus 2..s. (x(n):n=1. I f S:E/G--rKN i s t h e i n j e c t i o n associa- = dim(S(E/G)j L d i m ( K N ) = c . does n o t s a t i s f y t h e Cauchy c o n d i t i o n .and :n=l...) (iii) f o r e v e r y sequence (An:n=1.+ E i s d e f i n e d b y m ( A ) : = z ( x ( n j : n t A ) .6: L e t (x(n):n=1..5: a c l o s e d subspace G such t h a t dim( E/G)=c.Z.d i m e n s i o n a l F r e c h e t space.). t h e . 2 .CHAPTER 2 39 ( i ) i f E i s separable.. ( i i i ) (x(n):n=1. P r o o f : ( i ) Since E i s m e t r i z a b l e and separable.2.). A t 5 ( N ) ) .) be a sequence i n E. s a t i s f i e s t h e Cauchy ( i ) i f x x ( n ) i s S-Cauchy i n E. (x(n):ntJ) s a t i s f i e s t h e S-Cauchy c o n d i t i o n ) i s summable ( r e s p ..l) topology.i$N) respectively. ( N ) .) be a sequence i n E. . a b a s i s o f J-nc&bs i n Q ( N ) i s given by the f a m i l y ( K C N : K n A = JnA. If {O.2.. t h e l a s t e o u a l i t y a con- sequence o f ( i ) . ) s a t i s f i e s t h e Cauchy c o n d i t i o n i n E.) r f s .2.) i s summable ( r e s p . (ii) E contains C o r o l l a r y 2. . ( i i ) Choose a l i n e a r l y independent sequence (u(n):n=l.2. i s Cauchy) i n E.....(N)) converges ( r e s p .2. 2.2. t h e n (x(n):n=l. (x(n):n=1.. (i) t h e s e r i e s Z x ( n ) i s S-convergent ( r e s p . t h e n ( i i ) i f z x ( n ) converges i n E . Cauchy) i n E. o f members o f ?(N) i s a n u l l sequence. D e f i n i t i o n 2...2.. E..) i n E. c a r d ( E ) S c . . which i s a c l o s e d subspace o f E and s e l e c t a sequence f o r n=2. ( i v ) i f m: ‘ 5 .4 shows t h a t c & d i r n ( E ) I c a r d ( E ) c c and t h e c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s . ) P r o o f : ( i ) If(x(n):n=1.. t h e sequence ( x ( x ( n ) : n C A r ) : r = 1 . satisfies the i n E i f .Z.) i s summable i n E.(dim(T(E/G)) shows t h a t dim( E/G)=c... L e t (x(n):n=1.llN space) and and -(O. s a t i s f i e s t h e Cauchy c o n d i t i o n ) i n E i f the n e t ( x(x(n):n€A):AEJ. .. Since E/G i s an i n f i n i t e . t h e n dim(E)=c..Z.u(n)>:n=l....) a continuous l i n e a r mapping T:E-KN =/\(u(n) L i n E ’ and d e f i n e s e t G: . For a fixed JtP(N). which i s l i n e a r l y independent. S-Cauchy) i f e v e r y s u b s e r i e s (ii) (x(n):n=i.2.2. f o r every J i n &N).4 I/ and$(N) L e t N be t h e s e t o f a l l p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r s .2. Z x ( n ( k ) ) i s convergent (resp.

A r r a n q i n g t h e elements o f U ( A r : r = 1.2. f o r e v e r y bounded sequence ( b( n ) :n= 1..9: ( a ) i n an i n f i n i t e . ( x( n) : n C B ) C U.d i m e n s i o n a l F r e c h e t space i t i s a always p o s s i b l e t o c o n s t r u c t a l i n e a r l y independent n u l l sequence.11).. There e x i s t s a f i n i t e s u b s e t A .. t h e s e r i e s z ( x ( n):n=l.Ch. such t h a t .) such s e r i e s i s S-convergent and i f p stands f o r t h e F-norm d e s c r i b i n g t h e topo- E ( s e e K1.2. ) has t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o p e r t y (*) given 3.2. 1. . S i n c e t h i s i s t h e case here. f o r e v e r y B ( F ( N ) m( C \ A ) C U i U c V . f o r i)no. A+J) ( s e e B1. ( i i ) The f u n c t i o n m d e f i n e d i n 2 .2..... t h e s e r i es 2( b( n ) x( n ) :n= 1. r=l. . Then m(B)-rr(C)=m(BAA)+m(B \A)-m(CT\A)- /I ( i ) Every S-convergent s e r i e s i n E i s s u m m b l e i n E.) ned by m ( J ) : = Z ( x ( n ) : n C J ) P r o o f : ( i ) A c c o r d i n g t o 2. // O b s e r v a t i o n 2. A c c o r d i n g t o 2.7( i ) . d.2.2.7( ii)..2.) i n E. 7 ( i v ) i f and o n l y i f .) is convergent Moreo.. E i s continuous.. There e x i s t s A & y ( N ) such t h a t .. I f no:=sup( i C N:AoflAi#d). Thus. with B A A = ( i v ) L e t V be a 0-nghb i n E and U a n o t h e r 0-nghb such t h a t U+UCV. f o r e v e r y BcJ(N) . e v e r y i n f i n i t e . ( b ) i f (y(n):n=1. 2 . p .?15.Z. f o r ( i i i ) L e t U be a 0-nghb i n E. (ii) I f Ar stands f o r t h e s e t ( k g N : k L r ) .. Thils (x(n):n=1.. 0-nghb U i n E. 7 ( x ( n ) : n < A i ) C U i s s u m m b l e i n t h e F r e c h e t space E..40 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES r e e x i s t s a 0-nghb U i n E and a sequence (Ar:r=l. Take B and C i n F ( N ) such t h a t B A A = C n A ..s u m b l e i n E. i n E.and subsequence can b e e x t r a c t e d such t h a t i t s a s s o c i a t e d s e r i e s i s a b s o l u t e l y c o n v e r g e n t . a S-convergent s e r i e s s a t i s f i e s t h e Cauchy c o n d i t i o n . such t h a t .) of s c a l a r s ..2. a s u b s e r i e s o f z x ( n ) can be formed w h i c h i s n o t Cauchy i n E...) e v e r y B t F ( N) w i t h B /\Ao= then .Z.. i t i s summble. .2. f o r e v e r y J i n @ ( N ) .) logy o f i s a l i n e a r l y independent sequence whose a s s o c i a t e d we can s e l e c t a subsequence (x(n):n=1.8: ( i i ) I f (x(n):n=l.) i n i n c r e a s i n g o r d e r ... defi- C o r o l l a r y 2./er.2.2. Then. 9 1 ) .2. r r ( B ) t (I.) < inf(Ar) i n F ( N ) w i t h sudAr-l) such t h a t x(x(n):ngAr)#U. t h a t ~ ( a x ( n ) ) L Z -f ~ o r [ a l L l and n=1. t h e f u n c t i o n m: @ ( N ) . 4.d i m e n s i o n a l F r e c h e t space c o n t a i n s a sequence whose a s s o c i a t e d s e r i e s i s S-convergent. i s S . has a c o n t i n u o u s e x t e n s i o n t o 6'(N) exists i n E l i d m ( A ) : A 4 ~ ( N ) . the net ( z ( x ( n ) : n c A ) : A & F ( N ) ) i s a Cauchy n e t i n E w i t h a c o n v e r g e n t subnet ( Z ( x ( n ) : n G A r ) : r = 1. t h e r e e x i s t s A t F ( N ) .Z. o u r c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s ....2. .

.2.. a c o n t r a d i c t i o n u n l e s s 5+< *// C o r o l l a r y 2.. a c o n t r a d i c t i o n w i t h I f (y(n):n=1. t h e r e e x i s t s a subsequence which i s mindependent. A f a m i l y ( A r : r < R ) such t h a t Ar/\As i s f i n i t e whenever r f s (indeed. .:r=l.2.. P r o p o s i t i o n 2. la(r.. . 4 l b ( s ) \ > l / 2 and hence f b ( i ) x ( n ( i ) ) b( i ) = O f o r each i +xb(i) x(n( i ) ) =0..l..10: ce i n i s n o t a n u l l sequence. t h e s e t Bm:= is a ( L b ( i ) x ( i ) : I b ( i ) 1 6 1 . Z . with (*). t h e n dirn(L) i s e i t h e r f i n i t e o r equals c .2.).( B r ) . t h e c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s . t h e r e e x i s t s a O-n#b V. a sequence (Ar:r= ntAr.) .n).2.... . =O i f ndu(A.2 ..7( iii). P r o o f : I f (x(n):n=1.?. .11: I f Z ( x ( n ) : n = l .3. . ) i s S-convergent i n E and i f L stands f o r t h e l i n e a r span o f ( Z e ( n ) x ( n ) : e ( n ) C { O . There e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r s such t h a t assume sup(l b ( i ) l : i = l .. Z .x(m)) i s i s o m r p h i c t o Km f o r each IP... ) of p o s i t i ve i n t e g e r s such t h a t 00 \ b ( i ) \ L l ..) 2. in Indeed.For e v e r y m. . and j a c c o r d i n g t o ( * ) . Set b ( n ) : = a ( r . D e f i n e z ( r ) : = q e ( n ) x ( n ) w i t h e ( n ) = o i f n E N \ A r and e ( n ) = 1 i f n C A r . where x(n):=O. Suppose q b ( i ) x ( n ( i ) ) = 0 and.2.. n ) x ( n ) : n C A r ) 4 V . f o r k=1...n)\ i f n € A r and b ( n ) : 1. Clearly. a c l o s e d 0-nghb i n E can be chosen such t h a t i t does n o t meet Bm and hence a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r j 1 b( n ) l < 1)CE\ Bm... is // . ) 5 h( i) x ( n( i) ) 4 B n( k ) w+l i s mindependent. i t f o l l o w s t h a t z( b( n ) x( n ) :n C B ) C U . Z .10 i s a l i n e a r l y independent sequence. such t h a t z ( a ( r . . l e t f : N ' + Q and B an i n f i n i t e s e t of r a t i o n a l numbers c o n v e r g i n g t o t h e r e a l r.1 & l b ( m ) [ & l ) .2. we f i n d a s t r i c t l y i n c r e a s i n g >m can be s e l e c t e d such t h a t DD ( L b( n)x( n) : a0 sequence ( n( k) :k = l . l ) N ) . ) i s a 1 i n e a r l y independent sequenE whose a s s o c i a t e d s e r i e s i s S-convergent. n ) and s c a l a r s a(r. Set Ar 00 l r :=f.. i=O.Z. Proof: A c c o r d i n g t o 2. we a p p l y of i n f i n i t e subsets o f N ' can be found be a b i j e c t i o n t o o b t a i n a c o f i n a l i n f i n i t e subset N ' o f N such t h a t ( x ( n ) : n t N ' ) i s m-independent. We 00 s h a l l see t h a t ( x ( n ( i ) ) : i = l . . i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e s e t ( z ( r ) : r ( R ) l i n e a r l y independent i n L.) F(N)w i t h ~ u p ( A ~ . .CHAPTER 2 41 w i t h B A A = & a n d b ( n ) a s c a l a r w i t h nCB and l b ( n ) l $ l . Since c a r d ( L ) < c . Since s p ( d l ) .lb(n)\-Ll f o r each n and t h e sequence ( x ( b ( n ) x ( n ) : n 4Ar):r=l.) 2.2. 2 . w i t h o u t l o s s o f g e n e r a l i t y .. m .Z. Due t o in-independence.9(b). i f ( * ) does n o t h o l d . r g R ) ..~i n ) f(Ar) < 51.. 2 .m-1 conpact s e t i n E which does n o t c o n t a i n t h e o r i g i n f o r each m=l.2.2.. e x t r a c t a subsequence (x(n):n=l. Therefore. ) = l . i=2.

42 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEXSPACES Definition 2.1 u converging t o ( ?~-n(k))-'z-x: OD Since U i s c l o s e d . . A c c o r d i n g t o 2.l... 0 .. ..s u b s p a c e o f E .. c o n t a i n s a subsequence ( x ( n ( k ) ) : k = 1 .1.. The sequence i s S-converincreasing-sequence 2 .2. e v e r y p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r k. ) be D e l e t i n g a f i n i t e number o f v e c t o r s i f . necessary.Z. ... o f i n f i n i t e sets i n N such t h a t A r n A S i s f i n i t e whenever r # s . ) whose . 2 . I f L i s i n f i n i t e . t h e r e e x i s t s a2 00 o f p o s i t i v e integers (n(.2. t h e r e e x i s t s a subsequence (s(n):n=l.. .2.s u b s p a c e o f E . . i n E..10. S i n c e ( *2-n(k))-1S2i i=l. I f L i s f i n i t e .d i m e n s i o n a l .Z. ) be a n u l l sequence i n F .. .) ce ( z ( n ) : n = 1 . ) i n E whose associaLed s e r i e s i s w i t h z x ( n ( k ) ) CF.n ( k ) ) x + Fy. t h e r e e x i s t s an i n f i n i t e s u b s e t B r o f i s li- e x i s t s a m i n d e p e n d e n t sequence ( x ( n ) : n = 1 .. 2 .) l e c t a subsequence (y(n):n=1.13: L e t F be an s .2.z-x. Then (i) F has p r o p e r t y ( K ) ( i i ) F i s dense i n E ( i i i ) dim( F ) > c ( i v ) d i 4 E / F ) ..Z..Cc. .d i m e n s i o n a l ..i):i=l. each i.(n( k ) ) i s l i n e a r l y independent and Z ( Z .y li- n e a r l y independent sequence ( 4 n ) :n=1. L i s c l o s e d i n F and ( i i ) F i x xfO i n E and l e t U be a c l o s e d O-n#b a s s o c i a t e d s e r i e s i s S-convergent...) belongs t o F. f o r (Z-'x+y(n):n=l. There . subspace o f E . construct a family (Ar:r6R) i n F such t h a t z ' . Sew i t h z y ( n ) S-convergent ( 2 . we o b t a i n a v e c t o r z ' : = ( 7 2 . i S-convergent.2..) 0 o f l i n e a r l y independent v e c t o r s o f F.' x + y ( n ) ) gent. ~ i. 2 . t h e r e e x i s t s i n E a l i n e a r l y independent sequence ( x ( n ) : n = l . 2 . .n ( k ) ) .s u b s pace. . 2 . S i n c e F i s an X . Since F i s an Fy(n) s- w i t h z s ( n ) CF. g i v e n t h e sequence ( x ( n):n € A r ) . ( i i i ) As i n 2. we have t h a t ( z 2 . t h e r e i n E.x C l J . $ a ( i ) y ( i ) LU.2. 9 ( a ) .2.12: A subspace F o f E i s a n y .) l a ( i ) ( & Z ' f o r i=1. 2 . ) Ar such t h a t z ( r ) : = z ( x ( n ) : n ( B r ) m-independence.2. 9 ( a ) ) and s e l e c t a subsequeno I s e t L f o r i t s l i n e a r span. hence i n E.. A c c o r d i n g t o 2 . GF. .. ) P r o p o s i t i o n 2.1 z Thus F i s dense i n E .. ) . .) o f p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r s Set y ( i ) : = x ( k ( i ) ) f o r .2.. a f a m i l y o f 0-nghbs i n E w i t h U :=U and Un+l+Un+l~Un e x i s t s a s t r i c t l y i n c r e a s i n g sequence ( k ( n):n=1.2. we m y suppose t h a t x d s p ( x(n):n=1.s u b s p a c e o f E i f ever. Using the i t i s i m n e d i a t e t o check t h a t t h e f a m i l y ( z ( r ) : r d R ) n e a r l y independent and t h e c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s . f o r n=0. .11.9(a) and 2. Thus. S i n c e F i s an r .2. P r o o f : (i) L e t (x(n):n=1. s a sequence i n such t h a t z:=( f o r each i. belongs t o F f o r every r i n R. L e t (Un:n=O. such t h a t a ( i ) x ( k ( i ) ) C U i .n ( k ) ) .

. W e arrange 3. 2 . a ) E { O .n . If VtF. . E can . of 1i n e a r l y independent vectors i n E such t h a t sp( x( a ) :a C A)A sp( FU( z( n) : n = l . . ) being a l i n e a r l y independent sequence i n E whose associated s e r i e s i s S-convergent.O) :s 4 w ) and Fa:=sp( x( a .14. i n t o a t r a n s f i n i t e sequence (Sa:a ( w ) w i t h each member of F r e p e a t e d c times. a ( 2 ) i n A w i t h x(a( 1 ) ) # x( a( 2))wand an increasingzequence (n( i ) : i = 1 . .14 s i n c e every subspace of E which contains an s-subspace. b ) : b l a L w ) such t h a t x(a. l l N go and not eventually zero such t h a t T e ( n . // Corollary 2. Since c a r d ( A ) ) c . a ) x ( n ) belongs t o Fa.2. .2. 2 . ) of dense r .. T h u s t h e r e e x i s t s a sequence ( e ( n . t h e r e e x i s t s a s t r i c t l y finer topology on E . 1 7 ) . Clearly. say u . i s i t s e l f an x-subspace. . take t h e s e t of the sums of a l l i n f i n i t e OD s u b s e r i e s ( s e ( n ) x ( n ) : e ( n ) 6(0.14: Suppose dim(E)=c. e ( n .9(a). According t o 2. ) algebraically. Then x ( a ( 1 ) ) x ( a ( 2 ) ) C F and t h a t is a c o n t r a d i c t i o n . such t h a t ( E . 2 . # d f o r every a < w . // Corollary 2.CHAPTER 2 43 ( i v ) Suppose d i n ( E / F ) > c . 2 . 2 . . ( z ( n ) : n = 1 . According t o 2. . According t o 2.C a'<w) f o r 1 b a L w .2.b):bSaw) and s e t Fo:=Gtsp( x( s. 2 . ) . VAF.) of p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r s such t h a t ( q 2 . T h u s each Fa is an X-subspace of E(and hence dense in E by 2 . Proof: For every l i n e a r l y independent sequence (x( n ) : n = 1 .2. 2 .2. the sequence ( 2 .11. a ) : n = 1 . For every a ( A .b) LSa f o r a l l b i a ( w . ~ ( at ) z ( n ) : n = 1 .n ( k ) ) x ( a ( s ) ) + z z ( n ( k ) ) belongs t o F f o r s=1. If w i s t h e f i r s t ordinal of c a r d i n a l i t y c . Z. Proof: I t follows e a s i l y from 2.2. 2 . t h e r e e x i s t s a sequence ( F n : n = 1 . dim(sp(Sa))=c f o r every aCw. .s u b s p a c e s of E such t h a t E= @ ( F n : n = 1 . .15: I f dim( E)=c. .2. .. .1) N ) and w r i t e F t o denote t h e family of a l l such s e t s . F i s non void and w e have e a s i l y t h a t card( $ ) = c . c a r d ( A ) > c . . den- se i n E ) such t h a t E = @ ( F a : a < w ) a l g e b r a i c a l l y . Let G be an a l g e b r a i c complement of sp( x( a.s u b s p a c e s of E (and hence.// Theorem 2. 1 3 ( i i ) ) . T h u s i t i s easy t o c o n s t r u c t a l i n e a r l y independent s e t ( x ( a . W e can f i n d a family ( x ( a ) : a C A ) . ) i s l i n e a r l y independent and i t s associated s e r i e s i s S-convergent. ) i n E whose associated s e r i e s i s S-convergent. there e x i s t a( l ) . The proof i s complete. t h e r e exists a family ( F a : a < w ) of r .)) = ( 0 ) .16: I f d i n ( E)=c. E = @ ( F a : a < w ) a l g e b r a i c a l l y . I J ) i s metrizable and has property ( K ) (hence i s a Baire space by 1 . a ' ) :a . Proof: Let t be t h e o r i g i n a l topology O F E.2. 2 .

). .. ' I I x( n ) a r e 1 i n e a r l y independent. . . . n = 1 . 2 . ) i s a null sequence in H. u( l). x( 2 ) :=y(2 ) . According t o 1 .t ( y ( n + l ) . . the topologcal product of two spaces havina property ( K ) does not have property ( K ) . . .. . Clearly < > sij . t h e r e e x i s t two x-subspaces F a n d G of E such t h a t FAG=sp(x( n ) : n = 1 . f o r i . ) i s dense i n E . Since F i s dense in E . . 1 7 : There e x i s t s a B a i r e space which does n o t have property (K). 2 . j = l . 2 . . there a r e u( 1 ) . u ( n + l ) > = l . b u t f o r every subsequence ( ( x ( n ( k ) ) . Theorem 2 .. t h e sequence ( ( x ( n ) . .u( i)>x( i ) . 1 . y f i n e r t h a n t a n d . 2 . 2 . . Z . .. . j = 1 . . because otherwise F x ( n ( k ) ) belongs t o s p ( x ( n ) : n = 1 . ) in E whose associated s e r i e s i s S-convergent. . such t h a t s p ( x ( n ) : n = l . . There e x i s t s a biorthogonal system ( x ( n ) . 2 . . According t o 2 . 1 : Let E be a separable space o f i n f i n i t e dirrension. .. .x( n + l ) a r e l i n e a r l y independent and sp( x( 1) . u ( j ) > = f o r i ..x( n ) . x ( n ) ) : n = 1 . .x( n + l ) ) = L . u ( n ) ) a1 ready constructed with L n = s p ( x ( l ) . . t ) has p r o perty ( K ) ( s e e 2. t h e space H:=FxG i s Baire and does not have property ( K ) : Indeed. 2 .u( n+l)) =O i f x C L n a n d <x( n + l ) .. 1 4 a r e constructed. ) . Clearly dl). u ) has property ( K ) a n d i s c l e a r l y rnetrizable. t ) . 1 5 ) and s e t ( E . . . . u i s s t r i c t 1 . . . 2 . x ( n ) ) and < x ( i ) .2. Corollary 2 . n. )*// 0 .44 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES be w r i t t e n as E=F o> G a l g e b r a i c a l l y where dim(G)=l and F i s a dense -7-subspace of E (proceed as in t h e p r o o f of 2 . ) .. Then 4 x( 1) . Proceeding by re1J currence. I n general. 3 .2. Proof: Let E be a separable infinite-diirensional Frgchet space. 1 0 . a contradiction with the mindependence of the sequence ( x ( n ) : n = 1 . x(n(k))):k=1.. + i . s e l e c t i n q approp i a t e l y t h e l i n e a r l y independent vectors from which t h e subspaces Fa in the proof of 2 . Take u( n + l ) in E ' such t h a t (x.. Proof: There e x i s t s a l i n e a r l y independent sequence ( y ( n ) : n = 1 . . . . suppose ( 1) . ) in E such t h a t sp(y( n ) : n = 1 . I t i s easy t o see t h a t . . Fx(n(k)). t h e r e e x i s t s a mindependent sequence ( x ( n ) : n = 1 . 4 . ) i s dense i n E. u ) : = ( F .3 Biorthogonal systems and transversal subspaces. . 2 .. 2 . . t H G .. 2 .. . s i n c e ( F .u( j ) = 6 .u( n ) ) w i t h x ( n ) E and u( n ) C E ' . the vector ( Z x ( n ( k ) ) ) does n o t belong t o H. Set x( n + l ) :=y(n + l ) .. According t o Hahn-Banach's theorem. P m 2.u( 2 ) in E ' such t h a t < x ( i ) . 2 . Set Ln:=sp(y(1). as t h e proof of the followinq r e s u l t shows. ( E . . .y( n ) ) f o r each n arid x( 1 :=y( l ) . 2 .13( i ) ) .

u(j)> = A. f o r i. gonal system ( w ( n ) . . w ( n ) ) i n E and w i n ) i n E ' f o r each n. v ( n ) ) # O (resp.2.. ) which i s i s l i n e a r l y inde- there e x i s t s a biortho- w i t h w ( n ) C E ' and z ( n ) C E f o r each n such t h a t Set B:=acx( u(n):n=1. Clearly.3. z ( n ) ) (w( n):n=1.. Since A i s separable..) .n+l and t h e c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s . we o b t a i n a b i o r t h o g o n a l system ( x ( n ) . i n A dense i n A and hence t o t a l i n E . A) t h e r e e x i s t s an i n t e g e r k ( n ) (resp. t h e r e e x i s t p o s i t i v e s c a l a r s such t h a t w(n) Cb(n)B f o r each n and t h e r e f o r e ( b ( n ) ..E)) i s conpact ( a n example o f t h i s be a t o t a l sequence i n E . A c c o r d i n g t o 2. t h e r e e x i s t s a sequence (y(n):n=1. .s(E.3. s ( n ) ) such t h a t < y ( k ( n ) ) .). E' con- ...2. A':=(v(n):n=1. L a subspace o f H* o f i n f i n t e c o u n t a b l e dirrension and A:=(y(n):n=1. S e t t i n g x ( n ) : = b ( n ) z ( n ) f a r each n and v ( n ) : = b ( n ) . I f L separates p o i n t s o f H we have: ( * ) given any v ( n ) ( r e s p . .) c o r d i n g t o 2. ) i s E-equicontinuous.d i m e n s i o n a l space c o n t a i n i n g a s e p a r a b l e .... H and L r e s p e c t i vely..2. I t s c l o s e d a b s o l u t e l y convex h u l l A i s as r e q u i r e d ) . we may proceed as we d i d i n ( a ) t o f i n d a b i o r t h o p n a l system ( a ( n ) . Acw i t h z(n) i s t o t a l i n E.) n=1.d i m e n s i o n a l sDace such t h a t t a i n s an i n f i n i t e . By c o n s t r u c t i o n . (b(n):n=1.w(n) f o r each n.E.. #O).E')) s i o n a l FrPchet space and l e t (x(n):n=1.s( E ' .2. t o t a l .s( E ' . // We s t u d y two s i t u a t i o n s i n which t h e method d e s c r i b e d above i s a p p l i e d t o show t h a t e i t h e r o f t h e s e two sequences can be taken t o s a t i s f y a d d i t i o - n a l c o n d i t i o n s : ( a ) l e t E be an i n f i n i t e .2.2.. ) generat n g s e t s H separates p o i n t s o f L .2.2.s(E'. 1 ..w(n)) such t h a t a( n) CA f o r each n and (a(n):n=1.. Our n e x t r e s J l t i s t r i v i a l f o r f i n i t e .).d i m e n s i o n a l spaces.j=l. which 1 i s a E-equicontinuous s e t .. ..) pendent.2.) i s t o t a l i n E. y ( n ) ) i n A ' ( r e s p .) Since A i s a b s o l u t e l y convex and z( n ) C sp( A) f o r each n... we may suppose t h a t i t i s a n u l l sequence.CHAPTER 2 45 <x(i). o f non-zero v e c t o r s o f . t o t a l i n (E'.. a b s o l u t e l y convex s e t A such t h a t (A. Mul- ( b ) L e t E be an i n f i n i t e . t h e r e e x i s t s a b i o r t h o g n a l system ( z ( n ) . <y(n).2.w(n): such .1.E)). Lie my assure t h a t (u(n):n=1.2.. v ( n ) ) t h a t ( v ( n ) :n=1.v(s(n))> .d i m e n t i p l y i n g by s u i t a b l e s c a l a r s .2. .... L e t H be a l i n e a r space o f i n f i n i t e c o u n t a b l e dimension. E ) ) .s( E'..2..) s i t u a t i o n can be o b t a i n e d as f o l l o w s : suppose E a separable i n f i n i t e .d i m e n s i o n a l E-equicontinuous s e t ( u ( n ) :n=1.) i s t o t a l i n (E'.1 a p p l i e d t o ( F ' . such t h a t (z(n):n=1. ) i s a E-equicontinuous s e t which i s t o t a l i n ( E l .

f ( m ) l s e t y( i) :=z(j ) .2 a p p l i e d t o M" and t o t h e space o f t h e l i n e a r f u n c t i o n a l s on M" defined by t h e elements o f H..u( 2 ) .2. H).) in L such t h a t sp(R)=H and s p ( B ' ) = L . U s i n g t h e f i r s t and second c o n s t r u c t i o n a l t e r n a t i v e l y .-r .) = =sp(C')+M=H w i t h ( z ( n ) .3. f r o m where i t f o l l o w s t h a t N"=sp(D') and N o =sp( D)=N. .u(m))=Snm f o r n. . ... g i v e s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f sequences C : = ( f ( n ) : n = l . i n H such t h a t sp(C)=Vo and sp(C')+M"" . snnm f o r n. I t i s immediate t h a t ( x ( 2 ) .. .v(n(Z))>. v ( l ) > = l . H=M+N and L=M"+ N"// .3. v ( k ( O ) ) ) u ( i ) . C l e a r l y (x(Z).3.i ))= 6 i j f o r i.. u ( 2 ) > = 1 and ( x ( l ) .. s e t x( 1) :=y(n(O))/ < y ( n ( O ) ) ..Z ( x ( i ) .u( . L). L=M"+N".2. = 0 4 C l e a r l y . u( 3))= <x( 2 ) .3: M of H w i t h M=M"". .2..u( i)>x( i) I / sion. Again. y ( k ( l ) ) - t h e f i r s t i n t e g e r k ( 1 ) such t h a t ( x ( k ( l ) ) . C1 e a r l y . n:= ( y ( j ) : j=1. u ( 3 ) > z < y ( k( 1 ) 1 .2 t o M and t h e space of a l l l i n e a r f u n c t i o n a s on M d e f i n e d b y t h e elements o f L t o o b t a i n sequences B : = ( x(n):n=1. .v( 1)). Proof: 6y r e c u r r e n c e . u ( 2 ) > =O.v( 1)) #O..2 Under t h e same h y p o t h e s i s o f 2.F < z ( s ) . Take # O and s e t x ( 3 ) : = ( . f o r e v e r y subspace t h e r e e x i s t s a subspace N=N"" i n H such t h a t H=Y+N and . B ' ) BARREL LED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES Under t h e c o n d i t i o n s above..f(O):=O. u ( l ) ) x ( l ) .Z.46 P r o p o s i t i o n 2.. C o r o l l a r y 2. ) i n L such t h a t M=sp(B) and sp(B')+M"=L such t h a t (x(n). .m1.2. If n ( 2 ) i s t h e f i r s t i n t e g e r such t h a t (x(Z).2. (x( 1) . ) i n M and B ' : = ( u ( n ) : n = l ..3.j=1. s e t N:=sp(D).u( 3 J >. .2: n a l system ( B . z ( 0 ) :=0 and v( i ) : = u ( i ) .3. Again <x( i) .3..m=1. I f n ( 0 ) i s t h e f i r s t i n t e g e r such t h a t (y( d o ) ) . s e t u(2):= ( v ( n ( 2 ) ) < x ( l ) . C l e a r l y . we r e a c h t h e conclu- // I f A i s a subspace o f H ( r e s p .2.u( i))f( s ) =O a n d ( y ( j ) f ( i ) ) = d x ( j ) . P r o o f : We suppose M and M" o f n f i n i t e d i m n s i o n . v ( i ) > = Thus & j ) .2.. Z. A " equals t h e orthogonal o f A i n L ( r e s p . Now l e t k ( 0 ) be t i e f i r s t i n t e g e r such t h a t v ( k ( 0 ) ) sp(u(l). u ( i ) > x ( i) .. Apply 2.) i n H and B':=(u(n):n=1.. Then H=V+sp(C')= sp(B !+sp( C' )=sp(B)+sp( D ) and L=M"+sp(B )=sp( D ' )+sp(B ' )=sp( D' )+sD( C) ...+(z( .u( 3 ) ) a r e l i n e a r l y independent. Set u ( l ) : = v ( l ) .u(2)) and s e t u ( 3 ) : = v ( k ( O ) ) .v(n(Z)))fO ( c l e a r l y n(Z)fn(O))....) in M" and C':=(z(n):n=l. s e t x ( 2 ) : = y ( n ( l ) ) . <x( 1).j=1.2. If j ) . ) and D ' :=( v( j):j=1.u( 1)>=O. Ifn ( 1 ) i s t h e f i r s t i n t e g e r such t h a t y ( n ( l ) ) h s p ( x ( l ) ) .u(3)> L and ( u ( 1 ) . v ( n ( 2 ) ) > u ( l ) ) / (x(Z). 2. For each i. Z . v ( i ) ) S ii. < x( k( 1)).2 .<y(n( l ) ) . t h e r e e x i s t s a b i o r t h o g o - w i t h B:=(x(n):n=1.

i = if for CP) i f e v e r y c l o s e d subspace o f ( E . Examples 2. i s s a i d t o be a complemented p a i r . Q(G):E -E/G F and G a r e s a i d t o be t r a n s v e r s a l t o each o t h e r i f F A G = ( 0 ) ..t) and i f F+G i s dense i n ( E . Observation 2.6: ( i ) L e t H be an i n f i n i t e . t ) e v e r y c l o s e d subspace F t h e r e e x i s t s a c l o s e d subspace p e r t y ( s h o r t l y .(Q(G))=F+G i s c l o s e d i n E.d i m n s i o n a l H i l h e r t space w i t h a seguence o f non-zero s c a l a r s w i t h & l a ( n ) / ’ 1 i n t e r i o r p r o d u c t ( . Thus O ( G ) i s c l o s e d i n E/F and t h e r e f o r e Q. x+y+x x + y e y ( x i n F and y i n G) i s continuous. t ) i s s a i d t o have t h e complementation pro p e r t y <sh. i f Q:E-+E/F G such tPa+ (F.y(n))y(n) C l e a r l y .Z. t ) .2.l ) l for .E/G (E.d i m e n s i o n a l subspace o f E t r a n s v e r s a l t o F. ( i i ) I f F and G a r e t r a n s v e r s a l t o each o t h e r and c l o s e d subsoaces o f quasi-complemnted p a i r i n ( E . H and (a(n):n=l.t).)..CH:x=G(x. l We s h a l l see t h a t E#F+G.3. QCP). t h e p a i r (F.. a( i v ) A space ( E . t ) . T h i s i s n o t t h e case i n general i f G i s an i n f i n i t e . If .5: indeed. we d e f i n e t h e quasi-complementation pro- i f F i s a c l o s e d subspace o f a space E and ifG i s a f i n i t e .Z.. A c c o r d i n g l y . ( x i n F and y i n G) i s continuous. x ( n ) ) x ( n ) ) . t h e n F+G i s c l o s e d i n E: stands f o r t h e c a n o n i c a l s u r j e c t i o n . F and G a r e c l o s e d subspaces o f c o n t a i n s (e(n):n=l.G) (G. ( 2 ) t h e p r o j e c t o r E-E.and we w r i t e ( E .. t ) = ( F . t ) Q E. Moreover. t h e n t h e p a i r ( F . Set x ( n ) : = e ( 2 9 and y ( n ) : = c o s ( b ( n ) ) e ( Z n . ) . (iii) A quasi-colrplemented p a i r which i s n o t complenented i s s a i d t o be p ro p e r quasi-complemented p a i r .) be an o r t h o r p m a 1 b a s i s f o r =l. S e t x:= z a ( n ) e ( n ) .) S e l e c t a sequence o f s c a l a r s O ( b ( n ) ( F / 2 such t h a t r s e c 2 ( b ( n ) ) l a ( 2 n .CHAPTER 2 47 D e f i n i t i o n 2. t h e n Q(F):E d E / F ..rtly has a complerrent i n (E.4: (i) If ( E . G ) i s s a i d t o be a ( 4 ) t h e r e s t r i c t i o n o f Q(F):G-+ E/F i s a t o p o l o g i c a l i s o m r o h i s r .t). i s a t o p o l o g i c a l isorrorphism.) and l e t (e(n):n=1.d i m e n s i o n a l c l o s e d subspace o f E as t h e f o l l o w i n g exanples show. 2 d i v e r g e s .y)-x+y i f one of t h e f o l l o w i n g e q u i v a l e n t c o n d i t i o n s i s s a t i s f i e d : (1) t h e m p p i n g FxG- i s a t o p o l o g i c a l isomorphisrr. . (x. Q(G) i s f i n i t e dimensional as a subspace of E/F and t h e r e f o r e complete. it H and F+G i s d e n s e d n H s i n c e . ( 5 ) t h e r e s t r i c t i o n o f Q(G):F--. t ) i s a space. G:=(x..3. ( 3 ) t h e p r o j e c t o r E+E.G) i s a complemented p a i r . F and G subspaces o f E and t h e c a n o n i c a l s u r j e c t i o n s and i f E=F+G.3.l ) + $ n ( b ( n ) ) e ( 2 n ) each n and F : = ( ~ t H : ~ = F ( x .

. ..7: :k In e v e r y i n f i n i t e . ( i i i ) L e t E be t h e Banach space o f a l l s c a l a r sequences x:=(x(n):n=O. I n p a r t i c u S i n c e p( x( k ) ) = l i t f o l l o w s t h a t l a r .) and G: =Sp( y( k ) :k= l. ( 7 ) ) .Y( k.G) i s a complemented p a i r i n (F+G.1)) + sP(Y( i : i b k ) 1. . Y c (-n ) ) Y ( n ) and c l e a r l y a( 2 n .).1 ) ( and t h a t i s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n . y ( n ) ) l 2 b ( n ) ) I a ( 2 ~ . suppose x G F A G and - 6 ( sp( x( 1) .. Z . t h e y a r e t r a n s v e r s a l t o each o t h e r and F + G # m = E .E)) ( s e e K1..p) and hence t h e p r o j e c t o r u:F+G-+F+G on F a l o n g G . 2 .d i m e n s i o n a l Banach space (E. i t i s c l e a r t h a t e v e r y c l o s e d subspace of ( E . ( i i ) Set (e(n):n=l.. .1) . 3 1 . S i n c e dim(Gk)=2 f o r each k s e l e c t i n Gk two l i n e a r l y independent v e c t o r s ~ ( k and ) y(k) with p(x(k))= p( y ( k ) ) = I and p( x( k ) -y( k ) ) k-'. F and G a r e t r a n s v e r s a l t o each o t h e r : indeed. endowed w i t h t h e norm p( x ) : = s u p ( l $ x ( n ) \ =0.y ( k ) ) ) s a p ( x( k ) .p). 3 . .. .5. 2 .y( I). . Then x t h a t x C F k and hence (x.. x ( n ) ) x b ) and Q= g ( g . t h e n E has CP.3.y( k..3 o r 2.13).. .2k) and Gk f o r an a l g e b r a i c complement o f Fk+l i n Fk. Clearly F S e t F:=( OD G:=( 7 f o r each ( b ( n ) : n = 1 . s i n c e e v e r y p r o j e c t o r i s continuo?ls and has closed kernel. .2. . . t ) has CP.I f o r each k and t h a t i s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n . S e t F : = z ( x( k ) :k = l ..s(E'. BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES m DD x can be w r i t t e n as f+g w i t h f = T ( f .l. ( b ) i f a space ( E . since E i s Hausdorff. ) i s total. e . g ) = F l ( q . p ) .l ) = c o s ( b( n ) ) ( g.. ) o f l i n e a r l y independent vecSet Fk:=n(u(n)l:n=1. p( u( x( k ) .8: ( a ) i f a space E i s endowed w i t h t h e s t r o n y s t l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y .y ( k ) ) 5 ak-'. separable. t ) has a l s o C P ( s e e K1.) such t h a t X x ( n ) i s convergent. . ) ( : l P ) . .. l s a k . Then ( F. such t h a t p ( u ( z ) ) L a p ( z ) f o r e v e r y z i n F+G. we have t h a t x=O as d e s i r e d .y( n ) ) . .p) t h e r e e x i s t two c l o s e d subspaces F and G t r a n s v e r s a l t o each o t h e r such t h a t F+G i s n o t c l o s e d i n (E.Then .p). ?b(n)e(Zn): and G a r e c l o s e d i n E. 2 . Now we show t h a t F+G i s n o t c l o s e d i n ( E . Theorem 2.221. t h e r e e x i s t s a)O f o r each n . . C l e a r l y F and G a r e c l o s e d subspaces t r a n s v e r s a l t o each o t h e r and F + G # K = E . t o r s i n (E'. Thus ( g . S i n c e ( u ( n ) : n = l .x( k .1. u ( x + y ) = x i s c o n t i n u o u s .x( k. P r o o f : W i t h o u t l o s s o f g e n e r a l i t y we my suppose (E.) 0- =? sec2( f o r t h e c a n o n i c a l b a s i s o f E:=lP w i t h O<pd+@.G:=(xgE:x(Zn+1)=0).p) t h e r e e x i s t s a t o t a l sequence (u(n):n=1.48 xtF+G. .e ( Z n + l ) ) : f o r each ( b ( n ) : n = l .Z. S i n c e sP( xt 11.. .u(n))=O Suppose F+G c l o s e d i n (E. we have f ix k.3.) and s e t F:=(xtE:x(2n)=O). ..1)) A F k = (0).. // O b s e r v a t i o n 2. ) t l P ) and 1 b ( n ) ( e ( 2 n ) + n .1))+F( x( i) : i'I/ k ) ) A( sp( y( 11. i .2.Z..

Proof: According t o 2. i s n o t an r .3 ce o f s e t s B i n ly. t h e r e e x i s t s a c o u n t a b l e s e t A i n E which i s dense i n E and such t h a t a c o u n t a b l e subset o f A i s dense i n G. H=E. Kl.s(E'. Then E Moreover.3. 2f a L e t E be an i n f i n i t e .s). (E. 2 .t)@(G.E). t ) (E'.m(E.s)e(Gf. Since E and G a r e separable. C l e a r l y CL =G.L.E)).3 and hence t h e r e e x i s t s a subspace FI=Noo o f H w i t h H=M+N. t h e two f i r s t a s s e r t i o n s a r e t r u e s i n - ce c l o s e d subspaces c o i n c i d e f o r t h e t o p o l o g i e s o f t h e dual p a i r and c o n t i nuous p r o j e c t o r s a r e weak-weak c o n t i n u o u s and Mackey-Mackey continuous.t) i m p l i e s (E'.5. // Observation 2. i f xCGAS.2. 1 3 ( i i ) ) . a quasi-conplement G which i s p r o p e r . A c c o r d i n g t o 2. L:=sp(RUC) and Y : = H n G . e .d i m e n s i o r ? a l .CHAPTER 2 49 has CP t h e n (E.3. i .d i m e n s i o n a l F r e c h e t space. P r o o f : L e t E be a r r e t r i z a b l e s e p a r a b l e space and G a c l o s e d subspace o f E. such t h a t e v e r y c l o sed subspace M o f E t r a n s v e r s a l t o i t i s f i n i t e .4'21. e v e r y vect o r i n L vanishes on x and.9. H ' o f E / G such t h a t E/G=H+H'. s i n c e L i s t o t a l i n (E'. G and S a r e t r a n s v e r s a l t o each o t h e r : indeed.E')). TZAFRIRI . A c c o r d i n g t o a r e s u l t o f LINDENSTRAUSS. . Setting S:=i. t h e r e e x i s t s a c l o s e d subspace G o f E such t h a t dim( E/G)=c and 2. Our n e x t r e s u l t shows t h a t t h e mere c o n d i t i o n o f b e i n g o f largc! codinens i o n i n a F r 6 c h e t space i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o ensure t h e e x i s t e n c e c l o s e d i n f i n i t e .M s a t i s f y the conditions weakly t o t a l .11: subspace. and the latte. over.9: b e i n g s(E'.13 show t h e e x i s t e n Clear- E' and C i n (E/G)'=G* ( o r t h o g m a l t a k e n i n E ' ) which a r e Thus H. F has F+G i s dense i n E b u t d i s t i n c t f r o m E. Since E and E/G a r e m e t r i z a b l e and separable.E)) have a l s o t h e CP: indeed.2. o r 2.3.3. t w n a r e due t n t h e f a c t t h a t (E.3. o f 2.d i rrensional t r a n s v e r s a l subspace f o r a Theorem 2.s u b s p a c e o f E. We s e t H:=sp(A). Yorex=O.s(E. i t has a dense B a i r e subspace o f codimension a t l e a s t c.s u b s p a c e s H and C l e a r l y H and H ' a r e &nse i n E / G ( ? .E')). K=H and Moo=( GL)O=G%H=GnH=M.10: L e t E be a separable Banach space which i s n o t a H i l - b e r t space.s) = (P. Every m e t r i z a b l e separable space has OCP.E has a c l o sed subspace F which i s n o t complemented i n E. (E'.5(ii).s Theorem 2.t)=(F.s(E'. we have t h a t G+S i s dense i n E s i n c e i t c o n t a i n s MtN=H.m(E'. L=Mo+No.E)) and ( c ) i f a space ( E .14 shows t h e e x i s t e n c e o f x .E) o r m(E'.

11 shows t h a t e v e r y i n f i n i t e .10.) l e c t a subsequence ( y ( n):n=1.) each n.2 ve ( ~ 2 .2. .) m y:=fQ(z(n))cH. o f (z(n):n=1. .2.2. ) i s m-independent.2. .d i m e n s i o n a l and s e l e c t a l i n e a r l y independent sequence ( x ( n ) : n = l .50 BARRELLED L O C A L L Y CONVEXSPACES Moreover.. each y ( n ) belongs t o ..(x)=:y+G f o r a c e r t a i n y i n E W such t h a t Q ( y ) = x ... . A c c o r d i n g t o 1. Since H i s a a s . t h e r e e x i s t s a subsequence (z(n):n=1.12: not a r-subspace.s u b s p a c e . ). . 2 .we a contradiction...) 00 1 F i s B a i r e i f F has p r o p e r t y ( K ) .n ( k ) ) y + ~ r ( n ( k ) ) .. Then t h e sequence (Q(x(n)):n=l..d i m e n s i o n a i c l o s e d subspace M t r a n s v e r s a l t o F i n G.c o n v z g e n t i n E. 1 3 ( i ) shows t h a t H and H ' have p r o n e r t y (K). ) i n M whose a s s o c i a t e d s e r i e s i s S-convergent i n '4. ) whose a s s o c i a t e d s e r i e s i s S-converqent i s a n u l l sequence i n ti and H has p r o p e r t y o f (y(n):n=1. i n E ...Z.) such t h a t s a t i s f i e s Q ( z ) = y and hence z t F . Since G i s of i n f i n i t e dimension. 2 ...3. ..2.n ( k ) ) y E G .) convergent i n E/G.. (y(n):n=1.. a denand F:=(K se subspace F and an i n f i n i t e . a c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n c e yfO. vEM and hence y C F A M . we s h a l l c o n s t r u c t a sequence i n E such t h a t no subsequence of i t has a sum i n F...(H) i s a dense subspace o f E such t h a t dim( E / F ) = d i m ( H ' ) > / c .2...2. C l e a r l y . L e t be a n u l l sequence i n F and hence a n u l l sequence i n E. // ( a ) 2.2.. Se- . ~ tG hen ( F 2 . be a l i n e a r l y independent n) f o r hasequence whose a s s o c i a t e d s e r i e s i s S-convergent and s e t y( n ) :=2-'y+z( s e r i e s i s S .2. ) i s l i n e a r l y independent and i t s a s s o c i a t e d .. ..2. f o r sime subsequence ( n ( k ) : k=1. Then z : = & z ( n ) Suppose t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a c l o s e d subspace M t r a n s v e r s a l t o F which i s i n f i n i t e . o f (x(n):n=1. t a k e G:=K R R ) o and (In:n=1.2. . Since (Q(y(n)):n=1. F:=Q. s e l e c t a subssquence ( z ( n):n=1. On t h e M and. If Q : E d F / G is t h e canonical s u r j e c t i o n .3.) such t h a t T Q ( y ( n ) ) G H and F Q ( y ( n ) ) # O . l e t (z(n):n=1. I f . t h e r e e x i s t s adubsequence (y(n):n=1. (x(n):n=1. s i n c e M i s closed.d i m e n s i o n a l Fr6- c h e t space c o n t a i n s a proper dense subspace which has p r o p e r t y ( K ) and i s ( b ) i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e an example o f a space G .) o t h e r hand.2..2. L e t xCE/G and 1 n o t i n H and s e t Q.) such t h a t (Q(z(n)):n=1.2. Then y : = F y ( n ) EF and yfO.) a partition o f R with ' c a r d ( I n ) = c f o r each n and s e t M f o r t h e subspace o f G o f a l l v e c t o r s which a r e c o n s t a n t on each In.2.) 0 i s l i n e a r l y independent and i t s a s s o c i a t e d s e r i e s i s SAccording t o 2.. Observation 2. ( K ) . I n o r d e r t o show t h a t F i s n o t a A--suhspace o f E.17.

. t h e r e e x i s t s a 0-nghb V i n (E. Suppose t h a t ( i ) u i s coarser than t ( i i ) u and t coincide on N and ( i i i ) G and T c o i n c i d e on E/N. T ) a r e metrizable. 2 . s i n c e s and t s a t i s f y ( i ) . 1 in E such t h a t Q*(y)=Q*(x).4. . Since F i s conplete. Due t o ( i i ) . t ) s a t i s f y i n g Un+l+Un+lCUn f o r each n and s u c h t h a t ( U n n F : n = 1 . then ( E .4. I f F and E /F a r e complete. A // Proposition 2. t h e r e e x i s t s a vector y canonical s u r j e c t i o n Q:E *E/F.4..CHAPTER 2 51 2. u ) and hence t i s coars e r than u .4. t ) and ( E / F . Set F:= s p ( E V ( x ) ) and Q*:E--rE/F f o r t h e unique l i n e a r continuous extension of t h e Since Q*( x ) C E/F. . A Proof: I f E i s not complete. If F and E / F a r e FrPchet spaces.// Corollary 2.1: Let t and u be l o c a l l y convex topologies on a l i n e a r space E and l e t N be a subspace of E . t ) and s e l e c t a 0-nghb U1 i n ( E .) of balanced 0-nghbs i n ( E . . N o w s coincides w i t h t . . // Proposition 2. s e l e c t a countable family (Un:n=1.. 2 . there e x i s t s a vector x i n E \ E . Since (UIAV)+N i s a 0-nghb i n ( E . T h u s x-y ( F and hence x t E from where t h e conclusion follows. t ) and with O(Un)CWn f o r each n .u) such t h a t ( V V ) A N C U ~ A N . Does E s a t i s f y property ( * ) ? Proposition 2.2: Let F be a closed subspace of a space E .2. u ) due t o ( i i i ) . then E i s a FrPchet space. Applying ( i ) .1. F i s closed i n G and Q*(O)OG=F.4: Let E be a space and F a closed subspace of E. ) be a decreasing b a s i s of balanced 0-nghbs i n ( E / F . t ) . t ) . I t follows t h a t VA((IIlnV)+N)CU1+U1cU. By a three-space problem we understand the following s i t u a t i o n : l e t E be a space such t h a t there exists a closed subspace F and suppose t h a t F and E/F s a t i s f y a c e r t a i n property ( * ) . then E i s conplete.. t h e conclusion follows.4 The three-space problem f o r Frgchet spaces. ) i s a b a s i s of 0-nghbs i n ( F . If ( F .2. Proof: Let U be a 0-nghb i n ( E . Then u and t coincide on E.). Proof: Let ( W n : n = 1 .4. t ) such t h a t U 1 + U I C U .3: Let F be a closed subspace of a space ( E . ( i i ) and ( i i i ) i n 2. U is a 0-nghb in ( E . t ) i s metrizable. Let s be t h e ( m e t r i z a b l e ) topology on E whose b a s i s of 0-nghbs i s (Un:n=1. According t o our hypothesis.

xfy. i f cn(E) i s non-void t h e n card(cn( E ) ) = c . and a non-counI n particu- l a r . c o u n t a b l e subset. (E. a s e q u e n t i a l l y seoarable . we Zd(') due t o E. 51). d ( X ) ) t o denote t h e minimal o f a dense subset of c a r d i n a l i t y of a b a s i s f o r t h e t o p o l o g y o f X ( r e s p . o f a countable-dimensional dense subspace and hence s e p a r a b i l i t y i s a p r o p e r t y o f t h e dual p a i r .C 60.p. l e t A be a dense c o u n t a b l e subset o f E. Set w(X) ( r e s p .p. Y i s separable t h e n Y i s n e t r i z a b l e (E. a c c o r d i n g t o E. ( 3 ) e v e r y open subset o f a separable space i s i t s e l f seDarable. A ( 5 ) shows t h a t K i s separable. ( 5 ) l e t m be an i n f i n i t e c a r d i n a l and (Xs:s 6 S ) .p. i f x .6. w i t h ~ a r d ( S ) = 2 ~a.m u l t i p l i c a t i v e p r o p e r t y .(3) show t h a t a l o c a l l y convex space i s s e q u e n t i a l l y s e p a r a b l e i f and o n l y i f t h e r e e x i s t s a sequent i a l l y dense countable-dimensional subspace. s e p a r a b i l i t y i s e q u i v a i e n t t o t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a t o t a l c o u n t a b l e subset. . p. For l o c a l l y convex spaces we have ( 6 ) if E i s a l o c a l l y convex space which i s separable. We r e c a l l t h a t X i s separable i f i t c o n t a i n s a dense i f d(X)=&. 111. i . ( 4 ) l e t X and Y be t o p o l o g i c a l spaces and f : X + Y a continuous o n t o map- p i n g . e . For ( l o c a l l y convex) spaces. s e D a r a b i l i t y i s a c . i t f o l Tows t h a t c a r d ( c s ( E ) ) = c . ( i i ) moreover. e . t h e n X i s separable. y L A . Then ( i ) d ( Y ) d d ( X ) and hence. X i s n o t separable i f and o n l y i f t h e r e e x i s t s r ) O t a b l e subset A o f X such t h a t . i f X i s compact and m e t r i z a b l e and Y i s Hausdorff. w(X). and. a subspace o f a m e t r i z a b l e separable space i s i t s e l f separable.<43. Thus. . y ) > r . hence c a r d ( c s ( E ) ) & card(R )=c.5 Some r e s u l t s on s e p a r a b i l i t y We s t a r t w i t h some r e s u l t s o f t o p o l o g i c a l n a t u r e which a r e well-known: L e t X be a t o p o l o g i c a l space. A space i s s a i d t o be s e q u e n t i a l l y separable i f e v e r y v e c t o r o f t h e space i s t h e l i m i t o f a convergent sequence t a k i n g i t s values i n some f i x e d c o u n t a b l e subset o f t h e space. C l e a r l y . A s i m i ' l a r argument shows t h a t . Since e v e r y a b s o l u t e l y convex 0-nghb i n E p r o v i d e s a continuous seminorm on E. I f X i s r e g u l a r .p. then d ( x . i . I f A i s a s e t w i t h card(A)=c.52 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEX SPACES 2. Then d(- ( X s : s 6 S ) ) l m by E. 44. (1) i f X i s n e t r i z a b l e and d stands f o r t h e m e t r i c on X d e s c r i b i n g i t s topology. On t h e o t h e r hand. ( 2 ) i f X i s compact and m e t r i z a b l e . i f X i s separable. S l i g h t m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n t h e p r o o f o f K2. e v e r y space h a v i n g a Schauder b a s i s i s s e q u e n t i a l l y separab l e . fam i l y of t o p o l o g i c a l spaces such t h a t d(Xs). Every c o n t i n u o u s seminorm q on E i s u n i a u e l y d e t e r A mined by i t s r e s t r i c t i o n t o A. 166). x) have t h a t d ( X ) k w ( X ) .Lm f o r each s i n S.

C l e a r l y .CHAPTER 2 53 A K i s n o t se- A A space has a t most c v e c t o r s and. f o r e v e r y 0-nghb U i n E. L e t d be the f a m i l y o f a l l i n f i n i t e countable subsets o f A and suppose c&A) endowed w i t h t h e t o p o l o g y d e r i v e d f r o m t h e f a m i l y o f seminorms (pN(f):=sup( \ f ( x ) i : x c N ) : N c ~ ) . i s separable and i f s i s a c o a r s e r t o p o l o g y on E. D e f i n i t i o n 2.5.1: t h a t E=A+U. On t h e o t h e r hand. On t h e o t h e r hand. l o g y on E such t h a t e v e r y bounded s e t of !E.s( E. . I t i s easy t o prove t h a t A space E i s t r a n s s e p a r a b l e ( o r separable b y seminorms) i f .s) i s sep a r a b l e .t) Then (E. It i s easy t o check from d e f i n i t i o n s t h a t a space E i s transseparable i f and o n l y i f E i s a subspace o f a t o p o l o g i c a l p r o d u c t o f s e p a r a b l e seminorrned spaces. F i r s t we i n t r o d u c e a r e l a t e d concept which b e h a v e s w e l l as f a r as permanence p r o p e r t i e s a r e concerned. M e t r i z a b l e t r a n s s e p a r a b l e spaces a r e separable. e v e r y v e c t o r o f a s e t w i t h card(A)=c and s e t co(A) t o denote t h e space o f f u n c t i o n s f:A-+K such t h a t ( a E A : l f ( a ) l f ) co(A) has c o u n t a b l e support. then co(A) i s t r a n s s e p a r a b l e . t h e n (E.5.2: A t r a n s s e p a r a b l e space which i s n o t separable.qU) i s separable f o r each 0-nghb U i n E.5.t) be a m e t r i z a b l e space and l e t s be a topoi s precompact i n (E. ~ .s). (E.F). q u o t i e n t s o f separable spaces a r e a g a i n separable and. co(A) i s n o t separable: indeed.3: Let (E. C l e a r l y . t h e r e e x i s t s a c o u n t a b l e subset A o f E such E i s t r a n s s e p a r a b l e i f and o n l y i f t h e seminormed space (E. s i n c e dim(K )=card(K )=2'. any f u n c t i o n i n co(A) which does n o t v a n i s h a t a cannot be i n t h e c l o s u r e o f F i n co(A). We g i v e a s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n f o r transsepar a b i l i t y i n the following P r o p o s i t i o n 2.s) i s t r a n s s e p a r a b l e . f o r e v e r y c o u n t a b l e s e t F o f v e c t o r s o f co (A). Thus.F)) i s t r a n s s e p a r a b l e . Example 2.Let A be i s f i n i t e f o r each r 7 0 .t) v e r y soon. i n c o n t r a s t t o ( 5 ) . Thus a r b i t r a r y p r o d u c t s o f t r a n s s e p a r a b l e spaces a r e again t r a n s s e p a r a b l e . ) i s separable f o r each N i n d . separable spaces a r e t r a n s s e p a r a b l e . Subspaces o f separable spaces need n o t be separable as we s h a l l see i f (E. t h e r e e x i s t s a p o i n t a i n A such t h a t e v e r y f u n c t i o n o f F vanishes a t a. S i n c e ( c ~ ( A ) . q u e n t i a l l y separable. According t o ( 4 ) . f o r any dual p a i r (E.

) ber o f . Thus o u r c l a i m i s t r u e . which i s a c o u n t a b l e s e t o f F and l e t y be any v e c t o r o f F. Clearb u t n o t precompact i n (E. (x(i):i=l. We c l a i m t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a bal a n c e d 0-nghb V i n (E. ) such t h a t Ai=( k( i ) U i ) n A i . such t h a t x6y+V-VCAo+U. s e l e c t a v e c t o r z ( x ) i n ( X + V ) A F .t) Then i s s e p a r a b l e whenever or ( i i ) didE/F) .Z.. i s bounded i n ( E .) o f p o s i t i v e . f o r i=l.. l a n c e d 0-nghb V i n (E.5. t h e r e e x i s t s a c o u n t a b l e s e t A i n F such t h a t E= A+V. which shows t h a t E=Ao+ f o r a b a s i s o f 0-nghbs i n ( E . 6 f o r e v e r y x. Set C f o r t h e subset o f A o f a l l x such t h a t ( x + V ) f l F # b and. Z .2. x(i)-x(j)$!V and Ao:=A. L e t F be a subspace o f a t r a n s s e p a r a b l e space E.s) f o r y.t) i s finite.2.2. ( x+V)A(Ao+V)# @ and hence t h e r e e x i s t s y i n A .) and hence t h e r e e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r k( 1) such t h a t Al:=( k( l ) U 1 ) A A i s n o t countable.x'CA and a ba- i t f o l l o w s t h a t A i s countable. x f x ' ..y ' d V U i n (E. ( i ) F i s complemented i n (E. I f F i s a m t r i z a b l e subspace o f a s e p a r a b l e space E . Since e v e r y mm- U. t ) . Since E i s t r a n s s e p a r a b l e .s) w i t h V-VCU and s e t s e t s A o f E such t h a t . . L e t F be a subspace o f a separable space ( E .5.54 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEX SPACES P r o o f : Suppose (E. /1c i s a b s o r b i n g i n E . a c o n t r a d i c t i o n . There e x i s t s x i n A such t h a t y c ( x + V ) ~ F and z i n B w i t h z((x+V)/\F.5: then F i s separable.l since currence.) Select vectors x ( i ) C A i w i t h x ( i ) # x ( j ) i f i f j . t ) i f i f j . o r d e r e d by i n c l u s i o n . t h e r e e x i s t s a maximal s e t A .Z.6: (F. z-y=( z-x)+( x-y) G V+VC U and hence y t z + U .5.s) n o t t r a n s s e p a r a b l e .y'C A and y f y ' .. Then Proof: L e t U be a 0-nghb i n E and V a balanced 0-nghb i n E w i t h V+VLU. t ) .. s e l e c t a s t r i c t l y i n c r e a s i n g sequence ( k ( i ) : i = l . Set 6 : =( z( x) : x t C ) . B y r e . W e s h a l l c o n s t r u c t i n F a c o u n t a b l e s e t B such t h a t F=B+(UnF) f r o m where o u r c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s .s) and a non-countable s e t A i n E such t h a t y . I f t h e c l a i m i s n o t t r u e ..s). i n t e g e r s and non-countable s e t s ( A i :i=1. // P r o p o s i t i o n 2. i f x . For each x i n E.s) g f o r t h e f a m i l y o f a l l sub- t h e n ( x + V ) A ( x ' + V ) = b .. x ' t A. ly.. The p r o o f i s complete. in which i s c o u n t a b l e b y assumption.4: F i s transseparable. Thus // C o r o l l a r y 2. f o r e v e r y O-n*h and e v e r y subset A i n E w i t h t h e p r o p e r t y ( x + U ) / \ ( x ' + U ) = and x f x ' .. Set /u:=(Un:n=l. A=~((mlll)flA:m=1. f o r e v e r y x i n C. P r o p o s i t i o n 2. F i x a 0-nghb U i n (E. A c c o r d i n g t o Z O R N ' s lemma.

F can be e h e d d e d i n a topological product E of c f a c t o r s which a r e separable. .) i s countable and hence t h e r e e x i s t s a ' C A \ A o .2. Take F a s any complete transseparable space which i s not separable (2. H ( z ) n F i s dense i n H(z) and hence i n ( E . Since E i s separable. x is not i n t h e closure of ( x ( n ) : n = l . . E i s separable and F i s c l e a r l y closed i n E . H being a countable-dim e ns i o na 1 dense subspace o f ( E . L e t u be a non-continuous l i n e a r from on E such t h a t F=u'. Clearly F i s dense i n E b u t not separable.. 1 . t ) t h e r e e x i s t s z i n E such t h a t .5. s i n c e F is complete. // Examples 2. t h e r e s t r i c t i o n of u t o H(z) i s not continuous.r) a n d t h e i r quotient topologies on E/H coincide. Since u i s not continuous on ( E . t h e r e e x i s t s a dense subspace G of E of countable dimension. t ) i s separable. according t o ( i ) . Set H:=sp(FUG) which is obviously separable. ) be a sequence i n F. According t o 2 . s i n c e both of them coincide w i t h t h e t r i v i a l topology. 4 . Indeed.5. According t o ( 5 ) . Since H i s dense in ( E .5. t ) .2 will d o ) .Accor0 ding t o ( 5 ) . Indeed l e t r be t h e topology w i t h t h e property s t a t e d i n t h e claim. I f w e d e f i n e x : = ( x ( a ) : a t A ) as a vector of F w i t h x ( a ' ) = l . x ( n ) : = ( x ( n . F i s a ( c l o s e d ) countable-codimensional subspace of H which i s not separable. Let A be a set w i t h card(A)=c and s e t E : = K A and F:= ( K A ) . Z .We +l: t s the f i n e s t topology on E w h i c h induces on each H(x) t h e same t o pology a s t .8: a countable-codimensional subspace F o f a separable space H need not be separable. .a)#O) f o r each n . Since H ( z ) n F i s a hyperplane of H(z) and not c l o sed i n H ( z ) .2) and such t h a t t h e minimal c a r d i n a l i t y of a b a s i s o f 0-nmbs i s c ( a g a i n 2. s i n ce no sequence i n F can be dense: l e t ( x ( n ) : n = l . Observation 2. r and t coincide on E and t i s then a f i n a l topology on E . t ) . ) i n F. i t i s a l s o dense i n (E. w r i t e H(x t o denote t h e dense subspace s p ( H U ( x ) ) . i t i s enough t o c a r r y out t h e proof supposing t h a t F i s a dense hyperplane of ( E . r i s f i n e r than t and both topologies coincide on H . E i s separable.. take E and F a s i n ( i i ) above. .CHAPTER 2 55 Proof: ( i ) follows from ( 4 ) . . t ) . Z . The s e t Ao:=U(An:n=l. 'To prove ( i i ) .7: ( i ) A dense subspace of a separable space which i s not separable. t ) and t h e conclusion follows. a ) : a & A ) f o r each n and s e t An:=(atA:x(n. ( i i ) A closed subspace o f a separable space which i s not separable. For every x in E . t ) which e x i s t s s i n c e ( E .5. T h u s H(z)AF i s dense i n ( F .

I f b (Ik.. L e t 3. A b e i n g t h e u n i o n o f a f a m i l y (Aa:a(w) o f p a i r w i s e d i s j o i n t s e t s o f c a r d i n a l c and w b e i n g as i n ( a ) . E ( >a):=(R U(Ab:b > a ) ) i n A s e t E( <a):=(R u(Ab:b'a))o A0 and denote by ( e ( a ) : a € A ) t h e f a m i l y o f t h e canoriical u n i t v e c t o r s o f R . d e f i n e ga:=sup(fb:b < a ) . I f I k denotes t h e f a d l y o f o r d i n a l s a which a r e s m l l e r t h a n w and 1 such t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s x = ( x ( a ) : a < w ) i n M such t h a t l x ( a ) l > k . For each a < w .2.4h.s( E..Thus M i s c o n t a i ned i n a separable subspace o f E and. ( b ) a dual p a i r (E. I f f .s( F . s e t Ho t o denote t h e subspace o f H o f a l l v e c t o r s whose c o o r d i n a t e s v a n i s h o u t s i d e A some c o u n t a b l e subset. For any non-countable p r o d u c t o f one-dimensional r e a l spaces H.).2.. we have E = E ( < a ) x E ( a ) x E ( ) a ) .d i m e n s i o n a l .5. E ) ) and (E. I f we show t h a t I i s countable. then z(b)=O f o r e v e r y z i n M. For e v e r y a i n A. Thus I i s c o u n t a b l e . depending on u. t h e supremum t a k e n w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e o r d e r r e l a t i o n 4 . there e x i s t s a vector 1 k-' and hence k. M i s separable..) in E thefor F. h b e i n g t h e s m l l e s t o r d i n a l g r e a t e r than a l l i n d i c e s o f I.56 Examples 2. On t h e o t h e r hand. we a r e done s i n c e . Take E as t h e space o f a l l t r a n s f i n i t e sequences x:=( x(a):a ( w ) o f r e a l numb e r s such t h a t x(a)=O except f o r a c o u n t a b l e number o f i n d i c e s and such t h a t p n ( x ) : = ~ ( g a ( n ) 1 x ( a ) I : a < w ) ( + ~ f o r each n and endow d e f i n e d by t h e f a m i l y o f seminorms (pn:n=l. i f z = ( z ( a ) : a < w ) C M .E)) Accordinq t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f gb. E(a):=(R A a ) o . n u h e r s . Then t h e r e e x i s t s a member h o f F s u c h t h a t 9. t h e r e f o r e I k i s c o u n t a b l e . s i n c e E i s n e t r i z a b l e . g a r e members o f 7. F o r e v e r y a . we a r r a n g e F i n t o a t r a n s f i n i t e sequence w b e i n g t h e f i r s t o r d i n a l o f c a r d i n a l c .. B(a) f o r a basis i n Now s e t E ( < a ) containing (e(c):cLU(Ab:b<a)) G(a) f o r t h e space o f a l l l i n e a r forms u on E(( a ) such t h a t u vanishes on e v e r y v e c t o r o f B ( a ) except f o r some c o u n t a b l e subset o f B ( a ) .2. o n l y a c o u n t a b l e f a m i l y o f o r d i n a l s b s a t i s f y g b < h and i s n o t separable and such t h a t t h e bounded s e t s of (F. E w i t h t h e toDology I t i s easy t o check t h a t no sequence i n E can be dense i n E and hence E i s n o t separable. such t h a t s u p ( p n ( x ) : x 6 M ) L f ( n ) each n.2. t h e n x(d)=O f o r d > h .'.F) such t h a t (F... b l e .. we i n t r o d u c e t h e f o l l o w i n g o r d e r r e l a t i o n : U s i n g t h e Continuum Hypothesis.s(F.9: (a) BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES A non-separable space whose bounded s e t s a r e separao f positive f o r n>m. x=(x(a):a < w ) t M such t h a t l x ( b ) l I i s c o u n t a b l e : f i x a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r k .gb(n))'cpn(x) & f ( n ) f o r > each n. Set E:=(R )o.F)) a r e f i n i t e .). we have t h a t i f b{I=U(Ik:k=1. .'be t h e f a m i l y o f a l l sequences f:=(f(n):n=1.) f a g i f t h e r e e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r m such t h a t f ( n ) ( g ( n ) ( f a : a (w). i f Y stands f o r a bounded s e t o f r e e x i s t s f:=(f(n):n=1..

Then E=E( c b ) x E ( h ) x E ( > b ) .' and. K ( ~ ) ) ) has a l l i t s bounded s e t s of a t most countable dimension 2. r ( j ) ) d y ( r ( j ) ) . . .2. s ( F . i ) y ( i ) w i t h ('1 c ( n . : =O f o r every t i n T . Set a n : = s u p ( a : x n ( a ) f O ) and b:=sup(a : n = l . there exists a n ( w such t h a t f ( n ) vanishes on E ( > a n ) . ( d t ) ) . a contradiction according t o 0. . we have t h a t dim(G(a))=c and hence a l i n e a r b i j e c t i o n J:G(a)--cH(a) can be e s t a b l i s h e d . x n : = ( x n ( a ) : a ( A ) f o r each n . Since dim(E( < a ) ) = c . ( f ) l ) has been c a l c u l a t e d . I t is immediate t o f i n d a non-zero vector x in E such t h a t ( x . ( u ) . . 2 . n Z. ( f ) l ) =O i f y G B ( b ) \ S and < y ( r ( l ) ) y ( f ) l > = c( l . E ( a ) and E(> a ) r e s p e c t i v e l y . . . I f ( v ( t ) : t E on E the T ) i s a b a s i s f o r G(a) f o r a c e r t a i n s e t of indices T of cardinal c . s ( H . N ( c ) A dense subspace H of K such t h a t 1. Proof -----------of ( i f : Let ( f ( n ) : n = 1 . T h u s each f ( n ) vanishes on E[ > a ) .. e take ( y ( r ( p ) ) .. ) .f7 j.. . ( u ( t ) ) 2 : = J e v ( t ) . E ) ) i s not separable and every bounded s e t i s finite-dimensional and ( i i ) every bounded set of (E. ) i n E . . ( U ) ~ . 2 . f ( n ) > =O f o r each n . Z . . E ) ) i s not separable.F)) i s finite-dimensional.CHAPTER 2 57 H(a) f o r the space of a l l continuous l i n e a r forms on E(a) when i t i s enA dowed w i t h t h e topology induced by the product topology of R a . . ( f ) l > = n . There exists an ordinal a 4 w such t h a t each f ( n ) vanishes on E( > a ) and ( ( f ( n ) ) 2 : n = 1 . ) such t h a t xn= z c ( n .4.) and s e l e c t i n g a subset i f necessary. r ( n ) ) # O and y ( i ) C B ( b ) f o r every i . ) be t h e canonical isomorphism which a s s o c i a t e s t o every l i n e a r form u r e s t r i c t i o n s t o E( < a ) . T h u s ( f ( n ) : n = 1 .. 2 . i f f o r j = l . ) of l i n e a r l y independent vectors.l . . . r ( l ) ) . Given any infinite-dimensional subset B of K ( N ) and given any subspace F of H w i t h dim(F)=c. C l e a r l y . W e prove ( i ) ( F . Let U H ( ( U ) ~ . a being t h e s u p ( a n : n = 1 . j ) ) : j = l .) be any sequence i n F. . 2 . . ( f ) l > t o s a t i s f y z c ( n . s ( F . .. dim(H(A))=c. ) i s an infinite-dimensional bounded s e t of H(a). ). ) i s not dense i n ( F . . .s(E. . take any f i n Fb such t h a t ( y . t h e r e e x i s t s a vector x i n F such t h a t x i s unbounded on B . l e t u ( t ) be the l i n e a r form on E such t h a t ( u ( t ) ) l : = v ( t ) . ) . ( H .. h-oofJ"-(ji): Suppose t h e e x i s t e n c e of a bounded 1i n e a r l y independent sequence ( x n : n = 1 . a contradiction w i t h t h e boundedness of ( xn:n=1. 2 .. Now suppose the e x i s tence of an infinite-dimensional bounded sequence ( f ( n ) : n = 1 . .-r = n . Rearranging ( x n : n = l . If S stands f o r ( y ( r ( . ( y ( r ( j ) ) . 2 . E ) ) and hence ( F . S e t F a : = s p ( u ( t ) : t & T ) and F : = s p ( U ( F a : a < w ) ) . Z . .3. ) < w . 2 . Since each f ( n ) i s a f i n i t e l i n e a r con-bination of vectors of U ( F a : a ( w ) . p . T h u s <xn. . s ( F . we may suppose t h e e x i s t e n c e of a fl-1 s t r i c t l y increasing sequence ( r (n ) : n = 1 .

. I f (en:n=1..3 Ib(l. . 3 f o r t h e farrrily o f a l l s c a l a r sequences x:=(x(n):n=l..Z. s e t H f o r t h e l i n e a r span o f (en:n=1.c SLOWS t h a t a(m) ( a 1 and t h e c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s . 1. L e t x be i n B and s u p p o ~t h a t x s i. fa i s s t r i c t l y i n c r e a s i n g . L e t B an i n f i n i t e . C(j)fa(j) a ( j + l ) i f m 7 l .2.e. K ( ~ ) ) . s ( H . .k(r))#O f o r each r. C l e a r l y . x=zb(i)ei 1 n o t a f i n i t e l i n e a r combination o f t h e (en:n=1..)...(2-1x(n) Given two s c a l a r sequences f .58 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEX SPACES Set ? f o r gers and t h e f a w i l y o f a l l sequences f : = ( f ( n ) : n = l .n) I / f (nn a.i)~~ n% ... i ) W e c o n s t r u c t an element f : = ( f ( k ) : k = l .) t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r no such t h a t O<x(n+l).. t h e r e e x i s t s a i n A such t h a t f / f a E Since F has dimension c.. i n sp((en:n=l.2.)U ( f a : a E A ) .n):n=1. we a r r a n q ? ( f a : a 4 w ) w i t h fa:=(f(a. n ) ) / f ( a . a( j ) & A f o r each j and a( j 4 n u l l sequence.[ 1+ I ( c ( . ) i s a s t r i c t l y i n c r e a s i n g sew i t h b(r.2. Z . ) k # k ( r ) f o r e v e r y r and choose f ( k ( l ) ) > proceed i n d u c t i v e l y t o choose f ( k ( r ) ) + f o r r=2.s(H. 2. t h e r e e x i s t s a 4 A such t h a t a ) c and f c / f a & F o r t h e momnt. such t h a t (i) f o r each a ----.A.:r=ly2. 5 such t h a t I x ( n ) l L f ( n ) f o r each x t B and each n.c(a)).) 3 5. o f g a s f o l l o w s : s e t f ( k ) = l if quence o f p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r s and s c a l a r s b ( r . I f we show t h a t f a ( . 2 . j ) / c ( m ) ) ( f( a( j ) . n ) and t h e c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s .i)\)and ~b(r. I f n ) k. H i s dense i n KN and i t s t o D o l o g i c a 1 dual i s K( N ) .. . n ) / f ( a .K")) a r e countable-dimensional L e t B be a bounded s e t o f ( H . g we denote b y f / g t h e sequence ( f ( n ) / g ( n ) : n = l .n)).. Since ( F c ( j ) f ( a ( j ) . I Z c ( j ) f ( a ( j ) ..)U(fc:c(. U s i n g t h e Continuum Hypothesis.no.) 1 < f(n)/f(a. . ..) LO..t c Mr) tdN)and f i n d a sequence ( <=f i n B where ( k ( r ) : r = l .bCA w i t h a < b . we suppose o u r c l a i m t r u e . n ) / f ( a(m) . ( i i ) i f a. . There e x i s t s a c e r t a i n f i n e x i s t s a i n A such t h a t f / f a C $ . According t o o u r c l a i m .) where meaningful.n) tends t o z e r o as n .) 5 into a t r a n s f i n i t e sequence f o r each a t b .n) 1 ) ) / f a i s a nu K f sequence. t h e n f a / f b g and (iii) f o r each cE[O.. t h e r e We a r e done i f we show t h a t B i s c o n t a i n e d i.2. According t o o u r c l a i m .w). n ) = (c(m)f(a(m)/f(a. . ) o f positive intesuch i f n). We show t h a t t h e bounded s e t s of (H.d i m n s i o n a l subset of b(r..i)e. . stands f o r t h e c a n o n i c a l u n i t v e c t o r s o f KN.n))) and s i n c e t h e l a s t sumnand tends t o 0 as and hence ( ? c ( j ) f a ( n tends t o i n f i n i t y . Z. w ) .. we have t h a t f ( a ( m ) .t h e r e e x i s t s a non-void subset A o f Claim: i n A . Z .2.k(l))/-' {l+q~~lb(l. t h e n o u r c a i m 0... / f a is a + L 4 where c( j ) a r e non-zero s c a l a r s .k(r))~-'{l+~f(i)Ib(r. i t c o n t a i n s a v e c t o r o f t h e f o r m h = z m ( i ) e i + 5 nn 2.

k.w)) stands f o r t h e l e a s t a such t h a t q=fa s a t i s f i e s t h e r e q u i r e n e n t s o f -D. f o r a l l c i n 6 . ...). w h i l e t h e second i s p o s i t i v e f o r r s u f f i c i e n t l y o(f( k ) / f ( a ( m) . I h( 4 -1 3 I h( k( r ) ) I I b( r.k).i) / f (i) :i = k o .maxi1 h( i ) l /f( i ) : i = l .. . S i s a f i n i t e o r c o u n t a b l e sub- s e t of P r o o f o f t h e c l a i m : F i r s t we observe t h a t i f -----------------3: t h e r e e x i s t s a s t r i c t l y i n c r e a s i n g g t y s u c h t h a t f / g C % f o r a l l fES: if S i s c o u n t a b l e and S i s (f(n):n=1. k ( r ) .h))c A c c o r d i n g t o E.k( r ) ) l w it n a x { h l( i)l / f ( i) :i=l.l ) / f ( k ( r ) . Then.l ) ) 44-’f(k-l)/f(a(m).k) ) ( f(a.k)/f(a(m) ..) t h a t g(k+l))g(k) L e t h:[O.k) = ( f( k)/f(a. .k):k=l.1 ) ) & ( 3 / 4 ) I h ( k ( r ) ) ) (according t o (**)). s e t B : = ( c ([O.w).t) 2 . k ( r ) - 1’1 6 ( 2 I h( k( r ))l/f(a( m) . k .. and If --t[O.w).2.k)) (2-’f( k .i )I - .5.k( r))l I h( k( r ) ) I . such t h a t F(x)=R(x.. large.F/[O. .. r ) is separable.1f ( a .CHAPTER 2 &TI 59 i) Ib( r .) such f(n. 20 Theorem.. f o r s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e r f( k ( r ) ) m a x { l h ( f( k ( r ) ) m a x { l h ( i ) l / f ( i ) : i = l ...w) s e t R(x. and t h e r e f o r e I h( k ) l /f( k ) tends t o a as k+-. P r o p o s i t i o n 2.x)) l))F(x)>/x f o r a l l xC[O.h) I t i s easy t o see t h a t F(x+ and (ii) we a r e done: (i) a r e i m n e d i a t e and g i v e n c we t a k e a=F(c+l) t o deduce (iii).f( k( r ) ) m a x { ( h ( i)I/f( ‘S9 154 z( I i)I / f ( i) )f( . o u r o b s e r v a t i o n f o r S.i) 1 3max{lh( i ) V i) :i= f( i ) : i = l . and each f(n):=(f(n. s e t g(l):=land c o n s t r u c t i n d u c t i v e l y a sequence q : = ( g( k):k=1. . a(m) .k) < 4 Acccrding t o (***). l = ‘ (***I..k( r1-13 x( f( k( r ) )I b ( r . if k2ko. .w):c apply our forrrer observation t o t h e f i n i t e o r countable s e t S=(fc:cCB).. k ) / f ( 5: 9 .(*). k ( r))l -1) and t h e r e f o r e \ g h ( i ) b ( r..2. For k > n we have h ( k ) = .k)/(Zg(k)) w i t h n=l.k( r ) . (**) and hence f / f a ( m ) C 2 . Then ( E . . k ) = f(a(m). .10: Let (E. .k-l).. . . ..w) f o r a l l x i n [O. R(x.k(r)-l]\.k( r)-l?J + I b( r.2. k . l. I f x=O.k) El+ 3 ‘ d ( j ) f ( a ( j ) .k(r)-l?= (****).2.7/ Ih( k ( r ) ) l I b( r.k) d Ih(k)l 6(3/2)f(a(m).Z. We have shown t h a t h=(h(k):k=1.p.. i ) l . Z-’f(a(m).k( r ) ) ) f( k( r ))max( ( 3/21 f( a( m) .l ) / f ( a ( m ) . I f xfO.. t h e r e e x i s t s an unique F: [O. t h e r e e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r ko such t h a t . ... ? d ( j ) f ( a ( j ) . L e t r be t h e i n i t i a l t o p o l o g y on E w i t h r e s pect t o the canonical i n j e c t i o n J:E+(E.l ) / f ( a ...h) =O. .k( r))] . . . (according t o i ) I /f( i ) : i = k o . .x)) ( s e e E.. .1 ) ) x ( 2 . a sequence o f l i n e a r f o r m on E. and f ( n .) i s unbounded on B .k( r ) ) ) f ( k( r ) ) ( f(a(m) .x) [O.w) R(x. .p. .l j x f ? f ( i ) l b ( r .) and t h e sequence u(n):E+K.w) sequence o f t y p e x w i t h values i n S h ( z ) f o r some z C[O. Now we show t h a t t h e f i r s t member o f t h e r i g h t hand s i d e of ( * ) tends t o @ a s r-a. S e t t i n g A:=F([O. k .t) be a separable space and (u(n):n=1. C l e a r l y . k + l ) / q ( k + l ) be a t r a n s f i n i t e 20).n=l.k( r )-1) (****I) = 3( I h( k ( r ) ) \ / f ( a ( m ) ..

60

BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES

P r o o f : Set rn f o r t h e i n i t i a l t o p o l o g y on E w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e canonical i n j e c t i o n J:E+( E,t) and t h e 1 i n e a r f o r m u( i ) :E
Fn b e i n g O ( u ( i ) ' : i = l , . . , n )
--c

K, i=l,. ,n. C l e a r l y , rn

.

i s f i n e r t h a n rn-l f o r each n > l and each rn i s f i n e r than t. For e v e r y n, ( E , r n ) = ( F n y r n ) @ (Hn,rn), and Hn a corrplement o f i s separable as i t i s a and each rn Fn i n E . Since t c o i n c i d e s w i t h rn on Fn, (Fn,rn)

f i n i t e - c o d i m e n s i o n a l subspace o f t h e separable space ( E , t ) a c c o r d i n g t o 2.5.

6. Then ( E , r n )

i s separable f o r each n. Since r = s u p ( r :n=1,2,..) n i s f i n e r t h a n rn-l, ( E , r ) i s separable.

/I

Observation 2.5.11:

t h e supremum o f two separable t o p o l o g i e s need ( s e e 2.5.7)
@(M,t).

n o t be

separable as t h e f o l l o w i n g example shows: l e t ( E , t ) t a i n i n g a non-separable subspace ( F , t ) of (E,t-),
(E,r)

be a separable space conand l e t M be an a l q e b r a i c Since ( F , t ) i s a quotient

complement o f F i n E. We s e t ( E , r ) : = ( F , t )

i s n o t separable. On t h e o t h e r hand, i t i s easy t o check t h a t E,t),
K( x+y):=x-y, x i n F and y i n
!I

r i s t h e supremum o f t and s, s b e i n g t h e i n i t i a l toDoloqy on E w i t h r e s p e c t
t o t h e mapping K:E - ( separable t o p o l o g y . P r o p o s i t i o n 2.5.12:
I f E i s a separable space, then e v e r y E-equicontinuous

which i s a l s o a

subset o f E ' i s weakly m e t r i z a b l e . I f E i s a m e t r i z a b l e space, E i s separab l e i f and o n l y i f (B,s(E',E))
B in E'.

i s n e t r i z a b l e f o r e v e r y E-equicontinuous s e t

P r o o f : I f E i s separable, s e t X f o r a c o u n t a b l e dense subset, o f E and f o r t h e f a m i l y o f a l l non-void f i n i t e subsets o f X. nuous subset o f E ' , t h e f a m i l y s i s o f 0-nghbs f o r (B,s(E',E)).
( B ,s( E ' ,E)) i s w t r i z a b l e .

3:

I f B i s a E-equiconti-

o f a l l s e t s o f t h e f o r m ( u € 6 : I<x,u)lO-,x&F) where r runs through t h e p o s i t i v e r a t i o n a l numbers and F through x i s a baWe have t h a t c a r d ( U and t h e r e f o r e

be a d e c r e a s i n g b a s i s o f Now suppose E m e t r i z a b l e and l e t ( U n : n = l Z,..) 0-nghbs i n E . I f B n : = U O f o r each n, (Bn:n= ,2,. i s a fundamental f a m i l y n of E-equicontinuous s e t s i n E ' . For e v e r y n t h e r e e x i s t s a c o u n t a b l e f a m i l y

.

(V(i,n):i=l,Z,..)

o f 0-nghbs i n ( E ' , s ( E ' , E ) f o r i=l,Z,..

such t h a t n ( V ( i , n ) n B n : i = l , . . ) o f f i n i t e parts o f E which i s =O f o r e v e r y x i n X ,

=(O) and hence t h e r e e x i s t s a f a m i l y (X( i , n ) : i = l , Z , . . )
such t h a t V(i,n)=X(i,n)O a c o u n t a b l e s e t o f E . Given any u i n E ' such t h a t (x,u>

.Set X : = U ( X ( i , n ) : i , n = l , Z , . . )

we s h a l l see t h a t u=O which c o n p l e t e s t h e p r o o f . There e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r n such t h a t u CBn. Moreover, u EX( i ,n)'ABn=V( i , n ) n B n f o r each i.

CHAPTER 2

61

Thus u(fl(V(i,n)ABn:i=1,2,..)=(0)

and t h e r e f o r e X i s t o t a l i n E. T a k i n g

r a t i o n a l o r c o m p l e x - r a t i o n a l l i n e a r combinations o f v e c t o r s o f f i r s t p a r t o f the proof.

X, we show

t h a t E i s separable. T h i s proves s u f f i c i e n c y . N e c e s s i t y f o l l o w s f r o m t h e

//
is

C o r o l l a r y 2.5.13: separable.

I f E i s m e t r i z a b l e and separable, t h e n (E',s(E',E))

P r o o f : A c c o r d i n g t o 2.5.12,

e v e r y E-equicontinuous i s weakly m t r i z a b l e

and c l e a r l y weakly r e l a t i v e l y compact ( ALAOGLU-BOURBAKI's theorem) E-equicontinuous s e t s which i s fundamental i n

, hence

weakly separable a c c o r d i n g t o ( 2 ) . Since t h e r e e x i s t s a c o u n t a h l e f a m i l y o f

El, o u r c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s . / I

I t i s w o r t h t o mention t h a t ,

i f E i s m t r i z a b l e and separable, ( E ' , b ( E ' ,

E ) ) needs n o t be separable. F o r normed spaces E, i f (E',b(E',E)) b l e , t h e n E i s separable. Observation 2.5.14:

i s separa-

t h e r e e x i s t separable spaces whose weak d u a l has non-

separable bounded s e t s : indeed, s e t E:=( l"',s( (lm,s(lm,lm'))

la',lm)). Since 1' i s dense i n
=

i t s weak b i d u a l E, E i s separable. Now we s h a l l see t h a t (E',s(E',E))

has a non-separable bounded s e t B . Set B f o r t h e c l o s e d u n i t 1 b a l l o f 1Since t h e norm t o p o l o g y b ( l m , l ) i s c o n p a t i b l e w i t h s ( l o , l 0 ' ) 1 and B i s a non-separable bounded s e t o f ( l w , b ( l m y l ) ) , t h e c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s .

.

P r o p o s i t i o n 2.5.15:

L e t ( En,tn)

be a m e t r i z a b l e separable space, n=1,2,. Then (E',s(E',E)) i s separable. and Fn' f o r t h e
1p,

.

and l e t (E,t)=ind((En,tn):n==1,2,..). nghbs i n (En,tn), B(n,m):=U(n,m)o s(En',En))

P r o o f : For e v e r y n, s e t (U(n,m):m=1,2,..) t o p o l o g i c a l dual o f ( E n , t ) .

f o r a d e c r e a s i n a b a s i s of 0-

En' f o r t h e t o p o l o g i c a l dual o f (En,tn)

C l e a r l y , F n ' C E n ' f o r each n and, f o r e v e r y Now u s i n g ( l ) , (B(n,m)AFn',s(En',En))

i s compact and m e t r i z a b l e ( a n d hence SeDarable) i n ( E n '

,

a c c o r d i n g t o 2.5.12.

is

separable and hence c o n t a i n s a dense sequence ( u ( n,m,k) : (u(n,m,k):m,k=l,Z,..) Determine continuous l i n e a r forms (v(n,m,k):n,m,k=1,2. t h a t , f o r e v e r y n, u(n,m,k) sp( v( n,m,k):n,m,k=l,Z,.

k =1,2,. . ) . Then
f o r e v e r y n.

i s a sequence dense i n (Fn',s(En',En)) i s t h e r e s t r i c t i o n o f v(n,m,k)

. . ) on ( E , t ) such on En. Set L:=

. ) which i s o f c o u n t a b l e dimension. Our c o n c l u s i o n

f o l l o w s i f we show t h a t L separates p o i n t s o f E which i s obvious.

//

62

BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEX SPACES

Proposition 2.5.10: If ( E , t ) = i n d ( ( E n , t n ) : n = 1 , 2 , . . ) i s a s t r i c t (LF)-space ( s e e K l y 4 l 9 ) , then ( E , t ) i s separable i f and only i f each ( E n , t n ) i s separable. Proof: Necessity follows from 2.5.5 and s u f f i c i e n c y i s imlrediate.

I/

Corollary 2.5.17: I f ( E , t ) i s a s t r i c t (LF)-space and i f i t i s separable, then ( E ' ,s( E' , E ) ) i s separable. Proof: combine 2.5.15 and 2.5.16.

//

Proposition 2.5.18:

Let E be a space such t h a t ( E ' , s ( E ' , E ) ) i s separable.

( i ) E i s s u b n e t r i z a b l e , i . e . there e x i s t s a coarser topoloqq s on E such t h a t (E,s) i s n e t r i z a b l e .

and i f F : = s p ( E U ( z ) ) , t h e n ( E ' , s ( E ' , F f ) i s separable. Proof: ( i ) Let ( u ( n ) : n = l , Z , . . ) be a dense sequence i n ( E ' , s ( E ' , E ) ) and define T:E-+KN by T ( x ) : = ( ( x , u ( n ) > : n = 1 , 2 , . . ) which i s c l e a r l y continuous. Then K N induces on E = T ( E ) a metrizable coarser topoloay. ( i i ) F i r s t , we claim t h e existence of a countable subset D of E ' , dense i n ( E ' , s ( E ' , E ) ) , such t h a t B ( D ) : = n ( ( y t E : (y,u) = ( z , u > ) : u C n ) i s void. Indeed, by assumption there e x i s t s a countable subset D1 of E' , which i s dens e in ( E ' , s ( E ' , E ) ) . Consider the associated set B ( D l ) defined as above a n d suppose t h a t i t i s non-void. Clearly, B(D1) contains only one p o i n t , f o r i f y( 1) and y ( 2 ) belong t o E a n d y( l ) # y ( 2 ) , t h e r e e x i s t s u ED1 such t h a t (y( l ) , u) # (y(Z),u>. N o w i f B ( D l ) reduces t o ( y ) , t h e r e e x i s t s v C E ' such t h a t < z , v > # ( y , v > , since z ( ( E ' ) * \ E . Then i t i s enou@ t o take D:=DIU(v). Once the existence cf D has been guaranteed, s e t L : = s p ( D ) . O u r conclusion follows i f we show t h a t L is dense in ( E ' , s ( E ' , F ) ) . Let y:=x+az be a n e l e mnt of F w i t h x in E , a a s c a l a r a n d < y , u > = O f o r each u in D. If a#O, (z, u > = (-a-'x,u> and t h e r e f o r e -a-lx belongs t o B ( D ) , which i s not the case. Thus ( x , u > = O f o r every u in D and hence x=O.

(ii) i f z is a vector o f ( E ' ) * \ E

I/

Observation 2.5.19: ( a ) 2 . 5 . 6 ( i i ) can be deduced from 2 . 5 . 1 8 ( i i ) : l e t F be a dense hyperplane of a separable space E and l e t u be a non-continuous l i n e a r from on E such t h a t F = u L .Set G : = s p ( E ' V ( u ) ) . Since ( E , s ( E , E ' ) ) i s separable, 2.5,18( i i ) shows t h a t (E,s( E , G ) ) i s senarahle. The tooolooies s(E,G) and s ( E , E ' ) coincide on F and F i s closed in ( E , s ( E , G ) ) and of f i n i t e codimension. T h u s ( F,s( E , G ) ) = ( F,s( E , E ' ) ) i s a quotient of (E,s( E , G ) ) and

CHAPTER 2

63

hence separable. Thus F i s separable. ( b ) I f F i s a c l o s e d subspace o f a space E, F i s t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f a c o u n t a b l e f a m i l y o f c l o s e d hyperplanes o f E i f and o n l y i f ( ( E/F) ' ,s( (E/F) E/F)) i s separable. Indeed, f i r s t observe t h a t ( ( E / F ) ' ,s( ( E / F ) ' ,E/F)) Suppose t h a t F:=A(u(n)l:n=1,2,..) p o l o g i c s l l y i s o m r p h i c t o (F',s(E',E)). 2,. .), t h e t o p o l o g y s( E/F,G) t h a n s(E/F,F

I,

i s to-

where each u ( n ) belongs t o E l . I f G stands f o r t h e l i n e a r span o f ( u ( n ) : n = l , i s a H a u s d o r f f l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y c o a r s e r Since G i s o f c o u n t a b l e Then F=FLA= n ( u ( n ) '

) and hence G i s dense i n (FL,s(E',E)).
in F
I

dimension, t h e n e c e s s i t y f o l l o w s . R e c i p r o c a l l y , suppose t h e e x i s t e n c e of a sequence (u(n):n=1,2,..) :n=1,2,..)

, dense i n (F*,s(E',E)).

and t h e c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s .

is ( c ) L e t E be a non-countable-dinensional space such t h a t (E',s(E',E)) n o t separable and l e t (u( n ) :n=1,2,. .) be a sequence i n E ' . Then A ( u( n ) l : n =

1,2,..) i s o f non-countable dimension. Indeed, ifL stands f o r t h e l i n e a r
span o f ( u ( n ) : n = l Y 2 , . . ) , our hypothesis implies t h a t L I f ( 0 ) .
I f t h e con-

c l u s i o n i s n o t t r u e , l e t ( x ( i ) : i €1) be a b a s i s o f LA w i t h I=PI o r I=(l,..,n) f o r some n a t u r a l n. For e v e r y i i n I , t h e r e e x i s t s a v e c t o r v ( i ) E E ' that (x(j),v(i))=O
i f j 4 i . Set F : = s p ( ( u ( i ) : i L T ) U ( v ( i ) : i E I ) ) ,

such the clo-

s u r e taken i n (E',s(E',E)).

Since ( E ' , s ( E ' , E ) )

i s n o t separable, FfE' and

t h e r e f o r e t h e r e e x i s t s a non z e r o v e c t o r x i n E such t h a t <x,h> =O f o r ever y h i n F. Thus x belongs t o L'

and a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r j can be found such

t h a t (x,v( j)> #O,

a contradiction.
i f B i s a s u b s e t o f a n o n - r e f l e x i v e F r e c h e t space E , I f A i s a separable bounded s e t

O b s e r v a t i o n 2.5.20:

B * w i l l denote i t s c l o s u r e i n (E",s(E",E')).

i n E and x a v e c t o r o f A*,set
G b e i n g sp(EC)(x)).

F:=$(A),

t h e c l o s u r e t a k e n i n E, and H:=F*AG, (F',s(F',F)) i s s e p a r a b l e and t h e The t o p o l o g y

According t o 2.5.13,

r e f o r e ( F ' , s ( F ' ,H)) i s a l s o separable due t o 2.5.18( ii). Then t h e r e e x i s t s a dense subspace L o f Countable d i w n s i o n i n ( F ' , s ( F ' , H ) ) . s(H,L) E",E')), i s n e t r i z a b l e , hence a sequence (x(n):n=1,2,..) hence (x(n):n=1,2,..) i n A can be e x t r a c t e d Thus t h e vec-

t o converge t o x i n (H,s(H,L)).

Since A i s bounded, A* i s compact i n (E",s( converges t o x i n (G,s(G,E')).

t o r s o f A* can be approached by sequences i n A c o n v e r g i n g f o r s(E",E'). P r o p o s i t i o n 2.5.21: met r iza b 1e . L e t A be a separable subset o f a n o n - r e f l e x i v e Fr6Then (G,m(G,E')) i s sub-

c h e t space E, x a v e c t o r o f A* and G : = s p ( E U ( x ) ) .

64

BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEXSPACES

P r o o f : Set F : = G ( A ) , dense i n (H,s(E",E')), ( E ' / H l , s ( E'/HL,F))

t h e c l o s u r e taken i n E, and H:=F*/\G.

Since F i s E'/HL,H)) is

E ' / H L can be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h F ' . Accordinq t o 2.5.13,

i s separable and, due t o 2.5.18( i i ) , (E'/HL,s(

i s a l s o separable. Then a sequence ( Pn:n=1,2,. dense i n (E'/H',s(E'/H',H)). c r e a s i n g sequence (Qm:m=1,2,.

.) o f f i n i t e - d i m e n s i n a l c l o s e d

a b s o l u t e l y convex subsets o f E ' / H A c a n be found such t h a t u(Pn:n=1,2,..) On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e r e e x i s t s i n E ' an i n -

. ) o f a b s o l u t e l y convex compact s e t s i n ( E ' ,s(
E'/H'
stands f o r t h e canonical s u r j e c t i o n ,

E ' ,E))

covering E'.

I f Q:E'+
01:

u ( Q - (Pn):n=1,2,..)

1

i s dense i n (E',s(E',G)).

I n order t o construct

G a m e t r i z a b l e t o p o l o q t c o a r s e r t h a n m(G,E')

i t i s enough t o f i n d a c o u n t a b l e f a m i l y @ o f a b s o l u t e l y convex c o m a c t s e t s

i n (E',s(E',G)) whose u n i o n i s dense i n (E',s(E',G)) and d e f i n e t=tC63. 1 (Pn):n,m=1,2,..). Since (Q,:m=1,2,..) covers E ' and We s e t &:=(Q,AQU(Q-'(Pn):n=1,2,..) i s dense i n (E',s(E',G)),
i t i s enough t o show t h a t

e v e r y QmnQ-'(Pn) i s s(E',G)-compact. f o r n and m f i x e d . Since net ( u ( j ) : j ( J )
H)),

L e t ( u ( i ) : i (I)be a n e t i n QmnQ-'(Pn) t h e r e e x i s t s a subThe n e t ( O ( i n (E',s(E',E)).

9, i s compact i n ( E ' , s ( E ' , E ) ) ,

converging t o a c e r t a i n u t Q ,

u ( j ) ) : j t J ) c o n v e r g s t o Q ( u ) i n (E'/H',s(E'/HL,F)),

hence i n (E'/HL,s(E'/HL,

s i n c e b o t h t o p o l o g i e s c o i n c i d e on t h e f i n i t e - d i w n s i o n a l space sp( P n U

( Q ( u ) ) ) . Then ( u ( j ) : j CJ) converges t o u over t h e p o i n t s o f

H and 0-'(Pn)
//

c o n t a i n s u. Now i t i s t r i v i a l t o check t h a t ( u ( j ) : i C J ) converaes t o u over t h e p o i n t s o f G , s i n c e a cobasis o f F i n H i s a l s o a cobasis o f E i n G .

Observation 2.5.22:

l e t L be a c l o s e d subspace o f a n o n - r e f l e x i v e Banach On t h e o t h e r hand, l e t y be a v e c t o r o f L*. Set U
O

space E. C l e a r l y , L " C L * . pairs ( E , E ' ) and (L,E'/LL)

f o r t h e c l o s e d u n i t b a l l of E and

and # f o r t h e p o l a r s e t s i n t h e dual E'/LL
I f ?:El

r e s p e c t i v e l y . Since L i s weakly dense i n L*,
+

can be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e dual o f L*. n i c a l s u r j e c t i o n , Q(IJo+LA) = ( U n L ) ' . i s bounded on Uo+LL

E'/LL stands f o r t h e cano-

Since U* absorbs y, i t f o l l o w s t h a t y , hence on ( U A L ) # which i s t h e c l o s e d u n i t b a l l of t h e

d u a l o f L. Thus u CL" and we have t h a t L* can be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h L " . P r o p o s i t i o n 2.5.23: L e t A be a separable subset of a n n n - r e f l e x i v e Banach

space E, x a v e c t o r o f A* and L a c l o s e d subspace o f E such t h a t ( L ' , b ( L ' , L ) ) i s separable. Ifi G stands f o r t h e l i n e a r span o f E U ( x ) U L * i s submetrizable.

, t h e n (G,m(G,E'))

CHAPTER 2

65

Proof: S e t F : = q ( A ) , H:=F*AG and Q:E'--*E'/HL f o r the canonical s u r i e c t i o n as in 2.5.21. Since ( L ' , b ( L ' , L ) ) i s separable, t h e r e e x i s t s a countable family of closed absolutely convex finite-dimensional s e t s ( A r : r = l Y 2 , . . ) i n

( E ' / L L y ~ ( E ' / L L , L " ) ) whose union i s dense. According t o 2.5.32, L " can be
i d e n t i f i e d w i t h L*. Set T : E ' + E'/LL f o r t h e canonical sur.iection. Keep1 ing the notation introduced in 2.5.21, consider t h e family t :=( Qm no- ( P n ) 1 T\T- ( A r ) : r , m , n = 1 , 2 , ...) and, as i n 2.5.21, i t is possible t o show t h a t W (C:C€?) i s dense i n (El,s(E',G)) and t h a t every member o f cis compact i n ( E ' ,s( E' , G ) ) .

The proof i s complete.

//

Corollary 2.5.24: Let F and L be closed subspaces o f a non-reflexive Banach space E . I f ( L ' , b ( L ' , L ) ) i s separable and i f z i s a vector of F*Asp(E UL*), t h e r e exists a sequence i n F converging t o z i n ( E " , s ( E " , E ' ) ) . Proof: Take x i n E and aaply 2.5.23 t o G:=sp(EUL*) t o obtain a topoloqy t on G coarser than n(G,E') such t h a t ( G , t ) i s rretrizable. According t o 2.5. 2 2 , F*=F" and t h e r e f o r e t h e r e e x i s t s a convex bounded s e t B i n F such t h a t zCB*. Then zC?i, t h e closure taken i n ( G , t ) , and a sequence ( x ( n ) : n = 1 , 2 , . . ) i n B can be found converging to z i n ( G , t ) . W e s h a l l see t h a t (x(n):n=1,2,.) converges t o z i n ( E " , s ( E " , E ' ) ) , f o r which we s h a l l show t h a t every c l u s t e r point i n ( E " , s ( E " , E ' ) ) of every subsequence of ( x ( n ) : n = 1 , 2 , . . ) coincides w i t h z. Let ( y ( n ) : n = 1 , 2 , . . ) be a subsequence of ( x ( n ) : n = 1 , 2 , . . ) and y a c l u s t e r point of i t i n ( E " , s ( E " , E ' ) ) . Set P:=sp(EU(y)UL*) and apply again 2.5.23 t o find a topology s coarser than m(P,E') such t h a t ( P , s ) i s n e t r i zable. According t o t h e method of construction of such topologies i n t h e proof of 2.5.23, s i s coarser than t on G , hence ( x ( n ) : n = 1 , 2 , . . ) converges t o z i n (G,s) and hence ( y ( n ) : n = 1 , 2 , . . ) converges t o z i n ( 6 , s ) . Let U be a closed convex nghb o f z i n ( P , s ) not containing y . There e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r in such t h a t ( y ( n):n=m,ml,. . ) C U , hence z(y( n ):n = m, m+ l, . . ) CU, the closure taken in (P,s). On the o t h e r hand, y belongs t o Q((y(n):n=m,mtl,..) t h e closure now taken i n (P,s( P , E ' ) ) o r equivalently in ( P , s ) . Then y C U and t h a t is a contradiction. The proof i s complete.

/I

2.6

Som r e s u l t s concerning the space K N .

Observation 2.6.1: l e t E b e a l i n e a r space and ( x ( a ) : a E A ) an a l g e b r a i c b a s i s o f E . Every l i n e a r form u on E determines a vector y : = ( y ( a ) : a t A ) of

66
KA by m a n s o f y ( a ) : = <x(a),u)
,atA.

BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES

A R e c i p r o c a l l y , e v e r y v e c t o r of K d e t e r -

mines a l i n e a r f o r m on E. Thus E* can be i d e n t i f i e d a l g e b r a i c a l l y w i t h
E i s dense i n ( E ' * , s ( E ' * , E ' ) )

KA .
A

I f E i s a t o p o l o g i c a l l i n e a r space which i s H a u s d o r f f and l o c a l l y convex,

and s( E'*,E')

i s t h e p r o d u c t t o o o l o g y on K and we have

,

f o r a c e r t a i n s e t A, by means o f t h e former i d e n t i f i c a t i o n a p p l i e d t o E ' . Thus, ( E ' * , s ( E ' * , E ' ) ) P r o p o s i t i o n 2.6.2: i s t h e c o m p l e t i o n of (E,s(E,E'))

I f E i s weakly complete, t h e n E i s t o p o l o g i c a l l y i s o -

morphic t o a p r o d u c t o f one-dimensional spaces. D e f i n i t i o n 2.6.3:

A H a u s d o r f f t o p o l o g i c a l l i n e a r ( l o c a l l y convex) space

E i s s a i d t o be minimal ( - l o c a l l y convex) i f t h e r e e x i s t s no s t r i c t l y coars e r H a u s d o r f f l i n e a r ( l o c a l l y convex) t o p o l o g y on E o r , e q u i v a l e n t l y , i f e v e r y i n j e c t i v e , l i n e a r , continuous mapping f r o m E i n t o any Hausdorff topol o g i c a l l i n e a r ( l o c a l l y convex) space i s open. Theorem 2.6.4: L e t E:=( E,t) be a H a u s d o r f f t o p o l o q i c a l l i n e a r space. Then

(i) i f E i s mininlal, E i s complete (ii) if E i s minimal and F i s a c l o s e d subspace o f E, t h e n F i s minimal. (iii) i f F i s a c l o s e d subspace o f E and i f G i s a m i n i m l subspace o f E
w i t h FnG=(O), then F+G i s c l o s e d i n E and (F+G,t)=(F,t) i s n o t i n E. I f Q:E+E/sp(x)
P P

&(G,t).
/ -

P r o o f : ( i ) suppose E n o t c o n p l e t e and x a v e c t o r o f i t s c o m o l e t i o n E which denotes t h e c a n o n i c a l s u r . j e c t i o n , i t s r e s t r i c P

t i o n q t o E i s i n j e c t i v e , l i n e a r and continuous i n t o E / s ~ ( x ) . Since E i s nin i m l , q i s an i s o m r p h i s r r and t h e r e f o r e x=O, a c o n t r a d i c t i o n . ( i i ) suppose F n o t minimal. Then t h e r e e x i s t s on F a Hausdorff l i n e a r topol o g y s s t r i c t l y c o a r s e r t h a n t on F. L e t r be t h e H a u s d o r f f l i n e a r t o p o l o g y on E whose 0-nghbs b a s i s i s given by t h e s e t s U+V, w i t h U a 0-nphb i n ( E , t ) and V a 0 - n a b i n ( F , s ) . C l e a r l y , r induces on F t h e t o p o l o g y s and i s s t r i c t l y c o a r s e r t h a n t, a c o n t r a d i c t i o n t o t h e m i n i m a l i t y o f F.

(iii) L e t Q:E-+E/F

be t h e c a n o n i c a l s u r j e c t i o n . Q ( G ) i s a minimal subspace

o f E/F and, a c c o r d i n g t o ( i ) , i t i s comnlete and t h e r e f o r e c l o s e d i n E/F. Thus Q-'(Q(G))=G+F i s c l o s e d i n E. I f Q stands now f o r t h e c a n o n i c a l s u r j e c t i o n F+G+(F+G)/F and i f q i s i t s r e s t r i c t i o n t o G ,
q

i s i n j e c t i v e , li-

near and continuous o n t o (F+G)/F. and t h e c o n c l u s i o n f o l 1ows

Since G i s minimal, q i s an i s o n o r o h i s m

./ /

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67

Corollary 2.6.5: ( i ) t h e minimal l o c a l l y convex sDaces a r e p r e c i s e l y the a r b i t r a r y products of one-dimensional spaces. ( i i ) every closed subspace of a product of one-dimensional spaces is i t s e l f a product of one-dimensional spaces. ( i i i ) every m i n i m a l subspace of a Hausdorff l o c a l l y convex space i s complemented. Proof: ( i ) i s immediate. ( i i ) follows from 2 . 6 . 4 ( i i ) and ( i ) . To prove ( i i i ) , suppose t h a t F i s a minimal subspace of a space ( E , t ) . According t o A ( i ) , ( F , t ) i s isomorphic t o K f o r a c e r t a i n set A. T h u s ( F , t ) c a r r i e s the i n i t i a l topology with r e s p e c t t o t h e p r o j e c t i o n s pa:KA-+K, a E A . According t o HAHN-BANACH's theorem, extend pa i n t o a mapping Pa:E--+ K , a €A. Consider on E the i n i t i a l topology u w i t h respect t o t h e mappings (Pa:aCA) which i s coarser than t. The mapping P : ( E , u ) - t F , P( x) : = ( P a ( x):a CA) i s obviously continuous and coincides w i t h t h e i d e n t i t y when induced on F. T h u s F has a topological complement G in ( E , u ) . Thus G i s closed in ( E , t ) . Since F i s minimal, we apply 2 . 6 . 4 ( i i i ) and we a r e done.

//

Lemna 2.6.6: Let f : ( E , t ) - ( F , u ) be a l i n e a r mapping. T h e following cond i t i o n s a r e equivalent: ( i ) f has closed graph in ( E , t ) x ( F , u ) ( i i ) t h e domain D of t h e transposed mapping f ' i s dense i n ( F ' , s ( F ' , F ) ) and ( i i i ) t h e r e e x i s t s a Hausdorff l o c a l l y convex topology s on F, coarser than u , such t h a t f : ( E,t)-( F,s) i s continuous. Proof: I f ( i ) holds, and ( i i ) i s supposed not t o be true, t h e r e e x i s t s a non-zero vector z i n F such t h a t z ( D o . Since f is l i n e a r , (O,z)dG, G being the graph of f . Since G is closed i n ( E , t ) x ( F , u ) , we apply HAHN-RANACH's theorem t o find (x*,y*) ~ E ' x F ' such t h a t (( x,f( x ) ) ,( x*,y*)> = <x,x*) + ( f ( x ) , y*> =O f o r x i n E and (( 0,z) ,( x*,y*)> 1. Since d x , f ' ( y * ) > = ( f ( x ) ,y*> = (x,-P> f o r every x i n E , i t follows t h a t f'(y*)=-X* and t h e r e f o r e i t belongs t o E l . T h u s y*CD, a contradiction s i n c e z ( D o and (z,y*> > l . I f ( i i ) i s s a t i s f i e d , the. ( i i i ) follows by taking s:=s(F,D). If ( i i i ) holds, G i s closed in ( E , t ) x ( F , s ) and hence i n ( E , t ) x ( F , u ) . / ,

>

( i ) Let f : ( E , t ) - F be a l i n e a r mapping w i t h closed Corollary 2.Q: graph i n ( E , t ) x F , ( E , t ) being a space and F m i n i m a l . Then f i s continuous. ( i i ) Let H be a space and E a space w i t h t h e property t h a t every 1 inear napping f:H+E w i t h closed qraph i n HxE i s continuous. T h e n , f o r every ninimal space F , ExF enjoys t h e same property. Proof: ( i ) follows imrrediately from 2.6.3 and 2.6.6( i i i ) .

68

BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEX SPACES

( i i ) Let f:=(f(l),f(Z)):H-+ExF

be a l i n e a r mapping w i t h c l o s e d graph G i n

Hx( ExF). I f G1 stands f o r t h e graph of f ( 1 ) i n HxE, G1=P(G), P b e i n g t h e 1 c a n o n i c a l p r o j e c t i o n P:HxExF--*HxE. C l e a r l y , P- (G1)=G+(0)x( 0 ) x F and, accor1 d i n g t o 2 . 6 . 4 ( i i i ) , P- (G1) i s c l o s e d i n HxExF. Thus G1 i s c l o s e d i n HxE and, by h y p o t h e s i s , f ( 1) i s c o n t i n u o u s . On t h e o t h e r hand, f ( 2 ) : H - F has c l o s e d graph i n HxF and, a c c o r d i n g t o ( i ) , f ( 2) i s continuous and t h e p r o o f i s complete.
A s i n p l e p r o o f o f ( i ) a v o i d i n g t h e use of 2.6.6

can be p r o v i d e d as f o l l o w s .

l e t s be t h e t o p o l o g y on F whose b a s i s o f 0-nghbs i s given by t h e s e t s f ( U )

+V,

U b e i n g a O-n$b

i n (E,t)

and V a O-n$ib

i n F. C l e a r l y , ( F , s ) i s Hausis

d o r f f and s i s c o a r s e r t h a n t h e t o p o l o g y o f F. Moreover, f:(E,t)-+(F,s) continuous. Since F i s minimal, F=(F,s) and t h e c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s .

//

P r o p o s i t i o n 2.6.8: space o f G of (E,t)xF

( i ) L e t (E,t)

be a space w i t h CP. I f F i s minimal,

t h e n (E,t)xF has CP. ( i i ) Under t h e h y p o t h e s i s o f ( i )e , v e r y c l o s e d subi s t o p o l o g i c a l l y isomorphic t o t h e t o p o l o g i c a l p r o d u c t o f a q u o t i e n t o f (E,t) and a c e r t a i n p r o d u c t o f one-dimensional spaces. ( i i i ) i f , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e h y p o t h e s i s o f ( i ) , t=m(E,E'), t h e n ExFxK (A) has CP f o r any s e t A. Proof: ( i ) L e t G be a c l o s e d subspace o f ( E , t ) x F and s e t P1:ExF 4 E f o r t h e c a n o n i c a l p r o j e c t i o n . As i n t h e proof o f 2 . 6 . 7 ( i i ) , H1:=P1(G) i s closed i n E and hence t h e r e e x i s t s a c l o s e d subspace H2 o f E such t h a t (E,t)=(Hl,t)

0 ( H 2 , t ) . S e t N1:=G/\F,

which i s a c l o s e d subspace o f F. According t o 2.6. Set H:=H2xN2. Then G and H a r e Since be any
GH2. Thus x=O

5( i i i ) and 2.6.4( ii), N1 i s conplemented i n F and t h e r e f o r e t h e r e e x i s t s a

c l o s e d subspace N2 o f F such t h a t F=N1@N2.
zCG, i t f o l l o w s t h a t x(H1

t r a n s v e r s a l t o each o t h e r and ExF=G+H: indeed, l e t z:=( x,y) ( G T \ H . and, s i n c e

zCH, we have t h a t x

and t h e n z=(O,y)E Since h( 1) CP,(G), (h( l ) , f ) - ( O , f ( l ) )

((O)xN2)n(N,x(O))

and t h u s y=O. Now l e t z : = ( x , y )

v e c t o r o f ExF. Then x can be w r i t t e n as x = h ( l ) + h ( 2 ) w i t h h ( i ) can be w r i t t e n as f=f(l ) + f ( 2) w i t h f ( i) E Mi, i=1,2.

EHi, i=1,2.

t h e r e e x i s t s f i n F such t h a t ( h ( l ) , f ) C G . The v e c t o r f C l e a r l y , ( h ( 1) ,f( 2 ) ) = Then belongs t o G. Set y = y ( l ) + y ( 2 ) w i t h y ( i ) g N i , i = l , 2 .

(h(2),y( 2)-f( 2)) 6H2xN2 = H and z-( h ( 2 ) , ~ ( 2 ) - f ( 2))=( h( 1) ,Y( l ) + f ( 2 ) ) + (O,Y( 1)) which belongs t o G . S e t A:=(A1,A2):ExF -+ H2xF2 f o r t h e c a n o n i c a l p r o j e c t i o n on H a l o n g G. Since Al=I-Pl, ding t o ?.6.7(i),
I b e i n g t h e i d e n t i t y , A1 i s continuous. Accor-

A 2 i s continuous. Thus A i s continuous and we a r e done.

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69

(ii) Set E:=(E,t).

According t o ( i ) , G i s complemnted i n ExF and t h e r e f o r e be t h e cano-

isomorphic t o a H a u s d o r f f q u o t i e n t (ExF)/L. L e t Q:ExF-+(ExF)/L j e c t i o n between S:=((O)xF+L)/L

n i c a l s u r j e c t i o n . The r e s t r i c t i o n Q* o f 0 t o ( 0 ) x F induces a c o n t i n u o u s b i and O((0)xF). Since t h e f i r s t space i s w i n i L e t N be a

m l , t h e continuous b i j e c t i o n i s a t o p o l o q i c a l i s o m r p h i s m . Thus Q( ( 0 ) x F )
i s minimal and hence complemented i n (ExL)/L ( s e e 2 . 6 . 5 ( i i i ) ) . t o p o l o g i c a l c o m p l e m n t o f Q((0)xF) i n (ExF)/L. We s h a l l see t h a t N i s i s o morphic t o a c e r t a i n q u o t i e n t o f E. Indeed, N i s isomorphic t o ( ( E x F ) / L ) / Q ( ( 0 ) x F ) which i n t u r n i s i s o m r p h i c t o ( ( E x F ) / L ) / ( ( ( ( O ) x F ) + L ) / L ) . t o ((ExF)/((O)xF)) Accord i n g t o t h e second theorem of t h e i s o m r p h i s m , o u r l a s t space i s i s o m r p h i c

/ ( ( ( ( O ) x F + L ) / ( ( O ) x F ) ) which i s a q u o t i e n t o f E. S i n c e E

has CP, t h i s q u o t i e n t i s i s o m r p h i c t o a c l o s e d subspace o f E. Thus G i s i s o m r p h i c t o a p r o d u c t o f a c l o s e d subspace o f E b y a minimal space. ( i i i ) f o l l o w s f r o m 2.3.8(c), by observing t h a t ExFxK'~) i s i s o m r p h i c t o A and a p p l y i n g (i).// t h e Mackey dual o f ((ExF)',m((ExF)',ExF))xK

A c c o r d i n g t o 2.6.5( i), K N 'isq t h e o n l y m e t r i z a b l e m i n i m 1 l o c a l l y convex N .e., a c o a r s e r n o r m d space. C l e a r l y K does n o t have a continuous norm (i t o p o l o g y ) . The f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t i s immediate P r o p o s i t i o n 2.6.9: A H a u s d o r f f l o c a l l y convex space G has a continuous

norm i f and o n l y i f t h e r e e x i s t s an E-equicontinuous s e t C i n G' such t h a t
C i s t o t a l i n (G',s(G',G)).

P r o p o s i t i o n 2.6.10:

(i) L e t F be a c l o s e d subspace o f a sDace E. Then E/F
i s dense i n (F',s(E'.E)).

has a continuous norm i f and o n l y i f t h e r e e x i s t s an E-equicontinuous s e t C i n E ' such t h a t sp(C)AF' ( i i ) A F r e c h e t space E does n o t have a non-normable q u o t i e n t w i t h a c o n t i n u o u s norm i f and o n l y i f E ' i s t h e s t r i c t l y i n c r e a s i n g u n i o n o f c l o s e d subspaces i n (E',s(E',E)) generated b y bounded s e t s . f o l l o w s immediately f r o m 2.6.9. P r o o f : (i) norm. Then (E/G)'=GL

To prove ( i i ) , suppose f i r s t

t h e e x i s t e n c e of a q u o t i e n t E/G which i s n o t normable and has a continuous i s n o t generated by a bounded s e t b u t i t has a bouna c c o r d i n g t o 2.6.9.
Now suppose

ded s e t A which i s t o t a l i n ( G , s ( E ' , E ) ) , subspaces o f ( E ' ,s( E ' ,E))

t h a t E ' can be covered b y an i n c r e a s i n g sequence (Ln:n=1,2,..)

o f closed
z

generated b y bounded s e t s . Then GA =u(GA Ln:n= i s c l o s e d i n (G',s(E',E)). There e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e

1,2,..)

and each C?I\Ln

i f t h i s i s t h e case.s generaP P t e d by a bounded s e t .E)). I t s dual ( K ( A ) . Since dim(E/L') with inficonsider the i s i n f i n i t e .4.3.9 t o o b t a i n an i n f i n i t e . hence e v e r y subspace o f i t i s c l o s e d (0.d i m e n s i o n a l c l o s e d subspace o f E conN N t a i n s a subspace isomorphic t o K . Take a sequence o f l i n e a r l y independent v e c t o r s i n A and I f G stands f o r t h e l i n e a r span of t h e u n i o n o f b o t h sequences.6. s( E ' . s ( E ' . I f L denotes i t s c l o s u r e i n ( G . L e t E be a complete i n f i n i t e .K")) K(*). M c o n t a i n s a subspace F stands f o r t h e canonical s u r j e c t i o n and Q* N.rn( K(A).. t h e n E i s isomorDhic t o K . ~ K ( A ) y K A ) ) i s endowed w i t h t h e s t r o n g e s t l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o c y .2. s ( G . s ( E ' .E)) n i t e . Set Bn:=Uno f o r each n and s e t Ln f o r t h e o f t h e l i n e a t .d i m e n s i o n a l span. c l o s e d i n ( E ' . i s finite-dimensiowith infiniteW e s h a l l see t h a t e v e r y bounded s e t o f (E'. Acc o r d i n g t o 2. span o f Bn f o r each n. hence t h e r e e x i s t s a c o u n t a b l e . // Our purpose i s t w o f o l d : t o g i v e a s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n t o ensure t h a t a N space i s t o p o l o g i c a l l y isomorphic t o K and t o show t h a t e v e r y non-normable Fr6chet space has a q u o t i e n t isomorphic t o K Theorem 2..s(E'. s ( E ' .6. Q* i s open and hence Q*(F) i s a subspace o f E/LA isomor- . E ) ) . E i s isomorphic t o a c e r t a i n p r o d u c t o f one-dimensional spaces KA.11: N.hence L c o n t a i n s G 1 and hence G 1 i. then Q* i s i n j e c t i v e . a c o n t r a d i c t i o n .G)).E)) (Ln:n=1. E ) ) . I f O:E--rE/LJ.G)) is ne- t r i z a b l e and separable.3 weak dual i s separable.) be a de- n o t have a non-normable q u o t i e n t w i t h a continuous norm. E ) ) a dense sequence i n (E'.s(E. Then each Ln i s generated b y a bounded s e t s i n c e i t has z t o t a l bounded s e t R n . E ) ) .s(G.There e x i s t s a bounded s e t B i n (G.d i m e n s i o n a l c l o s e d subspace M o f E t r a n s v e r s a l t o L" such t h a t M+LL i s dense i n (E. which i s generated b y a hounded s e t L e t (Un:n=1.2. isomorphic t o K A c c o r d i n g t o h y p o t h e s i s . a p p l y 2.3. G i s dense i n ( E ' . i f e v e r y i n f i n i t e . s ( E ' . E ) ) and (E. Proof: I t i s enough t o prove t h a t E c a r r i e s i t s weak t o p o l o g y : indeed. ) . Then t h e r e e x i s t s b u t h a v i n g a t o t a l bounded s e t i n ( E ' .. suppose t h a t E does no subspace L.s(E'. l i n e a r and continuous. Since i t s i s separable. ( K(A). Moreover covers E ' and t h e c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s .s(E'.d i n e n s i o n a l subspace which i s dense and t h e r e f o r e c o i n c i d e s w i t h Then A i s c o u n t a b l e and t h e c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s .E)) separable. dual p a i r (E/LL. dimensional span. Suppose t h e e x i s t e n c e of a bounded s e t A i n ( E ' .E)) n a l .70 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEXSPACES i n t e g e r p such t h a t L nGL = GL. f o r i t s r e s t r i c t i o n t o F .L). R e c i p r o c a l l y ..) c r e a s i n g b a s i s o f 0-nghbs o f E.s(E.d i m e n s i o n a l space w i t h ( E l . c l o s u r e i n (E'.

3. The polar s e t of B i s an absorbing. Proof: W e prove f i r s t t h e equivalence between ( i ) and ( i i ) . absolutely convex set of E/LL .5( i i i ) ) .5.6. // N o w we c h a r a c t e r i z e those FrPchet spaces which contain a (complemented) subspace isomorphic t o K N . the Qauge of B " i s a (continuous) norm on E/LA a contradiction.6. K 1 . EfK ) . Since K i s minimal. continuous and i n j e c t i v e . The n e c e s s i t y i s as follows: suppose t h a t E has no continuous norms. take a bounded sequence i n E and s e t G f o r t h e closure of i t s l i n e a r span. s ( E ' .CHAPTER 2 71 phic t o K Thus Q*(F) has no continuous norms. Moreover.51) shows t h a t E i s separable.11. The mpping T:K --+ E .Z.13) and 2. T i s open onto i t s range from where the conclusion follows.3(b).6. Theorem 2.13: Let E be an infinite-dimensional Frechet space. Moreover. s i n c e t h e r e s t r i c t i o n t o a subspace of a continuous norm i s again a continuous norm. t h e r e e x i s t s an infinite-dimensional separable closed subspace F of E such t h a t F i s not minimal. s ( E ' .11 a p p l i e s . hence E/LL has no continuous norms.)):=?a(n)x(n) N i s well-defined. S u f f i c i e n c y i s obvious. i f t h i s i s t h e case.5. t h e r e e x i s t s a IdN) . such t h a t every i n f i n i t e dimensional closed subspace contains a minimal subspace. 6 . closed. E ) ) i s a l s o separable (2. ( s e e 2. W e keep t h e L o t a t i o n N introduced i n 2. hence ( E ' . Since G i s metrizable and separable. e .13 shows t h a t (G'. hence N. the s e t ( X C E/L' : n x C B " f o r each n ) = ( 0 ) . 3 2 7 . ( 5 ) ( s e e a l s o 8.s(G'. Proof: ( i ) follows from ( i i ) . ( i i ) Every infinite-dimensional Frechet space E. In order t o prove ( i i ) . Indeed. I f ( i i i ) holds. 2 . T i s l i n e a r . . t h u s a convergent subsequence can be e x t r a c t e d and t h i s proves our claim.6. E ) ) has (K"). 1 2 : ( i ) I f E i s an infinite-dimensional Frechet space which N i s not minim1 ( i . 2. is minimal i t s e l f . I t i s obvious t h a t ( i i ) implies ( i i i ) . G i s minimal and t h e r e f o r e isomorphic t o KN..t) as a quotient.'127). // Corollary 2 . According t o 2.2. The f o l lowing conditions a r e equivalent: ( 7 ) E has no continuous norms ( i i ) E contains K N ( i i i ) There e x i s t s a Hausdorff l o c a l l y convex topology t on such t h a t ( E ' . i t i s enough t o show t h a t E i s a Montel space ( s e e K1. T((a(n):n=l. E i s a Montel space: indeed.G)) i s separable..

.72 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEX SPACES I f ():(E'. hence vex. ( i v ) i f E has an i n f i n i t e .d i m e n s i o n a l c l o s e d subspace F o f E such t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s a separable. a b s o l u t e l y convex. ( i ) E has an i n f i n i t e .d i m e n s i o n a l F r e c h e t space E i s n o t minimal. t h e r e e x i s t s an i n f i n i t e .M) E/M i s In o t and. F ' ) .E)).d i m e n s i o n a l c l o s e d subspace 6 o f E such t h a t ( G ' . s i n c e E # K sequence (u(n):n=1.) i s E-equicontinuous.d i m e n s i o n a l separable q u o t i e n t i f and o n l y if t h e r e e x i s t s an i n f i n i t e . ) and A:==x( u( n ) :n=1.. K ( ~ ) ) i s a m e t r i z a b l e t o p o l o g y and i s continuous.d i m e n s i o n a l c l o s e d separable subspace which i s n o t minimal. which i s i s o m r p h i c t o KN. t h e r e e x i s t s a q u o t i e n t o f E which i s n o t minimal: indeed.14: L e t E be an i n f i n i t e .dE' .s( F.E)) s( F..d i m e n s i o n a l separable q u o t i e n t .s(E'. s(E'. is E. Set M : = G ( u( n ) :n=1. we N extend J c o n t i n u o u s l y t o KN. t h e r e e x i s t s an i n f i n i t e . I n 2 .2.E)). hence E i s i s o m r p h i c t o a c e r t a i n p r o d u c t o f one-dimensional N spaces which has t o be countable.2. t ) = F . compact which i s t o t a l .s( E Y E ' ) ) t h e c a n o n i c a l s u r j e c t i o n .2. compact s e t t o t a l a c l o s e d subspace F o f (E'. ).G)) i s separable and s(G'. t h e n t h e r e e x i s t s such t h a t ( F ' . ( i i ) E has an i n f i n i t e .t) dense subspace F i n KN such t h a t ( K ( N ) . F ) ) i s separable and . .) N .6. m i n i m a l .m(E'. a b s o l u t e l y convex.E))-(K(N). J*:K -+E and J* has i n f i n i t e .s(E'. i t s transposed mapping J:( F. P r o p o s i t i o n 2.G)) c o n t a i n s a separable..9. p a i r (E/MA. s ( F ' .. The p r o o f i s complete. . 1 2 ( i ) showed t h a t . E c a r r i e s i t s weak topology.2.K(N))) --+E i s a continuous i n j e c t i o n . Now we observe t h a t .6. i f E i s an i n f i n i t e . t h e c l o s u r e s taken i n ( E l . A i s an a b s o l u t e l y conConsider t h e dual E/ML has a continuous norm. separable.F)).d i m e n s i o n a l c l o s e d subspace F w i t h a continuous norm. s i n c e E i s m e t r i z a b l e and thus E=K ) . it1 ( F ' .E)) such t h a t ( G ' . compact s e t which i s t o t a l i n (M. 6 .s( F' .F')#m( F .s( G ' . Since (u(n):n=1.d i m n s i o n a l Frechet space which i s n o t minimal .d i m e n s i o n a l E-equicontinuous i n E ' ( f o r i f t h i s i s n o t t h e case.d i m e n s i o n a l range. i f an i n f i n i t e .s( F. ( i i i ) i f E has an i n f i n i t e . I n o u r n e x t p r o p o s i t i o n we summarize s e v e r a l r e s u l t s o f easy p r o o f .. and s i n c e E i s complete.G).s(G' . C l e a r l y s ( F .d i m e n s i o n a l Fr6chet space. t h e r e e x i s t s an i n f i n i t e . a c c o r d i n g t o 2.K")))-+( t h e r e f o r e J:( F.d i m e n s i o n a l q u o t i e n t n o t isomorphic t o KN i f and o n l y i f t h e r e e x i s t s a c l o s e d subspace G o f ( E ' .G)#m(G'. // we We t u r n o u r a t t e n t i o n t o q u o t i e n t s o f F r 6 c h e t spaces.

) E w i t h (x( 1) .6. t ) ..d i m e n s i o n a l Frebe a d e c r e a s i n g b a s i s o f 0-nghbs i n E.( 5 ) .s( E ' .u( 1)) =a( 1) n ( u ( i ) m j i = l . namely ( Un0:n=1. t h e r e e x i s t s an a b s o l u t e l y 1 hence i t s p o l a r s e t U" i n convex 0-nghb U i n E w i t h A ( n ...)) = sp(Uo).u( 2 ) .6. bounded s e t s i n (E'. c o n t a i n s a v e c t o r i n E such t h a t I such t h a t <x( 2 ) .. ) . Since G i s o f i n f i n i t e c o u n t a b l e dimension.2.1 ) ) f o r n=2. =a( 2 ) . :n=1.2.G)) coincides i s weakly c o n p l e t e and t h e r e f o r e i s o i s isomrphic t o K morphic t o a c e r t a i n p r o d u c t o f one-dimensional spaces (2. C l e a r l y . lo.2.6. for -----------Second p r o o f : a g a i n we use t h e n o t a t i o n s o f 2. n=1.) independent f r o m u( 1) and V1.2..6.2. L e t (E. .d i m e n s i o n a l F r e c h e t N . hence sp(Uno) i s s t r i c t l y c o n t a i n e d i n and u(n)(sp(Un+lo)\ S P ( U ~ + ~ " f) o r each n.?) _________-_ .?21.U:n=1.d i m e n s i o n a l w i t h (E/G*.(x( 1) .t) has a q u o t i e n t isomorphic t o K be a non-normable i n f i n i t e .E)) - s i n c e Ei=(n(n-111:n=1. c h e t space..u( 1)) N. E has a continuous norm.u(n)) f o r n=2. G i s c l o s e d i n ( E ' .3. Thus t h e r e e x i s t s i n (E'.G)). F i r s t proof: K e e p i n g t h e n o t a t i o n s i n t r o d u c e d i n 2. P r o o f : we s h a l l g i v e two d i f f e r e n t p r o o f s .G)).m(E/Gl.2.6. C l e a r Since E i s n o t normable.). t h e bounded s e t s o f G generate c o r d i n g t o K1.) Set V. a b s o l u t e - l y convex. a b s o l u t e l y convex s e t s which a r e t o t a l . E ' i s t o t a l i n (E'.. x( 2 ) (V1nu( 1f l e c t a sequence (x(n):n=1. nghbs i n E...) .T) c o i n c i d e s w i t h ( E / G . l e t (Un:n=1. z x ( n ) con&aes i n E t o a c e r t a i n v e c t o r x and <x(n). Since t h e bounded s e t s o f G a r e f i n i t e . (E/G1..s( E/GL. Achence G=GLL... closed. hence ( E/GL. Then ( E ... suppose t h a t no Uno absorbs Un+lo l i n e a r forms (u(n):n=1.G).15: l y (Un":n=1. we may O b s e r v a t i o n 2.16: space. A c c o r d i n g t o (**). The f a m i l y (Vn:n=1... Thus a l i n e a r l y independent sequence o f continuous on E w i t h u(l)(sp(Ulo) can be s e l e c t e d .. Take a sequence (a(n):n=1.) sp(Un").m(E/GA.b( E ' . ( * * ) x(n)(Vn-ln( (***) (x(n).. u( 2 ) i s 1i n e a r l y By recurrence.3. E ) ) .2.))" = =(U(nU": an i n c r e a s i n g funda- mental sequence o f bounded.u( 2 ) ) (*I < x ( 1) .E)). i n a d d i t i o n .2.2). Since u( 2 ) i s n o t bounded on V1.15(a)...E)).2... . se- b e i n g a b s o l u t e l y convex...b(E'..)=(0). n=2. Theorem 2.) i s an i n c r e a s i n g fundamental sequence o f closed.2..:=2-'Un i s a b a s i s o f closed. (E/GL. ( b ) i f .CHAPTER 2 73 ( a ) if E i s a non-normable i n f i n i t e . IfG stands f o r t h e l i n e a r span o f ( u ( n ) f i n i t e .2...15(a).y) each n.3.d i m e n s i o n a l spaces. a b s o l u t e l y convex 0o f s c a l a r s and a v e c t o r x ( 1 ) i n =a( 1). (E/G'. . n ..u(n))=a(n)(Zx(i). consider the dual p a i r ( E/GL.b(E'.

) i n H which f o r m a b i o r t h o g o n a l system and such t h a t t h e li- . (f*)'(F') i s closed i n (E'. P r o o f : Since G i s dense i n E. G ) ) .16 t o f i n i t e .(3) = t h a t i t i s an homomrphism. On t h e o t h e r hand.2. I t i s s a t i s f i e s t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f K2.74 u(m)) BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES =O f o r m(n . ( x ( n):n=1.2.18: -+F L e t E and F be spaces and G a dense subspace o f E . l e t H ' be t h e dual o f H and (v(n):n=1. We c l a i m t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s a c l o s e d subspace L i n H whose c l o s u r e i n E i s n o t c o n t a i n e d i n H and which i s o f i n f i n i t e d i n e n s i o n and of i n f i n i t e codimension i n H: i n - deed. ) c o n s t r u c t e d above O b s e r v a t i o n 2.a32..) t h o d o f c o n s t r u c t i o n o f 2.5. I t i s obvious t h a t i t i s enough t o c a r r y o u t t h e p r o o f supposing t o H i s dense i n E.(3). Iff:E- i s a continuous l i n e a r mappina and i f f * stands f o r i t s r e s t r i c t i o n t o G. t h e second c o n d i t i o n r e q u i r e d f o l l o w s e a s i l y a p p l y i n g K2.. T i s open and t h e c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s . E (see the proof o f 2 . Let US suppose f i r s t t h a t f* i s an homormrphism.?32. t h e i r d u a l s G ' and E ' can be i d e n t i f i e d . 2 . On // Every f i n i t e .6. ( 3 ) t o f. t h e o t h e r hand..c o d i m e n s i o n a l subspace o f a non-normable N P r o p o s i t i o n 2. continuous and o n t o by o u r p r e v i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . F i r s t we need a Lemma 2..? 3 2 . T i s l i n e a r . ( * ) and (***) ensure t h a t <x. t h e n f * i s a t o p o l o g i c a l h o m o m r p h i s v i f and o n l y i f f i s a t o p o l o g i c a l homomorphism and k e r ( f ) c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e c l o s u r e M of k e r ( f * ) i n F.s( f i s an homomorphism.s( E ' .since E ' . 4 .). I I // .u(n)) T ( z ) : = ( <z.c o d i m e n s i o n a l subspaces o f a nonnormable F r e c h e t space.6. t h e transposed mappings ( f * ) ' and f ' f r o m F ' i n t o E ' c o i n c i d e .4.1.6. = a ( n ) f o r each n.u(n)):n=1. we o b t a i n (f'(F'))I= ker(f). I n t h i s sense.17: i s o f codimension c i n The subspace G : = A ( u ( n ) :n=1. we have t h a t ( f * ) ' ( F')=( k e r ( f * ) ) l that M=(ker(f*))IL = ( ( f * ) ' ( F ' ) ) I enough t o show t h a t f * = .19: F r e c h e t space E has a q u o t i e n t i s o m r p h i c t o K . B y t h e mei n H ' and we f i n d sequences (u(n):n=1. a b a s i s o f H ' .3. A c c o r d i n g t o K2. assume t h a t f i s an homomorphism and t h a t k e r ( f ) = M .E)). Now we s h a l l extend 2.2. t o ensure Conversely... P r o o f : F i r s t we c o n s i d e r a hyoerplane H o f E:=K N . D e f i n e t h e mapping T:E-+KN. 5 ( i i ) ) .2. On t h e o t h e r hand.2.) . Ry t h e openmappins theorem. We have ( f * ) ' ( F ' ) f'(F') = (ker(f))l = M I = ( k e r ( f * ) ) L which c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e c l o s u r e o f ( f * ) ' ( F ' ) i n ( E ' .. Taking p o l a r s i n E.6..

(l) and r e s u l t 2. Thus i t i s enough t o prove P t h a t .2. . Hr-l t h e n FrAHr-l t h e n Hr-l/Fr and we a p p l y o u r former argument t o conclude. N morphic t o K which i s c l e a r l y i s o - . c l o s e d i n Fr. N i s c l o s e d i n Fr. L e t Fr be a c l o s e d subspace o f Hr such t h a t Hr/Fr=KN.2.y(r))). i t s c l o s u r e i n E i s n o t c o n t a i n e d i n H and we can t a k e L:=G. p. t h e n Hr-l has a l s o t h i s p r o p e r ty. ( l ) a l t h o u g h t h e i d e a o f m-independence appears i n t h e proofs o f Theorem 1-1 o f MACKEY.6. t o o b t a i n t h a t Q* i s an hommorphism from H o n t o E/M. Since Fr/(FrAHr-l) i s one-dimens i o n a l .PELCZYNSKI.13 i n BESSAGA. I f Fr i s c o n t a i n e d i n Hr-l.(l).(l) o f a r e s u l t o f MACKEY. c a l complenent o f G i n E ( 2 .CHAPTER 2 75 n e a r span o f (u(n):n=l. . where "=" stands i s a hyperplane f o r an i s o m r p h i s m .p w i t h H :=E.. Again has a q u o t i e n t i s o m r p h i c t o K b y o u r argument f o r hyperplanes. i e c t i o n ..7 Notes and remarks.nHr-l) has a t o p o l o g i c a l conplement i n Hr/(Fr nHr-l) which N FrAHr-l) i s a hyperplane o f i s t h e r e f o r e isomorphic t o K .t h e n G i s a c l o s e d subspace o f H which i s i n f i n i t e . t h e r e s t r i c we a p p l y 2. o f Hr/Fr ned i n Hr-l. H would be c l o s e d i n E . Hr-l/(Hr-lAFr) . l e t GI be a t o p o l o w i and s e t F:=G1nH.. Now l e t x be a v e c t o r o f t h e c l o s u r e M o f L i n E which i s n o t i n H and l e t Q:E+E/M be t h e c a n o n i c a l s u r .2. and n o t I .6. IfFr i s n o t c o n t a i i s a hyperplane o f Fr and hence i t i s dense o r Then Hr=sp( Hr-lU( =K x ) ) and p r o c e e d i n g I f i t i s dense.6. Fr/( F.1 i s an e x t e n s i o n due t o LABUDA. Lemna.. E and (y( 1). According P H has a q u o t i e n t i s o m o r p h i c t o K". Set Ho:=H and Hr:=sp(HU(y(l). i f Hr has a q u o t i e n t isomorphic t o KN.. . Since k e r ( Q ) =M c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e c l o s u r e of L i n E and ker(O*)=MnH=L.16.LIPECKI. l i n e a r mappina. B u t Hr-l/( Hr/( FrT\Hr-l) = K as we d i d above. we a p p l y N t h e second theorem o f t h e i s o m r p h i s r r t o o b t a i n t h a t Hr/Fr = K i s isomorp h i c t o ( Hr/( FrPHr-l)) /(Fr/(FrAHr-l)).c o d i m e n s i o n a l subspace o f a non-normable F r e c h e t space t o 2.2. determine a v e c t o r x i n Fr which i s n o t i n such t h a t Fr=sp( Fr/lHr-lU(x)).2. I f F were complete... The d e f i n i t i o n 2. 185. 5 ( i i i ) ) If 6 i s complete.2 appears i n LASUDA e t a l t .I. IfG d e n o t e s n ( u ( 2 k ) :k=1. Hr-l/(FrAHr-l) N and t h e r e f o r e a l s o Hr-l.(l) ( s e e 2. 2.18 t i o n Q* o f Q t o H i s a s u r j e c t i v e . Now we deal w i t h t h e general case. L e t H be a f i n i t e .. If6 i s n o t complete. Thus we t a k e L:=F. E.) c o i n c i d e s w i t h H I . 6 . which i s n o t t h e case.y( p ) ) a cobasis o f H i n r=l.. Since E=sp(HU( x ) ) .3 ( a ) and ( b ) r e s p e c t i vely).// 2. IfHr-lnFr N .. continuous.d i m e n s i o n a l of f i n i t e codimension i n H..

2.+ F a lin e a r mapping w i t h B o r e l graph.13 . a s w e l l a s 2 . DIEROLF.4 i s a l s o t r u e f o r (F)-spaces as was D i f f e r e n t proofs shown by MAZUR ( s e e BESSAGA. Such decomposition theorems a r e c a l l e d l i n e a r analogues of t h e c l a s s i c a l BERNSTEIN decomposition i n POL.F) have t h e sane S-converqent s e r i e s . t h e n i t i s c l e a r t h a t e i t h e r i t s c o d i m n s i o n i s f i n i t e o r l a r g e r o r equal t h a n c .~5.d i m e n s i o n a l Frechet spaces can be seen i n B2. Theorem 1-1 showed 2.11 appear i n LPBUDA e t a l t .16 and 2. 2 .7.F) and t h e !lackey t o pology m(E. DIEROLF. accordincj t o POPOV who shows t h a t i f m i s a homogeneous f i n i t e nonatomic measure and i f O ( d 1 .3: For each dual p a i r (E.( 2 ) . 1 3 ( i i i ) and (ii).( 1) i t f o l 1ows 2. t h e n card(E)=din(E). t h e n i t s d i m n s i o n m s a t i s :' fies m = m and t h i s r e s u l t was proved by BHASKARA RA0. t h e weak t o p o l o g y s(E.BHASKARA QAO.l o c a l l y convex) (F)-spaces. 5 ( i i ) i s n o t t r u e i n gen e r a l f o r ( n o n .m(E)(c. t ) i s an ORLICZ-PETTIS space ( P . I n p a r t i c u l a r . 2 . 2 .d i m e n s i o n a l (F)-space.24. F o r an i n f i n i t e .2. 6 ) .p.(l). see LodIG. (POL. FlACKEY. Since t h e p r o p e r t y o f b e i n g an ORLICZ-PETTIS space i s s t a b l e by i n d u c t i v e l i m i t s ( P .10 and 2. V I I I . t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t due t o PFISTER. ( 1). DIEROLF.1: I f E i s an (F)-space w i t h d ( X ) = a ( s e e 2 . T h i s r e s u l t was extended by PETTIS. . i f E i s an i n f i n i t e . 2.281 t o a r b i t r a r y Banach spaces by r e p l a c i n g " u n c o n d i t i o n a l l y convergent s e r i e s " by "S-convergent s e r i e s " ( s e e 2 .d i n e n s i o n a l m e t r i z a b l e t o p o l o g i c a l l i n e a r space w i t h D r o p e r t y ( K ) . 1 3 ( i i ) was a l s o o b t a i n e d by LIPECKI. we have card(E)-c and ( i i ) i f d i n ( E ) > c .( 1) and LABUDA e t a l t . 11.7.5: L e t E be an ORLICZ-PETTIS space. 3 S a t z l i s an e x t e n s i o n of L.297 2.7.2. In LPBUDA e t a l t .4 f o r i n f i n i t e . 7 . t ) .Ex.2. where L (m)).( I) . .d i m e n s i o n a l Banach spaces.p. t h e n d i d L (m)/Y)>c f o r each such subspace Y. t h e B a i r e c a t e g o r y theorem shows t h a t i t s d i m n s i o n i s l a r g e r than%. From SCHMIDT.(Z). For a l o c a l l y convex space ( E .( 1) and ( 2 ) g i v e s a general ORLICZ-PETTIS-type theorem f o r Ssumnable f a m i l i e s and t h e weak t o p o l o g y and a t o p o l o g y o f t h e u n i f o r m convergence which i s i n general f i n e r t h a n t h e Mackey t o p o l o g y .7. ~ . P. t h e n card(E)=aso . 2 ) . P r o p . then f o r every c l o s e d p r o p e r subspace Y o f t h e r e a l space L ( m ) we have dim(L (m)/Y). DIEROLF.S. . 2 .2.4: Every Frechet space ( E .244.(2) as w e l l as 2 . 1 7 0 . ( l ) a i d 2. ORLICZ. see DREWNlklSKI.d i n e n s i o n a l B a i r e space .PELCZYNSKI . s(E.(2) u s i n g methods o f d u a l i t y t h e o r y shows t h e e x i s tence of t h e f i n e s t l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y OP(t) on E which has t h e same S summable sequences as t.p. 1 3 ( i v ) .( 1).(l).7.2.F). 2. t h e n d i m ( E ) > c . 2 . 2. A p o l y i n g t h e method o f p r o o f o f 2 .( 2 ) .14.(8)).2: I f E i s an i n f i n i t e .TWEDDLE.Chap.7. a space ( E .(l). i f m stands f o r t h e ppoduct measure on a P x . t ) i s s a i d t o be an ORLICZ-PETTIS space i f t = O P ( t ) .4 f o r i n f i n i t e .17 appear i n LIPECKI .(2) and P.( 1). F a SOUSLIN space and f : E . 5 . I f F i s a c l o g e d subspace o f an (F)-space.II.( 3 ) ) . 2 .2. 2 . The f o l l o w i n g h o l d s f o r any SOUSLIN l i n e a r subspace o f a separable (F)-space: e i t h e r i t s codimens i o n i s f i n i t e o r equals c. A s i n p l e p r o o f o f 2. A l o c a l l y convex v e r s i o n o f t h i s r e s u l t ( t h e c l a s s i c a l ORLICZPETTIS theorem) was given by McARTHUR.1 can be seen i n KUROCHKIN.SCtWARTZ' B o r e l f a n graph theorem 2.(l)) and s i n c e t h e r e e x i s t ORLICZ-PETTIS spaces which a r e n o t i n d u c t i v e l i m i t s o f Banach spaces ( s e e P.Satz2 showed t h a t i n a weak s e q u e n t i a l l y complete Banach space (E. 2 .dim( CO. ( 1) one f i n d s 2.2. An e l e g a n t w o o f o f t h i s f a c t can be seen i n LACEY.76 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEXSPACES I f E i s a l i n e a r space.( 1 ) ) .(2).E') and 11.11 ) .11 have t h e same u n c o n d i t i o n a l l y convergent ser i e s .( 1) .2. TWEDDLE.12 i s due t o DREWNCWSKI. F o l l o w i n q P.( 1) f o r normed spaces. 2. 5 ) .2. t h e n ( i ) if<O<dj. DIEROLF. One has 2.( 2 ) . DIEROLF. 1 3 ( i i i ) one can show t h a t . o f t h i s f a c t can be found i n POPOOLA. Then f i s continuous. DIEROLF.( 2).

t h i s resu t f a i l s t o be t r u e i n qeneral: Indeed.3.( 2). The f i r s t such example was provided by LOHHAN.(3) shows t h a t the oroduct o f c copies of C ( 0 .l i s s e q u e n t i a l l y compact and hence 1 I(A) has weak*-sequentially compact dua b a l l .) whenever i t s dual b a l l i s not weak*-sequent i a l l y compact. 7 ( i ) appears a l s o . i f E i s a separable Banach space.4. The term "transseDarable" space was coined by DP.5. N N o w suppose t h a t quence none o f whose subsequences converges i n [-1. the dual b a l l o f E:=l (A) i s [-1. 2. where 2.3. 3 .( 1) as well as 2 . then t h i s c l a s s does not have a universal rrember.EWNQJSKI. ( 5 .( 1 ) .( 1) y v e an example of a non-separable metrizable l o c a l l y convec space i n which a l l bomded s e t s a r e seoarahle.(l). l ) i s a universal separable l o c a l l y convex space.III. ( e ) ) .1]A and the product topoloqy o w i t i s easy t o c o n s t r u c t a secoincides with the weak* toDoloqy on i t . then t h e r e e x i s t s t h e i n f ( J ( a ) : a E b ) and i t i s a l y s t contained i n each J ( a ) " . The space C ( 0 .PONDICZERY theorem.LOt!MAN. A ( J ( a ) : a E f ) i s i n f i n i t e .339).3.( 11)).(4) t h e product o f c copies o f a c e r t a i n universal separable (F)-space i s shown t o be universal f o r the seoarable topoloqical l i n e a r saaces. examples were provided by RYLL-NARDZE1dSKI . i f card(A)=c. 2. 2. given i n DRWNCWSKI. I t i s worth t o observe t h a t a three-space prohlem f o r t h e property of being a l o c a l l y convex m a c e i s negative: K4LTONY(3)has shown t h a t a topological l i n e a r space E need not be l o c a l l y convex i f i t contains a n one-diTensional space G such t h a t E / G i s l o c a l l y convex ( s e e a l s o RIBE.9 and 2. i n the separable case. and such t h a t C ( K ) does not 1 7 . card(A)=b with r o ( b ( c .5.9 i s an extension o f an e a r l i e r r e s u l t of MURRAY. and HAYDON showed the e x i s t e n c e o f a compact s e t K .STILF'j.3. 2.p.2. 2 . l 1 8 ) . 7 ( i i ) where a non-separable closed subspace of a separable space i s constructed.5.ex. 2. T h e answer is no.5.KOMURA.(l). Assun'ng FI1ARTIN's axiorr. For Frechet spaces.5.( 1) ( s e e 2.f3. LOHMAN. ROSENTHAL asked i f a Banach space E contains 1 (W. In KALTON. DREWNUJSKI. Since every separable l o c a l l y convex space embeds in t h e product o f a t most c separable Banach spaces. the result follows from a diagonalization p r i n c i p l e and MARTIN'S axiom i F l i e s a l s o a diaqonal i z a t i o n l i k e this: " i f ( J ( a ) : a t b ) i s a family of subsets of PI such t h a t .7 and 2.CHAPTER 2 77 2 .(7).( 71. 1 i s due t o M E R Z O N . 5 .3 i s due t o P F I S T E R .2 can he seen in B1. 5 . 1 1 can a l s o be found. where 2 .5. t h a t i s a m e h e r of the c l a s s such t h a t every rrenber of the c l a s s i s i s o m r p h i c t o a subspace of i t ( s e e DRPJNUJSKI. l ) i s a universal separable Sanach space (BANACH-MAZUR) and hence t h e r e a r e p r e c i s e l y c separable Banach o r Frechet spaces. 2 . which is not s e q u e n t i a l l y compact. 4 .3. 1 i s a n inportant r e s u l t due t o KLEE ( s e e r l . 2.11. a ) ) and KOMURA. mod i f y i n g an example due t o A M E M I Y A ( s e e a l s o ROBERT. ( l ) ( s e e a l s o ROELCKE. ( l ) . ( 2 ) and 2. T o y t h e r w i t h BANACH-ALAOGLII's theorem.3.( 1 ) ) .ROSS. I f a c l a s s c o n s i s t s of toDologica1 l i n e a r spaces of dinension not exceeding c and containing 2 C isomorphically d i s t i n c t countable dimensional topolooical linear spaces ( t h i n k o f SOUSLIN topological l i n e a r spaces o r topological l i n e a r sDaces having a Schauder b a s i s ) .Ch. f o r every f i n i t e f C b .( 2 ) .TSIQULNIKOV.2 i s due t o DOYANSKI.9(c) i s due t o T I d E D D L E .5. p . The reason f o r t h i s i s t h a t .(9) and t h i s conceot appears i n &JS a s "semi-norm separable espace".9 a r e due t o M A C K E Y . E has weak*-sequentially compact dual b a l l .(2) and 2.10 and 2 .4. 5 .3 i s due t o VILENKIN ( s e e HENITT. i t can be shown t h a t [-l. 2.( 11) c o n s t r u c t s another universal separable topolocical l i n e a r sDace a s well a s a universal separable l o c a l l y convex soace. 2.5.9(b) can be seen i n AMEFIIYA. I f E i s a Banach space w i t h d ( E ) = c .(4) b u t our proof follows S. 3. 5 . 2. where one can a l s o find t h a t t h e r e a r e p r e c i s e l y ( d i s t i n c t u p t o isomrohislr) 2 C separable CONp l e t e o r m t r i z a b l e o r norrrgble l o c a l l y convex spaces and 2C4(cl:=ZC) separable l o c a l l y convex sDaces. answers a problew raised by D E W ILDE.5( 5 ) i s t h e HE!d ITT.l]A.8 can be seen i n DWNU4SKI.(6)).5.(2). ( l ) .DIEROLF.2.( l ) . DIEUDONNE.MARCZEWSKI . 2.12 shows t h a t . 2. 6 ( i i ) i s due t o VALDIVIA. 3 8 ) .

II.18( ii)i s due t o \IALDIVIA.19 i s due t o PEREZ CARRERAS. s . Then E=KFI. 2. where an o u t l i n e o f t h e c o n t e n t o f 2.24 (VALDIVIA.21. 1 2 ( i ) ) .78 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES c o n t a i n 1 (q).6.Ch.Ch.(l) and 2. i f A i s a Banach space and T:A4L(X. T:A-+ L(X. 1 . 2.6. FLORFT. Note t h a t POPOV's r e s u l t m n t i o ned above i v l i e s t h a t 2. t h e concept o f m i n i m l space was i n t r o d u c e d b y MARTINEAU.LIOSCATFLLI .d i n e n s i o n a l Fr6chet space such t h a t e v e r y c l o s e d separable i n f i n i t e .5. Every c l o s e d subspace o f a q .Exerc.l4b and 2 .1 appears i n TOEPLITZ. I t i s n a t u r a l t o ask i f e v e r y F r 6 c h e t soace w i t h o u t c o n t i n u o u s norm i s isomorphic t o a p r o d u c t o f FrPchet spaces w i t h c o n t i n u o u s n o r m .Ch. then.6.1. t .2 i n PTAK. The proof presented here i s due t o GOVAERTS ( s e e FLORET.n i n i m l and t h e a r b i t r a r y p r o d u c t o f q-nfnimal t . HAGLER and ODELL c o n s t r u c t e d a c o m a c t y e t X.22).(5).s.6.(3) : " L e t E be an i n f i n i t e . t h a t i s t h e o n l y known q .11.22 and 2.6.DIERI)LF.4 i n t h e l o c a l l y convex s e t t i n a i s p r e s e n t e d ) . .( 1) and 2. 2.l o c a l l y convex m i v i m 1 spaces n o r i s i t known whether m i n i m l and q . Countable p r o d u c t s o f FrPchet (Banach) spaces a r e Fr6chet soaces w i t h o u t continuous n o r m .IV.X).1.( 1).(7). b u t f o r p e r f e c t sequence spaces t h e answer i s a f f i r m a t i v e (DLIBINSKY . f o r a m e t r i z a b l e seDarable t .79.6. ( c l e a r l y .(3) and extends a well-known r e s u l t o f SESSAGA. .DIFROLF. L a t e r . . i s a g a i n q . 7 ( i i ) i s due t o ESERPARDT. 2 . DRPdN0dSKI ( 1 0 ) shows t h a t .Exerc. E. I t i s n o t known whether t h e r e e x i s t n o n .(2) as w e l l as 2 .5.n j n i m l i f a l l o f i t s H a u s d o r f f o u o t i e n t s a r e minimal. 8 ( i ) i n S7.(4)). I t i s a l s o t r u e t h a t spaces which admit a fundamental sequence o f m e t r i z a h l e bounded s e t s a r e s u b m t r i z a b l e .SONFT. The answer i s no (MOSCATELLI .M n i m l spaces a r e o f t h e t y o e K I f o r s o w i n d e x s e t I .6.1. ) i s q . S u b n e t r i z a b l e spaces e x i s t i n abundance: i t i s immediate t o check t h a t s t r i c t (LF)-spaces a r e s u b w t r i z a b l e ( j u s t c o n s i d e r t h e e x t e n s i o n t o t h e whole space o f a l l seminorms d e f i n i n g t h e t o p o l o o i e s o f t h e s t e p s ) . 1 . . 6 .PELCZYNCKI. 6 .l o c a l l y convex setting. s . e i t h e r Y i s f i n i t e - 1 . 1 i s d e d i c a t e d t o uniform boundedness p r i n c i p l e s and t h e sliding-hump technique.l. i s open.5.Exerc.16 f a i l s t o be t r u e i n t h e n o n .m i n i m 1 t. P t o p o l o g i c a l l i n e a r soace ( s h o r t l y .(lO) and those techniques a r e a p p l i e d here t o prove 2. 2 . 1 3 ( i ) and ( i i ) a r e due t o BESSAGA. 2. x ( n ) EX such t h a t t h e y ( i ) a r e l i n e a r l y independent.II. 6 . which i s n o t s e q u e n t i a l l y compact. E i s q . Our f o r n u l a t i o n f o l l o w s DREMNrlWSKI.(39)) i n a v e r s i o n due t o MOMTESINOT.( 12). 1 .4( i ) i s due t o KALTnN. such t h a t C ( X ) does n o t c o n t a i n 1 A charact e r i z a t i o n o f those Banach spaces h a v i n g weak*-sequential l y c o m a c t dual b a l l s i s n o t known. s . 7 ( i ) can be seen i n B2.6.ROLEWICZ.(8).( 3 ) ) . 2 .( 1) and 2.( 10). 8 ( i i i ) can be seen i n EBERHARDT. i s q . s . 6 .16 i s due t o EIDELHEIT.(3).w i n i n a l t . Y and X normed spaces and T a s t r i c t l y i r r e d u c i b l e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of A.Y) an a l g e b r a i c homomorphism such t h a t ( i ) f o r each y E Y t h e s e t N ( y ) = ( a CA:Ta(y)=O) i s c l o s e d i n A and ( i i ) g i v e n y ( l ) .6. K.11 i s due t o VALDIVIA.w i n i m l ) . 6. f o r l o c a l l y convex spaces.M n i m l i f and o n l y i f e v e r y continuous l i n e a r mappino f r o m E o n t o any m t r i z a h l e t .( 4 ) ) .$6. 1 4 ~ . winimal sDaces a r e q .4. 2.( 1) ( s e e BZ.23 can be seen i n VALDIVIP.m i n i m 1 (EBERHARDT.( 11) showed t h e answer t o be a f f i r m a t i v e f o r FrPchet sDaces w i t h unc o n d i t i o n a l b a s i s ( s e e 8. . 2 . y ( n ) E Y and x ( l ) . . then T i s continuous. 2. 1 . a r e d i f f e r e n t .~4. 2 . 1 . 2 . . 6 .Ch.5. 2. 6 . 2.l3 o r S. For l o c a l l y convex soaces. 6 .( 1).5.MOSCATELLI. t h e n t h e r e i s a C A such t h a t T a ( y ( i ) ) = x ( i ) . More g e n e r a l l y . s .18 a m e a r s i n VLADIMIRSYII. T h i s l a s t r e s u l t t u r n s o u t t o be t h e b a s i s o f theorems concerning t h e behaviour o f a l g e b r a i c homomorphisms o f Banach spaces i n t o spaces o f l i n e a r o p e r a t o r s : I f A i s a Banach algebra. 7.no. 6 . L a t e r .38).13( i i i ) appears i n S.PELCZYNSKI.II ( s e e 2 .d i m e n s i m a l subspace o f E c o n t a i n s a subsoace t o p o l o g i c a l l y isomorphic t o KN.5.( 14). 1 0 ( i i ) appears i n GR0THENDIECK.S.Lernmell.p.IIY$6 E x e r c . 8 ( i i ) .

Y ( n ) ) of l o c a l l y convex spaces and a subset % ( n ) c L ( X ( n ) . ( i i ) % ( n ) i s pointwise bounded and N(f) i s closed f o r each f t q ( n ) and ( i i i ) t h e r e i s no s u b s e t $ c X ( n ) w i t h c a r d ( T ) < n such t h a t ' X ( n ) / N ( F ) i s equicontinuous.6: (1) Every d-convex subset K of a t . ( 3 ) I f K i s G-convex and absolutely convex i n E .1. K i s a Banach d i s c . T h i s i s a contradiction f o r n I c a r d ( 9 ) . a bounded convex subset K of E i s 6-convex i f one of t h e following conditions i s s a t i s f i e d : ( a ) E i s finite-dimensional. so i s each % ( n ) / N ( ? ( n ) ) . N(F ) f \ X ( n ) = N ( f .7. acx(K7 and every continuous a f f i n e image of K a r e d-convex . ( c ) K is open and E i s a Fr6chet space.Z.CHAPTER 2 79 dimensional o r t h e mapping T i s continuous. I f f(%. and 2. x i s pointwise bounded..6.2. Conv e r s e l y . ( d ) K i s a Gs-set. The following proposition c o l l e c t s t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g p r o p e r t i e s of CS-compact s e t s ( s e e JAMESON. more g e n e r a l l y .1.(l) ( s e e a l s o JM.7. X i s a Banach space and Y a metrizable l o c a l l y convex space. l e t f ( n ) c K ( n ) and define f(x):=(f(n)(x(n)):n=l.. ( n ) ) . 1 .JOHNSON has shown t h a t f o r each n t h e r e i s a p a i r ( X ( n ) . "F a normed space" cannot be replaced by " F a metrizable space": B.1. ) .212 where one can f i n d proofs of t h e remarkable s t a b i l i t y p r o p e r t i e s of t h e s e s e t s i n the context of normed s p a c e s ) .7: In 2. Y ( n ) ) such t h a t ( i ) each X ( n ) i s a Banach space and Y(n) i s normed.%/N(F) i s equicontinuous: i f # /N( F) i s y u i c o n t i n u o u s . For each n . Let X be t h e 12-sum of t h e X ( n ) and Y t h e product of t h e Y ( n ) . ( 8 ) ) .Ccard( 3.( 1) and FREMLIN. E i s convex and bounded. N(f) i s t h e 1 -sum of N(f(n)).E. E i s l o c a l l y convex and corn l e t e . ( n ) ) w i t h ? ( n ) C x ( n ) and card( 3 .44 2.(l)): 2.s.p. 2. ( 2 ) I f K i s 6-convex in E.) f o r each x 6 X and l e t x b e the s t o f a l l those mappings f . P T i K . ( b ) K i s s e q u e n t i a l l y complete. ( l ) and t h i s a b s t r a c t p r i n c i p l e and c e r t a i n v a r i a t i o n s of i t a r e applied t o obtain some basic automatic c o n t i n u i t y p r i n c i p l e s formulated i n the general context of convex o p e r a t o r s .5 appears i n N E U M A N N .TALAGRAND. ( P T i K .hence closed in X . p. 5 . On t h e o t h e r hand. 6-convex o r CS-compact s e t s were introduced by JAMESON. In what follows w e provide an example d u e t o LURJE7(2). For no f i n i t e p a r t 7 of 2 .

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. 2 . .((l/n)x(n): n=1.2.1. ) can be found such t h a t x ( n ) € U n and x ( n ) k nT. ( i i ) Let ( U n : n = 1 . Proposition 3 . . // .e. . Un i s not contained i n nT f o r each n . Then x ( s ) c s T .. 2 . then ( i ) A i s bounded i n ( E ' . . 1 . 2 . Proof: ( i ) If T i s not bornivorous.1: Let E be a space and A a subset of E l . . A barrel T i n E i s a bornivorous barrel i n E i f i t absorbs a l l bounded sets i n E. 2 .. hence ( l / n ) x ( n ) & n T . ( i ) If T absorbs a l l null sequences i n E . E ) ) i f and only i f i t s polar s e t A" i n E i s bornivorous i n E . s ( E ' . a contradiction. T h u s a null sequence ( x ( n ) : n = 1 . n = 1 .(3). ( i i ) A is bounded i n ( E ' . A" absorbs a l l bounded s e t s i n E. E ) ) i f and only i f A" is absorbing i n E . ( i i ) If E i s metrizable and i f T i s bornivorous i n E. absolutely convex and absorbing i n E. If T i s not a 0-nghb i n E. i. ) in B can be found such t h a t x ( n ) # n2T.. .)is a null sequence and t h e r e f o r e t h e r e i s a positive integer rn such t h a t (l/n)x(n)ErnT f o r every n . a contradiction.6. Definition 3. .1. Thus the sequence i s bounded i n E and t h e r e e x i s t s b > 0 such t h a t bx( n ) E T f o r every n.81 CHAPTER THREE BARRELS AND DISCS 3.615. Then. By K1. Barrels The following proposition i s of t r i v i a l nature Proposition 3. b ( E ' . T i s a bornivorous b a r r e l .1. Take a p o s i t i v e integer s with s b > 1. then T i s a 0-nghb i n E. . ) be a basis of 0-nghbs i n E. there i s a bounded s e t B i n E n o t absorbed by T and therefore a sequence ( x ( n ) : n = 1 . A s e t T i n E i s said t o be a barrel i n E i f i t i s closed.2: Let E be a space. 3 : Let T be a barrel i n E.

2 The space E . u Banach d i s c s . P r o p o s i t i o n 3.. P r o o f : L e t x be a non-zero element o f k . Then x 4 aB and consequently % ( x ) a > O . pair. // . hence t h e r e i s a > 0 such t h a t a B c U.E)) barrel i f and o n l y i f t h e r e i s a b o r n i v o r o u s L e t A be a subset o f t h e t o p o l o g i c a l dual E ' of a T i n E such t h a t A i s c o n t a i n e d i n To.1.2. D e f i n i t i o n 3.5: b a r r e l s.E'). ( a ) Every space has a b a s i s o f 0-nghbs formed by ( b ) The f a m i l y o f a l l b a r r e l s i n a space E i s a b a s i s o f 0-nghbs f o r t h e t o p o l o g y b(E. Then. ( c ) The f a m i l y o f a l l b o r n i v o r o u s b a r r e l s o f a space E i s a b a s i s o f 0-nghbs f o r t h e t o p o l o g y b*( E. E ' ) . The d i s c B i s bounded. the k . ( d ) Since t h e c l o s u r e o f a convex s e t i n a space c o i n c i d e s f o r a l l topol o g i e s o f t h e dual p a i r ( E . Thus qB i s a norm on in 5 . ( i ) A i s bounded i n (E'. Since t h e f a m i l y {aB i s a b a s i s o f 0-nghbs boundedness o f B ensures t h a t t h e t o p o l o g y induced by E on EB i s c o a r s e r t h a n t h e norm t o p o l o g y .1.4: space E.E').2.b( E ' . We i n t r o d u c e a v e r y u s e f u l n o t a t i o n due t o GROTHENDIECK. P r o p o s i t i o n 3.E)) such t h a t A i s c o n t a i n e d i n T o .a2 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEX SPACES Our n e x t r e s u l t f o l l o w s immediately from 3.1. Since : a. We denote by EB t h e l i n e a r span o f B endowed w i t h t h e t o p o l o g y d e f i n e d by t h e gauge qB o f B . i f and o n l y i f t h e r e i s a b a r r e l T i n E ( i i ) A i s bounded i n (E:s(E'.O\ E i s Hausdorff t h e r e i s a 0-nghb U o f E such t h a t x # U . Then EB i s a normed space and i t s t o p o l o g y i s f i n e r t h a n t h e t o p o l o g y induced by E.1: A subset B o f a space i s c a l l e d a disc i f it i s bounded and a b s o l u t e l y convex.1.2: L e t B be a d i s c i n a space E. b e i n g a b a r r e l i s a p r o p e r t y o f t h e dual 3. Observation 3.

We f i n d k=1..) such t h a t the series .1 2-iy( i + k . Since .2. Proceeding by r e c u r r e n c e we can s e l e c t a subsequence ( x ( n( k ) ) :k=1. P r o o f : I t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e f a m i l y o f a l l Banach d i s c s i n a space E covers E and s a t i s f i e s t h a t f o r e v e r y Banach d i s c Band e v e r y non-zero a c K ... y ( k ) E B such t h a t x ( n ( k + l ) .5: A d i s c B i n a space E i s a ~Banach d i s c i f 5 is a Every compact d i s c and e v e r y s e q u e n t i a l l y complete d i s c i n a space E i s a Banach d i s c .2.2.2.2.We s e t y(O):= x ( n ( 1 ) ) ..8: T absorbs B . i) .2.. by f(x. .6: d ir e c t e d by in c 1us i on The f a m i l y o f a l l Banach d i s c s o f a space E i s . D x-x( n( k ) ) = i. k Zmiy( i)=2-k+1 i..2. The mapping f:EAxEB ------. / I D e f i n i t i o n 3.(x(n(k+l))-x(n(k)))C 00 g. and t h u s t h e space EC can be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e q u o t i e n t EAXEB/f-'(O). 2-k.) an element of B y t h e n i n B the series 5 I .2.all I n v i e w o f YACKEY's Theorem i f ( E .ky ( k ) ..y):=x+y I t i s enough t o show t h a t C:=A+B i s a Banach d i s c .Z. P r o p o s i t i o n 3.. i s a space. /I P r o p o s i t i o n 3. C l e a r l y 5 .4: B anach space.+ E defined i s c l e a r l y l i n e a r and continuous. U i s a 0-nghb i n 5 and hence i t absorbs B Observation 3.7: Every b a r r e l i n a space absorbs t h e Banach d i s c s . Proof: L e t B be a Banach d i s c i n a space E and T a b a r r e l i n U:= T c \ 5 i s a b a r r e l i n E. C o r o l l a r y 3. 1 I 2-'xx(n) converges i n E t o i s a Banach space.) 5. 1 *-1 i) converges i n E t o an element o f B and x( n( k ) ) = converges i n 00 2 2-'y( r . P r o o f : L e t (x(n):n=1. t ) . . Moreover f(A=B)= A+B.2.) q.2. T h e r e f o r e qB( x-x( n( k ) ) ) L 2-k+1y hence converges t o x i n (x(n):n=1. Since 2 2-iy( i .1 ) .x ( n ( k ) ) = 2..2. be a Cauchy sequence i n k=1. Thus EB i s a Banach space.3: sequence (x(n):n=1. We must show t h a t i f A and B a r e Banach d i s c s i n E t h e r e i s a Banach d i s c C c o n t a i n i n g A u B . and 2 2-iy( 1 i + k ..0 .. Now .. we have t h a t t h e sequence (x(n(k)):k=l. hence EC i s a Banach space.) x of i: E t o an element g .1 ) belongs t o B.. aB i s a l s o a Banach d i s c .2.CHAPTER 3 83 IfB i s a d i s c i n a space E such t h a t f o r e v e r y 0 P r o p o s i t i o n 3.

We have t h a t 8 k 2 a(n)b(n) n . r e l a t i v e l y c o u n t a b l y compact subset B o f a space ( E . E ' ) same bounded s e t s and t h e same Banach d i s c s . C o r o l l a r y 3. bed by every b a r r e l i n ( E .) be a n u l l sequence i n a space ( E .( x ) : = +-) 2 \x( i ) \ .... have t h e The f o l l o w i n g p r o p o s i t i o n e n l a r g e s t h e c l a s s o f bounded s e t s i n a space which a r e absorbed by b a r r e l s . and ( b ( n ) : n = l . For t h i s ... t ) . 1 i s t h e c l o s e d u n i t b a l l o f 1 ( B ) i t f o l l o w s t h a t D:=f(U) i s a Banach d i s c i n ? c o n t a i n i n g 8 .2. Now 1 b ( n ) belongs t o B and. P r o p o s i t i o n 3. We s h a l l need t h e c l a s s i c a l Banach space 1 1 (I) : = ( x = ( x ( i ) : i c I)E K I : zlx(i)\< ICS f o r a s e t I.) 2 a(n)x(n) -:I converges i n ( E . t h e s e r i e s Suppose t h a t f o r e v e r y element ( a ( n):n=1. t h e n T absorbs t h e convex compact subsets o f E...2. a s p l i t i n p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e p a r t s i n t h e r e a l case. 2 " t l B a ( n ) b ( n ) i s an element o f E. t ) i s c o n t a i n e d i n a Banach d i s c .. IfU 1 P r o o f : Since B i s bounded we can d e f i n e t h e mapping f:l( 3 ) ..2.9: Every convex. ) a sequence o f elements o f B . Since B i s convex we have t h a t & % a ( n ) s ( n ) b e i n g r e l a t i v e l y c o u n t a b l y compact...co) i s 1 ..2. y i e l d s t h a t 0 i s i n c l u d e d i n E.2. and i n r e a l and i m a g i n a r y p a r t s i n t h e complex case. ) = l i m s(n) 2 a(n)s(n)-'b(n)= n* I s lim 2 ..t) d e f i n e d by f(a(n):n=1. . I n p a r t i c u l a r . t ) by s e t t i n g f ( x ( b ) : b c B ) : = B i s absorA h . c o n s i d e r f i r s t a sequence (a(n):n=1..2. ) I k L a(n)s(n)-'b(n). Lemm 3. . 4 Then t h e mapping f : ] 1 --------+ (E. t ) .):= t o the closed u n i t b a l l o f 1 L a ( n ) x ( n ) i s l i n e a r and i t s r e s t r i c t i o n *:I 1 endowed w i t h t h e t o p o l o g y s ( 1 . t ) & x(b)b which i s l i n e a r and continuous.. Z .) o f positive real n u h e r s such t h a t s ( n ) : = e i a ( p ) converges t o s > O .84 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON V € X SPACES l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g i e s c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e dual p a i r ( E .11: 9) L e t (x(n):n=1... i t i s enough t o show t h a t D i s a subset of E .( E . o f 11.2. Therefore. 1 I6 I t i s easy t o see 1 has a t most a c o u n t a b l e subset o f c o o r d i n a t e s t h a t e v e r y element o f 1 (I) d i s t i n c t f r o m zero. endowed w i t h t h e norm p.10: I f T i s a b a r r e l i n a space E .

2 .s(l . EB i s a Banach space b y 3. j E : U : ) b ( n ) .q... A p p l y i n g 3.l] and E:= C ( X ) .. F i n a l l y we 1 observe t h a t .2..):= a(n)x(n) 1 i s l i n e a r and i t s r e s t r i c t i o n t o (U.11 *:i 1 t h e mapping f:l ------+(E.) 1) i s c l e a r l y c o n t a i n e d i n B.co)).2. . /I be a n u l l sequence i n a space i s compact if and o n l y i f EB Conversely..a ( n ) \ < ( 2 M q ) . hand.. o f 11.. s ( l .... t ) .2..q) i s an an a b s o l u t e l y convex 0-nghb V i n ( E . P r o o f : F i x an element l1. . t ) .t) d e f i n e d b y f(a(n):n=1.c0)) i s compact and m e t r i z a b l e . Proof: I f B i s compact. t ) . 1 i n ( U . C A weakly compact subset A o f a m e t r i z a b l e space H whose c l o s e d a b s o l u t e l y convex h u l l B i s n o t weakly compact.s(l . n = l . t h e separable Banach space o f c o n t i n m u s f u n c t i o n s d e f i n e d on X . t h e P r o p o s i t i o n 3.co)) i s continuous.. Moreover i n t h i s case B i s m t r i z a b l e . PD I f beW we have t h a t 1 = f ( i ) ..t). Then f ( U ) i s an a b s o l u t e l y convex compact subset o f (E.2. s i n c e co i s separable. We s e t X:= : 2 \a(n)\ hi 6 1) ( s e e t h e p r o o f o f 3. U b e i n g t h e 2 - c l o s e d m i t b a l l o f ll. .=n a = (a(n):n=1.) i n the closed u n i t b a l l U o f there i s a positive n=l.2.2.2. Since (x(n):n=1. f o r e v e r y element (a(n):n=1.b ( n ) \ MV + 2-2-2V c V .) ce i n i s a bounded sequen- $i t f o l l o w s t h a t .13: I f (x(n):n=1. t h e n B c o i n c i d e s with \&a(n)x(n) Exanple 3.1 . b u t t h e space % [O.. assume t h a t B i s a Banach d i s c ..2.o i s a n u l l sequence i n a space whose c l o s e d a b s o l u t e l y convex h u l l B i s a Banach d i s c ..t) c o n t a i n i n g t h e sequence (x(n):n=i..5. The s e t W : = ( i = ( b ( n ) : n = 1 .4).5.14: i s a Banach space. 2 & and hence B. On t h e o t h e r /I Observation 3.) s e r i e s 25 a ( n ) x ( n ) converges i n EB and hence i n ( E . I : i Thus f i s c o n t i n u o u s i n 2.12). .) I t s c l o s e d a b s o l u t e l y convex h u l l i s a Banach space. We denote b y V t h e c l o s e d u n i t b a l l o f E ' .2.f ( a ) = f(b-5) = &(a(n)-b(n))x(n) m zL(a(n)-b(n))x(n) + + t(a(n)-b(n))x(n) c *11" t l a ( n ) .2..Z. i n t e g e r q and M > O such t h a t x ( n j t ?-'V a-nghb i f n > q and x ( n ) e MV. (U.2.f(U) = { nr 1 a ( n ) x ( n ) : \a(n)l t h u s f ( U ) and B c o i n c i d e and B i s a compact s u b s e t o f ( E . L e t (x(n):n=1. hence i t s c o n t i n u o u s image B i s a l s o m e t r i z a b l e ( s e e 2.) .12: (E...2.CHAPTER 3 85 continuous.

C l e a r l y A i s conThen B = t a i n e d i n H .l f o r e v e r y J € P.u>. f( J)(Z-'( . [0.l.E)) known t h a t X can be c a n o n i c a l l y c o n s i d e r e d as a t o p o l o g i c a l subspace A of ( E ' . and f ( J ) i s l i n e a r l y extended t o a l l t h e o t h e r p o i n t s of i=O. x( i ) t x ( i + l ) ) ) = l .E)). The n e t ( f ( J ) : J E P) i s bounded i n E.86 BARREL LED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES We f i r s t observe t h a t LEBESGUE's dominated convergence t h e o r e m i s n o t v a l i d f o r n e t s o f i n t e g r a b l e f u n t i o n s . The space (H.O( (H. which i s an hyIt i s w e l l a c o n t r a d i c t i o n .1] .I E'.l.l'J on [0.E)) r e s p e c t i v e l y and b o t h a r e Banach spaces. hence P O i t w i s e l Y . C l e a r l y and s(E'. the net ( f ( r ) : r c R ) converges t o g i n (E.b( E'. p a r t i c u l a r .. . Since E i s SeDarable we can determine a c o u n t a b l e dimensional subspace i s a dual p a i r .. l ] element u o f E l .. L ) i s n e t r i z a b l e and A i s a compact subc o i n c i d e on V and B i s s(E'. A subset A o f a space E i s c a l l e d hypercomplete i f D e f i n i t i o n 3.E)) and % c o i n c i d e a l g e b r a i c a l l y and t o p o l o g i c a l l y w i t h (E'. and t h u s A i s hypercomplete. Thus g B E . s i n c e t h a t A i s complete i n 2 of A E. orde- r e d b y i n c l u s i o n . and dense i n (E'.. If SEE. I/ . Now t h e LEBESGUE i n t e g r a l i n [ O .E)-dense s e t i n i t . l e t P be t h e s e t o f f i n i t e p a r t i t i o n s o f t h e i n t e r v a l \O.E)). as t h e l i m i t o f ( < f ( r ) .16: hypercompl e t e .2. <g. The spaces E.b(E'.. t h e c l o s u r e t a k e n i n (H. s ( E " .2.n. I t I s i m n e d i a t e t h a t t h e n e t ( f ( J ) : J c P ) p o i n t w i s e converges t o i s a Radon m a s u r e . u > : r e R ) . Then A i s a c l o s e d subset o f E p A i s a normed subspace o f t h e Banach space Ep.. < x ( n ) = l . s ( E ' . E ) ) whose c l o s e d a b s o l u t e l y convex h u l l i s V . and hence an In z e r o b u t j f ( J ) ( x ) d x = 2 . E ) ) .15: t h e r e i s a d i s c B such t h a t A i s complete i n P r o p o s i t i o n 3.s(E'.L)) t h e t o p o l o g i e s s(E'. Consequently TO.E) L o f E such t h a t ( E ' . Set B:= X x ( A ) . Set H:=g' p e r p l a n e c l o s e d i n (E'. and €3 i s a b s o r b i n g i n H b u t n o t compact i n ( E ' .1] i=o. t h e r e f o r e t h e r e i s a subnet ( f ( r ) : r c R ) c o n v e r g i n g t o an element g i n ( E " . with O=x( 1)c x ( 2 ) d . For e v e r y JE P we d e f i n e t h e continuous f u n c t i o n f ( J ) by s e t t i n g f( J)( x( i ) ) = O . s ( E ' .L) i n V. Indeed.s(H. Of Every complete bounded subset A a space E i s P r o o f : L e t B be t h e c l o s e d a b s o l u t e l y convex h u l l o f A i n E and P t h e closure o f B i n the completion and. E ' ) ) .s(E.s(E'.E')). . b u t i t s c l o s e d a b s o l u t e l y convex h u l l B i s n o t compact s i n c e % i s a Banach space. $. VnH. i s equal t o 2 ' . i t f o l l o w s 5 .n-l.

0)+ &. where i t follows t h a t y( n + l ) :=x-ax( 11-2. and B i s a bounded convex closed subset of E .m)+x(n+~.? b( p)( ax( 1. q = l . ... b(n) tends t o 1 as n tends t o i n f i n i t y . m .x ( n + l ) C U ~ + ~ from .t Z-n( l .1 (l-a)x(Z)(l-a)x(n) E Un.. // . .2. 2 . By hypothesis t h e r e i s a d i s c B i n E such t h a t q A C B and A i s conplete i n . - A i s convex.CHAPTER 3 87 Theorem 3.+A. . m ) + x ( 1 . q ) i n E. I f X E C t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e number a .UncC.. ... 2 w-. whence ax(1.0). W e have t h a t 5 .z(m) h :1 = ax(1.a ) U n + l ~ U n + l .z ( l ) - . .+ x(n.+2-n( 1 .c L 2-"(1-ajx(n+lyq) z(q) i n F : p= 1.2. x ( n ) in A t f j such t h a t 2-n+l y ( n ) : = x-ax(I)-Z.rn)+x(n.q ) + ci Zmn( 1-a ) x( n + l . N o w we ( b( p ) ( ax( 1...+x(n+~.-z-"'( 1-a )x( n ) . .~)) : i 0 = z( l ) + .2.l OD l-a)I\x(n+l.~-~(~-a)x(n+l. Therefore the sequence *-.~ ( 1-a )x( n + l ) belongs t o 2-n( l . s i n c e 9' Thus z ( q ) € A ment of t h e sequence belongs t o A 9' 9 z ( q ) = ax( 1 ..+B = A+B.~). Ilx(n. such t h a t a . Let (Un. If we w r i t e A f o r A1+ .c))+ ? Z-n( 1-a)x( n + l . O ) r B . W e take x( 1)EAtfj such t h a t a-'x-x( 1) aaU1cU1.a ) ) = 1. p=1. l ) +. .q)\l 6 1. w i t h 4 n . q ) E A q ... Proof: W e denote by C t h e i n t e r i o r of t h e c l o s u r e of A @ .. .+ A. Clearly. n = 1 .. . w i t h a < l . l ) + . 0 ) + .q)\\ + 00 2 2-"( n.q ) ) P . 2 .q) + q' e determine b ( n ) > O such t h a t For each p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r n w b(n)(a+Z-'( l-a)+. . n = 1 .n ( 1-a)x( n + l .O). .l x E C . hypercomplete bounded convex subsets of E. a IIx(l..n=1. and x ( n . by t h e very consq q t r u c t i o n ..A.1 y ( n ) ... .- Then Zn( l-a)-'y( n ) E Zn( l-a)-'Unc C and t h e r e i s d n + l ) E A t f j such t h a t Z n ( 1-a). .) be a decreasing b a s i s of absolutely 1 convex 0-nghbs i n E such t h a t Zn((l-a). and this sequence con- verges t o z. OD Since . . 0 ) ) + L ~-"(~-a)(x(n+~. T h u s we have proved t h a t x = z( l)+.. . Suppose we have already chosen x( l ) ..a ) x ( n+1.~)+.2. N o w w e w r i t e x(n) = x ( n .17: Let E be a m t r i z a b l e space and A1. then t h e i n t e r i o r of the c l o s u r e of A t f j i s contained in A * .+x ( l . Clearly A i s closed in F and.. We denote by Fq t h e completion of q q 9 4 q and by 1i. O ) ) E B . from where i t follows t h a t z:= x . 2 .U i t s norm. every e l e q and we obtain t h a t have OD x= a ( x ( l ... w e obtain t h a t z € B ..z .q)\! L a + &Z-"(l-a) = = 1.1 ( 1-a) x( 2 ) . .. .+z( m)+ax( 1 .Thus x = ax( 1)+ 5 Z-n( ( D l-a)x( n + l ) i n E . . .. ) converges t o z ( q ) i n F On t h e o t h e r hand.. I t i s c l e a r t h a t we may suppose O E C .. . n = 1 . q ) + s L 2 . .+z(m)+zc A1+.

converges t o t h e o r i g i n i n t h e space E.2. C+iC. On t h e 43 o t h e r hand. // Our n e x t a i m i s t o c o n s t r u c t a non-closed Banach d i s c i n e v e r y i n f i n i t e dimensional F r 6 c h e t space.. t h e n int(A1+. Ifwe denote by M t h e c l o s u r e o f B i n Fo.17. 5 i s a Banach space.2.. from where i t f o l l o w s t h a t EC and t h u s a r e Bariach spaces.Am a r e hyper- complete bounded convex subsets o f E.. Proof: Let (x(n):n=I. In p a r t i c u l a r .2. .18: I f E i s a m e t r i z a b l e space and A1. L e t P be t h e c l o s e d abson l u t e l y convex h u l l o f A i n E. . we have t h a t C:=A-A+N i s an a b s o l u t e l y convex subset o f E c o n t a i n i n g B which i s i n c l u d e d i n 3 8 .)CE' I f E i s an i n f i n i t e d i m n s i o n a l F r e c h e t space t h e r e i s a compact a b s o l c t e l y convex subset A o f E such t h a t t h e Banach space EA be sequences saand ( x ( n ) : = 0 i f n#m.i A and i N a r e hypercomt h e i n t e r i o r o f t h e c l o s u r e of Thus E C+iC= p l e t e convex and bounded..2.2.2. < x ( n ) . We a p p l y 3. Suppose t h a t E i s a complex space. A. P r o p o s i t i o n 3.. ever y b a r r e l absorbs t h e complete bounded convex s e t s . i s i n c l u d e d i n C + i C .. which c o n t a i n s t h e i n t e r i o r o f Y . hence F i s n o t v o i d . .)C tisfying<x(n). T h e r e f o r e EC c o i n c i L a l g e b r a i c a l l y and t o p o l o g i c a l l y w i t h 5 . i t s t o p o l o g y i s f i n e r t h a n t h e one induced by ^E and A i s a bounded subset o f F.u(m)> n=1.) E and (u(n):n=1. i A .... C l e a r l y Ep belongs t o n . Again b y 3.2. t h e n (Fo)M i s a Banach space and thus Fo=( F0). L e t Fo be t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f a l l t h e elements o f 9 endowed w i t h t h e k e r n e l t o p o l o g y .)c Al+. I n EM..20: i s not reflexive. P r o p o s i t i o n 3.-A and N a r e hypercomplete bounded convex subsets o f EM..Z. u ( n ) > =1..88 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEXSPACES C o r o l l a r y 3.18 t o o b t a i n t h a t C c o n t a i n s t h e i n t e r i o r o f t h e c l o s u r e o f C.18. P r o o f : L e t F be t h e f a m i l y o f a l l t h e spaces F i n c l u d e d i n t h e completion ? o f E such t h a t each F i s complete.19: I f A i s a complete bounded convex subset o f a space E. n.2. t h e n i t s abso'lutely convex h u l l B i s a Banach d i s c . P r o o f : Take B = {O] i n 3.. Given x e A . we suppose f i r s t t h a t E i s a r e a l space.+A. To f i n i s h t h e p r o o f .m=1...2.+A./ . Keeping t h e Sam2 n o t a t i o n s as above we have t h a t B c C + i C c 6 5 . and hence t h e i n t e r i o r of M . Fo i s complete and A i s a bounded subset o f Fo. A. . N .The c l o s e d a b s o l u t e l y . -A.. i f N:= ( a x : l a \ l } ..

On t h e o t h e r hand. 2 .~ ( O ) . u > f o r every Y E U. Define 00 Clearly I f ( z ) \ L 2 f o r every zcA.a ( n ) e K. ) i s included i n B and converges t o b.20. . 2 .u>( : x C A ) # <y. t h e r e i s a subsequence ( x ( n ) : p = 1 . then t h e closed u n i t ball A i s weakly compact i n EA and ( x ( n ) : n = l . On t h e o t h e r hand. . S i n c e < x ( n ) . Z . hence B i s not closed i n E. y ( n ) € u . ( f ( x ( n p ) ) : p = 1 . . u > \ = la\ .hence f i s continuous. 2 . U > = 1. 2 . i t follows t h a t c=lim \ < x ( n ) . 2 . t h e r e i s a compact a b s o l u t e l y convex subset A of E such t h a t EA i s not r e f l e x i v e . Proof: By 3.u>I = \ a \ t z . n = 1 . If < y . / / 1 . 2 .CHAPTER 3 89 convex h u l l A o f t h i s nu17 sequence i n E is compact and. u ( n ) > = 0 i f m > n . u ( n ) > = 1 and < x ( m ) . u > = a ( n ) .l a ( n ) x ( n ) : z *: 1 xive.. . ) takes a l t e r n a t i v e l y t h e values 1 and 2 i f q i s 9 odd and even r e s p e c t i v e l y . .2. 2 .u>\: X E U s . by 3. . ) i s bounded i n EA and ( a ( n ) : n = 1 . Since A i s compact. l i m y ( n ) = y ~ b A n t o i n f i n i t y i n x ( n ) = a ( n ) z + y ( n )we have t h a t x=az+y and. passing t o a s u i t a b l e subsequence... s i n c e < x ( n ) .21: of Every i n f i n i t e d i w n s i o n a l Frgchet space contains a non-closed d i s c B such t h a t EB i s Banach and B i s t h e closed u n i t ball $. // In t h e next proof we need the following Theorem of JAMES: ( * ) If E i s a non-reflexive Banach space and U i s i t s closed u n i t ball .524. By ( * ) t h e r e i s a continuous l i n e a r form u i n EA such t h a t c : = sup{lcx. ) i s bounded in K. The sequence ( y ( n ) : n = 1 .y ( n ) : n = 1 .1(7). ( f ( x ( n ) ) : q = l .2. W e s h a l l reach a P contradiction by constructing a continuous l i n e a r form f on EA such t h a t {z . .) weakly convergent t o x in EA. EB = EA"u.u.2. w e may assume t h a t t h e r e i s b > O and a € K such t h a t ' T i m x(n)= and lim a ( n ) = a . . u > = 0 then \<x. . u > \ = c and take z i n EA such t h a t C Z . ) has a weak c l u s t e r point x .y B B . The sequence 1 1 ( b . i t coinl a ( n ) \ 6 1) Let us suppose t h a t EA i s r e f l e c i d e s w i t h *.' ( O ) .13. By K1. n = 1 . ) does not converge. W e set B:=Anu-'(O).. u \ = \a1 = c which i s inpossible. . . W e determine a sequence ( x ( n ) : n = 1 . . then t h e r e i s a continuous l i n e a r form u on E such t h a t s u p {\<x. . .f < y . ) i n A such t h a t lim I < x ( n ) . . i t follows t h a t x d x ( n ) . W e show t h a t Y $ u . f o r every Y E A . Proposition 3. 2 . W e can w r i t e x ( n ) = a ( n ) z + y ( n ) .( 0 ) i s a closed hyperplane of E A y hence a Banach space whose closed u n i t ball i s B . Letting xEA. . .

&) P r o o f : L e t B be a Banach d i s c i n mO(X.2.) i s a linearly independent n u l l sequence.. ( f (n):ncz A u ( r ) ) assures a t l e a s t p+1 d i s t i n c t v a l u e s . we my assume t h a t p i s t h e s m a l l e s t i n t e c l a i m t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r p such t h a t m ( A ) E B Q e rf o r which t h i s h o l d s .. (r. a s e t o f t h e f o r m ( K c N : KnA = C Q A ) f o r some A E F(N).) endowed w i t h t h e sup-norm ( s e e 1. i s infinite-dimensiohen- Theorem 3.2.d i m e n s i o n a l spaces such .3. a n u l l sequence.. Then f o r e v e r y D c o n t a i n e d i n Take u 2 m(D)EBs.23: Every Banach d i s c i n mO(X. G n i s c l o s e d i n t h e B a i r e space @ ( N ) and (Gn:n=1..9).2. t h e mapping m: @(N)-----mo(X...22: finite. Since each B n i s c l o s e d in mo(X. I f t h i s i s t h e case.2.8(ii). t h e r e i s r $ A such t h a t f ( r ) assumes a t l e a s t two d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s on t h e s e t f . we for all P A € S ( N ) ..22.24: that L e t E and F be i n f i n i t e . We may assume t h a t (f(n):n=1.)) is L e t (f(n):n=1.r+l. We choose A € F(N) such t h a t f:= L ( f ( n ) : n e A ) takes p r e c i s e l y p d i s t i n c t values. i. I t i s n o t d i f f i c u l t t o see t h a t we may suppose C f i n i t e .2.d i m e n s i o n a l Lemma 3.) covers 6 ( N ) ..4)B n a l .90 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES Now we g i v e an example o f an i n f i n i t e dimensional normed space whose Banach d i s c s a r e f i n i t e . There i s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r s such t h a t GS c o n t a i n s an open nghb of some C C B ( N ) . i s 2. & ) : c a r d ( f ( X ) ) n ) f o r each n.. a c o n t r a d i c t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o 3.. R e c a l l i n g t h a t f o r e v e r y n. I f mo(X.&). S e t r >m a x ( n r N : n c C ) . s such t h a t m ( { i \ ) c B u f o r e v e r y i=l. I f B n : = ( f c m o ( X .2. ce i t s continuous image i s an i n f i n i t e .2..d i m e n s i o n a l S-summble sequence (2. T h i s c o n t r a d i c t s t h e c h o i c e o f p. P r o o f : Suppose t h e r e s u l t n o t t r u e .r-l. mo(X.A) f o r t h e continuous c a n o n i c a l i n j e c t i o n .2. be an S-sumrmble sequence i n m o ( x . A ) Then. s e l e c t pru such t h a t f o r e v e r y CE '?(N)... m(C)EB P and we a r e done. According t o .&).. _ Proof _ _ -of _ the-c_lajm: s e t Gn:= ( A E B ( N ) : m ( A ) € B n ) f o r each n.e.S)B--+mo(X.2.1 ( t ) f o r some t c f ( X ) and f + f ( r ) = E .d i m e n s i o n a l S-sumnable sequence i n // P r o p o s i t i o n 3.2. Since (f(n):n=1. c l e a r l y .&) d e f i n e d by m(J):= 4 t(f(n): n c J ) i s continuous.2.4).A) and s e t J:mo(X. Bn+BnC Bn2..).. // i s finite-dimnsional. dim (sp(f(n):n=1.) i s l i n e a r l y independent and. i t c o n t a i n s an i n f i n i t e .

) J(E) i s separable and dense i n F. i s an E-equicontinuous t o - i s t o t a l i n F and a ( n ) € A .E)). n). v ( n ) ) . .. We show t h a t sp(T) # FA. Since J ( x ( n ) ) = ( l / n Z n ) a ( n ) (v(n):n=1. n=l. Since a( n ) e A.. t ) Let ( satisfying the fo- a c o v e r s E. s i n c e a(n).s(E'. a c o n t r a d i c t i o n .2. t h e n e v e r y complete d i s c i n ( E ' .) . Lemma 3..s(E'. dense i n F and J(E) # F. The i n j e c t i v i t y o f J f o l l o w s f r o m being t o t a l i n (E'.E)).CHAPTER 3 91 (i) E ' c o n t a i n s an E-equicontinuous sequence which i s t o t a l i n (E'. t [ @ ] ) P r o o f : L e t A be a complete d i s c i n ( E ' . Thus FA i s f i n i t e ..v( n ) . ..s(E'.2. thogonal systems ( x ( n ) . I f t h i s i s space FA and hence a 0-nghb i n FA... Proof: A c c o r d i n g t o o u r remarks ( a ) and ( b ) below 2.) 0 v ( n ) E E ' and (a(n). t a l s e t i n (E'. F such t h a t J(E) i s separawe f i n d b i o r a(n)eF. t \ 4 1 ) .E') c o i n c i d e on e v e r y element i s compact i n (E'. n=1.2. and s i n c e (a(n):n=l.s(E'.1..2.2. t h e topology s(E'.E)). T i s a compact s u b s e t i n t h e B a i r e F . continuous and J( E)C s p ( T ) C FA.) (a(n):n=l.w(n)).. Thus J i s w e l l . Then.Z.d e f i n e d . t h e c l o s u r e taken i n FA. I t remains t o show t h a t J(E) # n o t t h e case.2.3. U s i n g t h e f a c t s t h a t i s an e q u i c o n t i n u o u s s e t and t h a t ( ( l/n)a(n):n=1. t o t a l s e t A which i s weakl y compact. a r e l i n e a r l y independent. (ii) f o r e v e r y B and C i n 6 3 .3 Some Lemmata. I t i s enough t o see t h a t B o f 8 ..s(E*.1: I f t h e t o p o l o g i e s t and b*(E.d i m e n s i o n a l . We denote by t u n i f o r m convergence on e v e r y element B € 03 .Z.... w ( n ) E F ' f o r e v e r y n such t h a t (v(n):n=1. B be a f a m i l y o f c l o s e d d i s c s i n a space ( E .) by 3..2. (v(n):n=1.E)) (ii) F c o n t a i n s a separable. // 3.d i m e n s i o n a l Banach space.) converges t o t h e o r i g i n i n FA.. a b s o l u t e l y convex..E) Let ( v ( i ) : i E I ) be a Cauchy n e t i n A f o r We show t h a t v and v i t s l i m i t i n (E*.2. 5(l/nZn))lx.a( F o r e v e r y X C E ...E)). there llowing c o n d i t i o n s : (i) t h e t o p o l o g y on E ' o f t h e i s D E (3 such t h a t B u C cD.. d e f i n e J ( x ) := n=1. x(n)€E.. we have J( E) C FA which i s an i n f i n i t e . t h e r e i s a continuous i n j e c t i o n J:E----b l e . .13.3.) i s t o t a l i n F.s(E'. A i s complete i n (E'. t h e s e r i e s d e f i n i n g J ( x ) converges i n FA (and hence i n F) and J ( x ) belongs t o a c e r t a i n m u l t i p l e o f T:=%(n-la(n) : n=1.E)).

92 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES belongs t o t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f ( E ' . p. t h e n (F.A) L (G.By (1) i f F E s H i n E.v(F2.A2)'\ ' = I<mz - mdx.E') have t h a t [ < x . such t h a t (G.A2) . I f z belongs t o B we can w r i t e z=y+dx+Ld(j)x(j).2. We prove t h a t t h e n e t (v(F. Since H n E B i s o f f i n i t e c o d i n e n s i o n i n EB.E)) which i s complete i n (E'.$ .A) i n if z6AAH + (za(j)x(j): E' such t h a t <x. and i s o f f i n i t e cois .s=1. ~ E N . j € G\. [ c ( i ) ( q.0.tL63]) i s compact i n P r o p o s i t i o n 3. Then 14 i s c l o s e d i n E i f ( E ' .v(F1.mD) JS (Fs.B then a A E & E such ~ t h a t A U B C C . (1) L e t 63 be a f a m i l y o f c l o s e d d i s c s i n a space ( E .v(F. p'q : given F. We t a k e F s € S . = 1. t [ & l ) .A1)-v( I<mz. we s e l e c t a f a m i l y o f elements ( x ( i ) : i E I ) o f E such Proof: I f x c E \ H . L e t F be t h e f a m i l y o f a l l . t L a I ) . p r N and A E 6 t h e r e i s v(F.qCN and 6 . b.pl.5. E ) ) s i n c e b*(E.v(F. j E G .yEDnH.= . i t i s enough t o show t h a t t h e r e s t r i c t i o n o f v t o e v e r y element B o f 6 i s continuous: s i n c e A i s complete i n ( E ' . N .3SllYtheoreml.pl. L a f o r e v e r y i e I and x c ( a A o ) n B f r o m where i t f o - l l o w s t h a t ( v ( i ) : i c I ) i s equicontinuous on (B . by 3.p2.8 i f F C G . and (2) H A E A dimension i n EA f o r e v e r y A E C ~ .ld(j)\=q.BE '?. p S c N . Given B E 6 and a z O . I f t and b(E. i t i s a Banach d i s c by 3.AS).A): F C F .qm. E l ) .p. 3 .2. we f i n d a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r m such t h a t 1 2m. Now we and t c o i n c i d e on B y ( a A " ) n B i s a 0-nghb i n ( B . > \ C 2 f r o m where i t follows that . t h a t ( x ) u ( x ( i ) : i E I ) i s a cobasis o f f i n i t e subsets o f I. 2 : ( E ' . t ) hence t h e r e s t r i c t i o n o f /I Proceeding as above we have Lemma 3 .ps. hence A i s a bounded subset o f ( E ' .p.A)> \a(j)l P] .s(E' .E') c o i n c i d e on e v e r y element B o f 63 . t ) there i s C c o v e r i n g E such t h a t ( i ) i f A.p2. t L & l ) .A)>\<l J' We d e f i n e an o r d e r r e l a t i o n on A.p. A s c 6 . t ) .<mz. I<z. t [ d ) l ) comp 1e t e .3: ( i i ) i f AEG3 and a.s(E'. To prove t h i s .q.s=1.7. then every d i s c i n (E'. Given b>O and B E 5 .p.B) and A C B . A E ~ i) s a Cauchy n e t i n ( E ' . We have t h a t v( F1. t h e r e a r e DEa . G E S and q c N such t h a t B C D A H + ( c x + ~ c ( j ) x ( j ) : \ c [ jc G 9.p. Let H be a subspace o f E such t h a t HnA i s c l o s e d i n E f o r e v e r y A E G . v ( i ) > \ v t o B i s continuous.2.GC .A1)> F2.2. b ( E ' .3. by H.

Applyin! t h e h y p o t h e s i s t o { .DREWNOWSKI .r ) . i f B c o n t a i n s r A .2.24 i s a key r e s u l t i n t h e s t u d y o f Br-completeness ( s e e Chapter Seven) and i t i s due t o VALDIVIA.3.(5).4.21 can be seen i n VALDIVIA. VOIGT. P r o o f : F o r slich a s e t A. 3. p h N and A € @ and hence = 1.DIEROLF.v(F.20 and 3. By 2.(4). Therefore.2. On t h e o t h e r hand. L e t t i n g n go t o i n f i n i t y one has t h a t y = f ( x ) .2.A)> = 1 f o r e v e r y F C F .4 Notes and Remarks.l.V(F~.9 has been taken f r o m FLORET. fin-) w i t h Ilx(1)ll .c l o s e d 0-nghbs.1 and 3.F and suppose t h a t m and r < l a r e p o s i t i v e numbers. .1. 3.4: (TIETZE EXTENSION THEOREM) I f M i s a c l o s e d subset subset o f a normal . A ~b) ~ Since (E'.2.2.t[U3]) i s complete.5).17.11 and 3. one has t h a t <a and z ( A . The p r o o f o f t h e c l a i m i n 3.2.4.12 f o l l o w s DE WILDE.CHAPTER 3 93 f o(r = e v e r y z i n B . I / / .2: L e t ( E .8 ( o r 1.S .(37!.(3) u s i n g s u m m a b i l i t y methods 3. g i v e n a)O there i s a positive inte= 0. / 3.A~)-V(F~. 3.+x(n))llCrn+l. // 3.p. o b t a i n a sequence (x(n):n=O.(37) a concept which s h o u l d n o t be confused w i t h KELLEY's hypercom l e t e spaces (see 7.19 a r e taken from VALDIVIA. 3.4.s(E'.2.r ) .22 i s due t o LABUDA. 3.. Then e v e r y (non n e c e s s a r i l y c l o s e d ) s e q u e n t i a l l y complete t-bounded a b s o l u t e l y convex subset o f E i s s-bounded.18 and 3. ~(Z. i f z (H.(2).2.2 a r e taken f r o m VALDIVIA.f ( x * + x ( l ) ) l / 6 r Proceeding i n d u c t i v e l y w i t h x(O):=x*. P r o o f : Take llyll =l.2. Then g e r r and A € @ such t h a t r-' and p C N . I f f o r each y C F t h e r e i s an x* i n E w i t h IIx*[[ 6 m\\y[and Ily-f(x*)ll L rllylb t h e n t h e r e i s a l s o an x i n E w i t h f ( x ) = y and llxll L mllyll / ( l . Z x ( n ) converqes a b s o l u t e l y t o a v e c t o r x i n E o f norm l e s s t h a n o r equal t o m / ( l . 3.2. S u b s t a n t i a l p a r t s o f t h e m a t e r i a l presented i n t h i s c h a p t e r a r e standard and some b a s i c r e s u l t s o f t h e General Theory o f L o c a l l y Convex Spaces can be deduced from them. 3.~~.(l).3.3.2. Hypercomplete s e t s (3. Now (x.14 i s due t o VALDIVIA.C rm and l l y .2. t ) be a space and s a l o c a i l y convex t o p o l o a y on E which has -is o f t . t h e Cauchy n e t considered above has a l i m i t v i n E ' .5 i m p l i e s t h a t EA i s a Banach space.B)> I = x does n o t belong t o t h e c l o s u r e o f H i n E .1 has t h e f o l l o w i n o c u r i o u s e x t e n s i o n which was proved b y LABUDA. DIEROLF. 18) i t i s equicontinuous and hence t h e c o n c l u s i o n . 3. The s e r i e s . v ) I(z.(36).22 i s a i n t e r s t i n q r e s u l t due t o BATT. The same technique y i e l d s t h e f o l l o w i n q lemma 3.4.15) were i n t r o d u c e d by VALDIVIA.2.17 uses BANACH's c l a s s i c a l t e c h n i q u e i n i t s p r o o f o f t h e open-mapping theorem.. 3. F e y r . 3. .2. 3.2.v) (x.l < a and t h u s 4 z .(12) and 3. Our p r e s e n t a t i o n o f 3.v(F.~ 2m-I ~ .3: L e t f:E-+F be a l i n e a r continuous mappinq between Banach spaces E.(7). 3.( 1) and o u r p r e s e n t a t i o n f o l l o w s P.(20) and s h a l l be used i n Chapter Four.p.f ( x * ) i n p l a c e o f y.2.E)) and c o n s i d e r a l l r e s t r i c t i o n s o f memb e r s o f T t o EA which form a p o i n t w i s e bounded s e t on EA.1: (BANACH-MACKEY) Every bounded c l o s e d a b s o l u t e l y convex subset o f a space E which i s s e q u e n t i a l l y complete i s s t r o n q l y bounded. L e t T be a n d e d subset o f (E'.DIEROLF.) w i t h Ilx(n)ll Grnm and II y .2.f ( x ( O ) + .4.

W e will see t h a t T s a t i s f i e s t h e hypothesis of 3.g \I .4.4.17 ) . T i s c l e a r l y continuous. // 3.C 2/3. If q i s a continuous function on M with norm 1.4.3 and 3. l e t A:=g-l( [-1. 3.4.2.4 a r e taken from GRABINER (Amer.+ F i s a continuous b i j e c t i v e l i n e a r mapping between Banach spaces E and F.1/31 w i t h f i d e n t i c a l l y equal t o -1/3 on A and t o 1/3 on B .l ( [1/3. 3. t h e r e is a continuous function f from X t o [-1/3. i f f : E . 93. Then IlflI = 1/3 ar?d 11 Tf . . (1986)) I t i s c l e a r t h a t the c l a s s i c a l open-mapping theorem follows from 3.3 y i e l d s the conclusion. then f i s an isomorphism s i n c e i f U is t h e closed u n i t ball of E. Monthly. Math. both spaces endowed w i t h t h e usual sup-norm.18: Indeed.94 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES space X.-1/37 ) and B:= g . By URYSOHN's lemma.2.18 applied t o f(U) shows t h a t i n t ( f m ) ) C f ( l J ) and BAIRE's cateis a 0-nghb i n F and hence the conclugory theorem ensures t h a t int(fm) sion. Proof: Let T be the r e s t r i c t i o n map from the space of bounded continuous functions on X t o t h e space of bounded continuous functions on M.3 w i t h m:=1/3 and r=2/3. then any bounded continuous real-valued function on M may be extended t o a continuous function on X w i t h t h e same bound.

// . i t i s t h a t (ii) enough t o observe t h a t i f H i s bounded a t e v e r y p o i n t o f E. E q u i v a l e n t l y .F) F o r a space ( E . (i) A space E i s b a r r e l l e d i f e v e r y b a r r e l i n E i s a 0-nghb i n E.d i m e n s i o n a l s i n p l e x .3: Val e n t : (i) (E.3. Observation 4. a c c o r d i n g t o 3.v b a r r e l l e d space i s q u a s i b a r r e l l e d .2: a c c o r d i n g t o 3. ( i i ) i m p l i e s ( i )I. D e f i n i t i o n 4. e v e r y p o i n t w i s e bounded s e t HcL(E. t h e f o l l o w i n p conditions are equi- P r o o f : C l e a r l y .95 CHAPTER FOUR BARRELLED SPACES 4 . te-dimensional compact s e t o f ( E .E') i s E-equicontinuous. P r o p o s i t i o n 4. ( i i i ) f o r every space F. hence on e v e r y f i n i t e .5. t ) c o i n c i d e s w i t h b*(E. t ) a c c o r d i n g t o 3. a space ( E .18 shows i s s a t i s f i e d . ( c ) t h e r e e x i s t m e t r i z a b l e spaces which a r e n o t b a r r e l l e d : t a k e t h e space E c o n s t r u c t e d i n 1. which i s bounded on e v e r y f i n i i s equicontinuous.1. ( a ) ever. F ) . a space ( E .E') E-equicontinuous. every s e t H d ( E .3( ii). t ) .1.1. i s barrelled i s equiconti( i i ) f o r e v e r y space F. To show t h a t (ii) and ( i i i ) a r e e a u i v a l e n t . 1 D e f i n i t i o n s and c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s . E q u i v a l e n t l y . t ) . t h e p r o o f i n 1.s(E'.d i r r e n s i o n a l compact s e t i n E.2.E)) (ii) A space E i s q u a s i b a r r e l l e d i f e v e r y b o r n i v o r o u s b a r r e l i n E i s a 0nghb i n E.b(E'.t) nuous. t h e n i t i s bounded on e v e r y f i n i t e .4.n a b i n E. The s e t B c o n s t r u c t e d t h e r e i s a b a r r e l i n E which i s n o t a 0 .1.1 which i s m e t r i z a b l e . f (i) h o l d s .E)) ( b ) e v e r y m e t r i z a b l e space i s q u a s i b a r r e l l e d .1. i s b a r r e l l e d i f and o n l y i f t c o i n is o r i f and o n l y i f e v e r y bounded s e t i n (E'. i s q u a s i b a r r e l l e d i f and o n l y if t o r i f and o n l y i f e v e r y bounded s e t i n (E'.1: c i d e s w i t h b(E.1.

We c(E.).E)).2 .s( E ' . (4. l e t (Un:n=1. En i s u ( n ) f o r each n.e q u i c o n t i n u o u s .1.E)). r e l a t i v e l y compact subsets of ( E ' . P r o p o s i t i o n 4.b( E ' . .t):n=1.t) i s quasibarrelled F o r a space ( E . t ) n t h e i n d u c t i v e l i m i t ( E . according t o 4. t ) ' .1. s c o i n c i d e s w i t h t. P r o o f : Set ce t = m ( E . then i s b a r r e l l e d and A i s a c o m a c t s u b s e t o f ( E ' .E)) (b) i f (E. s ) ' = ( E .s) i s b a r r e l l e d . s ( E ' .1.t) ( c ) t h e f a r n i l j e s o f E .) be a b a s i s o f 0-nghbs i n ( E . hence (E. i s m e t r i z a b l e and s i s a t o p o l o q y on E c o a r s e r t h a n t such t h a t and s e t F : = ( E . I f t h i s i s t h e case.. 2 . t ) ' .s) Every ( E . C l e a r l y t i s c o a r s e r t h a n s .2. s ) .t) be a b a r r e l l e d space c o v e r e d by an i n c r e a can be d e s c r i b e d as s i n g sequence of subspaces ( E :n=1. u ( n ) e I and t h e r e f o r e t h e r e e x i s t v( n ) a(E .. t ) i s c o n t a i n e d i n some U n o A F and. t ) ' such t h a t i t s r e s t r i c t i o n t o converges t o u i n ( E l . (E.E)) and bounded s e t s o f ( E l . e v e r y s e t H C L E. i s e q u i c o n t i n u o u s . i s compact i n ( E ' .t) ( a ) L e t (E.. p a c t s e t s o f E.1. the f o l l o w i n g conditions are equi- ( i i ) f o r e v e r y space F.t) t h e n t=m( E . .F).2. .t) be a space and s e t E ' : = ( E . a c c o r d i n g t o t h e b a r r e l l e d n e s s o f ( E . i f ( d ) if ( E .t) (E.e q u i c o n t i n u o u s and t h e r e f o r e u & ( E .s) i s a l s o r n e t r i z a b l e : indeed. i n ( E l . =(A) . E ' ) s i n c e e v e r y a b s o l u t e l y convex compact s e t i s bounded i n ( E l . s ) .96 I n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n we have P r o p o s i t i o n 4. E ) ) . s ( E ' cide i n E ' . t ) = ind((En..E)) c o i n (E.. s ) . s ) ' .l(i)). ) s(E'. s e t u ( n ) t o denote t h e r e s t r i c t i o n o f u t o En f o r each n. i s e q u i c o n t i n u o u s . s h a l l see t h a t ( E .. e v e r y s e t H c (E. If (E. Thus i t i s E .5(a). t h e n (E.E)) and hence i s a bounded s e t t h e r e . O b s e r v a t i o n 4. s ) ' .s):=ind((En. s ) . ( E .l. / .e q u i c o n t i n u o u s t a l sequence o f ( E . w h i c h i s hounded on t h e bounw h i c h i s bounded on t h e com- ( iii)f o r e v e r y space F..).b( E ' . t ) ' . . s ( E ' . The sequence ( v ( n ) : n = 1 . t BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES .F).). bounded subsets o f ( E l .s( E ' .5: i s quasibarrelled.6: Let (E. O b v i o u s l y . E ' ) (En. e v e r y U n o A F i s an ( E ..t):n=l. ded s e t s o f E. t ) is barrelled. t ) ' If u ~ ( E . Then ( E .e a u i c o n t i n u o u s . E ) ) . s i n Clearly.s)'.4: Val e n t : ( i ) (E.Z.e o u i c o n t i n u o u s Thus F has a fundameni s netrizable.

E)'l i s weakly dense i n sp(T*).T:n=1. F i s b a r r e l l e d . F a F r g c h e t space and Theorem 4.( U ) i s a b a r r e l i n E and t h e r e f o r e a O-n&b i n E.CHAPTER 4 97 C o r o l l a r y 4. O b s e r v a t i o n 4. QT b e i n g %he canonical s u r j e c t i o n E .b(E.) o f E. t h e -1r e l a t i o n J . E i s b a r r e l l e d o n l y i f i t i s endowed w i t h t h e s t r o n g e s t l o c a l l y convex topology.1.r F w i t h c l o s e d graph i n ExF which i s n o t continuous. u s i n g 4 . t h e r e e x i s t a Banach space F and a li- n e a r mapping f : E . (i) L e t E be a space.9: (ii) L e t E be a b a r r e l l e d space.1. f i s continuous..2.2. I f H denotes t h e c l o s e d 1 subspace n ( n . On t h e o t h e r hand. (ii) i s immediate.7: If E i s an i n f i n i t e countable-dimensional space. I f E i s n o t b a r r e l l e d . f .s(E*. c o n s i d e r t h e space E(T):=E/t! endowed w i t h t h e q u o t i e n t norm o f t h e gauge o f T and s e t F f o r i t s c o m p l e t i o n . T* o f t h e p o l a r s e t To i n 2. // ( i ) L e t E be a b a r r e l l e d space. ( i i ) L e t T be a b a r r e l i n E which i s n o t a 0-nghb. (ii) I f E i s n o t a b a r r e l l e d space. I f U i s a closed. l e t T be a b a r r e l i n E which i s n o t a 0-nghb.(T)=T shows t h a t J i s n o t n e a r l y continuous.1. T i s a O-n@b i n (E.i s n o t c o n t i n u o u s . E i s b a r r e l l e d i f and o n l y i f e v e r y l i n e a r mapping f:E--rF. S e t t i n g f:=(IT.6 E l . f : E .19 P r o o f : (i) remains v a l i d .+ F a continuous. Then. 1 . The p r o o f o f 1. surSec- t i v e mapping on a space F. P r o p o s i t i o n 4. P r o o f : (i) Suppose E b a r r e l l e d . 9 ( i ) i n s t e a d of 1. .E I f we c o n s i d e r QT as a maDpinq f r o m E i n t o F. I f J:E--.. // . Since T i s c l o s e d i n E.(E.1.7( i ) . Since T=T"".2.6.E')) stands f o r t h e i d e n t i t y . OT has dense r a n = - (TI' and s a t i s - and thus 0. F b e i n g any space. our conclusion follows.. n e a r l y open. %he t o p o l o g i c a l dual o f F can be i d e n t i f i e d T* b e i n g t h e p o l a r s e t o f T i n €*. Then. Thus The transposed mapping o f QT i s t h e c a n o n i c a l i n j e c t i o n sp(T*)-E* and s p ( T * ) n E ' = s ~ ( T " ) (ii) i m p l i e s t h a t OT has c l o s e d graph as d e s i r e d .b(E. i s n e a r l y continuous. F has as 7 c l o s e d u n i t b a l l t h e s e t QT(T\ f i e s QT-'(OT(T))=T w i t h sp(T*). i s t h e c l o s u r e i n (E*.8: A normed space of i n f i n i t e c o u n t a b l e dimension i s quasibarrelled but not barrelled.E')). OT has c l o s e d graph i n ExF: indeed.10: f:E--*F d l i n e a r mapping w i t h c l o s e d graph i n ExF. a b s o l u t e l y convex 01 nghb i n F.

C(X). t ) .1.+ ( E . There e x i s t s Since J* i s c o n t i - i s a n u l l sequence i n ( E . . o u r h y p o t h e s i s i m p l i e s i s n e t r i z a b l e and g. t ) i n v e r s e has c l o s e d graph and t h e r e f o r e i s continuous due t o 4 . t ) .1.(F.1. s ) . t ) .t)--.. F w i l l be b a r - L e t s be t h e i n i t i a l t o p o l o g y on F w i t h r e s - and J : F A ( E .Y w i t h c l o s e d graph i n (F.10(ii). t ) .t) a l s o b a r r e l l e d .t)xM.) nuous. which i s n o t continuous... t ) ( f ( G ) . Consider t h e a s s o c i a t e d i n j e c t i o n G / k e r ( f ) f:G-r(f(G). i t i s immediate t o check t h a t ( f ( G ) .) compl e t e . i n F converging t o x i n m. (x(n):n=1. Then.. L e t T be a b a r r e l i n E which .* ( E .13: l e d spaces.) i s a Cauchy sequence i n M.2. i . i t follows that f i s is Thus i s b a r r e l l e d i f and o n l y i f f o r every Fr6chet space G and e v e r y continuous l i n e a r mapping f : G .t). again by t h e d e f i n i t i o n i s a n u l l seauence i n ( F .2.t) s u r j ec t i ve L e t (E.. i s b a r r e l l e d . M. t h e r e e x i s t a H a u s d o r f f compact s e t X and a l i n e a r maDping f : E + C ( X ) .t) be a Frechet space and F a dense subspace o f with f(G)3F. i s continuous. RS i s the class o f a l l b a r r e l - P r o o f : I t i s enou@ t o show t h a t . J* w i l l be open by BANACH's open-mappinq theorem. hence i t converges t o some g has c l o s e d graph i n (F.2. ) i s a n u l l sequence i n ( F .36).) IT i n A c c o r d i n q t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f s. t h e Fr6chet space G / k e r ( f ) . I1 a sequence (x(n):n=1. 4. (1. 1 0 ( i ) . l e t i s c o n p l e t e as i t i s i s o m r p h i c t o a l i n e a r mapoing M be a Banach space and g:(F.s) I f we show t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f a. J being the canonical i n i e c t i o n . L e t J*:(F.1. i f E i s n o t a b a r r e l l e d space.2. Clearly.11: (E. 1 . (x(n):n=1..t) us l i n e a r e x t e n s i o n o f J : ( F . t h a t J* i s onto. Z . t ) whose Proof: I f cF. Reciprocally. s ) . ( J * ( x ( n ) ) : n = l .. f ( G ) c o i n c i d e s w i t h E . Since we have t h a t m=O and. X b e i n g a H a u s d o r f f compact s e t . of s. L e t U? be t h e c l a s s o f a l l Banach spaces o f t h e t y p e P r o p o s i t i o n 4.s)-+Y if we show t h a t s and t c o i n c i d e on F. hence ( f ( G ) . We s h a l l see t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s u b c l a s s e s R o f t h e c l a s s o f a l l Banach soaces RSis s t i l l t h e c l a s s o f a l l b a r r e l l e d spaces.2. Our c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s be t h e c o n t i n u o Since J*( F)=F..98 BARREL LED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES Theorem 4. J* --------------i s i n j e c t i v e : l e t x be a v e c t o r of ( F .10 such t h a t shows t h a t % is t h e c l a s s o f a l l b a r r e l l e d spaces. e . Now i t i s enough t o show t h a t J* i s i n j e c t i v e .(F.t) i s open. s ) such t h a t J*(x)=O. r e l l e d according t o 4.s)-+(E. Then. Thus x=O and t h e p r o o f i s // i f F s t a n d s f o r a c l a s s o f spaces c o n t a i n i n g a l l Ba- O b s e r v a t i o n 4.12: nach spaces. s i n c e i f t h i s i s t h e case. .. Dect t o g:F+M (F. with closed graph i n ExC(X).1. ( d x ( n ) ) : n = 1. t ) .t)xM.

3 . Moreover. S i n c e i s compact i n (E'.1. and hence absorbs A.t[@J) Thus A" absorbs B and hence i s a b a r r e l i n E i s a Mackey space. which i s n o t a 0-nghb.s( E ' .E)) and hence To i s a closed.. B i s r a r e i n E.C i n Let d3 be a f a m i l y o f closed. a b s o l u t e l y convex s e t s i n E which generate f i n i t e .E)) complete i n (E'.E:)).El) and o n l y if( E l .s(E'. bounded. a b s o l u t e l y convex I f B t @ . // Two more c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s o f b a r r e l l e d spaces a r e c o n t a i n e d i n t h e f o l l a v ing propositions P r o p o s i t i o n 4. closed. E i s b a r r e l l e d i f and o n l y if i s quasi-complete. s(E'.. P r o o f : I f E i s n o t b a r r e l l e d . =T""=T i m p l i e s t h a t f i s n o t continuous. To i s compact i n ( E l . abso- According t o 3 . hence f has c l o s e d graph i n ExBC(S). Since B i s convex and c l o s e d i n E .14: B.tC@]).s(E'. C l e a r l y . f i s I f U stands f o r t h e c l o s e d u n i t b a l l o f BC(S). t h e r e e x i s t s a b a r r e l B i n F. E=u(nB. with f ( x)( s):=s( x) f o r x i n E and s in S. Then l u t e l y covex s e t i n ( E l .' ( U ) continuous when B C ( S ) i s endowed w i t h t h e p o i n t w i s e topology. R e c i p r o c a l l y . @.E)).1. if E i s b a r r e l l e d and i f t h e r e e x i s t s a r a r e . closed.d i m e n s i o n a l spaces..2.t[@]).CHAPTER 4 99 i s n o t a 0-nghb and c o n s i d e r t h e t o p o l o g i c a l space S:=(T". t C ( 8 1 ) s e t o f (E'. B " i s a 0 . and t h e r e f o r e A i s P r o o f : Suppose E b a r r e l l e d and A a bounded. R e c i p r o c a l l y . E i s b a r r e l l e d if i s quasi-complete.n=1.2. we a r r i v e t o t h e f o l l o w i n g C o r o l l a r y 4.16: no r a r e .15: (E'. a b s o l u t e l y convex s e t B w i t h E= . T=T"" i s a 0-nghb // By t a k i n g 0 as t h e f a m i l y o f a l l bounded. f ..2 i n E.).1.X b e i n g t h e Stone-&ch D e f i n e f:E+BC(S) The spa- ce BC(S) o f a l l bounded continuous K-valued f u n c t i o n s d e f i n e d on S can be c o m p a c t i f i c a t i o n o f S. a b s o l u t e l y convex s e t s i n a Mackey space E such t h a t 6 covers E and such t h a t . i f t h e o r i g i n a l t o on e v e r y member o f p o l o g y o f E c o i n c i d e s w i t h b( €.).s(E'. . Moreover.E)) L e t E be a Mackey space. bounded. A""=A E and t h e r e f o r e a 3-nqhb. A space E i s b a r r e l l e d i f and o n l y i f t h e r e e x i s t s P r o p o s i t i o n 4. g i v e n 0 t h e r e e x i s t s DG@ such t h a t D 3 B U C . s i n ce B i s balanced and a b s o r b i n g i n E.n a b i n (E'. i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e space C( X ) . l e t T be a b a r r e l i n E. a b s o l u t e l y convex subset B o f E such t h a t E=U(nB:n=1.

m e t r i z a b l e by 2. I f o u r c l a i m i s t r u e .18: I f E i s a B a i r e space.$21.1. I t s t r a n s p o s e d mapping S : ( C ( i ) ) ' sx i n t o t h e v e c t o r x and hence A C S ( B ) . P r o o f : A c c o r d i n g t o 4.s(E. clusion follows. s ( E ' * .12. 1) w h i c h i s n o t a B a i r e space ( 1 . Since z x ( A ) = a c x ( A ) * A E . E ' ) S being the closed u n i t b a l l o f ( C ( z ) ) ' . endowed w i t h t h e induced u n i f o r m i t y o f ( E .5.1.17: O b s e r v a t i o n 4.5(4).19: space ( E .1. t h e space C(A) i s s e p a r a b l e and a c c o r d i n g t o 2. 2 . Now Since ( A * . C ( i ) defi- i t i s enough t o show t h a t (M.E)) Let (E. hence ( S ( B ) .1. E ' ) ) Our p r o o f i s complete. Then @ i s a s a t u r a t e d f a and 4.C(ii))) i s compact and m e t r i z a i s corrpact and S i s weak-weak c o n t i n u o u s .1. /I C o r o l l a r y 4.1.15).19 .1. P r o o f : I f B i s a s u b s e t o f E.21: s e t s o f ( E ' . (ii) l e t A be an a b s o l u t e l y convex s u b s e t o f a Then.). W e s h a l l f i n i s h t h i s s e c t i o n p r o v i d i n g a c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n (4. i s m e t r i z a h l e t h e n (=x(A). t h e n E i s b a r r e l l e d K ( N ) i s a t r i v i a l examnle o f a b a r r e l l e d space ( 0 . t ) .E')) i s m e t r i z a b l e . ( A . b l e . I J C S ( S ) f r o m where o u r coni s compact and m e t r i z a b l e .100 U(nB:n=l. of t h o s e Mackey spaces whose weak d u a l i s s e q u e n t i a l l y complete (comnare w i t h F i r s t we r e c a l l s o r e well-known f a c t s on m e t r i z a b i l i t y i n o u r n e x t ( i ) a u n i f o r m space i s m e t r i z a b l e i f and o n l y if i t s i s r r e t r i z a b l e i f A. c o n p l e t i o n i s m e t r i z a b l e . t ) duced by t h e u n i f o r m i t y o f ( E . BAR RE L L ED 1OCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES t h e c l o s u r e T o f R i n E i s a b a r r e l i n E and hence a 0- nghb i n E. P r o p o s i t i o n 4. Thus i n t ( T ) i s n o t v o i d and t h a t i s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n .t) and ( E . t ) . We s h a l l n r o v e t h a t ( S ( B ) . - ( 5 . t ) . I/ P r o p o s i t i o n 4.?j (E. t ) .1. @ c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e f a m i l v of a l l m i l y i n t h e sense o f K1. i s m e t r i z a b l e as a s u b s e t o f ( E . t ) .t) be a space and @ t h e f a m i l y o f a l l bounded w h i c h a r e w e a k l y w t r i z a b l e .1.. 4 ) .20: i s metrizable.20.t) and B * s t a n d f o r t h e c l o s u r e s of S i n r e s p e c t i v e l y . P r o p o s i t i o n 4. If A. s ( E ' * .26) 4. S e t T:E'+ ned by ( T f ) ( x ) : = f ( x ) f o r f i n E ' and x i n -(El)* sends t h e u n i t p o i n t masses A. t ) fi i s m e t r i z a b l e and c l o s e d . endowed w i t h t h e u n i f o r m i t y i n i s metrizable.Z.s(C(z)'.1. A A A i t i s enouqh t o show t h a t W:=acx(A)* S i n c e (Id..?) i s comact. t ) A h L e t A be a orecompact s u b s e t o f a snace ( E . 4 .s( E ' .

E*A*) des w i t h s(E*. t ) i s a O-n&b i n ( E .b a r r e l l e d .E)) acx(A)*+acx(B)*. hence a 0-nghb i n E .1.E)) i s separable. a l i n e a r mapping w i t h c l o s e d graph P r o o f : The s u f f i c i e n c y f o l l o w s t h e same p a t t e r n as t h e p r o o f o f 4. P r o p o s i t i o n a. i n (E'.12. The n e c e s s i t y f o l l o w s o b s e r v i n g t h a t t h e c l o s e d u n i t b a l l B o f F i s a G-bar1 r e 1 i n F and f . and m e t r i z a b l e i n acx(A)*+acx(B)*. // . i ? and C* s t a n d f o r t h e c l o s u r e s o f C and i n i t s c o m p l e t i o n H r e s p e c t i v e l y . t ) f o r m a b a s i s o f 0-nghbs f o r a l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y f i n e r t h a n t h e weak t o p o l o g y o f t h e p a i r ( E Y E ' ) and i t i s c l e a r l y t r a n s s e p a r a b l e . which i s c o n t a i n e d i n we have t h a t aTx(AUB)6@. Since t h e weak t o p o l o g y o f t h i s p a i r on A* c o i n c i - t h e r e s u l t i s an immediate consequence o f 2.23: i s separable. IfC i s a subset of ( E ' . /I D e f i n i t i o n 4. s ( E ' . D e f i n i t i o n 4.s(E*.s(E'. I/ P r o p o s i t i o n 4.22: Let (E.5. (ii) A" i s a b a r r e l i n (E.24: A space ( E .10. T i s a G-barrel i f E (T) I n 4.1. Since acx(A)* and acx(B)* a r e m t r i z a b l e conpact s e t s o f H f o r A.16. Since acx(A+B)*f\E'= a c ( A + B ) and A U B c a c x ( A ) + a c x ( B ) . r a t i o n conditions are obviously s a t i s f i e d . consider the .t) be a space and A a bounded a b s o l u t e l y con- v e x subset o f ( E l .1.b a r r e l s i n a space ( E . and t h e r e f o r e acx(A+B)*. E ) ) . t ) .(4)). E ) ) such t h a t ( W B ) . i t follows that i s a o a i n compact as a continuous i m q e of acx(A)*xacx(B)*.t) dual p a i r (E(Ao).25: A space E i s G-barrelled i f and o n l y i f . t ) i s G-barrelled i f every G-barrel i n ( E . C l e a r l y .1. whenever F i s a separable Banach space and f:E-+F i n ExF.s( E ' .s(E'.E)) i s m t r i z a b l e .E)).1.B i n 173.( B ) i s a G-barrel i n E . The o t h e r s a t u - i s a l s o compact and m e t r i z a b l e i n H. H (2.21 we have seen t h a t t h e f a m i l y o f a l l G . The f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s a r e e q u i v a l e n t : such t h a t E (i) A i s m t r i z a b l e i n (E'.2.s( E ' . e v e r y b a r r e l l e d space i s G .E) on A*.1. (A") P r o o f : I f A* stands f o r t h e c l o s u r e o f A i n (E*. E ) ) .s( E ' . L e t T be a b a r r e l i n ( E . f i s continuous. t ) . and r e p e a t i n g - t h e method o f proof O f 1. the conclusion follows.CHAPTER 4 101 bounded s e t s B o f ( E ' .

b a r r e l l e d . The a s s o c i a t e d m e t r i c t o p o l o g y on A i s c o a r s e r t h a n s(E*. hence D n U " i s s e q u e n t i a l l y compact and t h e r e f o r e c o u n t a b l y compact i n ( F ' . Since ( E l . t h e domain E and F b e i n g spaces.28. i s s e q u e n t i a l l y complete.F)). E ) ) . s e t A:=(u)U(u(n):n=l. we a p p l y K1.l - in-'\. i s sequentially with C Jt complete and l e t F be a WCG Banach space.(6) U" i s compact i n (F'.?21. then f:(E.u(n)):=n-'.1.T F i s a l i n e a r map c l o s e d graph i n ExF. o f F' i s dense i n (F'.E)) o f t h e transposed mapping t o f i n F ' i s s e q u e n t i a l l y c l o s e d i n ( F ' .?22.1.26: (E'. Theorem 4. 4 . ous i f E i s supposed t o be G . .E)) i s s e q u e n t i a l l y conplete.u):=O. K1. a c c o r d i n g t o K1.4.( 2).E) hence b o t h t o p o l o g i e s c o i n c i d e on A.28: L e t f:E--rF be a l i n e a r mapping w i t h c l o s e d T a p h i n ExF. // t h e space ~ (lOD.F)) concl u s i on f o l 1ows . s ( F ' .224. I f f : E .s(F'.s(E'.s(E*.s( E ' .) d(u. R e c i p r o c a l l y . in t h e domain D o f t h e transposed mapping and.E)) i s m e t r i z a b l e ..Z. on A can be d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s : d ( u ( n ) .E)).s(E'. s ( F ' .(3) .m(E.m(lmyl .E)) i s a compact subset o f (E*.27: ~ 1 l e d . E ) ) . P r o o f : L e t (u(n):n=1. F ) ) .1.b a r r e l l e d i f and o n l y if i s s e q u e n t i a l l y complete.ZYn.F)) sequentially clo- sed..E)). Since F i s complete.E)) L e t E be a Mackey space. ) i s E-equicontinusuch t h a t ( S E ( B ) .29: L e t E be a spbce such t h a t ( E ' . a ( B ) i s E-equicont i n u o u s and so i s 6. I f (E'. According t o 0 3 .s( F ' .1. a c c o r d i n g t o 4. shows t h a t D c o i n c i d e s w i t h F ' i f f o r e v e r y O-n&b IJ i n F.s(F'. Since t o o b t a i n t h a t U" i s and o n l y i f D n U " i s c l o s e d i n ( F ' .6.6.s( F ' .. t o r s i n (E'. the I/ .s(E'. s ( E ' . Thus ( u ( n ) :n=1. d(u. u ( m ) ) : = l n . Then u belongs t o E ' . F ) ) s e q u e n t i a l l y compact i n ( F ' . Since E i s a Mackey space. The f o l l o w i n g lemma i s o f easy p r o o f Lemrm 4.9. Z x ( B ) i s conpact :'n ( E ' . F ) ) . l e t B be a bounded s e t o f ( E ' .) i s G-barrelled but not b a r r e l - O b s ervation 4.1. s ( E ' .102 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEXSPACES Theorem 4. E i s G . s( E'.2. E ) ) F i s continuous.s(E*.1.I be a Cauchy sequence o f o a i r w i s e d i f f e r e n t v e c and t h e A metric d and It converges t o a c e r t a i n u i n (E*.E'))-+ P r o o f : A c c o r d i n g t o 2. s ( E ' .

2. Then E/F i s b a r r e l l e d .2. each Ei i s b a r r e l l e d according t o 4. ()(TAU) c Q ( ( T n U ) + F ) . (ii) L e t F be a dense subspace o f a space E. Then T n F i s a b a r r e l i n F and hence a 0 . P r o p o s i t i o n 4. Q ( T A U ) i s a b a r r e l i n E/F and t h e r e f o r e a 0-neiqhbourhood i n E/F. i ( p ) and U and t a k e a v e c t o r x:= 1 i n E w i t h !Ji:=E. save f o r a l. / / i ( p ) ) . Indeed.CHAPTER 4 103 4.4: Let (Ei:iCI) be a non-void family o f spaces. There e x i s t s an a b s o l u t e l y convex 0-nghb U i n E such t h a t ( 3 U ) n F c T A F . we have t h a t z : = ( z ( i ) : i t I ) i s i n @(Ei:i P r o p o s i t i o n 4. .2: (i) complemented subspaces o f b a r r e l l e d spaces a r e a l s o b a r r e l l e d . Then (i) eveand ( i i ) @ ( E i : i r I ) i s den- r y f a c t o r space i s complemented i n m ( E i : i c I ) se i n n ( E i : i 61).2 Permanence p r o p e r t i e s I . .2..p.5: Let (Ei:i€I) be a non-void f a m i l y o f spaces and l e t E be i t s t o p o l o g i c a l product. )= Lemma 4.n a b U : = .. I f ?:E+E/F denotes t h e c a n o n i c a l s u r j e c t i o n .. Setting z(i(r)):=x(i(r)). P r o o f : L e t T be a b a r r e l i n E and F a b a s i s o f 0-nghbs i n E. Our f i r s t r e s u l t i s o f t r i v i a l n a t u r e P r o p o s i t i o n 4. I f F and E/F are b a r r e l l e d . P r o o f : (i) i s immediate.n a b i n F.// ((14 f l U)+( T AU)+F) : W C ~ ) ) cUA ( f l ((W n U ) + ( T n U ) + ( FA3U): We$)) L U n ( n ( ( ! d n U ) + ( T n U ) + T : ! d E F ) ) A ( ( w ~ u ) + ( T A u ) + T : Y ~ s . . Then (i) E i s b a r r e l l e d i f and o n l y i f each f a c t o r space i s b a r r e l l e d .. then E i s b a r r e l l e d . V = UI\(T(\U)+F = UO ( (TAU)+T C 2T.2.... Since Q i s open. then E i s b a r r e l l e d .2(i). (ii) I f E i s b a r r e l l e d .3: L e t F be a c l o s e d subspace o f a space E. The c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s ifwe show t h a t VC2T...! T ( U i : i r I ) f i n i t e number o f i n d i c e s i(l). Set V : = U n ( T n U ) + F which i s a 0-nghb i n E. I f F i s barrelled. ( i i ) Set E : = n ( E i : i E I ) ( x ( i ) : i € 1 ) i n E and a 0 .. then Eo i s b a r r e l l e d .. €1) and z e x + U . P r o o f : ( i ) I f E i s b a r r e l l e d . r=l. C o r o l l a r y 4.2.2.1: (i) L e t F be a c l o s e d subspace o f a b a r r e l l e d space E.p a 0-nqhb i n E f o r r= i( r) i(r) and z ( i ) : = O f o r i (i(l). (ii) t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f a b a r r e l l e d space i s b a r r e l l e d .

fi. 2 . s i n c e T i s convex and x=Z-’y+2-%. zgn(Ei:i 4 J ) C T . F o r each i i n I. S e l e c t a sequence o f i n E such t h a t x ( n ) € E \ n T f o r each n and s e t i(n) w h i c h i s a compact s e t i n E s i n c e Bc-fi(Bi:i e1) w i t h f o r each n and S i s c l o - i f i # i ( n ) f o r each n and Bi(. we showed t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a f i n i t e number o f i n d i c e s J : = ( i ( l ) ..2.2. t h e r e e x i s t s a b a r r e l T i n Eo which i s r a r e i n EO* P r o c e e d i n g as we d i d i n 1 . o u r c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s f r o m 4. i( r) i f we show t h a t V i s c o n t a i n e d i n T.. f i . . // L e t E = ind(Ei.T b e i n g c l o s e d i n E.. s i n c e each E Our c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s y(i(r)):=Zx(i(r)).)):r=1. o f b a r r e l l e d spaces.6: non-void f a m i l y ( E i : i C I ) Ei and hence a O-n&b.. 2 ( i ) ..7: __ Let (Ei:iEI) be a non-void f a m i l y o f spaces. y ( i ) : = O i f i # J and z ( i ( r ) ) : = O i & I ) be a v e c t o r o f V and s e t y : = ( y ( i ) : i G I ) and z : = ( z ( i ) : i 6 1 ) w i t h r=l. suopose ( E i : i 5ARRELLED LOCALLY CON VEX SPACES t I ) a f a m i l y o f b a r r e l l e d spaces and l e t T be a b a r r e l i n E...) B:==( Bi:=(0) x(n):n=1. each Ei i f each Ei s i n c e E=ind( @ p ( I ) b e i n g the f a m i l y o f a l l f i n i t e p a r t s o f I ordered by i n c l u s i o n . hence i t i s a b a r r e l i n E w h i c h i s n o t a O-nCf7b i n E. i s b a r r e l l e d . Clearly y r l . a c o n t r a d i c t i o n .)&T f o r each n. i G I ) i s b a r r e l l e d i f and o n l y i f each Ei i s b a r r e l l e d .2. a cont r a d i c t i on. P r o o f : L e t T be a b a r r e l i n E. t h e c l o s u r e IJ o f T i n E i s rare i n E and a b s o r b i n g . and each @ ( E i : i c J ) i s b a r r e l l e d hy 4.2.6 (Ei:i €J):Jt%(I))..? j T w h i c h i s a 0-nghb i n E.5. Indeed...p . L e t x : = ( x ( i ) : . // _ Co _ ro _ l l_ ar _ y_ 4. . z(i):=Zx(i) i f i {J. Thus x belongs t o T. Reciprocally.):=acx(x(n)) sed i n E. ( i i ) I f Eo i s n o t b a r r e l l e d .) such t h a t Ei(.) vectors (x(n):n=1...l ( T ) Thus T i s a 0-nghb i n E .D i f r=l. We s e t V : = ~ ( E i : i # J ) x ~ ( ( 2 p 2 p ) .2.ti:i € 1 ) be an i n d u c t i v e l i m i t o f a i s a barrel i n P r o p o s i t i o n 4.. C D ( E i : i d J ) c T and Thus. S i n c e T i s convex... E : = B ( E i : i s b a r r e l l e d by 4 . P r o o f : I f E i s b a r r e l l e d . F i r s t we c l a i m t h a t T c o n t a i n s a l l f a c t o r sDaces save a f i n i t e number o f them..104 Conversely.B i s absorbed by T. A c c o r d i n g t o 32 5 i(p)) i n .2. 2 1 4 . I such t h a t TD U ( E i : i d J ) . // ..p) ~ J ) c T . t h e r e e x i s t s a sequence o f indices (i(n):n=l. hencev(Ei:i nEi(. i f t h i s i s n o t t h e case..2. . Then E i s b a r r e l l e d . i s barrelled.

i s a dense hyperplane o f EM (compare w i t h 3. 1 2 i n p l i e s t h a t E =E T\F=EMAF i s n o t a Banach space.. I f VfT. i n F conver- ( 3 ) ( s e e a l s o RRYp. P r o o f : W i t h o u t l o s s o f g e n e r a l i t y .3 Permanence p r o p e r t i e s I I.Z. l e t G be i t s c l o s u r e i n E.Z. 5 ( i i ) ) Exanples 4.1. I t i s enough t o show t h a t . Observe t h a t t h e b a r r e l l e d n e s s o f EB does n o t i m p l y t h a t B i s r e l a t i v e l y c o u n t a b l y conpact B a r r e l l e d spaces such t h a t e v e r y c l o s e d subspace i s b a r r e l l e d . Thus V i s a b a r r e l i n E and V A F = T . if F i s a dense hyperplane of a F r e c h e t spa- ce E. Fr6chet spaces. hence b a r r e l l e d by 4.9.// i s barrelled Every b a r r e l i n a space E absorbs e v e r y d i s c B such t h a t as can be e a s i l y seen ( s e e t h e p r o o f o f 4.3. t h e n F i s a l s o of t h e t y p e above: indeed.l33khere e x i s t s a sequence (x(n):n=l.3: . I f H i s c l o s e d i n E. i s a b a r r e l i n E and UCZV. 3 and 2 . s i n c e i t i s t h e sum o f a c l o s e d and a compact s e t i n E. ) . Set V f o r t h e c l o s u r e o f T i n E.la.CHAPTER 4 105 4.3..7).2. f3 sp(x). g i n g t o t h e o r i g i n such t h a t i t s c l o s e d a b s o l u t e l y convex h u l l B i n F conC l e a r l y . Moreover.) i n F c o n v e r g i n g t o z i n E.S(F. Thus EB B M . 5. A c c o r d i n o t o K1.$21 .3.3.3. K I and K") s a t i s f y t h e r e q u i r e d p r o p e r t y ( s e e 0.F')].c o d i n e n s i o n a l subspace o f a b a r r e l - l e d space E.. t h e r e e x i s t s a b a r r e l i n E whose i n t e r s e c t i o n w i t h F c o i n c i d e s w i t h T. EN i s a Banach space a c c o r d i n g t o 3 . I f V=T.4.1) and n o t complete. .3. P r o p o s i t i o n 4.).d i w n s i o n a l and a F r e c h e t space and F a dense hyperplane o f E. U t a k e x & V \ T and s e t U:=T+acx(x). 3 . Then F i s b a r r e l l e d . (ii) L e t E be an i n f i n i t e . Exanples 4. B i s n o t r e l a t i v e l y conpact i n (F. H i s a F r 6 c h e t space hence b a r r e l l e d . I f H i s n o t c l o s e d i n E..2. S e l e c t a v e c t o r z C E \ F sequence (z(n):n=1.2. hence b a r r e l l e d b y 4.1...2: $ a d i s c B such t h a t EB i s b a r r e l l e d b u t n o t a Banach spa- t h e c l o s e d u n i t b a l l o f a dense hyperplane o f an i n f i n i t e 4 l i m e n s i o n a l ce: (i) Banach space E p r o v i d e s a t r i v i a l example o f a d i s c B such t h a t EB i s b a r r e l l e d (4. we suppose t h a t F i s a hyperplane o f E. G i s a Frgchet space (hence b a r r e l l e d ) and H i s a hyperplane o f G. t a k e x C E \ F and s e t U:=V+acx(x) which i s a c l o s e d s e t i n E. I f M denotes t h e c l o s u r e o f B i n E.1. and 3 . Since E=F U i s a b a r r e l i n E and UAF=V.) t a i n s (z(n):n=l. 2 . i f T i s a b a r r e l i n F. l e t H be a c l o s e d subspace o f F .1: L e t F be a f i n i t e .

We a r e done i f we show t h a t 3 C 2 U s i n c e UAF=T.1.1.3.2. Thus t h e r e e x i s t s a v e c t o r u i n E ' such t h a t (x.2. .s( E ' . m a p .u>kl f o r a l l z i n U.7: L e t F be a subspace o f a space ( E . // F i s (strictly) D e f i n i t i o n 4.8: L e t (E.3. Thus x h c as d e s i r e d ..6: L e t F be a countable-codin-ensional subspace o f a b a r r e l l e d be a cobasis o f F i n E.3.. P r o p o s i t i o n 4.. There e x i s t continuous l i n e a r forms u(m) on Em such t h a t (x. P r o o f : L e t (x(n):n=1. There e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r p such t h a t x C E m f o r m)/ p and hence x # 2 T m .2.1( i ) .4: I n 1.t) be an i n f i n i t e .. The f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s a r e e q u i v a l e n t : ( i ) t h e r e e x i s t s a subspace o f E s t r i c t l y dominated b y a FrPchet space ( i i ) t h e r e e x i s t s a subspace o f E which i s n o t b a r r e l l e d ...1.d i m e n s i o n a l FrPchet space.1..1. of p r o o f o f 4.5: for For a given f a m i l y $ o f F i s a f i n i t e .106 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES O b s e r v a t i o n 4. and each En i s a hyperplane o f En+l.1. space E.2..1 and 4.3.) covers E f o r n=2.u(m)> =2. The s e t U:=u(Tn:n=l..x ( n . i f F t h e f a m i l y o f a l l Banach spaces. dominated b y ? ___FrPchet space ift h e r e e x i s t s a t o p o l o g y s on F i s t r i c t l y ) fi n e r than t on F.3 ..) sp(FU(x(l). O b s e r v a t i o n 4.22 shows t h a t . L e t T be a b a r r e l i n F. According t o 4. t h e n FE 5 ' . F i s b a r r e l l e d .c o d i m e n s i o n a l subspace o f a space 7..1 ) ) ) f o r n=2. s ) i s a F r g c h e t space.3. spaces. EG d i m n s i o n a l B a i r e space E a p r o p e r dense hyperplane o f f i r s t category.3. I ( z .p+l. we know t h a t F S i s the class o f a l l b a r r e l l e d spaces (4.. such t h a t ( F .12 we c o n s t r u c t e d i n e v e r y seoarable i n f i n i t e t h e hyperplane i s b a r r e l l e d and n o t B a i r e . L e t v(m) be a con- t i n u o u s l i n e a r e x t e n s i o n o f u(m) t o E f o r m a p . .2. C l e a r l y (v(m):m=o. hence n o t B a i r e . By t h e method i s a b s o l u t e l y convex and absor- c o n s t r u c t b a r r e l s Tn i n En w i t h Tn+lnEn=Tn and s e t T1:=T. u ( m ) > \ ~ l f o r z 6 T m and m 3 p .3.3. t ) . Set E1:=F and E := n The sequence (En:n=1. .6 lowing Theorem 4. Then... Taking 1.u> =2 and I(z.) i s bounded i n ( E ' .) b i n g i n E and hence i t s c l o s u r e i n E i s a b a r r e l i n E and t h e r e f o r e a 0- nghb i n E. E ) ) and hence a E-equicontinuous s e t by 4.3.12) and we o b t a i n another p r o o f o f 4. Suppose x d 2 U ...3. provide a proof o f the f o l - The techniques used t o p r o v e 4.

.) hand. W n C n = 4 f o r each n.t) t r a n s v e r s a l t o F.s) o f c l o s e d convex s e t s i n ( E ..4. f o r each m.t) Um i n ( F . t ) (An:n=1. I f T i s a b a r r e l i n F which i s n o t a 0-nghb i n F.. shows t h a t J and l e t (Vn:n= i n E. t h e closure taken i n L:=GAF. i s a O-n@b i n Em f o r each m and hence V m n F i s a 0-nghb i n (F.3.2. t h e r e i s separable: which i s n o t Lemma 4.).) a n u l l sequence i n (F.) vering M \ ( O ) . There exists a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r m such t h a t Em:=sp(Vm) i s n o t b a r r e l l e d .t) Proof: I t i s enough t o c a r r y o u t t h e p r o o f supDosinp ( E .. a c o n t r a d i c t i o n . Indeed.. t ) co- i s o f i n f i n i t e dimension f r o m where o u r c o n c l u s i o n w i l l f o l l o w .t) transversal t o L.3. (ii) i m p l i e s (i): l e t F be a n o n . b e i n g a b a r r e l i n Em. (E. Since V m A F i s t h e c l o s u r e o f i s n e a r l y continuous. (G. t h e r e e x i s t s a sequence shows t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a convex 0-nghb V i n (F.8 such t h a t M:=sp(V) i s o f non-countable i n f i n i t e codimension i n E. sp(T) and l e t s be t h e t o p o l o g y on G whose b a s i s o f 0-nghbs i s (n-'TnVn:n= The t o p o l o g y s i s s t r i c t l y f i n e r t h a n t on G and s has a b a s i s o f 0-nghbs which a r e complete f o r t. k = l y 2 . I f (Un:n=1. Since M i s transver3 s a l t o W .s).t) t r a n s v e r s a l t o M (hence t o F) such t h a t H A M o f c l o s e d convex s e t s o f ( E ..CHAPTER 4 107 P r o o f : (i) i m p l i e s (ii): l e t F be a subspace o f ( E .the H o f (G.) s t r i c t l y dominated i s a d e c r e a s i n g b a s i s o f 0-ngbhs n=1.). t ) b y a F r c c h e t space (F. t h e method o f proof o f 1..d i m e n s i o n a l subspace o f E t r a n s v e r s a l t o M.218..t) be an i n f i n i t e .9: subspace o f E s t r i c t l y dominated b y a F r c c h e t space (F. Vm..) be a b a s i s o f c l o s e d 0-nghbs i n ( E . t h e r e e x i s t s a n u l l sequence (x(n):n=1.and (E.(4).. S e t G:= t h e c a n o n i c a l i n j e c t i o n J : ( F .2. t ) + ( F.2..s) Since (F. t h e r e e x i s t s a c l o s e d i n f i - te-dimensional subspace Suppose ( E . .2. t ) indeed.s). t h e c l o s u r e ? i n E o f T i s n o t a O-n#b 1. c h e t space... t ) . L e t W be an i n f i n i t e . t ) 1. t ) p r o o f o f 4.s) i s a Fr6 // L e t (E.2. a c l o s e d i n f i n i t e . A c c o r d i n q t o o u r assumption. g l h i p : t h e r e e x i s t s a c l o s e d hyperplane H1 o f ( E . Since H i s c'Tosed i n and H i s t r a n s v e r s a l t o F.. i n (F. covering E\(O). There e x i s t s a sequence (Cn:n=1. A c c o r d i n g t o K1.. s e t Vn f o r t h e c l o s u r e o f lJn i n ( E . t ) such t h a t H1 sp( x( 1)) .19 i s continuous. We s h a l l c o n s t r u c t a c l o s e d subspace H o f (E.2. i f t h i s i s n o t t h e case. namely M \ ( O ) = u ( k T n A n : n ..d i m e n s i o n a l F r 6 c h e t space and F a Then.. t ) .s) i s a FrPchet space.s).2.b a r r e l l e d subspace o f ( E .s). H i s as r e q u i r e d .).t).2. Take x ( 1 ) # 0 i n W .2. i n (F. t ) .d i m e n s i o n a l subspace H o f (E..t) Set G:=Z(x(n):n=1. On t h e o t h e r separable. Since i t i s m e t r i z a b l e .

) i n C1 lim(y(n)-x(n):n=l. P r o c e e d i n q by i n d u c t i o n . f o r each n. Z ... 7. .3. ) .x f o r each n.3. If ( y c o n v e r g i n g t o some y i n s p ( x ( 1)). quence ( H : n = l . P r o p o s i t i o n 4. .. p b e i n g any norm on sp( x( 1 ) ) .3.) converges t o some y i n q p ( x ( 1 ) ) .Z..L i L n .x ) n s p ( x ( 1 ) ) = ( 0 ) and hence y=O. . O-n&b U i n ( E . t ) H2nH1nldfsp(x(1)). . Since t a k e a v e c t o r x ( 2 ) i n H2nHlr\W b u t n o t i n s p ( x ( 1 ) ) . . a c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n c e p ( y ) = l . P a s s i n g t o a s u i t a b l e subsequence if necessary.10: an (LF)-space". (*) (c(n)y(n)-c(n)x-c(n)(z(n)-x):n=1. i n s p ( x ( 1 ) ) f o r c ( n ) : = p ( y ( n ) ) . Z .Z.. Z . x ( n ) ) f o r l . + U ) A s I ) ( x ( l ) ) = + .l : n = l .. Clearly. // We do n o t know i f t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f 4. ..nC. y & C 1 .) i s a n u l l sequence Now we have t h a t OeC1-x... .E)) is complete..) t h e r e e x i s t sequences (y(n):n=1.) converges t o y (***) (c(n)x:n=1. i n sp( x( 1 ) ) and ( z ( n ) : n = 1 .) . t h e r e e x i s t s a subsequence ( y ( n ( k ( j ) ) ) : i = l .2. we may suppose t h a t ( c ( n ) y ( n ) :n=1. t ) such t h a t 2.2. ) i s bounded sequence. c ( n ) ( z ( n ) .) i s a null .=d. ) . s i n c e C1 i s c l o s e d .. F i s barrelled. t ) c o n t a i n i n g sp( x( l ) . x ( 2 ) ) and such t h a t H 3 f l C 3 = d . t ) such t h a t .m(E' .. B u t ( C . t h e p r o o f i s complete. .) i s a n u l l sequence (**) (c(n)y(n):n=l.. According t o J .2 .2... The method o f p r o o f above shows t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a c l o s e d h y p e r p l a n e H3 o f ( E . The same p r o o f a p p l i e d t o C2 i n s t e a d o f t o C1 shows t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a c l o s e d h y p e r p l a n e H2 o f ( E .2. ) . j = l .108 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEX SPACES and HlnC1= a.x . ) c o n t a i n s no bounded subsequence. o u r c l a i m f o l l o w s ...9 i s valid re- O b s e r v a t i o n 4.2.... y 6 C 1 A s p ( x ( 1 ) ) .11: p l a c i n g " s t r i c t l y dominated by a F r e c h e t space" b y " s t r i c t l y dorrinated by L e t E be a b a r r e l l e d space such t h a t (E'.(**) and (***). . such t h a t H 2 ~ s p ( x 1)) ( and H. S i n c e C1-x i s convex. P r o o f : F i r s t . I f (y(n):n=1.) such t h a t ( C . ) n HnACn=$and H i ' > ( x ( l ) . ( p ( y ( n ) ) . Thus.1 our c l a i m f o l l o w s i f we p r o v e t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a I f t h i s i s n o t t h e case.. ..x ) G C 1 . Z . I f F i s a subspace o f E w i t h dim(E/F) ( c . Take any x i n C1. we c o n s t r u c t a l i n e a r l y independent sequence ( x ( n ) : n = l .2. ges t o y and (n):n=1. Thus (c(n)y(n):n=1. z(n)-x€C1-xand O<c(n)<l f o r each n... Thus ( z ( n ( k ( S ) ) ) : . A c c o r d i n g t o (*). .l and we may suppose O < c ( n ) < l f o r each n. We s h a l l p r o v e t h a t F i s complemen- .)=O.2. c o n t a i n s a bounded conver- subsequence ( y ( n ( k)):k=1. suppose F c l o s e d i n E. ) i n Id and a seo f c l o s e d h y p e r p l a n e s i n ( E . 2 .2.3.. . a c o n t r a d i c t i o n .. S e t t i n g H:=A(Hi:i=1.

m(F'.m(E'.2. Thus n ( E ' .E)) i s a c l o s e d subspace of EA. hence b a r r e l l e d by 4 . or i t s Indeed.2 ) . Since d i m ( Z ) ) / c by 2. Since (E'.8 p l e t e . H i s closed i n E i f . i s a Banach space (3. I f we show t h a t H i s c l o s e d i n E. maps A induces i n a s e t which generates a f i n i t e .E) t h e weak t o p o l o g y on F A and we a r e done.E)) ( s e e 2. T i s a 0-nghb i n F.s( E ' .3. we a r r i v e t o a c o n t r a diction. ( E ' .E)). A c c o r d i n g t o o u r hypothesis.m(E'. T absorbs B A H (3.6.12: L e t E be an i n f i n i t e .F)) i s complete.4). i s a Banach space which i s e i t h e r f i n i t e .6.E)). t h e c l o s u r e o f . The f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n w i l l be needed i n t h e r e s t o f t h e p r o o f : i f L stands f o r t h e t o p o l o g i c a l complement o f F A i n ( E l . t o (F'. l e t A be an a b s o l u t e l y convex.E)) and 2. i s f i n i t e and hence t h e c a n o n i c a l s u r j e c t i o n E-+E/F E ' ) ) which generates a Banach space EA and EAnF dimension i s l a r g e r o r equal than c (2.s( E ' . I f T i s a b a r r e l i n F.m(E'.d i m e n s i o n a l F r 6 c h e t space.9 t o o b t a i n a c l o s e d i n f i n i t e . t h e n t h e r e e x i s t s a c l o s e d subspace H o f E t r a n s v e r s a l t o F. hence a 0-nghh i n E.q21. comoact s e t o f (E.3.d i m e n s i o n a l space.3. t h e n H=E and T i s a b a r r e l i n E.s(E.d i m e n s i o n a l subspace Z o f I? t r a n s v e r s a l t o EBnH.1 =(Fl. Since T = T n F . t h e p r o o f o f t h e r e s u l t when F i s n o t c l o s e d i n E can be done assuming t h a t F i s dense i n E f o r n o t t h e case.9 P r o p o s i t i o n 4. Thus EA/EAnF dim(EA/EAnF) ) which w i l l be a c c o m l i s h e d by showing t h a t F" i s n ' n i ( s e e 2.E')). i t i s enough t o show t h a t t h e subspace FL o f E ' o r t h o g o n a l t o F i s complemented i n ( E l .4 and dim(M/EBnH) ( c . Since (E'. 2 .7 ) and hence o f EBnH in k. // i s the following An easy consequence o f 4. s e t H f o r t h e l i n e a r span o f t h e c l o s u r e 7 i n E o f T. f o r every ahsolutely convex compact s e t o f (E. (i) i f F i s a subspace o f E s t r i c t l y dominated b y a F r e c h e t space and i f G i s a c l o s e d subspace o f E t r a n s v e r s a l t o F.m( E ' .2.5 ma1 as a subspace o f (E'. if this i s F i n E s a t i s f i e s t h e h y p o t h e s i s on E.3.E)) i s com- i n d i c a t e t h a t i t i s enough t o show t h a t (Ftm(E'. According t o Kl.9. I f E B A H i s n o t b a r r e l l e d . I f EBnH B A H i s c l o s e d i n E.E))'=E.m(F'. ) and E B A H i s a dense subspace o f t h e c l o s u r e M i s b a r r e l l e d .3. 2.6.5 i t s i n t e r s e c t i o n w i t h H i s closed i n For each a b s o l u t e l y convex compact s e t B o f ( E ' . m( E ' .CHAPTER 4 109 t e d i n E. such t h a t i t c o n t a i n s G and din(H/G) is .s(E. we a p p l y 4.8 and 4.(6).s(E'. L i s isomrphic A c c o r d i n g t o o u r o b s e r v a t i o n above.d i m e n s i o n a .2. E ) ) .2 . Suppose F dense i n E.F)) and hence (F'. 2 ( i ) .E)).

z.2: L e t G be a space and F a space endowed w i t h t h e s t r o n g e s t - l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y .x ( 1) G U f o r each j . t h e r e e x i s t s x(b) t A . Thus d b) C A n L and 1 imx( b)=x. b such t h a t (t.0) i n A w i t h y ( 1)rId. By t h e v e r y d e f i n i t i o n o f A2. Then t h e r e e x i s t s a quasiconplement H t o F such t h a t H c o n t a i n s G and dim(H/G) i s i n f i n i t e . such t h a t x=( l+b)x( b ) According t o 0.4.4 N e a r l y c l o s e d s e t s .x( 2 ) ) an e l e i n G. L c a l a r s xtj(z. W e d e f i n e a subset o f HxF. W e hase t h a t y ( 2 ) = 0 and t = ?ti. Set y : = z t j y j which i sc a v e c t o r -0 o f A since A i : a b s o l u t e l y conve(x. d e r t o see t h a t y ( l ) & W . hence x t W L . s i n c e U i s a h s o l u t e - * ..x ( l ) ) ’ h .6 ) . Proof: Clearly.. // Lemma 4. t h e n Proof: L e t p:GxF-. O ) 6 K 2 .5 L e t A be an a b s o l u t e l y convex subset o f a space G. x:=( x( 1) . a p p l i e d t o A:=A2 and L:=Hx(O).coincides with the a l - gebraic c l o s u r e A ( b A : b > l ) o f A.. C l e a r l y . Then A A L = A f l L f o r each -- . By c o n s t r u c t i o n .d i w n s i o n a l subspace H i n E such t h a t ( F + G ) n H= ( 0 ) ( and hence dim( E/( F+G)) > c ) . G endowed w i t h t h e s t r o n g e s t l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y .G) (ii) be a p r o p e r quasicomplemented p a i r i n E. t h e r e e x i s t a p o s i t i t1 .1: subspace L o f 6 . z t J x ( 1) = t o x ( 1) belongs t o x( l ) + U and. n d t h e b a r r e l l e d t o p o l o g y asso- c i a t e d t o a given topology. nent of A A ( G x ( 0 ) ) and W a x(1)-nghb a v e c t o r y : = ( y ( 1) .. Then t h e r e e x i s t s a c l o s e d i n f i n i t e .O)= t h a t ( z .4.C 1 .4. L e t zfO be any e l e m n t o f G and we have and s e t H:=sp(z). tnaand v e c t o r s y1 . We need t o f i n d An(Gx(0)) = AO(Gx(0)).1 shows t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a r e a l to w i t h Il-tJ< €A2. I n or- + qtix(l).3. we w r i t e y ( l ) = G t ’ ( y ( l ) .yn o f AA(WxF) such ve i n t e g e r n. L e t U be an a b s o l u t e l y convex 0-nqhb i n I .110 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES infinite. I f x € A I \ L and b>O. Since p(AA(II1xF)) Select 1 ) b > 0 such t h a t t x ( 1) C U when I t l < b and s e t W1:=x( 1)+U and A 1 : = ~ ( A n ( W 1 x F ) ) . P r o p o s i t i o n 4.x ( l ) ) .. A2:=acx((z)xA1).A . I f A i s an a b s o l u t e l y convex s u b s e t o f GxF. 4.4. we have t h a t q t J ( y J ( l ) . p o l a r t o p o l o g i e s . . CA1 it follows that O€il. l y convex and l i n c e y j ( 1 ) .. F be t h e c a n o n i c a l p r o j e c t i o n .O) t h a t ( t0z. (iii) l e t F and G be c l o s e d subspaces o f E such t h a t F+G i s n o t c l o s e d ( s e e 2.. such t h a t x(I)+U+UCW. x(2)=0..yj(2)) a n d L I t S I . l e t (F. 4. Since HxF has t h e s t r o n g e s t l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y . A/)LcA/\L.

A i n t e r s e c t s every bounded. t ) be a space. Then h H = A A H ... s ( E ' . s ( E ' . E ) ) .5: Let ( E .7: Let ( E .(6).) i s an infinite-dimensional precompact s e t i n ( E . every bounded s e t of ( E .1) and t h e r e f o r e s e q u e n t i a l l y closed i n ( E ' . ' 4. t ) i s finite-dimensional: i f A i s an infinite-dimensional bounded s e t i n ( E . E ) ) f o r each 1 1 i n u. y( 1) Cx(l)+U+UCN.. s ( E ' . t ) . t ) ' . U a b a s i s of O-n@bs i n ( E .4. Definition 4.3: Let A be an absolutely convex subset of a space G and l e t H be a closed hyperplane of G . closed subset of ( E ' . - Corollary 4.5.4. t ) i s finite-dimensional. E ) ) . ( i i ) i f ( E . E ) ) . ( i i i ) f i r s t we show t h a t the conclusion i s t r u e i f every precompact s e t of ( E . t ) t h e r e e x i s t s a l i n e a r l y independent sequence ( x ( n ) : n = 1 . ) i n A. Then A i s closed i n G i f and only i f AAH i s closed in G .4.. f o r every closed hyperplane H of G. 2 ( E .12. Then ( i ) i f ( E ..621.Hence A i s quasi-closed (Kl. E ) ) i n a closed set.CHAPTER 4 111 t U from where i t follows that. t ) i s b a r r e l l e d .6: According t o K1.4: Let A be an absolutely convex subset of a space G . ( i i i ) i f ( * ) ( e v e r y near19 closed subset of E ' i s closed i n ( E ' . If every nearly closed convex subset of E' i s closed i n ( E ' . Proof: ( i ) follows imnediately from 2. . E ) ) s a t i s f i e d . Observation 4.9. t ) and E ' = ( E .4. s ( E ' . a space E i s cortplete i f and only i f every nearly closed hyperplane of E' i s closed i n ( E ' .E) coincide on E l . a b a s i s of 0-nghbs and E' Proposition 4. s ( E ' i s nearly closed. t ) ' . s ( E ' . A i s nearly closed i f AAU" i s closed i n ( E ' . 2 .Z23. t ) i s separable. every s e q u e n t i a l l y closed subset of ( E ' . choose a clo- .4. ( i i ) i f ( E . An imnediate consequence i s t h e following Proposition 4. s ( E ' . I f A i s a subset of E ' ..2. t ) be a space. . E ) and pc(E'. every nearly closed subset of E ' i s sequent l y closed. E s a i d t o s a t i s f y KREIN-SMULYAN's property. t ) i s b a r r e l l e d and ACE' i s nearfy closed. Then (n-'x(n):n=1. In o r d e r t o show t h a t s ( E ' .

E)) E ) ) . ( b ) i f ( E . t h e f a m i l y (U"A L : U € U ) i s fundamental f o r t h e bounded s e t s o f (L. . be a c l a s s o f Mackey spaces s t a b l e under t h e f o r m a t i o n o f i n d u c t i v e l i m i t s and c o n t a i n i n g t h e f i n i t e . Thus ( E/LL .pc(E'.m(E.6. F o r each U i n u . L e t E be a l i n e a r space.m(E/Ll. L i n (E.E/L*)) since (E. each U"nL i s compact i n (L.H)')' certain class ' 3 for a . a con- L i s n e a r l y c l o s e d i f and o n l y i f (E/L*.L). i f t h i s i s n o t t h e case. Since e v e r y i n f i n i t e . by ( * ) .d i m e n s i o n a l Fr6chet space which i s n o t minimal N E f K ). s ) c s a n d s i s fiF n e r t h a n t ) . 4 . E does n o t s a t i s f y ( * ) . 4 . € / L A ) ) . and hence c l o s e d .?21. n e a r l y c l o s e d weakly dense subspaces o f E ' l o g i e s on E c o a r s e r t h a n t h e o r i g i n a l t o p o l o g y . t h a t each UOAL i s E/LA-equicontinuous f o r m( E/LL .m(E/LL. e v e r y F r 6 c h e t space s a t i s f i e s KREIN-SMULYAN's a r o p e r t y (K1.s(L.112 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEXSPACES sed s e t B i n (E'.pc(E'.d i m e n s i o n a l .E)) does n o t s a t i s f y ( * ) : indeed. 3 .4.E)) and hence BAU" i s c l o s e d i n fU".( 5 ) ) .L)) i s b a r r e l 1ed. we denote t b by t .t) be a b a r r e l l e d space and L a subspace o f E ' . U r u n n i n g through a b a s i s o f 0-nghbs ' R e c i p r o c a l l y .t). (i. U" i s compact i n (E'. s ( E ' . f i e s ( * ) . t ) i s an i n f i n i t e . // Let D e f i n i t i o n 4.pc(E'. I=N.d i m e n s i o n a l F r 6 c h e t space E c o n t a i n s i n f i n i - te-dimensional bounded s e t s ..s(E'.d i m e n I Since ( E . Since E i s m e t r i z a b l e .m( E/LL .L)) c u l a r .d i m e n s i o n a l spaces.t) i s b a r r e l l e d .4.4. I n partia r o v i d e b a r r e l l e d toposhows t h a t e v e r y bounded s e t o f F i s f i n i t e . E ) ) .s(E1. Thus B i s n e a r l y closed.then F:=(E'.8: ( a ) if E=K(N) o r i f E i s f i n i t e . t ) . Since L i s n e a r l y closed. each f r o m where i t f o l l o w s U"A L i s c l o s e d and hence compact i n ( E ' . we d e f i n e t h e t o p o l o g y t F -o f class y a s s o c i a t e d J o t as t h e i n f i m u m o f t h e f a m i l y o f a l l t o p o l o g i e s on E ( s : ( E . 7 ( i i i ) s i o n a l and hence t=s(E.1 ) . H a subspace o f E* and T:=(E.E)). P r o p o s i t i o n 4.m(E'.e.hence // E satis- O b s e r v a t i o n 4.L)) i s b a r r e l l e d .E').E)) and t h e r e f o r e c l o s e d i n (lIo. P r o o f : I f (E/LL. i s barrelled. I f 3 stands f o r t h e c l a s s o f a l l b a r r e l l e d spaces. E i s isomorphic t o K f o r a c e r t a i n i n f i n i t e s e t I (2. t ) i s complete. t h e b a r r e l l e d t o p o l o g y a s s o c i a t e d t. On t h e o t h e r hand.10: Given a space ( E .s(L. In. c l o s e d i n (E'.9: Let (E. tradiction.

Tr y. m(E.( be a space. Then m(E. ce m(E. Then t E. I/ P r o p o s i t i o n 4.E') Let (E. t e x i s t s and c o i n c i d e s w i t h t. i f T i s an element o f a b a s i s o f 0-nghbs i n ( F .11. space and H a subspace o f E*.s(G. the conclusion follows. 7 = ( I I ( E . t ) i s b a r r e l l e d .t(s)j i s barrelled such that (E. CI m(E.l ) ) .t(s+l)).H)=m(E.w) and has no predecessor. G ) ) t P r o o f : A c c o r d i n g t o 4. m(E. C o r o l l a r y 4. t ) : i t i s b c l e a r t h a t . t(1) n o t he b a r r e l Clearly.E)) Now we proceed t o c o n s t r u c t t h e t o p o l o g y tb f o r a space ( E .t)--+(F. d e f i n e t ( a ) as t h e i n i t i a l t o p o l o g y on E w i t h r e s o e c t t o t h e cano(E.u( 1)) i s continuous s i n ce. l e t w he t h e f i r s t o r d i n a l o f c a r d i n a l l a r g e r t h a n r. Thus r\ G3H. If a i s a l i m i t l e d .H)" .w) coincides w i t h fE.( T ) i s a b a r r e l i n ( E .4.G))tJ. I f a i s an o r d i n a l w i t h predecessor. i f ( E .. I f r stands f o r t h e c a r d i n a l i t y o f t h e f a m i l y o f a l l a b s o l u t e l y convex subsets o f E.l ) ) ( l ) .t')&$.H) i s c o a r s e r t h a n m(E. t ( a .13: If 3is t h e c l a s s o f a l l b a r r e l l e d spaces.H))CB.11: P r o o f : Since (E. Moreover. Since w i s l a r g e r t h a n a l l elements o f [O. P r o p o s i t i o n 4.G) i s f i n e r t h a n m(E.CHAPTER 4 113 P r o p o s i t i o n 4.m(F. Let (E. Clearly. u ( l ) ) .4. t b ) ~ ( F .m(E.t(s)) b and t ( s ) = t . s e t t( 0 ) : = t and s e t t( 1) f o r t h e t o p o l o g y on E which has as a b a s i s o f O-n@bs t h e f a m i l y o f a l l b a r r e l s i n ( E . t i s c o a r s e r t h a n which i n t u r n i s c o a r s e r than m(E. E a l i n e a r t h e n H i s t h e s m a l l e s t o f a l l subspaces G o f i s quasi-comnlete. t h e r e e x i s t s a minimal o r d i n a l s in[O.12: H i s t h e s m a l l e s t o f a l l subspaces G o f E* which c o n t a i n H and such t h a t (E.H) hence m(E. I. t ( l ) ) need C l e a r l y .t) t'=m(E.t')').t(d)) f o r d C a . t ) -P (F.4. Then f : ( E . has a b a s i s o f 0-nghbs c l o s e d i n ( E .u) a b b continuous l i n e a r mapping. s e t t ( a ) : = ( t ( a . T i s b a r r e l i n 1 b (F.mf E . t )-( F.u) be spaces and f:(E. (E. n E* which c o n t a i n H and such t h a t (G. n i c a l i n j e c t i o n s J(d):E + o r d i n a l ..G) i s f i n e r than Sin- we have H c H .14: .t 3r ) I ) .u) and hence f. Now l e t G be a subsoace of E* c o n t a i n i n g H and such t h a t (E. b We proceed b y t r a n s f i n i t e i n d u c t i o n : f : ( E . r.u ) i s continuous. t ( a ) has a b a s i s o f 0-nghbs which a r e c l o s e d i n ( E . t ) i s n o t b a r r e l l e d .(E. B y t a k i n g t h e i r asso- ciated topologies o f class yr . t ( O ) ) .E'). t ) and t h e r e f o r e a 9-nqhb. f : ( E . u ) i s continuous and (E.4. I f ( E .H).4. P r o o f : C l e a r l y . t ( O ) ) and ( E .t) and (F.H)F n and hence (E. E ' ) ) ~ = m(E.tb) i s b a r r e l l e d .

R t F ) a s o f O-nc$bs f o r (F. r n(W+W+U:UtU)C r\(F+U:IJtU) F. = A b a s i s o f 0-nghbs i n i s g i v e n by (U+F:UCU. we i s a l s o continuous. d e f i n e r as t h e t o p o l o g y on E g i v e n by t h e r i s a normed t o p o l o g y and i t gauge o f U+V.then F i s c l o s e d i n (E.u(a)) I f a i s an o r d i n a l w i t h predecessor.4. P r o p o s i t i o n 4.).s) and ( E . P ) t h e c l o s u r e taken i n ( E .13) . s ) . t a k e We5 such t h a t W W L F . supoose t h a t t i s s - i s a Hausdorff l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o c y and t i s rbases o f 0-nghbs i n (E. =A( A(u+F:uw): Now ( 0 ) .15: are closed i n ( E . s i n c e r induces s on F. r i s H a u s d o r f f ( t h e c l o s u r e s taken i n ( F .( F .d i m e n s i o n a l normed space. $ b e i n g a b a s i s a b a s i s o f 0-nghbs f o r ( E .114 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES a l i m i t o r d i n a l and if f : ( E . lcle s h a l l see t h a t e v e r y F t P c o n t a i n s a menber o f and R c F ) [ 6 from where the conclusion follows: qiven F i n = F. ) = A(W+I!+R:LIEU // f o l l o w s a s o i f s i s a topo- Observation 4.17: t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f 4.FE~.4. s ) ) . t h e c l o s e d u n i t b a l l o f (F. s ) polar.t)'. s i n c e u ( a ) = s u p ( u ( d ) : d < a ) . t ) . W normed t o p o l o g y s on F such t h a t U A F i s c l o s e d i n ( F . F ) ) Since F i s o f i n f i n i t e c o u n t a b l e d i and r n e t r i z a b l e . and l e t F be a subspace o f I f V stands f o r Then t h e r e e x i s t s a c o a r s e r normed t o p o l o g y r on E such t h a t t i s r . P r o o f : L e t U be t h e c l o s e d u n i t b a l l o f ( E .t) be an i n f i n i t e .18: Let (E. FC3) = r\(F:FtF) set 5 : = ( F : F G ) .s) and a b a s i s o f O-n@bs. t h e same r e a s o n i n g a p p l i e s .p o l a r as d e s i r e d . P r o p o s i t i o n 4. s ) . i f Ft5.4. r ) . t ) e s h a l l construct a s t r i c t l y coarser i n f i n i t e c o u n t a b l e dimension o f E. ----------------mension. t i s s a i d t o be s .16 l o g y on a subspace F o f E such t h a t t on F i s s-Dolar and r stands f o r t h e t o p o l o g y on E w i t h ( U + R : U € d .4. u ( d ) ) i s continuous f o r e v e r y d C a . o u r c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s .4. C l e a r l y v ( t h e c l o s u r e i n ( E . F t . t ) respectively 3for and suppose t h a t . i s r .p o l a r .s).15.4.s). I f A stands f o r i s separable (2. s ( F ' .16: p o l a r . Then r : = i n f ( t . t b have t h a t f : ( E .5. ( F ' . C onstruction o f s: set F':=(F. // D e f i n i t i o n 4.4. I f a i s b ). P r o o f : Set 1 ' 1 and (E. A c c o r d i n g t o 4. b Since t h e r e e x i s t s an o r d i n a l s such t h a t u = u ( s ) . which i s c o a r s e r t h a n t.17.p o l a r i f t has a b a s i s o f 0-nghhs which Under t h e n o t a t i o n o f 4. I t i s even s t r i c t l y c o a r s e r t h a n t. Since n ( U + F : U C U . t )-(F.r) L e t s and t be Hausdorff l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g i e s on a l i n e a r space E.

s ( F ' . t ( l ) ) P r o p o s i t i o n 4.t) s a t i s f i e s t h e f i l t e r c o n d i t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o s i f e v e r y Cauchy f i l t e r f o r t which converges t o z e r o f o r s i t a l s o converges t o z e r o f o r t. t h e n s =m(E. L e t A be a subset of a space ( E . ) y Moreover.s(F'. s ( E ' . // be a space and s a c o a r s e r t o p o l o g y on E.5.F)).s(F'.20: I f a i s an o r d i n a l w i t h predecessor and i f A i s c o m l e t e i n ( E . t D e f i n i t i o n 4. A c c o r d i n g t o K1. / / C o r o l l a r y 4. t ) ' . t h e f i l t e r c o n d i t i o n m a n s t h a t ( E . Yoreover. A c c o r d i n g t o K1. F'#sp(B). we a p p l y 2. t ( a .4.L).2. S e t t i n g V := B" . t e r c o n d i t i o n h o l d s i f and o n l y i f ( E . f o r every d If a i s a l i m i t o r d i n a l and i f A i s complete i n ( E .22: t s a t i s f i e s t h e f i l t e r c o n d i t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o t. F ) ) . I f A i s complete b i n (E..1 u ( n ) : n = l y 2 y .19: L e t (E.4. P r o o f : we s h a l l use t h e n o t a t i o n i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e b t o p o l o g y t ( s e e above).CHAPTER 4 115 (UAF)' .) which i s t o t a l i n ( F ' .4. U n F i s c l o s e d i n (F.2.4. Since A i s a Banach d i s c . t h e f i l t e r c o n d i t i o n holds. I n dual F form. t ) being t h e completion o f (E.. s i n c e B i s compact .s(E'.(4).918.. and sp(B) i s dense i n ( F ' .(4). s i n c e UnF=(u(n):n=1.4. t ( d ) ) b a.F)) Set B : = ~ ( n . would be f i n i t e .t) be a m e t r i z a b l e b a r r e l l e d space and F i t s b completion. t h e fil- can be embedded i n m. I f s i s a c o a r s e r t o p o l o g y on E. Observe t h a t t h e supre- mrm o f t o p o l o g i e s s a t i s f y i n g t h e f i l t e r c o n d i t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o a c e r t a i n topology s a t i s f i e s also the f i l t e r condition w i t h respect t o t h a t topology. i n FIA of Otherwise F ' . and E ' b e i n g ( E .t). we a p p l y a g a i n K1. s ( F ' .218. B i s compact i n F r A and hence i n (F'. .s)' i n (E'. t ( a ) ) . L b e i n g t h e c l o s u r e o f (E.s)'#F'. t h e gauge V d e f i n e s a normed t o p o l o g y s on F which i s s t r i c t l y c o a r s e r t h a n t on F Moreover. then A i s conplete i n ( E . dense i n (A. A i s complete i n ( E . a Cauchy f i l a hence i t con- t o t h e same v e c t o r and t h e c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s . t ).4.)" and each u ( n ) ( s p ( B ) . i f t has a b a s i s o f 0-nghbs which a r e c l o s e d f o r s. t ( d ) ) f o r e v e r y d i s a Cauchy f i l t e r i n ( E . L e t (E. and hence F.d i m e n s i o n a l . F ) ) . t ( d ) ) verges i n e v e r y ( E . s ) ' i s dense i n ( E ' . t ) .F)). i .21: P r o p o s i t i o n 4. . e .1.12 t o o b t a i n a sequence (u(n):n=1. since (F.t(a)) t o show t h a t A i s complete i n ( E .l ) ) .?18.s)..t) P i f t i s s-polar. F ) ) .(4) t e r i n (E. t h e c l o s u r e taken i n F a A endowed w i t h t h e gauge norm o f A.

I f F stands f o r the completion o f (E. The f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s a r e e q u i v a l e n t : b ( i ) r=s ( i i ) (E. l o g y c o a r s e r t h a n t w h i c h s a t i s f i e s t h e f i l t e r c o n d i t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o s.23 and hence u c o i n c i d e s w i t h s */I . A c c o r d i n q l y . i n (E'. and E ' f o r t h e t o Thus ( i ) i s s a t i s - the f i l t e r c o n d i t i o n implies t h a t (E.r) i s b a r r e l l e d .4.L)) i s nearly closed ( s i n - U o f ( E . c o n t a i n s L i t i s due t o t h e i s b a r r e l l e d . Moreover. The r e v e r s e i m p l i c a t i o n i s immediate. s ( E ' . A c c o r d i n q t o 4.22.r) i s rretrizable i s dense f i e s the f i l t e r condition w i t h respect t o s.24: Under t h e h y p o t h e s i s o f 4.r) and t h e r e f o r e r = s b a c c o r d i n g t o 4.s(E' .4. A c c o r d i n g t o 4.s)' and H BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEXSPACES I f o r i t s orthogonal i n F.t) s e r t o p o l o g y on E.L) . r ) ' . f i n e r t h a n s and s e t G : = ( E . E ) ) a clofor sed subspace o f F t r a n s v e r s a l t o E. s i n c e t h e supremum o f t o p o l o g i e s s a t i s f y i n g t h e f i l t e r c o n d i t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o s has t h i s c o n d i t i o n itself.5(d).1. A c c o r d i n g t o a.9: ( E . s ( E ' . C l e a r l y HLis and hence c l o s e d i n ( E ' . P r o o f : Observe t h a t such a t o p o l o c y u e x i s t s .4. t h e t o p o l o g y on E f o r w h i c h t h e f o r m a b a s i s o f 0-nghbs s a t i s f i e s t h e f i l t e r c o n d i t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o s and i t i s c o a r s e r t h a n t.s(E'. Thus b v e r i f i e s ( i i ) i n 4. G is n e a r l y c l o s e d hnd hence c l o s e d i n ( E ' . I n o r d e r t o show t h a t C. hence i t c o i n c i d e s w i t h u.23: Let (E.116 Proof: Set H:=(E.and b a r r e l s o f (E. P r o o f : Suppose (ii) h o l d s . (and b a r r e l l e d ) .u) i s b a r r e l l e d : indeed. r i s f i n e r t h a n s and c o a r s e r t h a n t and r s a t i s (E.9 again. F ) ) KREIN-SMULYAN's p r o p e r t y f o r F and t h u s G = G L i 2 L. s ( E ' . s b =m(E. E ) ) .s)' f i e d . t ) ) and dense i n ( E ' .u) (E.23. / / be a m e t r i z a b l e b a r r e l l e d space and s a c o a r - P r o p o s i t i o n 4. L e t r be a b a r r e l l e d t o p o l o g y on E c o a r s e r than t b u t t h e f i r s t o r t h o g o n a l t a k e n i n F .4. /I sb i s t h e f i n e s t topo- C o r o l l a r y 4.r).4. F ) ) each 0-nghb m(E. L : = ( H ' ) I ce L A U " i s compact i n ( E ' .F)) p o l o g i c a l dual o f (E. enough t o see t h a t G = G L L .4. 4.

D e f i n i t i o n 4.2: (E. p ) i s a b a s i s o f M. t ( M ) i s t h e i n i t i a l toDology on E w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e canonical i n j e c t i o n J:E .t(M)) =(F. t ) ? and M as above. L e t q:(E.p): U 4 a n d n=1.CHAPTER 4 117 4. .t) t b a l l B o f ( E ' .b(E'.1: L e t (E. P r o p o s i t i o n 4. t ( M ) hand. If (E. (H. i s unbounded on B we reach a c o n t r a d i c t i o n .. ) i s a b a s i s o f O-n@bs f o r a t o p o l o g y and t h e mappings f ( i ) : E . .. Thus ( E .g C M and t h e c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s .g vanishes on H and Thus f . (E. t = t ( M ) on H : = f l ( f ( i f : i = l . t ) and s e t F : = f L and M : = s p ( f ) . s e t H : = A .( E . I f N i s an a l g e b r a i c complement B ( N . I n t h i s section (E. i=l.e. C l e a r l y f .5. be an i n f i n i t e .t) be a space and M a f i n i t e . ~ ) . t ) . we have t h a t ( E . P r o o f : ( i ) C l e a r l y . t h e c l o s e d u n i t of F i n E.Z.y. . ( i i ) L e t (E. ( E .g ) DH. . t ) l. i t s r e s t r i c t i o n h: K i s continuous and hence h:(H.b( E ' . E'+M C ( E .c o d i mensional subspaces i f and o n l y i f .t(M))+ +K a c c o r d i n g t o 4.t(M)) t h e c o a r s e s t t o p o l o g y on E which i s f i n e r t h a n t.t)-+K I i s continuous.t(M)) i s Yacke.t) i s a Mackey space. makes t h e elements o f M c o n t i n u o u s .E)) s a t i s f i e s B c A + ( r f : I r l k b ) f o r a c e r t a i n compact s e t A o f (E'. I<x.t)ci Proof: Suppose be i n s t a b l e by finite-codimensional F and e v e r y f i n i t e .t(M))'=E tM (ii) If (E. .5. subspaces and l e t ( E . 6n-l . I f ( f ( i ) : i = l .1. C l e a r l y . .. .d i m e n s i o n a l Banach space and g h ( E ' ) * \El'.d i m e n s i o n a l subsi s a b a s i s f o r M and i f L '4 . and which ( i ) (E. . Then % i s s t a b l e under f i n i t e .E)) c o n t a i n e d i n G and a p o s i t i v e b. . need n o t be a Mackey space. t ( M ) ) // P r o p o s i t i o n 4.p.Z.d i - mensional subspace M o f E* t r a n s v e r s a l t o E ' .E)) o f (E'.. and l e t t be t h e t o i s a Mackey soace. Since g vanishes on A and i s n o t Mackey. . Z . i.5. I .t) be a continuous l i n e a r e x t e n s i o n o f h . t ( Y ) ) t F..s(E'.t(M))'.s(E'.2.E)) Take f C E ' \ G p o l o g y on E o f t h e u n i f o r m convergence on t h e a b s o l u t e l y convex compact s e t s which a r e i n c l u d e d i n G.t) stands f o r a space which i s n o t endowed w i t h t h e s t r o n g e s t l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y and E ' f o r i t s t o p o l o g i c a l d u a l . . f o r e v e r y (E. p ) stands f o r a b a s i s o f 0-nghbs o f ( E . On t h e o t h e r I f f c(E.3: L e t ? b e a c l a s s o f spaces which i s s t a b l e under se- p a r a t e d q u o t i e n t s and f i n i t e p r o d u c t s . hence ( f . t ) . . I f ( f ( i ) : i = l ..f(i))l the family T?:=(Ur\(x(E: pace o f E* t r a n s v e r s a l t o E ' .5 B a r r e l l e d enlargements.5.s) Set G:=gL which i s a dense hyperplane o f (E'.t K with i = t ( M ) which i s f i n e r than t.

r ) coincides w i t h (L. H i s closed i n (E.(E/L. P r o p o s i t i o n 4.(W)nV. r ) .t)CS b y assumption. ( L . such t h a t U D Q .E'+M) ( i v ) i f (E/L. by an o n e . l e t U be a 0-nghb i n ( E .(E/L. hence (H. t ) a r e b a r r e l l e d . I t i s and hence t h e Since i s a quotient enough t o show t h a t 7. Q. t ) and suppose ( H .t).t(M))tF. Then ( E .s).respectively.yp). t ) a r e Mackey spaces. t h e r e e x i s t 0-nqhbs \I and W i n ( E .s) i s continuous. D e f i n i t i o n 4.t(M)) such t h a t H = f L .s). t ) which c o i n c i d e s w i t h (H. t ) o f the type and hence we r e s e r v e t h e name "countable enlargement" f o r a topo- and l e t s be a topo- l o g y on E/L. t h e n (E.r) i s b a r r e l l e d . t ( P ) ) C s . 1 P r o o f : ( i ) I f U i s a 0-nghb i n (E/L.E') and. t ) ' .t) // be a b a r r e l l e d space and M a subspace o f E* t r a n s v e r s a l t o E ' . a c c o r d i n g t o ( i ) . M i s transversal t o E ' : = ( E . L e t H be a hyperplane o f a 4 F . t ( F I ) ) c o i n c i d e s w i t h (H. I n what f o l l o w s . we s h a l l be i n t e r e s - t e d i n f i n i t e ( c o u n t a b 1 e ) enlargements o f t h e t o p o l o g y t=m(E.s).E') m(E.s)') and r on L c o i n c i d e s w i t h m ( L .d i m n s i o n a l space.5: L e t L be a dense subspace o f ( E . ( E .118 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES (f(i)L:i=ly2.t).s) and ( L .t(M)) b r a i c complement o f H i n E.t(M))c$ space ( E . Since Q ( v ) = q ( y ) = x c M .5. Set M : = s p ( f ) . r i s t h e flackey t o p o l o g y .E'+M) l o w o f such a t y p e . Our d e s i r e d c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s i f we show t h a t 1 W C Q( U ) . i s s t a b l e b y hyperplanes. On t h e o t h e r hand. L e t x 6 W . (ii) f o l l o w s e a s i l y by t h e d e n s i t y o f L i n ( E . R e c i p r o c a l l y . (H.t)' o f (E.then: (i) r induces on L t h e o r i g i n a l t o p o l o q y t and t h e q u o t i e n t t o p o l o g y coincides w i t h s.t(M)).t) E w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e ca- and t h e c a n o n i c a l s u r j e c t i o n Q:E -+(E/L. t ) & F and Y as above. t i o n o f r. v e Q . I u . f o r e v e r y ( E .r) -(E/L. and dim(E/H) i s f i G b e i n g an a l g e - C l e a r l y . t ) ' ) .t(M)).. According t o o u r assumptions. Since ( H . (E. t ( M ) i s s a i d t o be a finite(countab1e)enlargement o f t i f M has f i n i t e ( c o u n t a b 1 e ) dimension. I f r denotes t h e i n i t i a l t o p o l o g y on n o n i c a l i n j e c t i o n J:E+(E. s i s c o a r s e r By t h e v e r y d e f i n i - 7. we know t h a t t i s c o a r s e r than m(E.t(M))=(H. 7 ( i i i ) i f (E/L. t h e n r=m(E.t) @ (G. t ) . Since O ( v ) = x we a r e done. There e x i s t s y 6 E such t h a t (l(y)=x and t h e v e c t o r y can be w r i t t e n as y=z+v w i t h z C L and v & V .( U ) c o n t a i n s L and hence ( L .t(M)).4: Let (E. than Since O:(E.s) and ( L . T h i s is a c o n t r a d i c t i o n and t h e p r o o f i s complete.' ( W ) n V hence v 6 II and t h e r e f o r e O ( v ) E ( ) ( U ) .. t ) (H. re exists fC(E. suppose (E. t ) and (E/L.5.s)'). nite. (iii) F i r s t . t ( M ) ) t F . Then H i s dense i n ( E . ( i i ) i f M:=(foQ:fe(E/L.

2.)=c. .(E/L. i n ( E . then t h e r e e x i s t s a b a r r e l l e d dense subspace G of E w i t h d i d E / G ) > c : indeed. Then TAL i s a O-ngt. s ) f i n e r than t a n d . In order t o provide more b a r r e l l e d spaces w i t h b a r r e l l e d countable e n l a r gements we need t h e following .4. r ) ' . ( E . 2 . C i v ) i s a d i r e c t consequence of ( i ) and 4.s)'). Consider a p a r t i t i o n I = I I U I 2 w i t h card( 1 2 ) = c and a countable p a r t i t i o n I*= U( Jn:n=1. T h u s T=VAG is a 0-nghb i n G. ( L .3. ( E . t h e r e e x i s t s an i n t e g e r m such t h a t Em i s Baire (hence b a r r e l l e d ) and dense i n E. m ( E .. the closure V of T in E i s a barrel i n E and hence a 0-nghb i n E . 1 ( i i ) ) . On t h e o t h e r hand. ( E / L .(E. I f r i s shown t o be coarser than m(E. . . t ) ' + M C ( E .t)'+M) t h e conclusion follows.1. r i s coarser than r)')=m(E/L. ( E .s) isomorphic t o K N . . ( E .(E/L. then F: cont a i n s a b a r r e l l e d dense subspace F w i t h d i m ( E / F ) h c : indeed.5. t ) ' + M ) is t o show Q : ( E . ( E . .(E. r ) ' ) . t ) ' + M . By construction. n ) ) ) . t ) has a b a r r e l led countable enlargement. t ) such t h a t d i m ( E / F ) > c . ken . The i n c r e a s i n g sequence ( En:n=1. dim(E/E.(E.5.) with card( J n ) = c f o r each n. r ) ' ) = m ( L .2. For every p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r n.7: ( a ) i f E i s a B a i r e space w i t h d i m ( E ) a c . l e t M be an a l q e b r a i c complement of F i n E and set G:=L+M. Clearly. ( E . ( E . t ) ' + M . t ) ' ) = r . m ( E .( E / L . r coincides with m ( E .3. I t i s enough continuous.(E. t h e r e e x i s t s a b a s i s (x( i ) : i 6 I ) i n E w i t h card( I ) > c . // Observation 4. which in turn coincides w i t h n ( E / L . t ) be a b a r r e l l e d space and l e t F be a b a r r e l led dense subspace of ( E . According t o 2. ( L . n(E. t h e orthogonal t a . s e t E n : = s p ( x ( i ) : i t I I U ( U ( J p : p = l . s i n c e L i s dense in F .2. r ) ' = ( E .2. r ) i s b a r r e l l e d and r=m(E. ( b ) If E i s b a r r e l l e d and F a subspace of E which contains a b a r r e l l e d dense subspace L with dim( F/L) b c . N o w we show t h a t ( E . t ) such t h a t dim (E/G)=c ( 4 . ) covers E and according t o 1. Let T be a b a r r e l i n G .6: Let ( E . Let s be a topology on E / G w i t h (E/G.E'+M) with M o f count a b l e dimension. // Proposition 4. Proof: There e x i s t s a b a r r e l l e d dense subspace G of ( E .LL). s ) ' ) .r)') on L and the l a t t e r t o p o l o g y i s coarser than m ( L ..5.~)')=m(E/L. which is dense i n E. C l e a r l y . t ) ' + M ) ) . According t o 4. r ) ' ) and ? = < ( E .lb in L and .5..CHAPTER 4 119 r i s a Mackey topology: c l e a r l y r i s coarser than m ( E . Then ( E .t)'+M) coincides with IT(E/L.

2.s(F'+M. ve i n t e g e r m such t h a t A c E ' + M m . ) .5.m(E.E)) .8: L e t ( E . P I a countable-dimensional subspace o f E* t r a n s v e r s a l t o E ' and (f(n):n=1.120 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEX SPACES Lemna 4. l e t A be a d i s c i n (E'+M.?(A)) i s f i n i t e : indeed..s( E'+M.E)) and hence (E.2. Then ( E . there exists a positi- Flm b e i n g t h e span o f ( f ( i ) : i = l Y 2 ¶ . i f t h i s o f l i n e a r l y independent i s a bounded a contradic- a subspace o f (EB)* o f c o u n t a b l e d i m n s i o n ..s(E'+M.E)) .. and s i n c e (E.KN)).))=U(An:n=l. 2 y . r e l a t i v e l y conpact i n (E'+M.E).E'+Y))-equicontinuo- us.E'+Mn)) i s b a r r e l l e d f o r each n.E)) P r o o f : I f (i) ( A ) . Then t h e s e t N.E)) . s(E'+Mn.// dmi s a P r o p o s i t i o n 4.) sequence o f l i n e a r l y independent v e c t o r s i n (K("). Thus An i s compact i n (E'+Mn.rr(E. if t h i s i s n o t t h e case. s e l e c t a sequence ( h ( n ) g:n=1.. .9: Under t h e same n o t a t i o n o f 4.. observe t h a t .5.E)) c o n t a i n i n g A . .s( K(N). I f A i s an a b s o l u t e l y convex compact s e t i n (E'+M.. holds.5. there m such t h a t ACE'+M.2.:=(h-9: then din(c. C l e a r l y A=AA( E ' + Y ) = A n ( U( E'+Mn:n =1.EB)). t i o n . . A i s (E.8. t ) w i t h dim(EB)=c.m( E..5.s( E ' and 4. Since A i s bounded. (E. hence bounded and c l o s e d i n (E'+M.E)) Mn.E)).2. Thus ACE'+Mm. Moreover.s(E'+ EA i s a Banach space and E A = U ( n A n : n = l .2.E)) t o 3.// P r o p o s i t i o n 4.8 g i v e s t h e d e s i r e d c o n c l u s i o n . 4 c c o r d i n g Since each An i s i s q u a s i c o n p l e t e f o r each n.5.3. hence (E'+Mny f o r each n.E)) be a d i s c i n (E'+M.5.s( E'+M. Then B i s (E. F i r s t . l e t A There e x i s t s an i n t e g e r m such t h a t A C E ' + M m i s b a r r e l l e d (4. . t ) be a b a r r e l l e d space.s( E'+M.s(E'+M.) vectors i n A.. be an a l g e b r a i c isomorphism. t h e sequence (h(n):n=1. P r o o f : Set A n : = A n ( E'+Mn) f o r each n..10: P r o o f : L e t g:k-+KN hcK(N))isif Let (E.m(E. ) a b a s i s o f M. . t ) has a b a r r e l l e d c o u n t a b l e e n l a r g e r e n t .E'+M))-equicontinuous +M.E)).. A i s bounded i n (N1. t h e space N 1 n ( E B ) ' i s f i n i t e . E'+Mm.E'+Mk)) S( and hence compact i n (E'+M.E'+M)) a b s o l u t e l y convex bounded s e t A i n (E'+P. t h e f o l l o w i n a con( i i ) f o r every exists a certain and s e t B : = z x d i t i o n s a r e e q u i v a l e n t : ( i ) (E. t h e r e e x i s t s a l i n e a r l y independent sequence ( h ( n)og:n=1.5.2. Since B i s a l s o compact i n (E'+M.). A c c o r d i n g t o 4.s(N1.3). i s n o t t h e case.s(E'+M. i s barrelled.5 O-n$b Each An i s bounded and c l o s e d i n (E'+M.s(E'+M. I f ( i i ) i s s a t i s f i e d .d i m e n s i o n a l : indeed.E'+Md)-equicontiA is nuous and hence t h e r e e x i s t s an a b s o l u t e l y convex compact s e t B i n (E'+Y. c l o s e d i n t h e B a i r e space E A y t h e r e e x i s t s a c e r t a i n m y such t h a t i n EA and hence absorbs A..m(E.m(E.2. w ) .t) be a b a r r e l l e d space and B a d i s c i n ( E .

I f u t A . i s b a r r e l l e d .b(n)g(n)>l t h e r e e x i s t s a( x) ) O such t h a t a( x)-'xCB and b( x)) 0 such t h a t I(x.10 c o n t a i n s 4. h(n)GA2 for i s l i n e a r l y independent. M:=f(N) i s o f c o u n t a b l e d i n e n s i o n and M i s t r a n s I t s restriction indeed.) d e n t bounded sequence i n (N1.11: ce i n e v e r y i n f i n i t e .. i s a l i n e a r l y indepen- h ( n ) o g ) l Q I i f x t B and hence ( b ( n ) h ( n ) g:n=1. C l e a r l y . hence compact i n E. I (x.b(n)f(n)>l I(x. t h e r e e x i s t s a b ( n ) > O such t h a t ] b ( n ) <x.5. a c o n t r a d i c t i o n w i t h // ( a ) 4.. s e t u* t o denote i t s r e s t r i c t i o n t o EB I n o r d e r t o show t h a t (E.7 as a p a r t i c u l a r case. 5 ( i) shows t h a t diir(Eg)=c.s(Nl. s i n c e i t i s c o n t a i n e d i n B". t h e r e e x i s t u(1) c E ' and u( 2 ) h M such t h a t u=u( l ) + u ( Z ) . we use 4.2..f l n l t e : indeed.9 shows t h a t (E.2. F o r each n. t a k e a l i n e a r l y independent n u l l sequence i n E and s e t B f o r i t s c l o s e d a b s o l u t e l y convex h u l l which i s precompact and complete. s i n - Observation 4.2.. d e f i n e an i n j e c t i v e if l i n e a r mapping f : ( % ) *.5.CHAPTER 4 121 . % i s separable and 2 . For each n. hence u*=u( l ) * + u ( 2)*.EB)) (Nln(%)').b(n)g(n)>l I b(x)+a( x ) . Thus. C l e a r l y u( 2)* t No and and hence u c E ' 0 f(No).d i m e n s i o n a l space N o c N such t h a t RIC(EB)' since u(2)4M.5))).and that i s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n w i t h o u r former o b s e r v a t i o n . I f u c A . d l m l s e ~ A 2 ) 2 _ l s .m(E. o u r d e s i r e d c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s u s i n g t h e subsequent argument: t h e r e e x i s t s a f i n i t e . f i n d a sequence i n A1 w i t h f ( n ) = S ( n ) + h ( n ) w i t h g ( n ) ( ( E B ) ' .5.u> if xCEB and f ( u ) ( x ) : = O Since f i s i n j e c t i v e . suppose V C M A E ' . ) i s weakly bounded. Then t h e l i n e a r l y indepen- d e n t sequence (b(n)h(n):n=1.b( n)h( n)>\< + !(x.. 1 f o r x i n B and b ( n ) f ( n ) (Al. v e r s a l t o :': Nn(EB)' by f(u)(x):=<x. i t f o l l o w s t h a t w=O and hence v=O. I f Ap stands f o r t h e p r o j e c t i o n o f A1 on N.) i f t h i s i s n o t t h e case.u s((EB)'+N.) O(b(n) each n such t h a t (h(n):n=1. w t o EB belongs t o L e t A be and s i n c e v = f ( w ) .s(E'+M..2.5. t A ) which i s c o n t a i n e d i n ( E B ) ' 8 N and a d i s c i n ((EB)'+N.b(n)f(n)>l 4 b ( x ) f o r each n ( s i n c e A1 i s weakly bounded). For f<x. Thus A C E ' + and 4. our f i r s t observation.E'+M)) a d i s c i n (E'+M. t h e n d i d N ) i s countable.E'+M)) is b a r r e l l e d ..b( n ) f ( n))lSb( x) and I (x.m(E.d i m e n s i o n a l F r 6 c h e t space E t h e r e e x i s t s a compact d i s c g e n e r a t i n g a space o f d i m n s i o n c : indeed.E)).E * xGG.d i m e n s i o n a l . . i f we w r i t e N1= N 8 I f G stands f o r an a l g e b r a i c complement o f 5 i n E. I f t h i s i s t h e case. t a k e <1 such t h a t each x i n %... T h u s .5. (f(n):n=1. we s h a l l see t h a t sp(A2) i s f i n i t e . 2 . u(2)=f(u(2)*) &f(No) f(No) Q No. and A1:=(u*.b( n ) g ( n ) > \ 5 a( x) and t h e r e f o r e I(x.9.) i n t h i s space. .

) t E ' and v ( n ) C N f o r each n. dim( 5 ) > c // P r o p o s i t i o n 4.10 and 4 .4.E)).E)) i s n o t separable. d i s c i n (E'+N. Thus N1 i s dense i n (E*. . ( i i i ) i s obvious s i n c e .s( i s separable. t h e p r o o f o f 4. N i s a complement o f E ' n N 1 i n N1.E'+N)) i s b a r r e l l e d u s i n g 4.E)) i s a subspace o f E* which separates p o i n t s o f E. 1 l ( b ) . A s e t B i s bounded i n E i f and o n l y i f t h e r e e x i s t s a sequence o f p o s i t i v e numbers (b(n):n=1. Then..s(E*.11(b). . // . be an a l g e b r a i c isomorphism. ) c A e x i s t e n c e o f a v e c t o r x i n F which i s unbounded on ( v ( n ) : n = l .E)) and hence (N1+E'.2. .. ) . ) generates an i n f i n i t e t o obtain the Since and t h a t i s a dimensional subspace o f N.s(E'. 6 ( i i ) .5.5. ) of ( i i i ) E con- P r o o f : ( i ) S i n c e a c o u n t a b l e u n i o n o f s e t s o f c a r d i n a l i t y <c has a l s o Now a p p l y 4. u(n) t a b l e .5. i f B i s an i n f i n i t e - dimensional Banach d i s c .5. t h e r e e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r p such t h a t dim(sp(B ) ) > c .122 BARRELLED LOCALLY CON VEX SPACES ( b ) t h e h y p o t h e s i s dim(EB)=c i n 4. we a p p l y p r o p e r t y 2.2. a p p l y 4. c =c. P ( i i ) L e t (lln:n=l.. C l e a r l y . The f o l l o w i n g b a r r e l l e d spaces E have a b a r r e l l e d c o u n t a b l e enlargement: ( i ) E has a fundamental sequence (Bn:n=1.s( E'+N. 5 . Z . v(n).) stands f o r t h e c l a s s o f a l l s e t s o f t h e f o r m A ( b ( n ) U n : n = l . We s h a l l see t h a t (E. If t h e dimension of N i s i n f i n i t e and counIf A i s a t h e r e e x i s t s a f i n i t e .s(E'. ) . L e t E be a b a r r e l l e d space such t h a t d i n ( E ) = c and i s n o t separable.2.10) E has a b a r r e l l e d c o u n t a b l e enlargerrent. exists A i n 6 3 is a fundamental system o f bounded s e t s i n E and c a r d ( @ ) S c . Since (E'. contradiction..19(c) and assuming ha: dimension c and hence g(F) i s a subspace o f H of dimen- t h e Continuum Hypothesis. . x i s unbounded on ( h ( n : n = 1 . bounded s e t s and d i d E ) ) / c ( i f ) E i s n e t r i z a b l e and d i d E ) > c t a i n s an i n f i n i t e .. Now a c c o r d i n g t o 2.. 5 .10 P r o p o s i t i o n 4.m(E. 2 .) s i o n c.9(c) E*.2.5.9(c) (x.. Take a sequence (h(n):n=1..5..12: can be r e p l a c e d by d i n ( E B ) >c.d i m e n s i o n a l subspace No o f i n A w i t h h(n)=u(n)+ N such t h a t ACE'+No.. E ' i s o f i n f i n i t e codimension i n N1+E'.. o f 2. and s e t N1:=(hog:hrK(N)). . Moreover.).E)) Proof:(cf. t h e r e 63 such t h a t dim(sp(A))).d i m n s i o n a l Banach d i s c . 2 .10 and 4.5.2.2 .2.) be a b a s i s o f 0such t h a t Bc/)(b(n)Un:n=1. If03 nghbs i n E.c because o t h e r w i s e dim(E) C c .5.5. .5.2. According t o 2. i f we assume t h a t (v(n):n=1. t h e o r t h o g o n a l subspace F t o t h e l i n e a r span of (u(n):n=1. c a r d i n a l i t y < c . .u(n)) =O f o r each n.13: (E'.9. a c c o r d i n 9 t o 2 .5. which L e t g:E-H H b e i n g t h e space c o n s t r u c t e d i n 2. .

t ) w i t h dim(E/F)=c and l e t s be a topology on E / F such t h a t (E/F.17: Let H be a subspace of a b a r r e l l e d space ( E . Mo being finite-dimensional and subspace o f Y.9. t ) ' + M o a s desired.s) i s isomorphic t o a separable Banach space. The subspace M : = ( f ' : f h N ) of E* i s o f i n f i n i t e countable dimension and transversal t o ( E . F ) ) a r e f i n i t e dimensional. Indeed.5.5. E ' + disc K i n (E*. Proof: Let G be an a l g e b r a i c complement of H i n E and N a countable i n f i te-dimensional subspace of H* transversal t o ( H .E)). Proof: There e x i s t s a b a r r e l l e d dense subspace F of ( E ./. i t i s enough t o show t h a t every d i s c A i n ( ( E . s e t f * t o denote i t s r e s t r i c t i o n t o H and B:=(f*:fEA). s ) ' + N ) . E ' + V ) ) i s b a r r e l l e d .5.s) has a b a r r e l l e d countable enlargement. E ) ) i s contained i n (E. If f C A .E)) sp( K ) ) ) i s b a r r e l l e d .5. Observation 4. M being t h e l i n e a r span of a compac:t d i s c K i n (E*. m ( E . I f M o : = ( u ' : u t N 0 ) . t ) and l e t s be a topology on H such t h a t (H. according t o 4.14: In 2.s(E*. t ) has a b a r r e l l e d coun tab1 e en 1a rgemen t . According t o 4. s i s f i n e r than t and (H.s) is b a r r e l l e d .5. Then t h e r e e x i s t s a compact such t h a t sp(K) i s transversal t o E ' and ( E .F)such t h a t ( F .m(H. Proposition 4.5. s ) ' such t h a t (H. t ) ' + M .5. t h e r e exists a finite-dimensional subspace No of N such t h a t B i s contained i n (H. w r i t e f ' t o denote the l i n e a r mappina E + K which coincides w i t h f on H and vanishes on G . I f f C N . // Proposition 4. i t i s immediate t o check t h a t A C ( E .10 can not be applied b u t 4. t ) ' . ( E . Then E has a b a r r e l l e d counta- . m ( E .s) ' + N ) ) i s b a r r e l l e d .s(E*. s ( ( E .CHAPlER 4 123 Observation 4.s)'+No and i s bounded t h e r e (observe t h a t B C ( F . According t o 4.5. s ( F .9(b) we constructed a dual p a i r (E. E ) ) i s not separable and t h e bounded s e t s of ( E .(H.5.5.15: Let ( E .E'+M) i s t h e desired b a r r e l l e d enlargement.18: ( i ) Let E be a f i n i t e product of b a r r e l l e d spaces which have a b a r r e l l e d countable enlargement.13 provides a b a r r e l l e d countable enlargement. W e shall see t h a t m( E.t)'+Mo. t ) be a b a r r e l l e d space which contains a barr e l l e d dense subspace F such t h a t d i m ( E / F ) b c . s ( E .5.9.16: I t i s not known t o us the e x i s t e n c e of a h a r r e l l e d space without any b a r r e l l e d countable enlargements. ( E . t ) ' + M . I t i s a s i t u a t i o n i n which 4.5. T h e n . Proposition 4.

20: t h a t m(E. Apply 4.E'+Y)) t h i s l a t t e r spa I countable. 2 .7. O:E- E/M' h e i n a t h e canonical s u r - j e c t i o n .1. E/ML)) we a r r i v e t o a c o n t r a d i c t i o n .5. // Lemma 4. i f u t M L L . s includes t on H and According t o 4.s(ML1. There . o f Countable dimension.124 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES b l e enlargement.3.hence t h e r e e x i s t s v ( ( E/PI')* such t h a t u=voO. Then i t s t o p o l o g i c a l p r o d u c t E has a b a r r e l l e d c o u n t a b l e enlargement. Clearly and P r o o f : L e t N be a subspace o f (E/H)* o f i n f i n i t e c o u n t a b l e dimension transversal t o (E/H. M b e i n g ( v e Q : v € N ) .r). MI'=( . For each p.m( E. : Indeed. (E/Ml. Since E'n M L i ) + M .t)'+M) (E/MA) L e t ( E .17 and you a r e done.2.s) i s b a r r e l l e d and (E. and hence s i s t h e d e s i r e d enlargement. i s b a r r e l l e d and o f c o u n t a b l e dimension.t) such t h a t (E/H.5.. According t o 4.2. t ) be a b a r r e l l e d space o f i n f i n i t e dimension and o f c o u n t a b l e dimension such l e t M be a subspace o f E* t r a n s v e r s a l t o ( E . r : . t ) ' be a b a s i s o f W .E'+M))' Since (MLL. t ) ' i s i n f i n i t e and n o t c o u n t a b l e . Since M I i s c l o s e d i n ( E . v i s continuous on ( E/ML. dim(MLL/E'T\ M I L ) = dirn(M) and hence countable.. E... E / M ' ) ) .E/PIL)) s( E*. r=.s)'=(E.7. Then dim P r o o f : Set E ' : = ( E . Since . and l e t (f(n):n=1. t ) .( Consider t h e dual p a i r (Vi'. C l e a r l y .t)'+N).(E.( E/H. 9 ) . which i s o f c o u n t a b l e dimension and t r a n s v e r s a l t o ( E .t)'+M. t ) Let (E.~(VJL.2. t ) ment.s(~lLL.t)' (E/H.E)) and hence a Frechet space. on E/H. N f o l l o w s s i n c e E c o n t a i n s K as a t o p o l o P r o o f : ( i ) i s obvious and (ii) N g i c a l subspace and K has a b a r r e l l e d c o u n t a b l e enlargement by 4.5. and l e t r be t h e t o p o l o g y m(E/H.E'+Y)) and t h e r e f o r e u C( E.E/VA)) has a weak dual i s m e t r i z a b l e and c l o s e d i n ( E * . ce i s endowed w i t h t h e s t r o n g e s t l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y . Then ( E . s i n c e t h e r e a r e no c l o s e d subspaces o f i n f i n i t e c o u n t a b l e codimension i n a B a i r e space. (E. t ) . M I is contained i n Suppose dim(E/M') n(f ( .5. ( 1 .t) the canonical s u r j e c t i o n Q:E--r(E/H.r) i s b a r r e l l e d i f N i s s e l e c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o h y p o t h e s i s . (YL'. i f we show t h a t E'A M I L i s c l o s e d i n (MIL.E/ML).G(E. S ( M ' ~ . // be a b a r r e l l e d space and H a c l o s e d b a r r e l has a b a r r e l l e d c o u n t a b l e e n l a r g e - P r o p o s i t i o n 4.p) and hence dim( E/M1) b~ f o r e v e r y p .19: l e d subspace o f ( E . t ) ' . L e t x be a v e c t o r o f t h e c l o s u r e o f E'AMLL i n ( Y ' ' . L e t s be t h e i n i t i a l t o p o l o g y on E w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e c a n o n i c a l i n j e c t i o n J:E+(E. ( i i ) L e t (Ei:i 6 1 ) be an i n t i n i t e f a m i l y o f b a r r e l l e d spa- ces.. M''CE'+V u i s a l i n e a r form on E whose k e r n e l c o n t a i n s .) i)' :i=1. i s a b a r r e l l e d c o u n t a b l e enlargement o f ( E .?) has a b a r r e l l e d c o u n t a b l e enlargement.

r ) ' = ( H .CHAPTER 4 125 e x i s t s a sequence (u(n):n=1..2. .7 convex t o p o l o g y i s provided w i t h the stronaest l o c a l l y and o f i n f i n i t e countaYoreover. i f u ( ( E .t) L e t (x(n):n=1. each n. t ) ' = E ' . Thus m(H. ( f ( l ) ' . suppose t h a t i n N f o r a c e r t a i n n and l e t be a sequence i n N such t h a t t o g e t h e r w i t h ( v ( i ) ' : i = l . t ) . s i n c e t and s c o i n c i d e on ti. / / P r o p o s i t i o n 4. .1.3. t ) .E').n). (G.2.5. s ) ' . i f t h i s i s n o t t h e case.. i s a basis f o r Then.20. s i s f i n e r t h a n t and hence E ' C ( E . t ) Since C i s o f c o u n t a b l e dimension.. 6 i s complemented i n ( E . Since ( E .according l i n e a r f o r m o n (H. dimensional: indeed. x ( n ) ) ) t o 4. . ..(H.6. Suppose H c l o s e d i n ( E . any l i n e a r e x t e n s i o n t o E o f a continuous Thus.s) continuous on ( H .n)U(f(k)':k=1. t ) i s isomorphic t o t h e b a r r e l l e d space (E/H.. Since H i s o f c o u n t a b l e i t i s enough t o prove t h e r e s u l t sup- P r o o f : A c c o r d i n g t o 4. s i n c e t = and hence t and s c o i n c i d e on E. If f t M . i s quasi-complete and hence E/M1)). b l e dimension. Set (E.t) t r i c t i o n u ' t o (H.t)=(H.s)' r + i s continuous on ( E .x(n))) E. L e t M be a subspace o f E* o f i n f i n i t e c o u n t a b l e dimension t r a n s v e r s a l t o E ' and such t h a t r:=m(E. Since H i s c l o s e d i n ( E . .. t ) ' + N .) i s a cobasis o f N f l ( H .1.t) be a b a r r e l l e d space w i t h a b a r r e l l e d coun- t a b l e enlargement and l e t H be a c o u n t a b l e . N i s transversal t o ( H . has a b a r r e l l e d c o u n t a b l e enlargement. . u ' i s and. s ) ' .2. . .t)'+N.2.t) @(sp(x(l). t ) i s b a r r e l l e d .) in convergina t o x i n ( M ~ ~ .)) . 4. ( E ' . (H. '+N) i s t h e d e s i r e d enlargement.. i f f o r a c e r t a i n n. (v(l)'.. Thus E'=(E. r ) l e d we reach a c o n t r a d i c t i o n w i t h 4..n)U(h(k):k=1. t ) m(E.. Thus x ( E ' A M L L . . Since ( E .. . CM. t ) Let (E. .E'+M) i s a b a r r e l l e d enlargement o f ( E .6... n ) forms a b a s i s f o r N w i t h M1:=sp((v(i)':i=l. for for (Hn. i t s res- i s continuous and. f ( n ) ' ) N is infiniteN.t). : = ~ p ( H U ( x ( l ) . ( H . t ) . t ) and l e t G be any a l g e b r a i c complement o f H i n C l e a r l y . i s barrelis of .c o d i w n s i o n a l subsoace of ( E . t ) ' Agiin (H.)) s h a l l c o n s t r u c t a subspace S o f E*. t ) . be a b a s i s o f G and s e t H . then M ' D ~ ( f ( i ) ' ? i = l .Z..i.5.. shows t h a t ( G ..t) i s b a r r e l l e d . . . t ) .e..c o d i m e n s i o n a l subspace o f H Now we show t h a t N A ( H .) each n and.s):=(H. and hence u t ( € ... which i s a f i n i t e .t) @(G. Me S:=sp((v(i):i=l.21: Then ( H . t ) ' and hence M I i s o f codimension a t most c o u n t a b l e i n E. p o s i n g H c l o s e d o r dense i n ( E ..t) Suppose H dense i n ( E ..r)'=(H. t ) . S ( M " . codimension i n i t s c l o s u r e i n ( E . t ) .v(n)') (f(k)':k=l. t ) ' i n f i n i t e codimension i n rl: indeed.s( E ' .t).E)) x C E ' . s e t f ' t o denote i t s r e s t r i c t i o n t o H and s e t N : = ( f ' : f e l l ) ..

Thus (E.t) and (E.VC5. Lemma 4. the families (Uf\V:UtZI...E'+F! ) ) i s b a r r e l l e d . such t h a t E'+M1=E'+S and such t h a t H n ( n ( v ( i ) l : i=l. t h e r e e x i s t s an unique continuous l i n e a r e x t e n s i o n g(k) t o ( E . i n f ( t .g ( k ) f o r each k. and k e e p i n g i n mind t h a t M i s t r a n s v e r s a l t o E ' .. t ) ' .m(E. x ) : x I f (E. F i n a l l y . t ) respectively. B a s i n g o u r s e l v e s i n 4.s) 3: s t a n d f o r b a s i s o f balanced 0-nghbs i n ( E . s ) ) ) and (U+\/:U& ..m(E. According t o 4. We s h a l l f i n i s h t h i s s e c t i o n w i t h a s h o r t s t u d y o f t h e supremum o f two t o p o l o g i e s which s h a l l be needed i n subsequent sec- tions. t ) ' i n N.2.x):=x i s an i s o m r p h i s m b E) o f ( E . SL has non c o u n t a b l e codimension i n E and :i=1. // P r o p o s i t i o n 4. // we p r o v i d e d s e v e r a l r e s u l t s which guarantee t h e b a r r e l l e d n e s s o f a c e r t a i n t o p o l o g y which can be c o n s i d e r e d as t h e supremum o f two t o p o l o g i e s . i t i s easy t o check t h a t ((v(i):i=l.r)') i s t h e d e s i r e d enlargement. t h e n ( H ... Proof: I f % a n d defined by B((x.5.... s ) ) respectively. ( i ) t h e mapping A : A E .E'+Y1)) i s also b a r r e l l e d .2 .23: subspace ( ( x . Thus m(H.)) is l i n e a r l y independent (and hence S i s Since M 1 c M and ( E .20. n ) ) . .126 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES w i t h h ( k ) d E ' f o r each k.) a r e bases and ( E .E'+S))=(E... i t i s easy t o check t h a t (E.sup( t . Set h ( k ) : = f ( k ) .5. i s a cobasis o f N n ( H .5. s ) ) when AE i s endowed w i t h t h e p r o d u c t t o p o l o q y t x s ..s).VE3 of 0-nghbs f o r (E.5. Since f ( k ) ' belongs t o ( H .5.t ( E . D e f i n i n q S as above. i f (u(n):n=l. ( i i ) t h e mapping B : ( E x E / A E .))3 Hn(A(v(i)L:i=1. t ) ' w i t h u(n) 4 ( H .n)) c o n t a i n e d i n S L .2. and t h e n no h ( k ) belongs t o E ' f o r each k.) (H... t x s ) + ( E .t)'+sp(u(n):n=1.n))n(A(h(k)L:k=1. r ) ' = f o r each n... t ) .) (H..n(E. i n f ( t .Z.t)'+N=(H. E l + M1=E'+S as d e s i r e d .. i)~ t h a t i s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n c e S'=( n ( ~ ( . s ) ) x-y i s an i s o m r p h i s m .. of i n f i n i t e c o u n t a b l e dimension) and S i s t r a n s v e r s a l t o E l .s) a r e spaces and i f AE stands f o r t h e then defined by A(x. t ) x ( E. Moreover.n)U(h(k):k=1. Then E i s t h e t o p o l o g i c a l d i r e c t sum o f F and G and G i s endowed w i t h t h e s t r o n - g e s t l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y . m(E. Proof:see t h e p r o o f above.E'+M1)).22: L e t F be a c l o s e d countable-codimensional subspace o f a b a r r e l l e d space E and l e t G be any a l g e b r a i c complement o f F i n E. s u p ( t .2...!/j+AE):= and (E.

5. Moreover.F)equicontinuous.1( ii) shows t h a t e v e r y f a c t o r i s // 4.txs). i s n o t quasi-conplete. Proof: L e t E be a space and s e t F f o r t h e p r o d u c t o f i t s c a n o n i c a l specEvery space can be embedded as a c l o s e d subspace o f a .24: L e t t and s be c o m p a t i b l e l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g i e s and (E.23( i). I n f a c t more i s t r u e P r o p o s i t i o n 4. L e t F be a n o n . A((lJxV)n4E)=U (ii) B i s o b v i o u s l y l i n e a r and b i j e c t i v e and B(O(UxV))=U-V.t) are barrelled.5.5. t h e space (E. Example 4. nV.6. a c c o r d i n g t o 4.2: b a r r e l l e d space. we a r e done i f we show t h a t H i s s e q u e n t i a l l y c l o s e d i n F. According t o 4.5. i s b a r r e l l e d and 4 .921. If (E. dense hyperplane o f E'=F. i n f ( t. A c c o r d i n g t o 4.m(F'. being the canonical s u r j e c t i o n . G i s b a r r e l l e d . L e t A be a sequence i n H c o n v e r g i n g t o a c e r t a i n z i n F and s e t B f o r t h e c l o s e d a b s o l u t e l y convex h u l l i n F o f A U ( z ) .sup(t.9. i f H stands f o r any n e a r l y closed. z belongs t o H and we a r e done. A c c o r d i n g t o 4.s)) is barrelled.23( i i ) .s) b a r r e l l e d as d e s i r e d .s)' a r e t r a n s v e r s a l (we say t h a t and (E.CHAPTER 4 127 (i) A i s o b v i o u s l y l i n e a r and b i j e c t i v e .6.AE i s dense i n (ExE.2.or i t i s enough t o see t h a t . i n F.r e f l e x i v e F r e c h e t space and E:=( F'.1:A c l o s e d subspace E o f a b a r r e l l e d space G which i s n o t b a r Clearly.b a r r e l l e d spaces.s(F.(6). s ) ) and hence b a r r e l l e d . Proof: According t o our hypothesis. E i s n o t b a r r e l l e d s i n c e (F. hence (F'.m(F'.s) on a l i n e a r space E such t h a t ( E . which i s a compact s e t i n F. e q u i v a l e n t l y . Since H i s n e a r l y closed. L e t us show t h a t E i s complete: a c c o r d i n g t o K1.t)x(E. 2 . then H i s c l o s e d i n (F.F')). t h e n E can be enbedded as a c l o s e d subspace o f a p r o d u c t G o f Banach spaces.2.F)).s(F. t ) ' t and s a r e extraneous).6 Some examples o f n o n . then (E.F')) I f we show t h a t E i s c o n p l e t e . 0:ExE-ExE/AE // P r o p o s i t i o n 4. Since F i s m e t r i z a b l e . r e l l e d .sup( t .s) i s t h e t r i v i a l t o p o l o g y and. 4 ( i ) A E i s i s o m r p h i c t o (E.

1. #. 1 . . Let (x(i):i b a s i s o f a b s o l u t e l y convex 0-nghbs. As a hyperplane o f a b a r r e l l e d space. (E/G. .3.t).3.128 BARRELLED LOCALLY CON VEX SPACES A t r u m F:=’rr(E(U):UtUJ.2. a c c o r d i n g t o 4. t ) subspace o f (E. Since K P r o p o s i t i o n 4.t) be an i n f i n i t e . F i s a proper i s n o t b a r r e l l e d (4.d i m e n s i o n a l separable q u o t i e n t s f o r FrPchet spaces. Set G : = n ( H i : i t I ) which i s again a b a r r e l l e d space.3 shows.9. E has a c l o s e d subspace F which i s n o t complemented Then C + F i s den- b u t i t has a p r o p e r quasi-complement G.?) i s n o t endowed w i t h t h e s t r o c and hence ( F . each Hi i s b a r r e l l e d .y). t h e q u o t i e n t t o p o l o g y on L w i t h r e s p e c t t o Q* i s t h e t o p o l o g y induced b y gest l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y . 5 .t) dense subspace o f ( E. DENSTRAUSS. I f 7.5: L e t (E.6. a s s o c i a t e d t o t h e a d d i t i o n mapping GxF---G+F hence G+F=E. pace o f G. every q u o t i e n t i s separable). F i s bar- CI) be a cobasis o f E i n F and s e t Hi t o denote t h e l i n e a r span o f E and a l l t h e v e c t o r s o f t h e cobasis except x ( i ) . ( 5 ) ) .d i m e n s i o n a l Banach space which i s separable has such a q u o t i e n t ! i n f a c t .d i m e n s i o n a l Frechet space. a c o n t r a d i c t i o n .~beinga r e l l e d b y 4. a c c o r d i n g t o 2.4: as 4.:) i s separable ( 2 ./ / of O b s e r v a t i o n 4.6. ( L ) : . t h e e x i s t e n c e o f p r o p e r dense non-bar- r e l l e d subspaces o f Frechet spaces i s somehow r e l a t e d t o t h e e x i s t e n c e i n f i n i t e . f o r i f G+F i s b a r r e l l e d . .6.3. se i n E b u t n o t b a r r e l l e d . Now i t i s easy t o c o n s t r u c t a t o p o l o g i c a l isomorphism from E o n t o a c l o s e d subs- // Every non-normable Frechet space c o n t a i n s a p r o p e r be a non-normable Frechet space and l e t G be a c l o s e d N N i s isomorphic t o K (2.3: Proof: L e t ( E .t) L of dense subspace which i s n o t b a r r e l l e d .16). The e x i s t e n c e of Banach spaces such t h a t e v e r y dense subspace i s b a r r e l l e d i s a l o n g s t a n d i n g open q u e s t i o n (see below). t ) Clearly. c o n s i d e r t h e i n j e c t i o n whose i n v e r s e has c l e a r l y c l o Thus G+F i s complete and sed graph and hence i s continuous by 4 .b a r r e l l e d p r o p e r dense subspaces by t h e argument i n 4. P r o p o s i t i o n 4. t ) i s a quotient o f (F. e v e r y i n f i n i t e .6.?) Q:(E.TZAFRIRI One c o u l d c o n s t r u c t them i n separable n o n .( L ) . f o r each i i n I .6.t)--(E/G. t h e r e e x i s t s a dense countable-dimensional subspace stands f o r t h e canonical s u r j e c t i o n and 1 Q* f o r i t s r e s t r i c t i o n t o F:=(l. such t h a t (EIG. 1 0 ( i ) .5. hence i t has n o n . C l e a r l y . Since (L.6.1.7) i s n o t b a r r e l l e d since (L.p r e h i l b e r t i a n Banach spaces E as f o l l o w s : a c c o r d i n g t o a r e s u l t of LIN- .

(x(n):n=1. if l a ( i ) l l l f o r i=l. c a r r y o u t t h e p r o o f f o r Banach spaces. .d i m e n s i o n a l and separable. Set L : = n ( f ( i f : i = 1 . such t h a t <x( l).3.f( n)) i f i > n f o r each n. There e x i s t s a b a r r e l T i n F which i s n o t a i s n o t a 0-nghh i n G:=sp(V) and f( 1) &( E . t ) . L e t ( U :n=1.t). . Choose f ( 2 ) and (f(n):n=1.b a r r e l l e d p r o p e r dense subspace.3. choose x ( 2 ) ( U 2 \ s p ( V 2 ) r e l l e d by 4. Since ( G . s p ( x ( i ) : i = l . t h e s e r i e s z a ( i ) x ( i ) converges a b s o l u t e l y t o some z i n t h e Frechet space (:. P r o o f : A c c o r d i n g t o o u r p r e v i o u s c o m n t s . then ( E d ) has an i n f i n i i t i s enouqh t o te-dimensional separable q u o t i e n t . Z . ) converges t o y i n (E.3. ..z a ( i ) x ( i ) : n = l 5 2 .d i m e n s i o n a l F r 6 c h e t space t h e e x i s - tence o f a dense subspace whose codimension i s c.1. Z > .b a r r e l l e d p r o p e r dense subspace F. The p r o o f i s c o n p l e t e . We s h a l l see t h a t s p ( x ( i ) : i = l . b u t s i n c e t h e r e i s no s u b s t a n t i a l be a b a s i s o f a b s o l u t e l y convex 0-nghbs i n ( E . dim(E/G) i s i n f i n i t e as a subspace o f ( E . =Cl .2. i s dense i n V1. i f (E. t ) .Clearly... and hence l a ( p + l ) l L l . ) .CHAPTER 4 129 (E.since y + f a ( i ) x ( i ) &V P+ 1 Ui+l+Ui+lCUi. x ( n ) CUn\sp(Vn). which i s a c l o s e d subspace o f ( E . ...16.. / / I n 4. ) b e i n g x( i ) + L f o r each i. . f ( n ) b V n o and ( x ( i ) .7l-1 c o n t a i n s G and x(i) ? i s i n f i n i t e . and ~ ( Z ) G f ( l ) ~ ( o b s e r vt e h a t f ( l ) Li s not contai- ned i n sp(V2) because o t h e r w i s e sp(V2) would be a hyperplane o f E.5. t ) .t) has a n o n .. t h e and i s c o n t a i n e d sequence ( y + z ..2. Vn+l=Vn+acx( ~ ( n ).2. Z .) such and hence T would be a O-n@b i n ( F . 4 i s dense i n (E/L. . . sp(V.f(l)> .f( 1)) and n o t c o u n t a b l e due t o 4. 4 I t i s immediate t o check t h a t y + z t L . P r o p o s i t i o n 4..7 we showed i n every i n f i n i t e .6. gain.d i m e n s i o n a l separable q u o t i e n t i f and o n l y i f ( E .)+L hence c o i n c i d e s w i t h E.. such t h a t <x(Z). V2 would be a 0-nghb i n a c o n t r a d i c t i o n ) .2.6. t ) .f(n)) f o r n=2. we s h a l l p r o v e i t f o r Frechet spaces. l a ( l ) \ < l and.) i n E' Choose x( 1) GU1\G =1 and f( 1) G V O . Thus (E/L. sp(x(i):i=l. Moreover. . hence b a r Since V2 i s a b a r r e l i n sp(V2).6. Continue i n t h i s f a s h i o n t o o b t a i n sequences ( Vn:n=1. we need o n l y t o show t h a t .< y + z a ( i ) x ( i ) then cvl. 2 .t) i n L+sp( x( i ) : i = l . t ) has a n o n . t h a t V1:=T - ..Z.6: Let (E. . f ( n ) > =1 i f i = n and <x( i) . a(n):= . t ) ' = : E ' V2:=Vl+acx( x( 1)) and i s n o t b a r r e l l e d . t ) . . ) .) n t h a t Un+l+Un+lCUn 0-nghb i n ( F . t ) Since F i s dense i n ( E .t) be a b a r r e l l e d space n o t endowed w i t h t h e .t) has an i n f i n i t e .. t ) V:=? such f o r each n.'. .t). define i n d u c t i v e l y a ( l ) : = .. Set V1:=V.t) Given Y r.f(Z)) =1 and f ( 2 ) ( V Z o . C l e a r l y . ) + L I f t h i s i s t h e case. Thus each a ( i ) x ( i ) CUi and.<Y.) .n. According t o 2.

.t) i n E.7: The f o l l o w i n g a s s e r t i o n s a r e t r u e : I f ( E . t ) : indeed. i f L e t ( x ( i ) : i € 1 ) be a b a s i s f o r E and s e l e c t ( f ( i ) : i ( I ) <x(i).E)) o f a bounded n e t o f v e c t o r s i n s p ( f ( i ) : i E I ) c R .s(E* . .(G.rn(G. a c o n t r a d i c t i o n .x(i(n))) i s continuous. t h e r e e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r n such t h a t L C l C L + 1)) ..f(j)) = Slj.rn(E.m(E. Then F+G i s dense i n i n E* such that. s(R. // P r o p o s i t i o n 4. A c c o r d i n g t o o u r p r e v i o u s comnent.t)'.m(E.G*) Thus f G ( E . i n p a r t i c u l a r . s i n c e ( E . 4. There e x i s t s a dense subspace H such t h a t dim( E/H) i s i n f i n i t e . The p r o o f i s complete. a contradiction. . and dim( E/( F+G)) i s i n f i n i t e .x( i ( n ) 1. . and o f i n f i n i t e c o u n t a b l e codimension i n E. ( f ( i ) : J \ ( i ( l ) . According t o 0. w e show t h a t E'=E* and t h a t w i l l be a c o n t r a d i c t i o n .such t h a t (E. Thus E/( L+sp( x( i ( l ) ) . t ) i s a b a r r e l l e d space and t i s n o t t h e s t r o n g e s t l o c a l l y convex (i) topology. if L stands .3 . t h e r e e x i s t s a c o u n t a b l e i n f i n i t e . f(i):f(i)EE*\E').d i m e n s i o n a l subspace M o f E*. ..4.5. Since e v e r y v e c t o r o f E* i s t h e l i m i t i n (E*.x( i( n ) ) ) i s closed i n (E. F i n a l l y . i ( n ) ) ) i s contained i n E l .M)) i s complete. Let fEE*\Y According t o 4.t) hence L+sp( x( i ( l ) ) . Since ( E . hence m( E. one has t h a t R = E*.rn(E. transversal t o (E. i s f i n i t e : indeed. Then t h e s e t ( i 6 I : f ( i ) E E * \ E ' ) i s f i n i t e : indeed. on G c o i n c i d e s w i t h m(G. .M) i s a dense hyperplane o f ( E . . .3. and hence f t M .t)'+M)) i s not barrelled. i f R stands f o r E'+sp( i s b a r r e l l e d and hence ( R .6. Then e v e r y subspace o f E has f i n i t e codimension i n i t s c l o s u r e i n ( E . . t ) f i n i t e .bl)) and t h e r e f o r e is i s barrelled. t ) . m ( F . P r o o f : Suppose t h a t e v e r y dense subspace o f ( E .130 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEX SPACES s t r o n g e s t l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y . i s b a r r e l l e d and d i n ( M / E ' ) i s and s e t G:= (G.5. t h e r e e x i s t s an i n f n i t e c o u n t a b l e subset J:=( i ( n ) :n=1.3 shows t h a t (E.. f o r sp( x( i ) : i E I \ J .M)).3 shows t h a t (E. a c o n t r a d i c t i o n . . .x( i( n ) ) ) ) i s a b a r r e l l e d space o f i n f i n i t e c o u n t a b l e dimension and hence i s endowed w i t h t h e s t r o n g e s t l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y .( E. suppose t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a subspace F o f F. t ) has n o t t h e s t r o n g e s t l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y . Thus e v e r y l i n e a r form on E which vanishes on L+sp( x( i( l). Then d i m( L+sp( x( i( )/c) . Now we prove t h a t dim(E*/E') . . .M)) fLwhich b a r r e l l e d . V ) ) ' i t i s t h e s t r o n g e s t l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y .2.1. hence c l o s e d i n (E. such t h a t d i m ( f / F ) i s i n f i n i t e and t a k e an a l g e b r a i c complement G o f (E.E)) 4.P)=m( r'..m(E.x( i( n) ) i s f i n i t e and s p ( x ( i ( I ) ) . ) o f I such t h a t ( f ( i ) : i C J ) a r e n o t i n E ' . Suppose E ' # E * and l e t M be a hyperplane o f E* c o n t a i n i n g E l . . t ) has f i n i t e codimension i n E.R)) i s quasi-complete.

t h e r e e x i s t s a dense subspace F of i n f i n i t e countable codimension i n ( E .E'+M) and ( E . s ! a l s o . t h e r e e x i s t s a f i n e r norm r on F such t h a t ( F .CHAPTER 4 131 ( i i ) W i t h the hypothesis of ( i ) . ( v ) There e x i s t complete norm t and r on a l i n e a r space E such t h a t (E. p ) i s an infinite-dimensional Banach space. since i t is metrizable. t ) i s an infinite-dimensional Fr6chet space and F a dense subspace of i n f i n i t e countable codimension. On t h e o t h e r hand.6. ( i i ) Proceed a s above. s ) and (F. s i n c e i t has a non-barrelled quotient. r ) i s not b a r r e l l e d . t h e r e e x i s t s a dense subspace G of i n f i n i t e countable codimension i n F. ( i i i ) I f ( E .+ E ' + M of the canonical s u r j e c t i o n .6. r i s f i n e r than p and ( F .s) i s complete and s i s coars e r than t on F and s e t M f o r the orthogonal of ( F . .s 1 .5. t ) . ( E . ( F . Since the net is a Cauchy n e t in ( F . then F i s conplete f o r no topology coarser than t. With t h e notation of 4. r ) i s not b a r r e l l e d .5. ( v ) Let ( F . s i n c e i t has a non b a r r e l l e d quotient ( F/G . t h e r e exists a Cauchy net ( x ( a ) : a E A ) i n F converaing t o x i r ( E .s) i s conplete. According t o 4. According t o ( i v ) . Let s be a norm on F/G such t h a t (F/G.1.7.5. ( i i i ) Let s be a topology on F such t h a t (F. r ) i s not b a r r e l l e d . s ) ' has i n f i n i t e count a b l e dimension. ~ ( K ( N ) y K ( N ) ) ) . For every f i n ( F . Clearl y M=sp(K) and K i s weakly compact. s ) ' by t h e transposed mapping Q ' :( E/H. i t converges t o a c e r t a i n y i n (F. m ( E .s) i s a 2 subspace of 1 and s e t r f o r t h e norm on F defined a s i n 4. Set r f o r the topology on E constructed i n 4.3. Proof: ( i ) According t o 4.5. t ) i s a Mackey space ( s i n c e i t i s b a r r e l l e d by 4. s( E * .sup ( t . ( E / F . t ) ' and ( E . s ) ' . taking s such t h a t ( E / F ) i s isomorphic t o a normed space and take K as t h e i m a 9 of t h e closed u n i t b a l l of ( E / F . t ) . provide E/F w i t h a topology s such t h a t (E/F. Since d i m ( E / F ) is countable. E ) ) such t h a t sp( K) i s t r a n s v e r s a l t o ( E . r ) ) i s not b a r r e l l e d . ( i v ) According t o 4. Since M i s closed i n ( E . t ) . ( i v ) I f ( F . p ) be an infinite-dimensional Banach space.s) i s i s o m r p h i c t o ( K ( N ) . t ) ' + s p ( K ) ) ) is not b a r r e l l e d . r=m(E.6.s) ' .5.s).5. i f x g E \ F . C l e a r l y . t h e r e e x i s t s a compact d i s c K i n ( E * .6) and ( E / F .6. s ) i s not b a r r e l l e d and ( E / F . i t i s c l e a r t h a t F and M a r e transversal subspaces. we a r r i v e t o a contradiction w i t h ( E . s ) ' i n E . t ) being a Baire space. Then E i s t h e d i r e c t sum of F and M: indeed. f ( x ) = f ( y ) and hence x-y(P4.

e(m))=O and l e t x( 1) be a non-zero v e c t o r o f A .2. r ) f o r the completion o f (F. 7 ( i ) t o o b t a i n t h a t dim(M)=c and hence t h e c o n c l u s i o n .8: (x-y. C l e a r l y . p ) r ) and c l o s e d i n ( E .B a i r e space c o n s t r u c t e d i n 1. ( i ) ~~t-~--p~gg~: I n what f o l l o w s ( e ( n):n=1.s( E' . t h e r e e x i s t s a c l o s e d subspace L o f ( E . C l e a r l y .t) d i r e c t sum o f ( E .3.q)=( F.b a r r e l l e d c l o s e d subspace o f a b a r r e l l e d space E.y€F) where f o r x i n E and y i n F.6.t)x( F. Since E' c o i n c i d e s a l g e b r a i c a l l y w i t h N K ( N ) and s i n c e t h e K . r ) .d i w n s i o n a l . If F i s a n o n .r) i s also not barrelled. t ) . E. t ) x ( F . t ) L. and hence r and t a r e n o t comparable. (ExF)/D and (FxE)/D a r e b a r r e l l e d by o u r p r e v i o u s comnent b u t t h e i r i n t e r s e c t i o n i s n o t b a r r e l l e d : (ExF)/D/)( FxE)/D =( ( E x F ) A ( FxE))/D = (FxF)/D = O b s e r v a t i o n 4.r). 4. ( E . r ) B y t h e method o f p r o o f of ( i v ) . If q : = s u p ( t . r ) .9: enough t o r e p l a c e s( Let (E. i t i s enough t o p r o v e t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s no i n f i n i t e . Suppose A an i n f i n i t e .7 Some examples o f b a r r e l l e d spaces Exanples 4. e ( n ( l ) ) ) w i t h m > n ( l ) .132 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES t h e r e e x i s t s a f i n e r norm r on F such t h a t ( F . Set ( E . Then d i m ( E * / ( E .7. t ) x ( O ) 'I=" D and hence ( ( E .+ ( ((y. r ) such t h a t E i s t h e d i r e c t sum o f F and ne t h e complete norm on E.3. b o t h spaces a r e b a r r e l l e d .r) @ ( L . since (F.q) i t i s easy t o check t h a t (E. E ) ) .d i m e n s i o n a l bounded s e t i n (E' .O) l e t (E. Thus ( E .3. t ) ) / D r e p r e s e n t s a t o p o l o g i c a l isomorphism. Defi- cD(L.6. i s not barrelled. be a b a r r e l l e d space such t h a t t i s n o t t h e b c : indeed. .d i m e n s i o n a l hounded s e t i n ( E ' .1: (i) L e t E b e t h e n o n . t ) x ( F . t ) : = ( F . Since A i s i n f i - . F i s dense i n ( E . t ) .. t ) and D:= i s the topological = (E. // O b s e r v a t i o n 4.t) d e f i n e d by f( x.t) be a space and F a c l o s e d subspace o f ( E .E)) # O and<x(l). s ( E' .B a i r e space c o n s t r u c t e d i n 1. t ) ' ) dN).y). i t s k e r n e l i s and i t s image i s E x ( 0 ) . ) stands f o r t h e f a m i l y of a l l t h e c a n o n i c a l u n i t v e c t o r s .K(N)) by K(N) i n 4 . i t i s t h e s t r o n g e s t l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y on s t r o n g e s t l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y . There e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r n ( l ) such t h a t < x ( l ) .r).e q u i c o n t i n u o u s s e t s o f E l a r e f i n i t e . i s n o t b a r r e l l e d .t)x(O) = (E. t ) x ( F . Thus (E. 6 .t) F.y):= Consider t h e l i n e a r mapping f : ( E . f i s c o n t i n u o u s .2 We s h a l l show t h a t ( i i ) L e t F be t h e n o n .

s ( E ' . . T>@'L. Define y : = ( y ( n ) : n = 1 . { x( k ) . ) . . choose a sequence ( x ( n ) : n = 1 .. Z. <. . I f F stands f o r the subspace of a l l sequences i n E whose coordinates vanish f o r a l l i n d i c e s which do not belong t o the sequence ( n ( k ( p ) ) : p = 1 . .e( n( 2 ) ) ) # O and (x( 2 ) . ) i n K by y(n):=O i f n # n ( k ) f o r each k and y( n ) :=a( k ) i f n=n( k ) f o r each k . Let ( h ( n ) : n = 1 . N F i s closed in K and hence a Frechet space.. .2. T does not absorb A and hence a sequence ( n ( k ) : k = 1 . l i m ( n ( k ( p ) ) / p ) = + bs . ) of pos i t i v e i n t e g e r s such t h a t L f o r each k . t h e r e e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r q such t h a t T c o n t a i n s U ( L n : n b q ) and. Clearly. ) be a s t r i c t l y i n c r e a s i n g sequence of p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r s w i t h h ( 1)=1and s a t i s f y i n g 1 im( h( k ) / k ) = + GO .2) such t h a t (x( 2 ) . a Baire category argument shows t h a t T n F i s a 0-ncJb i n F and hence t h e r e i s < < < < . ) a n d suppose F not b a r r e l l e d . . i f t h i s i s n o t t h e case.i=4 -----------Second proof: Let T be a barrel in E and s e t L n : = s p ( e ( n ) ) f o r each n . There e x i s t s a barrel T i n F which i s not a 0-nghb. .) and ( j ( n ) : n = O . .e( n))y( n ) = ${x( k ) . ( i i ) Set A : = ( e ( n ) : n = 1 .j( 1 ) ) and again k( 2 ) 4T with h ( j ( 1 ) ) n( k ( 2 ) ) . Proceeding by recurrence.. . there a sequence ( n ( k):k=1. w i t h j ( O ) : = l .e( m)) =O i f m)n( 2 ) . 2 . a ( k ) i s calculated t o s a t i s f y Z < d k ) . T>@(Ln:n7.CHAPTER 4 133 e x i s t s x( 2 ) f O i n A and a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r n( 2 ) > mx( n ( 1).e( n( i )))y( n ( i ) = Z < x ( k ) . e ( n ( k ) ) > #O f o r each k .='is not bounded i n 4 i ' E B . . ) of s c a l z r s as follows f o r each k ) l . e ( n ( i ) ) 4-e N a ( i ) > = k . .. < n ( k ( p ) ) < h ( j ( p ) ) . . l . . E ) ) . ) of p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r s such t h a t h ( j ( 0 ) ) < n ( k ( l ) ) < h( j ( 1)) . . ) o f p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r s can be found such t h a t e ( n ( k ) ) .q). Moreover. ) . B u t W contains L f o r a l l p exceDt a f i n ( k( P ) 1 n i t e number of them. . ) in A of non-zero vectors and nite-dimensional . . 2 . F i n d sequences (k( n) : . Since F = U ( m T n F : m l . N : i f a ( l ) . t h e r e e x i s t s a s t r i c t l y increasinq sequence ( n ( k ) : k = 1 . a 0-nghb W i n E with WAFCT. . . e ( m ) > = O i f v > n ( k ) and such t h a t n(k)>max(n(k-l). Since T i s closed i n E . S e l e c t a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r k ( 1 ) such t h a t h ( 1) n( k( 1 ) ) and j ( 1) such t h a t n( k( 1)) h( . .y> = l < x ( k ) . Since the closed u n i t ball of F i s t h e closed absolutely convex hull o f A . & kT f o r each k. .. .:n%q) and hence T i s a barrel in E which contains a closed subspace of f i n i t e codimension in E. .. .. T h u s . By induction.2. . L l e a r l y lim( n( k ) / k ) lim( Zk-'/k)= +an$ hence y 6 E . 2 .Zk-') o w determine a sequence ( a ( k ) : k = 1 . 2 . 2 . 2 ... Thus T i s a 0-nghb i n E. 2 . 2 . > Then T contains a l l L n save a f i n i t e number of them: indeed. s i n c e T i s convex.l ) a r e known. e ( n ( i ) ) ) a ( i ) = k and thus . s e l e c t sequences ( k ( n ) : n = l . .) be a sequence w i t h l i m ( h ( k ) / k ) = + m . a contradiction. < x ( k ) . 2 .) of p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r s such t h a t ( x . Set h ( l):=l and l e t ( h ( k ) : k = n( k ) 1.. a ( k . ..

show t h a t mo(X.2..4 where we p r o i s a non-Baire normed spa- .3..7.Cor.8 i s barrelled.7).We s h a l l prove (i) E i s b a r r e l l e d .. L e t A be that I f we (iii) We s h a l l see t h a t .l.. by 4. There e x i s t s a c o u n t a b l e subalgebra $'ofRsuch €3). t ) is a F r 6 c h e t space.'$) mo(X.. ce (observe t h a t K(N)=monco.2: ved t h a t E:=mo(X. f a i l s i n absence o f completeness) and ( i i i ) no i n f i n i t e .. L e t us check o u r l a s t a s s e r t i o n : suppose dim(F)) k and s e t m:=max(card(g(X)) : g ( F ) which i s s m a l l e r o r equal t h a n k s i n c e F C B k ..%) ( t h e l i n e a r span o f a l l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f u n c t i o n s 1 i s closed i n E . i s closed i n (F.. then F i s a t most o f c o u n t a b l e dimension ( a n d hence n o t b a r r e l l e d by 4 . Since B n n F M n n F C B n 2 f l F P f o r each n. which i s m e t r i z a b l e and o f i n f i n i t e c o u n t a b l e dimension. Indeed. 2 . . i f F i s any separable subspace o f E .1. t ) f o r some k. 3.2.) .d i m e n s i o n a l subspace F dominat e d by a Frechet space ( F .. i s a c l o s e d subspace o f mo which i s n o t b a r r e l l e d . ( i ) i s an immediate consequence o f 4.4). Thus d i m ( F ) & k . L e t 2 0 be a v e c t o r o f t h e c l o s u r e of i n E . . s i n c e dim(mo(X.i34 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEXSPACES n=1.F) f = zb(i).) . then FCmo(X.2. ( see DU..l. and t h a t i s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n . hence F = u ( s ( B k n F ) : s = l . small b ) O .) h(j(l))( and (j(n):n=O.) 1 o f positive integers with l=h(j(O))(n(k(l))< done i n ( i ) and s e t G f o r t h e Banach . f has a d e s c r i p t i o n as with pairwise d i s j o i n t sets U(Ai:i=O. Example 4. s i n c e d i m ( F ) ) k s / m ) .Z... Since G= o( mTnG:m=l. t ) .. .t) and balanced. Acmo(X. W e keep t h e n o t a t i o n i n t r o d u c e d i n 1. as space o f a l l sequences i n 1 whose c o o r d i n a t e s v a n i s h f o r a l l i n d i c e s which do n o t b e l o n g t o t h e sequence ( n ( k( p ) ) :p=1. o u r d e s i r e d c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s .. 2. For a s u f f i c i e n t l y g:=f+bh t F assumes m r e t h a n m values.I(Ai) a dense sequence i n F. a c o n t r a d i c t i o n .. B k n F i s a 0-nghb i n ( F .F) and.11 and a r e s u l t o f SEEVER..d i m e n s i o n a l separable subspace o f E I. I b( i ) . F=u(BnnF:n=l. Clearly.d i m e n s i o n a l subspace dominated by a Frechet space ( t h u s showing t h a t 4. Take f t F w i t h c a r d ( f ( X ) ) = m and h CF assuming a t l e a s t two d i f f e r e n t values on t h e s e t f - 1(x) f o r sow x t f ( X ) ( t h i s i s p o s s i b l e . (ii) E does n o t c o n t a i n any i n f i n i t e . < n ( k ( p ) ) ( h ( j ( p ) ) ( .1. .F)) w i t h b(O):=O and Set a:=min( so.) and each B n n F ( i i ) suppose t h e e x i s t e n c e o f an i n f i n i t e . ) endowed w i t h t h e sup-norm.) and t h e r e f o r e F i s c o n t a i n e d i n Bk. a contradiction. Tf\G i s a 0-nghb i n G and hence absorbs t h e bounded s e t ( e ( n ( k ( p ) ) ) : p = 1 . Since ( F .3.m)=X.#). 7 ) ..b ( j ) ] . 1 . t h e r e e x i s t s a c e r t a i n p such t h a t B n F has an i n t e r i o r p o i n t .

I f t h i s i s n o t t h e case. t ) P r o o f : L e t T be a b a r r e l i n ( M . O b s e r v a t i o n 4.2. .7. then BkCAi (because o t h e r w i s e . . b a r r e l i n (Mp+l.I). On t h e o t h e r Thus x C ( a + l ) V as d e s i r e d .5: i f E i s a non-normable F r e c h e t space.fl.7. we have a c o n t r a d i c t i o n ..7..):i=n+l. If . q ) .t). E c o n t a i n s p r o - . s i n c e ( M p+lyrp+l]c o n t a i n s t h e subspace TT(E. f o r some i and k... ) . x(p). ..I/.:i= 1 we have t h a t Tn'TT(Ei:i=l. se i n ( E . is a i s c o n t a i n e d i n V. we would have B k A A ...CHAPTER 4 135 w i t h nf-g%(a/Z. # $ and t h a t c o n t r a d i c t s t h e c h o i c e o f a ) .Z i n (E...n+Z.). s.11 .p).x(p+l)... T n M P+ 1 and.O.fl) (lP. .y ( V and hence x (aT+V. s o r b i n g i n E. f o r some . (lp. . On t h e o t h e r hand. xT((Fi. I f ... BkflAi # 4 . r a r e s e t s i n ( l P . Example 4...O.sn). .) f o r each n. Then each Ai i s t h e u n i o n o f a s u b f a m i l y o f (Bo. Since T i s convex.. a b s o l u t e l y convex. . The v e c t o r g has a decomposition :i#j) and choose g € m o ( X . covered by a sequence o f closed.2. J hence A i € g f o r each i and t h u s fcmo(x..Bn).. There e x i s t s a)O such t h a t z ( aT.2.. . p + 2 .fl. 1 (Mnyrn):=n((Eiyti):ily. t h e n M : = U ( M .7 t h a t ( l P .) be a c o u n t a b l e f a r i l y o f b a r r e l - l e d spaces and l e t Fn be a p r o p e r dense subspace of ( E n y t n ) which i s dominat e d by a b a r r e l l e d space (Fn. t ) .. But b a r r e l T which i s n o t a O-n@b i n ( l p .. ) U(Ei:i=p+l.p) i s a Cl-nghb inll-((Ei.x(p+2). $ ) *c g= c c ( i ) l ( B i ) w i t h c(O):=O and p a i r w i s e d i s % j o i n ts e t s Bi i n F. The t o p o l o g y o f i s o b t a i n e d from t h e t o p o l o g y o f (lp.3:).). p + 2 .ll)by s e l e c t i n a t h e convex s e t s i n a b a s i s o f 0-nghbs f o r 11.) a v e c t o r o f E and z : = ( x ( l ) .). t ) i s b a r r e l l e d and 11 i s deni s aband hence a 0-nghb. Since ( E . ..p). C l e a r l y . // y:=(O. ) and hence t h e c l o s u r e o f T ( F i : i = p + l . q ) i s b a r r e l l e d .) i s b a r r e l l e d i f endon wed w i t h t h e t o p o l o g y induced b y t h e p r o d u c t t o p o l o g y o f ( E y t ) : = l l ( ( E n y t n ) : n=1. ..q) i s a B a i r e space.p+2.. x:=(x(n):n=l.rl) a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r p.ti):i=l. TnMl i s a b a r r e l i n (Cl.. Take i s c o n t a i n e d i n TAMl which c o i n c i d e s w i t h i t i s enough t o check t h a t t h e c l o s u r e V o f T i n ( E .4: L e t ( ( En.B1. such t h a t l T ( F i : i = p + l .. Now we s h a l l see t h a t ( l P . t ) .3: We saw i n 1. q ) i s n o t a B a i r e space. t h e r e e x i s t s a lP is Since T i s a b s o r b i n g i n lP. hand....tn):n=l. j # i .... hence T i s a 0-nghb i n (lP. :n=1.. B a r r e l l e d dense subspaces o f p r o d u c t s o f b a r r e l l e d spaces can be o b t a i n e d as f o l l o w s P r o p o s i t i o n 4. a ) .3..rp+l) l.

( S ) . a c c o r d i n g t o p r o p e r t y 2.)) G 8 = K ( N ) . we showed t h a t e v e r y f i n i t e .7. Fn:=l f o r each n i n 4. Not e v e r y subspace H o f non-countable dimension o f a non-normable F r e c h e t space E has such a q u o t i e n t ( i f we assume t h e Continuum H y p o t h e s i s ) . we c o n s t r u c t e d i n 2. N there e x i s t s a closed subspace L of E such t h a t E/L i s isomorphic t o K Set Q : E A E / L f o r t h e N 2 c a n o n i c a l s u r j e c t i o n and s e t E :=K .2.2.3. 1.FL). Consider t h e dual p a i r (H/FLL. Again. a c c o r d i n g t o 2. H i s n o t b a r r e l l e d and dim(E/F)=dim(E/H)=c.s( K(N). . . t ) and t h e c a n o n i c a l i n j e c t i o n J:S-(S.6 shows t h a t F i s b a r r e l l e d as d e s i r e d . Thus we n can c o n s t r u c t a p r o p e r dense subspace M o f n(En:n=l.6.t) d i n g t o 4.t). We do n o t know i f e v e r y i n f i n i t e countable-codimensional subspace of a non-normable F r 6 c h e t N space has a q u o t i e n t isomorphic t o K .( M ) .9(c)..4. I f H has a q u o t i e n t H/G isomorN p h i c t o KN.9( c ) a non normable m e t r i z a b l e N space H as a dense subspace o f K w i t h p r o p e r t i e s 1.7. .( S ) . We s h a l l see t h a t t h e c l o s u r e o f F i n H i s o f f i n i t e codimension i n H and t h a t F i s b a r r e l l e d .c o d i m e n s i o n a l N subspace o f a non-normable Fr6chet space has a q u o t i e n t isomorphic t o K O b s e r v a t i o n 4. Indeed...6. I f dim(H/FLL) i s i n f i n i t e . which i s a p r o p e r dense subspace o f E and a g a i n b a r r e l l e d b y 4. dim( E/H)=c. G)) a r e f i n i t e . Example 4.16. According t o property Z . on ( u( n) :n=1.1.Z.Accor1 S i s n o t b a r r e l l e d . Using t h e Continuum Hypothesis. and 2.7. Take N E : = K and H as t h e space c o n s t r u c t e d above.. t a k e a c-dimensional dense subspace S o f K which i s n o t b a r r e l l e d and s e t F:=Q.6. Set G:=sp(FU(e(i):i=l. . s p e c i f i e d i n 2.7: I n 2.5. a v e c t o r x i n F e x i s t s such t h a t i t i s unbounded which i s a dense subspace o f H and hence a l l bounded s e t s o f (K").Z.. C l e a r l y H i s a p r o p e r dense subspace o f E and A b a r r e l l e d space which i s m e t r i z a b l e and non-normable and such t h a t e v e r y subspace o f non-countable dimension i s b a r r e l l e d . a c o n t r a d i c t i o n w i t h 4. a contradiction. O n t h e o t h e r hand.d i m e n s i o n a l and hence G-equicontinuous.7..)=KN which i s b a r 1 r e l l e d . S e t t i n g H:=Q. Q : H + H / G 1 b e i n g t h e c a n o n i c a l s u r j e c t i o n . S i s a a u o t i e n t o f H and hence H i s n o t b a r r e l l e d .19.2..6: has c l o s e d graph i n Sx(S.5. L e t F be any subspace o f H w i t h dim(F)=c.10.3. Then F i s n o t b a r r e l l e d and dim(F)=c.. Thus G i s b a r r e l l e d .136 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES p e r dense subspaces F and H such t h a t F i s b a r r e l l e d . Set F:=Q. and 4. C l e a r l y dim(E/F)=c by c o n s t r u c t i o n .) i n F c K( N ) . t h e r e e x i s t s a sequence of l i n e a r l y independent l i n e a r forms (u(n):n=1. 2 S:=l taken as a subspace of K~ i s s t r i c t l y dominated by a Banach space ( S .

such t h a t ( K .13 shows the e x i s t e n c e of an i n f i n i t e countable dense subspace N1 of (E*.s( F + N . F ) ) i s b a r r e l l e d and the proof of 4. ( K N .8: A non-complete separable Yontel space ( i . ( E . s ( F + N . F ) ) = ( E . Since ( M . Clearly. i f s : = s u p ( r .5.6 to obtain a dense subspace L of i n f i n i t e countable codimension.s) a r e finite-dimensional and hence complete. Set r f o r the i n i t i a l topology on K N w i t h respect t o t h e i n j e c t i o n J:K-N !M. Observe t h a t .5. According t o 2. m ( E .5.6. Set Q:M--+M/L f o r t h e canonical s u r j e c t i o n and provide Y / L w i t h t h e i n i t i a l topology r w i t h respect t o t h e enbedding j:Y/L-T12. where p stands f o r t h e product topology on K N .CHAPTER 4 137 Example 4. Observation 4.10. In 2. E ) ) i s a separable b a r r e l l e d non-complete space whose bounded s e t s a r e f i n i te-dimensional (and t h e r e f o r e r e l a t i v e l y compact) and t h u s (F+N. Set s f o r t h e topoloay on M i n i t i a l with respect t o t h e canonical i n j e c t i o n J:M -(M. Clearly. F ) such t h a t ( E . s i n ce M/L i s of i n f i n i t e countable dimension. t ) i s b a r r e l l e d and t i s not the s t r o n g e s t l o c a l l y convex topology. e .t) and t h e canonical s u r j e c t i o n Q:M--. s t r i c t l y f i n e r than t h e product toN pology. s i n c e ( K N . there exists a finite-dimnsional subspace No of N such t h a t ACF+No. p ) . r ) i s separable.s) i s a l s o separable. s ( E . According t o 4.7. E ) ) i s a non-complete separable Mont e l space which i s not endowed w i t h t h e s t r o n g e s t l o c a l l y convex topoloqy. F ) ) has all its bounded s e t s of f i n i t e dimension.s(F + N . Moreover. (M/L. Set ( M . ( 2 ) The three-space problem has negative s o l u t i o n f o r the property o f being quasibarrel l e d .s( F + N . C l e a r l y . s i n c e t h e bounded s e t s of (F.7. we apply 4. (KN.(M/L. s i s s t r i c t l y finer than p .5. s i s s t r i c t l y f i n e r than t (and t h e r e f o r e the bounded s e t s of (M. The closed bounded subsets of ( K N . t ) :=( F+N.r). E ) ) . A i s finite-dimensional and hence (F+N.s( F . s ( E .t). E ) ) . E ) ) a r e finite-dimensional. E ) ) i s separable ( i i ) f o r any bounded s e t A of ( F + N .r) i s rretrizable and hence q u a s i b a r r e l l e d b u t i t is not b a r r e l l e d .E)) and a subspace N of N1 such t h a t ( i ) (F+N.9: W e a n a l i z e several consequences of the existence of a space a s t h e one constructed above.s) i s separable and quasi-complete.a barrelled space whose bounded s e t s a r e r e l a t i v e l y conpact) whose bounded s e t s a r e f i nite-dimensional and i s not endowed w i t h t h e s t r o n g e s t l o c a l l y convex topology. ( 1 ) There exists on K N a topolocjy s . .9(b) we constructed a dual p a i r ( E .s( F + N .s(E*. p ) contains infinite-dimensional bounded s e t s .s) a r e finite-dimensional which shows .5.

( V x ( O ) . as a dense subspace o f a F r e c h e t space. N1 i s dense i n L . N be a dense hyperplane o f K and l e t F be t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f ( M . t h a t i s ((MxE)/(Mx(O))$) i s isomorphic t o KN.5. ) o f l i n e a r l y indeDendent v e c t o r s o f M which a r e n o t i n N1 and s e t L:=sp(N1u C l e a r l y .s) and t h e r e f o r e i s not quasibarrelled: i f t h i s i s i s b a r r e l l e d s i n c e i t i s quasi-complete and hence (Y/L. ( Y .6 q u a s i b a r r e l l e d . N Then. N t ) . On t h e o t h e r hand.b. t ) i s i n f i n i t e .r) i s i s o m r p h i c t o K and hence quasi-complete.whose gy). r ) and ((O)xE.(2)). has a dense bounded s e t s a r e f i n i t e . b .s) n a l (compare t h i s space w i t h K(N) w i t h t h e s t r o n g e s t l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o such t h a t (L/Fllys) has n o t a f. Mx(0) i s i s i s o m r p h i c t o (Y.which subspace N1 o f i n f i n i t e codimension.r) i s isomorphic . ( 4 ) The p r o p e r t y o f h a v i n g a fundamental sequence o f bounded s e t s ( f .)).d i m e n s i o i s m e t r i z a b l e and n o t Set r f o r t h e i s a space o f i n f i n i t e c o u n t a b l e dimension. .r).$29. Then (L/N1.and?=r on M/L.r) conplete.1.3. B u t (MxE. ( s e e K1.138 that (Y.. i s n o t quasi-complete. I f Q* denotes i t s r e s t r i c t i o n t o YxE. BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES s c o i n c i d e s w i t h t on L. (M. Take a sequence ( f ( n ) : n = l . T h i s i s n o t t h e case.r). ( L . ) i s n o t i n h e r i t e d by q u o t i e n t s .s) Observe t h a t "quasi-completeness" i s isomorphic t o which..s) i s quasi-complete).r) i s barrelled. The q i r o t i e n t ((MxE)/(Mx(O)) N . W e know t h a t N1 i s a dense subspace o f PI=F+N1=F+N o f i n f i n i t e c o u n t a b l e dimension and t h a t dim(M/N1) (f(n):n=l. t o p o l o g y on L c o n s t r u c t e d i n 4. . t o (E+sp( z ) / s p ( z ) endowed w i t h t h e q u o t i e n t t o p o l o g y o f E+sp( z ) as subsoace o f KN. ( 3 ) The three-space problem has n e g a t i v e s o l u t i o n f o r t h e p r o p e r t y o f b e i n g quasi-complete ( a n d hence f o r t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f b e i n g s e m i . Take v e c t o r s x C F \ M and y K \ E and s e t z:=( x. s ) n o t t h e case.Z. s i n c e ((O)xE.r) (E. L i s b a r r e l l e d by 4. (Yx(O).and ((MxE)/(Vx(O)) . I n a d d i t i o n . ?) = (M/L. l e t r be t h e i n i - t i a l t o p o l o g y on MxE w i t h r e s p e c t t o Q*.s) (MxE+sp(z))/sp(z). Since L i s o f c o u n t a b l e dimension and .5.y). Consider t h e subspaN ce MxE+sp( z ) o f FxK and t h e c a n o n i c a l s u r j e c t i o n Q:MxE+sp( z ) L e t (E.r) c o i n c i d e w i t h Mx(0) and N N ( 0 ) x K r e s p e c t i v e l y as subspaces o f FxK . a contradiction. Thus.r e f l e x i v e and Monte1 ) . L e t s be a t o p o l o g y on L/NI normable.r) would a l s o be quasi-complete. s .s. which i s c o a r s e r than t h e t o p o l o g y N induced by FxK Moreover.and i t i s a c l o s e d subspace o f (VxE. can be r e l a c e d by " s e q u e n t i a l complete- ness" o r even b y " l o c a l completeness" ( s e e c h a p t e r 5 ) i n t h e former proof. Z .t) which i s q u a s i - c l o s e d i n (klxE.r) i s n o t quasicomplete because o t h e r w i s e ( 0 ) x E as a c l o s e d subspace o f (MxE. Since L i s o f c o u n t a b l e codimension on M. endowed w i t h t h e t o p o l o a y of P I .

) . a c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n c e (M/L)* does n o t have c o u n t a b l e dimension. (i) x* i s a b s o l u t e l y . and hence i t i s enough t o show t h a t ( M .u*)(x*):= Z I u ( n ) l p U ( x ( n ) ) w i t h U I U a n d u*t%'.8.sn):=(M.m(P1. . each (M. E i s b a r r e l l e d b u t i t s s t r o n g dual (M.. s ) i s quasi-complete.Z.z) would be b a r r e l l e d and.t z p o l o q v . b . t h e n (Y/L..)..n) and Q:M+M/L t h e c a n o n i c a l s u r j e c t i o n . i . Thus (M/L)* = (hl/L. 4. ( 5 ) S e t E:=(M'. determine f o r an a l g e b r a i c b a s i s f o r M/L.sn) i s a Mon- t h e bounded s e t s o f ( L .r) b u t (L/N1. i .sn) = o f i n f i n i t e c o u n t a b l e codimension and F o r e v e r y n. f o r e v e r y U i n U . e . .8. sn) i s r e l a t i v e l y compact.s) Since E i s t h e s t r o n g dual o f a Monte1 space.1 -summble sequences i n E endowed w i t h t h e S . ( Y . Nn b e i n g sp(f( i ) o Q : i = l .v a l u e d sequence spaces.2.( x( n ) ) . qp.) 1 belongs t o 1 . i t follows t h a t (L. D e f i n i t i o n 4. has n o t ... UtU.M)).1 1-summable i f t h e r e e x i s t s a d i s c B i n E such t h a t 0 .d i m e n s i o n a l .t) ( 6 ) There e x i s t s a l i n e a r space M and a c o u n t a b l e f a m i l y (sn:n=1. .1 and i f X i s a p e r f e c t zlu(n)lpU(x(n)) sequence space ( see K1.. If X=l1.2.?)=(L/N1.5. t e l space b u t (M.). (pu(x(n)):n=l.?30).. we d e f i n e ~ E :)= ( X * G E ~ : < +m .CHAPTER 4 139 are finite-dimensional.. e ... snmand s e t (M.) s o l u t e l y convex a b s o r b i n g subset A o f E. i s t h e space o f a l l a b s o l u t e l y . i s n o t complete. q%(x(n)) <+ 00.3. x*:=(x(n):n=l.2: (i) X belongs t o 11.)~~x. i f s:=sup(sn:n=1.b(M'.M'+Nn))..<)' 2 is the stron- =sp(f(n):n=1. PD (b(x(n)):n=1.2.e. s . Accor- i s b a r r e l l e d f o r each n and e v e r y bounded s e t o f (M.. .2.) f ( n ) €(M/L)* d i n g t o 4...(x(n)) 4 +oo (ii) x* i s t o t a l l y .s) be b a r r e l l e d .s) s e t (x(n):n=1.) D e f i n i t i o n 4. s ) i s n o t b a r r e l l e d . t ) such t h a t (x(n).f(m)) (M.. g e s t l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y on M/L. ?.La b a s i s o f a b s o l u t e l y convex 0a sequence i n E and pA t h e gaucp o f an ab- nghbs i n E .8 B a r r e l l e d v e c t o r ..Z. I f s:=sup(s :n=I.1: L e t E be a space. L e t L be a dense subspace o f ( M .) o f t o p o l o g i e s on M such t h a t . i s not. ll{Ef LU). n s i n c e e v e r y bounded s e t i s f i n i t e . .8. s i n c e i t i s o f c o u n t a b l e dimension. i .. u*:=(u(n):n=1.2.. z d o w e d w i t h t h e t o p o l o g y d e f i n e d by t h e f a m i l y o f seminorms p(U. r ) has a f . W i t h t h e same n o t a t i o n o f 4.2.2. Should (M.1 1 -summble i f .. t h e t o p o l o g y defined by t h e f a m i l y o f seminorms p(U)( x*) := 1 1 p..

.) with U i n a.v*>:= (n) .1 1 summable sequence i n E i s t o t a l l y .. i s fundamentally-1 -bounded.t o p o l o g y induP r o p o s i t i o n 4..O. (i) c o ( E ) ' i s a se1 q u e n t i a l l y dense subspace o f 1 {( E' . ( i i ) co(E) i s a c l o s e d subspace of loo( E ) . P .b(E'. ( s e e a l s o K2. ( c ) i n P. ( i ) i f F i s a dense subspace o f E..2. ( b ) i f E i s fundamentally-1 -bounded. e v e r y bounded s e t H o f 1 1 {El. v ( n ) ) < d f o r a l l f L 1 y*:=(y(n):n=1.1 -bounded i f .1 . o f...8. b ( E ' . The f o l l o w i n g t h r e e r e s u l t s ( i ) lm(E) i s comolete i f E i s c o w l e t e . E ) ) I ( i v ) t h e s t r o n g dual o f 1 { E l i s isomorphic t o 1 ( E ' .2. t h e d u a l i t y given b y (Xi. s zx(n)v(n) u*> = z x ( n ) u ( n ) .).) . E ) ) i a n d (ii) the T .O.s u m a b l e . ( i i ) c o ( E ) ' = ( u * C ( E ' ) N : t h e r e e x i s t s U i n U s u c h t h a t q p U o ( u ( n ) ) < + & ) .8.8.7: ces on co( E) ' t h e t o p o l o g y b( co( E) ' . E i s con- each Jk i s a t o p o l o g i c a l i s o m r p h i s m o n t o i t s image and P1:co(E)+ can be seen i n M S P r o p o s i t i o n 4.3: Ember o f ( a ) s i n c e e v e r y bounded s e t o f E i s absorbed by e v e r y 1 1 every t o t a l l y .) (iii) 1 (E):=(x*CE W i n H. . f o r l a p e r f e c t szquence space. E i ' = ( v * E ( E ' ) ~ : there e x i s t s an E-equicontinuous sequence w* i n E ' and a sequence o f s c a l a r s (a(n):n=1.x. E ) ) .241.7) = b ( i ) l { ..4: P r o p o s i t i o n 4.1 -sum1 1 mable i n E.1 -summble sequence i n E i s a b s o l u t e l y .) i s bounded i n E).b( E ' . t h e r e e x i s t s a c l o s e d d i s c B i n E such t h a t L n . t h e n and 00 I f E i s q u a s i b a r r e l l e d and (E'.1 -bounded. Then c0( E) 'D( E' ) .co( E ) ) . P k : l ( E ) + E. N :(x(n):n=l. t h e d u a l i t y g i v e n b y (x*.8. F o r any l o c a l l y convex space E.5: in co(~). Clearly. i 2' such t h a t v ( n ) = a ( n ) w ( n ) f o r each n ) . (ii) P r o p o s i t i o n 4. A b a s i s o f 0-nghbs i s hence given by t h e f a m i l y (U A l W ( E ) : U t U ) N ( i v ) co(E):=(x*CE N :x* i s a n u l l sequence i n E).p. t h a t e v e r y m e t r i z a b l e space and e v e r y (DF)-space ( s e e c h a p t e r 8 ) i s funda1 m e n t a l l y . 3 1 i t i s shown 'lk. t h e n c0(F) i s dense co(~).2.. Pk( x*):=x( k ) stands f o r t h e c a n o n i c a l p r o E ) f o r t h e i n j e c t i o n J k ( x):=( 0 . ( .8. endowed w i t h t h e t o - pology defined by t h e f a m i l y o f seminorms q(U)(x*):=sup(pu(x(n)):n=1..2. Observation 4. t h e n e v e r y a b s o l u t e l y . (XJ .E)) 1 ( i i i ) t h e s t r o n g dual o f c ( E ) i s i s o m r p h i c t o l ' { ( E ' . endowed w i t h t h e topology induced b y lQ)( E).. j e c t i o n and Jk:E -lm( a0 . b ( E ' .140 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEXSPACES ( i i ) E i s s a i d t o be f u n d a m n t a l l y . hence E i s a q u o t i e n t o f c o ( E ) . I n what f o l l o w s .6: in 00 t i n u o u s and open.

and (ii). (Bo)Nnlm((E'. f E C " : if x* t C. by T ( f * ) : = ( f * o J n : )-l-(E'. Then f( x*):=z:(x( W e a r e done f . off[( E ' .8: (co(E)'. b ( c o ( E ) ' . t h e n H i s co(E)-equicon- t i n u o u s . complete and. T h i s shows ( i i i ) .CHAPTER 4 141 P r o o f : According t o 4. T i s i n j e c t i v e . t h e n I<x*. 1 T --------i s open: L e t C be a bounded s e t o f 1 { E l . c & E ) ) . t h e v e c t o r s o f co( E ) ' a r e t o t a l l y . s i n c e ( f ( n ) : n = 1 . We s h a l l Drove t h a t T i s continuous T%(x(n))Al).b(E'. S i n c e E i s a q u o t i e n t of co(E). Since E i s q u a s i b a r r e l l e d .b(E'.b( E ' .2. b ( E ' .4.8.f( n)) i s a continuous l i n e a r f o r m on l'{€) and T ( f ) = f * .? i n 1 { E j .E)) and. ( B " ) --------------ana.E)) s a t i s f i e s t h e DroDerty 1 o f b e i n g fundamentally-1 -bounded.u*>} : x * & B n c o ( E ) . F(x*):= T < x ( n ) .1 '-summable sequences o f ( E ' . t h e e q u i c o n t i n u o u s s e t s o f E ' a r e p r e c i s e l y t h e bounded s e t s o f (E'. ) which i s w e l l .b(l1iEf'.b(E'.t o ~ o l o q y o f i t s LI1 A c c o r d i n q t o 8.l1iE] n=1. b ( E ' .F))]. and i n l ' { ( E ' .. ded. E ) ) ] c o ( E ) ' i s a subspace (N) which i s s e q u e n t i a l l y dense s i n c e co( E ) ' c o n t a i n s ( E l ) a vector i s the l i m i t i n t h e T i . C l e a r l y 1 Since E i s fundam%ntally-1 -bounz % ( x ( n ) ) rl).6( ii). and open. l i n e a r and continuous. ( i v ) D e f i n e T:(l1{Ef1.b( E ' . E ) ) i s fundamentally-1 --bounded. Thus t h e r e e x i s t an a b s o l u t e l y convex 0-nghb U i n E and a > 0 such . Do K.E)) 00 .E)) .f>l&g(x(n) . E i s q u a s i b a r r e l l e d . 2 .1.b(E'.b( E ' . T i s o n t o : indeed.co(E)) i s sequentially i t c o i n c i d e s w i t h l'[(E'. . .b(co(E)'.. P r o o f : Suppose co(E) q u a s i b a r r e l l e d . s i n c e t h e sequence (f*-Jn:n=1. ) i s E-equicontinuous by t h e q u a s i - b a r r e l l e d n e s s o f E and c l e a r l y T ( f * ) = i . co( E ) ' c o i n c i d e s a l g e b r a i c a l l y ( a n d t h e r e f o r e t o p o l o g i c a l l y b y ( i i ) ) w i t h l'[(E'. c n). T h i s shows ( i ) . T i s continuous: Given a d i s c B i n E. 1 1 ~ E J) ) . t h e mapping T:1 {El-. b ( 1 1 ~ E ~ ' . E ) ) .3(a). To prove ( i i ) i t i s enough t o check t h e d e f i n i n g seminorms o f b o t h t o p o l o g i e s which a r e r e s p e c t i v e l y u* + + T p B o ( u ( n ) ) . I f H i s a bounded s e t i n ( c o ( E ) ' . B N b e i n g a bounded s e t o f E and u * M sup( <x*. / / F o r a space E. t h e r e e x i s t s a d i s c B i n E such t h a t C C(x*tll{E\nBN: L e t f * be a E c t o r o f t h e O-nghb i n ?((E'.8.d e f i n e d and l i n e a r . P T(A") C ( B " ) N . s i n c e E(N) 1 1 i s dens.b( E ' . co(E) i s q u a s i b a r r e l l e d i f and o n l y i f E i s 1 q u a s i b a r r e l l e d and ( E ' .E)). which i s a boun- ll{E1.E)). t h e n A" i s a 0-nghb i n ( 1 1 i E 5 ' . Moreover. i f A stands f o r t h e s e t (x*Cl1{E]LlBN: ded s e t i n N i s a 0-nghb i n l@((E'.E)) i s well-defined. 8 .E)){.f( n)>I-LLpB(x(n)) 6 l .b(E'. f ( n ) > f o r a f i x e d f* C lm((E'. Theorem 4.b(E'. s e c t i o n s . s i n c e (E'. B a bounded subset o f E ) .) i s E-equicontinuous and hence s t r o n g l y bounded i n E l . 7 ( i ) E))]. According t o 4.b(E'. a c c o r d i n g t o 4 .2.4.

T A F i s a b a r r e l i n F and hence a O-n@b i n F.. we have t h a t x ( * .9: n i vorous L e t E be a b a r r e l l e d space.2.t o p o l o g y o f 1 l ( E ' .1)=0) i s P r o o f : I t i s enough t o prove t h a t . s i n c e F i s isomorphic t o a f i n i t e p r o d u c t o f c o p i e s o f t h e b a r r e l l e d space E. s e t F : = ( x * L c O ( E ) : x ( n ) = O i f n a p ) and 6 : = ( x * E c O ( E ) : x(n)=O i f n < p ) ... Conversely. A c c o r d i n g l y . Now s e t D:=( F a ( m ) 2 . i f x * C K we have t h a t x*((b+c)T and we a r e done. .2.b( E'. determine Xt :=(x(m. Cl~l!: . 2.b(E' . b ( E ' .c0( E ) ) ) . P and s i n c e 1 i s fundameGally-1 -bounded.4 shows t h a t D i s a Banach d i s c i n . . t h e s e t N K:=B Ace( E ) i s absorbed by T. Since 2-mx*mCD f o r each m.n)CB 2 f o r each n and x * ~ 4 2 .E)) . if x(. N t h e r e e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r p such t h a t ( x * L B ace( E):x( l ) =. 3.b(E'.. // . .. f o r each sequence (a(m):m=1. b ( E ' 1 i s fundamentally-1 -bounded.C a f o r e v e r y u*CH. 7 a p p l i e s t o show t h a t D i s absorbed b y t h e b a r r e l T and hence t h e r e e x i s t s d>O such t h a t DCdT.) i s a n u l l sequence i n co(E). . t h e r e e x i s t s c > O such t h a t .. ( E l .) t bT. t h e n (x(1). . C l e a r l y co(E) i s t h e t o p o l o g i c a l d i r e c t sum o f F and G and a c c o r d i n g t o o u r claim. s i n c e D i s a Banach d i s c i n c o ( E ) . Since (2-mx*m:ml. // Lemm 4.E))...t h e c(TAF).and t h a t i s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n .. b e l o n g i n g t o E....n) m=. E ) ] .in-l... and x * ~ Q 2T.2. f o r e v e r y x ( j ) t B w i t h j?p.~ x * belongs ~ t o co( E ) s i n c e z ( n ) = La(m)2-mx(m. Prrwof-~f-the-clal~: (x(l.x(p-1). t h e vec- t h e c o n p l e t e space co(?)=@. t h e r e e x i s t s b>O such t h a t . 3 Since aU" i s a bounded s e t i n ( E ' . 2 T. On t h e o t h e r hand.n):n=l.. Consequently. n 1 n ) 2 ..) Suppose t h e c l a i m f a l s e .j)=O f o r j = l . . say B y such t h a t ? b ( u ( n ) ) < +- f o r e v e r y u*CH. Every b a r r e l T i n c0(E) i s b o r - .x(p+l) .7(i).) i n c o ( E ) such t h a t x(2. Given ~ = lt h .2. For ~ = 2 . i s fundamentally-1 1suppose t h a t E i s q u a s i b a r r e l l e d and t h a t (E'. .) t o r ?a(.0.e q u i c o n t i n u o u s .nj:n=l. p-1.b( c ( E ) ' .O.) w i t h x(m. j = l .)~ Thus.n)CB f o r each n m go and x* m 4 mZmT. .E)) H be a bounded s e t i n ( co( E ) ' . . 3. 0 We s h a l l see t h a t 00 D i s 2 Banarh d i s c i n with ?la(m)l&l has c o o r d i n a t e s c O ( E ) : indeed. Since E i s quasi- b a r r e l l e d . x(m.Z..142 0 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEXSPACES t h a t r p u o ( u ( n ) ) .. A c c o r d i n g H i s bounded i n t h e x .i z*:= a( m)Z-"lx*.. we have t h a t ( E ' .=x( p... E l ) bounded and l e t t o 4.n)CB r e e x i s t s x * ~ : = ( x(2.2. e r e e x i s t s xX1:= i n co(E) such t h a t x(1.n):n=1. we have t h a t (O. B i s E-equicontinuous and hence H i s a c0( E ) .x(p).m x * m : g l a ( m ) l L 1). f o r e v e r y c l o s e d d i s c R o f E. t h e r e e x i s t s a weakly c l o s e d d i s c i n E. .8. I f o u r c l a i m i s t r u e ..0.. .8. Proceeding i n t h i s f a s h i o n .j)CEi. absorbed by T. dZmT f o r each m.. f o r p=m.1)=O and x(2.

J f o r every x*tW.8.8.2. ) and t h e r e f o r e e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r m such t h a t lICrrfjs and hence t h e r e e x i s t s sow p f o r which Thus t h e p o l a r s e t s U o f B f o r m a fundamental system o f a b s o l u t e l y P' P P convex 0-nghbs i n E... nuous. co(E) i s b a r r e l l e d i f and o n l y i f E i s Theorem 4. n=1. C l e a r l y . E such t h a t (x. t h e n V i s i n c l u d e d i n a Banach d i s c U i n E ' and.h P P P+ 1 i s any E-equicontinuous subset o f E l ..8.9 and 4.n( 1))) Since Gp(l) is =1 and <x( 1) . S i n c e each An i s E-equicontinuous. n ( l ) ) . s i n c e t h e Banach space E l U i s covered b y t h e i n c r e a s i n g sequence o f c l o s e d subspaces G f l E ' " .8.) weakly closed..12: relled.n(l))(An(l)\Gp(l) and s e l e c t v( l ) * : = ( v ( l.u)= . n o t a l l An save a f i n i t e number a r e c o n t a i n e d i n any G .Z. each An i s weakly bounded i n E ' and hence E .n):n=l.. I f E does n o t adi s bar- m i t any non-normable q u o t i e n t w i t h a continuous norm. There e x i s t s u(l.2. S e l e c t a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r n ( 1 ) P w i t h An(l)#G1 and s e t p ( l ) : = l .. P f o r each p. there exists a positive integer s P such t h a t E l U i s c o n t a i n e d i n Gs. and ((x*.8.// O b s e r v a t i o n 4.9 shows t h a t f o r a space E such t h a t an a b s o l u t e l y convex s e t which absorbs t h e Banach d i s c s o f E i s a 0 e v e r y a b s o l u t e l y convex s e t i n co(E) which absorbs t h e Banach d i s c s i n co(E) i s b o r n i v o r o u s . I f V and weakly c l o s e d subsets B o f E ' such t h a t B C 2 . t h e p r o o f i n 4.8. t h e n K ( N ) [ E j . !3bim: . VCB .10(ii).11: nghb i n E..u( l.u*>lSl 0 I f o u r c l a i m i s t r u e . P L e t A be a weakly bounded subset o f K(N){EfP' and s e t An f o r t h e subset o f E ' o f a l l those v e c t o r s which a r e t h e n .t h c o o r d i n a t e o f a v e c t o r o f A .p=1. generated by a b s o l u t e l y convex weakly bounded sed subspaces G . Proof: According t o 2. Now E l U i s covered by t h e sequence o f abs o l u t e l y convex c l o s e d subsets ( nBs-E'U:m=1.6.2. E ' i s t h e i n c r e a s i n g union o f weakly c l o L e t E be a non-normable F r 6 c h e t space.. . t h e r e e x i s t s xlt ( A w i t h v(l..CHAPTER 4 143 For a space E.n( l))=u( l . P r o o f : I t f o l l o w s f r o m 4. p=1. Set q f o r t h e gauge of U f o r each p. hence Suppose t h e c l a i m f a l s e .e q u i c o n t i - t h e r e e x i s t a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r r and p o s i t i v e s c a l a r s Mn such t h a t An <MnBr f o r each n.u*tA. Theorem 4..8.2.10: b a r r e l l e d and co( E ) i s q u a s i b a r r e l l e d . t h e c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s : W:=(x*€ K(N){EJ: $ZnMnqr( x ( n ) ) 6 1) i s a 0-nghb i n K"){EI A i s K ( ~ ) { E -equicontinuous.

6( i)i m p l i e s t h e e x i s P( 1) * N t e n c e o f a v e c t o r a*:=( a(n):n=1.144 BARREL LED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES Since V( l ) * € ( K ( N ) { E j ) ' .u>=O f o r e v e r y u & G J < D ( j) Define y*:=(y(n):n=l.. n ( j ) ) > =j+ += 2 '4< x k . we f i n d a v e c t o r x2&E w i t h (x2. ) .9 Notes and R e m r k s .2..2.n) Gp( j + l ) f o r each n and j ( i i ) x .. and ( p ( k ) : k = l .n) t G P ( 3 ) f o r each n.n):n=l. 1 i n a v e r s i o n due t o KOMURA.10(i). n ) f o r each n. % g). p( 3 ) ) p ( 2 ) such t h a t v(2. 4 .n)>] n=r A.. .n( k ) ) > f o r each j.Z.2. .v(j.) each j .10( i T can be 2xtended i n two ways: (1) c o n s i d e r subclasses &! o f 6 and c h a r a c t e r i z e b ? ( 2 ) r e s t r i c t y t o a c e r t a i n c l a s s 5 and c h a r a c t e r i 2 e ( o r a t l e a s t . v ( j J ( i i i ) <x. t h e r e e x i s t s t e r m i n e sequences o f p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r s (n(k):k=1. B a r r e l l e d suaces aopear as those l o c a l l y convex spaces s a t i s f y i n n t h e u n i f o r m boundedness p r i n c i p l e . Then we c a r such t h a t An(2) i s n o t f i n d p ( 2 ) > p ( 1) such t h a t ( w ( l .v(2.ADASCH and VALDIVIA and PTAK's r e s u l t was t h e f i r s t a t t e r r p t t o extend t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e c l a s s i c a l o o e n . n ) : n = l y 2 .) bep(j) According t o ( i ) f o r each j due t o ( i i i ) akove. W i t h r e s p e c t t o (l). de- which a r e s t r i c t l y i n c r e a s i n g . 1 .c o n p l e t e snaces which a r e s t u d i e d i n d e t a i l i n Chapter 7..u) =O i f u t G P( 2 ) GP( 2) and (~..2..n(Z)). n ( 2 ) ) ( A ~ ( ~can ) be found such t h a t i t i s P( 2) * Since L e t v ( 2 ) * be a v e c t o r o f A w i t h v(Z. For t h i s ouroose. and & a r e d e f i n e d i n 7 .. observe .// I 4. t h a t i f 3 stands f o r t h e c l a s s o f 11 Banach snaces.n(j))>\a c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n c e A i s weakly bounded.2.n(Z))) =2+ \(x1. and a seauence (v(k)*:k=1. 4 9 =]L<xk. Now we f i x = we have t h a t I ( y * .4. ( 2 ) w i l l be t r e a t e d i n d e t a i l i n Chanter 9. ) P( 2 ) contained i n G i s c o n t a i n e d i n B o ( 2 ) and hence f o r each n.m n p i n a and c l o s e d graph t h e o r e m beyond t h e scope o f l t e t r i z a b l e spaces.u(2. then (BS c o n s i s t s o f a l l b a r r e l l e d soaces ( w r i t e 0 3 = For a f a m i l y a .23 respsctively. together w i t h 4. v ( . 1 0 ( i i ) isrdue t o VAHUdALD. BOUWAKI c l a s s i f i e s l o c a l l y convex spaces a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r behaviour w i t 4 resnect t o the basic p r i n c i p l e s o f l i n e a r Functional Analysis.) i n A and a ( i) v ( j . C l e a r l y . v ( j ) * > ] and (ii) I &(?)...v(j.n)EG not i n G . .v(jyn(k))>(> \<xj. v ( j . f i n d i m o r t a n t c l a s s e s o f spaces which b e l o n q t o ) Y r .Z v( 1.n( 1 ) ) ) \ . j y n ( k ) \ > l 7/5 and t h a t i s \f<xk. n ) = a ( n ) w ( l .2. The p r o o f i s complete... Now we s e l e c t n ( Z ) > n ( l ) P(2)' i s weakly closed.) GK and a E-equicontinuous sequence 0 f o r every u i n G (w(l. 4. ) i n E ' such t h a t v ( l .1. 4.. 4.. .) i n E such t h a t .1. 1 and1..1. As we d i d above.8. PThK i n t r o d u c e d t h e n o t i o n s o f 5-complete and B .10( i ) i s t h e s o f t p a r t o f PTAK's c l o s e d qraph t h e o r e m An e x t e n s i o n o f PTAK's c l o s e d y a p h t h e o r g m i s p r o v i d e d i n 7 . Z . Proceeding b y recurrence.v(i. y*C K ( N ) { E ) longs t o K") by y ( n ) : = x j i f n = n ( j ) and y(n):=O i f n # n ( i ) f o r s i n c e t h e sequence ( q (y(n)):n=l..n(k))>l = & < x k . A v e c t o r ~ ( 2 ..(l) and shows. .n(Z))=u(Z.) sequence (xk:k=1.

(2) was of type C(X) f o r X a Hausdorff conpact space. Then ( ( 1 ) ) =( F(2))= ( $ ( 3 ) ) .(3)) shows t h a t . They prove: 4.2. 5 I €a*( . t h e r e i s an isometric enbedding J : E . E ) ) i s Eequiconti nuo8s. Clearly.b a r r e l l e d and m r e o v e r .9.b a r r e l l e d space can be endowed w i t h a topology of t h e dual o a i r f o r which i t i s M( & ) barrel 1ed. the continuous image of a EBERLEIN-compact i s a l s o of this type ( s e e KICHAEL.b a r r e l l e d i s G( 4 ) .(14) showed t h a t .b a r r e l l e d spaces which a r e n e i t h e r bdackey nor .Then S s contains each i n f i n i t e countable-codimensional subspaces o f each of i t s melrbers.)-barrelled space and 4. K being a 3 Js.25 and the following two t h e o r e h 4.( 2 ) orovide exanples of M ( d ) .xb)-barrelled spaces (MAROUINA): Let K be a Hausdorff i n f i n i t e conpact set. 4. 4.b a r r e l l e d spaces a r e again G( d )-barrel led. Moreove?.1. Using these results and DIESTEL. s ( E ' .(Z)). then gS= t h e f i r s t t o e x h i b i t subclasses % of 3 f o r which 07.b a r r e l l e d . L I N D E N S T R A I I S S . t h e n F t ( C ( O . By ttle very d e f i n i t i o n of Y(x.9. closed subs aces and i a d u c t i v e l i m i t s . s ( E ' .b a r r e l l e d W( o ( )-barrel i s a 0-n@b. In this a r t i c l e one can f i n d a version of 4. A space E i s d . 2 4 ) . Let d ) be t h e c l a s s of a l l Banach spaces F w i t h d ( F ) l o ( . a s i n i l a r argument a s the one used i n t h e proof of 4. every G ( O C ) .Th.(l). 4.1. i f @ i s the c l a s s of a l l Banach spaces Y .9. and a space E C ( % ( 3 ) ) i f and only i f i t i s G-barrellea. Those spaces a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y M ( d ) . every M( ) . According t o 7.b a r r e l l e d i f and only i f E o ( )s.. s ( E ' .(-barrelled and they show t h a t Mackey & .2 f o r d = " 0 ) i f every bounded set of c a r d i n a l i t y l e s s o r equal than of ( E ' .2.5: E i s M( d ) . l ) ) s r . U is a G(d )-barrel i f E c & ( o ( ) and E i s G ( d ) b a r r e l l e d i f every G ( o ( )-barrel i n E i s a 0-nd.(l)) Let O? be a c l a s s of spaces such t h a t . T h u s .RUDIN. and l e t Ll be a barrel i n a space E.6: Let dz be the c l a s s of a l l Banach spaces of t h e tyoe C ( K ) . K is a EBERLEIN-conpact set i f i t i s homom r p h i c t o a weakly conpact subset of a Banach s p a ~ R . then -TT(Ei:i c 1 ) c as i f Mo?eover. i f KI€ each EiEO?. l ) ) .Z.4:(SA LU. O u r next r e s u l t shows when countable-codimensional subspaces of spaces i n IRs a r e again i n 32. SAIFLU.o. Let us c h a r a c t e r i z e the o p t i m l domin c l a s s i n MARQLlINA's r e s u l t : I f a Z * ( d ) i s t h e c l a s s of a l l Banach spaces which a r e closed subspaces o f # defirle M( o( ) .13 shows 4.9..16.3:(POPOOLA. then ( U " .TWEODLEy(2)) E i s G(d ) . E ) ) ) . DE WILDE.29 f o r t h e c l a s s of a l l d .( 1) prove t h a t K is a EBERLEIFI-conpact i f and only i f C(K) i s LICG.. i f E i s a closed subspace of a WCG Banach space.b a r r e l l e d spaces a r e M( & ) . i s s t r i c t l y l a r g e r than T by showing 4.( 1).b a r r e l l e d .b a r r e l s i n a space E as those b a r r e l s U @ ) and. (I ) a( 4.9.CHAPTER 4 145 t h a t 4.5. E ) ) i s E-equicontinuous.1: E C ( c ) s i f and only i f every Cauchy sequence i n ( E ' .)-barrelled spaces a r e p r e c i s e l y our G-barrelled spaces ( 4 . o ( d)). i f EWL*(&). % ( 3 ) : = ( C ( 0 . i f F i s a separable Br-corrpfete space. E ) ) i s a EBERLEIN-comoact.29 extends KALTON's theorem and i t i s due t o MARQUINA.b a r r e l l e d i f and only i f E E ( & ( n) can be replaced by a l l B-complete spaces E w i t h d ( F ) a t most . T h u s G(-r. i s s t a b l e by f i n i t e products. F(2 ) : = ( a l l separ a b l e Banach s p a c e s ) .. Y( a ) . On the o t h e r hand.13 (UILANSKY. O u r next r e s u l t c h a r a c t e r i z e s M(.9. countable-codimensional subspaces of G( o( ) .9.t C ( ( U " .1.l47 i t i s easy t o show t h a t . i f F G a then FxK( 4 8 .1.TWEDDLE. accordingly.lVEDDLE. s ( E ' . 1 .2: Suppose ?( l ) : = ( a l l separable Br-comlete spaces).b a r r e l l e d ( s e e 8. Let us pause t o give sow permnence p r o p e r t i e s of @ f o r som c l a s s 2 .W C G Banach spaces.10. KALTON.

4. LESESGUE( 1905) ensured t h e e x i s t e n c e o f f u n c t i o n s o f B A I R E c l a s s e s .4.(l) and 4. 4.19 and 4. set F a l l closures i n ? ' o f t h e bounded s e t s o f F+.( 2) and s o l v e s n e g a t i v e l y a q u e s t i o n o f ROUFBAKI (whether t h e s t r o n g b i d u a l o f a space i s c o w l e t e .( 1) and 4.(2) and o u r Droof f o l l o w s KOMURA.( CARRERAS. a c c o r d i n q t o EKOROV's t h e o r e n and i t s c o n p l e t i o n i s RR.4. LEVIN. (x(n):n=1.5.E)). Then i s t h e c l a s s of a l l M(X.:=(union of ordinal R . 7 .5.TSIRULNIKOV.PEREZ CARRERAS. t h e r e i s an o r d i n a l d such t h a t Fa = Fd. 4.4.6 i n DE YILDE.3. 2 ( i i ) can be found.5.7.4 and i t i s s e a u e n t i a l l v complete. = U (F.( 4 ) ) .2.6 i s due t o TWEDDLE.YEOMANS.-. The s p a c e b ' i s t h e q u a s i . = . 4.( 5).21.3. A c l a s s o f b a r r e l l e d spaces E whose bounded s e t s a r e f i n i t e dimensional and such t h a t e v e r y sequence i n E ' has an i n f i n i t e subsequence l y i n g i n a s(E*.S D I EROLF .DIEROLF. 4. 4.( 23).7.v a l u e d f u n c t i o n s d e f i n e d on R and continuous.)-barrelled spaces.9(2). ) . 4.24.(39).8 i n ROELCKE.(4) as w e l l as 4. F i n i t e b a r r e l l e d enlargements a r e t r e a t e d i n W l .PEREZ CARRERAS.7.c o m l e t e .( 1) i s c o n t a i n e d i n S.VILANSKYy(7). The space o f a l l f u n c t i o n s R-+ R which a r e Lebesaue-neasurable.2. 4 .2 and 4.18 a r e due t o DE WILDE..5.4. Our second p r o o f f o l l o w s a rrethod which appears i n VALDIVIA.23 and 4.4.7.12 EBERHAROT.9 and 4. 4 . where 4.F .cit. 1 i s due t o KOTHE ( s e e K1. 4.TSIRULNIKOV.8 appears i n AMEMIYA.4 a r e due t o SMOLJANOV.4.5. 4. Then F = Fd . one can c o n s t r u c t t h e s e u e n t i a l c o m p l e t i o n o f a sDace F: s e t t i n g Fo:=F.8. For e v e r y . SAXON.7.PEREZ i n S.TSIRULNIKOV.DIEROLF.5.4.1.2.(20) ano o u r p r o o f i s taken f r o m DRENNNoyrSKI.( 1 ) .12 can a l s o be found.DIEROLF. 1 i s due t o DIEUDONNT.4.4.m .4.( 1).22.ROELCKE. 4.5. ).( 3 ) .4. 27).( 1).(3). S .9. 1 and 4. a f u n c t i o n f E F 3 \ F ? ( a f u n c t i o n o f S A I R F c l a s s 3 ) .10 and and 4.DIEROLF.loc.12 a r e due t o TIJEDDLE.6.17.7( i i ) i s due t o BONET.c o n p l e t i o n F i. 4.15 i s c o n t a i n e d i n BONET. even i f t h e space i s b a r r e l l e d ) .5.( lo).14 a r e due t o KOYlURA.4. endowed w i t h t h e toDology induced by RR.( 3) and 4.S.) a Cauchy sequence i n For+ By t r a n s f i n i t e i n d u c t i o n .(3) and 4.3.5.DIEROLF.6. F . 4.9(6) i s c o n t a ined in ROELC KE . 8 :=u(Fp + .E)-conplete subspace of E ' i s p r o v i d e d by t h e c l a s s o f GPIspaces i n t r o d u c e d by EBERHARDT.5.11 i s due t o BEYNETT. A c c o r d i n g l y . a. t h e r e i s an o r d i n a l d such t h a t F and F .6 i s due t o VALDIVIA.4. 4.P.1.6.4 i s c o n t a i n e d i n BONET.6.LURJE. t h i s l a s t space b e i n g t h e space o f a l l v e c t o r s x o f F such t h a t x = l i m ( n ) .23 ( w h i c h i s due t o ROELCKE) appears i n S.5 can be seen i n S.. t h e s m a l l e s t q u a s i .(23).9( 1) i s due t o S.PEREZ CARRERAS. T a k i n g F above as t h e space o f a l l r e a l .4.14 can be seen i n VALDIVIA.( 2 ) . : / 3 < d ) i f d i s a l i m i t o r d i n a l o r F.3 can be seen 4 ) . : @ < d ) i f o( i s i m i t ordinA1 o r Fd :=(F. i s q u a s i .7. 4.KOMURA.4..5.(l).6 appears i n \1ALDIVIA.5.EB ERHARDT . . The Mackey spaces whick b e l o n o t o ( 1 2 ) s w i l l be d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter 5.7.(2). endowed w i t h t h e t o p o l o g y o f s i n p l e convergence. 4.1. i s s e q u e n t i a l l v c o m l e t e . a. Set Fo:=F.5 appears i n SAXON.( 2 ) ) . l e t us c o n s t r u c t t h e q u a s i .3.c o m p l e t i o n o f E ' i n (E*.10 and 4.4.11.3 and 4.16 and 4.( 1) and those a u t h o r s proved a l s o 4.( 1 ) .7. 4.( 3) ( s e e a l s o S. 3 .DIEROLF.DREWNClJSKI. where 4 . 4.( 2). 4.4. ( v ) and 4.S.(3). e.4.s( E*. I n general.13 can be seen i n 4.13. given a space F.3 appears i n ROELCKE.(ll).DIEROLF.DIEROLF. we f o l l o w I\rEBB.DIE!?OLF. 6 .DIEROLF.( 2) . By t r a n s f i n i t e induction. 4. 7 ( i v ) .13 i s due t o TIdEDDLF.9 i s t h e r a i n i d e a behind PTbK's c l o s e d waph theorem and i t s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s ( s e e @E WILD€.2 i s due t o KOMURA.(4) a r e due t o ROELCKE.EBERHARDT.11 a r e due t o VALDIVIA.4.KALTON. 5 .(6). (1).146 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEXSPACES EBERLEIN-conpact.LURJE .(34). 4.4. .(l) and o u r o r e s e n t a t i o n f o l l o w s SCHMEWECK. 4. 4 . . B A I P E c o n s t r u c t e d i n h i s t h e s i s a f u n c t i o n f b e l o n g i n g t o F2 b u t n o t t o F 1 ( a f u n c t i o n o f B A I R E c l a s s 2) and a f t e r w o r d s .c o n p l e t e space c o n t a i n i n q F .6.

10 is due t o M E N n O Z A . ( i i i ) .( 1) The following r e s u l t extends 4.s u m a b l e sequences i n E .m ded i f a l l s e t s .8: (FLORENCIO. ( l ) . E ) ) 3 . Z .9 and 4.l. ( i i ) The s t r o n g topolopy ) i s f i n e r than t h e topology induced by A X { ( E ' . be a f i l t e r W e s h a l l be concerned w i t h t h e following s i t u a t i o n : l e t . 7 ( i ) . Set I < E > f o r the space of a l l t o t a l l y . 8 ( i ) extend 4 . s ( E ' .following KOMURA.l\E)is defined a s ( u * K ( N x E \ i n X{EJ ZiCt(n). then E i s q u a s i b a r r e l l e d and ( E ' .8. E has a continuous norv i f and only i f E is fundanentally-K(N7-bounded ( t h e necessary condition being due t o ROSIER. . E ) ) i s ' .(S).9.1. E ) ) i s s e q u e n t i a l l y c o w l e t e .8 i s due t o MARQUINA. .s( .( 1)) ( i ) i f R is a n o r m l bounded s e t of 1 and H i s an absol u t e l y convex subset of a space E . ( i i ) .%-bounded and i f gq$Ej i s q u a s i b a r r e l l e d . Clearly.9. (ii)A space E is fundanentally-KN-bounded i f and only i f E s a t i s f i e s t h e c. 3 ( 4.12 is due t o BONET. then E i s b a r r e l l e d a n d ( E ' . ( 2 ) and 4. ogies coincide i f E i s f u n d a n e n t a l l y . ( l ) although our proof of 4.8.g. The c l o s u r e of K f N j i n 'x i s denoted by %.CA{Ej: P = a * .E)) i s fundamentally. ) ( E .9.1 .h .Zx). then X. i s a perfec equence space endowed w i t h i t s s t r o n g topology b( 1.9: (ROSIER.-barrel i f sp(T) i s open i n E and t h i s notion coincides w i t h t h e usual one m a p p e n s t o be a t .17 one has t h a t every Baire v .8. g .2( i i ) f o r h =1 1.11:( FLORENCIO. ( i i ) I f X~E!I= % < E > and i f a d E j i s b a r r e l l e d .8.2.lcbounded.CHAPTER 4 147 4 . All r e s u l t s which appear below a r e taken from L U R J E . 4.b. 1 . In what follows. b ( E' .10 4.9.b a r r e l l e d . x ~ ( E ' . b ( E ' .9.8.. . a f o r t i o r i . I x C 2 .(l)) ( i ) I f E i s fundanentally-h-bounded.c. E ) ) is fund a m n t a l l y . 4. i s v .8. ( i i ) E i s f u n d a m n t a l l y .KOMURA. ( 3 ) and i t i s a nornal space.b o u n d e d . u ) i s a topological vector space over the d i s c r e t e f i e l d K of t h e real o r complex numbers with a b a s i s of 0-nghbs U o f absolutely convex s e t s ( t h e 0-nghbs need not be absorbing!).PAUL. A l o c a l l y convex vector group ( v . One has 4.g. ) with a*&R and y ( n ) ( H f o r each n ) . ( i i i ) Let E be a F 6chet space.I>E] ) i s s e q u e n t i a l l y complete. 4. b ( E ' . then ?-{E)= 2 < E > and. .SP.2 4.H2 :=( X.9.9 and 4.8. 8 .9 i s taken from DEFANT. A norned space i s fundamntally-%-bounded f o r each Derfect space 2 .GOVAERTS .-barrel i n E i s a 0-nqhb.( 1)) and ( i v ) s i s not fundamntally-s'-bounded and s ' is not fundanentally-s-bounded. 8 .g. define >v\E]as the c l o s u r e of The g n r a l i z e d d-dual l{EjXof . g . suppose t h a t 7 . 1 i s due t o PIETSCH f o r a r b i t r a r y n o r m l sequence spaces l a s well as 4. In what follows we s h a l l extend t h e notion of barrelledness t o vector groups. 4. E ) ) j .( 1 ) ) I f ( E ' .( 1 ) ) ( i ) I f ( E ' . E i s a v. One has 4. y * = ( a ( n ) y ( n ) : n = l .1 .\x -bounded and ( i i i ) I f E i s f u n d a m n t a l l y . E i s v. Accordingly. R and H r u n n i n p through fundanental f a n i l i e s of bounded s e t s f o r 2 and E r e s p e c t i v e l y .( 1) one has t h a t C R Y H I K ( N 1 ( E ' ) C(l.{EfX. Again a s i n 4. E ) ) j .PEREZ CARRERAS. fundamntally.10: (GREGOQY. (&{E\ ) x = h x { ( E ' . -bounded. b ( E ' .( 1)) ( i ) every space is fundamntally.u(nj>k+f ~o r a l l P E ~ According E ~ t o ROSIER. g . then avkf i s ( q u a s i ) b a r r e l l e d .DIEROLFY(3).(countable boundedness condition ( M A C K E Y ) ) . f o r m a fundanental family of bounded s e t s i n 'k.g.7: (ROSIER. 4. [R.-barrelled i f every v. 9 .NZ SERNA.(Ef.9. s .7(iv) can be seen i n S.8. A v.g.Xxbounded and E i s ( q u a s i ) b a r r e l l e d .PAUL.10 t o g e t h e r w i t h 4 . . A closed absol u t e l y convex subset T of a v.7( i i ) coincides w i t h 4.8. b ( E ' .9.{Ej 1 ' C (LAEf.b( E' .

13.// ..). t ) n such t h a t M n W n L T ( L ) and i t s u f f i c e s t o show t h e e x i s t e k e o f MtnZand W f o r a l l L t M w i t h LCM.g..9.9. (E. 4. t h e r e i s n ( k ) such t h a t x(n)-x(m) t M ( k ) f o r n.13: L e t ( X . e s h a l l prove t h a t P r o o f : L e t T be an a b s o r b i n g v . .Z.Z. p ( s ) ( x ( n ) ) = p ( s ) ( x ( m ) ) f o r a l l n.g. Y a normed space and % a p o i n t w i s e bounded s e t o f continuous l i n e a r mappinqs f r o m X i n t o Y .Z.2.n g h b i n (X. . t h e n A ( f . 6 ) as a p a r t i c u l a r case o f t h e u n i f o r m boundedness p r i n c i p l e f o r v. .16: I f N:=(M(k):k=1..2. t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e intecrer n w i t h W n + l A M ( n ) C S CT(Mn+l) and t h a t i s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n .-topoloqy u ( m ) and t h i s t o p o l o q y can be understood as t h e p r o j e c t i v e l i m i t o f a f a m i l y of v .9..+ X ( k ) .2.b a r r e l l e d v.T(M(n+l)) and and d:=(M(n):n=1. P r o o f : By 4.c o n t i n u o u s mappings. .e q u i c o n t i n u o u s and hence t h e r e i s LLWand a u-nghb U i n L such t h a t f ( U ) C K ( K t h e c l o s e d u n i t b a l l i n Y ) f o r a l l f c z a s desired.. .374). W e i d e n t i f y canon i c a l l y each X(n) and e v e r y f i n i t e sum l P ( X ( n ) : n € J ) w i t h a subspace o f X:= 1 P( X ( n ) :n=l. .2 cannot be r e p l a c e d b y "normed B a i r e " even i f we know t h a t N ( f ( l ) .) t(d) and hence a 0-nghb by 4.9.12: L e t (X. Then i t i s a Cauchy sequence i n (X.) denotes t h e 1P-sum o f t h e sequence (see J. Suppose t h e c l a i m i s n o t t r u e : c o n s t r u c t i n d u c t i v e l y an i n c r e a s i n g sequence (M(n):n=l. l P ( X ( n ) : n = 1 .t(m)) i s v .) be a sequence o f normed spaces and p b l .t(N)).u) be a F r e c h e t space.b a r r e l f o r t ( m ) . T h e n g i s equicontinuous.2. q . then so i s u ( ' m ) . u ( M ) ) i s v . .t) be a F r e c h e t space and ' W a c o u n t a b l e f a m i l y o f c l o s e d subspaces.9. ) be a u ( N % u c h y sequence i n X . 1 . S i s a 0-nghb f o r s e t S:= n(T(M(n)):n=l. e n c e v . t h e v.g. ( X . P r o o f : The m e t r i z a b i l i t y o f u ( m ) i s c l e a r .14: L e t X be a v .. . . 4..m*n(k) and s l k .b a r r e l 1ed. L e t ( x ( n ) : n = l .. Then .. t h e r e i s L L W such t h a t %/L i s e q u i c o n t i n u o u s on L . g .b a r r e l l e d . I n p a r t i c u l a r .p.).15: L e t (X. T(L) b e i n g t h e c l o s u r e o f T w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e topol o g y t ( ( L .2. . t h e v. (X.14. 4.11 A l l t h i s p r e p a r a t i o n a l l o w s us t o i n t e r p r e t PTAK's u n i f o r m boundedness theorem ( 2 . / / A u n i f o r m boundedness p r i n c i p l e i s a l s o a v a i l a b l e i n t h i s s e t t i n g : 4. f o r i f t h i s i s t h e case.b a r r e l l e d and i s a family o f m . > . L e t (X(n):n=1..g. Then.q.g.Proof: I f K i s t h e c l o s e d u n i t b a l l o f Y.. By 4. u stands f o r t h e 1P-sum t o p o l o q y on X. t h e n A ( T ( L ) : L & W ) i s t h e c l o s u r e i n ( X . L e t (W :n=1. Then. u ( W ) ) i s complete and m e t r i z a b l e .. . Set M( k) :=1 p ( X ( n) :n k ) and p ( k ) f o r t h e canonical p r o j e c t i o n X . g ..g. p ( s ) ( x ) = p ( s ) ( x ( n ) ) f o r a l l s & k and n > n ( k ) .q . Since t h e sequence converqes c o o r d i n a t e w i s e .' ( K ) : f t % ) b a r m n X. L e t W b e a f i l t e r b a s i s o f c l o s e d subspaces o f (X..u)) and hence i f each o f these t o p o l o g i e s i s complete. t ) ) .up such t h a t f o r e v e r y f t x t h e r e i s MtM w i t h f / M continuous.. The f a m i l y (M/)U:MCw.12: t h a t i s . f ( n ) ) a r e a l l c l o s e d and B a i r e . . ) . t ( W ) ) o f T.. To show t h i s we need some p r e p a r a t i o n .9.// W e s h a l l p r o v i d e an example which shows t h a t "Banach space" i n 2. Then x b X and x-x(n) g M ( k ) f o r a l l n h n ( k ) and t h e p r o o f i s complete. Y a normed space a n d q a p o i n t w i s e bounded s e t o f l i n e a r ma p i n q s f r o m X i n t o Y .m&n(k).1.g .Ukl/C) is a b a s i s o f 0-nqhbs f o r a v.9. (X. a r e s u l t i n b a r r e l l e d n e s s which i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n i t s e l f .) i n m w i t h Wn+lAFl(n) q!. W T i s .Z.). i s a v.u) and hence converges t o some x i n lP(X(n):n=l.) be a b a s i s o f 0-nghbs i n ( X . % i s u ( m ) ... g . ( X . g .t o p o l o g i e s u((M.148 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEXSPACES b a s i s o f l i n e a r subspaces o f a v.t(/n2)) i s v . t ) be a F r g c h e t space and N a f a m i l y o f c l o s e d subspaces. 4.b a r r e l 1ed.9. F o r each k. Z .u). .

) converqes i n ( X .20: There i s a normed Baire space X . 2 .Z. . an increasing sequence ( M ( k ) : k = 1 . 2 . Since P ( k + l ) / ( F ( k ) + s p ( c ( k ) ) ) = P / ( F ( k ) + s p ( c ( k ) ) ) and i t i s continuous i s pointwise bounded we reach a c o n t r a d i c t i o n .l ( O ) = M ( k ) b u t P ( k + l ) / M ( k ) i s non-continuous f o r a l l k = 1 . / / For t h e proof of our next r e s u l t we need t h e followinq r e s u l t of OXTOBY.. M ( O ) = X and hence X i s a Baire space. . we s h a l l see t h a t t h i s sequence of projectors a r e as d e s i r e d . . Since T n l P ( X ( n ) : . alon l z ( F ( k ) : k > n ) + s p ( c ( k ) : k > n ) and P f o r t h e p r o j e c t o r onto 1 2 ( 2.. . .8. W e shall see that Gr/\(G(n):n=l.)+sp(c(n):n=l. s e l e c t a ( 2 ) r U ( 2 ) such t h a t ( a ( l ) + a ( Z ) + V ( Z ) ) n G A G ( n )i s dense i n a ( l ) + a ( Z ) + V ( Z ) . P(k)(K+sp(c(n): n=1.18.. Suppose i t i s c o n t i nuous.2. . .) as desired.3 along s p ( c ( n ) : n = 1 . c ( n ) ) ' F(n):n=l.Z. t h e r e i s a G P such t h a t G ( n ) ( a ) : = ( b C Q : ( a . On t h e o t h e r hand. // 4. ) of p r o j e c t o r s on X such t h a t P ( k ) .. Set X:=12(F(n):n=1.$1.2. b )CG(n)) i s dense in Q f o r a l l n .. . t h e r e i s a ( l ) & U ( l ) such t h a t ( a ( l ) + V ( l ) ) I \ G n G ( n ) i s dense i n a ( l ) + V ( l ) f o r a l l n . Let F be a dense Baire hyperplane of a separable Banach space B and a 6 B \ F . .. < k ) i s a 0-nghb and s i n c e M ( k ) and l P ( X ( n ) : n d k ) a r e complemented in ( X . 2 . M ( k ) = P ( k ) .. . .. u ( / n r ) ) t o an element i n Gnn(G(n):n=1. then t h e lp-sum X i s b a r r e l l e d . Then T i s a l s o a v. t h e r e a r e open g e n subsets U(2) i n X ( 2 ) and V ( 2 ) i n M ( 2 ) w i t h d ( V ( 2 ) ) L 1 / 2 and a ( l ) + U ( 2 ) + V ( Z ) ~ ( a ( l ) + V ( l ) ) ~ G n G ( Z ) .9.2. 2 .O .1..9. (1) (see a l s o V. By 4.))CK for all k.1. . . then t h e 1P-sum X i s Baire. . 2 . . 4. Defining M(0) a s above. u ) a s desired. Since X ( 1 ) and M ( l ) a r e complemented i n ( X . .18. If P i s Baire. u ) . X is a subspace of lZ(B(n):n=1. ) s i n c e .2. . By induction.. . Let us check t h a t P ( k + l ) / M ( k ) i s not continuous.2. 2 . .19: If each X ( n ) i s separable and Baire.18: Let P and Q be separable metric topological spaces and l e t ( G ( n ) : n = 1 .16. one has a sequence a ( n ) gX(n). with F ( n ) : = F f o r each n . 2 . n ) + s p ( c ( l ) .+a(k):k=1. Let c ( n ) be the vector of BN whose n . .1 ( O ) = 1 2 ( F ( n ) : n > k ) + sp(c(n):n>k) + sp(c(n):nAk) = 1 2 ( B ( n ) : n > + s p ( c ( n ) : n & k ) and hence M ( k ) i s closed. u ) . .).9.(8)): 4.9. ..) w i t h B(n):=B f o r each n . .-barrel f o r u(M) a n d K e a u ( m ) . ) be a sequence of open dense subsets of PxQ. T i s a 0-nghb in ( X ..+a(k+l)+V( t h e sequence ( a ( l ) + . . M ( k ) i s Baire s i n c e i t i s t h e sum of t h r e e summands: t h e l a s t ne i s finite-dimensional and t h e sum of t h e two f i r s t summands contains 1 ( F ( n ) : n > k ) ( a Baire space by 4.9. ) . .17: I f each X ( n ) i s b a r r e l l e d . The family ( P ( k ) : k = 1 . Again.. i f K i s the closed u n i t ball of 1 2 ( F ( n ) : n = 1 . n = 1 . Proof: Let T be a barrel i n X. k)nX 8 . Again by 4.) i s non-void.9. ) of closed Baire subspaces of X and a pointwise bounded sequence ( P ( k ) : k = 1 . .a sequence V ( k ) c M ( k ) w i t h d ( V ( k ) ) C l / k f o r which k + l ) C ( a ( l ) + .CHAPTER 4 149 4. Set Q ( n ) be t h e p r o j e c t o r onto 1 2 ( F ( k ) : k = l . 2 . Proof: Let ( G ( n ) : n = 1 .. t h e r e e x i s t s an open set U(l)CX(l)-and an open set V ( l ) C M ( l ) such t h a t d ( V ( l ) ) < l (d f o r diameter) and U ( l ) + V ( l ) c G n G ( l ) . If P ( n ) : = P o Q ( n ) .t h coordinate i s a and the r e s t equal zero.+a( k ) + V ( k))n G f l G ( k ) and t h a t means t h a t a ( l ) + . ) . Hence t h e r e i s k such t h a t T/1M(k) i s a 0-nghb in ( M ( k ) .2.9. u ) . .11 . ) be a decreasing sequence of open dense subsets of l e t G be an open subset of X .19) as a dense subspace (1..6).n g h b by 4. 2 .9.

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.1: L e t E be a space. P r o o f : L e t (Uk:k=1. n 2 n ( k ) .1.2. numbers such t h a t (a(n)x(n):n=1. ) o f p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r s such t h a t 1 x ( n ) € k..2.. .) an i n c r e a s i n g sequence (n(k):k=1.Z.. A sequence i s c a l l e d l o c a l l y Cauchy o r Mackey Cauchy i f i t i s a Cauchy sequence i n 5 f o r a c e r t a i n d i s c B i n E.... 1 D e f i n i t i o n s and c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s .) i n g unbounded sequence o f p o s i t i v e r e a l numbers such t h a t (a( n ) x ( n ) :n=I. ..Z... Then a ( n ) x ( n ) e Uk f o r e v e r y n’n(k)... t h e s e t B : = ZEx(a(n)x(n):n=1.2.) converges t o t h e o r i g i n i n E.2: L e t E be a n e t r i z a b l e space and (x(n):n=1..) i n a space E l o c a l l y converges t o x i f and o n l y i f (x(n)-x:n=l.) converges t o t h e o r i g i n .) i s locally null.Uk. A se- quence i s l o c a l l y n u l l i f i t i s l o c a l l y convergent t o t h e o r i g i n . we can f i n d 0-nghbs i n E.151 CHAPTER FIVE LOCAL COMPLETENESS 5 . ) .. Since (x(n):n=1.2.2.2.) verges t o t h e o r i g i n .) be a d e c r e a s i n g b a s i s o f a b s o l u t e l y convex converges t o t h e o r i g i n .2..2.) such t h a t t h e sequence (a(n)x(n):n=l.. k=1. t h e n t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s i n g unbounded sequence o f p o s i t i v e r e s l numbers (a(n):n=1.. D e f i n i t i o n 5.) .) in E is s a i d t o be l o c a l l y convergent o r Mackey convergent t o an element x o f E if t h e r e i s a d i s c B i n E such t h a t t h e sequence converges t o x i n b..2..2..) a n u l l secon- quence i n E.. Lemm 5. P r o o f : (i) i s t r i v i a l . ...) o f p o s i t i v e r e a l i s an i n c r e a s i s a closed converges t o t h e o r i g i n i n E. .2.2...1.. k=1. i f (a(n):n=1.. A sequence (x(n):n=1.2... i n a space E i s l o c a l l y n u l l i f and o n l y if t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s i n g unbounded sequence ( a ( n):n=1... To prove ( i i ) ...3: (i) A sequence (x(n):n=1. k=1.2.) ( i f ) A sequence (x(n):n=1. . // P r o p o s i t i o n 5.2.. We s e t a ( n ) : = l i f l L n < n ( l ) and a(n):=k i f n < n ( k + l ) .2..1. n(k) Thus t h e sequence (a(n)x(n):n=1.

E ' ) and A a d i s c in E .2 and 5 . B being closed in E .6: Let E be a space. 2 . ) converges t o t h e o r i q i n i n and k. ) converges i n Since the canonical i n j e c t i o n from EB i n t o ( E . Proposition 5. . Proof: ( i ) . . Moreover f o r every b>O t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r p such t h a t x ( n ) . ) i s a Cauchy sequenc e i n E A y then i t i s a l s o a Cauchy sequence i n t h e Banach space E B ..5: A space is l o c a l l y conplete i f every l o c a l l y Cauchy sequence i s 1ocal l y convergent.1. Since ( x ( n ) : n = 1 . 2 . ) i s l o c a l l y n u l l . ) a Cauchy sequence i n g.1. Z . i f ( x ( n ) : n = 1 .4:A sequence in a metrizable space i s convergent i f and only i f i t i s l o c a l l y convergent.+ ( i i ) . Let ( x ( n ) : n = l ..152 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES d i s c i n E such t h a t the sequence ( x ( n ) : n = l . By ( i i i ) t h e r e i s x i n E such t h a t the sequence converges t o x i n ( E . s ( E . // Definition 5.b ( i i i ) . u ) . Proof: I t i s enough t o apply 5. Therefore xEaB. ( i i i ) I f u i s a topology of t h e dual pair(E. . 3 ( i i ) . E ' ) ) . n = 1 . 5 . u ) . .. . . ( i i ) Every closed d i s c in E i s a Banach d i s c .E') and B i s a d i s c in E .. . ) such t h a t ( a ( n ) x ( n ) : n = l . Let u be a topology of the dual p a i r ( E . T h u s t h e sequence converges t o x i n % and EB i s complete. ) be a Cauchy sequence i n f o r a certain d i s c B . ) converges t o t h e o r i g i n in Conversely. By ( i ) t h e r e i s x in E such t h a t t h e sequence converges l o c a l l y t o x and hence converges i n E . I f ( x ( n ) : n = l .1. /I Proposition 5. .2 t h e r e i s an incresing unbounded sequence of p o s i t i v e real numbers ( a ( n ) : n = 1 . On t h e o t h e r hand f o r every b > O t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r k. m 2 p. . Z . . 1 . ( i v ) Every bounded subset of E i s included i n a Banach d i s c . hence i n E . . L e t t i n g m t o i n f i n i t y we have 5 that x(n)-xEbB i f n p . . Let B be a closed d i s c in E and ( x ( n ) : n = 1 . Set B f o r the c l o s u r e of A i n E. t h e r e i s a > O such t h a t x ( n ) E a B . u ) i s continuous. .1. .1. then every Cauchy sequence i n i s convergent in ( E . 2 . . i t follows t h a t t h e sequence converges i n ( E . The following conditions a r e equiVal e n t : ( i ) E i s l o c a l l y complete. ) is bounded in E B . . 2 .x ( m ) ~ b Bf o r every n . 2 . . hence ( x ( n ) : n = 1 .b ( i ) . Applying 5. Z . . . 2 . Z . ( i i i ) . t h e r e i s a d i s c B i n E such t h a t t h e sequence converges t o the o r i g i n in EB. ( i i ) .

( i i i ) The closed absolutely convex hull of a null sequence in ( E . Since E i s l o c a l l y conplete.( i i i ) . // Corollary 5. where C i s the closure of B i n E . Let B be i t s closed absolutely convex h u l l . E ' ) .2.2.CHAPTER 5 153 p such t h a t i f n .. then x(n)-x( m)E tRc bC. Proof: Every closed d i s c i n a sequentially complete space i s a Banach d i s c by 3. s ( E . ( i i i ) . ( i v ) The closed absolutely convex hull of a null sequence i n ( E .1.8: If a space i s sequentially complete. ) converges l o c a l l y t o x. t ) i s compact. ( i i ) . t ) i s l o c a l l y complete. . The following conditions a r e equivalent : ( i j ( E . Proof: Apply 5. E ' ) ) i s compact i n ( E .12 t o obt a i n t h a t B i s compact i n ( E .2.10: Every barrel i n a l o c a l l y complete space i s bornivorous.1.7 b a r r e l s absorb Banach d i s c s .4. s ( E .7: If a space E is l o c a l l y complete. hence we apply 3. I n p a r t i c u l a r a l o c a l l y complete space i s barrelled i f and only i f i t i s quasi barrel led. ) be a null sequence i n E endowed w i t h i t s weak topology. Corollary 5. 2 . Let ( x ( n ) : n = 1 .. . // Corollary 5.9: A netrizable space i s l o c a l l y complete i f and only i f i t i s complete. .1.8 and 5. t ) be a space. (ii) The closed absolutely convex hull of every l o c a l l y null sequence i n ( E . t h e n i t i s l o c a l l y complete f o r every topology of the dual p a i r ( E .5. // Corollary 5. E ' ) ) .b ( i ) a r e t r i v i a l . // Theorem 5. t ) i s compact.+ ( i v ) . E ' ) ) .. then i t is local l y conplete. and t h u s the sequence ( x ( n ) : n = 1 . Proof: ( i ) . According t o ( i i i ) the closed absolutely convex hull of a .1. s ( E . 2 . .1. m 2 p.1. EB i s a Banach space.+ ( i v ) and ( i v ) .1.11: Let ( E . Proof: By 3. Letting m t o i n f i n i t y we have t h a t x(n)-xebC i f n 5 p .

2. hence (co.E')-compact and t-precompact. a o p l y i n g 5. t ) hence t h e r e i s an element x i n E such t h a t (z(p):p=1..) converges t o t h e o r i g i n i n t e g e r s such t h a t x( nktl)-x(nk)E C l e a r l y (y(k):k=1. 2 . i s a Cauchy sequence i n ( E .4. (ii)--(i). Indeed. t h e n (E. I f e ( n ) i t i s easy t o see t h a t denotes t h e n . /I L o c a l l y c o n p l e t e spaces which a r e n o t s e q u e n t i a l l y com- Example 5. t h e n E i s l o c a l l y complete.) i n B c o n v e r g i n g t o z i n (E".2. t ) .t).+ e ( n ) . Every F r e c h e t space endowed w i t h i t s weak t o p o l o g y i s l o c a l l y c o r n p l e t e by 5. 5 hence. D e f i n i t i o n 5.E)) t h a t z belongs t o t h e c l o s u r e C o f B i n (E". ( i v ) .s(E. s ( c o y l 1 ) ) i s l o c a l l y complete. converqes t o x c l o s e d a b s o l u t e l y convex h u l l A i s compact i n ( E ..r e f l e x i v e F r e c h e t space. I n p a r t i c u l a r ( c o .Z. i s t r e t r i z a b l e ..E')) ZE E l ' \ E. ( 4 ) i m p l i e s t h a t i t i s a l s o compact i n ( E . k z ( p ) : = 5 2 .12: p l e t e . L e t B be a d i s c i n E and (x(n):n=l.. Since z ( p ) = x ( n i n (E.14: L e t E be a space and A a non-void subset o f E ..E')). The space space and a c l o s e d hyperplane o f complete spaces and hence 5 .t). t h e sequence (x(n):n=l. P r o o f : L e t B be a c l o s e d d i s c i n E .1.. . Thus hnF= // FBnF i s a Banach EB i s complete as a p r o d u c t of E i s l o c a l l y conplete. l o c a l l y complete....1. a Cauchy sequence i n (E.154 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEX SPACES n u l l sequence i n ( E .13: L e t F be a hyperplane o f E.2.1.d n k ) ) .s(co.) 2-'% a Cauchy sequence i n 5 .t). i t s Now t h e sequence c o n t a i n e d i n A. We s e l e c t a s t r i c t l y i n c r e a s i n g sequence (nk:k=1.Z.6 (iii). .1..is a s ( c o y l )-Cauchy sequence i n co which does n o t converge.... There i s a bounded subset B of E such Since (E'. I f F i s l o c a l l y comple- t e .2. A .) converP+l P t h e space ( E .s(E".7.l 1 ) ) i s n o t s e q u e n t i a l l y complete.2..b(E'. whose s t r o n g dual i s separable. x ( n ) : = e( 1)+ ..) ' o f positive ink and we s e t y ( k ) : = 2 ( x ( n k t 1 ) . t ) i s s(E. (C.y ( k ) . ) i s which does n o t converge. n=l. hence t h e r e i s a sequence ( x ( n ) : Thus ( x ( n ) : n = l . t ) .x ( n ). i n (E.E'))..s( E Y E ' ) ) i s l o c a l l y complete b u t n o t s e q u e n t i a l l y c o m l e t e .. t a k e a p o i n t i s separable. t ) i s Thus.E')) P r o p o s i t i o n 5.+ ( i i ) i s t r i v i a l s i n c e e v e r y l o c a l l y n u l l sequence i n E i s n u l l i n (E.. by ( i i ) .) ges t o x(nl)+x ) . p=1. if E i s a n o n .s(E".s(E". nence K1§18. More g e n e r a l l y .Z.1. n=1. ..t h c a n o n i c a l u n i t v e c t o r i n c 10..

p = 1 . 2 . .1. W e s e t xn:=(xn(i):iEI) defined by s ( i ) = O i f i c I \ J o r i = i ( m ) .1.1. m z n . . ) i n I such t h a t x ( i ) = 0 i f i e I ' J . . Definition 5.. On the o t h e r hand i f C is t h e closed a b s o l u t e l y convex hull of ( n ( x n . There i s a sequence J:= ( i ( n ) : n = l . W e say t h a t A i s l o c a l l y closed i f every local limit point of A belongs t o A.. n. then e ( E i : i e I ) is l o c a l l y dense in Eo. W e take B i :={O\ i f i c I \ J .. Exanple 5.16: If ( E i : i € I ) i s a non-void family of spaces and E i s i t s product. . Let x = ( x ( i ) : i ~ I ) be an element of Eo.15: Let ( E i : i E I ) be an i n f i n i t e family of spaces and E i t s product.1. Proposition 5. and x.1. W e s h a l l s e e t h a t t h e r e i s an absolutely convex compact subset C of Eo such t h a t x ( n ) converges t o x i n ( E o ) C . ) . . . Z .x ) : n = 1 . 17 the local closure of A i s l o c a l l y closed and contains a l l t h e local l i m i t points of A ..1.. i n p a r t i c u l a r we obtain the following Proposition 5. 2 .18: The local closure of a subset A of a space E i s t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n of a l l t h e l o c a l l y closed subsets of E containing A . Definition 5. . A s e t B i s l o c a l l y dense i n A i f every point of A i s a local l i m i t point of B . ( i i ) Every l o c a l l y closed subset of a l o c a l l y complete space E i s l o c a l l y compl e t e . from where i t follows t h a t C i s a compact absolutely convex subset of Eo and t h a t xn converges t o x i n ( E o I C .19: A subset A of a space E i s s a i d t o be lo c a ll y comp l e t e i f every local Cauchy sequence i n A converges l o c a l l y t o a point of A. .17: The i n t e r s e c t i o n of l o c a l l y closed sets i s l o c a l l y closed. Proposition 5. .x n c ( l / n ) C f o r n = 1 . W e assume t h a t t h e void set i s l o c a l l y closed.20: ( i ) Every l o c a l l y complete subset of a space E i s l o c a l l y closed.CHAPTER 5 155 point x i s a local l i m i t point of A i f t h e r e is a sequence i n A l o c a l l y convergent t o x. 2 .1. i t i s obvious t h a t CcB and x . : = a c x ( ( p x ( i ( p ) ) ) ) .(i(m)) = x ( i ( m ) ) i f m=l. Clearly t h e s e t B : = TI ( B i : i € I ) i s and B i ( P) a compact subset of Eo. By 5.

2.1. P r o o f : ( i ) i s obvious. Z.F whose r e s t r i c t i o n t o E c o i n c i d e s w i t h f .. Given a continuous l i n e a r --&. N F.1.2.. By 5.' ( B ) c l o s e d subset o f F c o n t a i n i n g f ( A ) . hence f ( x ) a B and conseauently f ( x ) belongs t o t h e l o c a l c l o s u r e o f f ( A ) . Since A i s l o c a l l y c l o s e d . // .(?) i s included i n the l o c a l closure o f N i n F which i s c l e a r l y a subset o f F. To prove ( i i ) .( B ) . I f E i s a space. Lemma 5.4 e v e r y m t r i z a b l e space i s l o c a l l y dense i n i t s completion.. g i v e n f t h e r e i s a continuous l i n e a r e x t e n s i o n t o t h e completions.23: L e t E and F be two spaces and f:E-----*F a continuous liBy 5. .20. P r o o f : The uniqueness i s t r i v i a l . Then x c f .1. I t i s denoted b y ? . / / P r o p o s i t i o n 5. (ii) If A i s a l o c a l l y c l o s e d subset of F... t h e n f .) i s l o c a l l y convergent t o f ( x ) .1.. t h u s x belongs t o f . t h e n (f(x(n)):n=1. t h e l o c a l c o m p l e t i o n o f E i s d e f i - ned as t h e l o c a l c l o s u r e o f E i n i t s completion.1.. By 5. We a r e done i f i s i n c l u d e d i n ? . ) converges l o c a l l y t o f( x).24: L e t f:E------F A i s a subset o f E..) converges l o c a l l y t o x. To see t h i s . By ( i ) t h e sequence ( f ( x ( n ) ) : n = l .1.. P r o o f : Take any p o i n t x i n t h e l o c a l c l o s u r e o f A and B any l o c a l l y c l o s e d subset f .21: 1..2.24.( A ) l o c a l l y convergent t o x i n E. hence t h e l o c a l Completion o f a m e t r i z a b l e space c o i n c i d e s near mapping. I f P r o p o s i t i o n 5. Observation 5..l ( A ) i s a l o c a l l y c l o s e d subset o f E..25: mapping f : E . observe t h a t E i s t h e l o - - cal closure o f E i n f(E) ?. t h e n t h e image o f t h e l o c a l c l o s u r e o f A by f i s i n cluded i n t h e l o c a l c l o s u r e of f ( A ) .) be a sequence 1 i n f.156 BARRELLED LOCALLY CON VEX SPACES D e f i n i t i o n 5.. f : E ... ? coincides w i t h t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f a l l t h e l o c a l l y complete sub- spaces o f t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f E c o n t a i n i n g E .+ we show t h a t ? ( : ) A f i A A F.. Then (i) I f (x(n):n=1.1. l e t (x(n):n=1.. f ( x ) bel o n g s t o A.- L e t E and F be spaces. .. t h e r e i s a unique c o n t i n u o u s l i n e a r mapping f : E .( A ) 1 -11 be a c o n t i n u o u s l i n e a r mapping. T h e r e f o r e A i s i n c l u d e d i n t h e l o c a l l y 1 o f E.22: w i t h i t s completion. On t h e o t h e r hand.

. ( c ( i ) b ( i ) . Then ( i ) ( 1) For every sequence of bounded s e t s (An:n=1. // Convergence and local convergence coincide i n a metrizable space. ) = aB.1. .ch6. Given a continuous l i n e a r mapping f:E-----cF. t h a t A i s absolutely convex. Proof: Apply 5. ( 2 ) For every sequence of bounded s e t s ( A n : n = 1 . t h e r e i s a continuous l i n e a r extension ? t o t h e completion of E w i t h values i n F. ) .CHAPTER 5 157 Corollary 5. . . .. t h e conclusion follows from our construction of B -// Corollary 5. such t h a t U ( c ( n ) A n : n = 1 . Z . 2 .22 and 5. . t h e r e is a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r n with Unc ~ ( a b ( i ) U i : i = l Y . ..) be a decreasing b a s i s of closed absolutely conn vex 0-nghbs i n E .) i s bounded i n E . .1.2. (ii) W e can suppose. ( i ) ( l ) For every p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r n we determine c ( n ) > O such t h a t c(n)An i s included i n U n . Theorem 5. . i=1.... by RR.from this i t follows t h a t AnUn C n ( a b ( i ) U i : i = 1 .2. t h e n c ( i ) < a b ( i ) .l ) i s a 0-nghb in E .28: I f E i s a metrizable space and A i s a preconpact ( r e s p . n = 1 . Much more can be s a i d . 2. Given a > O there i s a p o s i t i ve i n t e g e r j such t h a t i f i 2 j .Lemnal. N o w t o prove t h a t E and EB induce t h e same topology on A i t i s enough t o show t h a t both induced topol o g i e s have the same b a s i s o f 0-nghbs i n A. Clearly B i s a closed d i s c i n E containing A. 2 . One e a s i l y sees t h a t U(c(n)An:n=1..1. ) converges t o zero. ) t h e r e is a closed d i s c A such t h a t each An i s bounded i n EA. Given A t h e r e i s c ( i ) > O such W e determine b ( i ) 4 c ( i ) such t h a t t h e seauence that ACc(i)Ui. . Since t h e topology of EB i s f i n e r than t h e topology of E.2. ...27: Let E be a metrizable space. . j .l ) .26: Let E be a metrizable space and F a l o c a l l y complete space. . j .. 5 Proof: Let (U :n=1. 2 . . and t h e r e f o r e ACab(i)Ui i f i 2 j .1.) there a r e c( n ) > 0. ( i ) ( 2 ) Proceeding as i n the former proof i t i s enough t o take a s A t h e c l o sed absolutely convex hull of U ( c ( n ) A n : n = 1 . hence .). .' : i = l . .2.. . ( i i ) For every bounded subset A of E t h e r e i s a closed d i s c 6 such t h a t A i s included i n 6 and t h e topologies induced on A by E and coincide. W e set B : = n ( b ( i ) U i : i = l . ) i s a bounded subset of E. . On t h e o t h e r hand n ( a b ( i ) U i : i = l . . 2 .1. F i r s t we f i n d a closed d i s c 6 i n E containing A such t h a t f o r every a z O t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r n w i t h A n U n c a B .without loss of g e n e r a l i t y .25.1. 2 . .

which i s a d i s c i n G.n):n=1. and l e t (x(n):n=1. ( i ) I f (E.M.c..27 e v e r y m e t r i z a b l e space s a t i s f i e s t h e t h e n i t s a t i s f i e s t h e M.) A space E i s s a i d t o s a t i s f y t h e Mackey convergence i f e v e r y n u l l sequence i n E i s l o c a l l y n u l l .. sequence i n ( F .2. t h e M.c. c .. hence C:=Br\F i s a c l o s e d d i s c i n F such E has t h e s.). t h e M. and t a k e a d i s c A i n F. t ) i s a sequence o f spaces s c t i s f y i n g t h e s.1..2.c.M.c. and F i s a subspace o f E.27 and P r o p o s i t i o n 5.O.. A space E i f f o r e v e r y boun- i s s a i d t o s a t i s f y t h e s t r i c t Mackey c o n d i t i o n ( s .§28.). n i c a l p r o j e c t i o n . .. (ii) I f a space s a t i s f i e s t h e s. t n ) :n=1.M. t h a t (x(n):n=1.M.c. origin i n (E ) k=1.2.. ) sa- P r o o f : (i)l.2. compact) i n ER.c.29: c o n d i t i o n (M. ( i ) By 5. Now we suppose t h a t t h e r e i s a 0-nghb V i n E w i t h V n A c a B .2 aC.c.c. t h e n t h e r e i s a c l o s e d d i s c B c o n t a i n i n g A such t h a t A i s precompact ( r e s p . We Bn prove t h a t (x(k):k=1. We s e t B:=TT(nBn:n=1. t ) .c.c.1.n):n=1..(3). ) on A by ded subset A o f E t h e r e i s a c l o s e d d i s c B such t h a t t h e t o p o l o g i e s induced E and coincide.. t n ) s a t i s f i e s t h e M..) ( r e s p .2.c. ) and e(( En. .1.// Theorem 5. ) and w r i t e p.1.. (resp.tn):n=l.2. a c l o s e d d i s c B n i n (En. by K1.c.c.M.) t h e M.2. f o r e v e r y a. t h e n ( F . ( i i ) I f ((En. I f each ( E n .c..M.2.tn):n=1.1. ..c.30: s.:G-----E m ) be a n u l l sequence i n G w i t h ~ ( k = f o r t h e canothere i s ..t) P r o p o s i t i o n 5.c.... There i s a c l o s e d d i s c B i n E con- t a i n i n g A such t h a t .31: t h e M. D e f i n i t i o n 5.6.. M .158 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEXSPACES compact) subset o f E.c. Proof: R e c a l l t h a t n o t o n l y t h e t o p o l o g i e s induced by E and 5 coincide on A b u t a l s o t h e u n i f o r m i t i e s .tn):n=1.M.tn) such t h a t (x(k.).2 suggest t h e f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s due t o GROTHENDIECK. 2 . L e t (x(k):k=1. Observation 5. We s e t G:= TT ( ( E n .) converges t o t h e o r i g i n i n GB.)..c. Given a > O t h e r e . t h e n Ti(( En. ( r e s p .) converges t o t h e .1.(resp.).c.) (x(k.. = converges t o t h e o r i g i n i n EB..c..2.c.2..) be a n u l l There i s a c l o s e d d i s c B i n E such t h a t t h e sequence converges t o t h e o r i g i n i n Fc.c. Suppose E has t h e M.) i s a space s a t i s f y i n g t h e s.2.. t i s f y t h e s. Taking C:=BAF we have t h a t C i s a c l o s e d d i s c i n F c o n t a i n i n g A such t h a t f o r e v e r y a > O t h e r e i s a 0-nghb V ( \ F i n F w i t h V n F A A C a B n F ( i i ) l . s a t i s f i e s t h e s.c.

t h e M . . .M. . b u t i t i s not l o c a l l y convergent. N o w we can apply 3 t o obtain t h a t i f ( E n y t n ) s a t i s f i e s t h e s.M.. c . .p ) s a t i s - .. and ( x ( k ) : k = l .. c .2. n = 1 . m t h e r e i s a closed s i t i v e i n t e g e r m such t h a t na. ) ... i ) : n = l .. m + 2 .1 i f n>m. Given a > O . Each i E I i s a sequence ( i ( n ) : n = l . ) converges m). .c. . : i = l . then n ( E i : i = l .M.c. . 2 .' . i ) : i € I ) € E defined by d n .. . c . ) . t h e M . 2 . t n ) and t h e normed space generated by B n coincide on p n ( A ) ... t ) . Z .E P satisfy the . 1 . . . . . ( r e s p . ) ... ) i n R would be zero.. w i t h x ( k ) = ( d k . . Z . and l e t A be a d i s c i n G.. which i s inpossible s i n c e i t converges t o 1. m ) x l T ( E n : n = m t l . which i s a closed d i s c i n G. 3. . 2. n ) E B n . Z . then there is a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r m w i t h x(k. such t h a t A i s included in . f o r every i c I . where each Ri i s a copy o f t h e r e a l s . . ) converging t o n the o r i g i n . ) . ( r e s p . e set absolutely convex 0-nghb Vn i n ( E n y t n ) such t h a t V n ~ p n ( A ) c a B nW V:= 77 ( V n : n = l . @(An:n=1. t h e M . n = l . i ) : = i ( n ) . T h u s G s a t i s f i e s t h e s. W e take E:= T T ( R i : i c I ) .l p n ( B ) c p n ( a B ) . For every p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r n we s e t x ( n ) : = ( x ( n . Clearly t h e sequence ( x ( n ) : n = l .c. .M. 2 . Clearly V i s a 0-nghb i n G and VnAcaB. .M. . 2 ) . . .32: Uncountable products of spaces s a t i s f y i n g t h e s. t ) : n = l . Z . ) i s a sequence i n @ ( ( E . . ) .n)=O i f n > m and k = 1 .2. m and k 5 s . nay f a i l the M. . .c. c . Suppose t h a t each ( E n y t n ) s a t i s f i e s t h e s. ) would converge t o the o r i g i n i n E ( 5 . . t h e r e i s a poo w i f n = l . n ) : n = l . n n // Example 5. . 2 . n ) E n . Z . c . we have t h a t x ( k . m y and t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r s such t h a t x ( k . ..). .c. . . Clearly A c T i ( p n ( A ) : n = 1 . Then t h e limit of t h e sequence ( i ( n ) x ( n . . ( r e s p .. f o r i f i t were t h e r e would be an e l e ment i c 1 such t h a t ( i ( n ) x ( n ) : n = 1 . . p ) = Q ( E . . I f ( x ( k ) : k = l . 2 .). ( i i ) 1 and 2 . . 2 . W e s e t B:= V ( n B n : n = 1 .. 2 . . then e((E. m . n ) c aBn i f n = l .c. ) .. c . . ) i n R . Let I be t h e s e t of a l l increasing unbounded sequences of p o s i t i v e real numbers. 1 f i e s t h e s. c . ) . according t o ( i ) . . c . ) . . ( r e s p . For every p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r n t h e r e i s a closed d i s c B n i n ( E n y t n ) such t h a t p n ( A ) C B n and t h e topologies induced by ( E n . On t h e o t h e r handyif A i s a bounto the origin i n €B((Enytn):n=l ded subset of @ ( ( E n .. .c. 2 .M.. .c. t n ) : n = 1 ..1. . k=1. On the o t h e r hand i f k s and n > m .M. Observe t h a t . s. Thus i f k s w e have t h a t x( k ) C aB. hence x ( k . N . . . t n ) : n = l . the M .c. ) converges t o the o r i g i n i n E .CHAPTER 5 159 i s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r m with na > 1 i f n . i f E l . ) a l s o s a t i s n n f i e s the s. t h e n t h e r e a r e a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r m and bounded subsets A of ( E n .. Z . . . 4.

t ) be a space such t h a t t = d E . . For every p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r n t h e r e i s dn)eB such t h a t x ( n ) # n 2T. F ) i s a dual p a i r . . t h e closed a b s o l u t e l y convex hull C of ( u ( n ) : n = 1 . t a topology on E compatible w i t h t h e dual p a i r . Proof: Suppose t h a t T i s a barrel in E and B a bounded subset of E not absorbed by T . Since ( E ' . t h e weakest barrelledness condition.E)) i s l o c a l l y complete. More p r e c i s e l y . . m ( EYE'))-equicontinuoum. ( E ' . s ( E ' .E')).m(E. then every barrel in E i s bornivorous. u ( n ) > = n and u ( n ) c ( n T ) : n = 1 . s ( E' . s ( E ' . E ) ) i s compact. The spac e ( E ' . E ) ) i s l o c a l l y complete i f and only i f t h e closed absolutely convex hull of every null sequence i n ( E ' . 2 . Applying Hahn-Banach's Theorem.m(G. . N o w we t u r n our a t t e n t i o n t o t h e problem of when a subspace o f a Mackey space i s i t s e l f a Mackey space. E ) ) i s l o c a l l y complete.2 S t a b i l i t y of Mackey spaces. E ) ) i s l o c a l l y complete i f and only i f every null sequence i n E-equicontinuou s . hence l < x ( n ) . . 2 . t h e r e i s a > O such t h a t B c a V = aC.1.11. which i s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n . t=m(E. 2 . i f ( E . . . u ( n ) > [ 6 a . 5. . ) i n E' such t h a t < x ( n ) . s ( E ' . . G a subspace o f E and i f ( E .1. E ) ) . t h e r e f o r e i t s polar V:=C" i n E i s a 0-nghb i n (E. As B i s a bounded subset of E . when does ( G .160 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES N o w w e consider the r e l a t i o n of local conpleteness and barrelledness properties. . . i . t ) i s a Mackey space. Clearly ( u ( n ) : n = 1 . // Corollary 5. 2 ) t h a t t h e local completeness of t h e weak dual i s . E ' ) . s ( E ' .E'). e .33: Let ( E .34: If E i s a space whose weak dual is l o c a l l y complete. t ) coincide with (G. ( E ' . 2 . 2 . E ) ) . and this i s t r u e i f and only i f every null sequence i n ( E ' . s ( E ' . // Proposition 5. s ( E ' . ) i s compact i n ( E ' . E ) ) i s an ( E . s ( E ' .1. ) converges t o t h e o r i g i n i n ( E ' . we can obtain a sequence ( u ( n ) : n = 1 .s( E ' . Proposition 5. . in a sense. W e s h a l l s e e l a t e r ( 8 .35: A space E i s b a r r e l l e d i f and only if E i s quasibarrel l e d and ( E ' .(G. n = 1 .1. E ) ) i s Proof: Applying 5.t) ')I? .

(F.s(E'. J:GA ------- i s continuous and A i s bounded i n (G. a f o r t i o r i . Set E:= s p ( F U 4 x ) ) .s(1 .s(F". Since G i s -+(G. is a Fr6- c h e t space.s(G.133 space E.m(G'.G')).G')).s(E.s(E. and hence ( F .m(E.E')) 1.F')) i s n o t conplete Since F i s dense i n (F".s(G. n o n i c a l i n j e c t i o n J:GA-----(G.p. I f S: denotes t h e f a m i l y o f a l l Mackey spaces i n 4. c l o s e d f i n i t e .m(E. s e t E:=(G'.CHAPTER 5 161 F i r s t observe t h a t .F)) Since A i s bounded i n (G. complemented subspaces of Mackey spaces a r e Mackey spaces.c o d i w n s i o n a l subspaces o f Mackey spaces a r e Mackey spaces.5. i f G i s a Frgchet-Monte1 space. Moreover. s i n c e m(F.s(E.m(G.F)) which i s c o n t i n u o u s and hence i t s graph i s and.m(G.c o d i m e n s i o n a l subspaces o f E which a r e c l e a r l y Mackey soaces.19 ( b ) shows t h a t F i s t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f a d e c r e a s i n g sequence o f and 4.s(G. s i n c e o t h e r w i s e subspace o f E.92.E)) compact i n (E. s e t E:=l and F:=co. Set E:=G' and and t h e c l o s e d u n i t b a l l B o f E i s it follows that E i s .E)) compact i n (E.E/F)) i s separable and 4.l 1 1 1 u n i t b a l l B o f 1 would be compact i n ( 1 .G')). i n RO.F')). 1 1 s i n c e ( 1 .3 (ii).l ) ) . C l e a r l y E i s a Mackey space and F 1 1 ) ) f (F.s(G.G')).s(G.s(G. I n p a r t i c u l a r .s(G.G')) Montel.m(E. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e c l a s s i c a l c l o s e d graph theorem.F)) c l o s e d in GAx(G.m(G'.m(G. t ) F " \ F.E)) and hence 1 ) ) thou@ n o t r e f l e x i v e .F)) a s e p a r a b l e Banach space G i s cons= t r u c t e d such t h a t G ' and G" a r e separable and dim(G"/G) C l e a r l y F i s dense i n (E'.F)) i s f i n e r t h a n m(G'.( 3 ) ) . Since A i s c l o s e d i n (G. t ) be a n o n . Thus A i s compact i n (G.m(E.2.s(E'.F') is a Thus (F.E)) i s separable. i t i s a l s o c l o s e d i n (G. s i n c e t h e p r o p e r t y o f b e i n g a Mackey space is p r e served by separated q u o t i e n t s ( s e e K1. A i s r e l a t i v e l y compact i n (G.4. b u t (F.G'f). There i s a v e r y s i m p l e way o f c o n s t r u c t i n g e x p l i c i t axamples o f t h i s t y p e : l e t ( F .l 00 i s a closed the closed 1 1 would be a !lackey spa- ce can be c o n s i d e r e d as t h e c o u n t a b l e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f Plackey spaces: indeed. a c o n t r a d i c t i o n .s(E.5. i t i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t r u e t h a t e v e r y compact s e t i n (E.G')). # (F. t h e n we g e t t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a dense hyperplane o f a Mackey space which i s n o t a Mackey space. IfB i s compact i n (E.G) then A i s compact i n (G. is O n t h e o t h e r hand. E i s a Mackey space and (F. i n GAx(G. dual p a i r and F i s dense i n (E.F)).m(G. s(G.r e f l e x i v e F r g c h e t space and x i n (E.F)).G) on F i t i s t h e ca- enough t o prove t h a t g i v e n any a b s o l u t e l y convex compact s e t A o f (G.F')). we have t h a t (F'. b ( l . The r e s u l t i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t r u e i f t h e c o d i n e n s i o n of t h e subspace F i n t h e space E i s n o t f i n i t e : i n deed.2 c l o s e d f i n i t e .F')). f o r a Banach is Observe t h a t i f F i s a dense hyperplane o f (E'.G)) a l s o a Mackey space: indeed.s(F'.m(F.E')): F:=G.m(E.G)) and l e t F be a dense subspace o f E.

E)) Theorem 5.s(G..s(G'.E)) i s n o t s e q u e n t i a l l y complete. ) be a non-convergent Cauchy sequence i n ( E l . ) i s compact i n (G.s(G'. . w i t h a c K and U E E ' . which c o n t a i n s t h e c l o s u r e i n E o f B'nF.w'> = < x.s(G' . i s a 0-nghb i n E.s(G'. .GI1)) i s m e t r i z a b l e s i n c e G" i s seDarable and 4. We s e t G : = s p ( E ' u { v \ ) .s(E*. (G'. which c o i n c i d e s I f BonF i s a w i t h t h e p o l a r s e t o f B n E ' i n F. F ) ) Since B i s compact i n (G. Now we prove t h a t B"nF i s a 0-nghb i n (F.E)).G")).s(G.1: i s a Mackey space..E')) which i s n o t a 0-nghb i n F.162 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEXSPACES r e f l e x i v e and hence F i s r e f l e x i v e . hence B"nF. Then ( G .s(G'. F i r s t we prove t h a t B n E ' i s compact i n (E'. Since B i s bounded i n (G'. F we have t h a t <x. Since 6 i s b a r r e l l e d .) i s l o c a l l y complete because i t c o n t a i n s t h e l o c a l l y complete hyperi s a n u l l sequence i n (G. i t would f o l l o w t h a t (B.13). ( 4 ) b ) i t i s enough t o e x h i b i t a s e q u e n t i a l l y complete s e t i n (G'. F ) ) . i s a 0-nghb i n (F.. does n o t have a c c o r d i n g t o K1. bforeover (B.G)): which i s n o t s e q u e n t i a l l y complete i n (G'.G")) be s e q u e n t i a l l y complete. . c l o s e d a b s o l u t e l y convex h u l l B o f ( v ( n ) : p l a n e E (5.u> . Should (B.. Now we c h a r a c t e r i z e those F r e c h e t spaces E such t h a t e v e r y dense hyperp l a n e F o f (E'. we a p p l y 5.G")).s(G. i t i s a l s o dense i n (B.s(G.2. I f (E'. T h i s w i l l ensure t h a t F i s n o t a Mackey space. t h e n t h e r e i s a dense hyperplane F o f E which i s n o t a Mackey space.1.m(F.12 a D p l i e s .s(E'.G)) i s s e q u e n t i a l l y complete and so i s t h e c l o s e d u n i t b a l l B o f B i s precompact i n i t . XE do t h i s .2. L e t i t s l i m i t i n (F*.s(G'. s(F*. and hence v c E ' . a c o n t r a d i c t i o n . // .G") a b a s i s o f 0-nghbs which a r e c l o s e d i n (G'.E)).1.s(G'.E')). a c o n t r a d i c t i o n .11 t o g e t t h a t t h e n=1. Since (v(n)-v:n=1.F)-precompact.To a r l y s(E'.4. 0-nghb i n F f o r t h e induced t o p o l o g y . T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t t h e sequence ( v ( n ) : n = l . s(E'. W e can w r i t e w ' av+u.E)) s(G.4. i s locally L e t E be a Mackey space such t h a t ( E ' . E ) ) complete.2.G)) G I .918.F). s ( E ' .F)).E)) = the net ( w ( j ) : j c J ) .F)).v) + <x. s i n c e B A E ' i s c l e and W E E * i t i s enough t o show t h a t i t i s c o n p l e t e . there i s a cluster point W ' G B o f For e v e r y ( w ( j ) : j c J ) be a Cauchy n e t i n ( B n E ' . s ( E ' . Since B n E ' i s dense i n (B.w> = a < x. t h e n B".m(F. and v i t s l i m i t i n (E*.s(G.s(G'.E)) P r o o f : L e t ( v ( n):n=1. ) i s equicontinuous.E)).E)).G")) were compact and t h i s would l e a d t o a c o n t r a d i c t i o n as above. T h i s example a l l o w s us t o show t h a t t h e t o p o l o g y s(G'. 1 We s h a l l see t h a t F:=v.( 0 ) is t h e d e s i r e d hyperplane o f E. s ( E ' .ub = < x.s(E'. hence u E E ' i s t h e l i m i t of t h e n e t ( w ( j ) : j c J ) i n ( E ' .m(E'.2.

Take any point x i n A*. 5 . E ' ) ) . . 1 = 0 and i f p = l .x .u> P . n .s( F ' . Let z be any point of A* and ( x ( j ) : j E J ) a net i n A converging t o z in ( ( E ' ) * . 1 provides exanples of t h e s i t u a t i o n considered i n 4 .x .§24. s ( E ' . E ' ) ) . . u ( q ) > equals 1 i f p=q and 0 i f p f q . . A i s not a weakly r e l a t i v e l y compact subset of E ..x . u ( p ) > . .u. Thus t h e r e i s a sequence ( y ( n ) : n = 1 . E ' ) ) is s e q u e n t i a l l y complete. s ( G . . s ( ( E ' ) * . t h e r e i s a point x i n E such t h a t ( x ( j ) : j c J ) converges t o x i n (E. N o w s e t t i n g x ( n ) : = ay(n) + z . ) i n B converging t o y i n (G.2. u ( p ) > = 0 ..s(E. then <y. such t h a t t h e d i k e n sion of s p ( E U A * ) / E i s equal t o 1.3: Let A be a d i s c i n a Frechet space E . Since ( F ' . Let L be a dense subspace o f ( E ' . 2 .F')). s ( ( E ' ) * .< z . s ( ( E ' ) * . F ) ) i s separable. . m ( l W 1 .. 2 .4: Let E be a Frechet space. s ( E .z < z . s ( F ' . = < z ..2. To obtain a converse of 5. Proof: Since A* i s not included i n E . l ~ the ) ) . .18 t o obt a i n t h a t ( F ' . Since A i s compact i n (E.s(E. I f x belongs t o A*. be elements of ( E l ) * such t h a t z ( p ) vanishes on L and t z ( p ) . F ' ) ) i s m t r i z a b l e .<x. E ' ) ) . Lemna 5. T h u s w e have t h a t z = x + L < z .1 i n t h e case of Mackey duals of Frechet spaces we need some Lemmata. E ' ) ) .m(E'. we s h a l l denote by A* i t s c l o s u r e in ( ( E ' ) * . then < y . i .x . / Theorem 5. method of proof of 5. we can apply 2. E:= ( l ~ ' .( 1) t h e r e i s a countable subset B of A such t h a t B * i s not included in E . I f U C L .2. z ( p ) \ .E)) i s a Mackey space i f and only i f ( E . u ( p ) > = < z . w i t h a € K and z c E .2.CHAPTER 5 163 Observe t h a t taken. hence ( B * .. . . By K1. u ( p ) > x ( p ) . we obtain t h e desired sequence i n E converging t o x i n ( ( E ' ) * . W e a r e done i f we prove t h a t A* i s included i n the span of E U ( z ( l ) . t h e n t h e r e i s a sequence ( x ( n ) : n = 1 . . Every hyperplane of (E'.. 2 . G ) ) i s separable. u > . p = l . .. such t h a t A i s compact i n (E. Let F be t h e c l o s u r e i n E of sp(B U { z \ ) and G : = sp(FUCy1). ) i n E converging t o x in ( ( E ' ) * .s(E. Let z ( p ) .2: Let A be a subset of a space E. i f A i s a subset of a space E . W e s e t y:=z-x. L ) ) .s(G. s ( ( E ' ) * . 2 . E ) ) w i t h dim(E'/L) = n .. . f .n .5.L)).. 2 ( i i ) . L)). . Proof: Let ( u ( 1 ) . / / P' Lemma 5. From now on.. then x= ay+z. Clearly sp(EuA*) = s p ( E U B * ) = s p ( E O{y\). Let y be a point i n B* not belonging t o E . .2. n = 1 . .u ( n ) ) be a co-basis o f L i n E l . Then dim(sp(EuA*)/E) f n. u ( p ) > x ( p ) .

4.c o m p l e t e spaces a r e 2 . ) i n E converging t o x in ( ( E ' ) * . f o r every compact space K . s ( E . The sDace ( co.m(E.3. m ( E .2.s( c Q . l 1 ) ) i s a non.2.164 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEXSPACES Proof: I f ( E . s ( E . t h e i d e n t i t y mapping I:(E.t)----(E. i f xcB* t h e r e i s a sequence ( x ( n ) : n = l . and l e t t be t h e l o c a l l y convex topology on E such t h a t ( E . s ( ( E ' ) * . + sq-cormlete 3 t . l e t 6 d i s c s in ( E . Let F be a hyperplane of E ' . F ) ) . x belongs t o E . The c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of local completeness a s presented in 5.and t h u s every B E 63 i s compact in (E. . p. s ( E . .11 appear.(Z): s e t p : = 1 / 2 and consider . . F ) . Conversely.311 and DAY.(5). ( I ) and GROTHENDIECK.19 we obtain t h a t I is continuous. ( E .25). s ( E ' . A space E i s r . see THOWAS. Since t i s f i n e r than m ( E . Ch.2. s ( E .( 2 ) . hence I : ( E . s ( E . s ( E . If F i s dense.2 t o obtain t h a t d i m ( s p ( E U B * ) / E ) 5 1 f o r every BE^ . F ) i s coarser than t h e i n i t i a l topology of t h e FrGchet space E .( 1) w i t h E ' . By 1.3. Let us observe t h a t t h i s result f a i l s t o be true in general in t h e non-locally convex s e t t i n g ( s e e DIEROLF. Moreover. (21.2. One has t h e following chain of i m l i c a t i o n s complete+quasi-conpleteep-conplete plete. E l ' .( 1).F)) i s continuous.6) i s s u m b l e .1~)) i s a non-p-conplete s e q u e n t i a l l y corrplete space. i t i s enough t o show t h a t every compact d i s c in ( E .(4)). see G . m ( E ' .. t ) * E .s( E Y E ' ) ) .3 Notes and renarks.+ E has closed graph i n ( E . E ' ) ) i s sequent i a l l y complete. If F i s closed i n ( E ' . E " ) ) i s a non-sequentiallv complete 2conplete space ( s e e DIEROLF.. t ) . Local convergence was considered by M A C K E Y . E ' ) ) .PELCZYNSKI.2. s ( E . E ' ) ) i s compact.1. then i t i s c l e a r l y a Mackey space. Therefore B* i s included i n E. then E i s weakly L-conplete ( t h a t i s .c o n p l e t e and the weakly 2 . E ' ) ) . According t o 5.s(l1. 5 where some p a r t s of 5. // 5. i t can be shown t h a t ( E ' . exerc.53 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . suppose t h a t ( E .'Lcomplete l o c a l l y conplete space ( j u s t consider t h e canonical u n i t v e c t o r s ! ) . Since ( E . If E i s the r e f l e x i v e Banach space constructed by JAMES.c o n p l e t e Banach spaces a r e p r e c i s e l y those which do n o t contain co ( s e e BESSAGA. A space i s p-complete (polar-semireflexive o r topologically complete) i f every precompact subset of E i s r e l a t i v e l y compact ( s e e K I . E ) ) . . Weakly 2 .1 t o obtain a hyperplane of E' which i s not a Mackey space. On t h e other hand. E ' ) ) i s Z . s ( E . W e apply 5. F ) ) i s a l s o 3 be the c l a s s of a l l compact compact i n ( E .c o m l e t e =+local corr- (11. separab l e . E ' ) ) i s s e q u e n t i a l l y complete.c o m l e t e ) .p. .11 i s d u e t o DIEROLF. p. t h e r e f o r e B i s a bounded subset of E f o r every B C 8 . i f E i s a l o c a l l y complete space such t h a t every continuous l i n e a r operator T:C( K ) . To prove t h i s . t ) i s t h e inductive l i m i t of t h e family of Banach spaces (Eg:BEB ) .c o n p l e t e i f every sequence s a t i s f y i n g the Cauchy condition (2. we apply 5. E ' ) ) i s not s e q u e n t i a l l y complete.( E .1.

t h canonical u n i t vector. 5. All t h e r e s u l t s which appear in 5.c. .CHAPTER 5 165 the F-space ( l P ..1.. ) i s not even bounded). e ( n ) being t h e n . were introduced i n GROTHENOIECK be seen i n DIEROLFy(5). (13) where many o t h e r r e s u l t s on t h e s t a b i l i t y of Mackey spaces by subspaces a r e i n e l i s t a few of them. .c.4: Every subspace of a countable product of nuclear (DFf-sDaces is a R i G y space.3: Every dense subspace of a q u a s i b a r r e l l e d (DF)-space is a Mackey soace.32 i s due t o WEBB. 5..1.1. .1: (VALDIVIA. The M.PEREZ CARRERAS .3.26 can and s. 5.31 i s a l s o remarked.3.M. ( u ( n ) : n = 1 .3. q ) and v ( n ) : = ( n .+ 1 2 with closed graph i s weakly c o n t i nuous.I ) . Since q(v(n))’nl/I. ) is a n u l l sequence i n ( P .1. 5.1.c. cluded.15 and 5.2. one has t h a t acx(u(n):n= l Y Z y . q ) .2: Every dense subspace of a r e f l e x i v e (LF)-space i s a Mackey soace.16 a r e taken from MAROUINA. W 5. T u ( i ) belong t o acx(u(n):n=1. . 2 .2 a r e taken from VALDIVIA.(4).). In the context of MAHWALD-type closed graph t h e o r e m one has t h e f o l l o w i n g remrkable result 5.(2) where 5.3.( 4 ) . 5. S e t u(n):=e(n)/f?? .(43)) The weak dual of a space E i s l o c a l l y complete i f and only i f every l i n e a r mapDing f : E .

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( b ) u l t r a b o r n o l o g i c a l spaces a r e b a r r e l l e d s i n c e b a r r e l s absorb Banach d i s c s ( s e e 3 . 1 . 3 and 6 .1. D e f i n i t i o n 6 .4: Frechet spaces a r e u l t r a b o r n o l o g i c a l . 1 .167 CHAPTER SIX BORNOLOGICAL AND ULTRABORNIILOGICAL SPACES 6.5: every normed s p a c e o f i n f i n i t e c o u n t a b l e dimension is bornological ( 6 .1. ) i s a null sequence i n E . 0. 2 . . S i n c e ( x ( n ) : n = 1 . .1. A space E is s a i d t o be u l t r a b o r nological i f e v e r y a b s o l u t e l y convex s e t i n E which absorbs the Banach d i s c s of E i s a O-ncj-tb i n E. i t i s a bounded s e t and hence i s absorbed by U and t h a t i s a contradiction. 3 ) b u t n o t b a r r e l l e d ( 4 .6.6 shows t h a t . Observation 6.3: I f E is m e t r i z a b l e . . 2 . 1 . 2 . ) be a d e c r e a s i n g b a s i s o f 0-nghbs i n E and l e t U be an a b s o l u t e l y convex bornivorous subset o f E .1.2: ( a ) u l t r a b o r n o l o g i c a l spaces a r e b o r n o l o g i c a l . Observation 6.1 D e f i n i t i o n s and c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s .1.4 . P r o p o s i t i o n 6. // According t o 6 . 7 ) . one has C o r o l l a r y 6.according t o 5. ( c ) bornological spaces a r e q u a s i b a r r e l l e d . t h e r e e x i s t v e c t o r s x ( n ) i n Un w i t h x ( n ) d n L J f o r each n. 1 . 1 . then i t i s b o r n o l o g i c a l . 2 ( d ) . 8 ) . I f U i s n o t a 0-nghb. 1 : A space E i s bornological i f every a b s o l u t e l y convex s e t i n E w h i c h is bornivorous i s a 0-nghb i n E. . Proof: Let ( U n : n = 1 . ( d ) l o c a l l y complete bornological spaces a r e ul trabornologica1.

E ' ) .l o c a l l y bounThus ded. i s s a i d t o be Q 3 -~ l o c a_ l l y bounded _ _ Consider a f a m i l y _ ( o r s i m p l y l o c a l l y bounded i f 6 stands f o r t h e f a m i l y o f a l l d i s c s i n E) i f f ( B ) i s bounded i n F f o r each B i n @.6: A space E i s b o r n o l o g i c a l i f and o n l y i f e v e r y a l g e - b r a i c a l l y c l o s e d a b s o l u t e l y convex b o r n i v o r o u s subset o f E i s a 0-nghb i n E. c o n s i d e r t h e i d e n t i t y ( E . // 6.E') i s bornological r y l o c a l l y bounded l i n e a r mapping w i t h v a l u e s i n any space i s c o n t i n u o u s and e v e r y l o c a l l y bounded l i n e a r f o r m on E i s continuous.t)=ind(EB:B(&) (iii) eve- P r o p o s i t i o n 6. F b e i n g a space. aB belongs t o 6 ( * * ) f o r e v e r y A and B i n 0 . An a b s o l u t e l y convex subset of E i s s a i d t o be a . i t i s c o n t i n u o u s and hence t = m ( E . t h e r e e x i s t s C i n @ such t h a t A U B C C . @ o f d i s c s i n a space E c o v e r i n g E and s a t i s f y i n g ( * ) f o r each s c a l a r a.s):=ind(EB:BL@) a b s o l u t e l y convex 0-nghb i n (E. Then f i s weakly c o n t i n u o u s and.t) be a space.1. i s due t o ( * ) and ( * * ) . t ) F i s 6-10(U) c a l l y bounded and hence. @ . Suppose now ( i v ) t r u e and l e t U be an a b s o l u t e l y convex G? -bor- n i v o r o u s subset o f ( E .E') and e v e r y @ . s i n c e t=m(E. e v e r y I f (iii) i s satisfied. which mikes sense hence a 0-nghb i n ( E . and each B i n a . t ) ( ii) ( E .7 a p p l i e d t o t h e f a m i l y @ o f a l l d i s c s i n E shows L e t (E. ( i v ) h o l d s . On t h e o t h e r hand. t ) A ( E. .1. t ) P r o o f : suppose ( i ) h o l d s and s e t (E. nuous and t h e r e f o r e U i s a 0-nqhb i n ( E .t) be a space and 8. t ) .t) e q u i v a l e n t : (i) ( i v ) t=m( E. f i s conti- The p r o o f i s complete.E') which i s c l e a r l y @ . ( i i i ) i s c l e a r l y i m p l i e d b y (ii). A l i n e a r mapping f:E--rF.l o c a l l y bounded l i n e a r f o r m on E and t h e r e f o r e continuous by assumption. and ( i i ) f o l l o w s .s) i s @-bornivorous.F'). t ) . C l e a r l y s i s f i n e r t h a n t. The f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s a r e (ii) (E.l o c a l l y bounded l i n e a r mapping E 4 F .b o r n i v o r o u s i f i t absorbs a l l members o f Lemma 6. The c a n o n i c a l p r o j e c t i o n f : ( E .8: (E.b o r n i v o r o u s subset o f E i s a 0-nghb i n ( E .1.168 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEXSPACES P r o p o s i t i o n 6. @ a f a m i l y o f d i s c s c o v e r i n g E and s a t i s f y i n g ( * ) and (**) above. The f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s a r e e q u i v a l e n t : ( i ) e v e r y a b s o l u t e l y convex 6 .m(E.7: Let (E. afO. f o r e v e r y c o n t i n u o u s l i n e a r f o r m v on E the (U)' maDping v o f i s a @ .l o c a l l y bounded l i n e a r f o r m on E i s continuous.t ) =i nd( EB :B t (8) ( i i i ) every continuous ( i v ) t=m(E. F b e i n g any space.1. According t o o u r assumption.

( i i ) i f two l o c a l l y convex topolopies t and t ' on E coincide on an absolutely convex subset A of E .1.1.1. ( i i ) The closed a b s o l u t e l y convex hull of a 1 ocal l y n u 1 1 sequence i s hyperprecompact. Since A i s precompact in E B .CHAPTER 6 169 Proposition 6. According t o 6.10: A subset A of a space E i s s a i d t o be hyperprecompact i f t h e r e e x i s t s a closed d i s c B in E such t h a t A i s precompact i n 43.E') and every l i n e a r form on E. t ) . t h e r e e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e constant b such t h a t ACbB and hence D i s t h e c l o s u r e of A i n ( E .p o l a r topology on E f i n e r than t. Proposition 6.2. then t and t ' coinc i d e on A . The next r e s u l t is taken from Kl.12 and K1.1. t ' ) . t ) .(3) one o b t a i n s ( i i i ) .1. which naps Banach d i s c s i n bounded sets of F. i s continuous ( i v ) t=m(E. l e t A be a hyperprecorrpact subset of a space E. which i s bounded on t h e Banach d i s c s of E .p o l a r .1. i s continuous. ( i i i ) hyperprecomoact locally n u l l s e t s a r e contained i n t h e closed absolutely convex h u l l of sequences ( i v ) f o r every hyperprecompact subset A of E . t h e c l o s u r e s i n EB f o r those topologies coincide. t ) be a space and l e t t ' be a t . Set D t o denote this c l o s u r e . B i s t .1.1. t ) be a space and l e t @ be the family of a l l Banach d i s c s i n ( E . we aooly 6. t ) i s ultrabornological ( i i ) ( E .12.9: Let ( E . F being any space. then t h e uniformities induced on A by t and t ' coincide. t ) and i n t h e normed space E coincide.6.13: ( i ) The closed absolutely convex hull of a hyperprecompact s e t i s i t s e l f hyperprecompact. Proof: ( i ) follows d i r e c t l y from 6.12: Let A be a precompact a b s o l u t e l y convex subset o f 5 f o r a c e r t a i n closed disc B i n a space ( E . and ( i i ) i s a consequence of ( i ) . F i n a l l y .11(i) t o Proof: Since t h e normed topology of obtain t h a t t and the topology of EB coincide on A and. according t o 6.11 ( i i ) . t h e r e e x i s t s a c l o sed absolutely convex hynerprecomDact subset C such t h a t A i s precompact i n t h e l i n e a r span of C endowed with t h e norm induced by i t s gauge. t ) . The following conditions a r e equivalent: ( i ) ( E . t ) = i n d ( E B : B c @ ) ( i i i ) every l i n e a r maDping E-F.and B be a closed d i s c i n E such . If A i s a precompact subset of ( E .1. // Proposition 6.6).(see 3.$28.?21. Then the c l o s u r e s o f A i n ( E .11: ( i ) Let ( E . Definition 6.(2) and (3) Lemma 6.11.

1. h p ( E ' .hp( E ' .1.) in there exists a n u l l i n EB such t h a t i t s c l o s e d a b s o l u t e l y convex h u l l c o n t a i n s A . t h e p o l a r s i n E ' o f t h e l o c a l l y n u l l sequences n E form a b a s i s o f O-n@bs i n ( E ' .. E ) ) .) and f i s unbounded on i t . each l i n e a r mappin9 f:E-+F sets o f E i s continuous.$21.1.17: and ( E ' . ( m -1x(m):m=1. The (Ti) f i s f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s a r e e q u i v a l e n t : ( i ) f i s l o c a l l y bounded..Z.1. i s a 0-nghb i n E and ( i i i ) if@ s t a n d s f o r t h e f a m i l y o f a l l c l o s e d a b s o l u t e l y convex hyperprecompact subsets o f E .11. . a c o n t r a d i c t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s a r e e q u i ( i i ) e v e r y a b s o l u t e l y convex s u b s e t o f E .. which absorbs t h e hyperprecompact subsets o f E. // C o r o l l a r y 6. 2 .. The p r o o f i s complete.2. S e l e c t an unbounded i n c r e a is o f p o s i t i v e s c a l a r s such t h a t (a(m)x(m):m=l.1. Theorem 6. A c c o r d i n g t o K1. t ) i s complete.) i s a n u l l sequence i n EB and s e t C : = E x ( a ( m ) x ( m ) : m = l .1. . w h i c h c l e a r l y hyperprecompact i n E. denote by h p ( E ' . Clearly.) hence A i s precompact i n E C C which shows t h e d e s i r e d c o n c l u s i o n .. // P r o p o s i t i o n 6. i s a n u l l sequence i n E and 5 ( o r i n E a c c o r d i n g t o 6..E)) A space ( E .. bounded on t h e hyperprecompact subsets o f E and ( i i i ) f i s bounded on t h e Proof: (i) i m p l i e s ( i i ) and ( i i ) i m p l i e s ( i i i ) a r e t r i v i a l .170 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES t h a t A i s precompact i n EB. Suppose t h a t ( i i i ) h o l d s and t h a t f i s n o t l o c a l l y bounded.2. Proof: S i n c e (s c o v e r s E and s a t i s f i e s ( * ) and ( * * ) . A c c o r d i n g t o 6. ) ..2. Given a space E. // Lemna 6.7 t o reach t h e conclusion.(3). a sequence (x(m):m=l.12) s i n g sequence (a(m):m=1.14: L e t f:E-+F be a l i n e a r mapping between spaces E and F .1. f o r w h i c h i s bounded on compact sub- F.4 and 6.. E ) t h e l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y on E ' o f t h e u n i f o r m convergence on t h e hyperprecompact s u b s e t s o f E.Z. i s b o r n o l o g i c a l i f and o n l y if t = m ( E . sequence (x(m):m=l.15: L e t E be a space.. Then t h e r e e x i s t s a c l o s e d d i s c B i n E. E i s b o r n o l o g i c a l i f and o n l y i f . valent: ( i ) E i s bornological. local n u l l sequences o f E. t h e n E=ind( EC:CC@).) Z.16: e v e r y space L e t E be a space.13(ii) and ( i i i ) . (x(m):m=1..1.. i t i s enough t o app l y 6.) f(x(m)) i n B and a 0-nghb I J i n F such t h a t i s a l o c a l l y n u l l sequence i n E +m2u.

t ) and hence u C E ' .VI. Accordin9 t o R R .15.?18. i t i s enough t o show t h a t ( E ' . 2 . Let u be a vector of t h e completion of ( E ' . i . n A i s closed i n ( E . 1 1 ( i ) . then ( E ' . b ( E ' . u i s continuous on ( A . 1. t ) and A a closed absolutely convex hyperprecompact subset of ( E d ) . t ) . According t o 6.l. By V I . Prop. According t o 6. E ) ) which coincides w i t h E' by assumption.1. The l i n e a r form u i s continuous on EC and. // According t o 6. such t h a t U n A i s closed i n E f o r every closed a b s o l u t e l y convex hyperprecompact subset A of E . t ) .CHAPTER 6 171 Proof: Let ( E .l. ) i n a space E i s f a s t convergent t o a vector x i n E i f t h e r e exists a Banach d i s c B such t h a t i t converges t o x in A f a s t null sequence i s a sequence which f a s t converges t o t h e o r i g i n in E . . u belongs t o t h e completion of ( E ' .811.1.17 a n d applying 6. 1. Conversely. f o r every hyperprecompact subset A of E .1. t h e r e e x i s t s v C E ' such t h a t u-v(A" and hence u i s bounded on every hyperprecompact subset of E . According t o RR.1.4. To prove s u f f i c i e n c y . / / Definition 6.(4) one has the following Corollary 6. Ch. E l ) .20: A sequence ( x ( n ) : n = l . by R R .17 and K1. T h . E ) ) i s complete. t h e r e e x i s t s v i n E' such t h a t u . e .1. t ) i s bornological i f and only i f every abs o l u t e l y convex bornivorous subset U of E . u C E ' . i s a 0nghb i n E. E ) ) .VI.v E A " and. according t o 6 . Corollary 6. t ) and hence U our assumption.17. f i r s t observe t h a t t = m ( E .3. E ) ) i s comp l e t e .1. l e t u be a l o c a l l y bounded l i n e a r form on ( E . E ) ) and proceeding a s we did i n 6. u i s continuous on ( A . h p ( E ' . l . t ) be bornological and u a l i n e a r mapping on E belonging t o t h e completion of ( E ' . T h . 5. Accordin? t o 6. 1. t h e r e e x i s t s a closed absolutely convex hyperprecompact subset C of E such t h a t A i s precompact i n EC.18: I f E i s bornological.1.13 ( i v ) . Ch. h p ( E ' . Proposition 6. u i s l o c a l l y bounded and hence continuous.19: A space ( E .1. U i s a 0-nghb in ( E . Let A be a closed absolutely convex hyperprecompact subset of E .14 we have t h a t u i s l o c a l l y bounded hence U:=( x( E: !(x. 1 . .u>l&l) i s a b s o l u t e l y convex and bornivorous. Due t o H. T h . Proof:Necessity i s c l e a r . h p ( E ' .1. h p ( E ' .21: ( i ) The closed absolutely convex hull of a f a s t com- . Z . A subset K of E i s s a i d t o be f a s t compact i f t h e r e e x i s t s a Banach d i s c B such t h a t K i s compact i n 5.1. Ch.

each l i n e a r mapping f:E-+F f a s t compact subsets o f E i s continuous. ( i i i ) I f @ denotes t h e f a m i l y o f a l l a b s o l u t e l y convex compact subsets which absorbs t h e f a s t compact o f E. (ii) f o l l o w s f r o m ( i ) and ( i i i ) and ( i v ) can be proved analogously t o 6 . which absorbs t h e compact absolut e l y convex subsets o f E.22 and 6. ( i i ) The c l o s e d a b s o l u t e l y convex h u l l o f a f a s t Every f a s t compact s e t i s c o n t a i convergent sequence i s f a s t compact. t h e f a m i l y o f a l l a b s o l u t e l y convex f a s t compact subwhich bounded on t h e x denotes s e t s o f E.1. t h e r e s u l t s f o l l o w f r o m 6. P r o o f : The o n l y n o n .14. denote b y f c ( E ' . t h e n E=ind( EC:CtX) ( v i ) For e v e r y space F.1.16. // For a space E . t h e r e e x i s t s an a b s o l u t e l y convex f a s t compact subset K i n E such t h a t A i s compact i n EK and hence t h e t o p o l o g i e s on A induced b y E and EK c o i n c i d e . i s a 0-nghb i n E.7. i m p l i c a t i o n i s ( i v ) i m p l i e s ( i ) which can be // For a space E t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s a r e e o u i v a l e n t : C o r o l l a r y 6.1. Then To prove ( v i ) proceed as i n 6. ) 7 .1. ( i i i ) f i s bounded on t h e f a s t compact s e t s o f E . The c l o s e d a b s o l u t e l y convex h u l l C o f A i n EB i s c o r n p a c t i n EB and hence i n E f r o m w h e r e i t f o l l o w s t h a t C c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e c l o s e d a b s o l u t e l y convex h u l l o f A i n E. P r o o f : The f a m i l i e s 03 a n d 3 cover E and s a t i s f y ( * ) and ( * * ) .F be a l i n e a r mapping between spaces E and F . ( i v ) Every a b s o l u t e l y convex subset o f E subsets o f E (v) If i s a 0-nghb i n E. t h e n E=ind( EK:K<&). L e t f:E--.1.172 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES p a c t s e t i s f a s t compact.23: ( i ) E i s ultrabornological ( i i ) Every a b s o l u t e l y convex subset o f E.1. P r o o f : ( i ) L e t B be a Banach d i s c such t h a t t h e f a s t compact subset A of E i s compact i n EB. (iii) ned i n t h e c l o s e d a b s o l u t e l y convex h u l l o f a f a s t n u l l sequence. 1 . ( i v ) f i s bounded on t h e f a s t n u l l sequences o f E . ( i v ) F o r e v e r y f a s t compact subset A o f E.22: o f E. The following conditions are equivalent: (i) f i s bounded on t h e Ranach d i s c s ( i i ) f i s bounded on t h e a b s o l u t e l y convex compact subsets o f E. E ) t h e l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y on E ' o f .t r i v i a l proven as i n 6. Lemma 6.

The ultrabornological case follows analogously. f c ( E ' .24: A space ( E . 6. then ( E ' . Thus U i s a 0-nghb i n E and t h e conclusion follows. which absorbs f a s t compact subsets of E a n d such t h a t UAK i s closed f o r every closed absolutely convex f a s t compact subset K of E . According t o 6.1.1. E ) ) i s complete.1 and 6.' ( I J ) i s bornivorous and absolutely convex i n E i f o r each i and hence a 0-nghb. // .2 Permanence p r o p e r t i e s I .3: ( i ) A space E i s bornological i f and only i f i t i s t h e inductive l i m i t of normd spaces.1. u l trabornological ) . i s a 0-nghb i n E. Proposition 6. /I 6.1. E l ) a n d ( E ' .2: The c l a s s e s of bornological and ultrahornological spaces a r e closed under the formation o f : ( i ) a r b i t r a r y d i r e c t sums ( i i ) separated q u o t i e n t s ( i i i ) complemented subspaces and ( i v ) f i n i t e products. u l t r a b o r n o l o g i c a l ) spaces. then E is bornological ( r e s p . Proof: If U i s a bornivorous absolutely convex subset of E .1 2 1 ( i i ) and ( i i i ) . E ) ) i s complete. Proposition 6. Corollary 6. Proceeding a s we did in 6.1.1.m( E ' . .2. E a Hausdorff space and f i : E i 4 E l i n e a r mappings f o r each i i n I .1.2.19 replacing 6.4. 6. E ) ) . t h e polars i n E l of t h e f a s t null sequences form a b a s i s of 0-nghbs i n ( E ' .CHAPTER 6 173 the uniform convergence on the f a s t compact subsets o f E ' . I f E = i n d ( E i .17 we obtain Theorem 6.3.1. Corollary 6.1.25: I f E i s ultrabornological .2.1. // Corollary 6.2. Proof: proceed as i n 6. ( i i ) A space E i s ultrabornological i f and only i f i t i s t h e inductive l i m i t of Banach spaces.'26: A space E i s ultrabornological if and only i f every absolutely convex subset U o f E .9.24.1: Let ( E i : i ( I ) be a non-void family of bornological ( r e s p . f i .1. t ) i s ultrabornological i f and only i f t = m ( E .1 and 6. i G I ) .2.8 and ( i i ) from 6. then f i . f c ( E ' . Proof: ( i ) follows from6.17 by 6.

( E . i s a b a s i s o f 0-nghbs o f ( E . on E.6). The f o l l o w i n g p r o p o s i t i o n i s o f t r i v i a l n a t u r e P r o p o s i t i o n 6. t ) .2. .2.2.4: tub):=ind( $:B€a*) associated Given a space ( E . I t s r e s t r i c t i o n t o F i s l o c a l l y bounded and hence continuous.6: Then. Hence (x. a l l d i s c s and Banach d i s c s i n E . t ub ) i s t h e coarsest bornolocjcal (resp.1. lI bornological The c o m p l e t i o n o f a b o r n o l o q i c a l space i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y ( s e e 6.2. l e t @and @ *be the families o f and ( E .5: ( i ) t X( r e s p . I f F i s b o r n o l o g i c a l . 1 . u l t r a b o r n o l o g i c a l ) t o p o l o g y on E which i s f i n e r t h a n t. x E E B and such t h a t i t converqes t o H:=sp(Egn F U ( x ) ) w i t h t h e t o p o l o g y induced by EB.(A*-bornivorous) (resp. l e t u be a l o c a l l y bounded l i n e a r f o r m on E. For every v e c t o r x i n E t h e r e e x i s t s a sequence (x(n):n=1. e v e r y l o c a l l y bounded l i n e a r f o r m on E i s continuous and t h e c o n d i t i o n i s s a t i s f i e d . L e t F be a b o r n o l o g i c a l dense subspace o f a space E. 6.2. t ) P r o p o s i t i o n 6. Thus u=v and t h e r e f o r e u i s c o n t i nuous. Conversely. a c c o r d i n g t o 6. P r o p o s i t i o n 6. i t i s c l e a r t h a t E i s a Yackey space.2. On t h e o t h e r hand. L e t v be i t s u n i q u e c o n t i n u o u s e x t e n s i o n t o E. Set t i o n o f u t o H i s continuous and vanishes on EBAF which i s a dense subspace of H. t ) and ub ) ) have t h e same bounded s e t s (resp. ( E . The l i n e a r form v-u i s l o c a l l y bounded and vanishes on F.6. ( i i ) ( E . P r o o f : L e t u be a l o c a l l y bounded l i n e a r f o r m on E v a n i s h i n g on F.174 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEX SPACES D e f i n i t i o n 6. t X ) (resp.t 1).21) E o f a b o r n o l o g i c a l spa- ..8: The l o c a l c o m p l e t i o n (5.7: L e t F be a l o c a l l y dense ( 5 . k . E i s b o r n o l o g i c a l i f and o n l y i f e v e r y l o c a l l y bounded l i n e a r f o r m v a n i s h i n g on F i s i d e n t i c a l l y n u l l P r o o f : I f E i s b o r n o l o g i c a l . vex subsets o f ( E . 1 4 ) subspace o f a space E.1.tX):=ind(EB:BCO) d e f i n e t h e b o r n o l o g i c a l and u l t r a b o r n o l o g i c a l t o p o l o g i e s 2 t respectively... t h e n E i s b o r n o l o g i c a l .) sed d i s c B i n x in i n F and a c l o - E such t h a t x ( n ) ( E B A F .u) E i s bornological N *// P r o p o s i t i o n 6.. The r e s t r i c =O and. t ( i i i ) The f a m i l y o f a l l b o r n i v o r o u s ( r e s p . (E. .2. t X ) a b s o l u t e l y conub (E. Banach d i s c s ) .8 concludes t h e proof.. r e s p e c t i v e l y .

2 ( i i i ) . i f “ I = s p ( G L J ( x ) ) . Then G i s not l o c a l l y complete and we determine a vector r’ x ( E \ G such t h a t . Proposition 6. : j C J ) i s a t o t a l l y ordered family.J Therefore F = i n d ( E j : j L J ) and F i s bornological by 6. . // 6. . i ( p ) ) be t h e s u b s e t of I such t h a t U ( E i : i & J ) C U. Suppose GfE.9 f a i l s t o be true when bornological i s replaced by u l t r a b o r n o l o g i c a l a s t h e following r e s u l t shows . . // Corollary 6.2.2..10: Let ( E i :i6 I ) be a non-void family of bornological spaces and s e t E f o r i t s topological product. Conversely. . & ( E i : i E I ) is l o c a l l y dense i n Eo and bornological by 6. a c o n t r a d i c tion. F i s ordered i n d u c t i v e l y by i n c l u s i o n : indeed. ) such t h a t Ei(. ) i s bounded i n E and n o t absorbed by U .9. Z .7. ) ) : r = l . According t o ZORN’s l e m m . .10. w e may apply 6. p ) ) n E . i t s union F i s a Yackey space and each E .1. ( x ( n ) : n = l . S e t V : = ( T T ( E i : i & J ) x T ( ( 2 p ) . .2. / . t h e r e e x i s t s a sequence o f i n d i c e s ( i ( n ) : n = 1 .7.CHAPTER 6 175 c e E i s bornological. Proof: According t o 5.9: Let ( E i : i C I ) be a non-void family of spaces and l e t E be t h e d i r e c t sum @ ( E i : i G I ) endowed with t h e topology induced b y n ( E i : i C I ) .2. N o w l e t J : = ( i ( l ) . t h e r e e x i s t s a bornological subspace G of E c o n t a i n i n g E which i s maf d J IV xirral.l ( U n E i ( . . Then Eo i s bornological. F i r s t we show t h a t U c o n t a i n s a l l b u t a f i n i t e number of the f a c t o r spaces : indeed. According t o 6. Proof: Since E = E o . 2 . i s dense i n F . i f this i s not t h e c a s e . l e t U be a bornivorous a b s o l u t e l y convex s u b s e t of E . @ ( E i : i 4 J ) C U .2. i f ( E . & Proof: Let $ be t h e family of a l l bornological subspaces of E c o n t a i n i n g E .1. which i s a 0-nghb i n E s i n c e each E i s bornoloqical. // Corollary 6. .2.16. then G i s l o c a l l y dense i n M.2.2. . . .)#U for w i t h x ( n ) d n l J f o r each n . rY i s bornological and t h i s c o n t r a d i c t s t h e maximality of G . Then E i s bornological i f and only i f each f a c t o r Ei i s bornoloqical. Since U i s convex.2. each n . S e l e c t a sequence of vectors x ( n ) C E i(n) C l e a r l y . The conclusion follows applying 6.11: The topological product E of a countable family of bornological spaces i s i t s e l f bornoloqical. 2 . I t i(r) i s easy t o check t h a t V C U from where t h e conclusion f o l l o w s . Proof: Necessity follows from 6 .

2. O n t h e o t h e r hand.2..1.. i f t h i s i s n o t t h e case. . l i n e a r and c o n t i n u o u s . be an i n f i n i t e c o u n t a b l e subset o f I and x ( n ) a v e c t o r o f E i ( n) ' f o r each n w i t h <x(n).97.1.. ) compact subset o f Eo such t h a t x ( p ) ( p-'C (x(n):n=1.1. Then we a p p l y H.. determine a sequence o f i n d i c e s ( i ( n ) : n = l . I f E i s t h e t o p o l o g i c a l p r o d u c t o f a non-void f a m i l y P r o p o s i t i o n 6. .10 can be extended t o u l t r a b o r n o l o g i c a l spaces. A c c o r d i n g t o o u r assumption.2.. . Now we s h a l l prove t h a t T ( E i : i & J)f\EoCC: indeed n( E..2.) w i t h x(n). t h e n Eo i s u l t r a b o r n o l o g i c a l . 3 t o o b t a i n t h a t f ( G ) i s isomorphic t o G and complemented i n F. V i s a 0-nghb i n E 0 c o n t a i n e d i n // . : i E I ) 1 o f spaces endowed w i t h t h e t o p o l o g y induced by T ( E i : i € I ) .. . Accord i n g t o 4. . 4 J ) c l l . i t f o l l o w s t h a t x(U.$nU f o r each n .26). ) x(n)EEi(.15. .2. Then..) convex. . Z . Set J : = ( i ( l ) . ) := T a ( n ) y n i s w e l l d e f i n e d .26 f i n i s h e s the proof. Set M:=ZE?(x(n):n=l..)C)(x)) compact subset o f Eo.1. The mapping f:G+F Let J:=(i(l). Prop..2.. F i r s t we prove t h a t I1 and v e c t o r s which i s a c o n t a i n s a l l f a c t o r spaces save a f i n i t e number o f them: indeed.) 4 J).13: ( E i : i € 1 ) o f u l t r a b o r n o l o g i c a l spaces.. Since U i s 4 J ) C U . S e t t i n g V:=((ll'(Ei:i 4 J)x U and T((2p)-1(UAEi(r)).:i C i n E o and a sequence A ( x :n=1.2.Z.determine a compact absolutely convex s e t i n @(Ei:i 4 J ) convergina t o x i n which i s a f a s t ( E o ) C as we d i d i n 5. f o r each n. E i s n o t P r o o f : Set G f o r t h e space K(N) endoNed w i t h t h e p r o d u c t t o p o l o g y . . :n=1.) f i n e d by g ( x ( i ) : i E I ) : = ( ( x ( i ( n ) ) .2.12: b a r r e l 1ed.) G i s n o t b a r r e l l e d . Z .i(n).. U / I M i s c l o s e d i n Eo and s i n c e x ( n ) E Y / \ U f o r each n. t h e m p p i n g g:F--rG ded e f i n e d by f(a(n):n=1.r=1. We s h a l l show t h a t E c o n t a i n s a comple- m n t e d copy o f G f r o m where o u r c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s b y 4. Set C : = E ( p x ( p ) : p = l .176 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES P r o p o s i t i o n 6..2. Proof: L e t U be an a b s o l u t e l y convex subset o f Eo a b s o r b i n g t h e f a s t comp a c t subsets o f Eo such t h a t i t s i n t e r s e c t i o n w i t h e v e r y c l o s e d a b s o l u t e l y convex f a s t compact subset o f Eo i s c l o s e d (6.u(n)> =1 and s e t yn:= i(n) t o denote t h e v e c t o r o f E w i t h y n ( i ( n ) ) = x ( i ( n ) ) and y n ( i ) = O i f OD . . L e t E be t h e d i r e c t sum o f a non-void f a m i l y ( E . Thus t h e sequence with u(Ei:i i s a f a s t compact subset o f Eo which i s n o t absorbed b y U. @(Ei:i a c o n t r a d i c t i o n . 6.7. i ( p ) ) c I given a vector x i n f o r each p. // 6. S e l e c t u ( n ) E E (yn(i):i€I) i # i ( n ) . u ( n ) > i s a l s o l i n e a r and cont i n u o u s and s a t i s f i e s t h a t g o f i s t h e i d e n t i t y on G..2. .))AEo.2..

Z. I(x(n). 2 . Eo i s barrelled. ) i n E such t h a t [ < x ( n ) . Procf: Take a vector x t E \ E and s e t F:=sp(E U ( x ) ) . 5 ( i i ) . The same argument of 6. // Every metrizable . A s l i g h t modifica0 0 t i o n i n the proof of 4..2. Set F:=sp( E o U ( x ) ) . G i s a complemented subspace of E o y hence Eo and t h e r e f o r e F i s not b a r r e l l e d .16: Let E be the topological product of an uncountable family ( E i : i C I ) o f b a r r e l l e d spaces.2. 9 and 6. 2 .17: Let G be a non-barrelled normed space and E an uncount a b l e product of copies of G . I t i s enough t o prove t h a t u is l o c a l l y bounded. According t o 4 .CHAPTER 6 177 Corollary 6. There e x i s t s a proper dense subspace F of E which i s b a r r e l l e d b u t not bornological.. u ) =O and H = u L . // .2. Determine xLE and u CE* such t h a t < x . Write x ( n ) = y ( n ) + a ( n ) x f o r each n w i t h y(n)(H and a ( n ) a s c a l a r . Then E contains a proper dense subspace F which i s quasibarrelled b u t neither b a r r e l l e d nor bornological. 6.is q u a s i b a r r e l led.15: I f H i s a s e q u e n t i a l l y closed hyperplane of a bornological space. 6. . .16 shows t h a t t h e r e a l s o e x i s t s a b a r r e l led non-bornological space G.2.) i s a null sequence i n E and hence (-a(n)-'y(n):n=l. t h e r e e x i s t s a vector x(E\Eo. u > \ > n . then H is closed. Such examples e x i s t i n abundance. On the other hand. t h e r e exists a bounded sequence ( x ( n ) : n = 1 . Proof: Let H be a s e q u e n t i a l l y closed hyperplane of a bornological space E. a c o n t r a d i c t i o n since H i s supposed t o be Sequentially closed.2.2.14: The countable product E of a family of ultrabornological spaces i s again ultrabornological.2.and consequently F.15 ensures t h a t F i s not bornological.2.and t h e r e f o r e F by 4. Proof: Since I i s uncountable.2.s=dimensional space E y i e l d s an example of a bornological non-barrelled space. Proof: apply 6.2.2.13 t o E=Eo.2.5 shows t h a t Eo.12. [ a ( n ) \ = hence (a(n)-'x(n):n=1. Since F contains a s e q u e n t i a l l y closed hyperplane which i s not closed.1 ( i i ) .u)l>n.)CH converges t o x . C l e a r l y . Examples of t h i s k i n d can a l s o be obtained from 6. . // Proposition 6. Clearly.16 shows t h a t F i s not bornological. I f t h i s i s not t h e case.2.. Proposition 6. ExG i s a q u a s i b a r r e l l e d space which i s n e i t h e r b a r r e l l e d nor bornological.// Proposition 6.

20: u ltrabornological . i s i d e n t i c a l l y n u l l L e t E be t h e t o p o l o g i c a l p r o d u c t o f a non v o i d f a m i l y o f u l t r a b o r n o l o g i c a l spaces.6 i n E x F and s e t G : = T ( s p ( x ( i ) ) : i ( I ) E vanishing i t i s enough t o show t h a t u vanishes on E . K i s complemented i n E and t h e r e f o r e n e c e s s i t y f o l l o w s a c c o r d i n g t o 6. Clearly.<x. Darticular. s i n c e C i s isomorphic t o RxR.19: L e t F be a p r o p e r dense u l t r a b o r n o l o g i c a l subspace o f a space E. Such measures a r e m measures. 2.2. 6 .2. A c c o r d i n g t o 6. D e f i n i t i o n 6.9) subspace of E and l e t u be a l o c a l l y bounded l i n e a r form on on F. Conversely. Moreover C I i s b o r n o l o g i c a l i f and o n l y i f R1 i s b o r n o l o g i c a l . i f K1 i s b o r n o l o g i c a l s e t F f o r t h e d i r e c t sum o f f a c t o r spaces which i s a dense b o r n o l o g i c a l ( 6 . E i s u l t r a b o r n o l o g i c a l i f and o n l y i f K1 i s // A c c o r d i n g t o 6.2. MACKEY showed t h a t R 1 i s b o r n o l o a i c a l if and o n l y measure m d e f i n e d on t h e s e t 2 i f t h e r e e x i s t s no ( 0 . and vanishes on F . P r o o f : Proceed as i n 6.2. F o r a f a m i l y of spaces ( E i : i G I ) one has P r o p o s i t i o n 6.2( iii). We s h a l l c h a r a c t e r i z e those i n d e x s e t s I such that R I i s b o r n o l o g i c a l . I Proof: According t o 2 .u> =O. E. l ) . 5 ( i i i ) . // Proceeding as i n 6.I 78 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES A r b i t r a r y p r o d u c t s of b o r n o l o g i c a l and u l t r a b o r n o l o g i c a l spaces a r e again b o r n o l o g i c a l and u l t r a b o r n o l o g i c a l r e s p e c t i v e l y p r o v i d e d c e r t a i n r e s t r i c t i o n s on t h e index s e t a r e assumed. E i s b o r n o l o g i c a l if and o n l y i f K i s b o r n o l o o i c a l . which on E .18.2(d). E i s u l t r a b o r n o l o g i c a l i f and o n l y i f e v e r y l i n e a r f o r m on i s bounded on Banach d i s c s o f Proposition 6.v a l u e d I o f a l l the subsets o f called K I with I ) = l and m(( i ) ) = O f o r each i i n I.in (x.1. Take a which i s isomor- p h i c t o K J f o r some J C I .G i s b o r n o l o g i c a l b y assumption ( K J i s I and hence b o r n o l o g i c a l ) and hence t h e r e s t r i c t i o n v o f u i s c o n t i n u o u s on G and vanishes on @ ( s p ( x ( i ) : i 61)).6.6 one has Lemma 6.2.21: An i n d e x s e t I s a t i s f i e s t h e MACKEY-ULAK c o n d i t i o n i f .2. E.2.2.v) = to'iT(sp(x(i):iEI)) shows t h a t v vanishes on G and. vector x : = ( x ( i ) : i C I ) conplemented i n K Thus 6. K I i s b o r n o l o g i c a l i f and o n l y i f i t i s u l t r a b o r - n o l o g i c a l . We s h a l l p r e s e n t a p r o o f o f MACKEY's r e s u l t .18: L e t E be t h e t o p o l o g i c a l p r o d u c t o f a non-void f a m i l y I o f b o r n o l o g i c a l spaces.2.

2. 6. F i r s t we check t h a t F i s an u l t r a f i l t e r t a i n i n g (I) i n I:indeed.conJ n A € R f o r e v e r y A t F w e have which i s m x i m a l i n e . Ch.2. l e t and s e t J : = n ( J n : n = 1 .u) =O and t h e r e f o r e Rc C u-'(O).4. If t h e r e e x i s t A and 6 i n Then (x. Set J f o r t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f a l l subsets J o f I such t h a t R i s n o t c o n t a i n e d i n u-'(O). zCRKnC.) AnJ=$b.7. hence t h e sequence ( x ( n ) : n I =1.2. which i s a member o f F . t h e n z ( d ( j ) : j C J ) < d p r o o f o f t h i s r e s u l t can be found i n GJ.. By assumption. j ) : j < J ) card(J)(d and d ( j ) L d f o r each j i n J. F i n d K now a v e c t o r x ( n ) E R n such t h a t (x(n). Ch.2. To show t h a t n=1. I f such a s e t I e x i s t s t h e n i t s c a r d i n a l numher d i s strongly inaccesible (i. i s b o r n o l o g i c a l i f and o n l y i f I s a t i s f i e s t h e MACKEY- ULAM c o n d i t i o n .u) such t h a t JAAd?Ft. KnBdR. f o r e v e r y c a r d i n a l number c i s a family o f cardinals with <d one has t h a t Z C < d and i f ( d ( . Analogously 5 : C KL$ i f KnBC?% f o r each and .2. I f t h a t J<? by t h e m a x i m a l i t y o f 6 in in E. d i s n o t countable.5. 124 12.lZ.. . Take a v e c t o r x(R and w r i t e x=y+z w i t h ytRJnC + (z. Suppose t h e e x i s t e n c e o f A 4 3 such t h a t and s e t Kn:=Ar\ O J r .6 Theorem 6.u>>n.. f o r each n. The p r o o f o f o u r n e x t r e s u l t can be found i n GJ. ICR. .CHAPTER 6 179 no Ulam measure can be d e f i n e d on i t ..) i s a decreasing sequence o f subsets o f I w i t h v o i d i n t e r s e c t i o n .. I P r o o f : I f R i s n o t b o r n o l o g i c a l .2. I does n o t s a t i s f y t h e MACKEY-ULAM c o n d i t i o n i f and o n l y i f e v e r y u l t r a f i l t e r on I w i t h t h e c o u n t a b l e i n t e r s e c t i o n p r o p e r t y i s t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f a l l i t s members i s v o i d ) .e.12. and a con(Jn: t h e n C:=AABB3&.23: R I ). 12.. be a sequence i n I t i s enough t o show t h a t J n A # @ f o r e v e r y A i n F. A and 12.22 t o o b t a i n .u> = <y.6 show t h e e x i s t e n c e o f I a l o c a l l y bounded l i n e a r f o r m u on R such t h a t u#O and R(')C u-'( 0 ) . $ s a t i s f i e s t h e countable i n t e r s e c t i o n property.9 and 6.2.) i s bounded i n R and t h a t i s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n c e u i s l o c a l l y bounded.Z P r o p o s i t i o n 6.e. 12. w r i t e I = J U K w i t h J n K = $ . I t i s n o t known whether t h e r e e x i s t s a s e t which does n o t s a t i s f y t h e MACKEY-ULAM c o n d i t i o n .. ) .2.22: free (i. we a p p l y 6. Apply ZORN's lemma t o o b t a i n a f i l t e r %. (Kn:n=1. Since I s a t i s f i e s t h e MACKEY-ULAM c o n d i t i o n . tradiction. 2 .

1(q)’ we c o n s i d e r on G t h e t o p o l o g y t ’ whose b a s i s o f 0-nghbs i s given b y t h e convex h u l l s o f t h e s e t s o f t h e f o r m q=1. e v e r y bounded subset B o f R formn([-a(i). Since U A G i s a 0- and hence x belongs t o t h e c l o s u r e o f 2-’UAG ... there exists a f r e e u l t r a f i l t e r f l o n I w i t h t h e counta- I b l e i n t e r s e c t i o n p r o p e r t y .3.u)EY( x) and hence R(’) C u-’(O). t ) = i n d ( ( E i .. f y i n g the countable i n t e r s e c t i o n property.2. I f xCd’’.ti):i&I).u) : = y ( x ) I f o r e v e r y x i n R . if x L B . i s a 0-nghb i n ( FnEi. F a ( q ) =1. The members o f w i t h W Eu(q). t h e c l o s u r e taken i n t h e c o r r e s t h e n s and t c o i n c i d e on F.1 UAEi. suppose t h a t I does n o t s a t i s f y t h e MACKEY-ULAM c o n d i t i o n . t h e n (x.1: dim(Ei/(FT\Ei)) ponding (Ei. f o r idM.p]. W e a r e done i f we prove t h a t u i s l o c a l l y bounded: indeed. X ( q ) C V i(s): i(q)’ q=l.Z.. Set J n : = ( i 4 1 : a ( i ) < n ) and. :=(x(i):iCM). Conversely.a(i)] f o r each n. the closuand V : = c x ( u ( V i : i & I ) ) . . Set G : = s ~ ( U ( F ~ E 9) w i t h a ( q ) W .. t h e n (xyu)CJp(x) P // 6. e P r o o f : L e t U be an a b s o r b i n g a b s o l u t e l y convex subset o f F such t h a t UAEi f o r each i i n I . Given x : = ( x ( i ) : i 6 1 ) i n R and M i n I t i s easy t o check t h a t / r y l ( x ) : = ( M ( x ) : M C f l ) fl ... t i ) : i I f (F. Consequently.~. Lemma 6. t h e n (z.. there e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e a e r P Cm.ti). i f z : = ( z ( i ) : i d I ) w i t h z( i)=l f o r each i i n I . - L e t F be a subspace o f ( E . determine a f i l t e r F ( q ) i n 2. 2 . i n (G. ) p such t h a t J I i s contained i n a s e t o f the :i( I ) w i t h a(i))O f o r each i.. ..ti). Given a b a s i s u(q) o f a b s o l u t e l y convex 0-nghbs i n ( F A E .p) C l e a r l y .u) e v e r y i i n I . According t o 6.2.t)..p) w i t h M ( s ( q ) converges t o x q 9 a r e c o n t a i n e d i n $Z-la(q)(UAEi(q))C Z-’UAG i n (G. 14 F o r each o f such q ‘ s .p)). q=1. and s e t Vi:=2...ti) r e t a k e n i n (Ei. t h e b a s i s o f f i l t e r whose members a r e o f t h e f o r m r ( a ( q ) M :q=l. D e f i n e u:R -+ R by <x.22. t h e r e e x i s t s M i n /yn such t h a t =(O) #O.there i s a p o i n t I y ( x ) ( R such t h a t n ( M ( x ) : M & ) = ( y ( x ) ) . c o n v e r g i n g t o x ( q ) i n ( E i(q)yti(q)). Now. i ( p ) such t h a t x = z a ( q ) x ( x be a v e c t o r of V A F . s i n c e m i s an u l t r a f i l t e r s a t i s = ( x ( i ) : i C J )C[-p.2.180 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES t h e e x i s t e n c e o f i € 1 such t h a t { i j e F a n d t h a t i s n o t p o s s i b l e s i n c e d i l R ( I k u-l(o)..U”Ei(q) q D ( W :q=l. C l e a r l y I = U ( J n : n = l . s e t M(x) i s an u l t r a f i l t e r i n R w i t h t h e c o u n t a b l e i n t e r s e c t i o n p r o p e r t y . I t i s easy t o see t h a t u i s l i n e a r and t h a t .s):=ind((FAEi.3 Permanence p r o p e r t i e s 11.Z..p. F i r s t we show t h a t V n F C U : l e t .t’). There e x i s t i n d i c e s i(l). On t h e o t h e r hand. E I ) such t h a t i s f i n i t e f o r each i i n I ...

c o d i m e n s i o n a l subspace o f a b o r n o l o g i c a l space i s b o r n o l o g i c a l .t). and hence Z+2-’Vi .3. t ) i n E. we have t h a t Z+2-’V. a z ( n ) ) . F n E i i s o f f i n i t e codirnension i n Ei 6.t). ) f o r each i i n I .2az(n))CW+Q. we have t h a t WAF=U. (Ei. F i x i i n I. we have t h a t Vi C(W+Q)nEi and (W+G)f\Ei l e t (z(l).5: L e t F be a f i n i t e . t i ) : i C I ) . t h e n F i s borno- Every f i n i t e . C o r o l l a r y 6. Since W t Q i s a h s o r b i n g we can choose a > O such t h a t (Zaz(l).ti).3: logical. I f i s a 0-nghb i n (Ei. t ) : = i n d ( ( E i . T h i s i s a b o r n o l o g i c a l space and hence U i s a 0-nghb. Proof: F o r a c e r t a i n i n d e x s e t I ..ti) 1 1 i s a 0-nghb i n i n (Ei. such t h a t \/nF=U. we a r e done i f we p r o v e t h a t W+Q i s a 0-nghb i n (E. i n Ei.ti) i s o f f i n i t e coIf f o r each i i n I .ti).. let((Ei.3.4: dim(sp(FUB) / F) i s f i n i t e f o r each bounded subset B o f E. Now. d i m ( s p ( F U B ) / F) i s f i n i t e . t h e r e e x i s t s a b o r n i v o r o u s a b s o l u t e l y convex subset V o f E such t h a t V A F = U. Lemna 6.1. f o r each i i n I .c o d i m e n s i o n a l subspace o f a space E and l e t T be a b o r n i v o r o u s b a r r e l i n F. On t h e o t h e r hand.2: rous a b s o l u t e l y convex subset o f F.t).z(n)) be a cobasis o f Gi Gi#Ei. I f U i s a b o r n i v o P r o p o s i t i o n 6.. Vi Gi=Ei dimension and hence complemented i n ( E . 2-’(W+Q)nEi and 2-’Vi p r o o f i s complete. 1J i s b o r n i v o r o u s // I f F i s a subspace o f a b o r n o l o g i c a l space E such t h a t C o r o l l a r y 6. C l e a r l y .CHAPTER 6 181 nghb i n (G.... i s a 0-nghb i n (Ei. L e t r) be an a l g e b r a i c complement o f sp(W) i n E. ZC C (W+Q)nEi C 2-’(W+Q)nEi and t h e // Let E be a space and F a subspace o f E such t h a t .ti). Since (W+Q)nF=U.ti) F o r t h i s i t i s enough t o see t h a t (W+O)AEi i s a 0-nghb i n (Gi. Il i s a l s o b o r n i v o r o u s i n (F. Then t h e r e e x i s t s an absolut e l y convex 0-nghb V i n ( E . we have t h a t x C U A G C U . t .3. .C l e a r l y ... be t h e f a m i l y o f n o r - med spaces generated by t h e d i s c s o f E and s e t ( E . I f Z:=acx(az(l). f o r e v e r y bounded subset B o f E. L e t El .. there e x i s t s a bornivorous b a r r e l be t h e b o r n o l o g i c a l space Proof: We may assume t h a t d i m ( E / F ) = l . According t o 41). Set Gi t o denote t h e c l o s u r e o f FAEi and Gi f o r each i i n I..3.i C l e a r l y . i f W :=cx(UUV).t)=ind((FAEi. Then V i n E such t h a t VAF=T.ti):i cI).3. (F.

V:=T+acx(x) we t a k e a v e c t o r z i n ‘ i \ F and A:=T+acx(z) i s a b a r r e l i n E and hence a 0-nghb i n E l . g i v e n any v e c t o r x i n E \ F . Given a bounded s e t B i n E t h e r e e x i s t a>O and s > q such t h a t B C a T m i f m a s and hence (v(m):m=q.u(m)>l<l e x t e n s i o n o f ~ ( m ) t o E f o r m a q . F1 i s b o r n o l o g i c a l and hence T i s a 0- nghb i n F1. Set F1 t o denote ( F . Thus x#V. L e t v(m) be a continuous l i n e a r i s bounded i n and[<z.// ( E l .3. We d i s t i n g u i s h between two cases: The c l o s u r e U o f T i n El i s a 0-n@b and hence b o r n i v o r o u s i n E.3. TP i s a b o r n i v o r o u s a b s o l u t e l y convex subset o f E i f m > q and x 4 2Tm i f (x. A c c o r d i n g t o 6.) such t h a t UnF=T.. P r o o f : L e t (x(n):n=1.. o u r assumption . Thus V i s a b o r n i v o r o u s b a r r e l i n E s a t i s f y i n g VAF=T. I f Tf’i i s a 0-nghb i n El (and t h e r e f o r e b o r n i v o r o u s ) c o n t a i n e d i n 2T.. t X ) .u>I41 f o r z i n U. Set V:=?.q+l..2 t h e s e t s i n v o l v e d ( t h a t i s . En:=sp( i n c r e a s i n g sequence ( En :n=1.c o d i m e n s i o n a l subspace o f a q u a s i b a r r e l l e d spaL e t F be a countable-codimensional subspace of a qua- ce i s quasi b a r r e l l e d ...) cof o r each n. s i b a r r e l l e d space E such t h a t d i m ( s p ( F U B ) / F) i s f i n i t e f o r e v e r y hounded subset B o f E .6: P r o p o s i t i o n 6. s e t i n En s a t i s f y i n g any bounded s e t B i n E. .. The and a p p l y 6. K ( ” and K1 ( I s a t i s f y i n g t h e MACKEY-ULAM c o n d i t i o n ) a r e and c a r e f u l l y watching t h e c a r d i n a l i t y o f examples o f b o r n o l o g i c a l spaces i n which e v e r y c l o s e d subspace i s a g a i n b o r n o l o g i c a l . vers E and dirr(En+l/En)=l =Tn-l f o r n=2.b o r n o l o g i c a l c l o s e d subspaces o f b o r n o l o g i c a l spaces. Now we Frechet spaces. e . I f T=Y.2. t b e i n g t h e o r i g i n a l t o p o l o g y o f E. be a cobasis o f F i n E and s e t EI:=F.3.182 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEX SPACES a s s o c i a t e d t o E. There e x i s t continuous l i n e a r forms u(m) on Em such t h a t f o r e v e r y 24 Tm. ( i ) F1 i s dense i n E l .7: A f i n i t e . Proceeding as i n 4. a v o i d i n g s t r o n g l y i n a c c e s i b l e c a r d i n a l s ) one can c o n s t r u c t n o n ... Given shows t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r p such t h a t B i s absorbed by and hence U:=U(Tn:n=l..q.2. i .x(n-l)) T1:=T TnflEn-l f o r n=2.) FU(x(l). s e t V:=T.6.3. rn).u(m)>=2 I f x 4 2 U t h e r e e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r q such t h a t xEE..3. Since U i s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e c l o s u r e T o f T i n E.b( E ’ . Our c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s i f we show t h a t CCZU. Then F i s q u a s i b a r r e l l e d .5 t o o b t a i n a b o r n i v o r o u s b a r r e l Tn ..u>=2 and I(z.4. Given a b o r n i v o r o u s b a r r e l T i n F..2. // C o r o l l a r y 6.3.E)) and hence E-equicontinuous s i n c e E i s q u a s i b a r r e l l e d . El=(E..tX)..) f i n d u <El w i t h (x. (ii) F1 i s c l o s e d i n El.

d i m e n s i o n a l Banach d i s c i s c o n t a i P r o o f : I f E does n o t have an i n f i n i t e .1. P r o o f : According t o 6. t h e n J:=I)(J L e t (x(n):n=1. sequence converges t o x i n F A K .. E=ind(Ei :i E I). Set t f o r t h e t o p o l o g y on F induced by ( K ) o and s f o r t h e J t o p o l o g y d e f i n e d by ( F . S e t t i n g Jn:= :n=1.9. According t o 6.25).10: L e t F be a c l o s e d subspace o f an u l t r a b o r n o l o g i c a l Then F i s u l t r a b o r n o l o g i c a l . A c c o r d i n g t o a r e s u l t o f NCBLE (0. L e t B be an i n f i n i t e .m(E'.d i m e n s i o n a l Banach d i s c i n space E. s i s f i n e r than t. C l e a r l y The c & d i m ( b ) L d i m ( E ) < c . 5 c o n t a i n s an i n f i n i t e . we have t h a t . l e t 6 I)be t h e f a m i l y o f a l l Banach spaces generated b y t h e Banach d i s c s o f E. t h e r e s u l t i s t r i v i a l s i n c e ( K )o=K which i s a Frechet space.d i m e n s i o n a l compact d i s c A which i s m t r i z a b l e the farrily e:=(Ai:iEI) o f a l l in- f o r t h e t o p o l o g y induced by E SO t h a t Ai f i n i t e .3. l e d we a p p l y 4. i s complete (6. L e t E be a space of dimension a t m s t c. On t h e o t h e r hand.1. t h e p r o o f o f 4.2.3.d i m e n s i o n a l Banach d i s c t h e r e i s n o t h i n g t o prove. s ) .11: ned i n H. x E A . E ) ) t h a t F i s complemented i n E and hence u l t r a b o r n o l o g i c a 1 .3. F=ind(FAEi:i G I ) i s ( Ei:i b o r n o l o g i c a l s i n c e i t i s t h e i n d u c t i v e l i m i t o f normed spaces. Since each i s separable and hence d e f i n e d b y a c o u n t a b l e subset o f E.d i m e n s i o n a l compact and m e t r i z a b l e d i s c s o f E i s n o t v o i d . Since E i s b a r r e l - t o o b t a i n t h a t F i s b a r r e l l e d . The c l o s u r e G i o f F n E i i n Ei sat i s f i e s t h a t dim(Ei/Gi) < c and. C l e a r l y .s) i s b o r n o l o g i c a l and we s h a l l see t h a t t = s . (i€I:x(n)(i)#O).2.3. E w i t h dim(E/F)<c.. b y I/ Theorem 6. t ) .A p p l y i n g 6. C l e a r l y (F.9: of L e t E be an u l t r a b o r n o l o g i c a l space and F a subspace Then F i s b a r r e l l e d and b o r n o l o g i c a l .3..3.2. i t i s enough t o show t h a t A i s s e q u e n t i a l l y c l o s e d i n ( F . P r o o f : Since ( E ' .1. /I P r o p o s i t i o n 6. space E w i t h dim(E/F)(c. W e assume t h a t I i s uncountable and l e t F be a c l o s e d subsI I pace o f ( K )o. L e t A be a c l o s e d subset of ( F .4. I/ P r o p o s i t i o n 6. I 1 P r o o f : I f I i s countable.8: 1 Every c l o s e d subspace of ( K ) o i s b o r n o l o g i c a l .) be a sequence i n A c o n v e r g i n o t o a c e r t a i n x i n F f o r t h e t o p o l o g y t.. Gi is of f i n i t e c o d i m n s i o n i n Ei f o r each i.11 (E'.25.11 shows 6. t h e f i r s t i n e q u a l i t y a consequence of 2.CHAPTER 6 183 P r o p o s i t i o n 6.) i s c o u n t a b l e and t h e r e f o r e t h e nJ J Since A n K i s closed.3.2. Then t h e r e e x i s t s a hyperplane H i n E such t h a t no i n f i n i t e .1.1. s i n c e each Ei i s a Banach space.E)) i s complete.2.3 ). s ) : = i n d ( F A K : J C I c o u n t a b l e ) . m ( E ' .

W e proceed by t r a n s f i n i t e induction.3. I f Q:E-vE/LAstands f o r the canonical surj e c t i o n . Then t h e r e e x i s t s a dense hy- perplane o f E which i s not ultrabornological. t h e r e e x i s t s y ( s ) C x+AS such t h a t ( y ( s ) : O < s 4 t ) U ( x ) i s l i n e a r l y independent.3. t h e r e e x i s t s a conpact absolutely convex subset B of E such t h a t $ i s infinite-dimensional. // Proposition 6.13: If E i s an ultrabornological space not endowed with t h e s t r o n g e s t l o c a l l y convex topology. s(L. Once ( y ( t ) : t C w ) i s cons t r u c t e d . 5 ( i i ) ) . Let A be an i n f i nite-dimensional compact absolutely convex subset of E . . Proof: By assumption. t ) be an ultrabornological soace not endowed w i t h the s t r o n g e s t l o c a l l y convex topology. Let w be t h e s e t of a l l ordinal numbers whose card i n a l i t y i s l e s s than c a r d ( 1 ) . 1 ) b u t not ultrabornological. u ) =O f o r every t ( w and (x. t h e r e e x i s t s a hyperplane F of G such t h a t every Banach d i s c i n F i s finite-dimensional. take u < E * such t h a t (y( t ) .s( E' . . 4 and 4 . Take a non-zero vector x i n E .11. ( c and i n f i n i t e .and hence dim(G)=c (Droceed as in the proof of 2 .u) =1 and s e t H:=u-'( 0). Then H contains At f o r a c e r t a i n t C w and hence x t y ( t ) + A t C H which i s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n .3. F / I E A i s a hyperplane of EA and hence AAF i s an infinite-dimensional d i s c of F and t h e r e f o r e F i s not endowed w i t h the s t r o n g e s t l o c a l l y convex topology which implies t h a t F i s not u l t r a b o r n o l o g i c a l . E ) ) which i s separable. i t i s obvious t h a t H:=O-'(F) i s a hyperplane of E which i s not ultrabornological s i n c e F i s a quotient of H . 2 . E ) ) . // Observation 6. Suppose the e x i s t e n c e o f an infinite-dimensional Banach d i s c contained in H . 2 . According t o 6. t h e weak dual of G i s ( L . The space G:=E/L* i s ultrabornological a n d not endowed with the s t r o n y x t l o c a l l y convex topology. then t h e r e e x i s t s a hyperplane H o f E which i s bornological and b a r r e l l e d ( 6 . Since card(w)=card(I) we may suppose A=(At: t€w). Determine i n E' a seouence ( u ( n ) : n = 1 .G)) = ( L . N o w card(t) 4card( I ) & c and d i d E ) = c from where the e x i s t e n c e o f y ( t ) g x + A t follows such At t h a t ( y ( s ) : O L s $ t ) U ( x ) a r e l i n e a r l y independent. Moreover.184 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES c a r d ( I ) . There e x i s t s y(0)(x+Ao such t h a t x and y ( 0 ) a r e l i n e a r l y independent.12: Let ( E . ) l i n e a r l y i n d e p e n d e n t on and l e t L be i t s closed l i n e a r s p a n i n ( E ' . 3 . f o r every s w i t h OIs < t . F i x t in w and suppose t h a t . . s ( E ' . 3 .

v i s continuous and.. w e s h a l l s e e t h a t E = i n d ( F n : n = 1 .919. P 4 .2: Let F be a s e q u e n t i a l l y dense subspace of a b a r r e l l e d space E which i s the s t r i c t inductive l i m i t of a sequence of metrizable spac e s . 1 .t G t h e l i n e a r mapping which coincides w i t h v ( n ) on Fn f o r each n. then F i s b a r r e l l e d (5. .16. // Exanple 6. ..10) and..4. ( 4 ) o r 8. In 7.14) and b a r r e l led bornological spaces which a r e not ultrabornological (6..?19.12). . According t o 6.2.1: i n former s e c t i o n s we obtained examples of n o m b a r r e l led bornological spaces ( 6 .3.. .. Take x i n E.3: A countable-codimensional dense subspace of a bornological space which i s not q u a s i b a r r e l l e d .4.1. there e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r p such t h a t x ( n ) CG f o r each n ( s e e K1. each Gn endowed w i t h t h e topology induced by E. Since E = i n d ( F :n=l.4 Exanples.2.). i t i s - enough t o check t h a t ( F n : n = 1 .5. according t o 4.6 again. ) covers E . Proof: I f G n stands f o r t h e closure o f E n i n E .3. There e x i s t s a sequence ( x ( n ) : n = 1 . w e apply 4.( 3) o r 8. 2 .4. .4. Let f:F-cG. we n have t h a t f i s continuous as desired. Suppose F q u a s i b a r r e l l e d . Since this sequence i s bounded.4.2. E = i n d ( E n : n = 1 .. . each f ( n ) i s continuous. Since F i s quasicomplete.8. G being a Banach space.13. ) . Clearly.16) .2. we apply 6.) o f separable Fr6chet spaces which contains a proper dense subspace F which i n t e r s e c t s every closed bounded subset o f G i n a closed s e t i n G. Then F i s bornological. Sinceeach FAGn i s complete une has t h a t F i s complete (K1. s i n c e f i s t h e r e s t r i c t i o n o f v t o F . S e t t i n g Fn:=F/\Gn f o r each n .. . non-bornological b a r r e l l e d spaces (6. be a l o c a l l y bounded l i n e a r mapping and f ( n ) i t s r e s t r i c t i o n t o the metrizable space FAG. 2 .4..). and hence X E F P' In order t o check t h a t F i s bornological.)) and E : = s p ( H u F ) .). according t o 4.2. ) i n F converging t o x. Let An be a countable dense subset of Gn f o r each n and set H:=sp(U(An:n=1. ..6 t o obtain t h a t E i s t h e s t r i c t inductive l i m i t of t h e sequence (Gn:n=1.1. Proposition 6.1. 2 .CHAPTER 6 185 6. F i s t h e s t r i c t i n d ( FAGn:n=1. ) :indeed. non-barrelled and non-bornological q u a s i b a r r e l l e d spaces (6.Z.. 2 . .16. Let v ( n ) be i t s unique continuous extension t o Fn and v : E .1.6. E i s bornological and c l e a r l y F i s a dense countable-codimensional subsDace of E.2. a c o n t r a d i c t i o n . we s h a l l Drovide a s t r i c t inductive l i m i t G=ind(Gn:n=1.2. 5 ) . Observation 6.1. f o r each n .

v i s unbounded on t h i s sequence since ( x ( n ) .b(n)).b[ According ). W e s h a l l construct a bounded s e t o f G on which v i s unbounded. < f ( a( 2 ) . B i s not a Banach d i s c a n d ther e f o r e t h e r e e x i s t s a local limt point x o f F i n i t s completion F which i s / - ( i i i ) ( f ( a( n) .14. b ) t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c function of [a. 2 . 2 ' ( a( l ) + b ( 1 ) ) ) i f f ( a ( 1). ) i s a null sequence in 6 . Observe t h a t the bornoloqical b a r r e l l e d space E constructed above i s neit h e r ultrabornological nor l o c a l l y comDlete ( 6 .v)&?-'.b(2)):=(2-'(a(l)+b(l)). v#O on G . 7 . 9 ) . I n 7. G i s a ( b o r n o l o g i c a l ) l o c a l l y dens e subspace o f E and hence E i s bornological by 6 .1. l ) ) ) which i s a dense countable-codimensional subspace o f E which i s not bornological since i t contains a dense s e q u e n t i a l l y closed hyperplane. According t o 5.21-n .a ( 1 ) ) < > f o r each n There e x i s t s an unique real number c with c=lima(n)=limb(n). According t o 1 .3. v > =1and s e t ( a ( 2 ) .6 and hence b a r r e l l e d . 2 .16.) such t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s a bounded s e t A not localized in any Fn. s e l e c t sequences such t h a t of r a t i o n a l numbers ( a ( n ) : n = 1 . Example 6. a < b ) and G : = s ~ ( H V R ( ~ ) R ( R ) i s a bornological dense subspace of G .6: l e t v be a l i n e a r form vanishing on R ( R ) .2.. Proceeding by recurrence.l (a(2). . 2 . Set F : = s p ( W u ( f ( O ..C b( n ) S b( 1) ( i i ) b( n)-a( n ) = 21-n( b( 1 ) . 2 . I t i s easy t o check t h a t ( x ( n ) : n = 1 . E i s aqain a B a i r e space by 1.b(n))nZny(n)..) ( i ) a( 1)s a ( n ) 6 a ( n + l ) d b ( n + l ) . 3 . Denote by y ( n ) t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c function o f ( c ) A b ( n ) . According t o 1.2. namely Y .2.v) )/2n f o r each n. b ) : a . b E Q . (6. ) and (b(n):n=1. I f E:=sp(MuG).b( 1)) i f f(a(l).2.2. .15). M : = R ( R ) o i s a B a i r e space. Take r a t i o n a l numbers a( 1) b( 1) w i t h ( f ( a( 1) . b ( 2 ) ) : = ( a (l ) .186 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES Example 6.b( n ) ) .1. W e s h a l l prove t h a t 6 i s bornological using 6.2-'(a( l ) + b ( 1 ) ) ) 2 .6 we s h a l l provide a countable inductive l i m i t of Banach spaces F=ind(F n :n=1. .Z-'(a(l)+b(l))) 4 2-l Clearly.. .4.4. Given rat i o n a l numbers a ( b denote by f ( a . v ) = (n2'f(a(n). N o w we proceed t o construct t h e desired example. Set B : = a c x ( A ) .v) >. b ( 2 ) ) .2.4: A countable-codimensional subspace of a bornological b a r r e l led space which i s not bornological.b( 1 ) ). On the o t h e r hand.b( n)[and s e t x ( n ) :=nZnf(a( n ) .9. and s e t H : = s p ( f ( a .5: A b a r r e l l e d bornoloaical space which i s not inductive l i nit of Baire spaces (hence not u l t r a b o r n o l o g i c a l ) . R W e s h a l l s t a r t by constructing a bornological subspace o f R . 1 7 . t o 6.

The space E : = m o ( X .5 a c t u a l l y proves t h e following Proposition 6. 4 ) i s b a r r e l l e d by 4. . T h u s G D y being a h y perplane of H i s a l s o b a r r e l l e d by 4. t n ) : n = 1 . 1 . t i ) and hence H i s a l s o closed in ( E i .10(i). P P P v i s continuous a s a mapping from G onto the Frechet snace F P P' Take any point z i n Ei which i s the l i m i t o f a net ( z ( d ) : d C D ) C G Then P' ( v ( z ( d ) ) : d C D ) = ( z ( d ) : d E D ) i s a Cauchy net i n t h e Fr6chet space F and hence P converges t o a c e r t a i n z ' i n F T h u s z = z ' and G i s a closed SUbSDaCe o f P' P ( E i . P P since i t i s of second category i n ( E . Then s p ( F u ( x ) ) in F i s bornological and b a r r e l l e d b u t not the inductive l i m i t of Baire spaces ( i n p a r t i c u l a r . t ) such t h a t ( E . Since G=G w e proceed a s P above t o obtain a vector y ' i n F such t h a t ( y ( d ) : d C D ) converaes t o y ' i n P Fp.7. ) be an (LF)-space which A i s not l o c a l l y complete and l e t x be a local limit point of F i n F ( 5 .1( F n ) and Hn:=sp( G n J ' ( Fn)U(y)). 2 .4.3. T h u s y = y ' L F C F and hence y E F n E i = C. t b ) i s not borno- . t i ) and y L E i \ G . . . 2 . i t i s not an (LF)-space). Set Gn:=G/IJ. there exists a net ( y ( d ) : d E D ) in G converging t o y i n ( E i . 2 3 implies t h a t every Banach d i s c i n E i s finite-dimensional and hence E is provided w i t h t h e s t r o n g e s t l o c a l l y convex topology. Yince F i s a dense hyperplane of E t h e r e e x i s t s an index i i n I such t h a t FnEi i s a dens e hyperplane of ( E i . 1 4 ) . If E i s supposed t o be u l t r a bornological. ) and t h e r e f o r e t h e r e e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r p such t h a t HD i s o f second category i n ( E i . both endowed w i t h the topology induced by t i f o r each n .2. 3 .. According t o 6.1. E : = s p ( F U ( x ) ) i s bornological and b a r r e l l e d .6: Let ( F . according t o 4.7: A normed b a r r e l l e d space which i s not ultrabornological. E = i n d ( $:B a Banach d i s c in E ) .7. 2 . w h i c h i s impossible. P Observe t h a t the argument i n 6.8: A bornological space ( E . Then G=G 1 1 P' F i n a l l y . t . T h u s H coincides w i t h E i . E i = u ( H n : n = 1 .1. ) . we s h a l l a r r i v e t o a c o n t r a d i c t i o n . t ) = i n d ( ( F n .2. a c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n c e E i s normed. t i ) : i L I ) of B a i r e spaces covering E and such t h a t E is t h e l o c a l l y convex h u l l of this family.4. Example 6. t i ) and consequently b a r r e l l e d . The canonical i n j e c t i o n J:G + F i s continuous. C l e a r l y . the graph of v i s closed i n G XF and. by 6.9. N o w supoose t h e existence of a family ( ( E i .1.CHAPTER 6 187 not i n F. Example 6. t i ) . I f v stands f o r t h e r e s t r i c t i o n P' of J t o G .4. . . t i ) . Given y ( E i \ G .4. On t h e o t h e r hand. t i ) . Set G : = ( F n E i .

F i n a l l y . we have t h a t t..2.2. .Z. A c c o r d i n g t o 6... s i n c e Mn@(Hn:n=l.. b b ( E .m+l[ (y(n)(s):n=1. ( E .Z.n)) endowed w i t h t h e t o p o l o g y tn induced by t. t h e r e e x i s t s r 6 p... 14). t X ) i s n o t b a r r e l l e d . Clearly.t b and t ' c o i n c i d e on each En.2.. t ) .) sequence i n ( E . ( E .. hence b a r r e l l e d .2. For e v e r y p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r n denote by f ( n ) t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c funct i o n o f [n.) Set ( E .3. Since t ' r e s t r i c t e d t o E c o i n c i d e s w i t h t f o r n n each n.. '1 .2.5 and 1. Z .. P(x+y):= y. i s a t o p o l o g i c a l isomorphism from F o n t o M:=J(F). . Now we s h a l l prove t h a t t h e p r o j e c t i o n P : ( E .4..t'):=ind((En. x t 6 and yCM i s s e q u e n t i a l l y continuous and hence l o c a l l y bounded ( 6 .tn)=Mx@(Hm:m=l. b t h a t t ' c o i n c i d e s w i t h tb. The space F can be w r i t t e n as i n t e r s e c t i o n o f a sequence (Hn:n=1....4.7.Z. t ) . :x(n)(t)#O):n=l. ) w i t h x(n) Set E:=sp( = x f o r each n.t)... There e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r and a ( n ) C R w i t h y ( n ) f ( m ) = a ( n ) f ( m ) f o r each n=1. .2. L e t (x(n):n=1. t b ) = i n d ( ( E n . Since t h e i s countable. A c c o r d i n g t o 6..:~F~. s€[m.. t h e r e e x i s t s a b o r n o l o g i c a l b a r r e l l e d space G w i t h a dense countable-codirnensional subspace F which i s b a r r e l l e d b u t n o t b o r n o l o g i c a l ..3.2.mtl[ s e t A : = U((tE[m. Set E:=G+Y and endow i t w i t h the topoloqy t i n - R duced by R . t b ):n=l. t ) . Set (E.)) by J ( x ) : = ( x ( n ) : n = l .n) and sequence ( E :n=1.mtl[ \ A and we have t h a t y( n ) ( s)=a( n)=y( n ) ( r ) = z ( n ) ( r ) f o r each n.tn):n=l.. n We s h a l l see hence ( E n y t n ) i s b a r r e l l e d . ..9: A b a r r e l l e d space ( E . i s a n u l l m such t h a t t i v e l y such t h a t (z(n):n=1. i s a b o r n o l o g i c a l space and t h e r e f o r e ....14.) = ( 0 ) and (En. R Set G : = ( R ) o .) o f hyperplanes o f G which a r e b o r n o l o g i c a l and b a r r e l l e d (6.2.2.9 and 6. E i s t h e i n c r e a s i n q u n i o n o f t h e .1)...2.. (E. i s t r a n s v e r s a l t o M.188 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES logical..2..).).7.4 and 4. l o g y .1.) be sequences i n G and '?..1. Set En:=sp(MUU(Hm:m=l..2.) and hence t b = t ' as d e s i r e d . 1 .t') .4.2. t ) and t h e r e f o r e ( E . t ) i s n o t b o r n o l o g i c a l ..defined Mu$(Hn:n=l.respecf o r each n.n). According t o 4.. G i s a b o r n o l o g i c a l B a i r e space. t ' ) : = ( G . A c c o r d i n g t o 6.2. By i t s v e r y d e f i n i t i o n .. t ) and (y(n):n=l.).6.Z. .) and ( E n y t n ) i s i s o r r o r p h i c t o MX@(H..2. Hence R.+ ( E . endowed w i t h t h e t o p o l o g y t induced by t h e p r o d u c t topo- E i s i s a b o r n o l o g i c a l space c o n t a i n i n g t h e b a r r e l l e d non b o r n o l o g i c a l subspace M.2.n+l[ and s e t M:=sp(f(n):n=l. The mapping J:F-ll-(Hn:n=l. t i s c o a r s e r than t which i n t u r n i s c o a r s e r t h a n t ' .14. i s a metrizahle Moresubspace of R R o f c o u n t a b l e dimension and hence n o t b a r r e l l e d by 4. According t o 1.) i s a n u l l sequence i n @(M. o v e r C. i s complemented i n Example 6..10 and 1.) Fix s t w i t h z(n):=x(n)+y(n) R. t ) i s a B a i r e space. t ) such t h a t ( E .

b a r r e l l e d Mackey spa- t h e r e e x i s t s a norm t o p o l o g y t ' on E such i s separable. t ) such t h a t (E. M E m .. Denote hence by p a unique f i n i t e decomposition as a sum norm d e s c r i b i n g t h e t o p o l o g y %f( E . t ' ) i s i s o m r p h i c t o a subspace o f ( E .Z. a n o n .E)) c o n t a i n i n g U" i s o f i n f i n i t e codimension i n Gm. L c . can a l s o be t a k e n separable.Ex(n) w i t h x ( n ) C G n f o r each n i s a c o u n t a b l e subset o f E which i s dense i n ( E . s u p ( t .t) ?x(n).CHAPTER 6 189 t ' i s f i n e r t h a n tX. t h e r e e x i s t s a sequence (Fn:n=1.). t ) E= @( Fn:n=1. t ) x ( E . B u t t h i s i s c l e a r .5. On e v e r y separable Banach space ( E . Every v e c t o r x o f E has a L e t t ' be t h e x ( n ) C Fn f o r each n. t ) and t h e r e l a t i o n V 3 ( n + l ) U A F n show t h a t \r i s dense i n ( E .u) t o p o l o g y u =sup(t.Thus (E.5.u)')) P r o o f : A c c o r d i n g t o 6. .(E. t ' ) such t h a t there Moreof e x i s t s a norm t o p o l o g y t ' such t h a t t and t ' a r e extraneous (4. s u p ( t .t) 0 (M. Since ( E . IfGn i s a c o u n t a b l e subset o f Fn which i s dense. t ) i s separable. and hence i s seand E ' f o r t h e d u a l o f ( E . s i n c e t h e d e n s i t y o f Fn i n ( E .11: ce.23.t).24).10: over. t ' i s t h e c o a r s e s t t o p o l o g y on E f o r which P i s continuous and hence t ' i s c o a r s e r t h a n tX. t ' ) p a r a b l e . t ) .and we can d e f i n e a norm on E by q(x):=sup((n+l)p(x(n)):n=l.4.t) i s not barrelled.On t h e o t h e r hand..15. each Y i n i s separable c a r d ( W ) .. A c c o r d i n g t o 4. t h e s e t G o f a l l f i n i t e sums . t ' ) ) i s a n o n .. A c c o r d i n g t o 2. t ) Proof: On e v e r y i n f i n i t e .2. Set G f o r t h e dual o f ( E .. ) a l g e b r a i c a l l y .4. Our c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s i f we show t h a t cV+dl!=E f o r e v e r y p o s i t i v e c and d. s u p ( t . // there exists a P r o p o s i t i o n 6. t ' ) ) .10. t h e mapping P:(E. t ' ) and hence ( E . and ( E . t ' ) ) Set U and V t o denote t h e c l o s e d u n i t b a l l s o f ( E .t) i s separable. t ' ) ) .2. t h e n ( E .t) consi- dered above i s continuous s i n c e i t i s l o c a l l y bounded.s(G. t ) . t o p o l o g y d e f i n e d by q and l e t U and V be t h e c l o s e d u n i t b a l l s f o r p and q r e s p e c t i v e l y .d i m e n s i o n a l Banach space ( E . t ) p e c t i v e l y.tX)+(V. . r e s - t h a t t and t ' a r e extraneous and ( E .tX)=(G.) dense subspaces o f ( E .. i f ( E .b a r r e l l e d space since (M. (E. F i r s t we show t h a t i s separable. L e m 6. B y i t s v e r y d e f i n i t i o n . Then each Fn i s separable.s(E. such t h a t E ' Consider t h e f a m i l y m o f a l l compact d i s c s i n (C.2. s u p ( t . t ' ) i s a l s o separable. Now suppose t h a t (E.4.

(E.E). the family L e t E be an i n f i n i t e . hence determined b y a c o u n t a b l e subset o f G. Thus dim(G..3.and ( 2 ) (E.E)) b u t n o t (E.s(E*. S e l e c t a l i n e a r l y independent sequence (x(n):n=l.11. Now GM/E' a c c o r d i n g t o 2.and // Exanple 6. A&) A a : a t w ) .s( E. f ( a ) c g+Ma and hence g & F .2. On t h e o t h e r hand.d i m e n s i o n a l Banach space which i s separable.s(E'.s(F.d i m e n s i o n a l conpact m e t r i z a b l e d i s c s i n E has c a r d i n a l c.u)'= C l e a r l y M ' :=!I" +H i s not barrelled. d u c t i o n as f o l l o w s : f i r s t . Proceeding as i n t h e p r o o f o f 6. in V"AF Indeed. Since card(G)=c.. Fix a Now we proceed as i n 6. dim(GM/E')5dim(6. Clearly. t h e r e e x i s t s a n e t ( q ( d ) : d € D ) t h a t i s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n .) i n (E'. which i s (E. The proof i s complete. converging t o i s barrelled a c e r t a i n v i n GM.s(F.190 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES f o r t h e t o p o l o g y s(G.. We s e t u:=sup(t. There e x i s t s i s c.)\sp(E'U( and c o n s t r u c t a subset ( f ( a ) : a & w ) o f G b y t r a n s f i n i t e i n - C (p M 0 )\ s p ( (w and in suppose ( f ( b ) : O l b L a ) a l r e a d y chosen s a t i s f y i n g f ( b ) < ( g + M b ) \ s p ( E ' U ( s ) U Since t h e codimension o f E ' i n Gy g)U(f(b):O<b<a)). We proceed by t r a n s f i n i t e i n d u c t i o n . i n E and l e t w be t h e w r i t t e n as ( x ( n ( a ) ) t linears e t of a l l o r d i n a l s whose c a r d i n a l i t y i s l e s s t h a n c .F))-equicontinuous.. v ( n ) b e l o n g i n g t o E ' f o r each n . By t h e v e r y c o n s t r u c t i o n .s(G. we my suppose t h e f a m i l y (x(n)+A:n=l./E') and t h e r e f o r e PI i s sup( t. A c c o r d i n g dim(E)=cnrd(E)=c. A o f a l l i n f i n i t e .3.). F and we s h a l l see t h a t : (1) u=m(E.Z.E)).) =c. P r o o f o f ( 2 ) : V"AF i s bounded i n (F.7.s(E.. a c o n t r a d i c t i o n . Since card(w)=card(Nx& .E)) and converges t o v i n (E*.Z.u)-equicontinuous.E)).4.u)-equicontinuous.4. t ) we y t t h a t v E E ' ) . Select g 6 V o \ E ' se c a r d i n a l i t y i s l e s s t h a n c a r d ( f l ) .17: t o 7. dim(Gy/E'))/c.. card((. t h e f a m i l y o f a l l c o u n t a b l e subsets o f G has a l s o c a r d i n a l c and our conclusion follows. i f t h i s i s n o t t h e case. L e t w be t h e s e t o f a l l o r d i n a l numbers whoWe i n d e x by s e t t i n g N : = ( w a : a c w ) . ( t a k e a sequence (v(n):n=1.) = i s a Banach space o f i n f i n i t e dimension and. t h a t E ' U ( f ( a ) : a E w ) C F and g c F ...E)). E ' U ( 9)).. Suppose t h a t E ' has i n f i n i t e codimenis finite s i o n i n GM.E)) -----------c o n v e r g i n g t o g i n (G. choose f ( a ) 9 subspace F of G such F)). T h i s sequence i s bounded Since ( E ..4.s( F. E ' i s a c l o s e d subspace o f t h e Banach space GF..( c. Take y ( 0 ) E x ( n( O))+Ao .u) P r o o f o f (1): L e t ------------ M be a compact d i s c i n (F. Then t h e r e e x i s t s a i n w such t h a t M'=Ya.11.2. i s a l s o a compact d i s c i n (F. (g+M.hence qgF. t a k e f ( 0 ) (f(c):Odc<b)). Observe t h a t dim(GM/E')=c f o r each M i n N : indeed. A m e t r i z a b l e B a i r e space which i s n o t u l t r a b o r n o l o g i c a l .F).

n u l l sequence whose c l o s e d a b s o l u t e l y con- C l e a r l y . i s a n u l l sequen- . . e v e r y s-compact s u b s e t o f a Banach space i s compact. F i x t c w and assume t h a t .). ) ) and H n : = ~ p ( H o V ( x ( l ) . and y ( t ) L x(m(t))+At Since H i s a p r o p e r subspace o f E and ( y ( a ) : a . ) a contradiction. ( i i i ) The continuous image o f a s-compact s e t i s a g a i n s-compact.d i m e n s i o n a l . P r o o f : (i). H i s a normed B a i r e space whose Banach d i s c s a r e f i n i t e . D e f i n i t i o n 6. (ii) The c l o s e d a b s o l u t e l y convex h u l l of a sequence (x(n):n=1.2. t h e r e e x i s t s ... IfB and C a r e s . . .) i s l i n e a r l y independent. f i r s t observe t h a t ( i ) i m p l i e s o u r f i r s t a s s e r t i o n .. L e t us show t h a t e v e r y p r o p e r subspace H o f E c o n t a i n i n g Ho i s dense i n E and Banach d i s c s . t h e - 4 H. Since dim(EA )=c and c a r d ( t ) l i n e a r l y independent from ( ~ ( s ) : O < s < t ) l J in E f o r each n.n 2 ) i s s compact. (ii) A subset B o f a Banach space i s s-compact i f i t i s c l o s e d and t h e r e e x i s t s a s . vex h u l l c o n t a i n s €3.) i n a space E i s c a l l e d a s . x ( n ) ) ) C l e a r l y . t o 1.2: ( i ) Every f i n i t e .).Z. On t h e o t h e r hand.. There e x i s t s a c e r t a i n A & r e e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r m such t h a t x(m) x(m)+A.d i m e n s i o n a l and P hence n o t u l t r a b o r n o l o d c a l .d i m e n s i o n a l c l o s e d d i s c i n a Banach space i s s-compact. 6. f o r e v e r y s such t h a t ( y ( s ) : C ) S w i t h O d s L t .l..5.). . .LII ) s a t i s f y i n g l l x ( n ) l l S e x p ( .. A c c o r d i n g P a B a i r e space.) and ( y ( n ) : n = .3. E i s t h e i n c r e a s i n g u n i o n o f t h e sequence (Hn:n=O.Z.1: (i) A sequence (x(n):n=l..Z. g w ) U C i s c o n t a i n e d i n H. we h a v e a l r e a d y s e l e c t e d y ( t ) ( x ( n ( t ) ) + A t s <t)u( x(n):n=l.) i n a Banach space (E. C c .n u l l o r r a p i d l y n u l l sequence i f ((n+l)Px(n):n=1.2. given t h e r e e x i s t s s i n w w i t h x(m)=x(m(s)) and A=AS.CHAPTER 6 191 l y independent f r o m (x(n):n=l..2..5 Representing u l t r a b o r n o l o g i c a l spaces.. ( i v ) The f a m i l y o f a l l s-corrpact subsets o f a Banach space covers i t and i s d i r e c t e d by i n c l u s i o n . To prove ( i v ) ...) ce i n E f o r each p=1...2.. dimensional Banach d i s c B i n H.n u l l sequences (x(n):n=l. t h e r e e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r p such t h a t H has f i n i t e . P r o p o s i t i o n 6. Now y ( t ) G H o c H = x( m)+ACx(m)+H and hence ~ ( m CH. Suppose t h e e x i s t e n c e o f an i n f i n i t e such t h a t A c H .c o m a c t subsets of a Banach space E.Z. and s e t H o : = s p ( C U ( y ( a ) : a E w ) ) L e t C be a cobasis o f s p ( ( y ( a ) : a g w ) U ( x ( n ) : n = l .. ? .Z.. we can f i n d y ( t ) E x ( n ( t ) ) + A t (x(n):n=l.(ii) and ( i i i ) a r e easy t o check.5.

.2. Indeed. f i x a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r r and f i n d a p o s i t i v e i n t e q e r m such t h a t n ( m ) & r < n ( m + l ) and hence z ( r ) = T a ( q ) z ( q .).5. its c l o s e d a b s o l u t e l y convex llz( n + l ) l l f o r n=l. ) and Set z ( n ) : = IIy( n( q ) ) l l I1 y( n ) l l :n=n( q .u( n)) :=Ilx( n)ll-2#x. I f v C H ’ aLd _(Fib( q ) < x ( q ) .(5)).n u l l s i n c e i I ( q + l ) x(q)I/ I< we have t h a t I < z ( r ) .2.x( q ) # and consequently 7 nn I b( q ) l 6 Ilz( r)ll/Itx( q)\l = IIz( r)\l/( ( q+l)PRz( n( q ) 1 1 1 ) L llzf n( rn) I(x(q)... n ) : = z ( n ) ted.192 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEX SPACES l. n ( q-1)+2..2.) i n E whose c l o s e d a b s o l u t e l y convex h u l l s c o n t a i n B and C.) of p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r s by s e t t i n g =sup( y ( n ( 1)) =sup( I I y ( n ) l l :n=1.n):n=1.. y(n)#O.x( n)P f o r each n.. Each u ( n ) i s a continuous l i n e a r form on H and (x(m). n ( q ) ) = b(q)x(q) f o r some s c a l a r s a ( q ) and b ( q ) .. h u l l c o n t a i n s A . // L e t H be an i n f i n i t e .Z. with F(q+l)-P ( o n t o H and s e t x ( a ) : = ( c ~ + l ) ~IIz(n(q))U/ ( q +(lo.. We prove o u r second a s s e r t i o n . .2.. 2.3.m...3: compact i n H.2. .n( 4 ) ) . Suppose (z(q. P r o c e e d i n g b y recurrence.. v > l & (q+l)-pI‘ 1 and hence z( r ) g B .Z. . ) f o r q=2..v> (x(q):q=1. I f A i s s i n H which L e m 6..respectiby z ( Z n ..)..l ) : = x ( n ) Clearly.n) t h e o r t h o g o n a l p r o j e c t i o n o f z(q.and Set z( l . l(y(n(q))\l ( y ( n ) / \Iy(n)ll) w i t h n=n(q-l)+l.its and z(Zn):=y(n) and check t h a t c l o s e d a b s o l u t e l y convex h u l l con- v e l y . )\I /( ( q+l)pllz( nf q) )fl & ( q + l ) . t h e sequence k = ( q + l ) ( q + l ) P I I z ( n ( q ) ) I I .. n(q) . q=1. ... i f # . tains BUC.n u l l ....Cl f o r q=1. Denote b y z( q+l.v)l... n(O)=O.) t h i s l a s t sequence i s s .x( q ) # = b( q)#x( q ) . Moreover.. t h e n #z( r ) . %-+ H i s nuclear.) the canonical in. w i t h i n f i n i t e .) k i s s . q=l... The sequence (z(n):n=1. already construc- Me proceed b y r e c u r r e n c e t o c o n s t r u c t a f a m i l y o f sequences as f o l l o w s : f o r n=1.Z.jection i s s .n(q)) h u l l B o f (x(q):q=l. .d i m e n s i o - n a l l i n e a r span such t h a t i t i s s ... . d e f i n e u( n ) : H A K by (x.. I f we show t h a t each z ( r ) belongs t o t h e c l o s e d a b s o l u t e l y convex t h e n A i s a l s o c o n t a i n e d i n B and o u r f i r s t asserrn t i o n f o l l o w s .u(n))=bnm ..2.p .) i s s-null .) be t h e f i r s t non-zero element o f t h e sequence and H t h e 9 hyperplane c o n t a i n i n g t h e o r i g i n o r t h o g o n a l t o z( q. Given a p o s i t i v e i n t e q e r n. Moreover. determine an i n c r e a s i n g sequence (n(q):q=1. Set J : % 4 H f o r t h e canonical i n j e c t i o n .942...n u l l and whose c l o s e d a b s o l u t e l y convex h u l l B c o n t a i n s A. Yoreover.2.5.n(q)) Ilz( n)ll7/ ..n u l l and whose c l o s e d a b s o l u t e l y convex h u l l c o n t a i n s A .n) 0 [lz(q.C (q+l)k+PII z(q)ll. P r o o f : We f i n d a sequence (y(n):n=l..2. t h e r e e x i s t s an o r t h o g o n a l sequence (x(n):n=1. .Z.. D e f i n e (z(n):n=l.2..) i s or- thogonal. # stands f o r t h e i n n e r p r o d u c t o f H.d i m e n s i o n a l H i l b e r t space. (K2..Z.. C l e a r l y (x(q):q=l.l ) + l .n(q))ll )z(q. . L e t z(q.

i s s-compact i n E . . .( 5 ) . 5 . 00 C i s s-conpact i n E : s e l e c t a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r p such t h a t ? ( n + l ) . =1. 2 ( i v ) . . C l e a r l y .2. Z . ) be a s-null sequence i n E w i t h x(n)#O f o r each n and such t h a t i t s closed abkolutely convex hull contains B . The proof i s conplete. l e t us prove ( i i ) .13. T h u s C pact subset of 1 .D < 1 and s e t y ( n ) : = ( n + l ) P ( x ( n ) / ]\x(n)\I1/*) f o r each n . Since ( x ( n ) / \lx(n)1\1/2)CC f o r each n . Clearly ( y ( n ) : n i s bounded i n H .. by 00 3. . 11 * l i n e a r andzontinuous. ( i i ) B i s s-compact i n EC and ( i i i ) J:E --+E i s nuclear. we have t h a t f i s well-defined. we can w r i t e z= Zn-’C x .4: L e t B be a s-compact subset of a Banach space E . ( y ( n ) : n = 1 . ) i s an equicontinuous sequence i n % I : i t d e e d . ) i s s-mull in EC and. s e t t i n g 2 C:=f(U)=( T a ( n ) ( x ( n ) / IIx(n)111/2) : q l a ( n ) l < l . m x(n) w i t h z I c ( n ) ! 4 + 00. u ( n ) > \ < Z \ b ( n ) l 6 1. . we w r i t e x= OD b ( n ) ( x ( n ) / Ilx(n)ll 1/2) OD with I b( n ) l & l z n d hence x= b( n ) ( n+l)-Py( n ) and b( n ) \ ( n + l ) . . I f EC i s not finite-dimensional . EC can be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e H i l b e r t space 12 / k e r ( f ) . I f x C C . G i v e n p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r s p and r . 2 . .ows our conc1u. Define f : l 2 -+E by f ( ( a ( n ) : n = 1 .) m // Theorem 6. 2 .2 P ) 1 / 2 S and l thus x belongs l o the closed absolut e l y convex h u l l of ( y ( n ) : n = l . Since every v e c 0 t o r z e% i s o f t h e form z = t c ( n ) .2. we have t h a t ( n + l ) P x ( n ) = ( n + l ) P ( x ( n ) / l l x ( n ) 1 1 1 / 2 ) l\x(n)\\1’2 E ( n + l ) P ~~x(n)\~1’2c = 1 r ( n + l ) Pl\x(n)l\1’2(r-1C) C r. t h e r e e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r m such t h a t .. 2 T h u s \ ( x . C Proof: ( i ) Let ( x ( n ) : n = 1 . i f n > m .13.3. every vectgr x of B can be w r i t t e n as x= T b ( n ) x ( n ) w i t h T \ b ( n ) \ c 1. ( u ( n ) : n = 1 . ) i n E. F i n a l l y . . ) i s a s-null sequence i n E.CHAPTER 6 193 Moreover.?42.ion according t o K2. then r ( n + l ) Pllx(n)l11’2 4 1. . B i s contained i n i t s closed ahsolutely convex h u l l in EC. T h i s proves ( i i ) . ) ) : = q a ( n ) ( x ( d / l l x ( n ) I I 1/2)001n view of t h e G o )l’’ ~ a ( n ) ( x ( n ) / l l x ( n ) l 1 1 / 2 ) I l 5 ( f \ a ( n ) l 2)1’2( z \ \ x ( n ) \ l inequality and s i n c e . Before w e show t h a t C i s s-compact i n E . ( i i i ) follows from ( i ) and ( i i ) by an a p p l i c a t i o n of 6.5.C f o r n > m and thus ( x ( n ) : n = 1 .P I ( i ( n ) t ‘)l”( q ( n + l ) . t h e family S ( E ) of a l l s-conpact absolutely con- . 2 . 2 . u ( n ) > y ( n ) which s. according t o 3. S e t y ( n ) : = n x ( n ) f o r each n .5. E x ( n ) i s absolutely convergent. 2 . s i n c e U i s a weakly com2 C i s weakly c o w a c t in E and hence closed. . Then t h e r e e x i s t s a s-compact Banach d i s c C i n E such t h a t : ( i ) EC i s a seoarable H i l b e r t space.5. I f U stands fgr the closed u n i t ball of 1 2 . .2. . a ( n ) s c a l a r f o r each n ) . // 2 7 f\ According t o 6 .

4.2.d i m e n s i o n a l separable Banach space can be used i n p l a c e o f 1' Lemma 6. i s t h e i n d u c t i v e l i m i t o f a n u c l e a r n e t o f separable H i l b e r t spaces. . b o t h g and h can be chosen t o be i n j e c t i v e . (x(n):n=1. t h e There e x i s t s a sequence f o r each n.194 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEXSPACES vex subsets o f a Banach space 6.7: L e t f:H1+H2 i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f u l t r a b o r n o l o g i c a l spaces. a c c o r d i n a t o a l l B i n s ( E ) such t h a t a p p l y i n g 6.:B&S(E)*)..) n a l .u>l>/n According t o 6 . P r o o f : I t i s enough t o a p p l y 6.2.and 6. i f f i s i s infinite-dimensioand i n H2 spaces. 2 ( i i ) . Moreover.. t o o b t a i n a member in i t i s a s .5.) orthogonal sequences (e(n):n=1..2.5. An i n d u c t i v e n e t w i t h t h i s Every Banach space E i s t h e i n d u c t i v e l i m i t o f a nu- c l e a r n e t o f separable H i l b e r t spaces. we have w i t h BCC and such S(E)* o f H i l b e r t space. Since f i s n u c l e a r .5: bers o f (E)*. t h e r e e x i s t continuous l i n e a r mappings g: F+H2 and h:H1-+F i n j e c t i v e . the subfamily E i s d i r e c t e d by i n c l u s i o n and. a c c o r d i n g t o 6. t ) and (E.5.n u l l sequence i n E. 53ECi s n u c l e a r .s).) i n E w i t h llx(n)ll<exp(-n 2 ) and I<x(n). f o r every B i n s(E). t h e t r a n s i t i v i t y o f i n d u c t i v e l i m i t s can be a p p l i e d . t h e r e e x i s t a sequence ( a ( n ) : n = l . 5 ... For e v e r y i n f i n i t e . Since ( E .5. u(S(Ei)*:i G I ) ) . ) ~ 1 1 . namely those y n e r a t e d by t h e memP r o o f : L e t t be t h e o r i g i n a l t o p o l o g y on E and s e t (E.6: Every u l t r a b o r n o l o g i c a l space E=ind( Ei :i G I ) .. 2 .2. each Ei b e i n g a Banach space.. s i s f i n e r t h a n t. t ) .d i m e n s i o n a l Banach space F. narrely E=ind(EB:BC i s ordered b y i n c l u s i o n . be a n u c l e a r l i n e a r mapping between H i l b e r t such t h a t f=goh.5. . u i s n o t continuous on (E.4 i s a separable t w i c e . // C o r o l l a r y 6.) . i n H1 and (f(n):n=1. P r o o f : I t s u f f i c e s t o c o n s i d e r t h e case where f(H. Since u i s unbounded on B . coincidence o f both topologies follows from the coincidence o f t h e i r duals.) i s a n u l l sequence %. P r o p o s i t i o n 6.. 5(E)*. L e t u be a non continuous l i n e a r f o r m on ( E .s):=ind(E.5.s) a r e b a r r e l l e d spaces.5. i s c o f i n a l i n that.4 can be a p p l i e d B of 5(E)* such t h a t (x(n):n=1. C l e a r l y . Moreover. where t h e i n d e x s e t Now we s h a l l see t h a t any i n f i n i t e . h a v i n g i n mind t h a t . there exists C i n 5 (E)* t h a t the canonical i n j e c t i o n property i s c a l l e d nuclear.2( i i i ) .5.5.

.5..and goh=f I/ L e t F be an i n f i n i t e . Then t h e t o p o l o g y E can be c o n s i d e r e d as t h e i n d u c t i v e t o p o l o g y o f a l l n u c l e a r mappings f r o m F i n t o E.F)). e ( n ) # x ( n ) and g:F--rH2 C l e a r l y g and h a r e w e l l . v(n)>f(n).) n=1. Since ( E . i f v t E * i s n o t c o n t i - . we can f i n d z ( n ) ( E w i t h I l z ( n ) l ] L l and The remark f o l l o w s t a k i n g y( n ) :=2-"z( n ) .Z. l i n e a r and continuous.Z.5.CHAPTER 6 00 195 such t h a t f ( x ) = z a ( n ) # x . t I ) . such t h a t sp(x(n):n=l.. ) C E t e and I<y(n) v ) ( h f o r each n..Z. P r o o f : We remark f i r s t t h a t . PELi s dense i n ( F l y t h e r e e x i s t s a b i o r t h o c o n a l system ( x ( n ) ..6. holds.9: L e t E and F be i n f i n i t e . i t i s enough t o show t h a t . then i t i s n o t continuous on ( E .6). f o r each n.2.d i m e n s i o n a l s e p a r a b l e Banach space.) i n F' with and ( II x( n)ll w i t h $Ily(n)ll fini- t h e r e a r e sequences ( ~ ( n ) : ~ l u ( n ) ~ l = l(x(m). and ( E ..7 // I f we do n o t want a Banach space r e p r e s e n t e d as i n d u c t i v e l i m i t o f sub- spaces b u t o n l y endowed w i t h an i n d u c t i v e t o p o l o g y d e f i n e d t h r o u g h a f a m i l y of Banach spaces.. u) :n=1.1. i f E i s a Banach space. t h e r e e x i s t s a sequence ( y ( n ) : n = l . D e f i n e h: Ilx(n)ll =1 f o r each n and sup(l1v(n)lI:n=1.) s(F'.) ~ a ( n ) 1 / 2 # x .) t h e sequence ( ( y ( n ) . .8: L e t E be an u l t r a b o r n o l o g i c a l space n o t endowed w i t h t h e f i n e s t l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y .d e f i n e d . CZYNSKI ( s e e J . shows t h a t E can be r e p r e s e n t e d as an i n d u c t i v e l i m i t o f a n u c l e a r n e t shows t h e d e s i r e d c o n c l u s i o n . sp(v(n):n=l. t h e proof becomes much e a s i e r as t h e n e x t r e s u l t shows P r o p o s i t i o n 6. 6. t f o r t h e norm t o p o l o g y of E and t ' f o r t h e i n d u c t i v e t o p o l o g y w i t h r e s p e c t t o the mppings f:F-+E. The m p p i n g f:F--+E d e f i n e d by f ( x ) : = . n=1.5. t i s c o a r s e r t h a n t ' . Again by J. such t h a t I(z(n) .5.. t ' ) nuous on ( E .. Set d t o denote t h e c o l l e c t i o n of a l l n u c l e a r mappings f r o m F i n t o E. o f i n f i n i t e ...) in F (u(n):n=l. v i o u s remark. Hl+F by h(x):= by g(z):=za(n)'''(z. t ) According t o our pre00 a r e b a r r e l l e d .Zy. 14.u)\)/4".u(n)> .. = Snm bounded.d i m e n s i o n a l Banach spaces.) i n E with ~ I l y ( n l l 1f i n i t e . C l e a r l y .2.. a l i n e a r f o r m u on E-is continuous i f and o n l y i f . Po A c c o r d i n g t o a r e s u l t o f OVSEPIAN. if u i s n o t continuous. Then t h e r e e x i s t s a n u c l e a r i n d u c t i v e n e t o f Banach spaces (Ei:i 6. i s bounded: indeed.1. Theorem 6.. Z .2.Z.d i m e n s i o n a l separable H i l b e r t spaces w i t h i n j e c t i v e l i n k i n g mappings. Proof: Since E i s n o t endowed w i t h t h e s t r o n g e s t l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y .) i s f i n i t e .6 61) f o r E such t h a t E=ind(Ei:i < I ) and each Ei i s i s o m r p h i c t o F. . e ( n ) # f ( n ) .14.v( n ) ) i n F i s dense i n F. f o r e v e r y sequence (y(n):n=l. t f L d .

t ) .b a r r e l l e d i f e v e r y a b s o l u t e l y convex subset U o f E which absorbs t h e members o f &3 and i n t e r s e c t s t h e members o f 3E i n c l o s e d s e t s o f (E.1 and p a r t s o f 6. Moreover.KEIM.6 Notes and Remarks. VALDIVIA.d i m e n s i o n a l d i s c s .l2.2.3..(6).KOMURA. The r e s t o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s devoted t o t o p i c s which do n o t appear u s u a l l y i n book form as some i n t r i g u i n g permanence p r o p e r t i e s .Ch. A l a r a e c l a s s o f t o p o l o g i c a l spaceswith these requirements was p r o v i d e d by BLASCO.(4)): 6.2. Reqarding dense hyperplanes of u l t r a b o r n o l o g i c a l spaces.3.1.v)\>/n f o r each n and hence v c(E.(26) (see 6. By t a k i n g F& as t h e f a m i l y o f a l l c l o s e d d i s c s i n ( E .12).2.3.12) by c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a remarkable hyperplane (6.2.9 appear i n VALDIVIA.2. The space ( E .Ch.5 and 6.ROBERTSON..(l).l3).196 PI BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES z<x.3. 6.2.(5) asked i f t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f a b o r n o l o a i c a l space i s a g a i n b o r n o l o g i c a l KOMURA.t) i s a 0-nghb i n ( E .8 by EBERHARDT. a HEWITT-NACHBIN space X whose a s s o c i a t e d kR-space i s n o t HEWITT-NACHBIN (see Chapter 10 f o r d e f i n i t i o n s ) p r o v i d e s an example o f a b o r n o l o g i c a l space (C(X).7 and 6. : = ( f i n i t e . 4 : = ( E ) and 6 b a r r e l l e d and q u a s i b a r r e l l e d spaces a r e d 8 .f28. l e t us mention t h a t such hyperplanes .20 and 6.(46) proved t h e e x i s tence o f a b o r n o l o g i c a l space E which i s a hyperplane o f i t s non-bornologic a l completion.2. .11 as presented here i s taken from TSIRULNIKOV.3.6 i n VALDIVIA.3. 6.d i m e n s i o n a l d i s c s ) o r : = ( a l l d i s c s ) r e s p e c t i v e l y .(l).v>l = I<y(n). C l e a r l y .(4) and EBERHARDT. U l t r a b o r n o l o g i c a l spaces a r e n o t s t a b l e by f i n i t e . t ) i s s a i d t o be A 6 3 . c o v e r i n g E.(45).(Z).8 s t u d i e s t h e l o c a l c o m p l e t i o n o f a b o r n o l o q i c a l space and a r e due t o VALDIVIA. i n v a r i a n t under s c a l a r m u l t i p l i c a t i o n and c o v e r i n a E.3. I<f(x(n)).PEREZ CARRERAS.(6) as we d i d i n Chapter Four u s i n g a t e c h n i q u e which appears i n e a r l i e r papers o f ADASCH (see a l s o ADASCH.3 and 6.t).ERNST.7 was shown b y WEBB.4 i s due t o DIEUDONNE. W i t h o u t u s i n g t h e Continuum Hypothesis.3.PEREZ CARRERAS. 6.P.1.(5) and J. ( 2 ) .2 a r e s t a n d a r d m a t e r i a l (see Kl. According t o r e s u l t s o f NACHBIN and SHIROTA (see 10.DE WILDE.PEREZ CARRE RAS.26 appear i n MAROUINA.PEREZ CARRERAS.c o d i m e n s i o n a l subspaces as shown by VALDIVIA.t')' as desired. 6.2. t ) and 9 as t h e f a m i l y o f a l l c l o s e d d i s c s o r t h e f a m i l y o f a l l f i n i t e .b a r r e l l e d f o r .10 were o b t a i n e d independently by MARQUINA.3.1. 6.23 p r e s e n t i m p o r t a n t r e s u l t s o f MACKEY. C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s 6. 6. B o r n o l o g i c a l and u l t r a b o r n o l o g i c a l spaces were i n t r o d u c e d by BOURBAKI.23 f o l l o w s A. DIEUDONNE.6.(5) t o p l a c e b o r n o l o g i c a l and u l t r a b o r n o l o g i c a l spaces i n t h e frame of t h e f o l l o w i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme (see MARQUINA.u(n)>y(n) c l e a r l y belongs t o d .(l) and 6.1: L e t 22 be a f a m i l y o f c l o s e d a b s o l u t e l y convex subsets o f a space ( E . 6.(Z). 6. S t r o n g l y i n a c c e s i b l e c a r d i n a l s and s e t s which do n o t s a t i s f y t h e MACKEY-ULAM c o n d i t i o n can be seen i n GJ.6. 6. 6.19 and 6.1.3.9 and 6.18.3.(22).2. t ) .11) i n separable Banach spaces. L e t 6 3 be a d i r e c t e d f a m i l y o f d i s c s i n (E. s e m i b o r n o l o q i c a l and s t r o n g b a r r e l 1ed spaces appear.(3) concern i n g p r o d u c t s o f ( u 1 t r a ) b o r n o l o g i c a l spaces.(lS) and 6. W e s t u d y p r o d u c t s o f bornol o g i c a l and u l t r a b o r n o l o g i c a l spaces as i n MARQUINA.to) whose c o m p l e t i o n i s n o t b o r n o l o g i c a l . Our p r o o f o f 6. 6.(3) answered t h i s q u e s t i o n i n t h e n e g a t i v e u s i n g t h e Continuum Hypothesis.3.(5)). examples which c l a r i f y t h e r e l a t i o n between b o r n o l o q i c a l and b a r r e l l e d n e s s p r o p e r t i e s and VALDIVIA's r e s u l t s on r e p r e s e n t i n g u l t r a b o r n o l o q i c a l spaces.

19.(18).5. F ) has i t too.( E l . 3 .(8) 6. a i . take X E E \ F and l e t Q:E-E/sp(x) be t h e canonical surj e c t i o n .5. Our presentation follows F L O R E T . 6. s ( E ' .a. t ' ) respectively.(8) due t o ROELCKE: "Let E be a t .4. l e t ZL and "be balanced bases of 0-nghbs in ( E .p.l b U ' f C b U f o r a l l X G B .T).4. There e x i s t s c a l a r s 1 .DIEROLFyLURJE. . As a c o r o l l a r y one obtains " W i t h t h e assumptions above and t ' c o a r s e r than t.(19) proved t h e main r e s u l t 6.s(G'. I t i s well-known (J. F:=LA .(6) whereas 6. " Indeed.4. ()* is b i j e c t i v e . Then every bounded s e t 5 i n ( E . there i s a barrel T* i n ( E ' . I t s inverse has closed graph and i t i s non-continuous.CHAPTER 6 197 a r e never SOUSLIN spaces: Indeed. The p a i r (E. t ) implies t h a t t h e r e i s U Y U. Again this technique i s used by GALINDO. V ' € < sucb t h a t U ' + U'CU. 1 . E ) ) w i t h T * I \ F ' c T and ( i i i ) t h e t r a n s posed mapping T':(FL. Usinq ( * ) .(47)). ( i i ) given any barrel T in ( F . Therefore 6 i s bounded i n ( E .E)) i s a topological homomorphism. An appeal t o 1. 3 48). Suppose t h a t t and t ' aaree on F and t h a t (E/F.4. (1): "Let F be a metric complete and quasinormable space ( 8 .(16)) There i s a s t r i c t l y coarser opology s on D'(X) such t h a t ( D ' ( X ) .'s) = (E/F. s .l b U ' .9 i s due t o BELLENOT.p. Using a technique due t o VALDIVIA ( 6 .2: (VALDIVIA.4. y C F This implies y = 1. (4). u c V ' A U ' . t ' ) and l e t UE/U. ( ( E .DIEROLFY(7).4.: ( i ) ( E .(l) t o prove 6. p .: Indeed.GARCIA. . Q:EE/F being t h e canonical s u r j e c t i o n . t ' ) .183) t h a t compact sets can be l i f t e d from q u o t i e n t s of f r P c h e t spaces.l b ( V ' + V ' ) a s l . ( E .l b t l and V' i s balanced. ( 2 ) . The assumption (E/F. t ) a s d e s i r e d . i t s u f f i c e s t o take a b a r r e l l e d space G with a non-barrelled closed subspace L and s e t E:=(G'. E ) ) T.4.?) i s bounded i n ( E . one obtains t h a t x h l ( U ' + l .F) has the l i f t i n pro e r t y ( s h o r t l y . I f Q* i s i t s r e s t r i c t i o n t o F.l b ( V f l F ) C l . t ' ) . Thus every x C 5 may be written i n the form ( * ) x = bv = 1 u+y) with V L V ' . Hence B c l ( U " + F ) C l ( ( V ' n U ' ) + F ) . I f E i s a super-space o f F .bv . F ) has t h e 1 . " ( s e e DE WILDE.9 a r e t o be found in S.'' ( s e e DE WILDE. The remarkable hyperplane constructed i n 6.MAESTRE. There a r e U'€U and V . DE WILDE. p .b(E'. Consequently. bornological b u t not u trabornological 6. H ha a q u o t i e n t isomorphic t o KN. Any infinite-dimensional compact subset of K cannot be l i f t e d t o H. t ) and ( E . . t ! . s : = s u p ( t . continuous b u t not open. such t h a t U" + F C ( V ' n U ' ) + F.11 provides a wealth o f counterexamples which w i l l appear alonq t h e exposition.2.e.8 including the key lemma (VALDIVIA. 1 1 ) . Then ( i i ) gives t h e conclusion. Let B be a bounded set i n ( E .10 and 6.(8)) and form here i t i s possible t o deduce a r e s u l t due t o PALAMODOV.(17). be qiven.E/F))-.2.6. 6.3 and 6.11.5 a r e d u e t o VALDIVIA.31 gives t h e conclusion. VALDIVIA. 6. The following r e s u l t i s a modificat i o n of a theorem of DE WILDE. V/IFCU' and V' + V' CV.f.$) = ( E / F .G))/LL . Q:E-+E/F being t h e canonical s u r j e c t i o n . This f a c t f a i l s t o be true f o r hyperplanes o f Frgchet spaces: Let H be an h y p r o l a n e of a separable Fr6chet space havinq a l l i t s compact absolutely convex subsets of f i n i t e dimension. s ( E ' .b(FL.(l).(l) show 6.12. t ' ) such t h a t Q ( B ) i s bounded i n (E/F. G l . b ) O such t h a t l G b and such t h a t B C b V ' and Q ( B ) LlQ(U").6. t ) .4. F j has t h e 1 . p . F ) has the l .4.8 and 6. f o r two topoloqies t and t ' and l e t F be a subspace of E .TSIRULNIKOV.u G l . i f ( ( E . 1 ) i f f o r every bounded s e t 5 of E/F t h e r e i s dedk'7$-of E with d3B.4 can be seen i n S. Let E be a space and F a l i n e a r subspace of E. Not every p a i r ( E . The r e s u l t presented i n the text was extended by MOSCATELLI. By 2. i f F i s a dense hyperplane of an u l t r a b o r nologica-1 space E .s) i s b a r r e l l e d . F ) has t h e 1.3.

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according t o our hypothesis. t h e n f is open. t ) a l i n e a r mapping w i t h closed graph i n E x ( F . Proof: Since f has closed graph i n FxE. s ) . Accordinp t o 4 . we have t h a t s F i s f i n e r than t .. Fo. Reciprocally. ther e e x i s t s a (Hausdorff l o c a l l y convex) topology u on F coarser than t such t h a t f:E---(F. f-'(O) i s a closed subspace of F. t ) C Fr and l e t s be a (Hausdorff l o c a l l y convex) topology coarser than t.'F w i t h closed graoh i n ExF. s ) x ( F ..199 CHAPTER SEVEN B .1: Suppose EEFand F t w i t h closed graph i n FxE If f i s surjective. 4 . t ) has closed graph 7 in ( F . s f ) C % a n d ( F . one has t h a t f i s c o n t i ry l i n e a r mapping nuous. u F) i s c o n t i f i n e r t h a n t .s ) x ( F . suppose t h a t f o r every (Hausdorff l o c a l l y convex) topology s on F coarser than t . t ) .1.+ E i s a l i n e a r mapping // Proposition 7. Let E t F a n d f:E( F . t ) i s continuous and hence s F i s f i n e r than t .u) i s continuous. t ) and hence in (F. According t o 2 . . Since ( F . we have t h a t u . r s t a n d s f o r a c l a s s of spaces which i s s t a b l e under t h e formation o f inductive l i m i t s and contains t h e finite-dirrensional spaces. 6 . f o r every (Hausdorff l o c a l l y convex) topology s coarser than t .( 0 ) C 5. 6 . f : E . 1 The d u a l i t y closed graph theorem. s 3 .+ ( F . 1 Set u : F / f . Let yr be t h e c l a s s of a l l spaces F such t h a t . Proof: Suppose ( F . Set Tof o r the subclass of Fr of a l l those spaces G such t h a t every separated quotient of G belongs t o IFr. In this s e c t i o n .r ( F .1. t ) belongs t o sri f and only i f .l i s continuous and our desired conclusion follows.l ( O ) A E f o r t h e b i j e c t i o n associated t o f . t ) t $. Proposition 7. Since F/f. t ) . I f f : F . we have t h a t J : ( F .. ) 4 ( F .2: A space ( F . 1 4 .AND Br-COMPLETENESS 7 . f o r every space Ecaand evef:E--. one has t h a t s F i s f i n e r than t . Thus f : E nuous and hence u'is . The canonical i n j e c t i o n J : ( F .

5. P r o o f : Suppose ( E .s)t t i s c o a r s e r than r’.sF)EF.1. t h e r e e x i s t s on F/G a t o p o l o q y s .5: to be a mmber o f t h e c l a s s Fr (resp. I f E t Fr. c o a r s e r t h a n t h e quo- F&%.. E o n t o F/G. Then Jof:G-+E i n GxE.// P r o p o s i t i o n 7.// Let (E. By o u r former argument. FG$). Fr.2. t h e r e e x i s t s a space w i t h c l o s e d graph i n FxE. )- F/G i s n o t and (F/G. __ P r o o f : L e t G be a c l o s e d subspace o f F and l e t Q:F--rF/G s u r j e c t i o n .and. c o a r s e r t h a n r7. The q u o t i e n t F/F i s a c l o s e d hence F t subspace o f t h e q u o t i e n t E/G w h i c h belongs t o F/G t F r and %. Then Q-f:E--F/G 7. Now suppose ( E . < ) t ’fCr. F0) belonas t o and l e t s be a t o p o l o g y on E c o a r s e r t h a n t.s) Fr ( r e s p .1. Thus s i s Fo.sJ. t ) C ?.t) Fr.1. I f r i s a t o p o l o g y on E c o a r s e r than s . hence i t i s continuous. %. (E. Then (E. t h e n F C Fo.+ F be has c l o s e d graph a l i n e a r mapping w i t h c l o s e d graph i n GxF. be t h e c a n o n i c a l i n j e c t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o // I f a l i n e a r mapping f:E-+F i s continuous. then f i s Mackey-Mackey c o n t i - .2. then i s c o a r s e r t h a n t and. continuous. l e t f : G . .J Set E:=( F/G.1. t ) t Fr.4: (resp.1. I f EC%. If E C F r then F C Fr ( r e s p .t) i s continuous and hence ( F . P r o o f : L e t J:F-+E L e t F be a c l o s e d subspace of a space E. Thus f i s c o n t i n u o u s . Proof: If I f F &To. Clearly ? i s coarser than 7 on e v e r y q u o t i e n t E/G. Set u f o r i t s associated b i j e c t i o n from a quotient o f our desired conclusion follows.. such t h a t t h e c a n o n i c a l i n j e c t i o n J:( F/G. o u r former r e a s o n i n g shows t h a t ( E / G . t h e r e e x i s t s a c l o s e d subspace G o f F such t h a t F/GB$r. j e c t i v e be t h e c a n o n i c a l 1i n e a r mapping o n t o a space F.T)( again by 7. r Fo). Et%).200 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEX SPACES (F. A c c o r d i n g t o 7. b e i n g t h e canonical s u r j e c t i o n . i s continuous. l i n e a r and s u r j e c t i v e ./.6: I f E C F o and i f f:E--*F i s a continuous s u r . P r o p o s i t i o n 7. l e t G be a c l o s e d subspace o f F.s’ has c l o s e d graoh i n (F/G.s’) t i e n t topology. t ) t Since (E/G.1. EeF and a s u r j e c t i v e P r o p o s i t i o n 7. Clearly. a c c o r d i n a t o 7.2.)xF/G Q:FAF/G and f:=J-’oQ.1. // P r o p o s i t i o n 7. which i s n o t open.1.3: l i n e a r mapping f:F+E.

1. (F.t F) which i s n o t i n F. Note t h a t G:=(F.s(F*.t)C. A c c o r d i n a t i o n H o f (F.t)C F r implies ) i s complete. .2. a c c o r d i n g t o 1. L C S a n d hence f i s continuous. J can be extended t o a l i n e a r mapping f : L + ( F . and s a t i s f i e s (*) G n F ' i s dense i n ( F ' . We nuous. (ii) h o l d s and l e t s be a ( H a u s d o r f f l o c a l l y convex) t o p o l o g y on F c o a r s e r t h a n t. be c l o s e d i n L and t h a t i s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n . (**) (F.CHAPTER 7 20 1 a c l a s s o f Mackey spaces and i f E t nuous. m ( F .F)). i f $ i s t h e n ( E d E.2.24). t ) t o (***).G). and hence f : L + ( F .s)'.+ ( F .1. m(F.t). Thus F has t o c e r t a i n s c a l a r b and u ( F .G)) e F s3 contains F ' .F)). Thus.2.Suppose (F.m(F. j e c t i o n f r o m L o n t o ( F . which i s dense i n (F*. one has t h a t s F i s coarser than i m p l i e s (ii). F ) ) . Now suppose t h a t hence F ' i s c o n t a i n e d i n G.sF) H is dense i n )' i s a dense subspace o f (F*.s( F'. i s f i n e r t h a n t and. Since F i s a c l a s s o f Mackey spaces. s ( F ' .7: Suppose 9c o n s i s t s following conditions are equivalent: (i) (F.3$. dense i n (F'.G).s(F*..5".m(E. // . and G c o n t a i n s H . ) . P r o p o s i t i o n 7.G))GF. (E. S e t t i n g H:=(F.m( F. The P r o p o s i t i o n 7. t h e n (F.and t h e c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s . P r o o f . // F o r o u r n e x t r e s u l t . P r o o f : Suppose ( F y t ) & 3 and s e t s:=s(F. Set L : = s p ( F U ( x ) ) p o l o g y induced by H.s3 i s f i n e r t h a n t. C l e a r l y . 6 5 and s3.8: (F.+ ( F . s% c o i n c i d e s w i t h m(F.22 c a l i n j e c t i o n . t s h a l l see t h a t f i s a ( c o n t i n u o u s ) p r o . set y:=x-f(x) which i s n o t i n F. o n l y o f Mackey spaces. r ) i s contic * ) i s continuous. A c c o r d i n g t o 7.E' F r (resp. Thus (i) i t i s enough t o show t h a t s7.GAF'). t ) graph i n Lx(F. I f J : ( F .t') n o t complete and l e t x be a v e c t o r o f t h e compleendowed w i t h t h e t o w i t h closed stands f o r t h e continuous canoni( s e e t h e p r o o f o f 1. G c o n t a i n s F'.E' 1) t %).1. G ) ) E ~ . s i n c e (F.t' If P then Et.F)) ( F ' . 1) C Tr ( resp. t F ) : indeed. suppose t h a t r i s s u b j e c t t o t h e f o l l o w i n g a d d i t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n ( * * * ) : " i f F i s a dense subspace o f E and i f F t ' f . Thus r i s f i n e r t h a n t3.1. hence ( F . that s a t i s f i e s (***). i s c o a r s e r t h a n t h a n m(F.F)). Every z < L can be w r i t t e n as z=by+u f o r a Thus f ( z ) = u which shows o u r c l a i m . . A c c o r d i n g t o 7. ( i i ) e v e r y subspace G o f F*.s(F'. C l e a r l y . hence H C G n F ' and GnF' i s According t o (ii). t 7 . r ) C x a n d f : L .Let r be t h e t o p o l o g y on F f i n a l w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e mapping f.2. ( F . Ee %).G).

F ) ) .15.s(F'.9.s(F'. e x i s t s a b i j e c t i o n J:KN-L t o p o l o g y t w h i c h i s d i s t i n c t f r o m t h e s t r o n g e s t l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y on L.s(F*.202 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES D e f i n i t i o n 7.s(G. l e t ( F .. s i n c e ( L .1.1.t).-space. 7. we have Since F s a t i s f i e s desired. A c c o r d i n g t o 2 .F)) t h a t U%(GnF') i s quasi-complete.c o m p l e t e i n (L.1.c o m p l e t e subspace o f (F*. s ( F ' . f o r P r o p o s i t i o n 7. Set A : ( L . L e t E be a q u a s i . KREIN-SMULYAN p r o p e r t y . is (iii) i f E i s endowed w i t h t h e s t r o n g e s t l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o - g and dim(E))/c. from where t h e c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s . F ) ) .s(F'. t h e F. // (hence fr-space: P r o p o s i t i o n 7.2 G'). hence Conversely. and t h e r e f o r e L can be endowed w i t h a b a r r e l l e d ( i i i ) L e t L be a subspace o f E w i t h d i m ( L ) = c .s(L.1.1.F)) such t h a t ( * ) G n F ' i s dense i n ( F ' .s p a c e and l e t G be a q u a s i . hence G contains LAF' .E/F)).F)).F/L')) ( L A F ' .s(F*.as ( i i ) follows from 7. t h e n ( F . L i s not a pr-space.s p a c e i f and o n l y i f . . suppose t h a t ( F . t ) be a s C o n s i d e r t h e dual p a i r (F/G. The c l o s u r e o f E n F ' i n L 1 above and l e t G be a c l o s e d subspace o f ( F .F)) Proof: (i) such t h a t (G. dense i n (G". subspace G o f (F*.F)). and 4.F)) F/G i s a such t h a t EnG'is ?. L e t F be a F r e c h e t space and G a dense subspace o f (F*.s( L A F ' . t ) .t) a rr-space. 2 . s ( F ' . Thus G n F ' i s closed i n ( F ' . ( i ) Every F r e c h e t space i s a ?-soace i s a r r . t ) .4 g i v e s t h e c o n c l u s i o n .. t ) x L b u t i s barrelled.F)) and L t h e c l o s u r e o f G n F ' i n and G A ( L A F ' ) i s dense i n C o n s i d e r t h e d u a l p a i r (F/L'. s(F*. I f U i s a O-nghb in F. t ) is a rr-space.F)) and (**) (G.F/LL)) s(F'.c o m p l e t e subspace o f (F*.1. C o r r e s p o n d i n g l y .F)) (F'.a r e c a l l e d called pr-spaces. f o r e v e r y quasi-complete i t f o l l o w s t h a t GAF' i s c l o s e d i n ( F ' .s p a c e and s i s a c o a r s e r toDolony on F.L). 5. P r o o f : ( i ) f o l l o w s from 7. t ) i s a 7 . i t f o l l o w s t h a t G 3 F ' .G i A c c o r d i n n t o t h e h y p o t h e s i s E n G =G is a (F'. ac- L#(L. t ) c o r d i n g t o 7. t h e o r t h o g o n a l t a k e n i n F ' . S i n c e t h e s t r o n g e s t l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y i s i n h e r i t e d by subspaces. Then F/L' C l e a r l y .1. is a pr-space i f and o n l y i f .11: ( i i ) I f (F.F)) ( i ) A space ( F . 5 ( i ) .s(F*. // . A space ( F .s(G.s(F*. i s quasi-complete.F)). To p r o v e ( i i ) .s(G'. r . t ) subspace G dense i n (F*. c o i n c i d e s w i t h .L f o r t h e i d e n t i t y . s ) then E i s n o t a rr-space.9: wmbers of t h e c l a s s o f the class I f ? stands f o r t h e c l a s s o f a l l b a r r e l l e d spaces. G A F ' i s c l o s e d i n ( F ' . t h e members yoa r e ?-spaces.F)) . G A L i s q u a s i . there the = U " A G i s closed i n ( F ' .1. i s n o t c o n t i n u o u s and.10: every (ii) s(F'. A has c l o s e d qraph i n ( L .

t h e r e e x i s t a Banach space (hence a space) and a non-continuous l i n e a r mapping f : E .1.s L e t (x(n):n=1. x t F A K + G n K J = F/\KJ + u(y(n):n=1.2.x is w i t h x(n)(F and y ( n ) c G f o r each n. 1 0 ( i i ) two r e s u l t s a r e i m n e d i a t e . A c c o r d i n g t o 0.1.t):=( K ) o t r a n s - A v e r s a l t o each o t h e r .) e x i s t s an i n f i n i t e c o u n t a b l e s u b s e t J o f A such t h a t ( x ( n ) : J n=1.1.___ P r o o f : According t o 7.) . F a p-space and f : F ..2. i t i s enough t o show t h a t . f o r a e v e r y i n f i n i t e s e t A.2. There *// Coro l a r y 7. F a w i t h c l o s e d graph i n ExF.5 . Fr a r e o p t i m a l c l a s s e s (domain and range r e s - p e c t i v e l y ) f o r a c l o s e d graph theorem t o hold.1. Then A ( E . 6 . t h e n f i s If F i s n o t a ?-space. 1 . the closure taken i n (E.t).F ( i i i ) I f E i s n o t a b a r r e l l e d space..1.) J J C l e a r l y . belongs t o Fr.12 :(PTiiK-ADASCH-VALDIVIA-MAHOWALD CLOSED GRAPH THEOREM) a l i n e a r maoping (i) l e t E be a b a r r e l l e d space.. (i) L e t E be a b a r r e l l e d space.. s and t c o i n J i s bounded i n ( E . P r o p o s i t i o n 7.. t ) Proof: L e t x C F G .t). i n (E.) i s contained i n K . t ) ..2.CHAPTER 7 203 and 7.) and (F+G.12 shows t h a t and rr- w i t h c l o s e d qraph i n ExF. t i n u o u s i n j e c t i v e l i n e a r mapping f:E--.2 and 6.2.2. Theorem 7. 4 .11(i). Then (ii) If F i s not a fr-space and f:E-F f i s continuous. t h e l i r n i t o f a sequence (x(n)+y(n):n=1.. . f o r evebe a bounded sequence r y H a u s d o r f f l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y s c o a r s e r t h a n t.15: I f F and G a r e c l o s e d subspaces o f (E.+ E a l i n e a r mapping w i t h c l o s e d graph i n FxE.2. If f i s s u r j e c t i v e .* F 7. .1. Theorem 7. e v e r y bounded sequen- ce i n (E. t h e r e e x i s t s a b a r r e l l e d space E and a (ii) non-open s u r j e c t i v e l i n e a r mapping f:F-+E w i t h c l o s e d graph i n FxE..13: open.1.. Vr-space7 t h e r e e x i s t a b a r r e l l e d space E and a non-conw i t h c l o s e d graph i n ExF.3 .1. t h e n F+G i s c l o s e d i n ( E . Ne conclude t h i s s e c t i o n w i t h a r e s u l t which w i l l be needed l a t e r on. 5 ( i ) ) .s) i s bounded i n ( E . t ) : = ( K )o.14: L e t F b e t h e c l a s s o f a l l b o r n o l o g i c a l spaces. the following From what has been s a i d above. Since K i s M n i m a l ( 2 .. ) i s c o n t a i n e d i n KJ.t)g(G. t ) c i d e on K and hence ( x ( n :n=1. We f i n d an i n f i n i t e c o u n t a b l e subset J o f A such t h a t (x(n):n=1.t)=(F.

2 .3: 1. I f U stands f o r a O-n@b in F . . Moreover.a n d Br-complete spaces. 1 : A space ( F .8 shows t h a t ( F + G . r e s u l t 6. B-complete) sDace i s a (resp. s ( E ' . Definition 7 . B-complete). t ) i s ( B r . t ) and ( E . F ) ) and hence G n F ' i s nearly closed.s( F ' .9. F ) ) which i s nearly closed i s closed in ( F ' . T h u s GnF' = F ' and hence G 3 F ' .204 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEXSPACES GAK'. Clearly. 2 : ( i ) Every Br-complete ( r e s p . t ) i s hornalogical. t ) € Fr.1. continuous. Proposition 7 . every space w i t h the KREIN-SMULYAN property is B-complete. s ( F ' . // 7.-complete space i s complete.) B-complete i f every (dense) subspace o f ( F ' . ( i ) E i s B-complete i f and only i f every l i n e a r . space.934: Proposition 7. F beinq any space. t ) . a s desired.14. F ) ) . Let G be a nearly closed dense subspace of ( E ' .s(G. hence so a r e Fr6chet spaces. t h e e q u a l i t y being a consequence of 2.. nearly open and s u r j e c t i v e mapping f:E--tF. E ) ) . b i j e c t i v e mapping f : E .1. ( i i ) Only f o r t h e Br-conplete case. a n d hence x t F + G . continuous. 4. s ( F ' . nearly open. every B-complete space i s B r . Since F i s closed i n ( E . ( i i i ) E i s B y - . according t o K1. Proof: ( i ) only f o r t h e Br-complete case.( 6 ) . . i s open. F being any space. f .1.s p a ce show t h a t G coincides w i t h E' *// The following proposition c o l l e c t well-known r e s u l t s which can be found i n K2..+ F .621.2.4( i i i ) . Let F be a Br-comDlete space and Pr- r-) G a dense subspace o f (F*.c o w l e t e and every B. then E i s Br-complete ( r e s p . ( i i ) Let E be a b a r r e l l e d sDace.6.Let E be a space.. 2 .s(F*. due t o 7.s( F ' .3.F)) such t h a t (G. U o n ( G n F ' ) = U o r \ G i s closed in ( F ' . 7.15 a n d the d e f i n i t i o n o f f r .2 B . Since F+G i s closed i n ( E .F)) i s Quasi-complete and GAF' i s dense i n ( F ' . 3 being t h e c l a s s of a l l bornoloqical s p a c e s . I f E i s a /7r-space ( r e s p . i s open. ( i i ) E i s Br-conplete i f and only i f every l i n e a r . N o w F+G)/G f o r i t s s e t Q:F+G -+( F + G ) / G f o r t h e canonical s u r j e c t i o n a n d O*:F-( r e s t r i c t i o n t o F which i s a continuous l i n e a r b i j e c t i o n . Since E i s b a r r e l l e d .4 shows t h a t FE and t h e r e f o r e Q* i s open. F ) ) . .s p a c e ) .

in L which i s a compact s e t i n E B O O 3 i s a ( E l . Then ( E l . ( i ) F o r any s e t A. t h e n F i s B-complete ( r e s p . n e a r l y continuous n a p p i n g f:F-+E.2. t o a c e r t a i n x i n (E.E) L e t E be a F r 6 c h e t space and t a t o p o l o c y on E ' coarThen ( E ' .E')). S e t B:=Zx(x(n):n=l. B -compl e t e . t ) i s B-complete. .5: m( E'.4: s e r t h a n m(E'.) and a ( E ' . then L i s s e q u e n t i a l l y c l o s e d i n E and.) By o u r h y p o t h e s i s . . b e i n g any space.( i ) e v e r y H a u s d o r f f q u o t i e n t o f a B-complete space i s B-complete. a c c o r d i n g t o h y p o t h e s i s .. hence B r \ L i s c l o s e d i n E and x a v e c t o r o f t h e (weak) c l o s u r e o f L i n E .s(E. i s continuous. c l o s e d L e t A be a sequence i n L converging hence a (E'. (ii) L e t E be a space.2. I f E i s B-complete ( r e s p .6: A .m( T h i s c o n c l u s i o n .E')). t e due t o 7 . Br-complete). = then E i s b u t f i n e r t h a n co(E'. w i t h c l o s e d graph i n FxE. P r o p o s i t i o n 7. m ( E ' . I t i s enough Proof: t o show t h a t L i s s e q u e n t i a l l y c l o s e d i n (E.L e t F be a c l o s e d subspace o f a space E.~(K(A). (ii) K(N) i s t h e Mackey dual o f t h e F r e c h e t space KN hence a B-comolete i s n o t Br-comple- space due t o 7. l l ( i i i ) On t h e o t h e r hand.. i f card(A)7.2. P r o p o s i t i o n 7. E.E')) i s a g a i n B-complete ( r e s p . i t i s l o c a l l y complete.(KA)o)) 0.12 a s s e r t s t h a t =(A) Thus LT\=x(A) i s conpact i n (E.E')).m(E'. and hence x C L . t ) ' c o n v e r g i n g t o x i n E. L e t L be a n e a r l y c l o s e d subspace o f ( E ' .-corrplete). Observe t h a t i f a space E i s B-complete ( r e s ~ .1.E')).E)) L e t E be a l o c a l l y complete space such t h a t t h e c l o s u - r e o f e v e r y subspace o f E c o i n c i d e s w i t h i t s s e q u e n t i a l c l o s u r e .t)- E and hence x ( L as desired. There e x i s t s a sequence (x(n):n=1. i s B-complete: indeed. however. Brcomplete).E))-equicontinuous.2. Since E i s l o c a l l y complete. equicontinuous. E ) ) ' = E . t h e n (E.2. s i n c e ( K ) o i s s e q u e n t i a l l y complete.4.Z.s(E.2. . Now 7. I f e v e r y H a u s d o r f f q u o t i e n t o f E i s Br-complete. B..co( E ' .s(E. i n E and hence c l o s e d i n (E.CHAPTER 7 205 complete i f and o n l y i f e v e r y l i n e a r . i s B-complete. 3./.s(E. . i s c l o s e d i n (E. F 2.E')) // Examples 7. l . 3. ..5. Br-complete)..E))-equicontinuous. a c c o r d i n g t o A A e v e r y s e q u e n t i a l l y c l o s e d subset o f ( K ) o i s c l o s e d and.E).s(E.c. KiA) (iii) The space ( KiA).5 g i v e s t h e answer. f o r i f t h i s i s t h e ca- se. P r o o f : L e t L be a n e a r l y c l o s e d subspace o f ( E ' .2.2.3 . K i s B-complete as i t i s t h e Mackey dual o f t h e space K ( A ) which s a t i s f i e s t h e h y p o t h e s i s r e q u i r e d i n 7.

W e s h a l l show t h a t . Br-com- i s B-complete ( r e s p . s i n c e each En i s m e t r i z a b l e . 6 ..2.2 A lies i n c o i n c i d e s w i t h b(K(A). . I f x 61. Thus 2.5.b(E.E') ( i i i ) shows t h a t (E. nuous.n)) a l g e b r a i c a l l y ..4. L c o i n c i d e s w i t h T .. s i n c e each p . i s c l o s e d i n En f o r each n.(1) show t h a t E ' a l s o has CP.11 w i t h Fi:=K f o r i=l.n and n=1.2. Thus (LnEn)$(ED(Gi:i=l.) . L e t F be a n e a r l y c l o s e d subspace o f E ' . t h e n L n E n i s c l o s e d i n En f o r each n and t h e argument above can be a p p l i e d . P r o p o s i t i o n 7..n. L C - n( pn. b(E.b(E. E i s complete and. E ) ) .2.2. i f L i s a l o c a l l y c l o s e d subspace o f E . t ) we s h a l l use 4.8(c) and K1. Since e v e r y bounded s e t o f K t h e c l o s u r e o f a bounded s e t o f (KA)o. p n ( L ) i s c l o s e d and. t h e n L i s c l o s e d ( a n d hence complemented i n E). we have E=L& d i n g t o t h e t r a n s i t i v i t y o f f i n a l t o p o l o g i e s . 7..E')): s e t E : = ( K ( A ) .. s i n c e i f L i s closed. I f t h i s i s t h e case.. Indeed...3. Accor- =En a l g e b r a i c a l l y and t o p o l o g i c a l l y .2. S e t t i n g G : = T G i .1. . s ( E ' . Since L i s l o c a l l y closed. m ( v ) Set E:=(K(N))N and pn:E--.2. Now 7. s i n c e En i s minimal and t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n h o l d s f o r each n . . ..( L ) ) :n=1. . i s B-comp l e t e ( r e s p .E i s complete (hence l o c a l l y complete) and we s h a l l show t h a t . n¶. L i s complemented ( w i t h complement G) i n E and t h e r e f o r e i s c l o s e d i n E. Indeed. LnE.. E ' = ( K( N ) ) N i s B-comolete. s i n c e T F i c a r r i e s t h e s t r o n gest l o c a l l y convex topology. F i x n and s e t pi:En-Fiy i=l. .E') hence b(E. t h e p r o o f o f 2 . ..4. I n o r L e t G be a L e t (E. I f E := ?Fi n we have t h a t E=indEn. ) .205 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEXSPACES f a i l s t o be t r u e f o r (E. Clearly. Since each shows t h a t pi(En) t h e r e f o r e has a t o p o l o g i c a l complement Gi m i n Fi.KA). t h e r e e x i s t s a sequence ( x ( n ) : n = l .. N f o r t h e canonical p r o j e c t i o n . .E')) i s n o t a rr-space. ( i v ) Set E:=(KN)(N). t ) i s 6-complete ( r e s p .1( p.) is a l o c a l l y n u l l sequence.t) be a space h a v i n g a c l o s e d hyperplane which Then ( E . P r o o f : Since a l l c l o s e d c l o s e d hyperplanes o f a space a r e t o p o l o g i c a l l y isomorphic o u r assumption reads: e v e r y c l o s e d hyperplane o f ( E . d e r t o show t h a t F i s c l o s e d i n ( E ' . c l o s e d i n E.7: plete). Fi i s minimal. Br-complete). i s c l o s e d i n Fi and * hence i t i s n o t Br-complete. Z . t h e n L i s c l o sed i n E.4...622. ) i n L such t h a t (z-x(n):n=1.2. i s t h e s t r o n g e s t l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o q y (0..) = n( L+(V( 0)x m% zFi) sr i s conti- :n=1. R e c a l l t h a t we a l s o have shown t h a t E has CP.. Clearly. ~ K ( A ) y ( K A ) o ) ) which i s a B-complete space as we showed above. i f we show t h a t e v e r y s e q u e n t i a l l y c l o s e d subspace o f E i s g i v e s t h a t E ' = ( K N ) ( N ) i s B-complete.5..n.5 Fi:=K(N) f o r i=l. i f L i s a s e q u e n t i a l l y c l o s e d subspace o f E. Br-complete). 7 ( i i ) by 7.vFi.

8 ( i i ) .t). have t h a t F ~ ( E ' x K ( ~ )i )s c l o s e d i n ( E ' x K ( ~ ) . . dense n e a r l y c l o s e d ) subspace o f (ExK I ) ' = E'xK'').?-Proof: F i r s t suppose E Br-conplete. l e t U be a O-n@b i n ExKJ. s ( E ' . K(J)=KJ and. t e s t h e p r o o f f o r t h e B-complete case.s(G . n e a r l y I continuous mapping w i t h c l o s e d graph i n H x ( E x K ) . w i t h G. (ii).G) and H i s B-comp l e t e .t)xF. s ( E ' . w i t h t h e n o t a t i o n o f 2. F A G i s c l o s e d i n (G. have t h a t we F / \ ( E ' x K ( ~ ) ) ~ ~ Ui "s weakly c l o s e d i n E ' x K ' I ) and hence i n E ' x t d J ) .H)) t h a t F n G i s dense i n (G . a f i n i t e p a r t J i n I such t h a t X & E ' X K ( ~ ) Now .4. s ( E ' x K ( ' ) . As f o r Br-completeness i f F i s dense i n ( E ' . t h e n ( E .8: ExK' L e t E be a B-complete ( r e s p .ch i s a c l o s e d hyuerolane o f (E. For e v e r y f i n i t e p a r t J o f I.t)--F $ b a r r e l l e d i f and only i_f e v e r y i n j e c t i v e l i n e a r mapping f : F b a g a y rr-space. l e t F be a n e a r l y c l o s e d ( r e s p . such a quot i e n t i s t h e p r o d u c t o f a q u o t i e n t o f E b y a p r o d u c t o f one-dirrensional spaces . Br-complete). s i n c e ExK = ( E ' x K ( ~ ) ) ~ U "we . i s B -complete ( resp. we p r o v i d e a According t o there exists i t i s enough t o observe t h a t . I_ i s continuousn : indeed.6. t ) . E ) ) s e t H:=u L and u a v e c t o r o f E ' which i s n o t i n G and (H.(ii). f(1) i s a l s o n e a r l y continuous and. s ( E ' x K ( ~ ) . i f X L E ' X K ( ' ) . I f I i s i n f i n i t e . i t i s enough t o w i t h c l o s e d qraph i_n (E. o u r c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s i f we show t h a t I e v e r y q u o t i e n t of ExK i s Br-conplete. Take I J X K " ~ which i s a 0-nghb i n E X K I . 7 . E x K ~ ) ) . Since F A G i s n e a r l y c l o s e d i n t h e d u a l u a i r (H. 6 . E ) ) : G = E ' n G = T A G = FI'IG where t h e l a s t e q u a l i t y f o l l o w s f r o m 4.2 ( w i t h G:=E'). f o r which we f o l l o w t h e method o f proof o f 2. // Theorem 7.-compl I 7 2 . A c c o r d i n g t o 2 . 4. a c c o r d i n g t o t h e v e r y d e f i n i t i o n o f rr-space.9: B a r r e l l e d spaces may be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as f o l l o w s : " & Space ( E . S i n c e J i s R-complete ( r e s p .2. Since ( U X K " ~ ) ' J i s f i n i t e . Br-complete) space. t ) (E. Now we show t h a t F i s c l o s e d i n ( E ' x K ( ' ) . hence a Br-complete space by o u r p r e v i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n .7. Ide have 6. $xgn. I f E i s a B-corrplete space.2. B .4.CHAPTER 7 207 c l o s e d hyperplane o f ( E ' . .and can be i d e n t i f i e d T h i s compleo n l y observe indeed. Then for i s B -conpl e t e ( resp. We c l a i m t h a t F / I ( E ' x K ( ~ ) ) i s n e a r l y c l o s e d : indeed.. Let show t h a t . // Observation 7. H b e i n g any space. E x K ~ ) ) . E'xK ( 1 ) can be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h ( ( E x K ~ ) x K " ~ ) ' = (E'XK(~))XK'''~). s i n c e E i s S -complete. ExK ete) . i t i s conr t i n u o u s .t)' wh.3. The c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s o b s e r v i n g t h a t . L e t f : H .s(G. . Br-complete) f i n i t e I. E ) ) . s ( E ' .7 I t o show t h a t f i s continuous.+ E x K he a l i n e a r . i f t h e c o n d i t i o n above i s s a t i s f i e d . H ) ) c _ and hence i n ( E ' . P r o o f : According t o . i s barrelled.

) A G i s a 0-nghb i n ( G .2. Since f i s n e a r l y ooen.) has c l o s e d graph ( s i n i s continuous) and i s i n j e c t i v e . Br-complete).3.t) n e a r l y open mapping o n t o ( F .1 and 4.c o n p l e t e ) space. t h e n f i s open ( f o r t h e Br-complete case.).t) i s B-complete and hence c l o s e d i n ( F . s ( F . F i r s t we s h a l l see t h a t f(UxV) induces a 0-nghb i n ( G .s p a c e . 7.' ( T ) A E a r e 0-nghbs i n E and K ( N ) . and hence T*= U ( T n : n = l .10). We i n t r o d u c e some n o t a t i o n : G stands f o r f ( E x ( 0 ) ) and H f o r an a l g e b r a i c complement o f G i n F. Then i t i s enough t o show if E x K ( ~ )i s B-complete ( r e s p . such t h a t UxVCW. T a b a r r e l i n F and %La b a s i s o f 0-nghbs i n ( F .2. Q i s continuous and hence Q . t ) . . 2 ( i ) show t h a t F ( T ) ~ n ( F ( u ) : U C u ) i s a l s o a r .3. t ) . i t w i l l f o l l o w t h a t f ( U x ( 0 ) ) i s a 0-nghb i n ( G . t ) A and u a b a s i s o f 0-nghbs i n (E. y ( n ) ) There e x i s t 0-nghbs II i n E and !\ i n K( N ) L e t W be a 0-nghb i n ExK"). 7. t ) . n=1. j e c t i v e l i n e a r mapping f:E+F w i t h c l o s e d graph i n ExF.. A I f QT:(E.3. T h i s w i l l be ac- . Set (y(n):n=1. 2 .t). the closures taken i n (F. open". t ) . ) i s an ( a b s o l u t e l y convex) a b s o r b i n g s e t i n F. H i n f i n i t e . t ) . T i s a O-n&b i n ( E . Theorem 7. TC2u(Tn:n=1. F ' ) ) .t) . . The f i n i t e . Observe t h a t ..d i m e n s i o n a l . A I f F i s a space. f . Thus F i s barrelled and o n l y i f e v e r y s u r . (U) t h e mapping Q:(E. T i s a 0-nohb i n ( F . r e s o e c t i v e l y ( c o n s i d e r i n g E and and f-l(T)AK(N) a 0-nghb - K(N) as subspaces o f E x K ( ~ )i n t h e obvious m n n e r ) .2. t ) Proceeding as we d i d i n 4. b e i n g any soace. . P r o o f : Suppose E B-complete. (G. .E')). . ce Q has c l o s e d graph and each Q .s(E. and 7 . take f i n j e c t i v e ) . L e t A be a 0-nghb i n E and s e t T* f o r t h e c l o s u r e i n ( G .2. Accori s con- . t h a t .2.208 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEXSPACES T be a b a r r e l i n ( E .10: L e t E be a B-complete ( r e s p ..2. Now we s h a l l see t h a t f(UxV) induces a 0-nghb i n ( H . s i n c e t h e r e s t r i c t i o n o f f t o E i s open and E i s B-complete. i f we check t h a t t h e r e s t r i c t i o n o f f t o F: i s n e a r l y open.6. A c c o r d i n g t o 7.1.. Since E i s B-conplete. t ) .s o a c e .2.' ( T ) i n E x K ( ~ ) . t ) . We suppose (F.. d i n g t o h y p o t h e s i s . .d i m e n for s i o n a l case f o l l o w s w i t h minor n o t a t i o n a l c h a n 9 s . t ) . continuous. .v E ( ~ ) and QU:(E. - is Clearly.t)-+ s t a n d f o r t h e canonical mappings ( s e e t h e p r o o f E(T)~v(E(U):U611. B r . i f f:ExK(N)-+ ( F . Since T = QT-'(QT(T)). .8 t i n u o u s . C l e a r l y . t ) .) f o r each n. 2 .t)-+E o f 4.. 7. E b e i n g any r . o f f(Px(0)). c o n s t r u c t an i n c r e a s i n g sequence of b a r r e l s Tn i n Gn such t h a t TnAG =T* f o r e v e r y n and such t h a t T : = u ( T n : .8 I' and 7 . a b a s i s o f H and s e t G n : = s p ( G U ( y ( l ) . 2 ( i ) . a n d t h e r e f o r e f . i s a l i n e a r .

g-'(MnG) i s a 0-nghb i n E s i n c e f is continuous.2. . u( . t ) @ H . ) of subspaces. ) . . t ) = ( G . . . x ( 2 ) + 2 y -( 2 ) .. 2 . Take a 0-nghb R:=MAG + ( F . . ) be a dense sequence i n E. m T* = M n G ( M i s closed i n ( F . ( E " . . Proof: Let ( x ( n ) : n = 1 . . 7. . i s dense i n E : indeed. a B-complete space. E n ' ) ) : n = 1 . .. By passing t o a suit a b l e subsequence i f necessary we may suppose ( x ( l ) . which is a closed s e t on ( F .2. t ) . If g stands f o r t h e r e s t r i c t i o n of f t o E . . Thus G : = s ~ ( x ( l ) + y ( l ) . ) a sequence of d i s c s K i : = ( b y ( i ) : l b l S r i ) f o r p o s i t i v e r e a l s r i . I f t h e r e c a l i z e d i n any E n . M being a closed s b s o l u t e l y convex 0-nghb i n ( F . Then f(UxV) will be a 0-nghb i n ( F . Since B i s bounded. we can f i n d a po- . 2 .11: The l o c a l l y convex d i r e c t sum of a sequence of r e f l e xive Banach spaces i s B-complete..x(n)+n-'y(n) . t ) and ( K i : i = l Y 2 . t ) and u(Tn:n=1. m ( E " . ) = R i s a 0-nghb i n ( F . ) . . ) and. ) ) ) = ~ ( ( E n " .. . 2 . . 2 . t h e r e e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r no such t h a t n-'y(n)€2.. The proof is conplete. 2 . then t h e r e e x i s t s F A E . the sequence ( n 1 y ( n ) : n = 1 . 1 ) . x ( n ) ) contained i n E .2. . t ) s i n c e G i s closed i n ( F . such t h a t n. . . S e t t i n g A:=g-l(HnG) and repeating t h e construccion above. ) of Banach spaces.1: Let .3 Non B -conplete spaces. t ) c a r r i e s t h e s t r o n g e s t l o c a l l y convex topology. i s finite-dimensional f o r each _ L_ e_ m. . t ) showing t h a t f i s open from where our desired conclusion follows.. s e t E : = @ ( E n : n = l . -ln Take y ( n ) E B n ( E n + l \ E n ) f o r every n. . i f x i s a vector of E and U an absolutely convex 0-nghb i n E .) i n l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o w on H .1 U f o r n > n o o . . .. T h u s Proposition 7.. . Since ( x ( n ) : n ) / n 0 ) i s dense i n E . 2 . . .ZY. 3 .3. E be a separable ( E n : n = 1 . m ( E n " . TKi /I Given a sequence ( E n : n = 1 . T ( E n ' : n = 1 .. u ) . Clearly. 2 . space covered by an increasing sequence e x i s t s a bounded set B which i s not l o a proper dense subsDace F of F.7. according t o 7.CHAPTER 7 209 complished by showing t h a t ( H .4.2.) = U ( T n : n = 1 . T n = MAG + ( s e e the proof of 4 . ) i s a n u l l sequence i n E . ) i s t h e Mackey-dual of t h e Fr6chet s p a c e m ( En':n=1. 2 . . t ) and t h a t t y i e l d s on H the s t r o n g e s t l o c a l l y convex topology: Let u be t h e d i r e c t sum topology on F defined by t on G p n d t h e s t r o n g e s t TKi:n=l.. 2 . t ) ) . W e s h a l l even show t h a t ( F .. . i = 1 .

m(E'.2.. 2 .. t ) .E')) and hence F n A = F A A . bounded i n ( E .20 t o t h e canonical i n j e c t i o n EB-(E.210 BARREL LED LOCALLY CON VEX SPACES s i t i v e i n t e g e r nl>no such t h a t ::-x(nl)L2-111. t ) t h e n EB i s a Banach space..) which i s an Aln (LF)-space.tn).d i w n s i o n a l . a c c o r d i n g t o assumptions. (a.t ) . P // be a H a u s d o r f f (LF)-space.5). Then - (E'.u> o f E such t h a t F A E n C G A E n = En i s f i n i t e .) i s l o c a l l y c o n p l e t e i f and o n l y i f e v e r y bounded s e t B o f ( E . Thus x-( x ( nl)+n1-ly( n.9(ii) shows t h a t ce (E/G.t) 7. B i s a Banach d i s c (3.3. Then F:=O-'(L) sed s e t of E..?) .)UA : = n .2..tn):n=l.1). ( E ' .E)) b e i n g t h e c a n o n i c a l s u r .n=ly2.t) l o c a l i z e d i n some ( E Proof: ( i ) If (E.2.s):=ind((Q (En). t h e r e e x i s t s a p r o p e r dense subspace L of E/G i s a pro- P r o o f : A c c o r d i n g t o 7.2.m( E ' . If G=E.1. Thus. F:=G has t h e d e s i r e d p r o p e r t i e s i f G f E . if A i s an a b s o l u t e l y convex compact s e t i n t h e r e e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r p such t h a t A C E p e r dense subspace o f E i n t e r s e c t i n g e v e r y c l o s e d subset o f each En i n a c l o (E. The canonical i n j e c t i o n (E/G.t)-+(E/G. En/(EnnG) be t h e c a n o n i c a l s u r j e c t i o n .2..t) t o o b t a i n a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r p such t h a t EB embeds c o n t i n u o u s l y i n t o ( E . 2 . F:=uL i s a m o p e r dense subspace Theorem 7. is Cem ( i ) (E. 2 .3: L e t (E..t) i s l o c a l l y complete and i f B i s a c l o s e d d i s c i n ( E .3.d i m e n s i o n a l f o r each n.E)) i s n o t Br-complete (7. Since B i s c l o s e d i n ( E. Conversely.-complete.1. 6.t).s(E..t ) . t h e n (E/G. ) of subspaces and suppose ( a ) t h a t e v e r y a b s o l u t e l y convex compact subset o f (E.2... t ) and i s bounded t h e r e .) and E/G = u(Qn(En):n=1.s(E. S i n i s u l t r a b o r n o l o g i c a l ( 6 .t ) . t ) i s an (LF)-space. j e c t i o n . Then i s n o t 5.3. Set (E/G. 1 and 6 . 0n f o r i t s r e s t r i c . A o f l i n e a r l y independent v e c t o r s such t h a t (y(n):n=1. and B i s disc i n (E.2: L e t E be a space covered b y an i n c r e a s i n g sequence (En:n= i s c o n t a i n e d i n some En and ( b ) t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s a Q:E--rE/G 1 .2. ? ( i i ) ) . I . i f B i s a c l o s e d P P P P P t h e r e e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r m such t h a t B C E . lect a family i s a b a s i s f o r E and d e f i n e a l i n e a r f o r m u on E by (y(n).u> // 0 f o r a € A .E')) c l o s e d subspace G o f E such t h a t E/G i s separable and c o n t a i n s a bounded s e t B n o t l o c a l i z e d i n any Q ( E n ) . Apply 1. Thus B C E and i s bounded i n ( E . and s e t ..)) E 2-1u+2-1u = u. Clearly. P' P rJ ( i i ) I f G i s a c l o s e d subspace o f ( E . ( t i ) L e t Q:E+E/G t i o n t o En. an( En) = f o r each n. se:= Since d i n ( E n A G ) & n . n=1.t)=ind((En. Since u i s n o t c o n t i n u o u s on E. such t h a t L n Q ( E n ) i s f i n i t e .s) has c l o s e d graph.tm) m m and t h i s l a s t space i s complete.

3.. Accor- d i n g t o 7. t h e n ( x :k=1.. . Set Ek:=(x:=(x(n):n=1. f r o m where o u r c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s . hence n o t l o c a l l y complete.) E E and v: =( v ( n ) :n=l..s(E.3. Poreover.5: If a sequence ( x :k=1. t ) . B C E p .Z..n):=l o t h e r w i s e .CHAPTER 7 21 1 /d 1..s) i s continuous..6: A n o n ..): sequence i n ( E . Clearly.2 t o f i n i s h t h e p r o o f . + 2-lt1(2xk(n)/t1)(1-b(n)) = 2-'tku(n)+2-lt1v(n). tains o ( a c x ( k 4 4-4 - dtiUi) ) .2. . .) . k k k L e m 7.t Uk + 2. t h e r e e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e k 1 1 i n t e g e r k* such t h a t .21 a p D l i e d t o t h e canonical i n j e c t i o n yv k-(E. k k 1 where u ( n ) : = ( 2 x k ( n ) / t ) b ( n ) and v(n):=(2x ( n ) / t ) ( l . I f Ui stands f o r t l l e c l o s e d u n i t b a l l 1 . i f k)/k*.E k and a k have t h e same meaning as above.): k k endowed with i t s (n):n=1. .3.. each E n a t u r a l weighted co-norm. Thus x € 2 ..i=l.).4: i s n o t Br-complete.t) shows t h e e x i s t e n c e o f sow p such t h a t shows t h a t (E/G. I f B i s a compact d i s c o f (E. On t h e o t h e r hand.l o c a l l y complete (LB)-space.. t ) . t h e r e e x i s t p o s i t i v e s c a l a r s ( ti:i=l.2..2.) be a s e p a r a b l e (LF)h) space h a v i n g a non-complete m e t r i z a b l e q u o t i e n t ( E / G .2 .2..3.t a ( n ) and b(n):=O o t h e r w i s e . t ) ..E)) Proof: We s h a l l see t h a t c o n d i t i o n s ( a ) and ( b ) i n 7.) = 0 ) and ( E . // P r o p o s i t i o n 7.n):=n i f m < k .( E/G.) and l i m ( sup(x ( n ) / a (n):n=l.20( i) can be a p p l i e d t o o b t a i n t h a t ( E / G .) E R ( N ) C E l ..2..2.t U1 C a c x ( t UIUt (Ik) l u ( n ) l / a k( n ) = 21x k ( n ) l / ( t k a k ( n ) ) G Example 7. N // k k L e t a :=(a (n):n=1.) such t h a t U coni n E . 3 . ( E . C l e a r l y . i s netrizab'le and non complete. P r o o f : L e t U be a 0-nghb i n ( E a t ) .. F i x k>k* k l k k k k and s e t b ( n ) : = l if I x ( n ) ! 6 2. N o w a p p l y 7.b ( n ) ) .n) and d e f i n e a (rn....Lt /2.l/ hence u GUk and vEU1..3(i).m(E'.2. Thus ( a ) i s s a t i s f i e d .2.3. t ) .Z.3.. ( b ) i s s a t i s f i e d . xk(n)=2-ltk(2xk(n)/tk)b(n) 1 L 1 I v ( n ) l / a l ( n ) = 2 Ixk(n)l/(tlal(n)) k l k 11 1 k C\'. A c c o r d i n g t o assunptions. L e t (E. satisfying k lim(x(n)/a f o r each n and k . 3 ( i i ) (E/G. k u: =(u( n) :n=l...2..E')).2 a r e s a t i s f i e d . B i s aBanach d i s c a n d 1.Z.) o f vectors o f E s a t i s f i e s x CE k 1 k i s a null k-t+m)=O. a (rn. It i s c o n v e n i e n t t o r e p l a c e t h e i n d e x n b y a double k k i n d e x (m. 7 .2. The p r o o f i s c o n p l e t e .Z. Then ( E ' . Since x € E . A c c o r d i n g t o assumptions.t) nJ t ) i s an (LFf-space ( w h i c h i s c l e a r l y s e p a r a b l e ) ..) O4ak(n)<ak+l(n) be a v e c t o r o f R f o r each k=1. s u p ( x ( n ) / a (n):n=1.2. t h e r e e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r n* such t h a t b ( n ) = l f o r n h*..t)=ind((En.tn):n=l. t ) : = i n d ( E :k=l.

.2. k kt14 k E f o r each k.3.n=l.4.z) and s e t ji:Fi -lT(Fn:n=l.) and c o n s i d e r i t s subspace L:= .3.2. We s h a l l see t h a t Q i s open: indeed. I f i s a p r o p e r dense subspan rn denotes a t o p o l o g y on Fn f i n e r t h a n t h e t o p o l o - gy induced b y tn.) i i n f o r t h e c a n o n i c a l i n j e c t i o n s . : =1.z) ( i i ) (G/H. .$) i s n o t l o c a l l y conplete.3...2..:E \I be a 0-nghb i n :n=l.n)/a ( k . P r o o f : I t i s enough t o obse'rve t h a t co i s c l o s e d i n loo and a p p l y 7... 2 .. ) and 1 n s e t J o f p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r s . G-nghbs Vi ki:E.2. .) x @ ( ( E n y t n ) : n = l .) i s a n u l l sequence i n ( E .Clearly.) .10: ce o f a space and H:=( F o r e v e r y n suppose t h a t F (En' t n ) . ..3.3.6 P r o o f : The c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s from 7..Q i s continuous ( i t Proof: Set ( E .3.8: 3. Then : x ( n ~Fn.. i e J .) ) . t ) : = n ( ( E n . n ) = ( k + l ) . .t) k i s n o t l o c a l l y complete.' ..3.) ..n):m.&Ek f o r each k and t h a t x k+ 1 k k 1 1 x (k.2. The s e t Id :=( ( 1/2)acx( u( ki ( n ( Ei :i #J ) )n L ) x acx( . s e t ( G .t ) d e f i n e d b y Q( ( x( n ) :n= 1. 7 (x(n):n=1.5 t o o b t a i n t h a t ( x :k=1.. r n ) : n = 1 .2 . ) ) := ( x( n ) -y( n ) :n=l.) i n E i s d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s : x 1 (m..n)/a (rn. j e c t i o n s on E ) and i t s k e r n e l i s H..)<k.. z ) : = n ( ( F n .. and 7. 2 .-) ??and . such t h a t V 3 ( z ( j i ( V i ) : i G J ) .)..2. . // Since each E i n 7. henk According ce a bounded s e t i n ( E .. ) . .%22..3 and r e c a l l K1.3.... .n):=O f o r e v e r y k k m and n .. .-+T(E :n=1. ( i ) H i s c l o s e d i n (G.2..) and t h e l i n e a r s u r j e c t i v e mapping O:(G.n):=O o t h e r w i s e . + @(En:n=1. t n ) : n = 1 . ) .. and 0-nghbs Ui i n +7(Fi:i4J) Ui ) :i E J ) + (Eiyti) u( hi ( Ui ) i .2...( y( n ) :n=l. t o 7. ( b @co has a non-complete q u o t i e n t ( and t h e r e f o r e i s 4 C o r o l l a r y 7.2.(x(n):n=ly2. There e x i s t a f i n i t e -@(E i n (Fiyri) .2. s u f f i c e s t o c o n s i d e r i t s c o n p o s i t i o n w i t h t h e c a n o n i c a l p r o .'let (G. .2.. t ) .3.212 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEXSPACES A sequence ( x k :k=1.Z.6 00 i s isomorphic t o t h e Banach space c o y one has P r o p o s i t i o n 7.2. (E. x (m. .n):=k-' i f m=k-1 and x (m.) w i t h x(n)6Fn and y ( n ) E E n f o r each n=1.2. ) ) .9: The !lackey dual of q c o i s n o t Br-complete.. Since s u p ( x (m.z) -+( L .2 // P r o p o s i t i o n 7.Z..1 el a r e n o t B-corrplete. k we a p p l y 7.( 1) ( '// m C o r o l l a r y 7. ..i=ly2.7: n o t B-complete).3(i).n=1. s i n c e We observe t h a t x .. h. t ) which i s n o t l o c a l i z e d i n any s t e p E . T(Fn:n=1.

w ) where v : = ( v ( n ) : n = l . Corollary 7.).. t ) i s an ( L F ) space ( 7 . I : = ( n l . .12: T h e space ( K ( N ) ) N d K N ) ( N has ) a non-locally conplete quotient. l e t u : = ( u ( n ) : n = l . 2 .) a r e defined as v ( n ) : = O i f n ( J .) converges l o c a l l y t o h . ) = m(En:n=l. . ( E n . such t h a t u ( n ) c F n i f n d I U J . t n ) : n = l .2. t ) and hence a Banach d i s c . . // Observation 7..10. (G/H. .. ) i n ( E t ) f o r every j = l .u ( n ) i f n E J . t n ) : = K and ( F n . i .z) i s not l o c a l l y conplete. To prove ( i i ) .11: S e t t i n g H .) f o r each m and h:=(z :m=l. . ( h m : w l . w(n):=-y(n) i f n C I .. then ( L . ) be a vector o f W . 2 . I f A .<) has t h e f i n a l topology r e s p e c t t o t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s of Q t o each H k .. k + 2 . t ) i s a Hausdorff space.J projection of A .Z. . . .13: ( a ) s i n c e ( K ( N ) ) N ~ (KN)(N)has a non (1ocally)complete q u o t i e n t .z). . . ( b ) we s h a l l even s e e t h a t ( K ( N ) ) N ~ ( K N ) i (s N) not Br-conplete.k) + l T ( F n : n = l . . t ) i s a quotient o f ( G . i t f a i l s CP.. e . .. .O. Since ( L . v(n)=x(n) i f n E I . 3 ( i i ) ) which is not complete (7.3.. There e x i s t s a f i n i t e s e t I C N \ J .) which i s a compact s e t i n ( E .3... ) which i s i s o m r p h i c t o K .12) nor has CP.3..t n ) : = K and ( F n .t)=(G/H. .. and s e t hm:=(z1. )con& verges t o h i n EB.. . z ) .Z.t)=(G/H. v ( n ) : = u ( n ) i f n 4 I L I J w ( n ) : = . r n ) : = l f o r each n = l r 2 . . k ) f o r each k . ) . r n ) : = K ( N )f o r each n . ) ) < n ( 4 by construction.. z ) and ( i ) i s c l e a r . r n ) : n = 1 . C l e a r l y . t n ) : n = l . T h u s uEQ(V) and Q i s open. z ) = i n d ( H k : k = 1 . N 2 I f ( E n . . Then u = Q ( v . w(n!:=O i f nc#IUJ Moreover.3.3. Then ( L . .CHAPTER 7 213 is a 0-nghb i n ( L .6) whose product i s n e i t h e r B-conplete (7. 2 . v C z ( j i ( V i ) :i C J ) + Fi :i J ) and w g a c x ( u ( h i ( U i ) : i = 1 . Since Fn i s dense in ( E n Y t n ) . Moreover... we have t h a t ( G . T h u s t h i s space i s an example o f a product of two B-conplete spaces having CP ( s e e 7. ) and w:=(w(n):n=l. i n 7. n k ) .O. k ) x ~ ( F n : n = k + l ..2..Z.) J r. . Clearly h CE\L and we s h a l l m show t h a t A : = ( h m :m=1.... t ) and s a t i s f i e s Q ( V ) I W : indeed. converges l o c a l l y t o h . 2 . H i s closed i n ( G . Z . a n d B : = TT J J j y5 (jB. S e t E f o r t h i s . I t i s c l e a r t h a t ( hm :m=1.3. // Observation 7.. Z .. . Q maps H k onto @(En:n=l. namely (L. .f o r every n C I . N Proof: S e t . s e t B . : = T ( ( F n . z... 3 ..2.10) and metrizable s i n c e i t i s N a topological subspace o f n ( ( E n .2. . Z . . : = Z ( A .) and (L. 2 . . stands f o r t h e S . s e l e c t vectors z n E E n \ F n Y n = 1 . .. . . . .:j=l. u ( n ) can be w r i t t e n a s u( n ) = x ( n)+y( n ) w i t h x( n ) F n y y( n ) E ( 1 / 2 k ) U n . 2 .t h . ) x @ ( ( E n . Z .

J T has a non-complete q u o t i e n t : indeed. suppose t h a t each (En. P r o o f : I t s u f f i c e s t o check c o n d i t i o n s ( a ) and ( b ) i n 7 . R ~ ) : n = 1 . Set X:=(KN)(N) and l e t U be a b a s i s of 0-nghbs i n X . an immediate consequence f r o m 7. a c c o r d i n g t o 4.c l o s e d subspace F.3. Q:G--r c i n t a i n s a bounded s e t n o t l o c a l i z e d i n any Q(Hn):= 9 K ( K N ) ( N ) + ( K ( N ) ) N b e i n g t h e c a n o n i c a l s u r j e c t i o n . We s h a l l c o n s t r u c t on E a s t r i c t l y c o a r s e r b a r r e l l e d t o p o l o g y s and t h e n 7. Then T i s n e i t h e r B . The space X U€u has c o u n t a b l e dimension f o r each (U) and hence t h e q u o t i e n t t o p o l o g y i s t h e s t r o n g e s t l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o gy and hence X i s isomorphic t o K(N). m ( R ~ ~ .z) @(Hk:k=1.3. s i n c e i f t h i s i s t h e case. Then t h e Mackey dual o f (G.14: I n t h e n o t a t i o n o f 7.3. 2 . S i n c e B-conpleteness i s s t a b l e by c l o s e d subspaces.10 i s t h a t T l p x q l q . $KN. Since X can be embedded i n S.) and (Sn:n=1. e v e r y c l o s e d d i s c o f G i s o b v i o u s l y c o n t a i n e d i n some Hk.S. P r o p o s i t i o n 7. w i t h l ( p < 04 +a0 . i n j e c t i v e (U) l i n e a r mapping ?:X-+X(X(U):UE’U. i s n o t B-complete ( s e e KN.10.1.15: ..c o m p l e t e z o r has i t CF..z)= /J i s separable.3. a r e s t a b l e by c l o s e d subspaces.2. Again ( s e e ( b ) ) . T can be i n t e r p r e t e d as @ ( K :J J R c o u n t a b l e p a r t o f R ) which has i n d ( K :J c o u n t a b l e p a r t o f R) = ( K ). There e x i s t s a continuous.c l o s e d ) p r o p e r dense subspace F o f G .tn) Since (G. ( c ) Now we s h a l l see t h a t S:=(K(N))R and T:=(KN)(R) a r e n o t B-complete.).5.4. we a p p l y 7. 00 s i n c e Q(@En) = ? E n - condition ( a ) i s t r i v i a l l y s a t i s f i e d .).3.z) 00 follows i s dense i n Q ( 6 ) which i s a subsoace o f TEn. as a non complete q u o t i e n t .s)-E Br-conplete. t h e n S i s n e i t h e r Br-complete n o r has CP. shows t h a t E i s n o t I f Hn:=(K(N))Nx F o r t h i s purpose i t i s enouqh t o c o n s t r u c t i n G : = ( K N ) ( N ) ~ (K ( N ) ) N a p r o p e r dense q u a s i . 3 .) which i s open o n t o i t s ran-. i s n o t Br-conplete..3.2.(6)).// L e t ( R :n=1. i n o r d e r t o show t h a t S i s n o t B-complete i t i s enough t o show t h a t E ( s e e ( b ) ) i s a c l o s e d subspace of S: indeed. mensional Fr6chet spaces. On t h e o t h e r hand. c l e a r l y ( K ( N ) ) N can be embedded i n S. 2 .11 t o o b t a i n a ( s e p a r a b l e ) q u o t i e n t o f G which “‘N + (K(N))N.3.2 shows t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a n e a r l y c l o s e d ( a u a s i .3.d i n Q ( ( ~ ~ ~ . E w i l l be a subspace of S which i s c l o s e d s i n c e i t i s complete. Since Br-completeness and CP card(llC)&c (2. i t c o n t a i n s a dense subspace i n t e r s e c t i n g e v e r y c l o s e d bounded s e t i n a c l o s e d s e t .12 a p p l i e d t o t h e c a n o n i c a l i n j e c t i o n (E..10 and 7. ( i ) P r o p o s i t i o n 7. I t s u f f i c e s t o show t h a t (KN)(N) can a l s o be embedded i n S. ( d ) a d i r e c t consequence o f 7. The method o f p r o o f of 7.) be i n f i n i t e . Condition ( b ) i s The s e p a r a b i l i t y o f (G/H.214 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEX SPACES space..x r ( S n : n = l . Then.10.Probletr 20D).2...

2..Wn)) is still separable. . . Setting (Fn.2. . .s(Wn'. . hence (Tn'.Z7. each Sn has a separable infinite-di nensional closed subspace Tn with a continuous norm.2.s(Tn.s( Rn.22 t o find continuous linear injections Jn:(Gn' ..s(Tn'.14 . S )):n=l. The conclusion follows as in (i).m(Gn' . (i) @( Rn:n=1. If Wn:=G(Cn).2.Tn) f m(Tn' .Zn)) is separable and s(Zn.) is not Br-conplete if each Sn has an infinite-dimensional sen parable quotient.)x v(Hn:n==1.) is not Br-complete.Tn)) has a total..Rn):n==1.) x ~ ( ( S n ' .m(Rn'. On the other hand.m(Rn'. separable.tn) :=( Hn' . (iii) @(Rn:n=1. // Proposition 7.2.22 to find with dense continuous linear injections Jn:(Rn' .) be spaces containing Lemma 7. S n ) ) : n = 1 .3. we may suppose Rn=Zn and Sn=Tn for each n.if Rn#K and Sn has an infinite-dimensional closed subspace with a continuous norm for each n. @(Gn:n=l.s(Zn'. m ( S n ' .3.. the conclusion follows.Rn)) ry n in 7.2.m(Hn' .)x7l-((Sn'. absolutely convex compact set. The proof is complete.3. m ( H n ' .Rn')) generating an infinite-dimnsional space..Since s(Tn' .2..) is not Brcomplete if Sn#KN for every n.2.) is not Br-complete if Rn has an infinite-dimensional separable quotient different from KN and SnfKN for every n.CHAPTER 7 215 N ...) is not Br-corrplete. there exists in each Rn an absolutely convex compact set B n in (R.. Proof: (i) Since RnfKN for each n..Tn)) contains a total .Tn')) an infinite-dimensional compact set Cn for every n. we may suppose Gn=Tn and Hn=Zn for each n.Tn) there exists in (Tn. m ( S n ' .Tn) for each n (ii) (Zn'.Rn))xTT(Sn:n=l..2.2.if Rn#KN and Sn has an in- finite-dimensional separable quotient for each n.m( Gn' .)xT( Sn:n=1.m(Sn'. Apply 3.Tn) f m(Tn'. Now aDply 3. (ii) @((Rn'. Set Zn:=sp(Bn) for each n. ) is not Br-complete.3 we may supnose Gn'Wn and (Wn'.( S n ' . .6.rn):=(Rn'. Setting ( Fn.m(Rn'. s(Tn' ..s(Tn' .Gn)) and ( En . ' .) be infinite-dimensional Frechet spaces.) and ( Sn:n=1.2. Then..Zn') # m(Zn7Zn') for each n Then.rn) :=( G .) and ( Hn:n=1.2.3.Tn)) is separable and s(Tn'. 2.2.Hn)) in 7..Let (Gn:n=1. .using again 7. S n ) ) and (En. .2.17: closed subspaces Tn and Zn respectively such that (i) (Tn'. absolutely convex compact set. (ii) If every Sn has an infinite-dinensional separable quotient.. Proof: According to 7..3.3. R n ) ) .Z.2. .~Sn'. separable... According to 7.Gn))a(Hn' . 2 .2. m ( R n ' .Sn)) for everange.14( ii) shows the existence of a closed infinite-dimensional subspace Tn in Sn such that (Tn' ..16: Let (Rn:n=1. ( i i ) @((Rn'.tn):=(Sn'.14.Hn)) with dense range..

17 i n o u r P r o o f o f 7. t h e a s s u m t i o n S. . .t h e n @(Rn:n=l..2. K open. Then.#KN.. 1 4 ( i i i ) a c l o s e d subspace Tn w i t h t h e d e s i r e d c o n d i t i o n s . a p p l y 2.2.2.d i m e n s i o n a l shows t h e e x i s t e n c e i n Gn of (i) Gn:=Rn N separable q u o t i e n t d i f f e r e n t f r o m K ..2.. and 7 . 1 6 j i i ) Thus. we s h a l l see t h a t . 3 .3.2.n o r m b l e F r 6 c h e t space. Zn i s s e l e c t e d as i n ( i ) .10.m(Sn'.d i m e n s i o n a l c l o n n sed separable subspace.12 s i . . complete which i s n o t Br-comDlete.) Thus (E*F)x@(E A :n=1. N ( c ) If Rn=K N f o r each n and (Sn:n=1.16 --------------t h r e e cases. 6 .6.:=K N f o r each n..2.) i s Bc o n p l e t e .3..16.14(i) ( i i i ) Gn:=Rn and Hn:=(Snl.8. t h e r e e x i s t s a c l o s e d subspace Zn o f Hn w i t h t h e r e q u i r e d p r o p e r t i e s *// -_ Observation 7.2.YOOD. T a k i n g S. According t o 2 . The subspace Tn i s s e l e c a p p l i e d t o Sn. ) i s B .Sn)) t e d as i n (i).+ T ( Fn:n=1.) i s any sequence o f Fr6chet spaTi-( Sn :n = l .-).3. Take Tn as any i n f i n i t e ..16(i). .2.3. 0 0 0 i s not BT a k i n g E=F=En=s.2..) is n i s a sequence of i n - .2.2.14 shows t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a q u o t i e n t E/G which i s n o t m i n i m l . ) has a q u o t i e n t isomorphic t o T T ( F n : n = l . ( a ) If.3. @(En:n=l..2.)xT (Fn:n=1.. canonical s u r j e c t i o n .c o n p l e t e .. .3.12(a) t o o b t a i n an i n f i n i t e . Since Rn has an i n f i n i t e .15( i) can n o t be avoided.2 .m( Rnl . t h e n ( s 6 s ) x p = s x @ s = @s = s ( ~ ) (conpare w i t h 7. .. t h e assumption Rn#K N f o r each n i n 7.. @(Rn:n=1.r e f l e x i v e Banach spaces ( s e e CIVIN. 2 .Rn)) and Hn:=Sn.5. ( E q F ) x @( En:n=1. 2.m( Rn ' . t h e mapping Q : = T Q n : E N .6.d i m e n s i o n a l c l o s e d separable subspace Zn d i f f e r e n t f r o m K" f o r each n. ) i s s u r j e c t i v e . .2. i f (Rn:n=1. i s n o t B -complete by 7.2.18: I f E i s a non-minimal F r 6 c h e t space.2. then &( Rn ' .. J b e i n g t h e i d e n t i t y on E. ) x a c c o r d i n g t o 7.#K f o r each n can n o t be e l i m i n a t e d i n 7..A N =EN i s s u r j e c t i v e .3(2.2. . Then J @ A : E ? F a A A E @ K .)xKN = @(Pn:n=l.Rn ) ) :n= 1.) ( b ) I n 7. Since each H.. .11).. continuous and . we s e t Fn:=E/G and Qn:E--+Fn stands f o r t h e c a n o n i c a l surjection 2.6. con- t i n u o u s and open. . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e e x i s t s a q u o t i e n t F/H i s o m r p h i c t o KN L e t A:F-+K N be t h e . f o r e v e r y n.16( i ) . and H :=S f o r each n.( l ) ) . o u r comnent p r e - v i o u s t o 2.. Qo(J&A):E&F+lT(F s u r j e c t i v e .) finite-dimensional Fr6chet spaces. . a c c o r d i n g t o 7.6. .. Then.. ) = K( i s B .216 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES t h e conclusion f o l ows*// We s h a l l check c o n d i t i o n s (i) and (ii) o f 7.. (ii) Gn:=( Rn' .) i s a sequence o f qua- P :n=1.2. Now l e t F be a n o n .c o n p l e t e by 7. Thus. ) x TT( Sn :n= 1. ) ces. i f (En:n=1. continuous and open. f o r each n..2.

.3.15-3. R n ) ) : n = 1 . ) x T T ( S n : n = l .3. 2 .15. Then E : = n ( E i : i C I ) i s not Br-conplete.16 7. 1 6 . According t o 9 . .m(SnI. card(A) > c .2.Rn)):n=1.m(Rni . 15-3. c a r d ( I ) > c .+q -1.2.) is not Br-conplete ( i i ) @((Rn1.rlP i s Br-complete ( i t i s a l s o Br-complete (7.22: Countable products of Br-conplete spaces may well be B -complete. ( i v ) @((Rn'. ..2. = K(N.. avoided i n 7 . l P x 6 l q i s not Br-conglete. E contains ( K ( N ) ) d as a ( c l o s e d ) subspace.R 1 . the a s s u m t i o n Rn#K" f o r each n cannot be I a( ( R~ ( d ) I f Rn=K N f o r each n and Sn is a r e f l e x i v e Banach space f o r each n . .Z.m(Rn1. m ( S n ' ..Sn) : n = 3 .sn)) :ti=i. ) be a family of separable i n f i n i t e .7. Proposition 7.2. . .3.. . ) i s not B r - f 1 -1Observation 7. . ( i ) @(Rn:n=1. however Theorem 7.. 2 .Corollary). Then.d R~ .2.19: __ Let (!$. 2 . Due t o 7 .. 1 9 ( i i ) shows t h a t i f l < p ( q ( + h and p. . ) i s not Br-conplete i f each Sn i s WCG . ~ T T((sn 1 . S n ) ) : n = l . be a family of spaces not endowed w i t h the weak topology.) be infinite-dimensional Banach spaces.3. On t h e o t h e r hand. b(Sn'. 2 ..4) and hence t h e topological product of a Br-complete space by i t s Mackey dual (which i s a l s o Br-conplete) need not be Br-conplete. w i t h c a r d ( I a ) > c f o r a l l a i n A . t h i s l a s t space i s not Br-conplete. 1 3 ( c ) .20: 7 .2.. .Corollary and W .3. . .. ) x T ( ( S n conplete i f each Sn i s WCG. .10. 2 .3. 2 .2.) and ( S n :n=1.3. . Since every Sn has a separable quotient (W .CHAPTER 7 217 ~ :) n= I . x JT ( sn I . T T ( E b : b E I a ) contains K ( N ) f o r every a i n A..23: Let ( F n : n = 1 . I f d:=card(A).d i m n s i o n a l Fr6- . O u r n e x t r e s u l t is an itmediate consequence of 7. hence E i s not B -conplete.:n=l. 3 .)xTT((Snl. 2 .. 3 . .2 . 1 . ) x T T ( S n : n = l . 0. Proof: Write I a s the d i s j o i n t u n i o n of a family ( I a : a C A ) .7. r .) is not B r -conplete ( i i i ) @(Rn:n=l. . is a Frichet space) and 9 1' r // Observation 7.'T. 1 5 ( i i ) .21: Let ( E i : i C I ) .m( sn 1 .2 .) is B-ccnplete by 7. Corollary 7.d i mensional Fr6chet spaces and l e t F be a separable i n f i n i t e .Sn)):n=l.

H')).II( Fn' .2. k)xTT((Fn'. s ( S .Fn)) -+( En..) C G and c o n d i t i o n ( a ) h o l d s . has a separable.11.2.) A* on ( F ' .) i s bounded i n (S/H.2. hence t h e c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s f r o m 7.?) Q(Hn-l) Q:(G.2.10. ) i s n o t c h e t space h a v i n g n(Tn:n=1.s(S/H. F ~ ) ) : ~ = ~ . I n o r d e r t o check c o n d i t i o n ( b ) .2.s(S/H. . (G/H. S ' ) ) . ) f o r each n. F ) ) i s an i n c r e a s i n g sequence o f subspaces c o v e r i n g S. ) and Hk:= @((En. a b s o l u t e l y convex conpact s e t . (En.2 i f we show t h a t S can be covered by an i n c r e a s i n g sequence (Gn:n=1.2.d)) i t follows t h a t H i s closed i n ( S .Fn)):n=1. 2 .s(S.S'))+(S/H. ...3.Fn))- n .. C l e a r l y . . A c c o r d i n g t o 3. S ' ) ) . s ( S . . ) and i s the canonical s u r j e c t i o n . E n ' ) ) : n = l . z ) = ( G . )3 F ' i t s transposed mapping which i s c l e a r l y i n j e c t i v e ( X i s o n t o ) . 1. . j e c t i o n s J n : ( Fn' . be t h e c a n o n i c a l s u r j e c t i o n and X ' : G3(Tn' :n=1.... . n + 2 3 . .n ) x T i .s( En..En')) i s i s o m r p h i c t o ( T n ' . s ( E . )and S':=Fx @(FQ:n=1.) .s(Fn'.( F . . s ( F ' . . P To show c o n d i t i o n ( b ) . Moreover. z ) : = ( E .. S ' ) ) i s c l e a r l y separable.s( En.. Tn b e i n g i n f i n i t e .. .218 BARRELLED LOCALLY CON VEX SPACES ...2.. E ' ) ) x ~ ( ( F ~ ' .En')) w i t h p r o p e r dense r a n q ..s( S .. . P r o o f : Set S : = F ' ~ ~ ( F ~ l : n = l ..3. t h e r e e x i s t continuous i n ..s(Tn' . we s h a l l a p p l y 7.s( F'.10 and 7. s ( F ~ ' .s( F ' .2 .. ~ .. L e t X:F-+V(Tn:n==1.) o f subspaces such t h a t c o n d i t i o n s ( a ) and ( b ) a r e s a t i s f i e d .2. Since Q i s a t o p o l o g i c a l homomrphism. S ' ) ) c o n t a i n s a bounded sequence (zn:n=1.. b y assunption... be t h e canonical s u r j e c t i o n . Set E:=X( @(Tn':n=1.s( Fn'.s(E n .E n each n . Let Q*:(S. Observe t h a t J n : ( Fn'.2. We i d e n t i f y Fn' w i t h J n ( F n ' ) f o r Set ( G .z)-+ f o r n)2.d i m e n s i o n a l F r k h e t spaces w i t h a continuous norm. Since H i s c l o s e d i n (G.. . f o r k=1. i s compact. f o r e v e r y pos i t i v e i n t e g e r i. such t h a t (G/H. i t s o r o j e c t i o n a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r p such t h a t A*CB and t h e r e f o r e A C A * x n ( F n ' : n = 1 . F ) ) .2. Thus t h e r e i s P I f A i s an a b s o l u t e l y convex compact subset o f (S. En i s c l o s e d i n (E. E i s c l o sed i n ( F ' .2. s ( F ' .s(En. i t s u f f i c e s t o prove t h a t .2 7.22.). I f ( Un:n=1.)) and En:=X'(Tn') f o r each n. +(E I)) has t h e sane p r o p e r t i e s .3.F))..) w i t h zn where O(Hn) = n ( E i : i = l € Q(Hn)\ . Q*( G ) c o i n c i d e s w i t h Q ( G ) and (zn:n=1. Br-conplete. ) as a q u o t i e n t . (Gn:n=1.tot a l ..F)) and. Since X i s a t o p o l o g i c a l hommorphism. we can f i n d a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r p such t h a t E n s p ( B i ) = ..Tn)) which. 2 .. Then Fx @( Fn:n=1. A c c o r d i n 9 to t h e r e e x i s t s a c l o s e d subspace H o f ( G . hence a F-equicontinuous s e t .. The space S( s ( S . ) stands f o r a d e c r e a s i n g b a s i s o f 0-nghbs i n F. s e t B n f o r t h e p o l a r s e t o f Un i n F ' and G n : = ~ p ( B n ) ~ ~ ( F n ' : n = = 1 . 2 .?) .3.. . : j = n + l . s i n c e X ' i s a weak-weak hommorphism.2.z) and E i s c l o s e d i n ( F ' .

e s h a l l construct a nearly closed Proof: In t h e dual p a i r ( ( E ' . 2 .. then ( E l . .c o r r p l e t e space which i s not 5-complete..t) i s not B-conplete. . s ( Z . .. B* stands f o r its closure i n (R". . . E ' ) ) . l e t B be a conpact absolutely convex s e t i n ( Z . Z . E ' ) ) .CHAPTER 7 (@(En:n=l. Z . . s ( Z . 2 .. . . 219 zj # Q*( G i ) f o r i f i t i s t r u e we have t h a t .. Then B i s bounded i n ( Z . b ( Z . . To show t h a t H i s nearly closed. ) .4 A r . t ) .4. ) be a l i n e a r l y independent sequence i n N * \ E (chosen as i n . . .. Observation 7. Q(En:n=l. hence H i s not closed i n ( Z . s i n c e s p ( E U ( 4 l ) .4. . ) ) and t:=m( E' .3. 5.1: Let E be a non-quasi-reflexive Banach space and ( 4 n ) : n = 1 . .s(R". . E ' ) ) .23.. . Since EAF'(Bi) n = l .. If Z:=sp( EU( x(n):n=1. // 5. . . Since E i s closed i n ( F ' . . ) converges t o x i n ( Z .18(a) and 7. 2 .. =u(( // Corollary 7. For every j .x+t(n)x(n).).2.. set H : = sp( x + t ( l ) x ( l).. f o r every i . hence ZgAE i s a closed Since Z B n Ei s o f a t mst countable codisubspace of the Banach space mnsion i n d i d Z g / ( Z g A E ) ) is f i n i t e . b ( Z .3. F ' ( B i ) i s a Banach spaB i ce. . hence a Banach space i t s e l f . s ( Z .. F ) ) . . x & H and ( x + t ( n ) x ( n ) : n = l . . // 7. E ' ) ) .2: i f B i s a subset of a non-reflexive Banach space R . E ' ) ) . .. j ) ) r \ F ' ( B i ) : j = l . ) a l i n e a r l y independent sequence i n E " \ E (taken from t h e pre-imaqe of a l i n e a r l y independent sequeixe i n E " / E ) .24: 9 s 00 = s ( ~ i)s not B -complete. . x ( q ) ) ) f r o m where i t follows t h a t BAH i s closed i n ( Z . b ( Z .p))Asp(Bi). F i x i and s e t F ' ( B i ) f o r t h e space F ' C l e a r l y .. Proposition 7. x ( q ) ) ) n H i s finite-dimensional..R')). . Clearly. Z ) w subspace H of Z which i s not closed i n ( Z . hence a Banach space again. a B a i r e category a r g m n t shows the existence of a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r q such t h a t B i s contained in s o ( E U (x( l ) . . I f xfO i s a vector of E and i f ( t ( n ) : n = 1 . s ( Z . 2 . ) i s a sequence of p o s i t i v e s c a l a r s such t h a t ( t ( n ) x ( n ) : n = 1 . p ) ) / \ F ' ( B i ) and the proof i s conplete. -_ Proof: r see 7. t h e r e e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r p such t h a t E / \ F ' ( B i ) = ( @ ( E n : n = l ..3. E ' ) ) . . Z ) . ) i s a n u l l sequence i n the normed space ( Z . f o r j > p and we a r e done. s ( F ' .. Set E:=lmand N:=co and l e t ( z ( n ) : n = 1 . we have t h a t E / \ F ' ( B ~is ) closed i n F'(Bi). E ' ) ) .i)AF'(Bi) i s @(En: closed i n F ' ( B i ) .

(3).E')).?23.b(Z . Z ) and l e t H be a n e a r l y c l o s e d subspace. Z:= u ( Z :n=1.. t ) i s Br-conplete.4. .24. L e t x be a v e c t o r o f T. z ( n ) ) ) .%42. A c c o r d i n g t o Kl.2.s(E. . 1 2 ) .s(E'.) q A in H such t h a t H=sp( PU(u(n):n=1. hence i t c o i n c i d e s w i t h z Then..)). S e t t i n g F:=P. E l ) ) .12.4: se i n (Z.4. K2.) Since each x(n) belongs t o r e e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r Q such t h a t x t Z g' H. i n P c o n v e r g i n g t o x i n (Z. P r o p o s i t i o n 7. we have t o show t h a t A i s r e l a t i v e l y seA q u e n t i a l l y compact i n (E'.Z. S e t t i n g F:=E.4.. 5 . t h e r e e x i s t s a sequence On t h e o t h e r hand...E')).. i s conpact i n ( Z . the closure taken i n ( Z .5. by 2 . hence P : = H n E i s a c l o s e d subspace o f (E. hence H c o i n c i d e s w i t h Z and we a r e done. t h e (An):n=l.E)) i s Br-conplete.s(Z.)U(x)).)) c o n t a i n s H.E')) i n E converging t o u ( n ) i n i n E coincides w i t h The c l o s u r e G o f sp(PU(u(n.L:=N i n 2. i t i s enough t o prove t h a t A:=Z?Y((x(n):n=1..2.s(Z. choose a sequence (u(n):n=l.. 5 .m( E ' . Now t h e c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s a p p l y - // Example 7. b a l l o f E i n a weakly conpact s e t o f E/F. V I I .3. ( E ' .5..4.) n and t:=m(E'. A c c o r d i n g t o 7. E l ) ) and hence ( Z ) q q i s a Banach space. t h e c l o s e d u n i t b a l l o f ( E / F ) ' i s weakly conpact and m e t r i z a b l e ( 2 .220 BARREL LED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES 7.p=1. a c c o r d i n g t o 7.Z.s( E ' Since Q ' i s weak-weak continuous and .L:=N f o r t h e c l o s e d subspaces o f E i n 2.4.s(Z ..3.2. we can f i n d f o r e v e r y n a sequence (u(n. E l ' ) ) .s(Z.2.s(Z. E l ) ) t o conclude t h a t x ( H as 9 9 9 q d e s i r e d : indeed. A i s a c l o s e d bounded s e t o f t h e Banach space ( Z .2. E/P i s s e p a r a b l e and t h e r e f o r e r e f l e x i v e .4.s(Z.E')).E)) in g D . den( E l . .2. F i r s t we show t h a t T i s c o n t a i n e d i n H.1.4. A c c o r d i n g t o K1.?24. ( 2 ) . Set T f o r t h e c l o s u r e of P i n c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e c l o s e d subspa- Our purpose i s t o show t h a t H c e T . (Z. E/F b e i n g separable. i s n e t r i z a b l e i n (E'.24.1).Theoreml5. The c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s f r o m 3.t) i s n o t B-complete.Z).E')).s(Z .( I f Q' stands f o r t h e transposed mapping of Q.( 1) shows t h a t i t i s enough t o check t h a t (2' maps ' i n c r e l a t i v e l y conpact subset A o f ( E ' .2.E')).s( E ' .2.) E since the closure o f G i n (Z.. Since dirr(H/P) i s a t most countable. A c c o r d i n g t o 7.p):p=1. Set Zn:=sp(EU(z( l ) . i t s u f f i c e s t o show t h a t Q maps t h e c l o s e d u n i t P r o o f : Set Q:E-+E/F f o r t h e c a n o n i c a l s u r j e c t i o n . Consider t h e dual p a i r ( E ' .2. t h e c l o s e d u n i t b a l l o f (E/F) E " ) .3: Every separable q u o t i e n t o f E i s r e f l e x i v e .p):n.2. l ) .. ( E l . (Z. .. I n what f o l l o w s we keep t h e n o t a t i o n i n t r o d u c e d i n 7..

E')) xive.. ( s e e 1. .) b e a reduced p r o j e c t i v e l i n ' t of a sequence i s s t r i c t .3 l . I f (E'.E)) Proof: According t o K2.Ch.b(En'. i t s r e s t r i c t i o n h t o F is c l e a r l y con- .t r i v i a l and i t s min r e s u l t s a r e s t a t e d i n 7.RCBERTSON..5.1. 1 follows PEREZ CARRERAS.5.5 Notes and remrks.20 (ii) Let E be an inductive l i m i t of Baire spa7.f32.( 1) and V.6. and the following r e s u l t w h i c h was proved by DIEUDONNf and SCWARTZ f o r Frechet spaces a 7. s ( Z . L : = N t o obtain a sequence ( x ( n ) : n = 1 . Indeed.( i ) .8: l e t F be a dens e subspace o f a space E and suppose t h a t F C F . .W.9. By 7. H and OBERGUGGENBERGER. ) i n E converging t o x i n ( Z .BONET.?(Z. hence Q( E ) endowed w i t h i t s Mackey t o p o l o g i s isomorphic t o the Banach space E/P. E ' ) ) f o r the canonical s u r j e c t i o n and Q* f o r i t s r e s t r i c t i o n t o E..1. -(E'.P.2.. given a bounded s e t A i n F .En)):n=lYZ. d u e t o K2. .E')) i s a topological homomorphism. 1 i s t h e s t a tenent of o p t i m l closed graph and open-mppina t h e o r e m f o r b a r r e l l e d spaces (7. x* = (x*-x)+xCT+H = H .5.b(E'. s ) i s s t r i c t .RCBERTSON) c e s . .s):=ind((En'. 7.233. I t is c l e a r t h a t D ( R ) L Fr and we s h a l l see t h a t D( R)CFO. I f f:E--rD(R) i s a l i n e a r mapping w i t h closed graoh i n ExD(R). hence i t converges t o a c e r t a i n since Q ( E ) .2.. i s r e f l e y i n (Q(E). E ' ) ) .s(E..13) w e follow KOMURA's approach which allows their proofs w i t h nininal t e c h n i c a l i 2 i e s . Then Q( x ) = ~ and any o t h e r x*CE w i t h Q * ( x * ) = ~belongs t o P : indeed.5. endowed w i t h i t s Mackey topology.2.5. PTAK's theory i s highly n o n .?(Z. t h e transposed wappings Prim' a r e isorrorp h i m n t o their r a n q s . E ' ) ) .24 w i t h F : = E . Thus x = (x-x*)+x*CT + P = T .I. Pnm a r e s u r j e c t i v e .CHAPTER 7 22 1 Set Q : ( Z .) is a Cauchy sequence i n (Q(E):.(3).* ( Z / T $ ( Z .4.?(Z. we apply again 2. Then f i s open and s u r j e c t i v e .18. t h e r e i s a bouEE'Tset C i n E such t h a t f ( C ) 3 A . In t h e context of PTAK's theory one has t h e following extension of 1. VALDIVIA. Since our purpose i n 7 . b ( F ' . 7 . as desired. Proof: Since ( E l .2.( 1). The sequence (Q*(x(n)):n=1.23).2. 1 deals w i t h KOMURA's approach t o PTAK's closed graDh and ooen-napping theorgm a s developed by ADASCH.2.E')). hence x * t E f l H = P . s ( Z . I f xCH. F ) ) i s an isomrphism i n t o . 5 .(2).. F a countable inductive limit of Br-conplete spaces and f : E . s e t F:={D(R)j.1 : (A. 2 .12 and 7.+ E n a r e s u r j e c t i v e (hence open) f o r a l l man. F i r s t observe t h a t 3 s a t i s f i e s condition (***) i n 7. F a q u a s i b a r r e l l e d space and f:E-F continuous l i n e a r mpping such t h a t i t s transposed mpoing f ' : ( F ' .( 2 ) . ( i i ) and i n the observation 4. This theory can be followed i n RR.2. I/ O u r presentation of 7 .) t h e canonical n a p p i n s P n f i E m . f i s nearly open and hence open by B-conpleteness. Q*:(E.2 : Let E be a B-conplete space.V and Ef3ERHARDTY(3). According t o 2. /I As a c o r o l l a r y one g t s 7 .( 1). then of Banach spaces.1.+ F a l i n e a r m p p i n g w i t h closed graph i n ExF.E'))-(Q( E). Then f i s continuous. I t i s not d i f f i c u i t t o c o n s t r u c t a c l a s s o f spaces %such t h a t Fo# T r . Since F i s q u a s i b a r r e l l e d . K2. 3 : Let E=proj(En:n=1.

5 as above. s ) i s non-continuous and has c l o s e d graph.m(S. ( v ) There a r e n o n .S')) i s b a r r e l l e d .5.b o r n o l o g i c a l b a r r e l l e d spaces which b e l o n a t o k : Indeed.m(F.10(i) shows t h a t f:(F. Thus h:L--.m(H. . t ) d Fr b y 7. S ' ) = b ( H .3.( 1 ) it f o l l o w s t h a t t h e q u o t i e n t b y a subspace i s c o n p l e t e i f t h e subspace i s m t r i z a b l e as observed by PALAMODOV. s ) .b o r n o l o g i c a l b a r r e l l e d spaces which have dense subspaces which a r e u l t r a b o r n o l o g i c a l (6. C a l l (H. Fs L e t us have a l o o k now t o t h e c l a s s { D ' ( X ) l s = F. 1 O ( i i ) .S'))-+( Then t h i s l a s t space i s a Banach space. d L . Now l e t L be a space f o r which ( L .1. t h e n E E U s . Now and S i s c l o s e d i n (H.. Then 4. A c l o s e l o o k t o t h e p r o o f above shows i .b(H. L e t us check t h a t f i s continuous b y s e e i n g t h a t f c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e ( u n i q u e ) continuous e x t e n s i o n r o f h. s ) i n 6.2 deals w i t h B .4: (SMOLJANDV.2.one s h o u l d m n t i o n t h e f o l l o w i n g : A q u o t i e n t o f a c o n p l e t e t o p o l o g i c a l l i n e a r space need n o t be c o n p l e t e .10(i). R e c a l l 7.5.S')) and dense i n (H. f( K) converges t o f( x ) .13).4 we c o n s t r u c t e d such spaces h a v i n g dense subspaces which a r e u l t r a b o r n o l o g i c a l . 1 . We r e c a l l an i m p o r t a n t r e s u l t 7.and 3. I n 6.s(P. d H . From GELLER.1. Thus.m(H. (H. B y 4 . The e x t e n s i o n r s a t i s f i e s r ( x ) = l i m h( K) = l i m f ( K)= f ( x ) and we a r e done.(P. S ' ) .b(H. That i s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n c e S i s c l o s e d i n (H. I f H:= H. L g FS.6.u l t r a b o r n o l o g i c a l b a r r e l l e d b o r n o l o q i c a l sDaces which bel o n g t o j . Since f has c l o s e d T a p h i n ExD( R).t) i s an u l t r a b o r n o l o g i c a l space and hence i t belongs t o 5 b y 1.and Br-complete sDaces. Thus EtFs.t) t h e non-complete q u o t i e n t i n 7. One has (i) A l l u l t r a b o r n o l o g i c a l spaces b e l o n g t o 3 a c c o r d i n a t o 1.r e f l e x i v e Banach sDace and suppose t h a t x r S " \ S .16 we c o n s t r u c t e d n o n . and i f f:E-+F i s a l i n e a r napping w i t h c l o s e d graph. S ' ) ) i s a hyperplane o f (H. . t h e s e spaces b e l o n g to . W i t h r e s p e c t t o P T ~ K ' sr e s u l t s 7. i s continuous and hence f:E 4.5..E')) i s b a r r e l l e d . Since h i s continuous.32. T h e r e f o r e . ( H . suppose t h a t (H.KENDEROV. L e t S be a n o n .m(H. Thus. ( i i i ) T h y e a r e n o n .?. F: 7.5.F')) -+F i s continuous.m(L. h ( K ) = f ( K ) i s a Cauchy n e t i n D(R) and hence convergent. i n 6.+ D ' ( X ) which vanishes on F and c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e i d e n t i t y on ( D ' ( X ) .b o r n o l o o i c a l b a r r e l l e d space and s e t E : = F O ( D ' ( X ) . (VALDIVIA): L e t 3 be t h e c l a s s o f a l l m a c e s endowed w i t h t h e i r weak t o p o l o g i e s and such t h a t t h e y a r e Sanach spaces w i t h t h e i r Mackey t o p o l o g i e s . t h e r e i s a Banach sDace P and a l i n e a r m p D i n g h:(L.m(H.8 and o u r o b s e r v a t i o n above.% / a c l a s s o f complete spaces and i f F C U s i s a dense subspace 7.By 7.2. iust ( i v ) There a r e b a r r e l l e d b o r n o l o g i c a l spaces which do n o t b e l o n g t o c o n s i d e r t h e space ( D ' ( X ) . (H. L ' ) ) i s n o t b a r r e l l e d .S')). t = t7 and.P')) i s n o t continuous.5.(2)) The space D(R) has a q u o t i e n t which i s a o r o p e r dense subspace o f KN (and hence non-corrplete).32.5.4.1. The nap f : E .S')) E Fs.m(E.S')) hand.222 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEXSPACES t i n u o u s .b( H. shows t h a t J i s open and hence d H .S')) i s continuous spf S U ( x ) ) . ( S . t h e c a n o n i c a l i n j e c t i o n J:(H.m(H.L'))--P which has c l o s e d araph and i t i s n o t continuous. such t h a t t h e r e i s a space E { conWe p r o v i d e an example o f a c l a s s t a i n i n g an hyperplane G e y s .5: Isf o f a space E. I f FC3.b o r n o l o p i c a l b a r r e l l e d spaces which do n o t b e l o n g t o L e t F be a n o n . Conpleteness o f t h e q u o t i e n t f o l l o w s a l s o i f . L e t x be a v e c t o r o f E and l e t K be a n e t i n F c o n v e r g i n g t o x i n E.2.2.E'))--+(F. s i n c e i t i s n o t complete. L e t us check t h a t F s i s t h e c l a s s o f a l l spaces E f o r which (E.m(E.S')).S')) such t b a r r e l l e d and hence (S.2.2.( i i ) There a r e n o n .

3.8 and 7.BCA+UJ.(l) and E B E R H A R D T .10).3.( 10) shows t h a t . I f ( E .dE'.. The uniform soace d ( E ) is s c a l a r l y complete i f every decreasing s c a l a r Cauchy net.6 of a non-conplete ( B ) .3.(l) given b y VALDIVIA. s . ( c ) contain results d u e t o EBEKHARDT.2.WEDDLE. T h u s . a n d an idea of KOTHE (extended by GROTHENDIECK) which allows t h e construction of non-conplete q u o t i e n t s ( s e e 7.4 proves 7.DIEROLF.5. t h e r e e x i s t s a conplete semi-Yontel space F such t h a t the bornological space is a q u o t i e n t of F. .HARVEY . 1 . ( 6 ) ( s e e 7. 3 .3.s( E ' . the KREIN-SMULYAN property ( s h o r t l y KS) i rtpl i e s hyperconpleteness which i n t u r n i n p l i e s B-covpleteness. (1).15 i s due t o VALDIVIA. 7. 2 . (RAIKOV.2. s ) ' s e p a r a t e s points of Y.(P). conplete soaces.( 1) r e s p e c t i v e l y .4 i s due t o VALDIVIA.5 follows SCHMERBECK.3 i s concerned w i t h constructions o f non-Br-covlete soaces. VALDIVIA.7: ( K E L L E Y .s p a c e w h i c h i s not Br-conplete.5.w i t h K N) (SMOLJANOV.. 3 . then E/G i s conplete.5.( 1) and HAGEMANN.6: For every Hausdorff t . A net ( A ( i ) : i € 1 ) i n L(E) i s decreasing i f A( i ) 2 A ( j ) f o r i Sj and s c a l a r i f i t contains t A ( i ) f o r each t ) O and a l l i i n I . s .10 follows S.E)) for i s not preserved by tooological products (even of t h e form E E a Frgchet space) and by topological products with KI and K In c o n t r a s t .6 follows EBERHARDT.13(e). O u r presentation of 7.( 1) and HARVEY. Hyperconp e t e n e s s i s preserved by topological products w i t h K I (SMOLJANOV.2. t ) i s i s o m r p h i c t o a quotient of (Y.(6) which together w i t h 7.( 1) . E i s s a i d t o be hypercomplete i f t h e uniform space d(E) i s conplete. s )w i t h the following p r o p e r t i e s : ( i ) ( E .s) is f i n i t e .3.( 3) ) . 1 . ( v ) contain r e s u l t s due t o KOTHE.8).s).10 is used t o show KOTHE's result 7. 7.d i m n s i o n a l and ( i i i ) the continuous dual ( Y .( 1 )) and w i t h a quasi-reflexive Banach sDace (SAVGULIDZE . t ) i s l o c a l l y convex then (Y.3.(2) and 7. . 7.3. 7 . K S '.2. 7.2.s) can be chosen t o be l o c a l l y convex. has a l i m i t i n L0.3.9 can be seen i n ADASCH.16 follows a modification i n t h e 2 M. Dl?WNOdSKI.DIEROLF 7. 7. 6 ( i v ) .10.( 1) r e s p e c t i v e l y ) and w i t h K( SMOLJANOV. The min t o o l s a r e a modified version of a. T h i s r e s u l t provides mny non-Bconplete. In R O E L C K E . E ) ) . 1 .(l) and VAN DULST.(38) shows t h a t .CHAPTER 7 223 t h e subspace i s i s o m r p h i c t o KI (S.( 1) had shown before t h a t D'( X) was not B conple t e KOTHE's exallple 7. Define a uniform s t r u c t u r e U o n d(E) as follows: a s s o c i a t e t o each a b s o l u t e l y convex O-n&b U a v i c i n i t y N ( l I ) : = { ( A y B ) ( 6 ( E ) x J ( E ) : ACB+U. T h i s i s the content of 7.12 and 7.8: (KELLEY. ( l ) one can f i n d the following p2neral r e s u l t due t o S. t ) t h e r e i s a conplete Hausdorff t . ( 2 ) .3. given a b o r n o l o d c a l l o c a l l y convex space.and B -conpleteness a r e preserved by iyoducts w i t h K1 (SAVGULIDZE. (1).s o a c e i s presented f o l l o w i n ? a f o r m l a t i o n of DLBINSKY and i t provides a wealth of non-B-conplete d i r e c t sum of Banach spaces ( 7 .n 7.5. 7.9: (VALDIVIA. The space K N x K ( ~ ) is hyperconplete but f a i l s t o have KS.(l)) A l o c a l l y convex space E i s B-conplete i f and only i f X J T ) i s s c a l a r l y conplete.lemm due t o MAKAROV.(6)) The space D l ( X ) is not Br-conplete. and i f G i s a (F)-subspace o r a q-minim1 subspace of E . 7 and 7.( 1) f o r b a r r e l l e d s p a c e s ) . ( 1 ) ) . O u r presentation of 7.9 provides an exanple.3. 7.3.5.of a comp l e t e r r .(2) and 7 . ( v . RAIKOV.1).( 1) and SAVGULIDfE. 7. An i n t e r e s t i n g c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of B-completeness i s provided by a theor e m o f KELLEY: Let E be a l o c a l l y convex space and k ( E ) the c l a s s o f a l l closed absolutely convex subsets of E. s . ( l ) ) E is hyperconplete i f and only i f every nearly closed a b s o l u t e l y convex subset of E' is closed in ( E l .DIEROLF).3. ( i i ) every bounded set of (Y.(7) and 7. ( E .10 i n SAIFLU.2. i f E i s a conplete t . 1 3 ( b ) . B . Consequently.

- . 7 ..224 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEXSPACES argunents o f VALDIVIA due t o EBERHARDT.III) 7.(3).3.12: (CIVIN.and Br-conpleteness. t h e y cannot be Pr-soaces and 7. .(9) which. J x K (N) m o t have KS. f o r e v e r y i n f i n i t e .( 1).2.) be a c o u n t a b l e d i r e c t sum o f infinite-dimensional Fr6chet Monte1 spaces E(n). t h e r e i s a q u o t i e n t ( E ( l ) / F ) / H isomorphic t o f x ( n ) . P .(41)) L e t E=@(E(n):n=1.( 3 9 ) ' s s o l u t i o n o f a l o n g .10 : (VALDIVIA.(3) s t a t e s ( w i t h o u t p r o o f ) t h a t l'x&12 i s n o t Br-complete.(42)) L e t E=Q(E(n):n=l..(d) a r e taken gram EB&RHARDT.More about t h i s i n Chapter 9. T h i s can be considered as a s e r i o u s i n c o n v e n i e n t t o t h e a o p l i c a b i l i t y o f PTAK's c l o s e d qraoh and open-napping theorens.11 : (VALDIVIA.r e f l e x i v e Banach spaces were shown t o be 6 . complete (VAN DULST.. t h e r e i s a c l o s e d subspace G such t h a t F/G i s a n u c l e a r Kothe space d i s t i n c t from KN. B-complete (MOSCATELLI.Z.) be a c o u n t a b l e d i r e c t sum o f i n f i n i t e .P..2. b y means o f t h e f o l l o w i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n theorem ( e V. Our p r e s e n t a t i o n f o l l o w s PFISTER ( s e e EBERHARDT.r e f l e x i v e Banach space.E) cannot be r e p l a ced b y b(E'.DUBINSKY.1 5 : The o n l y non-standard i m p l i c a t i o n i s (2)+(3). s e l e c t q u o t i e n t s E b ) / M ( n ) . The c o r e o f ( 2 ) " ( 3 ) i s the f o l l o w i n g (*) i f 2 i s a FS Kothe echelon space d i s t i n c t from KM.( 3 ) .4 d e a l s w i t h VALDIVIA..Ta(n). Recently.5.dimensional Kothe spaces d i s t i n c t from KN such t h a t 2 /H i s isomorphic t o 7. t h i s p r o p e r t y f a i l s f o r KS due t o 7.-complete countable d i r e c t sum o f ( n o n . 7.(l) t h e r e i s a q u o t i e n t E ( l ) / F d i s t i n c t f r o m KN.r e f l e x i v e .(l)) and even hypercomplete (SAYGULIDZE.5.2. The f o l l o w i n q c o n d i t i o n s a r e e q u i v a l e n t : (1) E i s B-complete.Ch. t h e two f o l l o w i n g general theorems have been proved 7.5 . Again. . ~ ( 1 " .(8) f o r Banach spaces. 7.E)) i s 6. namely t o d i s t i n g u i s h between B .3.m(E' .YOOD. 7.2.10 t o show t h a t ( 2 ) i s n o t t r u e .(3)). The f i r s t e x a m l e o f a non-B-conplete p r o d u c t o f B . ( 2 ) Every H a u s d o r f f q u o t i e n t o f F i s complete and (3) Each E(n) i s q u a s i .c o m l e t e . Thus. Thus.14: (VALDIVIA. T h i s space was shown n o t t o be B-complete b y SUMMERS.6.3.bDBl\SKY . H i n t t o t h e prr-of gf 7 . suppose E ( l ) # KN.5. .. The f o l l o wing c o n d i t i o n s a r e e q u i v a l e n t : (1) E i s Br-complete. According t o 2. E has a q u o t i e n t isomorphic t o T y n ) x ( K N ) A) and we a p p l y 7.q u a s i . BELiE\Ot.r e f l e x i v e ) Banach spaces (observe t h a t t h i s space i s t h e s t r o n g dual o f t h e F r 6 c h e t space c o x q 1 2 .(c).(9)) The space D(X) i s n o t B r . 7.E) i n 7.23 i s a g a i n due t o VALDIVIA.3.5 .13 cannot be a p p l i e d .1. T h e r e f o r e m ( E ' .(9) and 7.11).5.4)..m(E'.-complete and ( 5 ) Each H a u s d o r f f q u o t i e n t o f ( E ' .13: (SCHMERBECK. . t h e r e e x i s t s a c l o s e d subspace H o f and a sequence 2 ( n ) o f infinite.1 5 : (YALDIVIA.E)) i s complete. T l J sfi&-ffiat.. By BELLENOT. ( 4 ) ( E ' . .( 1 ) .12 and 7. yields t h e f o l l o w i n g 7.18(b).n=l.21 was proved b y VALDIVIA. ( 3 ) E(n) i s isomorphic t o KN f o r each n.3..n= 3.(l)) A Banach space E i s s a i d t o be q u a s i .5.19 one deduces t h a t ?co x ~ ( 1 " . 1 1 ) ) i s n o t BrTconpl?te.c o m l e t e spaces was q i v e n b y COLLINS.(l)).18(a) f o l l o w s VALDIVIA.VOGT) The space D ( X ) i s i s o m r p h i c t o stN7.3.r e f l e x i v e of o r d e r n i f dim(E"/E)=n.(l)) I f J i s JAMES' q u a s i . Countable d i r e c t sums o f r e f l e x i v e Banach spaces a r e B-complete (7. SAVGULIDZE. i f (3) f a i l s . Countable d i r e c t sums of q u a s i .(Z)). Since D ( X ) and D ' ( X ) a r e b a r r e l l e d spaces.s t a n d i n g open problem.16. isomorphic t o KN. From 7.d i m e n s i o n a l Banach spaces E(n) .1. t h e r e b y e s t a b l i s h i n q t h e f i r s t example o f a non-B. ( 2 ) Each H a u s d o r f f q u o t i e n t o f E i s complete.d i m e n s i o n a l Frechet-Vont e l space F d i f f e r e n t f r o m KM. By (*). 7.n=1.

.2: ( a ) i f ( F i : i E I ) i s a family of subspaces of a space E covering E t h e n g . Z. Let E be a l i n e a r space. J ( i i i ) i f A i i s contained i n A .i n d ( E i .1. and s e t E:= i n d E n . t i .Ai : i e I ) . t . t ) w i l l be c a l l e d t h e generalized inductive l i m i t of ( Ei . T h e completion Fn of Encan be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e .225 CHAPTER EIGHT INDUCTIVE L IF1 IT TOPOLOGIES 8. Those conditions imply t h a t ( v ) f o r each p o s i t i v e constant a and every index i i n I t h e r e is j i n I such t h a t Ai i s contained i n aA ( v i ) U ( A i : i c I ) = E. . Let ( E i : i r I ) be a family of subspaces of E and t i a Hausdorff l o c a l l y convex topology on E i f o r i e I . ) . ( b ) t h e general ized inductive 1imi t of Hausdorff spaces need not be Hausdorff: indeed. Let ( A i : i e I ) be a family of subsets of E such t h a t Ai i s contained i n Ei f o r each i s a t i s f y i n g the f o l 1owing conditions : ( i ) U ( A i : i E I ) spans E . Observation 8. W e s h a l l write ( E . l e t P be the s e t of a l l polynomials p:R-+R w i t h p(O)=O and l e t E n be the normed space P endowed w i t h t h e norm qn( z ) : = s u p ( I z( x ) \ :xe\O. t i .E a r e continuous f o r each i i n I . t ) = g .( A . l / n 1 ) .. t i ) . J 1 1 J J is ( i v ) each Ai i s absolutely convex. C A k . ) continuous f o r i and j i n I .i n d ( E i 7 t i 7 F i : i c I ) coincides w i t h t h e usual inductive l i m i t i nd( ( Fi . . 5* Definition 8. n = 1 . A i : i c I ) and ( E ... then t h e i n j e c t i o n ( A .t i ) :i c I ) .1.1: The F n e r a l i z e d inductive l i m i t topoloqy on E induced by ( E i y t i y A i : i e I ) i s t h e f i n e s t l o c a l l y convex topology t on E such t h a t t h e injections ( A i .. t . ( i i ) f o r each i . j i n I t h e r e i s k i n I such t h a t A i + A .1 Generalized inductive l i m i t s .

Ai:iGI). g i v e n i i n I t h e r e i s j i n I such t h a t AicaA. and. unique l i n e a r c o n t i n u o u s e x t e n s i o n gn:F .ti. t ) .) and t h e r e f o r e W:=acx(L)(Ai W i ) : i € I ) i s contained i n V .l/nl and z( x):=p( l / n ) i f I I .1.1. J J J i n (Ei. t . C o n s t r u c t a continuous funct i o n z o n [ O .)) J .Lemma 1 .ti) such t h a t AinWicA. the c o l l e c t i o n @of sets P r o p o s i t i o n 8. P r o o f : C l e a r l y @ i s a f i l t e r b a s i s o f a b s o l u t e l y convex a b s o r b i n g sets. Applying J J K1. I/ i d ) .G . ) .Accorin 0 d i n g t o ( v ) above.(z)= Thus f ( E i s a subsoace o f hence f ( E ) reduces t o ( 0 ) . accorJ t h e r e i s an a b s o l u t e l y convex // An a b s o l u t e l y convex subset U o f ( E.3:If --F t o each (Ai. TheE r e i s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r n such t h a t q n ( p ) " l .t)=g-ind(Ei. t ) = g .l/n].)n(A.ti .§11.3. hence t h e r e i s a c o n t i - nuous l i n e a r mapping g:indFn--G such t h a t f = g o j . l ] [O. l l b y means o f z(x):=p( x ) i f x xt.5: each i i n I. t c o i n c i d e s w i t h t ' and we a r e done. nent p o f En b e i n g d e f i n e d b y i t s r e s t r i c t i o n t o [O.ti. I f we s e t f n : = f .l/n].Ai: of t h e form a c x ( U ( V i n A i ) : i c I ) l u t e l y convex 0-nghbs i n (Ei.i n : E n . G c o n t a i n e d i n t h e bounded s e t gl(B1). I n o r d e r t o prove t h a t E c a r r i e s t h e c h a o t i c t o p o l o g y i t i s enough t o show e v e r y c o n t i n u o u s l i n e a r mapping f : E . t ) i s a 0-nghb i n (Ai. F i s a space and v:(E. Clearly z belongs t o t h e c l o s e d u n i t b a l l B.nV..Take a r e a l number a w i t h O<acl and a s e t V:=acx(u(VinAi):ieI) . o f F. Then AinWic(aA. Now t a k e any p i n P.. g n ( z ) = f n ( p ) s i n c e p c o i n c i d e s w i t h z on [O. t h e image i n Fn o f an e l e The unioue c o n t i t h e canoni- nuous e x t e n s i o n o f t h e i d e n t i t y En-+En+l from Fn t o Fn+l. [ l / n .n(a\!. i c I ) i s a 0-nghb i n ( E .1.ti) for .1.ti) (E.t)=g-ind(Ei. . g i v e n t h e 0-nghb V . Proposition 8. i s t h e zero mapping. i n ( E .226 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES Banach space o f a l l continuous f u n c t i o n s defined on t h e c l o s e d i n t e r v a l l / n l which v a n i s h a t 0 endowed w i t h t h e norm q .t) i s a l i n e a r mapping t h e n v i s c o n t i n u o u s i f and o n l y i f i t s r e s t r i c t i o n i s continuous. -P r o o f : See H. B y t h e v e r y d e f i n i t i o n o f t.I J J J = a(A. 0-nghb Mi d i n g t o ( i i i ) . Let in:En-+E t o Fn i s t h e r e s t r i c t i o n mapping be t h e i d e n t i t y and j:E--indFn c a l i n j e c t i o n .G n o f fn.n(aV.§18.). and g.i n d ( Ei . LO..ti) as ( V i ) ranges over a l l t h e f a m i l i e s of abso- i s a b a s i s o f 0-nghbs i n ( E .Ai: i f and o n l y i f VnAi C o r o l l a r y 8.4: I f ( E .G G b e i n g a complete there i s a Hausdorff space.( 1) we have t h a t 0 i s a b a s i s o f 0-nghbs f o r a c e r t a i n l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y t ' on E.

two o t h e r f i n a l t o p o l o g i e s t* and t** can be considered on E.ti. Each s i n c e tn i s l o c a l l y convex. t h e l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y on Fi such t h a t nA .)) as (U.t~(o))--(E..) t c o i n c i d e s w i t h t*.)..2.. Now V:=acx i s a 0-nghb i n ( E .1. P r o p o s i t i o n 8.t)=g-ind(Ei. i ( o ) . ) ranges o v e r a l l 1 .)--.):icI).1.tn). i s continuous since i t i s t h e corn and (Ai. hence s i s c o a r s e r t h a n t. P r o o f : I t i s enough t o check t h a t i f U i s a 0-nghb i n ( E . .. Suppose t h a t (E. n c * j ( n ) " ( 'ln)"j( n) Thus t h e a b s o l u t e l y con- vex h u l l o f U ( r 1 A ~ ( ~ ) n r W ~ ( ~ ) . t h e r e a r e absolua c c o r d i n g t o 8. C l e a r l y . t .). be a b a s i c Proof: Set (E. . besides t h e t o p o l o g y t. i n (E. (U(VnI\An:n=1. P r o p o s i t i o n 8. i n I such t h a t nA i ( o ) ~ A j ( n ) .CHAPTER 8 227 O b s e r v a t i o n 8.l.6: i f t h e i n d e x s e t I i s countable.s .ti)=pind(Fiyt For each i i n I.tn.n=O.2. t ) We a r e done i f we show t h a t V i s i n c l u d e d i n U..2..(E. (Fi.8: a 0-nghb i n ( E . t i s cOarser t h a n t* which i n t u r n i s c o a r s e r t h a n t**. A c c o r d i n g t o 8.t) i s continuous.4.f o r e v e r y p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r n t h e r e i s j ( n ) f o r n=1.. f i n e s t l i n e a r ) t o p o l o g y on E such t h a t t h e c a n o n i c a l i n j e c t i o n s f r o m (An. ) : i e I ) . . denote b y Fi t h e l i n e a r span o f Ai and b y t.Z. l e t V : = a c x ( U ( A i n U i : i c I ) ) F i x i n g i ( 0 ) i n I... t** ( r e s p . ~ : n = = 1 . 2 .. t ) .s) p o s i t i o n o f t h e c o n t i n u o u s i n j e c t i o n s (Fiyt. F i x i i n I.s):=ind((Fi.2. x=za(p)x(p). where ( b i : i = l y 2 .t.2. t * ) . A c c o r d i n g t o (iii) there i s a i n (Ei(o)yti(o)) such t h a t Ai(0)nW hence n(Ai(0)n Wi(o). t h e r e i s a s t r i n g o f 0w i t h Uo:= U.1. t ) = i n d ( ( Fi .n t h e sequences o f a b s o l u t e l y convex 0-nghbs i n (Eiyti).. 0-nghb f o r n=1..Ai:ieI).t*) such t h a t Un + UnCUn-1 then U i s Since t* i s a l i n e a r topology.s) 0-nghb i n ( E .2.ti)-+(Fi. ) .)) t e l y convex 0-nghb Vn i n ( E n y t n ) w i t h VnnAnc U n n A n f o r each n. t h e r e i s no l o s s o f g e n e r a l i t y ifwe assume t h a t biAicAi+ly i=l. F i r s t we show t h a t t i s f i n e r t h a n s .) i s any sequence o f p o s i t i v e numbers l a r g e r t h a n 1.n=1.ti)-+(E.t)=g-ind(En. I f XEV. f r o m where t h e c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s ... /I From now on we r e s t r i c t o u r s e l v e s t o t h e case of c o u n t a b l e i n d e x s e t If(E. Conversely. nghbs (Un..i .An:n=l.t.4. P' U n n A n i s a 0-nghb i n (An. t*) stands f o r t h e f i n e s t ( r e s p .. t ) . I.1.. The i n j e c t i o n (Ai. t. has a b a s i s o f i' i' O-nc&bs o f t h e f o r m acx(U(Uiynn(nAi):n=1..1.. * w i t h a(p)'O. ) i n c l u d e d i n V and t h e i n j e c t i o n ( Fi(o).n)C Aj(n)nUj(n).tn) i n t o E a r e continuous.7: ( E .

Theorem 8.l ) + y ( n ) E 2.6.2..tn)=(An._l+VmoAm~ r.1. which i s a b a s i c O-n@b i n ( E .-~).( 2-'VO)r\ ( 3Ao).9 aga n.1. t h e n An i s c l o s e d i n ( E .5 Um2..Vi)nAi:i=0. f o r n=0. we can determine a sequence (Vn:n=0..2.. ..1. C A ~ f + y ( r ) = x .l ) = x ( n .1...2.2.* and t** can be seen i n 8 . there 1 i s an a b s o l u t e l y convex 0-nghb o f a b s o l u t e l y convex 0-nghbs i n V1 i n ( ElYtl) (En. f o r each n. ( i i ) A c c o r d i n g t o 8. R e p e a t i n g t h i s argrment xcU1+UIc U.tn) such t h a t V1 r\( 3Ao)c.-~) c ( Z-'V...1. we p r o - ceed by r e c u r r e n c e t o o b t a i n t h a t y( r ) belongs t o ( Z-'VrVl) f \ ( 2A. t ) f o r each n. + x ( r .An:n=0. .tn+l). . Since U -1 Vi)nAi:i=0.l ) ) E A +A +A or ~ each j .// More i n f o r m a t i o n about t.). and hence for y( n-1) E vn.// C o r o l l a r y 8..tn. t ) . I f tn+linduces on An t h e same t o p o l o g y as tn. I f (E. be an a b s o l u t e l y convex 0-nghb i n ( A o ..( x ( O ) + . According t o 8.t .. I n p a r t i c u l a r ... L e t x:=x(O)+ .1..) and if (An.2. . -_ P r o o f : ( i ) f o l l o w s e a s i l y f r o m 8.t) be t h e g e n e r a l i z e d i n d u c t i v e l i m i t o f t h e seque- nce ( E . we a r e done i f we show t h a t Uln A o c W . we have t h a t and.An:n=l..9.Vn-l) n(3An-1) f o r n=1.1n( ZA.t)=g-ind(En.1.228 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES z a ( p ) = l and x(p)cVpn Ap. t h e f o l l o w i n ? p r o p e r t i e s a r e s a t i s f i e d : ( i i ) t i s t h e f i n e s t l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y on E whose r e s t r i c t i o n t o each An agrees w i t h t .Vo =Vo.n.Vn-1+2.9.) such t h a t Vnn(3An-l)c . 0 0 1 J i t f o l l o w s t h a t y( r ) E 2Ar-1.-~) Since y ( r ) = x ( r ) + y ( r + l ) . 1 1 Moreover y( n . n n t h e n t induces on An t h e t o p o l o g y induced by tn f o r each n.n. .t i s c o a r s e r t h a n t h e f i n e s t l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y t ' on E whose r e s t r c t i o n .2. s i n c e ~ A . L e t W f o r n=1. Thus x=x( O)+y( 1 ) E 2-lVO+2.+ x(n) be a v e c t o r o f U'n A . 5 and 8. x( n)=y( n)cVnn( 2An-1) c(2-1Vn-l) r\ ( 2An-1).tn)=(An-l.1.2.10: tn+l) ( i ) t i s Hausdorff.2.. hence x belongs t o W .)=E and i f each An i s c l o s e d i n (An+l...l. ..Vn-l=Vn-l r\ ( ZA.1. w i t h x(i)e(2-'Vi)nAi ..).x ( n ) f o r r=l. Then.. s e t t i n g y ( r ) : = x ( r ) + . we nay suppose Sin- t h a t 3AncAn+l ce (An-l. . ( i i i ) i f U(An:n=l.)) i s a subset o f U ' : = L ( ( 2 f o r i=O.tn-l) ..-1) 1 r=1. There i s an a b s o l u t e l y convex 0-nghb Vo i n ( E o y t o ) such t h a t Von A o c W .9: L e t (E.n.. Consequently i t i s enough t o show t h a t t induces on A 0 a t o p o l o g y f i n e r t h a n to on Ao. t o ) . Proceeding by r e c u r r e n c e ( 2 .. P r o o f : F i r s t observe t h a t we my d e l e t e a f i n i t e number o f s e t s An w i t h o u t changing t h e t o p o l o g y t. C l e a r l y a( m l ) x ( m-l)+a( m)x( m) Vm-ln Al.. We s e t U:= 1 a c x ( U ( ( 2 .

s) and ( E . . t ' ) : = p i n d ( E .12.2....s) f o r n = 1 . .1 i n (E..1. An absorbing (bornivorous) sequence (An:n=1. ) coincides w i t h ( E . .1.11 and K1. t ) whenever G n A n .) covers E and hence t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r m such t h a t xcAm.s.14: Let ( A n : n = 1 .(3).An:n=1.2.1. ..i n d ( E . 2 . T h u s .) i s s a i d t o be closed i f each An i s closed i n ( E .1.1.s. ) . t ) = g . t ) . Since 3 .t):=g-ind(E. // Corollary 8. .13: Let ( A n : n = 1 .) and A i s a subset of sone Am. Thus t h e closures of A i n (E.t):=g-ind(E.CHAPTER 8 Ic 229 then w e can w r i t e x=w(n)+ . Since B m i s closed i n ( E .§28. & x ( i ) where X ( ~ ) C A ~ + A ~ . .2. Then (E. .and an i n c r e a s i n g sequence of absolutely convex s e t s i s absorbing i f and only i f i t s union s p a n s E. 2 .An:n=l. i f an increasing sequence ( A n : n = 1 . t ) be a space. ) be an i n c r e a s i n g sequence of absol u t e l y convex s u b s e t s of a space ( E . t ) . where B n stands Proof: According t o 8. . ..s) w e have t h a t 3-$0cW0 and 3-hn+~nC3-kn+3-]Wn+AncWn+An from where i t follows t h a t W * : = ( 1/3)i0n ( 1/3)Wn+AncW. . . 2 . .1. s ) i t i s a l s o closed i n ( E . .k n . f o r t h e closure of An in ( E . Clearly every bornivorous sequence i s absorbing.i))CV. . An increasing sequence ( A n : n = l . 2 .. then the closures of A i n ( E .13.s) whose union spans E and such t h a t 2Anc An+l f o r n = 1 . t ) YI 5 2-i(Ak(ipVk. s ) f o r each n . 2 . t ) s a t i s f i e s t h a t a subset G i s open in ( E . s and t induce the same uniformity on Bm. 2 n W W l i t follows t h a t x = w ( m ) +' rLL x(i)cAW2nWnH1 + Z ( A i + l W i ) = 4'Ai+10ViC T h i s shows t h a t t h e s e t s of t h e form ( i ) a r e a b a s i s of 0-nghbs i n ( E . t ) coinFjde. Since w(m)=x-y(m) ~ ( 2 A m ) n W W 2 ~ A . w(i)E Wi+lsWi+2cWi and t h u s xcWi"Ai+l. ) of absolutely convex subsets of E i s s a i d t o be absorbing (bornivorous) i f f o r every x i n E ( e v e r y bounded subset B of E ) t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r m such t h a t Am absorbs x (absorbs B). ( E ..1.. According t o 8.n a b s i n ( E . ) of absolutely convex subsets of a space ( E .~ C and A ~ + x~( i ) = w ( i . B n : n = 1 .11 and 8. Definition 8.. I f (E.l ) i : . l e t B n be the c l o s u r e of An i n (E. s ) whose union spans E and such t h a t 2AnCAn+l f o r n = 1 .i s a l s o a 0-nqhb * .2. s . ) be an i n c r e a s i n a sequence of absolut e l y convex subsets o f a space (E. 2 . B : n = l . t ) coincide. s ) and ( E . I * I fi "L -// Proposition 8. T h u s t h e s e t s of t h e i form ( i i ) a r e a l s o a b a s i s of 0 .5. Clearly every s e t of the form ( i i ) contains a set of t h e f o r ( i ) .15: Let ( E . 2 . t ) . The sequence (An:n=1. s . ) n Proof: See 8. Let us a take W:SJonn(Wn+An) any s e t of t h e form ( i ) . .. .

k-l) f o r k=1. 0 f o r n=0.. For t h i s s p e c i a l t y p e we p r o v i d e two ways o f d e s c r i b i n g a 0.1. Now l e t V:=acx(L)(VmnAm):m=1. We s h a l l f i n d a subset o f such t h a t AZnC2-'Ak(... nghb i n (E.2. i s a s e t o f t h e f o r m ( i ) i n c l u d e d i n V : indeed.ls. 8.) t h a t AmnVmcWOn~(Wn+An).. F i r s t we determine an i n c r e s i n g sequence . Now we c o n s i d e r a s p e c i a l t y p e o f g e n e r a l i z e d i n d u c t i v e l i m i t s : l e t ( E .4.n=l. x i n W .2. Then. it belongs t o 0 be given... There i s a poand ( i i i ) L e t x be an adherent p o i n t o f An f o r f i x e d n i n ( E .t) :=g-ind( E. Proceeding by r e c u r r e n c e we choose a sequence (Wn:n=1.) " Z L w i t h Vn an a b s o l u t e l y convex 0be a s u b s e t o f E o f t h e .2.) convex 0-nghbs such t h a t WnC2-'Vk(.(ii)i o n ( \ ( A n a n ) n.jection (An.b -- w i t h W n an absoi s aiven by t h e l u t e l y convex 0-nghb i n (E... S e t (E.) o f p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r s (k(n):n=1..t).2.. n=1. We choose an a b s o l u t e l y convex 0-nghb Vk such t h a t v k c s i n c e AmCWn+An f o r each rnsn Then V:=acx(LJ (VmnAm):m1... Since xeW2 and s i n c e t h e r e a r e w(n)EWn+2 and y ( n ) E A n such t h a t w(O):=x..) c a n(Wi: follows ..tn+q).11: t i s t h e f i n e s t l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y on E whose . x(n):=y(n)-y(n-l). s i n c e t h e in. L e t W:'Wonfi(Wn+An) . t ) : The f o l l o w i n g two f a m i l i e s o f s e t s c o n s t i t u t e bases (i) Won6(AntWn). P r o p o s i t i o n 8.2.2. E o f t h e f o r m (i) i n c l u d e d i n V . Then W:=W2n2(Wn+2+An) x=w(n)+y(n).nghbs b a s i s .10( i i ) we o b t a i n P r o p o s i t i o n 8.12: o f 0-nghbs i n ( E . and i s c o n t a i n e d i n W . s i t i v e i n t e g e r q such t h a t X G A ~ + ~L. . c o i n c i d e s w i t h t on An+q.s) Proof: A c c o r d i n g t o 8... e t D be a n e t i n An converging t o x i n which i s c l o s e d i n (An+q.2. n+q t h i s argument a f i n i t e nunber o f t i n e s we Ft xcAn.Repeating ~ .2. % a b a s i s 0 o f 0-nghbs i n ( E .... Proceeding as i n t h e p r o o f o f r e s t r i c t i o n t o each An c o i n c i d e s w i t h s . . I ....An:n=1. Conversely.s) f o r n=1. ..1. .1. since t Since D i s c o n t a i n e d i n An+q-l.take i f we s e t y(o):=o. t ) .) an i n c r e a s i n g sequence o f a b s o l u t e l y convex n subsets o f E whose u n i o n spans E s a t i s f y i n g t h e c o n d i t i o n 2AnCAn+l for each n.t') i s continuous f o r each n.s.) o f absolutely and such t h a t 2Wn+1CMn f o r n=1.2. i t f o l l o w s t h a t X C A ~ + ~ ..). (E.... i=O..2.2.tn)-a(E. t ) sets o f the form acx(d(VnnAn):n=1.. s ) be a space and ( A :n=1.) f o r n=1..230 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEXSPACES t o each An c o i n c i d e s w i t h t o r e q u i v a l e n t l y w i t h tn.2.2...1. t ' i s c o a r s e r t h a n t. form ( i ) .1..

t . Clearly t ( a )does not change i f we replace a b y a':=(2'An:n=1. t ) ( t h e so-called Ze-barrels. Let (B :n=1. t ) . t ) c o n s t i t u e a bornivorous sequence. . then t ( U ) has a b a s i s of 0-nc&bs which a r e bornivorous X.) and apply 8 .t(CL)) i f and only i f VnAn i s a 0-nc&b i n ( A n . t ) . i s Cauchy f o r t ' .1.1.-barrels.) be an abn sorbing sequence i n E and ( a ( n ) : n = 1 . t ' ) .. Proof: Suppose t h e conclusion f a l s e .2.. 2 . .. E ' ) .An:n=1. t and t ' Hausdorff l o c a l l y convex topologies on E such t h a t t i s c o a r s e r than t ' . s e e 8. ( i i i ) i f t h e closures of An in ( E .2. hence F i s n n open in ( E . 2 .1. To show ( v ) i t i s enough t o observe t h a t (E. ) be an absorbing sequence i n ( E . U : = h ( U n + a ( n ) B n ) i s a 0-nghb i n ( E . t ) f o r each n. then ( A n : n = 1 . t ( U ) ) = g .17: Let a : = ( A n : n = l . ) of absolutely convex O-n&bs in ( E .1. ( i v ) i s a t r i v i a l consequence of ( i i ) and ( i i i ) .2.E') i f t h e closures of An form a bornivorous sequence.1. .CHAPTER 8 23 1 C:=U(An:n=1.1. t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r n such t h a t U a C-nghb i n ( E .12 and ( i ) . ( i v ) t ( u ) i s coarser than b ( E .. Thus.2). f o r every sequence ( U n : n = 1 . Definition 8. . The following p r o p e r t i e s h o l d : ( i ) t(a) does not change i f every An i s replaced by i t s c l o s u r e i n ( E .12 provide different bases of 0-nghbs f o r ( E . t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r k such t h a t A n + A m c A k then an absolutely convex s e t V i n E i s a O-n@b in (E. . C l e a r l y .2. ) an absorbing sequence i n a space (E. ( v ) i f f o r every p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r s n and m. For every n t h e r e i s Fn i n F and an . W e denote by t ( a ) t h e f i n e s t l o c a l l y convex topology on E which coincides w i t h t on each An. Proof: ( i ) follows from 8.1. 2 . 2 . s e t and F:= sp(C). 8.) which :={F+U:F€s .i n d ( E . ( i i ) from 8. t ) f o r every n .) is open i n ( A n .18: Let E be a l i n e a r space.. 5 .1.16: Let CL:=(An:n=l. t(CL) i s coarser than b*(E. Proposition 8. .t(Cl))=g-ind(E..11 shows t h a t ( E . . . 2 n A n : n = 1 . .12 and ( i i i ) from 8.4 and 8.13. ( i i ) t ( a )has a basis of O-n&bs which a r e b a r r e l s i n ( E .2.1. t ) \ induces a f i l t e r b a s i s on ( l + a ( n ) ) B n which i s t-Cauchy. ) i s absorbing: indeed.t. t ) . ) an i n c r e a s i n g sequence of p o s i t i ve real numbers such t h a t . / / Lemna 8.t). Then t h e % following property ho1ds:for every f i l t e r basis '? i n U(Bn:n=1. T h u s F=E. .. F O A =A f o r every n . 1 .).: 5 . t ) being the i n t e r s e c t i o n of a sequence of closed absolut e l y convex 0-nghbs i n ( E . t ) . . ) and 8.2. t ( U 1). 2 . . ....

t ( a ) ) i f and o n l y A bounded subset B o f (E. t h e c l o s u r e o f ZnAn i n ( E .. A c c o r d i n g t o 8..2.t)..) i s a f.)) . hence G c o i n c i d e s w i t h 41 C o r o l l a r y 8.).16 and 8. P r o p o s i t i o n 8. G i s t h e u n i o n o f t h e sequence (Cn:n=l. i f t = t ( a ) and each member o f a i s bounded and P closed. i f (Un:n=l. t ( a ) ) . t ' ) Cauchy f i l t e r f o r t ' .22: ce ( E .1. t o obtain the exisindua 0-nqhb i n ( E . i s complete..t) f o r each n.2.2.1.17(i).21: L e t (An:n=1...19.) i s a sequence o f O-n&bs i n (E.2.U P which i s Cauchy f o r t and hence f o r t ( a ) . The S is a i s a 0-nghb i n ( E .s.F c U . P' hence F c x + U C B +U +a(p)B and thus F A F = P P P P 6 . t ) .. 4 :=\F+U:F in . 2AnCAn+l l y convex subset V o f E i s a 0-nghb i n ( E .232 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES a b s o l u t e l y convex 0-nghb Un i n ( E . C o r o l l a r y 8.. t h e c o m p l e t i o n G o f (E. l y t(CL)=t(U. There i s a certain p with xcB contradiction. t ) . i n (E.. Proof: L e t z be a v e c t o r i n G... 2 . t ) Set CI':=(Bn:n=1.t) if t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r p such t h a t B i s absorbed by t h e c l o s u r e o f A i n ( E .19: space ( E .12.1.14.t). There i s a f i l t e r b a s i s 9 i n E which i s Cauchy i n ( E .b.t) i s conplete. t h e n (ZnA. (E. t h e r e i s F i n y such t h a t F . U:=m5(Un+2n-1An) i s a 0-nphh i n ( E .20: space ( E .) be an a b s o r b i n g sequence i n a i s complete f o r each P r o o f : A c c o r d i n g t o 8.2. Thus P'// L e t U:=(An:n=l. t ) then (E.:n=1. t ) VnAn i s a 0-nghb i n (An. be an a b s o r b i n g sequence i n a spai s bounded i n ( E .2. t ( 4 ) ) i n G.1. t(0. t ) n.). t ! . converges. t ) .1. L e t Q=(An:n=l. coinClear- C o r o l l a r y 8.. o f B n i n G. .1.. t ( a ) ) .Z. t ( U ) ) c o n v e r g i n g t o z i n G. s i n c e p.1. . I n p a r t i c u l a r .) containing s o m A . . according t o 8.') c i d e s w i t h t h e c l o s u r e o f ZnAn i n ( E ..1. Then. F i x x i n F. .t(CL)) such t h a t t h e c l o s u r e B n o f ZnAn i n ( E . L e t G be t h e c o n p l e t i o n of ( E .a // L e t U=(An:n=1.1. t ) s e t U:= n fi(Un+a(n)Bn) : L such t h a t (Fn+Un)I\ ( l+a(n))Bn= b y h y p o t h e s i s and.) be an i n c r e a s i n g sequence o f absoluand s a t i s f y i n g t h a t a n a b s o l u t e if t e l y convex whose u n i o n spans E . Then. i s t h e union o f t h e closures C By 8. t ) ) We a p p l y 8.1.18 w i t h Bn:=Zn-'An tence o f a c e r t a i n p such t h a t ces a f i l t e r b a s i s on ZPA Z € C and a ( n ) : = l f o r n = 1 .. I f e v e r y Cauchy f i l t e r i n ( E .) be an a b s o r b i n g sequence i n a and Cn t h e c l o s u r e o f ZnA.

10.a<l w i t h &cW. 2 . hence B c aW"knd B i s bounded i n ( E . b ( E . Then C nGC i s a 0 . t ) .1. On P P t h e o t h e r hand. l e t V be an a b s o l u t e l y convex 0-nghb in ( E . E ' ) . . ) .2.. t coincides w i t h t ( & ) . t ) and B n A i s P P bounded i n ( E . I f each An i s closed i n ( A n + l y t n + l ) . Let (An:n=1..1. then every bounded P P set in ( E .. since f(Wn+Bn)nWo i s a 0-nghb i n ( E . t ) . W'l= // Corollary 8. . t ) of some A...I f B i s bounded i n ( E .). t ) be t h e generalized inductive l i m i t of the sequence ( E n . we may assume t h a t 2AnCAn+l f o r each n.2. . t ) .t ) . Without l o s s of g e n e r a l i t y .1. t ( Q ) = t ( d ) . 1 .1.. Clearly B C ^'t r\(Wn+Bn) and. t ( a) ).2. hence t h e r e i s q7p such t h a t C C C and thus B c B Conversely suppose B contained i n some B Let 9 4' 0 P' W:= * ' I f i ( N +B )nWo be a basic 0-nghb i n ( E .23: Let a = ( A n : n = l .t ).22 t o reach the conclusion. ) be an absorbing sequence i n F s a t i s f y i n g a:= . . . I f B i s a bounded subset of ( E . 1 . t ) . ) be an absorbing sequence i n a space ( E . . If G stands f o r t h e completion of (E. t ) . According t o 8.n a b i n Gc f o r a P c e r t a i n p. t ) be a space and F a subspace of E.1. t ) and U':=(Bn:n= 1. A n : n = l . 2 .1.24: Let ( E . hence a ( B n A ) c W n ( a A ) C W A A cVnA T h u s a(BnA ) c V P P P' P P and BnA i s bounded i n (E t ) . ) such t h a t tn+land t. Every bounded subset of ( E . the closed a b s o l u t e l y convex h u l l C of B i n G generates a Banach space Gc which i s covered by t h e union of closed subsets ( C n n G C : n = l . T h u s t h e conclusion follows from t h e f i r s t p a r t of t h e proof. we apply 8. 1 7 ( i ) .25: Let ( E .t( a ) )and Cn f o r t h e c l o s u r e of B n i n G. P P P Proof: Set C1:=(An:n=1. E ' ) ) i s absorbed by t h e c l o s u r e i n ( E . according t o a B a i r e category argument. t ) i s included i n some A and i t i s bounded i n (E .t ). P P' P If we assume t h a t each An i s closed in ( A n + 1 7 t n + l ) . t ) w i t h W nA C VnA Moreover t h e r e i s P P' O. t ( U ) ) .. induce the same topology on An f o r each n . t h e r e i s a.). t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r p such t h a t B i s contained i n t h e c l o s u r e of A i n : E . we apply 8 . // Proposition 8. I t i s enou* t o apply 8. There i s P P an absolutely convex 0-nghb W in ( E . 2 . . According t o 8 .CHAPTER 8 233 Proof: W e s e t B n t o denote t h e c l o s u r e of ZnAn i n ( E . 1 0 ( i i i ) t o obtain t h a t A n i s closed i n ( E . t n .l such t h a t BcaW'. // Corollary 8. Proof: t ( a ) i s coarser than b ( E ..23 t o obtain t h e existence of a p o s i t i ve i n t e g e r p such t h a t B i s included i n t h e c l o s u r e B of A i n ( E . t ) f o r each n .

t h e c l o s u r e P t a k e n i n ( E . which i s a 0-nghb f o r t h e t o p o l o g y induced b y tl on iW.t)' be a f i n i t e subset f o r f o r each n and t h e t o p o l o g i e s s ( F .11 O b s e r v a t i o n 8. f o r every p o s i t i v e i f m'p(n).17 can P. F i r s t Since Bn:=(D. P r o o f : ( i ) L e t V be a 0-nghb i n ( E . Thus 8. t ) ' hence (2 "-1 i s a compact a b s o r b i n g d i s c i n a f i n i t e .1.O).26: Let a be an a b s o r b i n g sequence i n a sDace ( E ..) t h a n t2. then topdogies on U induced by tl and t2.d i m e n s i o n a l space. Then f :={(x+U)n*$An:U i s a f i l t e r basis i n 3 An "I a. t i ) . s ( E .. L e t U be a 0-nghb i n (E.1. a 0-nghb i n (E.2. t h e r e i s a f i n i t e such t h a t and EnC 2 B n C 2 ( a c x ( D n ) n ( b A J 0 ) and B n c a c x ( E n ) .tl). i s an F-equicontinuous s e t i n ( F . A :n = A ( ( l+b) XE "i -3 An:b. t h e n ( * ) i s a l s o s a t i s f i e d . . t ) ' c e . i n t e g e r n t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e i n t e y r p ( n ) w i t h u(m)cA. vnu. suppose t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a v e c t o r x i n V b u t n o t i n W . ( i i ) i f t i i s c o a r s e r t h a n t i . t h e c l o s u r e taken i n ( E .tl) and l e t t i and t h denote t h e i f t i i s c o a r s e r t h a n ti.1. Then (i) t 2 i s c o a r s e r t h a n tl.1. T h e r e f o r e t h e r e i s an a b s o l u t e l y convex 0-nghb V i n ( E .tl). Thus W . t h e t o p o l o g y induced by tl on duced by t2. subset En i n ( F . t ) .1.t)) and t on F. t 2 ) w i t h Vr\(&l)cW. ( i i ) L e t W be any a b s o l u t e l y convex 0-nghb i n ( E. 1 An and b>O. t h e n tl i s c o a r s e r Then V n U i s a 0-nghb i n (U. t ) .17: -2 each n . Now we show t h a t VCW: indeed. ( F .tl) i n c l u d e d i n U. Since W i s a l s o balanced. Since Id i s balanced t h e r e i s O r b < l such t h a t b x € ( & l ) \ W . and. t 2 ) . i s a 0-nghb i n (E.234 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES ( * ) e v e r y sequence (u(n):n=1.+bAn)O Then. We show t h a t U:= 5 I ( D i + b A n ) i s a 0-nghb i n ( E . Our n e x t aim i s t o s t u d y when ( E . s i n c e t i i s c o a r s e r t h a n t i . I f U i s b o r n i v o r o u s and e v e r y s t r o n g l y bounded sequence i n E ' i s be H a u s d o r f f l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g i e s on a 2 l i n e a r space E. If e v e r y weakly bounded sequence i n E ' i s an E-equicontinuous.17 l e t DnC(F.a(n):=b i which i s Cauchy f o r t .) i n F ' such t h a t . i t f o l l o w s t h a t V n U i s a 0-nghb i n ( U . t ) ' ) we check t h e h y p o t h e s i s o f 8. Since U i s a 0-nQlb i n (E.t. and hence V. E ' ) ) and hence x r ( l + b ) l 3En *: L i s an F-equicontinuous by ( * ) . i s a l s o a 0-nghb i n 2 4 f o r t h e t o p o l o g y induced by t2. u En)"cU 0 be a p p l i e d t o o b t a i n a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r p such t h a t x ~ ( l + b ) A. t ( a ) ) Lemm 8. t h e n ( * ) i s sa- t i s f i e d . By hyi s coarser than the topology i n p o t h e s i s . t ) . an E-equicontinuous. Our a i m i s t o a p p l y 8.27: L e t tl and t i s rretrizable. P r o o f : Take for 3 n:.

..) t a i n e d i n 2%.22. .27 shows t h a t t = t ( U ) ..1..) be an a b s o r b i n g sequence i n a I f t(d) i s m e t r i z a b l e ..1. f o r i t i s enough t o show t h a t t h e c l o s e d ab- e v e r y b o r n i v o r o u s sequence U i n E.CHAPTER 8 235 and t2 b x c V . E ) ) i s locally coar- complete i f and o n l y i f . a c c o r d i n g t o 8. / P r o p o s i t i o n 8.n+l.) s i n g sequence o f a b s o l u t e l y convex subsets o f E c o v e r i n g E. s o l u t e l y convex h u l l o f any n u l l sequence i s compact i n (E'. T h i s w i l l be accomplished b y p r o i n E' i s (E.. . ded sequence (a(n):n=1.. U i s a 0-nghb i n (E. Thus W i s a O-n@b i n ( E . x > l ' l a c c o r d i n g t o 8.29: s e r t h a n m(E. . x > l &1.. A c c o r d i n g t o 8.13.1. Set An:=a(n)Bn f o r each n..E')) ( E. t ) . Then ( i ) ( E ' . j ) i s an i n c r e a - i n E f o r each n.i=l.16(v) s i n c e U f l A n 2 I x E E : I < u ( i ) ..2.m(E. t ( a ) ) . L e t a=(An:n=l. s ( E ' . ) Set Bn t o denote t h e p o l a r s e t o f ( a ( . t o ob- t a i n t h a t t h i s space i s l o c a l l y complete.) f o r e v e r y p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r s n and m t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r k such t h a t An+AmCAk. t ) ..) u(j):j=n.1.1.E'). According t o 5. t ( d ) ) .E)) v i n g t h a t e v e r y l o c a l l y n u l l sequence (u(n):n=1. P r o p o s i t i o n 8.2.. The sequence (Bn:n=1.2..t) t ( a ) i s a topology be a space. E ) ) .dE.) be a d e c r e a s i n g We s h a l l see t h a t t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r i s bounded i n ( E . o f A i s a O-n@b i n ( E . a : = ( A n : n = l . P P t h e c l o s u r e Bn o f An i n ( E .t( U ) i s c o a r s e r than m( E .E')..s(E'.El ).2%n f o r each n.11.. t ( a ) ) b a s i s o f 0-nghbs i n ( E . L e t (E..3(ii).E)) i s l o c a l l y complete i f and o n l y i f . . Then U : = { x ~ E : I a ( n ) .1.) equicontinuous.) i s a n u l l sequence i n ( E ' . t(a) i s (ii) (E'. hence con- p such t h a t 2 b p 3 U p .15.2.1. s ( E ' .m( E Y E ' ) ) . t 2 ) i s f i n e r than t l . This i s a contradiction i s a 0-nghb i n ( E . t h e c l o s u r e o f An i n ( E . 2 . The proof i s complete. By hypothesis. L e t (Un:n=1. ) i s a n a b s o r b i n g sequence i n E s a t i s f y i n g t h a t f o r each n \ i s a 0-nghb i n (E.. t ( d ) ) ..1. t h e n t = t ( U ) and t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r p such t h a t t h e c l o s u r e B P r o o f : A c c o r d i n g t o 8. t and P and 8.t(a)).. The sequence (x(n):n=1.28: space ( E .e q u i c o n t i n u o u s .2. t ) c o i n c i d e s w i t h f o r each n.2. hence B on B P f o r a c e r t a i n m. f o r e v e r y a b s o r b i n g sequence a i n E. a c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n c e Vn(2W)cW. Choose x(n)cU. for is and (u(n):n=1.E'))we can s e l e c t an i n c r e a s i n g unboun- of p o s i t i v e numbers such t h a t ( a ( n ) u ( n ) : n = l .1. Suppose t h a t t h i s i s n o t t h e case. P r o o f : ( i ) A c c o r d i n g t o 5.b(E'... t(a) c o i n c i d e // Now we analyze under which c o n d i t i o n s t h e t o p o l o g y o f t h e dual p a i r (E.n)nAn each n.2.

According t o H.E)).s( El . we have t h a t v e E ' . I n order to prove t h a t t ( A ) i s coarser t h a n m(E. t h e sequence ( v ( n) : n = 1 . t ) i s X--barrelled: indeed.2.2. then t h e sane proof above shows t h a t t ( a )i s such t h a t coarser i f and only i f ( E ' . where B n stands f o r t h e closure in t ( Q )( o r equi%ialentlyin t ) of A n f o r each n.2.1. i ... Since the sequence ( Z n A n : n = 1 . 2 . 2 . Observation 8 . s ( E ' . // Observation 8. If A i s 6-bornivorous.2 Weak barrelledness conditions Definition 8. ) covers E ..-quasi barrel 1 ed.s( E*. 2 : ( a ) A space E i s x--barrelled (X.10 a n d 5.30: Let @ be a t o t a l s a t u r a t e d family of bounded s e t s o f a space ( E . every bounded subset of ( E l .2. The r e s t r i c t i o n of v t o each ( B n .E'). ..i.b a r r e l l e d ( s e e 5. . . E ) ) which . E ) ) .b a r r e l 1 ed. E ' ) 6 there i s A i n a B i s absorbed by A . Thus ltn(v-v(n)).n-1 f o r every a i n A n . t ) ' ..a>lL2-nnn-2 f o r every a in An. . 8.Prop. ) converges l o c a l l y t o v in (E*.e.3: Xo-barrelled spaces which a r e not q u a s i b a r r e l l e d : Let E be a non separable r e f l e x i v e Banach space and l e t t be t h e topology on E of the uniform convergence on t h e separable bounded subsets o f ( E ' .16.q u a s i b a r r e l l e d ) xo-barrelled i f every (bornivorous) Xo-barrel i s a 0-nghb in E . t h e r e i s v ( n ) in E' such t h a t I<v-v(n).).-quasibarrelled) i f and only i f every bounded subset o f ( E ' . t ) is continuous. Example 8.1.) of closed absolutely convex 0-nghbs w i t h U= n(Un:n=l. i t i s enough t o show t h a t every continuous l i n e a r form v on ( E .1. Since ( E ' .§11.. E ) ) ) which i s t h e countable union of E-equicontinuous s e t s i s i t s e l f E-equicontinuous. t ) and l e t CC be a family of subsets of E i n t h e sense of 8.. ( b ) Every barrel 1 ed space i s r a .l. t L @ J ) i s l o c a l l y complete.1: A barrel U in a space E i s s a i d t o be an \-barrel i f t h e r e i s a sequence (Un:n=1. To prove ( i i ) proceed as above.s( E' .)be an absorbinq sequence in E.1. ( c ) I f an x-quas i b a r r e l l e d space E i s l o c a l l y complete o r i f i t s weak dual i s l o c a l l y comp l e t e ..236 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES Conversely. s ( E ' . t ( O . b ( E ' . ) ) beloncjs t o E ' = ( E . f o r every B i n than m ( E .3. E ) ) ( ( E ' . 2 .34). A space i s said t o be ( x .2na.2. E ) ) i s l o c a l l y complete. l e t U:=(An:n=l. Quasibarrel 1 ed spaces a r e xe-quasi barrel 1ed and xo-barrel 1ed spaces a r e s. ( E . t h e n E i s x a .

17 ( i i ) and ( i i i ) .2.E)).6: A space E i s s a i d t o be C . Con- n a n e l y t h e c l o s e d u n i t b a l l U o f E ' .2.// D e f i n i t i o n 8.F) i s e q u i c o n t i n u o u s .2.b a r r e l l e d ( r o . U and a l s o (E'.) i s a 0-nghb i n E. t ) .1.2. L e t ( E :n=1. 8. L e t (a(n):n=1.2...) P r o o f : Apply 8. Then E i s t h e s t r i c t i n d u c t i v e li- nit o f t h e sequence ((En.E)) sequently.9: f o r e v e r y space F.. P r o o f : Apply 8. ) be an a b s o r b i n g ( b o r n i v o r o u s ) se- quence i n an x o .2. f o r i f i t were.4: I f 0..17(v).). t ) . // Ifa space P r o p o s i t i o n 8.2. O b s e r v a t i o n 8.5: L e t U=(An:n=l.q u a s i b a r r e l l e d ) space ( E . t h e n t = t ( a ) . t ) (E'. which i s n o t ( E .7: If subset B o f E ) t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r p w i t h x e U n ( B c U n ) i f n 2 p. i s an a b s o r b i n g ( b o r n i v o r o u s ) sequence i n an x . .b(E'. a c o n t r a d i c t i o n ...) be an unbounded i n c r e a s i n g sequence o f p o s i t i v e r e a l n u h e r s .12( ii) t h e n t = t ( Q ) . t h e n e v e r y s i n p l y ( s t r o n g l y ) bounded sequence i n L( E.2. P r o o f : Apply 8. E would be separable.2. / / C o r o l l a r y 8. continuous. t h e n V i s a 0-nghb i n E.E)) ded subset o f (E'.e q u i - continuous.b a r r e l l e d ( C .t):n=l.2.b(E'. To see t h i s i t i s enough t o look a t t h e s e t s which form a b a s i s of 0-nghbs i n ( E . E i s Xo-barrelled ( xo-quasibarrelled).b(E'. t ( d ) ) .7.4 and 8. a i s an absorbing (bornivorous) sequence i n a C as i n b a r r e l l e d ( C . .b a r r e l l e d ( C .. t ) .8: ded) subset o f E i s c o n t a i n e d i n som En.q u a s i b a r r e l l e d ) space E such t h a t e v e r y f i n i t e (bounP r o p o s i t i o n 8. P r o p o s i t i o n 8. ) be an i n c r e a s i n g sequence o f subspan ces of a C .q u a s i b a r r e l l e d ) space ( E .1.q u a s i b a r r e l l e d ) space E.e q u i - i s n o t q u a s i b a r r e l l e d : indeed.2.. ..s(E'. and t h e r e f o r e ( E .b a r r e l U= I\(Un:n=1.b a r r e l l e d ( x .P.1.2.. ( E . such t h a t f o r e v e r y x (bounded i f e v e r y s o . t ) . I f V i s an abs o l u t e l y convex subset o f E such t h a t V n a ( n ) A n i s a 0-nghb i n a(n)An f o r each n . .2.g u a s i b a r r e l l e d ) i n E.E)). t h e r e i s a bounded s e t o f would be separable. i s a separable boun- s i n c e E i s r e f l e x i v e .=(An:n=1.CHAPTER 8 237 i s c o u n t a b l e u n i o n o f separable subsets o f (E'.

1+.11: c o n t a i n a copy o f K ( N ) . g i v e n any c l o s e d b o r n i v o r o u s sequence a=(An: i n ( E . s u p ( d ( i ) ( c ( i ) [ :i=l. . . n 2 I<x(n).t) i s a q u a s i b a r r e l l e d sDace which does n o t then. u(m)>l a ( n ) i f nfm.2. ) .2. i=l.. s ( E ' . v ( n ) E a(m)Z-'AA.. C l e a r l y ( u ( m ) : m = 1 . . Then t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r p such t h a t A P .. such t h a t cx(m). ) i s ( E . v(i)?( &a(n). which we denote i n t h e s a w # SP(A. v(m)> =2 and then. .. t ) .. Now we show t h a t g i v e n d ( i ) .sup( * rr) f o r e v e r y IP..I < x ( m ) . f o r CZ-' m we o b t a i n u(m)C 2-"A.v(i)>I ( : I 4 a ( n ) . BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEXSPACES /I be a b a r r e l l e d space which does n o t c o n t a i n a i n (E. */I Observation 8.10 shows t h a t b a r r e l l e d n e s s i n ( E . a(m) V E a(m)A.2. i f E i s a Yackey space. - OD belongs t o E ' .a(m)Ak w i t h t x ( m). '. and \ < x ( n ) .1.2.v>-'v.t). . t ) .238 P r o o f : See J .3. if n c m. i s a 0-nghb i n ( E . i f n)m. P i s a b s o r b i n g i n E f o r some p.2. such t h a t sp(An) each n and s e t L:=sp( x( n):n=1.u(m)>l i n E' d( i ) i f i j m .. w i t h Z.Hence p ( t c ( i ) x ( i ) ) = s u p ( d ( i ) \ c ( i ) \ : i = 1 . u ( m ) .. u ( m ) > ] d(i)\c(i)\:i = # d(m) c(m). be a c l o s e d a b s o r b i n g sequence i n a m e t r i z a b l e b a r r e l l e d space E. Moreover 1 I<Lc ( i ) x ( i ) ... t ) can be r e p l a c e d by l o c a l completeness o f ( E ' . .'d(m) ~ Ic(rn)\-2. E . 3 w i t h <x( m) . T h i s i s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n .2. v ( i h =O. 2 .x(n).) t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r p such t h a t A P r o o f : I t i s enough t o show t h a t A P i s n o t t h e case.v>\ . 2 . The sequence (2n'2v(n):n=1. E ) ) C o r o l l a r y 8.. v ( i ) > \ 22-a(v). The c l a i m f o l l o w s s e t t i n g u(m):= <x(m). t ) t h e r e i s a c e r t a i n p such t h a t AD i s a 0-nghb i n ( E . We have \<x(m).v(m)bI - . S e l e c t x ( n ) E An+l\ sp(An) f o r . n=1. We can assum? w i t h o u t l o s s o f g e n e r a l i t y t h a t ( a ( n ) : n=1. t h e r e i s a subsequence o f GL way.2.) i s a 0-nghb i n E. We show t h a t t induces on L t h e s t r o n g of strict e s t l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y . u ( rn) >\ :m= 1. ) a# 2sup( L c( i) x( i) . v > \ = \..v\l 0 G L kx(n)...u( m)> =d( m) and i c x ( i) . F i r s t we c l a i m t h a t f o r e v e r y p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r m and every sequence (a(n):n=1.2. t ) .e q u i c o n t i n u o u s . ( b ) An a n a l y s i s o f t h e p r o o f o f 8..) each i s continuous on ( L .t)-equicontinuous i n E ' .... Given any c l o s e d a b s o r b i n g sequence U=(An:n=1.) (a) If (E.2.2.12 (AMEMIYA-KOMURA's p r o p e r t y ) : L e t CL=(An:n=1. I f t h i s Theorem 8.&.2 l c ( i ) ~ l ~ x ( i ) . and t h e seminorm p ( t c ( i ) x ( i ) ) : = Applying the clairr.+~) f o r each n.t) i s b a r r e l l e d .) i s (E. since I 1 (E.1. ) .Z.Z.10: L e t (EJ) copy of K ( N ) .2. We s e l e c t v(m)E 2. hence v:= & v ( n ) \<x(m). t ) .< mx ( n ) . by i n d u c t i o n f o r n > m. 12..) i s d e c r e a s i n g and a(m)=l.) l y p o s i t i v e numbers t h e r e i s u(m)EA..2.u(m)> =1 and I 4 x ( n ) .

-barrelled space i s 1"-barrelled. Proposition 8. then ( E ' . According t o 2. Proposition 8. t ) . then i t i s 1 .s( E' .2. (GL.10 s i n c e a metrizable space cannot contain a copy of K ( N ) -11 I t i s worth t o note t h a t 8.2.. The following r e s u l t is obvious. s ( E ' .1. t ) .2. .10 and 5.14: ( a ) A space E i s 1 .16: Let ( E .since E is 1 .2.q u a s i b a r r e l l e d ) i f and only i f .2. OD Observation 8. E ) ) i s seq u e n t i a l l y complete. E ) ) i s a metrizable closed subspace of ( E ' . Then any a l g e b r a i c conplement F of G i s a topological complement.1. t induces on F t h e s t r o n g e s t l o c a l l y convex topology. hence i t i s s e q u e n t i a l l y conplete by 8.1.b a r r e l l e d ( I m . s ( E ' .s( E ' .15: ( i ) If E i s l--barrelled.34).2. o w w e prove t h a t AocU+G.15. U can be written a s a c x ( x ( i ) : i c I ) where ( d i ) : i € I ) i s an a l g e b r a i c b a s i s of F ( I f i n i t e o r the s e t of p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r s ) . b ( E ' .2. then ( E ' . Moreover. o r i f i f i t s weak dual i s l o c a l l y complete. Set A:=UonGA Clearly A i s bounded i n ( G L . . E ) ) .$.) is absorbing (bornivorous) i n E. t ) . N .6..b a r r e l l e d . ( b ) Every . I f x belongs t o A: hence A'is a O-n@b i n ( E .b a r r e l l e d ( s e e 5.12 can a l s o be obtained applying 8. E ) ) i s s e q u e n t i a l l y complete. s ( E ' . ( G I . ( i i ) I f E i s 1°-quasibarrelled. Proof: Clearly.28. ( d ) If an 1 -quasibarrelled space i s l o c a l l y comm p l e t e . t ) be an l--barrelled space and G a countable codimnsional closed subspace i n ( E .13: A space E i s s a i d t o be ld-barrelled (l--quasibarrel l e d ) i f every weakly ( s t r o n g l y ) bounded sequence i n E ' i s E-equicontinuous. E ) ) i s isomorphic t o e i t h e r a f i n i t e product of one-dimensional spaces N o r t o the Fr6chet space K In both c a s e s . E ) ) . the s e t U+G i s a 0-nghb i n ( E . f o r every sequence (Un:n=1. Definition 8.2. Our conc l u s i o n follows i f we show t h a t .) of closed absolutely convex 0-nghbs i n (E. .2.E')) such t h a t U:= A (Un:n=1. ( c ) Every q0-quasibarrelled and every l--barrelled spaW ce i s l--quasibarrelled. given any absorbing a b s o l u t e l y convex subs e t U of F. every weakly bounded subset of m G i s separable and hence E-equicontinuous.2.s( E. i t follows t h a t U i s a 0-nghb i n E..CHAPTER 8 239 Proof: I t follows d i r e c t l y from 8.

b*( E. Since x ( n ) c T f o r each n.q u a s i b a r r e l l e d ) Then (x(n). i f x ( n ) E D n V then \... P r o o f : Apply 8. S e l e c t b(. Since (G'. F o r every p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r k.x( k-1) .v( k ) > =O f o r x i n A.b( E.Z.. The sequence ( u ( r ) : r=k+l.2.b a r r e l l e d ( 1 . hence i t i s enough t o show t h a t Vn F C T n F .q u a s i b a r r e l l e d ) space F a separable subspace of E .2. n u l l sequence i n (E.x( r ) ) f o r each r > k .) space is a a n u l l sequence i n ( E . < x( k ) . a ( j ) € K and j o J .). I f A i s a c l o s e d a b s o i u t e l y convex subset of E such t h a t sp(A) i s of c o u n t a b l e codimension i n E.. f o r j E 1 .2.u( r ) > =1 and I<x..E)).. =1 and <x..s( E ' . C l e a r l y each Br i s c l o sed a b s o l u t e l y convex and x( k)c$ fir..) subset o f F \ T .) L e t (E.19: and (x(n):n=l..n=l.Z. we have t h a t v e UonGL =A hence k x . Moreover.jE J ) C l and // L e t E be a space such t h a t (E'.Z. v > \ = t ( \ a ( .E')). Since F \ T=F \ ( F A T ) i s an open subset o f be a countable dense t e r s e c t s F i n a 0-nghb i n F.. Every b a r r e l ( b o r n i v o r o u s b a r r e l ) i n E i n Proof: L e t T be a b a r r e l i n E.F'V F i s c o n t a i n e d i n F'V. . C l e a r l y (v(n):n=l. f o r c o n t r a d i c t i o n . where JCI. Set V f o r t h e i n t e r i o r o f U.E')) ( (E. yeG. T h e n l c x ( j ) .v(k)> // P r o p o s i t i o n 8..) be a cobasis o f sp(A) i n E.. j ) \ :.t) be an 1 .Z. w i t h a ( j ) b ( j ) = l a ( j ) l a n d d e f i n e a l i n e a r f o r m v on E by v(z)=O i f Z E G and c x ( j ) .)"is a 0-nghb i n E .. i s conplete.E)) hence converges t o a c e r acx(A U( x( 1). ) i s a Cauchy sequence i n ( E ' . then sp(A) i s c l o s e d i n E. F \ T C E and F \ T c F \ V and thus V n F C T n F.sp(A) i s c l o s e d i n E.v( k)> =O f o r kSi. v > : = b ( j ) if j € J ..s(E'.) a i s closed i n F and hence t h e c l o s u r e 5 of D i n On t h e o t h e r hand.18 // . 1 "( l / r ) f o r each x i n Br.2.Z.Z. t ) . c o n s t r u c t v( k ) E E ' such t h a t 4 x( i ) . .k+Z..x( k t l ) t a i n v ( k ) as r e q u i r e d .x(n).E)) i s sequential- P r o p o s i t i o n 8. F i t i s a l s o separable by 2 . The c o n s t r u c t i o n i s as f o l l o w s : Set Br:= . . t o F:= sp(x(n):n=l. t h e r e i s v ( n ) c E' such t h a t v ( ~ ) E Toand < x ( n ) .j). P r o o f : L e t (x(n):n=l. v > l ' l t h u s xcU+G..17: l y complete.2. Since sp(A)=n(v(k)L:k=1.E)) j€J. v ( n ) > > l i s bounded i n ( E l ..... 5 ( 3 ) ..240 x= Z ( a ( j ) x ( j ) : j € J ) BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEX SPACES + y. s(E'.Z.v(n)>\cl.s(E'.u( r). hence U:=(v(n):n=l. V A F i s a 0-nghb i n F. f o r each n .b a r r e l l e d ( 1 ..18: and L e t E be an l @ .// 00 C o r o l l a r y 8. Thus t h e r e i s u ( r ) i n E ' such t h a t < x ( k ) . L e t D=(x(n):n=l.). F i r s t o f a l l observe t h a t D c F \ V .

The s e t D:=U(D : n = 1 . ( b ) The weak ( s t r o n g ) dual of a co-barrel7ed (co-quasibarrelled) space i s l o c a l l y complete. (l=-quasibarrel l e d ) space // Examples 8. s ( E ' .1.25: ( i ) Let ( E .24: Every transseparable 1 .21: ( a ) A space w i t h s e q u e n t i a l l y complete weak dual which i s not l o . E ) ) i s E-equicontinuous. 2 . ) i s a weakly ( s t r o n g l y ) bounded countable subset o f E l .q u a s i b a r r e l l e d ) .2.22. f o r i f i t were i t would be b a r r e l l e d according t o 8. ( i i ) Let ( E . If t ' i s a topology of t h e dual p a i r ( E Y E ' ) on E f i n e r than t .2. 2 2 : A space E i s s a i d t o be co-barrelled (co-quasibarrel- led ) i f every n u l l sequence i n ( E ' . n hence E-equicontinuous.q u a s i b a r r e l l e d ) space E i s Xo-barrelled ( X o . b ( E ' . t ' ) i s l--barrelled ( l m .b a r r e l l e d ( 1 .33 and i t s proof). be a sequence of E-equicontinuous s e t s i n E ' Proof: Let ( B n : n = 1 . Then (E.20. Take E : = ( l 1. .1. .2.14(d) and 8.dl 1.2.q u a s i b a r r e l l e d ) .b a r r e l l e d .s( E' . .2. l 1) ) which has s e q u e n t i a l l y complete weak dual by SCHUR's lemna ( K l y 5 2 2 . E ) ) ) i s E-equicontinuous. T h u s t h e converse o f 8 .2. Thus 6 i s a l s o E-equicontinuous. an absorbing (bornivorous) sequence l l e d ( ?--quasibarrel l e d ) space and 9 in E. . 1 5 ( i ) i s f a l s e i n general. E ) ) ( ( E ' . . ) whose union i s weakly ( s t r o n g l y ) bounded.2. Take E:=( lw. t h e r e i s a countable subset D n o f B n which i s dense i n ( B n . E ) ) f o r each n.m( l w .b a r r e . m 00 Proposition 8. /I Proposition 8.and 1 1 would be r e f l e x i v e . ( 2 ) ) . Definition 8 . 2 .23: ( a ) Every C-barrelled space i s co-barrelled and ever y C-quasibarrelled space o r every co-barrelled space i s co-quasibarrelled.q u a s i b a r r e l l e d ) .2. then ( E . 2 .CHAPTER 8 24 1 Corollary 8. t ) be an P .20: Every separable l--barrelled i s b a r r e l l e d (quasibarrel l e d ) . According t o 4. Observation 8. 4 . E i s not even l--quasibarrelled. c o ) ) and observe t h a t i n t h i s case every null sequence i n ( E ' . t ) be an 1"-barrelled ( 1 . ( b ) A space E w i t h l o c a l l y complete weak dual which i s not s e q u e n t i a l l y complete. ( c ) A Mackey space is co-barrelled (co-quasibarrelled) i f and only i f i t s weak ( s t r o n g ) dual i s l o c a l l y complete ( s e e 5. 2 .t(LL)) i s l--barrelled ( l m .q u a s i b a r r e l l e d ) space. s ( E ' . Proof: Apply 8.18 t o F:=E.

I f t h e r e i s an a b s o r b i n g ( b o r n i v o r o u s ) sequence i n E o f c o n p l e t e sets.t).2..b(E..b a r r e l l e d ( l m .4. I n p a r t i c u l a r .26: Let (E.26. . ) be an a b s o r b i n g ( b o r - U(An:n=l. 8ence A P i s a b s o l u t e l y convex *// .q u a s i b a r r e l l e d ) =(An:n=1.) = A((l+b)U(”:n=l. Z ..// P r o p o s i t i o n 8. i s a n u l l sequence i n (E.E’)) i s a n u l l sequence.2. hence ( q ( x ( n ) ) : n = l . P r o o f : L e t G denote t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f E. t ) .27: L e t E be a space and F a subspace o f E which i s I-Let barrelled (I*-quasibarrelled). E i s b a r r e l l e d ( q u a s i b a r r e l l e d ) . L e t q be t h e gauge of A c c o r d i n a t o 8. q i s continuous a t t h e o r i n g i n and we a r e done. the c l o s u r e s t a k e n i n E. Since B P i s a 0-nghb i n E P G i s the u n i o n o f t h e c l o s u r e s B n o f nAn i n G .. then (E.242 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEX SPACES P r o o f : (i) i s t r i v i a l and (ii) f o l l o w s f r o m ( i ) s i n c e 8.q u a s i b a r r e l l e d ) space.2.2.) i t i s enough t o of i s barrelled (quasibarrelled).b a r r e l l e d ( l .. Since G i s B a i r e .) prove t h a t Tr\nAn i s a 0-nghb i n (nAn. Then b>O) a =( An:n=1.b a r r e l l e d ( % .. I f t h e r e i s an a b s o r b i n g ( b o r n i v o r o u s ) sequence m e t r i z a b l e subsets i n ( E . A c c o r d i n g t o 8. ) : .25 i s s a t i s f i e d and t h e c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s from 8. t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e i t i s a 0-nghb i n G..2.2. t ) i s r o . .2. ..2.27. n i v o r o u s ) sequence i n F.. Given a closed.2. t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r p such t h a t A 0-nghb i n E. I f ( E . t ) .2.2.. f o r each n .29 t ( a ) i s a t o p o l o g y o f t h e dual p a i r f i n e r t h a n t .27.:n=1.a u a s i b a r r e l l e d ) space whose is a c o m p l e t i o n i s a B a i r e space.2..19. i n t e g e r p such t h a t B has non v o i d i n t e r i o r . . ensures t h a t // P r o p o s i t i o n 8.Z . ) space.1..2. T. and t a k e c l o s u r e s i n t h e completion // e Theorem 8.) be a n u l l sequence i n (nAn. m // P r o p o s i t i o n 8.1.q u a s i b a r r e l l e d we proceed analogously. I n p a r t i c u l a r t h e c l o s u r e o f F i n E c o i n c i - des w i t h t h e u n i o n o f t h e sequence (n$.28: L e t E be an 1 .29: ce a=(An:n=1.25.1. P r o o f : According t o 8..). L e t (x(n):n=1.) L e t E be an 1 . a b s o r b i n g ( b o r n i v o r o u s ) sequen- i n E..2.. t h e n E i s conplete.t) (x(n):n=1.t) be an X e . Since (nA .2.t) i s m t r i z a b l e .1. P r o o f : It i s enough t o a p p l y 8.. o u r assumptions ilrply t h a t c o r n l i t i o n ( * ) of 8. A c c o r d i n g t o 8. of E.t) P r o o f : L e t T be a b a r r e l i n ( E .

t h e n F i s q u a s i b a r r e l l e d : indeed.1..33: barrelled (l--barrelled) L e t F be a countable-codimensional subspace of an space E. Determine sequences (x(n):n=1. If F i s c l o s e d i n E. As i n t h e case o f b a r r e l l e d spaces one can prove t h e f o l l o w i n a Proposition: L e t 6 be t h e f a m i l y o f a71 X . Then KO-quasibaspa- 1"-barrel led. V:=/1(Vn:n=1. I f Vn stands f o r t h e c l o s u r e o f Un i n E f o r each n.16 F i s Xe-barrelled ( lm-barrelled). I n 6.3 we gave an example o f a b o r n o l o g i c a l space w i t h a dense countable-codimensional subsoace which was n o t q u a s i b a r r e l l e d .) dimensional i n E. F i s dense o r c l o s e d i n be an shows t h a t F i s complemented i n E and 8.b a r r e l l e d .2.2.. Thus A i s a b s o r b i n g i n E.2. r r e l l e d .CHAPTER 8 243 O b s e r v a t i o n 8.2. l e t T be a b o r n i v o r o u s b a r r e l i n F and suppose t h a t i t s c l o s u r e U i n E i s n o t b o r n i v o r o u s .b a r r e l l e d spaces. 8. To g i v e o u r d e s i r e d exanple. we have The three-space-problem has p o s i t i v e s o l u t i o n f o r P r o p o s i t i o n 8. .b a r r e l i n F and l e t A be i t s c l o s u r e i n E. C-quasibarrelled. Then %- P r o o f : It i s enough t o p r o v e t h i s supposing t h a t E.b a r r e l l e d one oroceeds analogously.c o d i nensional subspaces. l e t U:=n(Un:n=l. C-barrelled. T h i s exanple shows t h a t weak quas i b a r r e l l e d n e s s c o n d i t i o n s a r e n o t i n h e r i t e d i n general b y c o u n t a b l e .q u a s i b a r r e l l e d .2...) ce a 0-nghb i n E...32: Xo.2.2.2.) i n E and ( u ( n ) : . 8.3 P r o p o s i t i o n 8. since the- r e a r e B a i r e spaces which c o n t a i n a copy o f K(N) ( s e e 9. r e s p e c t i v e l y . Proceeding as we d i d i n 4.4. I f F i s dense i n E. Since sp(A) i s countable-coshows t h a t sp(A) i s c l o s e d i n E and c l e a r l y coni s an x o .2.30: 8. Thus U = V n F i s a 0-ncJb i n F.2.17 X o . we have t o show t h a t i f F i s a dense ?-quasib a r r e l l e d subspace o f a q u a s i b a r r e l l e d space E. 1"-quasibarrelled C i s s t a b l e under t h e f o r m a t i o n o f : (i) separated ( i i i ) inductive l i m i t s ( i v ) comple- q u o t i e n t s (ii) a r b i t r a r y d i r e c t sums t i o n s and ( v ) a r b i t r a r y p r o d u c t s .16).31 (i) y i e l d s t h e c o n c l u s i o n .29 i s n o t a p a r t i c u l a r case o f 8. ces.2. E hen- // Example: A b o r n o l o g i c a l space h a v i n g a countable-codimensional subspace which i s n o t l = . I f E i s l w .10.b a r r e l i n t a i n s t h e dense subspace F.2.

Z . .F)) such t h a t G C ( f ' ) . .E)) hence i t i s E-equicontinuous.q u a s i b a r r e l l e d ) space. v ( n ) > l Thus (v(n):n=l..F ( l o c a l l y bounded) 1 i n e a r mapr p i n g w i t h c l o s e d graph i n ExF. L e t V be an a b s o l u t e l y convex 0-nghb i n F.. t h e c l o s e d u n i t b a l l U of F ' c o n t a i n s a c o u n t a b l e subs e t D ( i n c l u d e d i n t h e u n i t b a l l o f H ) which i s dense i n ( U o .m(H. f i s c o n t i n u o u s hence t h e r e i s a O-n@b V i n E such t h a t .b a r r e l l e d ( X o . F a t r a n s s e p a r a b l e B -complete space and f :E-. i f x e V . The f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s a r e e q u i v a l e n t ( i i ) L e t f:E-+F be a l i n e a r mapping such t h a t ( a ) F i s a bounded sequence i n E. . since (x(n):n=l.2. . Then f i s continuous. Then f i s c o n t i n u o u s .F)). Then i t s c l o s u r e i n (E*. I f v ( n ) i s t h e r e s t r i c t i o n o f u ( n ) t o F f o r each n.Z.s( lm. i s E-eqaicontinuous.E * for we i t s transposed mapping. A c c o r d i n g t o (iii) . t h e n sup( \ < x .s( E ' ..v(n)> :n=l.. i s c o n t a i n e d i n E ' and hence f ' ( z ) € E ' .. i s t h e s t r o n g dual o f a s e p a r a b l e Banach space H and ( b ) t h e graph of f i s c l o s e d i n Ex(F.l ( E l ) . Sinis Since H i s separable.Z. ) i s a s t r o n g l y bounded sequence i n F ' .e q u i c o n t i i s an E-equicontinuous s e t nuous s e t . . Since t h e graph o f f i s c l o s e d i n Ex(F.H)).l ) ) . ( i i ) c l e a r l y i n p l i e s (iii).Z..3 (iii) continuous. Consequently. i t i s enough t o show t h a t f i s n e a r l y P r o o f : A c c o r d i n g t o 7. given any v e c t o r z i n H.E)) sequence i n (E'.E)). We s e t Vn:=2-n+1V .2. ( v ( n ) : n= .2.) i n E l .). hence an F .s(F. s ( F ' . Proof: (i) i r r p l e s ( i i ) : L e t f:E-+F a p p l y 2.dH.. ) i s a bounded OD 1 i n G converging t o z i n (H.- la by f ( x ) : = ( < x. F i n a l l y l e t us show t h a t (iii) inplies ( i ) ..s( E ' . Theorem 8.E)) and d e f i n e f : E .). F ) ) ..2. Since G i s a l s o dense i n t h e n o r m d space (H.Z.s(E'. c e f ' ( D ) i s bounded i n (E'. :n=1. // Theorem 8.s(E*. (u(n):n=l. i n E ' such t h a t t h e f i r s t one i s bounded and u ( n ) E U " irnd < x ( n ) . t o o b t a i n a dense subspace G o f (H.) be a bounded sequence i n ( E ' .6 as i n (ii) and s e t f ' : F ' .H)).. t h e r e i s a sequence ( z ( n ) : n = l .F)). ( i i i ) The s a w a s s e r t i o n as 1 i n ( i i ) t a k i n g F : = l W and H : = l . hence a 0-nghb i n E and t h u s T E i s l=-barrelled. U i s b o r n i v o r o u s .2.35: L e t E be an % .s(F.)51... b e i n g a s u b s e t of V". i t i s e q u i c o n t i n u o u s hence f ' ( U ) a l s o e q u i c o n t i n u o u s i n E ' and t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f f f o l l o w s .) i s a O-Qghb i n F.s(H. ) Now ( f ' ( z ( n ) ) : n = 1 . F i r s t we show t h a t H c ( f ' ) . 2 . . Since F i s dense i n E. I t i s easy t o check t h a t t h e graph o f f 1 i s c l o s e d i n Ex( 101). B u t t h i s i s a contradiction.34: (i) L e t E be a space.6. E being 1 -barrelled.244 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEXSPACES n=1.. . L e t ( v ( n):n=1.( E l ) .. u ( n ) > =n f o r each n.2.

) such t h a t < x( n ) . We s e t Un:=f.27 and 8. As B i s bounded i n E.2.mfl".. E being lo-barrelled.34 c h a r a c t e r i z e s 1 -ba- r r e l l e d spaces b u t i t i s n o t as s a t i s f a c t o r y as 4. hence t h e r e i s a c o u n t a b l e s u b s e t A o f E such 1 1 t h a t E=A+f. ) o f a b s o l u t e l y convex bounded s e t s .) . U2 t h e r e i s a c l o s e d a b s o l u t e l y convex 0-nghb U(a) w i t h a b U(a)+ U2.2.-barrel T:=2.) i n E' f o r each n. and d e f i n e t h e f o l l o w i n g f a m i l i e s o f sem i n o r m on E:=K('): f o r each B i n (B s e t p ( B ) ( x ) : = s u p ( \ ~ x . .' ( V ) ..K ( I ) ) ) .b a r r e l l e d space which is n o t leo-ba (lm. ( u ( n):n=1.) In i s non c o u n t a b l e f o r e v e r y p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r n. a 0-nghb i n E as d e s i r e d . hence (U3+U(a))f\(a+U3)= #.s( E l .. Since F i s t r a n s s e p a r a b l e t h e r e i s a c o u n t a b l e subset B i n F such t h a t F=B+Vn f o r e v e r y n. s i n c e 8.b a r r e l l e d spaces a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d .. since W n ( A \ U 2 + U3)= 4 .l r r e l l e d ( s e e 4. o f subsets such t h a t In+l\ 111.E)) hence E-equicontinuous.2.2.CHAPTER 8 245 f o r each n.38: A l w . t h e n (a(n)Bn:n=1.. i n B and (u(n):n=1.q u a s i b a r r e l l e d . F u r t h e r l e t t ' and t be .. . o f real nuhers lari s a fundamental sequence o f bounded s e t s Given any unbounded i n c r e a s i n g sequence (a(n):n=1.) ar than 1 . which i s b o r n i v o r o u s i f f i s l o c a l l y bounded.(Vn) f o r each n.1T\(U3+U(a):ac A \ U2) W= Wr\(A + U 3 ) c and thus f 7 (V ) is i n E...2.37: t h e i n c r e a s i n g sequence (Bn:n=1. On t h e o t h e r hand. s e t I ( B ) : = {i€I: t h e r e i s u € B w i t h u(i)fO).. Since U2 i s c l o s e d i n E.. C l e a r l y e v e r y l w . L e t I be an i n d e x s e t which i s t h e i n c r e a s i n g u n i o n o f a sequence (In:n=1. f o r each n.2. covers E. F i n a l l y ..2.s(K Set G:=Krl' .b a r r e l l e d space i s & b a r r e l l e d . // Exanple 8. S e l e c t (x(n):n=1.. L e t E be an 1 . 1) ) p r o v i d e s an example of a G .2..) i s bounded i n ( E ' . t h i s i s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n . Since (Bn:n=1.1.2.34 i n v o l v e s a "mixed" dual D a i r c o n d i t i o n .2.b a r r e l l e d space which i s n o t x e .25 where 6 .2. // m Observation 8.2.21 ( a ) ) . Now W : = T \ ( U 3 + U ( a ) : a c A \ U 2 ) i s a O-n#b in E.2. P r o o f : Suppose t h e r e i s a bounded subset B o f E which i s n o t c o n t a i n e d i n a(n)Bn f o r each n. u ~ \ : u c B ) and. which i s a c o u n t a b l e subset o f I .36: The c l o s e d graph theorem 8. pn(x):= sup( I x ( i ) \ :i€In) f o r x i n E. f o r each a € A.(Vn) which i s a b a r r e l i n E. i t f o l l o f i h a t W n ( ( A \ U 2 +U3)LI ( A n U 2 + U 3 ) ) c A n U 2 + U 3 c U 1 = f .u( n ) > =a( n ) and u( n ) E B . s i n c e i t c o n t a i n s t h e ( b o r n i v o r o u s ) x. L e t (B be t h e f a n i l y o f a l l c o u n t a b l e bounded subsets o f (Krl'.b a r r e l l e d space which i s covered b y 00 P r o p o s i t i o n 8. Given B i n (8 .) i n E.1.2.

sequence ( ( E . I n o r d e r t o show t h a t ( E .e q u i t h e n D:=sup( I x ( i ) \ : i c 1 .t):n=l. n To prove (i).q u a sup( I x ( i ) \ :i€ s i b a r r e l l e d . Suppose t h a t v # G .2... I f U : = ( x E E : ( x ( i ) \ '1. Suppose t h e e x i s t e n c e of a v e c t o r v6V.n a b i n (E. Thus v ( i ) = O i f i c I ( I n U I ( B ) ) . v L ~ )C(p(B)( x)+pn( x ) ) i n In\I(B) f o r each x i n E.26 aci s also a .t)=ind((€. t ) . b u t (E.) . K I be a continuous l i n e a r f o r m on ( E .. .G.) . and s e t M n : = ( e ( j ) : j E In) f o r each n and M:=U(Mn:n=1. p ( B ) ( x-y)=O. t ) . e ( j ) > l 'pn(x) Since f o r x i n E and j i n In. l e t VE B i n 63 i s lw-barrelled. a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r n and C>O such t h a t J ~ x . F i n a l l y .t) j). t h e r e i s b > O and a sequence ( i ( k ) : k = l . I f we suppose (E.E').I 'D f o r e v e r y e ( j ) i n M and x i n A. ) i n I such t h a t I v ( i ( k ) ) \ Lb f o r each k.. ( v i ) i f En:=( x c E : x ( i ) = O f o r i c i s not the inductive l i m i t o f the There a r e I\In).246 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEXSPACES t h e l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g i e s d e f i n e d b y ( p ( B ) : B € ( 8 ) ( p ( B ) : B c B ) . C l e a r l y U r l E n = ( x c E : x ( i ) =1 i E 1 . t h e n U i s a 0-nphb i n E. which i s a 0-nghb i n ( E n . x(i)=O. i e I ) i s a 0-nghb i n should c o n t a i n continuous s e t i n G.G).e( (E. We f i n d b>O and a sequence ( i ( k ) : k = l . 2 .. . Thus v i s n o t bounded on U. To prove ( v i ) . we a r e done i f we show t h a t i t s poI l a r s e t V i n K i s c o n t a i n e d i n G. x ~ A ) i s f i n i t e and hence Then U : = U o = ( x € E : \ x ( i ) \ "1. where y i s d e f i n e d b y y( i ) : = x ( i)i f i E I ( B ) and y( i ) : = O if i € I\ I ( B ) .2. . parable. Moreover M i s a s t r o n g l y bounded s u b s e t o f G . \<x.2. ) 2 b f o r each k . t ) . observe t h a t t ' i s a t o p o l o g y o f t h e dual p a i r (E. ( i i i ) ( E .Z.G) and (pn:n=1.a C o n t r a d i c t i o n . x C A ) i s f i n i t e .b a r r e - To prove ( i v ) . To show ( i i i ) . C l e a r l y . 1 . ( i i ) follows f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t f o r e v e r y B i n 6 and x i n E. a c o n t r a d i c t i o n . (E. Then such t h a t \ v ( i ( k ) ) \ 1) and .E')). 8. t ' ) (i). .. t ) i c I ) i s a 0 . f i r s t observe t h a t i f A i s a bounded subset o f ( E .b a r r e l l e d and ( E .2. we have t h a t Mn i s an ( E . . Z . \ c x ..t) ( i i ) (E.t) i s not Xe-quasibarrelled..t) and ( i i ) imply t h a t ( E .2. .as i t f o l l o w s f r o m 8. l e t U be as i n ( i v ) and ( v ) . We i d e n t i f y t h e a l g e b r a i c d u a l o f E w i t h K'. f o l l o w i n g statements: ( i ) t i s c o a r s e r t h a n n(E. hence v i s n o t bounded on V:=( x e E: p(B)( x)+pn( x) that i s a contradiction. and t h i s i s a c o n t a d i c t i o n s i n c e e v e r y 0-nghb i n ( E . r e s p e c t i v e l y . t ) .. t a k e e ( j ) c G. i€ I'Tn)=(x~En:pn(x)'l). a p r o p e r subspace.) U i s c o a r s e r t h a n t ' and t ' i s We p r o v e t h e i s transse( i v ) (E.25 c o r d i n g t o ( i )Moreover l l e d . t ) ( v ) t#m(E.). then ( v ) follows: Since U i s c l o s e d and a b s o l u t e l y convex.t)-equicontinuous. d e f i n e d by e ( j ) ( i ) = l i f i = j and e ( j ) ( i ) = O if i f j .m(E. then i s lclo-barrelled. t ) i s n o t r * .t) :n=1.). t h e n E= U(En:n=1. t ) .t') c o a r s e r t h a n t. l e t us suppose t h a t M i s (E. t ' ) i s % . f o r i f A i s a bounded s e t i n ( E .2.G) . j c I.. s(E.

P continuous. i € I and set Mn:=(y€Eo: t h e r e i s a f i n i t e subset I ( y ) of I w i t h n elements such t h a t y ( i ) = x ( i ) . Clearly. E ' ) ) . z E D 2 ) . then p.7 shows t h a t i t coincides a1 q b r a i c a l l y and t o p o l o g i c a l l y w i t h 1 1 ( ( E l .) i n E such t h a t . . t h e n E i s 1 q u a s i b a r r e l l e d and. Z .n(E'. . .(v) 4 1. c o ( E ) ) ) . s i n c e t h e s t r o n g dual o f co(E) i s s e q u e n t i a l l y complete ( 8 . Proposition 8. 2 ..41: co(E) is 1 .E))). ) i n H . t h e r e is a bounded zequence ( x ( n ) : n = zPB(Y(n))&l 1. . Clearly C i s countable and.. i E I ( y ) . b ( E ' . s e l e c t a vector x i n E such t h a t x(i)sO. 2 ) . Exanple 8. B u t t h i s i s obvious since M i s bounded in ( E o . E o ) ) i s l--barrelled.Eo)) i s not .).2.b(E'. co Finally we c h a r a c t e r i z e when co( E ) i s 1 .CHAPTER 8 247 As a consequence of t h e exanple above. Definition 8. ) i n H ..).2. 5 ( i i ) .n(E'. then E s a t i s f i e s ( * ) . E ' ) ) . Indeed. Indeed. 00 Proof: If co(E) i s 1--quasibarrelled. H i s co(E)-equicontinuous and t h e r e f o r e t h e r e i s a closed absolut e l y convex equicontinuous U i n E such t h a t .ce-quasibarrelled.2. i f M i s a countable bounded subset of ( E o .b( co( E ) ' . Clearly.2.Eo))-equicontinuous f o r each n and x i s a point of t h e closure of M in ( E .m( E ' .4 and 8. f o r every countable bounded set H of ll{E) . . 8 .2. E ) ) s a t i s f i e s ( * ) .8.40: A space E i s s a i d t o s a t i s f y property (*) i f . s ( E .Eo))-equicontinuous. 2 . E ' ) ) and Eo i s a b a r r e l l e d space.. E being a r e f l e x i v e space. E ' ) ) which does not belong e a r e done i f w e show t o Eo hence M i s not (E'. .39: A c l a s s of Mackey l--barrelled spaces which a r e not X. ( i i ) (E'.b( E' . according t o 4 . . Then w e have ( i ) ( E ' .m(E'. 2 ..2. ~ ( E o . i f E i s fundamentally-1 1-bounded ( 4 . y ( i ) = O . b ( E o . - P u t D1:=(~€D:pU(~)#O) and D2:=(z€D:pu(~)=O)and set C:=(z/pU(z):z€Dl) 0 ( k z : k = 1 .Eo))-equilongs t o Eo and hence. 1 5 ( i i ) ) . then every closure point of M i n ( E . E ' ) ) beI is (E'. i f V E C . W t h a t M i s a bounded subset of ( E o . 4.cZp. s ( E . 2 .b a r r e l l e d : Let ( E i : i E I ) be a non countable family of r e f l e x i v e Banach spaces and l e t E be i t s topological product.2.2.( q u a s i ) b a r r e l l e d . s ( E 0 . i E I \ I ( y ) ) and M:=U(Mn:n=1. Mn i s ( E ' E' . then mcf f o r every y * = ( y ( n ) : n = l . 8. E ) ) ) =( co( E ) ' . i f B:=acx(x(n):n=1. Let D be t h e s e t of a l l coordinates of elements of H.q u a s i b a r r e l l e d i f and only i f E i s 1 cu 00 - quasibarrelled and ( E ' .(u(n)) L 1 f o r eacli u* = ( u ( n ) : n = 1 . .5 a r e f a l s e i n general i f E is assured t o be ?-barrelled instead of X.b-barrelled. Let H be a countable bounded subset of 1 1{ ( E l . .

b .42: co(E) i s l m . t h e n % ( y ( n ) ) = p u ( y ( n ) ) m C C f o r each k and hence pB(y(n))=O. P r o o f : R e c a l l t h e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of ]--barrel l e d spaces througb.b a r r e l l e d if and o n l y i f co(E) i s 1 . b .) then &pB(u(n)) hence 11{( E ' . i .2. i f M:=aTx(w(s):s=l. b a r r e l s (8.2.). There i s a bounded sequence (w(s):s=1..)E H and f i x a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r n. E ) ) (u(n):n=1.2.. Take y*=(y(n):n=I.) of bounded subsets o f a space E i s i n F: i f s a i d t o be a fundamental sequence o f bounded s e t s ( s h o r t l y f .43: co(E) i s l m .q u a s i - b a r r e l l e d and E i s 1"-barrelled. P B ( Y ( n ) / P U ( y ( n ) ) ) ~ P U ( Y ( n ) ) .248 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEX SPACES so t h a t C i s c o n t a i n e d i n U and bounded i n (E'.. t i s t h e f i n e s t l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y c o i n c i d i n g w i t h t on the e l e w n t s o f a a .b( E ' . W i t h o u t l o s s o f g e n e r a l i - D e f i n i t i o n 8.. Given u*= such t h a t . ) t y we m y assune when i t i s c o n v e n i e n t t h a t 2 R n ~ B n n + lf o r each n. Thus H i s co(E)- /I 01 Theorem 8. 8.(u(n)) equicontinuous.2. E ) ) s a t i s f i e s ( * ) .. 7 ( i i ) . s ..b.E)) bounded sequence (v(k):k=1.Z. . t ) i s s a i d t o be a (gDF)-space i f i t has a f .) i n H..8. 1 f o r each u*=(u(n):n=1.b a r r e l l e d and ( E ' . i f B:=aFx(v(k): 1 { (E'. t ) i s s a i d t o be a (DF)-space i f i t has and i s X o . Suppose E l = . u * c c O ( E ) ' and Let c o i n c i d e s a l g e b r a i c a l l y and t o p o l o g i c a l l y w i t h t h e s t r o n g dual o f co(E) b y 4 .1: a f. IfpU(y(n))=O. (E'.3 (DF).s.2..2. ?5 %(y(n)) b( E ' .b(E'. E ) ) ) 1.E)) s a t i s f i e s ( * ) . 8 . 1 0 s a t i s f y i n g ( * ) .3.9.q u a s i b a r r e l l e d and (E'. Set B : = E x ( C ) . (i) A space ( E .15) and adapt t h e p r o o f o f 4. 4 ( a n d hence E-equicontinuous) such t h a t .) t h e n ~7 p.. and t = t ( a ) .b a r r e l l e d i f and o n l y i f E i s 1 .. s .E)).b( E ' . Thus i*. e v e r y bounded subset of E i s c o n t a i n e d i n sopie Bm. = i Z pu(y(n)) "il 1 and ( E l .b( E ' ..b(E'.. e .)& k=1..2.and (@F)-spaces R e c a l l t h a t a sequence (Bn:n=1.b(E'.q u a s i b a r r e l l e d .2.E)) 4) H be a c o u n t a b l e bounded subset o f in t h e s t r o n g dual o f co(E).).// 00 C o r o l l a r y 8.b(E'..2. ( i i ) A space ( E .E))). 5 p r o p e r t y ( * ) ensures t h e e x i s t e n c e of a i n (E'... Since B i s E-equicontinuous. t h e n k y ( n ) I f pU(y(n))#O.

then E s a t i s f i e s t h e c.5: I f E i s a (gDF)-space. . t h e r e a r e a(n)>O f o r each n and a continuous sen’norrn p on E such t h a t pn( x) L a ( n ) p ( x) f o r each x i n E . given any sequence ( U n : n = 1 . // Definition 8. a = ( A n : n = 1 . 2 .3: ( i ) (DF)-spaces a r e (gDF)-spaces(ii) I f ( E . Equivalently. U i s a O-n&b in E . contains ( n ( U . b . n . p . Proof: ( i ) follows from 8. Proposition 8.. -eger k ( n ) such t h a t AnC U k i f k h k ( n ) . 2 .CHAPTER 8 249 Clearly ( i i ) does not depend on the s e l e c t i o n of the fundamental sequence Proposition 8.F i s continuous i f and only i f f : ( B . . t ) w i t h a f . ) of continuous seninorms on E . an absolutely convex subset U of E is a 0-nQlb i n ( E . Proof: I f ( E . t h e r e is a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r such t h a t B C U k i f kA1.7. a - // Corollary 8. t ) i s a (gDF)-space and l e t U:=A(Uk:k=1. ) i f . S e l e c t a(n)>O such t h a t A n C og a(n)Un f o r each n and s e t U : = f i a ( n ) U n . k ( n ) ) ) n A n and J hence i s a 0-ncJb in ( A n . 2 . t ) i f and only i-f U r l B i s a 0-nghb in ( B .p. t ) f o r every bounded absolutely convex subset B of E . Given any p o s i t i v e i n t e g r p we have A D c A n C a ( n ) U nf o r nap. 2 . // . t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e i . .2. 2 . 2. f o r every bounded subset B of E . ) o f 0n @ b s i n E.3.. ) be a sequence of absolutely convex closed 0n g h b s i n E and ( A n : n = 1 . ) a f .) be an &‘*-barrel i n E such t h a t . i n E.n.3. Conversely.3. .7 s i n c e t h e sequence i s bornivorous. ( i i ) and ( i i i ) follow from t h e very d e f i n i t i o n of (gDF)-space. i t follows t h a t E i s C-quasibarrelled. . A l i n e a r n a p p i n g f : ( E . Thus UAA. . ( i i i ) Let ( E . ) and sat i s f y i n g 2AnC An+l f o r each n i s a (gDF)-space i f and only i f i t i s C-quasibarrelled. s . t ) . s . .2: A space ( E . Given a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r n .2 and 8. . . b .2. t ( U ) ) . t ) f o r each n. .. suppose t h a t ( E . ) i s a 0-nghb i n E. . Since t=t(CL). t ) . then t = t ( U ) i s a consequence of 8. : j = 1 . . i f given any sequence ( p n : n = 1 . . 2 . t ) i s C-quasibarrelled. Then U i s a 0-ncJb in ( E .3. Proof: Let ( U n : n = 1 . t ) be a (OF)-space and F a space. t h e r e a r e a ( n ) z 0 such t h a t U : = A ( a ( n ) u n : n = I .4: A space E i s s a i d t o s a t i s f y t h e countable neighbourhood p r o p e r t y ( s h o r t l y c .F i s continuous f o r every absolutel y convex bounded subset B of E . Since E i s C-barrelled. t ) i s a ( D F ) space. 2 . . .3.

E)). Theorem 8.. ( b ) The s t r o n g dual o f a space E i s F r e c h e t i f and o n l y if E and (E.7: The s t r o n g d u a l o f a (gDF)-space i s a Frgchet space.E)) is and 8. ( b ) I f a met h e n i t i s norrred: indeed..) C Z-'UnB. s ( E ' . we have BG+l =V'+LC 2. Id i s c l o s e d i n ( E ' .s. i n (E'.. and c o n t a i n e d i n '2-*Un+l.m(E.q u a s i b a r r e l l e d ( s e e ( a ) and 8.6: 1.2. i 2-n-2 J U n n B 9 . ' i s a (DF)-space which i s convergmce on t h e s e p a r a b l e bounded subsets o f F n o t quasibarrel led. P r o o f : L e t (Vn:n=1.8: has a f . On t h e o t h e r i n p l i e s t h a t (E'. b . L e t U:=n(U.b.s. i s a 0-n$b where t h e c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s ..q u a s i b a r r e l l e d (8. i=1. ( a ) A space E has a f . closed i n ( E ' ... a b s o l u t e l y convex.) i s a f.b(E'.p..b(E'. There i s b( n+1)>0 such t h a t b( n+l)An+l C n.).1 Un+l + 2-1Un+l= Un+.3. .b(E'.b(E'. i n (E'. Set U :=CI(B.2.5). e b ( i ) A i i s a b s o l u t e l y convex. The s t r o n g dual of a m e t r i z a b l e space E i s a (DF)-space.b(E'. The s e t L : = . L e t V ' he an a b s o l u t e l y convex 0-nghh i n .. have a l r e a d y been c o n s t r u c t e d such t h a t B Y c U i and b ( i ) A i c 2-i-l U A B ? f o r i.so-barrel i n (E'. Therefore Bn+l:=(V'+L)o i s a bounded subset o f E and. // .b(E'. .3. E ) ) . P r o p o s i t i o n 8. hand. I t s p o l a r s e t W " i n E i s bounded.E)) O b s e r v a t i o n 8..E)) from absorbs e v e r y An.n.p. j = l Y 2 . ( E ' .E)) and c o n t a i n e d i n 2'1Un+1... hence i t s b i p o l a r . Set An:=V.E)) i s n e t r i z a b l e .E)). b . i s a bounded O-n@b i n E. be a b a s i s o f O-n@bs i n E w i t h Vn32Vn+l for First f o r each n. (E'..2) l o c a l l y c o n p l e t e . and i s c o n t a i n e d i n U.2.E')) i s c o .3. ...b.n. (8.b( E ' . s i n c e V'+L i s c l o s e d i n ( E ' s( E ' .p. ( d ) Eve- r y non-separable Banach space E endowed w i t h t h e t o p o l o g y t o f t h e u n i f o r m .) a :=(An:n=1.23 P r o o f : Since E has a f. i s m t r i z a b l e .3. There i s b( 1)>0 such t h a t b( l ) A 1 Proceeding by r e c u r r e n c e suppose b ( i ) > O and bounded s e t s Bi i n E. // i f and o n l y i f (E'. t h e n i t i s a (DF)-space Thus i t i s normable b y ( b ) . E ) ) .23). We a p p l y t h e c. s . ( c ) I f a m t r i z a b l e space E has a f. Thus E is normable.2. be a b o r n i v o r o u s .) ( a ) Every normed space i s a (DF)-space. t r i z a b l e space s a t i s f i e s t h e c.2.s. l e t (Un:n= i n E. i:i J s(E'..:n=1. f i x a bounded s e t B1 i n E such t h a t B i C U 1 .. .n.3. The p r o o f i s complete.9: each n.3. By o u r f o r m e r c o n s t r u c t i o n .. E i s C .2..250 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES Observation 8.E)). compact i n ( E l .b.n. which c o i n c i d e s w i t h W . be a d e c r e a s i n g OD b a s i s o f O-n&bs to find a(n)>O f o r each n such t h a t U : = Cia(n)Un and hence s a t i s f i e s t h e c.:n=l. E ) ) . s .2.s( E ' .n.

t h e n (E.pc( E ' . 2 . (ii) I f ( E .E)) whose elements a r e conpact a c c o r d i n g t o K1. 00 and t induce t h e sane t o p o l o g y on L.18 t o reach t h e c o n c l u s i o n . pc(E'.t) be a Frechet space.E)) pc(E'.12: t h e n b*(E.421. i t i s enough t o show t h a t A i s r e l a t i v e l y c o u n t a b l y conpact. Then (i) (E'.pc(E'.E)=pc( E l .pc(E'.CHAPTER 8 25 1 P r o p o s i t i o n 8.9. pc(E'.11: a r e n o t (DF)-spaces: conpact subsets. and endow i t w i t h t h e t o p o l o g y o f t h e u n i f o r m convergence on t h e p r e - If L i s a separable subspace o f a (DF)-space ( E . // P r o p o s i t i o n 8. pc( E ' .hence which agrees w i t h i t s e l f on each An. f o r each n and a : = ( A n : n = l .pc(E'. i t i s enou@ t o ap- P r o o f : Since e v e r y (DF)-space i s 1 .) i s a d e c r e a s i n g b a s i s o f 0-nghbs i n E.§21. P r o p o s i t i o n 8.Dc( E ' .E)) pc(E'.E) on each An.E) i s a t o p o l o g y o f t h e dual p a i r (E'. .E) and P i s a bounded sequence i n t h e s t r o n g dual o f (E'. i f and o n l y i f E i s Montel.E') j u s t t a k e t h e dual o f a F r e c h e t space which i s n o t Mon- t e l . Now a s s u m t h a t (E'.pc(E'. (ii) Every (DF)-space w i t h a f.pc(E'.2.10. o f netrizable sets i s quasibarrelled.s. (iii) If (E. Since E i s n e t r i z a b l e .E)) i s a (DF)-space by 8.E)) i s a (DF)-space and l e t A he any bounded s u b s e t o f E.E)) i s a (DF)-space i s a (gDF)-space which i s semi-Montel.E) and ( E l .10 p r o v i d e s a wide c l a s s o f (gDF)-spaces which O b s e r v a t i o n 8.12 t a k i n g L:=E and (ii) i s i n c l u d e d i n 8.E))-equicontinuous i n E and hence r e l a t i v e l y conpact which i s f i n e r t h a n t h e o r i g i n a l t o p o l o y o f E. i s semi-Montel.( 2) .pc(E'.3.b.6.26 .(E'.q u a s i b a r r e l l e d .3.E)) c l u s i o n follows.E)) Thus which i s a (DF)-space. r a t e d . p l y 8. Thus pc(E'.10: Let (E.n(E.13: (i) Every s e p a r a b l e (DF)space i s q u a s i b a r r e l l e d .E)) i s a (gDF)-space.t) i s a (DF)-space whose s t r o n a dual i s weakly c o n p a c t l y genei s quasibarrelled. K1.. . ) .2.3.pc(E'.3. t ) i s Montel .E)) ( i i ) (E'.E')) P r o o f : (i) f o l l o w s f r o m 8.b. i n (El. P r o o f : (i) I f (Un:n=1. s e t Clearly An:=U. hence (El.3. Thus t h e con- f o r t h e t o p o l o g y o f t h e u n i f o r m c o n v e r g e n c e on t h e preconpact subsets o f (E'. L e t P be a c o u n t a b l e subset o f A. Since E i s a F r e c h e t space.3.s.E) s e t o f (E'.(4) shows t h a t a subi s c l o s e d i f and o n l y i f i t i n t e r s e c t s each An i n a i s t h e f i n e s t t o p o l o g y on E ' w h i c h agrees w i t h i s t h e f i n e s t l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y Thus.E) c l o s e d subset. Onthe o t h e r hand.3. ais a f.2. b( E'. P i s ( E ' . t ) .. // 8.

(6).. which does n o t saL e t I be an i n d e x s e t which i s t h e i n c r e a s i n g u n i o n o f a sequence ( In:n=l.P)). t ) L e t A* be i t s c l o s u r e i n (E*. Set P f o r t h e l i n e a r span o f M i n E ' .2.10. Thus A"AG i s a O-n@b i n ( G .3.15: t i s f y t h e c. For e v e r y separan 2 b l e bounded subset B o f E ' : = 1 ( I ) .) The c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s . An 1 . Since ( < z .t) Y i s conpact i n ( E " .b(E'.14: ( a ) A (@F)-space which does n o t s a t i s f y 8.P).3. s ( E ' .21 ( b ) .5). A c c o r d i n g t o K1. Do i s a f. i t f o l l o w s t h a t u i s continuous on ( G . I f x i s a closure p o i n t o f L i n (E. we have t h a t s(ll.2. there s(E"..p.s. 3 . (E.4. 3 .co) and pc(1 1 . co b e i n g sep a r a b l e . .12 guarantees t h a t t and b*(E. n o t b e l o n g i n g t o L. t ) . t o t h e c l o s u r e o f H i n (E". i s conpact. Since (E'.3.. A c c o r d i n g t o 8. u > \ L l f o r every z i n Thus u L n G i s c l o s e d i n A"nG. pn(x):=( bounded subset o f E ' ) U ( p n : n = 1 .3.13 (iii). i n (E. By 8. 2 . Since ( E . ensures t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a bounded i s n o t closed.252 BARRELLED LOCA L L Y CON VEX SPACES ( i i i ) L e t A be a bounded a b s o l u t e l y convex subset o f (E'. C l e a r l y t h e c l o s u r e i s weakly c o n p a c t l y i s a (DF)-space. b . 1 1 E : = ( l .21 ( a ) ) . a contradiction. hence i s n o t a (gDF)-space (8.s(E*.E)).2. . t ) subset B o f ( E .b a r r e l l e d space w i t h a f .3.3.s(E'.3.s(E".s(E".b(E'. E ) ) . B i s n e t r i z a b l e f o r t h i s t o p o l o g y . I f we denote b y B t h e c l o s e d u n i t b a l l o f 11.§24.E))..1. Set E : = l 2 ( I ) . s ( E ' . i n E whose e l e m n t s a r e n e t r i z a b l e and E i s n o t q u a s i b a r r e l l e d b y 8.P)). t ) .co)) i s a (@F)-space. and t h i s space i s even n o t 1°-barrelled ( b ) A ($IF)-space which does n o t s a t i s f y 8. d e f i n e p(B)( x):= sup( \ < x . s .E')) El')).E)) generated.l 1 ) c o i n c i d e on l-. 8 . conpact i n ( E ' . Thus (nB:n=1. (l~.n. t ) . p a c t l y generated.§22. u > ( : u E B ) and f o r e v e r y p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r n.10. ) o f subsets such t h a t In+l\ I i s n o t c o u n t a b l e f o r each n. which i s If A i s not t h e r e i s a l i n e a r f o r m u on E b e l o n g i n g t o A * \ E ' .3. C l e a r l y u L n G i s n o t closed coin- Since G i s separable. p c ( l . 8.E') c i d e on G.t). ) L( lx(i)\2: i€In))"' and s e t t f o r t h e t o p o l o g y on E Qenerated b y t h e f a m i l y o f s e m i n o r m ( p ( B ) : B a separable which i s a t o p o l o q y o f t h e dual p a i r .13 ( i i ) .t). . A c c o r d i n 9 t o K1.6. // ( i ) and COP Examples 8.co) c o i n c i d e on B and.(2). t h e n x i s adherent t o L f o r t h e t o p o l o g y s(E". space whose s t r o n g dual i n weakly c o r n (8. hence t h e t o p o l o g i e s ~ ~ ( )1 and pc(lm. i s a sequence H i n L such t h a t x b e l o n g . Exanples 8. ( i i i ) such t h a t L:=u'nB Y o f L i n (E".n(lmyll)) i s a separable ( $ F ) e v e r y weakly conpact subset o f 1' i s 1 ~ ~ 1 pact. t h e r e i s a t o t a l a b s o l u t e l y convex conpact subset M o f ( E ' .2. L e t G be t h e c l o s e d l i n e a r span o f H i n ( E . C l e a r l y .E)) c l o s e d i n (E'.

t h e r e a r e a s e p a r a b l e bounded s e t B i n E l . we have t h a t B C Un f o r n'p. be a f .s.b. i n E f o r each n.O each x i n E. s . 00 ( E Y E ' ) . inplies t h a t the conpletion G o f E i s a f. b .2.((gDF)-) spaces.b. Since e v e r y v e c t o r o f E ' has c o u n t a b l y nany c o o r d i n a t e s .n.q u a s i b a r r e l l e d An f o r t h e c l o s u r e o f Q(B.) n=1.. t ) t i s f i e s t h e c.s.and ($IF)-spaces under t h e f o r n a t i o n o f (i) s e p a r a t e d q u o t i e n t s .2. b. ) (iii) f o l l o w s f r o r c l ( i ) and ( i i ) .. . L e t H be a c l o s e d subspace o f a (DF). i s a sequence o f (DF). i n E..q u a s i b a r r e l l e d i f E i s a (OF)-space).q u a s i b a r r e l l e d ) b y 8. ) i s X. T h i s i s a contradiction.u(n)> =n and \cz..) b a r r e l l e d ( o r X a . space E and Set denotes t h e c a n o n i c a l s u r (C-quasibarrelled).. 8.. t h e r e i s b>O such t h a t BcbQ(U)..Z. t h e r e i s a c o u n t a b l e subset J o f I such t h a t p(B)(x)=O i f x ( i ) =O f o r each i i n J ..31.. Since t = t ( U ) . Since e v e r y c l o s e d a b s o l u t e l y convex subset o f G i s a Banach d i s c . hand.) (nAn:n=l.u(j)>\Lb ( i i ) I f (En:n=1.2. a c o n t r a d i c t i o n . B y t h e v e r y c o n s t r u c t i o n above. A n y f o r each n.b. .b. Suppose t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a bounded s e t ZE B i n E/H n o t i n c l u d e d i n nAn f o r each n...s.s. (iii) c o u n t a b l e i n d u c t i v e l i m i t s and ( i v ) completions. i n E. i n E/H f o r each n. On t h e o t h e r hand. n ) : i = l .) i s a 0-nghb i n E..) i n G. i s t h e u n i o n o f t h e c l o s u r e s Cn o f ZnAn i n G f o r each n. (Cn:n=1. U:= n ( U n : n = P 1.b a r r e l l e d and has a f.n):n=l. a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r n and c. hence ( E .v(n)>\ Given any p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r p. // . t h e s e t s n o f t h e f o r m @(B(i(n). t ) sa- hence t h e r e i s a continuous s e n ' n o r r r p and t h e r e a r e such t h a t pn( x)Gb( n)p( x) f o r each n and x i n E.3. t h e n F:=$(En: ..2. ( i v ) L e t E be a (gDF)-space. A c c o r d i n g t o 8. Thus p such t h a t p( x)'c(p(B)( x)+pn( x ) ) f o r non-vanishing i s even a continuous n o r m o n E.. s .2. On t h e o t h e r r u n s t h r o u g h a f. Take y i n E w i t h y(i)=O i f i d j and y ( j ) = l . . 2 . as ( B ( i . . Since E i s C .2.) u ( n ) c (E/H)' i s a f..1. f o r j...u(n)>\ =1 i f 61). 8. b( n)>O f o r each n Suppose t h a t ( E .31..n=1.2.p) taken i n a s u i t a b l e order f o r m a f.2.19 i t s c o m p l e t i o n i s C-quasiL e t O-:=(An:n=l.31 shows t h a t E/H i s X . Moreover. I f Q:E-+E/H j e c t i o n . W e s e t v ( n ) : = u ( n ) o Q c E ' and Un:=( x e E: \<x.p. I t i s enough t o show t h a t i n E/H. b .-quasibarrelled ( C ..2. S i n c e p i s a norm we o b t a i n O<p(y) C c ( p ( B ) ( y ) + p n ( y ) ) = 0. t h e r e i s j i n I \ ( J u I n ) . (ii) countable d i r e c t sum.CHAPTER 8 253 i s 1 .s.2.16: The c l a s s e s o f (DF). S e l e c t v e c t o r s dn)c B \ nAn and with <dn).(($IF)-) P r o o f : (i) l e t (Bn:n=1.) be a f . are stable P r o p o s i t i o n 8.. i n F. hence i<x(n).q u a s i b a r r e l l e d .

.22: 9 i f i t were we might a p p l y 1.19. t h e c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s frorr ( i i i ) and 6.3. A (gDF)-space i s c o n p l e t e i f and o n l y if i t i s q u a s i (i).b. spaces ( E :n=1.3. P r o o f : I t f o l l o w s frolrl t h e p r o o f s o f 8.19: spaces (En:n=1. that A l i e s i n the closure D i n E o f the closed b a l l C o f radius b o f E C l e a r l y ..38.20: A space E i s a b o r n o l o g i c a l (DF)-space i f and o n l y i f i s a f.3.s.. P r o o f : I f E i s a b o r n o l o g i c a l (DF)-space and (Bn:n=1.2.17: L e t E be a (@F)-space.2. s i n c e t h e n o r m d space i t generates i s E D i s n o t a Banach d i s c .16 O b s e r v a t i o n 8.3. E.3. t h e n e v e r y bounded subset o f E/H i s c o n t a i n e d i n // C o r o l l a r y 8. t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e i n t e F r p and t h e r e i s b>O such i n 7..3.// C o r o l l a r y 8.) i n E.. ( i i ) i f H i s a c l o s e d subspace o f E. f o r c e r t a i n gyp w i t h DC E D e f i n i t i o n 8.23: ( a ) Every ($IF)-space ( b ) Every separable n e t r i z a b l e space E i s l a r g e i n i t s c o n p l e t i o n G.) a c c o r d i n g t o 6. i t i s t h e i n d u c t i v e l i m i t o f a sequence o f n o r m d spaces. L e t E be t h e i n d u c t i v e l i m i t o f a sequence o f (gDF)Then e v e r y bounded subset o f E l i e s i n t h e c l o s u r e of a bounded subset o f a c e r t a i n Em. Conversely.2..8. i s l a r g e i n i t s conpletion by O b s e r v a t i o n 8. P r o o f : See t h e p r o o f o f 8.3. 8...3. l . then E=ind(EB :n=1.18: co npl e t e .16.2. A subspace F o f a space E i s s a i d t o be l a r p i f every bounded s e t i n E i s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e c l o s u r e i n E o f a bounded s e t i n F.254 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES C o r o l l a r y 8. / / 8.3.). i f E i s t h e n i n d u c t i v e l i m i t o f a sequence o f norned spaces.2.21 t o o b t a i n a P' P' But and hence AC E q' a contradiction.) n A c c o r d i n g t o 8. 1 6 ( i ) and (ii). C i s a Banach d i s c .17 C o r o l l a r y 8.3.6.1.// P r o o f : T h i s i s a consequence o f 8. .21: Banach d i s c : i n d e e d .3.3.3. The c l o s u r e o f a Banach d i s c i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a we e x h i b i t e d and i n d u c t i v e l i r m ' t E o f Banach c o n t a i n i n g a bounded s e t A n o t c o n t a i n e d i n any En.2. Then ( i ) e v e r y bounded subset o f t h e c o n p l e t i o n o f E l i e s i n t h e c l o s u r e o f a bounded s e t o f t h e c l o s u r e o f t h e i m p o f a bounded s e t i n E.3.

E ' ) induces on E i t s o r i g i n a l topology ( E i s q u a s i b a r r e l l e d ) . n ( E .3. then ( E . . hence ( E " . Proof: Denote by F t h e completion of ( E .-barrel i n F such t h a t .(4). Proof: W e confine ourselves t o t h e case o f a C-quasibarrelled space E. d F . ( E ' .b( E'. E ' ) ) . Let Vn be the closure of Un i n E f o r each n and set V:= n ( V n : n = 1 . t h e r e i s a bounded s e t B i n F such t h a t C is contained i n t h e closure D of B i n E. ) of conpact subsets of ( E . t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r p such t h a t B C Un f o r n2p. and b ( E " .. If t h e r e i s a sequence ( K n : n = 1 . b ( E " . // Corollary 8.(4). t ) be a (DF)-space. Given any bounded s e t C i n E .b( E ' .E))-equicontinuous. resp. then E i s a l s o a ( D F ) . T h u s G C E " .( ( gDF)-) space.s( F .3.3.( ( @F)-) space. Denote by Mn t h e closed absolutely convex hull of Kn i n F f o r each n . f o r every bounded s e t B in F .(5) i n p l i e s t h a t t h e topology of F coincides w i t h n ( F . E ' ) ) .n a b i n E . 2 . t ) . There exists a p o s i t i v e i n t e 9 r p such t h a t B c Un f o r n>p. E ' ) ) i s b a r r e l l e d : l e t A be a bounded . Let U:=n(Un:n=1. s ( E .2. ) . 1"-quasibarrelled spaces.24. E ) ) is a conplete (DF)-space. // Proposition 8.9. E ' ) ) i s q u a s i b a r r e l l e d . ECFCG and K1.( ( $ F ) .3. C-quasibarrelled. Proof: Clearly the completion G of F is a ( D F ) .CHAPTER 8 255 According t o 8. l be t h e c l a s s of a l l q u a s i b a r r e l l e d . we a r e done.§29. The conclusion follows from8.6 shows t h a t ( b ) i s not t r u e i n general f o r a non-separable Frechet space. n ( E . E ' ) ) and by G t h e conpletion of ( E .26: Let ( E .) space which contains E as a large subspace. .4.3. Every bounded subset B of G is t h e n a separable bounded subset of ( E " . A countable dense subset of B i s ( E ' .521. each Mn i s conpact i n (F. According t o K1. b ( E ' .§18. F ) .. Since E i s C-quasibarrelled.5. and t h e r e f o r e the sequence of t h e i r polars i n E ' i s a b a s i s of O-ncjIbs f o r a c e r t a i n m t r i z a b l e topology s on E' coarser than n ( E ' . Thus U=VAF i s a 0-nghb i n F. 2 .25: I f a space E contains a dense subspace F which i s a ( D F ) .24: Let " b a r r e l l e d . t h e n every l a r g e subspace o f E a l s o belongs t o 1 7 1. hence C C V . . Xp-quasiProposition 8.E))-equicontinuous hence B is a l s o ( E ' . by 8.§24. b ( E " . An exanple t o be found i n K1. T h u s t h e r e i s a bounded absolutely convex subset M of E whose bipoB u t M""nG i s t h e c l o s u r e i n G of M and l a r M o o i n E" s a t i s f i e s B C M " " & . F i r s t we show t h a t ( F . I f E i s a space belonging t o ?l-L .7. E ' ) .3.) be an X. According t o K1. E ' ) ) whose union i s dense i n E . f o r n'p. . V i s a 0 .4. E ' ) ) i s a Frechet space.

s. F n G i s e i t h e r a hyperplane o f G o r c o i n c i d e s w i t h G and Dn i s a 0-nghh i n sp(Dn).s(E'.s(E'. Thus 8.G)) i s a (DF)- space. we a r e done b y showing t h a t F i s a larcje subgiven any p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r n>p.29: I f E i s a ( D F ) . s . F ) ) .9.dE. space which i s t h e union o f a sequence o f weakly conpact s e t s b u t i t i s n o t L e t E be a space. Since BnnF C DnC CnCBn.3.27: L e t E be a non-separable r e f l e x i v e Banach space and i s a (DF)- t t h e t o p o l o g y o f t h e u n i f o r m c o n v e r c p c e on t h e separable bounded subsets o f E ' . t ) subset o f (E'. Then P i s a Countable bounded and.3. Now.3. I t i s enough t o c a r r y t h e p r o o f supposing t h a t F i s a hyperplane of E.4 I t i s easy t o see t h a t A COP I f we show t h a t A i s r e l a t i v a l y c o u n t a b l y i t w i l l f o l l o w t h a t i t i s a l s o conpact a c c o r d i n g t o .256 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEXSPACES c l o s e d a b s o l u t e l y convex subset o f ( E ' . o f c l o s e d s e t s i n E.. t ) q u a s i b a r r e l l e d . as e q u i c o n t i n u o u s s u b s e t o f E l . t h e r e i s a D o s i t i v e i n t e g e r p such t h a t B O F is n o t c l o s e d P i n E. F a subspace o f E and V an a b s o l u t e l y convex O-n$tb i n E. Since ( E ' .((gDF)-) space and F i s a f i n i t e . s ( E ' .3.E')) Lemna 8. i n G. L e t P be any c o u n t a b l e subset o f A . b . t ) . // O b s e r v a t i o n 8.b(E'. Thus we have proved t h a t A i s an ( F y ~ F y E ' ) ) i s b a r r e l l e d . have G A F c s p ( D n ) C s p ( C n ) C G . Set G f o r t h e n o r r e d space generated by B n and denote by Dn t h e c l o s u r e o f BnnF i n G.3. F ) ) . VnF i n E coin- // P r o p o s i t i o n 8. s i t i v e i n t e g e r rn such t h a t B n C Cm. L e t us show t h a t . E ) ) i s a Frechet space (8. 0.) i s a f. Since t h e c l o s e d u n i t b a l l o f E i s weakly compact.b(E'.c o be a f . i s bounded i n (E'.E)).24 implies t h a t ( E. Suppose t h a t F i s dense i n E. E i s a l a r g e subspace o f F and m(F.. Then t h e l i n e a r span o f t h e c l o s u r e W o f c i d e s w i t h t h e c l o s u r e G o f F i n E and W i s a O-n&b Proof: V T \ F i s a 0-nghb i n F and F i s dense i n 6. P i s ( E .( ( g D F ) . I f F i s c l o s e d i n E.h. P r o o f : L e t (Bn:n=1.E')) n(E.e q u i c o n t i n u o u s since ( E .E')) Ec F c G ..3. by K1. i n F. ( E ..E)) (E'.) n=1.7). C l e a r l y (BnnF: d i m n s i o n a l subspace o f E. Denote by Cn t h e c l o s u r e o f B n n F i n E f o r each n. pact i n (E'. I n t h i s case.E') induces on E t h e t o p o l o g y i s quasibarrelled.24. t h e r e i s a powe space o f E . which is a c l o s e d subspace . Moreover.(6). A c c o r d i n g t o 8.3. Consequently (F. L e t x be a v e c t o r o f C ( a n d hence o f B ) n o t belongP P i n g t o F.2.16(i).n(F.( E.3.) space.2. b ( E ' . t h e n F i s a (DF). F i s conplerrented i n E and t h e c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s f r o m 8.28: i s even b a r r e l l e d .m(E.E'). s ( E ' .F)).423. Hence P i s G-equicontinuous and t h e r e f o r e r e l a t i v e l y conpact i n b o t h and ( E ' .

7. . Dn+D i s a 0-nghb i n G contained in 2Cn and Cn i s a l s o a 0-nghb i n G. E ) ) which i s a Frechet sDace by 8.E'). t " ) . Let A be a bounded subset o f (E". t " ) .32: I f ( E . . then. // Observation 8. t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e constant b such t h a t B n C b C n ...3. s ( E " . E ' ) ) . t " ) i s a (DF)-space. i n ( E " . Then t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r p such t h a t B ' C A " . hence U" i s bounded i n ( E ' . i f Dn denotes t h e closure of B n i n ( E " . . C i s bounded i n ( E " .2. Ue s h a l l construct a sequence ( a ( n ) : n = 1 .Thus i f F i s a countable-codinensional subspace of E .E ) / / I . f o r i . Taking polars in E " . in E and C any bounded s e t i n ( E " .E') i s coarser than t" and t" i s c o r s e r than b*(E".CHAPTER 8 257 of G ( 8 .3. the l a t t e r s e t being the c l o s u r e o f B i n ( E " . Z .) o f absolutely convex 0-nghbs i n ( E " . E ' ) ) .30. we P have A c A " " C B ~ " . Therefore i t s polar U"" i n E" i s a 0-nghb i n ( E " .s(E".31: Let ( E . . t " ) . T h u s t" i s coarser than b*( E " . E l ) ) f o r each n . x € C n \ s p ( D n ) and then G=so(Dn)Fesp(x) and hence. being a closed E-equicontinuous s e t . 3 .33. E " ) ) . ) of p o s i t i v e r e a l s n u h e r s . t ) be a space and t" t h e natural topolooy on E". I f sp(Dn)#G. b ( E ' . i f D stands f o r t h e absolutely convex hull of x. Theorelr8. hence conple- m n t e d . 2 . s . . Then s(E".1U f o r each n . On t h e o t h e r hand U". b * ( E " .2. . Since x c C n \ F we have t h a t sp(Cn)=G. Hence ( E " . E ' ) ) hence i t s polar C" i n E' i s a barrel i n ( E ' . . t ) . such t h a t ( i ) a ( n ) D n c 2 .) be a bornivorous Xo-barrel i n ( E " . a sequence (Vn:n=1. ) i s a f . then i t i s a closed. Let U be an absolutely convex 0-nghb i n ( E . E ' ) i s c o a r s e r than t".s(E". we obtain t h a t ( D n : n = 1 . i s a Banach d i s c bounded i n ( E ' . In t h i s case.2.3. .3.3. s ( E ' . Therefore every countable-codi nensional subspace of E i s a (DF)-space. b ( E ' . t " ) . E ' ) ) . 2 . j = l . E " ) ) . then ( E " . E l ) ) . hyperplane of G .30: If E i s a l o c a l l y conplete (DF)-space. ) be a f . ( i i ) a ( i ) D i C V . Since b ( B n n F ) i s a bounded subset of F i t is contained i n som B m n F . J and ( i i i ) V n c U n f o r each n . Consequently B n C C m a s desired. s ( E ' . L e m 8. Let U:=fl(Un:n=1. Proof: I t i s easy t o see t h a t s ( E " .. b . closed in (E". . s ( E " . t ) i s a (DF)-space. as a consequence of 8. then Cn i s a 0-nghb i n G . s ( E " . s . P Consequently. f o r each n . I t s polar s e t A" i n E ' i s a barrel in ( E ' . F i s a l s o Xo-barrelled. By 3. s ( E " . A" absorbs U". In both c a s e s . E " ) ) .7.. 2 . then E i s a b a r r e l l e d according t o 8.2. I f sp(Dn)= G .2. 2 8 ) . b . Proof: Let ( B n : n = 1 . E ' ) ) have the sane bounded s e t s .3. t " ) and ( E " . According t o 8.

t"). .t) f r o m where one has t h a t i t s c l o s u r e W " i n (E".h .s(E".2.2.E')).( i Vn+An)cU. // D e f i n i t i o n 8.n+l). t ( Q 3 ) ) ..s(E".2. t ) i s (DF)-.s(E". The c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s .b(E'.. i n d u c e on A t h e sane t o p o l o g y ..s(E".. o v e r . i f Vn denotes t h e 00 we a p p l y 8. Since ( E .)=Enn(Vn:n=1.1. On t h e o t h e r hand.t"). V : = V o n m n.s(E".n)) (E"....n a b U i n E t h e r e e x i s t s .t) i s a (@F)-space. t ) c l o s u r e i n ( E " .12 t o o b t a i n a sequence (Un:n=0.t") c l o s u r e o f W i n (E".E')).33: space.. n t ) s i n c e a(i)BiCa(i)AinEEcW f o r each i.s.. t h e r e i s an a b s o l u t e l y convex O-n@b V i n E such t h a t E i s q u a s i n o r m b l e i f f o r e v e r y a b s o l u t e l y convex O . since W " c n(Vn:n=1. (u(a(i)Di:i=l. Since each An i s compact and Vn i s c l o s e d i n (E".E')) i s a O-n$b r e f o r e i n U.... since (E.E')).E')) such t h a t .n a b s i n ( E . c l o s e d i n (E".t) P r o o f : I f C3=(Bn:n=1.a(n) Di c l o s e d i n (E". such t h a t VICU1 and a p o s i t i v e s c a l a r a( 1) w i t h a( 1)DlC2-$AV1. More- Set Wn:=VnA E which i s a c l o s e d a b s o l u t e l y convex O-n*b i n (E.. hence Vn+l:DW i s a b s o l u t e l y convex and conpact i n (E". W:= f l (W :n=1.t").t"). . Finally..2. An b e i n 9 t h e c l o s u r e o f B n i n (E".2. hence i n t h e space (E. W i s a 0nghb i n (E. we o b t a i n t h a t U i s a O-ndlb i n ( E " . Now i t i s O-nab i n (E".)c A(Un:n=1.s(E".s(E". i n (E".E')). and V1.2..E')).1.s.s(E". 2 .258 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEXSPACES We proceed b y r e c u r r e n c e f i r s t determine an a b s o l u t e l y convex 0-nghb V 1 i n (E". i s a f. a =(An:n=1. V i s a b s o l u t e l y convex and i s a 0-nghb i n ( E ... s ( E " . I f (E. Our c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s i f we show t h a t t " = t " ( a ) .E')). s a t i s f y i n g (i)--(iii) a l r e a d y c o n s t r u c t e d .E')) is a 0-nghb i n ( E " .3.) o f c l o s e d a b s o l u t e l y convex 0 .) i s a b o r n i v o r o u s b a r r e l i n (E.E')).b.. i s an a b s o l u t e l y convex n+ I' Z-hAn(vi:i=1.t).b. Since each we have t h a t D:=acx Moreover D C 2 . nuous subset A o f E ' .. i n (E.) proceed as above t o show t h a t s a t i s f y i n g 2BnCBn+l i n (E". suppose a( 11.t") i s a (g0F)we each P r o p o s i t i o n 8. t " ( U ) ) .t) The s e t W : = U o n fi(Un+Bn) ...s(E".Vn F o r a c e r t a i n p o s i t i v e i n t e p r n .)c U..2. t " ) .t).) i s a f.. E ' ) ) o f Un f o r each n . i s given by t h e c l o s u r e s i n (E". contained i n U enough t o choose a(n+l)>O such t h a t a(n+l)Dn+lc .E')).t) i s a (@F)-space. t " ) o f a basis i n (E. // then (E". Finally.e q u i c o n t i and E i ..b n + 1 c o n t a i n s a c e r t a i n a b s o l u t e l y convex O-n@b W i n c l o s e d i n (E".E)) A space E i s quasinormable i f .34: A C V " and (E'.s(E". E q u i v a l e n t l y . i s a l s o compact i n (E". t " ) ..3. given any E . Since a b a s i s o f O-n@bs i n ( E " . the c o n t a i n e d i n V and the- closed i n (E"..s(E". L e t U be an a b s o l u t e l y convex O-n@b i n ( E " .

there is a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r k w i t h l l k i a . Then t h e norm topology and t coincide on U and. M. according t o 8. t ) does not have t h e s. s .1. s h a l l prove t h a t M..c..1 Ak=kiDk Ck-'V"caV" and t h u s ( E ' . b u t (E. b ( E ' .c.3.38: A (DF)-space w i t h the M.3.b*(E. E ) ) and induce t h e same topology on U" Ei0 -// Example 8. Clearly.. In p a r t i c u l a r .12. 8.2. // Proposition 8.2. t ) s a t i s f i e s t h e M. which does not have the s. b . t ) i s quasinormable.c.c. s .: suppose t h e conand ( E . Proposition 8.c.E')). then ( E " .c. ( E . contained i n U .37: Every (gDF)-space i s quasinormable.) be a null sequence i n ( E .: (nU:n=l.Z.M.c.3. t coincides w i t h t h e norm topology. b ( E ' . Proof: Let (An:n=1. hence Uonk.c. i f ( E .5. and t is s t r i c t l y c o a r s e r than t h e normed topology l e t (x(n):n=1. coincide f o r bornological (DF)-spaces..7.c.) i s a 0-nghb i n E . t " ) i s quasinormable. Then ( i ) ( E . Moreover. In 8.49 we and s. E ) ) s a t i s f i e s the s. ( i i ) ( E .. t l ) i s a bornological (DF)-space ( 3 ) ( E .c.M.3. According t o 8. Proposition 8.3. such t h a t f o r every a>O t h e r e i s a bounded subset B i n E w i t h VcB+aU.3. t ) . Take f o r E again a non-separable r e f l e x i v e Banach space w i t h closed u n i t ball U and t t h e topology of t h e uniform convergence on E on the separ a b l e bounded subsets of E l .3. t ) i s a non-quasibarrelled (OF)-space w i t h o f E. Given a.27.M..39: Consider Hausdorff l o c a l l y convex topologies t l y t 2and t3 on a l i n e a r space E such t h a t ( 1 ) t l i s f i n e r than t 2 and t2 i s f i n e r than t3 ( 2 ) ( E . Set D k : = ( k U o ) A A i f o r each k .CHAPTER 8 259 an absolutely convex 0-nghb V i n E .36: T h e c l a s s of quasinormable spaces i s s t a b l e under the formation of ( i ) s e p a r a t e d q u o t i e n t s ( i i ) countable d i r e c t sums and products and ( i i i ) countable inductive limits. a c o n t r a d i c t i o n . i t i s a n u l l sequence i n (E. b . each D k i s an E-equicontinuous subset of E ' . i n E and l e t U be a closed absolutel y convex 0-nghb i n E . Given any p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r n.b*(E.2..10.) a s f . t ) induce t h e same t r a r y . Proof: See J.E')) = EU. t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r p such t h a t E PU topology on U. the s t r o n g l y bounded subsets of t h e dual of a quasinormable q u a s i b a r r e l l e d space a r e metrizable.. Since E i s a (gDF)-space.35: A quasibarrelled space E is quasinormable i f and only i f ( E ' .. Lemna 8..2 shows t h a t V:=A(Di:k=1. AncDi f o r n'k.O.) be a f . t 2 ) i s b a r r e l l e d and ( 4 ) .

i ( E ) ) i s t h e transposed rrapping of J . Observe t h a t t h e mere c o n d i t i o n o f ( E ' . Z.b.7).) coincides w i t h quence i n t h e b a r r e l l e d space ( E .b(E'. E ) ) i s E-equicontinuous. t h e i d e n t i t y i s c o n t i n u o u s as d e s i r e d .tz) a b a r r e l i n (E.2.E)) b( E ' .G))-?:+ J* i s open as d e s i r e d . b(E'.E)). both topologies c o i n c i d e : indeed. is a ce t h e s t r o n g dual o f (E'. E ' . . Thus tl=tz. t 2 ) . n=1. (gDF)-space and J:E-+G ( c ) L e t ( G .. : U c U ) .. b(E' . k ) ) i s an a b s o l u t e l y convex compact subset o f ( E .8.b( E ' .3..tz). I f E i s a (gDF)-space.tl)=ind(% (U ( b ( n)Bn:n=l.3..E)) Since (E'. .260 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEXSPACES there e x i s t s a f.s.. i ( G ) ) .t3). t ) t h e c a n o n i c a l i n j e c t i o n .) . Set J* f o r i t s s t r o n g t r a n s - posed mapping. t ) be a space. (Bn:n=l. t z ) . V k C V k + l f o r each k .E)) i s b a r r e l l e d b u t n o t b o r n o l o g i c a l (and t h e r e f o r e b( E ' . E ) # i ( E ) ) s i n which i s E. t h e i n d u c t i v e t o p o l o g y o f BEREZANSKII. i ( E ) ) maps n u l l sequences i t i s b o r n o l o g i c a l and hence n u l l sequences a r e E-equicontinuous s e t s .7. I" (E'. ( b ) I f U denotes a b a s i s o f 0-nghbs i n a space E.2.tl) c o n s i s t i n g of compact s e t s i n P r o o f : A c c o r d i n g t o 6. (E.b( E ' .E)) i s a Frechet space (8.b( E'.. s i n c e ( E ' .tz).3. 2-$cU.. s t a n d a r d p o l a r i t y argurrents show t h a t J ' i s continuous and open.27. I n particular. i s n o t complete. i s b o r n o l o g i c a l . i ( G))---+ ( E ' .39. U i n (E. E a l i n e a r subspace o f G such t h a t ( E . b e i n g b a r r e l l e d does n o t ensure t h e c o i n c i d e n c e o f b o t h t o p o l o g i e s : indeed. i f E stands f o r t h e non-complete Montel space c o n s t r u c t e d i n 4.b(E'. Observation 8.E)) (El.E))-+( i n bounded sets. L e t U:=acx(U(t?(n)Bn n Note t h a t Vk:=acx be a b a s i c a b s o l u t e l y convex 0-nghb i n (E.E)) where A and R denote t h e i d e n t i t i e s . f r o m where i t f o l l o w s t h a t C4:=(Vk:k=1.( E ' .(l) a r l y .E) i ( E ) on E ' i s d e f i n e d by ( E ' . and U = U ( V k : k = l .1.b(G'.b( E ' . t 3 ) which Moreover. Hence . Cle- i s c o a r s e r t h a n i ( E ) . ) . one has t h a t e v e r y Montel (DF)-space i s b o r n o l o g i c a l . n(( l+b)U:b>O). (E.. Then tl = t2. i ( E ) ) : = i n d ( E ' U .40: ( a ) as a consequence o f 8.2.8.. t h e i d e n t i t y ( E ' .)) : n = l Y 2 . According t o 8. What we have shown above i s t h a t f o r a space E such t h a t e v e r y n u l l sequence o f ( E ' . i s a c l o s e d a b s o r b i n g sethe closure W of and W i s i s c l e a r l y closed i n (E.. We s h a l l see t h a t J* i s a h o m o m r p h i s m I f J ' : ( G ' .b(E'..tl).E)=i( E) i f and o n l y i f ( E ' . J ' i s open and so i s B by ( b ) .Z. hence U i s a 0-nghb i n ( E .) i n (E. b( E ' .. Consider t h e corrmutative diagram J' ( G ' ..i( E) ) Al (G'.

i n ( F ' . f o r each n.2. F ) b . .s(E". . Moreover.2. The conclusion follows from 8. ) . ( P n m : m 2 n ) ) be a pro.l. E ' ) ) . F ) . b ( F ' . i f every bounded subset of (E".s( E " . 2 . o r equivalently. ( i ) a n d ( i i ) a r e equivalent.3.41: Let F be a metrizable space. E ) ) i s b a r r e l l e d . i f E i s a l a r g e s u b space of (E". Suppose t h a t the following condition i s s a t i s f i e d : ( * ) f o r each n and f o r each bounded s e t B in En t h e r e i s a bounded s e t A i n E such t h a t Pn(A)3B ( s e e 0.E)) i s continuous. . Indeed. F ) U b coincide w i t h t h e i n ductive l i m i t topology of BEREZANSKII of i n d ( F i n : n = 1 . F ) ' = b ( F ' . ( i i ) ( F ' .FY) is conplete. // Definition 8.E')) l i e s i n t h e closure i n ( E " . )--. from Proposition 8. F ) ) i s complete. E ) ) i s a (DF)-spac e . F ) ) i s bornological.b(E'. Proof: Since ( F ' . 3 . s . // In 4. (F'. ( i i i ) ( F ' . .F)' and b( F ' . i . ( i v ) ( F ' . E ' ) ) of a bounded subset of E .( E' .l . and each B n is a Banach d i s c . - . F ) b and t3:= S( F ' ..b(F'. b . E ) ) i s a homonorphism. Clearly. t2:=b( F' . e . b ( E ' .yb(E.43: A space E i s distinguished i f ( E ' . I t s . Then t h e bornological.3. F ) ) i s ultrabornological. T h u s b( F ' .) i t s reduced p r o j e c t i v e l i m i t .( 2).. (E'. Then. 8 .F)'.3. (Bn:n=1.7.) be a b a s i s of O-n@b i n F w i t h Un32Un+1. E ) ) is E-equicontinuous a n d hence is contained i n some E.39 i f we put E:=F'. 3 ( i i i ) shows t h a t t h e canonical i d e n t i t y i s an i s o m r p h i s v where the concl usion f o l lows. F ) ) .3.jective spectrum of Banach spaces and E=proj( En:n=1. every bounded set i n ( E ' .3.The following conditions a r e equivalent: ( i ) F i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d .F) coincide. t h e continuous i n j e c t i o n PA:( E.) i s a f .CHAPTER 8 261 ( d ) Let ( ( E n : n = 1 .2..E))=ind((E. . // Proposition 8. b ( F ' . F ) ) i s complete and b ( F ' ..b( E. E n ) ) :n = 1 .5.3. b ( E ' . tl:=b( F'. Proof: Clearly ( F ' .lYEn))--( E' .b( E. Apply 4. ultrabornological and b a r r e l l e d topologies associated w i t h b( F' . According t o (*) and K2..$32. b ( F ' .44: Let F be a metrizable space.3. s ( E " . ) .4.20 t o reach t h e conclusion. b ( F ' . t h e canonical i d e n ti t y i n d ( ( E.40..~n)):n=ly2y. F ) ) i s q u a s i b a r r e l l e d .b( E ' .. . Theorem 8. b ( E ' ..3 ) . Since ( E ' . b ( F' . Set Bn:=U. b ( F ' . Proof: Let (Un:n=1.).b( E ' .8 we constructed an example of a non-corrplete Monte1 space E. T h e remaining a s s e r t i o n s follow from 8.l. 2 .42: I f F i s a metrizable space.'.. 2 .

c h e t spaces a r e d i s t i n y i s h e d .t) be a normed t o p o l o g y on E/L and l e t r be t h e i n i t i a l t o p o l o g y on E w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e c a n o n i c a l i n j e c t i o n E-E--(E/L..3. ( i i ) I f t h e s t r o n g d u a l o f a F r e c h e t space E i s separable.and (@IF)-spaces: l e t F be a FrPchet-Monte1 space w i t h a continuous A c c o r d i n g t o 5.s) Y and t h e c a n o n i c a l s u r j e c t i o n Q: r and t c o i n c i d e on L and w i t h t:=m(E.3.F)) It i s not d i f f i c u l t t o construct a Let s dense l i n e a r subspace L o f E such t h a t d i m ( s p ( L U B n ) / L ) i s f i n i t e f o r each i s a b o r n o l o g i c a l b a r r e l l e d (DF)-space.b. A c c o r d i n g t o 6.m(E.45(i) i n (E. Observation 8.3.43.6. n o n i c a l p r o j e c t i o n s R(l)---R(J). d i n g t o (ii).t) i s dense i n (E. subsets o f I and R ( J ) non-quasibarrelled.3. ) f ~ p ( B ~ + ~ ) f o r each n (2.3. (iii) E are m t r i z a b l e . Proof: (i) f o l l o w s f r o m K1. E ) ) P r o p o s i t i o n 8.45: i s a non-bornological b a r r e l l e d space.47: nornand set E:=F'.3.3. i s a normed space. accorP L i s c l o s e d i n ( E . P P hence sp(B )+L i s dense i n (E.3.3. r = s on E/L.5. hence a (DF)-space.2.m(E. and ( i i ) r e s p e c t i v e l y .r) and t h a t i s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n c e .46: as t h e space R(') There e x i s t n o n .5. then E i s distinguished. r ) and dim(L+sp(B ) / L ) i s f i n i t e . (iii) (E.r) i s not a dven the clo(@IF)-space: indeed. A c c o r d i n g t o 4.). 8. E i s c o n p l e t e and (DF).F).?) sed u n i t b a l l B o f (E/L.9.?) t a i n e d i n t h e c l o s u r e of Q(B ) i n (E/L. n.9).s.15).(4).523.262 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEXSPACES s t r o n g dual ( E ' . We have t h a t (i) ( L . 17 t o o b t a i n t h a t .dE.?). P . quasinormable FrP- ( i i ) and (iii) a r e consequences of // O b s e r v a t i o n 8.) be a f. we a p p l y 8.6. r ) i s a b o r n o l o g i c a l b a r r e l l e d (DF)-space.b o r n o l o g i c a l c o n p l e t e spaces whose bounded subsets a r e n e t r i z a b l e : l e t I be an uncountable s e t and c o n s i d e r E endowed w i t h t h e i n i t i a l t o p o l o g y w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e cawhere J r u n s o v e r a l l i n f i n i t e c o u n t a b l e i s endowed w i t h i t s s t r o n g e s t l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y .F)) and 8. i f i t i s . t r a b o r n o l o g i c a l (DF)-space w i t h a t o t a l bounded subset (2. The three-space-problem has a n e g a t i v e s o l u t i o n f o r (E.. such t h a t sp(B1) and s p ( B . t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r p such t h a t 5 i s con- Thus sp(Q(B ) ) i s dense i n (E/L.13 (i) I n p a r t i c u l a r . (L. ( i ) Every r e f l e x i v e F r e c h e t space i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d . (E. ( i i ) (E/L.F)) i s an u l L e t (Bn:n= C l e a r l y t h e bounded subsets o f E a r e f i n i t e d i n e n s i o n a l .b( E ' . then F i s d i s t i n I f t h e bounded subsets o f t h e s t r o n g d u a l o f a FrPchet space guished.. 1.

pc( E' . T h u s F : = ( E ' . p c ( E ' . every precompact subset of F i s contained i n t h e closed absolutely convex h u l ' l o f a n u l l sequence. we conclude t h a t every preconpact subset o f F i s E-equicontinuous. l e t E be a (DF)-space and ( Kn:n=1. i f F i s a Frechet space.3.( 2 ) .pc(E'.50: A space E is a (DcF)-space i f and only i f t h e r e i s a Fr6chet space F such t h a t E=( F' . ) i s a f . hence contained i n s o w Km a c o n t r a d i c t i o n . .§21. According t o 8. To prove t h a t E i s the s t r o n g dual o f F i t i s enou$ t o show t h a t E i s q u a s i b a r r e l l e d . E i s complete and b( E ' . Then ( n .(3). . Since E i s a (DF)-space.F)) .CHAPTER 8 263 Proposition 8. First we show t h a t ( n K n : n = 1 . c f . Proposition 8. Conversely. Since this l a s t sequence i s E-equicontinuous (E i s a @DF)s p a c e ) . By 8. Every bounded subset of ( E l .3. The proof i s complete. i n E: Suppose t h e e x i s t e n c e of a bounded subset B of E not contained i n any nKn and s e l e c t vectors d n ) E B \ n K n f o r each n . there i s a null sequence i n F whose closed abs o l u t e l y convex hull contains A and. . ( F ' . b ( E ' . 2 .3.2. .E) on E' . Proof: According t o 8. E ) ) by K1. Thus A i s r e l a t i v e l y compact i n F and F i s a Frgchet-Monte1 space.3.E) on E l . s i n c e E i s a (OF)-space. E i s conplete and b( E' .49: A semi-Monte1 (gDF)-space i s c a l l e d a (DcF)-space. F ) ) i s a (0cF)-space. E ) ) . t h i s sequence and hence A a r e E-equicontinuous..E)=m(E'. On t h e o t h e r hand. Conversely. b ( F ' . Let A be a bounded subset of F=(E'. T h e n . F ) ) i s a ( D F J space w i t h a fundamental sequence of absolutely convex compact s u b s e t s .521. // .3. E ) ) is r e l a t i v e l y compact i n F=(E'.3. K1. 2 . nanely t h e polars o f a decreasing b a s i s of O . then E : = ( F ' . according t o K1.n @ b s i n F. p c ( E ' .10.E)) and P any countable subset of A. E ) ) i s a Fr6chet space whose dual i s E . l e t E be a (DcF)-space.E)=pc( E ' . . ) i s a null sequence i n E . ) a fundamntal sequence of absolutely convex compact subset i n E.6. Thus E i s semiMonte1 and hence quasi-conplete. s . // Definition 8. Each E-equicontinuous s e t in E' is preconpact i n ( E ' .E)) as we have seen.18.1 d n ) : n = 1 .b(E'.48: A (DF)-space E has a fundamental sequence of absolut e l y convex compact subsets i f and only i f i t i s t h e s t r o n g dual of a FrPchet-Monte1 space. Proof: I f F i s a Frikhet-Monte1 space. b . p c ( F ' .13. hence F:=( E' .(3). E ) = n(E'.18.pc( F' . P i s an E-equicontinuous subset of E ' and hence P i s r e l a t i v e l y compact i n ( E ' .10.§21.E)=pc( E' . E ) ) i s a Frechet space and i t s dual i s E.b( E ' .

t ) such t h a t a subset B i s open i n ( E . e q u i c o n t i n u o u s i n E ' and hence r e l a t i v e l y conpact i n ( E l .t). p c ( E ' .s. t ) is a a ( DcF)-space.// c o i n c i d e on K C o r o l l a r y 8. ) i s relatively is t = t ( U ' ) . P r o o f : A c c o r d i n g t o o u r comrrents a f t e r 8.E)) by K1. Then f i s an isomorphism i n t o .1.b(E'.1. A c c o r d i n g t o 8.12.3.54: and 2. Since E i s a (DF)-space. t ) whenever B n A . E ) ) e q u i c o n t i n u o u s i n E. i s open i n ( A n .e t r i z a b l e by 8. s i n c e E i s assured t o be c o n p l e t e . 1 P r o o f : Since f . K i s m t r i z a b l e f o r t h e weak t o p o l o g y ( 4 . we my assu- m t h a t E i s c o n p l e t e and prove o u r a s s e r t i o n f o r compact subsets. s i n c e (E'. t ) i s netriza- P r o o f : S i n c e t h e c o m p l e t i o n G of ( E . 1. Then ( E .b(E'. a'=(2nA n : n = l y 2 .b. Every precompact subset o f a (DF)-space ( E .5.E') and so ( K ..( 0 ) must be a bounded subset o f F.3 and hence w e t o obtain i s t r a n s s e p a r a b l e .3. hence n . conpact.3.264 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES Theorem 8. ( 2 ) .51. i t s dual i s E. and e v e r y conpact subset K o f E i s ( E ' . i n (E. P r o o f : Every bounded subset o f t h e s t r o n g dual of t h e Fr6chet-Monte1 space i s conpact.3.53: L e t n conpact a b s o l u t e l y convex subsets i r s a space ( E ..22). Consequently.5.3. Moreover. and each bounded subset o f ( E .14.pc(E'.22. p c ( E ' . 6 .3.E)) t h a t (E'. E a (gDF)-space and f:F---E Theorem 8.E)) i s m t r i z a b l e .pc(E'. F i r s t we show t h a t e v e r y bounded set A i n (E'.E)) i s precompact i n ( E ' . Since K i s conpact i n E i t f o l l o w s t h a t t and s(E. a f.3. . L e t F be a semi-Monte1 space. f i s i n j e c t i v e . we a p p l y 2. ifand o n l y i f i t s s t r o n g dual i s a separable Frechet space: a p p l y 8.E)) compact.55: a continuous l i n e a r mapping such t h a t f .Dualize // =(A :n=1. t ) f o r each n.pc( E ' . Now.3.) be an i n c r e a s i n g sequence o f P r o p o s i t i o n 8.SZl.50 Thus 8. . a i s a b s o r b i n g and t h e hy- p o t h e s i s i n p l i e s t h a t t=t(U). The .51 i s f a l s e i n general f o r (gDF)-spaces.2. t ) i s n-etrizable.1 ( 5 ) i s bounded i n F f o r e v e r y bounded subset B o f E. t o reach t h e c o n c l u s i o n .51: ble. t ) i s a l s o a (DF)-space and s i n c e eve- r y precorrpact subset o f E i s c o n t a i n e d i n a conpact subset o f G. Thus A i s r e l a t i v e l y c o u n t a b l y conpact i n ( E l . L e t P be any c o u n t a b l e subset o f A. t ) // The conpact subsets of a (DcF)-space a r e m t r i z a b l e O b s e r v a t i o n 8. P i s E- E ) ) . .52: Every Fr6chet-Monte1 space i s separable.

On t h e o t h e r hand.3.b(E'. the r a n 9 .E)) F r e c h e t space ( E ' .F)) .h ( F ' .56: The c o n c l u s i o n o f 8. (F'. which i s a Thus f ' i s n e a r l y open. .b( F ' .3. since F i s semi-Montel. a c o n t r a d i c t i o n .F)) A i s r e l a t i v e l y conpact i n . /! a mpis Lemma 8.b( E ' such t h a t f ' ( G ) = A . b ( E semi-Monte1 o f f ' i s dense i n ( F ' . - i s open i n f .ko)€ GA(U( ki)xV( ki)).E)) we a p p l y K1. f o r e v e r y bounded subset coincides w i t h i t s closure i n i n (F'.53 i s t r i v i a l i f e i t h e r E i s a norned space o r f ( F ) i s a b o r n o l o g i c a l subspace o f E. Since F i s and . Our second c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s f r o m t h e e q u a l i t y f. .Y p i n g w i t h c l o s e d graph G i n X x Y and K a compact subset o f Y.// . l e t E be a (DF)-space.. ..b(E'. ( F ' . Then P r o o f : T h i s i s a consequence o f 8. E ) ) .3.i ( K ) .( B ) .. P r o p o s i t i o n 8...b(E'.F f i s continuous. f being injective..10. f-'(K)Qf-'(C) Proof: Suppose t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a p o i n t x C f .f22.i=l.CHAPTER 8 26 5 transposed mapping f ' : ( E ' .. f : X . i f C i s an open subset o f Y .. given any F-equicontinuous subset A o f F ' = f ' ( E ' ) . Since (E'.521.m(F'. Then koE\/(ki) f o r sow i=l. hence 8-complete.F)=n(F'.b(F'.(K)n J U( kl)n .3. 0-nghb i n ( F ' .2..ko)E G..k) l e c t p o i n t s kl V( k ) such t h a t ( U ( k)xV( k))nG = f-'(K). m r p h i c t o a q u o t i e n t o f (E'.' ( K ) \ the p o i n t (x. The p r o o f i s c o n p l e t e .F)).E)) i s a Fref ' i s open.57: space and f : E . // Observation 8.):. G i s E-equicontinuous.b( E ' .2. Since K i s conpact we can se- such t h a t K C U(V(k. b ( F ' .(7) conpact subset G i n (E'.F)) hence i t c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e p o l a r s e t o f f. k n c K 1 . t h e c l o s u r e of f ' ( B " ) (F'. Then f-'(K) c l o s e d i n X and.E)) corrpact i n t a n u l l seque e i n (E'.n and hence ( xo. t h e r e i s an Ee q u i c o n t i n u o u s subset G o f E ' such t h a t f ' ( G ) = A .F) . F ) ) . i s dense and c l o s e d i n i s iso- f r o m w h e r e i t f o l l o w s t h a t f ' i s o n t o and ( F ' . we a p p l y Kl.58: L e t X and Y be H a u s d o r f f t o p o l o g i c a l spaces.b( F ' . U(k) and a k-nghb i s n o t i n G and hence t h e r e a r e an x-n&b p f o r each k. we have t h a t b( F . . Thus f ' ( E ' ) 1 c h e t space. n ) . F a t r a n s s e p a r a b l e Br-conplete a l o c a l l y bounded t r a p p i n g w i t h c l o s e d graph i n ExF. Since f ' i s a h o m m r p h i s m between t o obtain that there i s a r e l a t i v e l y Since G i s r e l a t i v e l y t o obtain Fr6chet spaces.b( F ' .n U( kn) and k o E K w i t h ( xo. I n o r d e r t o prove t h a t f i s a t o p o l o g i c a l h o m m r p h i s m i t i s enouqh t o show t h a t .1 (K)\f-l(C)=f-'( K\C). Take xoE f. For e v e r y kcK.E)).b( F'. Since E i a (gDF)-space.(3) whose c l o s e d a b s o l u t e l y convex h u l l c o n t a i n s G.F) B o f E.35. F ) ) hence a Frechet space.b(F'.F)) i s continuous.

.)EH ce x( k ) E Mn f o r e v e r y k. I f f : E . gi a(m)b( k. vorous i n E . Since ( E ' . f. .s. .)61 {( E ' . Consequently M i s a 0-n@b i n t h e and f i x a p o s i t i v e i n t e p r n.2.( K n ) i I f - 1 1( C ) 1 i s open i n f .Z.) f o r each n.. Set v:=(v(k):k=l.. P r o o f : L e t C be an open subset o f F.b( co( E ) ' . .s.q u a s i b a r r e l l e d .2.n.) i s oDen i n B y and t h i s w i l l f o l l o w i f we a r e a b l e t o show t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a p o s i t i v e A c c o r d i n g t o 8. n .60: I f E i s a (DF)-space.Z.2. A c c o r d i n g t o 8. L e t B be a conpact a b s o l u t e l y convex subset o f E.n.j K n ) i s c l o s e d i n E and hence ER= U(f-1(Kn)AEB:n=1.31).2..5). * m .(K. We a r e done i f we show t h a t H : = { ( x ( k ) : k = l . . 2 t l m... .) ce covered by a sequence o f c l o s e d a b s o l u t e l y convex subsets o f t h e Banach spa- $ ( s e e 3.. i n l"(E). D e f i n e D:={u( k)/pb( u( k ) ) : i f pg( u( k ) ) . t h e n Cn:={(x(k):k=1.n) which which i s b o r n i l-(E):x(k)EM and an a b s o l u t e l y convex 0-nQlb Vn i n E such t h a t Wn:=[( x ( k ) : k = l . Since x and each b m a r e bounded * I 1 Un.). Hence v ~ w ~ C . Thus ( co( E)l.co( E))) c o i n c i d e s *.( K D ) absorbs 5 . . Since E i s a k-space. t h e n f i s continuous....59: (RAIKOV-PTAK CLOSED GRAPH THEOREM) L e t E and F be spaces such t h a t E i s a q u a s i . For each n we choose a(n)>O such t h a t a(n)CE We s e t Mn:=Vn+L(a(m)B.. i t i s enour& t o check t h a t f-'(C)/\B i n t e g e r p and a p o s i t i v e c o n s t a n t a such t h a t Bcf-'(aK. We show t h a t l w ( E) i s 2-"'U.E))) t h e r e i s a c l o s e d a b s o l u t e l y convex bounded s e t B i n ( E ' .58. Now we p r o v e t h a t co( E) i s X o .3...2. m =1...andLa(m)b.) x ( k ) E B n f o r each k ] n=1.c o n p l e t e k-space and F i s covered by an i n c r e a s i n g F is sequence ( K :n=1... i t i s fundamentally-1 -bounded (D.) *I .b( E ' .pg( 1 &- D . Hence.. k l W ( E ) : x ( k ) € V n f o r each k ) C 2-'Un. BAIRE's c a t e g r y theorem shows t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a p o s i t i 1 ve i n t e g e r p such t h a t f . i t f o l l o w s t h a t v E l m ( E ) . C l e a r l y x = v t &*a(m)bm .3... each f .1 *n.b.. ) be a bornivorous Xo-barrel i n lm(E).b( E ' .. i s a f..b( E ' .:ml.2.b.m)..=(b(k... S i n where v( k ) E \In and and b.given u = ( u ( k ) : k = 1 l. ) I . f o r m =l.h n y thus x€Un. Z . t h e n lm(E) and co(F) a r e (DF)-spaces.b. u( k ) ) g l . .2. E ) ) W . sequences i n E ..n a l i n e a r m p p i n g w i t h c l o s e d graph i n ExF..q u a s i b a r r e l l e d : L e t U:=T\(Un:n=l.m)CB. t h e n x( k ) = v ( k ) + b(k. form a f. s i n c e a(m)BmCMn i f n i s an a b s o l u t e l y convex O-n@b i n E and M:=n(Mn:n=l.. // Theorem8.3.E)) i s a FrP1 c h e t space.s.). and hence (Cnnco(E): P r o o f : I f (Bn:n=1..p.) i s a f.m):k=1....3. KO. . Since n a r b i t r a r y x 6 U .) o f conpact a b s o l u t e l y convex subsets.)Elm(E): . n=1. I L a ( m ) B m C 2 . Take x=(X(k):k=l... hence t h e c o n c l u s i o n .2..1 U C 2 ..266 BA RR EL L ED LOCAL L Y CONVEX SPACES Theorem 8. i n co(E).2 (DF)-space E. is 58. ) E f o r each k ) C U.Z. % such t h a t L #O)u L){~Iu( k ) : i f @ ( u( k))=O) Then D C B and C:==x( D) i s an E-equicontinuous s e t i n E ' such t h a t pc( u( k ) ) 6 1. i n E.2.

Moreover Q:=acx( U ( V ( n) :n=1.2..b( E ' . aiven any // 8..2.2.8. . 2 ( b ) ) .2 i n A. W e r e f e r t o Chapter 0 f o r unexplained n o t a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g p r o j e c t i v e and i n d u c t i v e l i m i t s o f l o c a l l y convex spaces..2.. .) ..tn):n=l.tn):n= 1.2.4. c a n o n i c a l p r o j e c t i o n s (E.) has a p a r t i t i o n o f u n i t y s i n c e t h e t ) s a t i s f y (1) and ( 2 ) above.) / N(A) and N ( A ) i s c l o s e d i n @((En..) by 4. s i n c e QCM and E i s a (DF)-space.. P P TJ E x m p l e s 8.4 Countable i n d u c t i v e l i m i t s o f Hausdorff l o c a l l y convex spaces: G e n e r a l i ties.) i s Hausdorff which i s n o t always t h e case ( s e e 8 .tn):n=l.2.2.. Since A i s bounded and (E'. . t ) (E.2. s i n c e pV(n) 4 m x ( pU(.4.)( v( k ) ) i s E- . Strict inductive limits. E ) ) j d e r a bounded subset A o f l'{(E'. Consi- which i s t h e u n i o n o f a sequence o f co(E)-equicontinuous s e t s ..E)) in 1 i s fundamentally-1 -bounded.t n ) :n=1.. t ) d e f i n e d b y A( x) := F J n ( x( n ) ) .tn):n=l. A i s c (E)-equicontinuous.t)=ind( ( En. t ) E = @((En.. . For each n t h e r e i s an a b s o l u t e l y convex E-equicontinuous ) ) 1 f o r each v=(v(k):k=1.) s e t U(n) i n E ' such t h a t & ~ ~ ( ~ ) ( v ( k L An.2.t) i s i s o m r p h i c t o t h e q u o t i e n t @((En..t ) such t h a t (1) f o r each m y B o J = 0 e x c e p t f o r a f i n i t e n u t h e r P P V o f p ' s and ( 2 ) 0B i s t h e i d e n t i t y m o p i n g on E.t)-( P' P ( b ) L e t X be a non v o i d open subset o f t h e e u c l i d e a n space and l e t ( K :n= n 1.n):n=1.) E-equicontinuous.1: t h e r e e x i s t s a f a m i l y ( B :p=1.) i n d ( @((Ekytk):k=1. . . ) b e i n s a v e c t o r o f @((Enytn):n=l. Thus ( E . we 4r 00 have t h a t gipV(.CHAPTER 8 267 1 a l g e b r a i c a l l y and t o p o l o g i c a l l y w i t h 1 ( ( E l . t h e r e i s a b s o l u t e l y convex and i s an a b s o l u t e l y convex bounded subset M o f ( E ' . .2..tn):n=l.. ( ~ ) ( v ( k ) ) 4 1 and *.t)P P --+(ED..2.pM) and.) C An. t ) = i n d ( ( En.) OD and i t s k e r n e l N(A) c o n s i s t s o f a l l x i f and o n l y i f w i t h F J n ( x ( n ) ) = 0. e q u i c o n t i n u o u s i n E l ..b( E ' .. I f (E.. x:=( x( n ) :n= 1.2.2..i I :i - .2. ) -( E.b(E'.7 (ii). ) be a sequence o f compact subsets s a t i s f y i n g Kn C i n t ( Kn+l) and cove- .. We p r o v e t h a t A i s a l s o co(E)00 equicontinuous....) o f continuous l i n e a r m p p i n g s B :(E. t h e r e i s some n w i t h v E A n 7 t h e n L p Q ( v ( k ) ) & ~ Z p ... L 1 f o r each v=( v( k ) :k=1..E)) w i t h z * p y ( v( k ) ) L 1 f o r each v=(v(k):k=1. ) t h e r e e x i s t s 2 t o p o l o g i c a l hommorphism A: ( En . 0 v € A . ( E . Now V(n):=U(n)nM . 1 .) ) F i n a l l y .2.b(E'.E))) (An:n=1.2: = ( a ) Every c o u n t a b l e d i r e c t sum ( E .2.. ) has a p a r t i t i o n o f u n i t y if D e f i n i t i o n 8...

.3 complenented i n @((En.. b:=(b( n ) :n=1.$7. (Fnysnb-( .tn):n=1.tJ..tn). If pnrcs(En.. p( x):=Gpn( x ( n ) ) i s a c o n t i n u o u s sevinorm on t h e d i r e c t sum and t h e f a n ' l y o f a l l p o s s i b l e p d e f i n e d as above d e s c r i b e s t h e t o p o l o g y o f t h e d i r e c t sum.tn):n=1.tn):n=l. D e f i n i t i o n 8.) s a t i s f i e s (1) and ( 2 ) i n 8 .Z.. t ) has a p a r t i t i o n of u n i t y (B :p=l.).. .2.2. According t o (l).. j e c t i o n s (F. o f t h e steps..Z.2...4. (1) shows t h a t each /I Not e v e r y i n d u c t i v e l i m i t has a p a r t i t i o n o f u n i t y ( s e e n e x t s e c t i o n ) . l . p(S.2.2.Prop.tn):n=l..2.sm)...L):= infzb(i)pi(x(i)).2... d e s c r i b e s t h e t o p o l o g y t on E.). Now suppose t h a t ( E .t) beinp i f and o n l y i f N(A) i s complemented i n @((En...268 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEXSPACES r i n g X ..) has a D a r t i t i o n o f u n i t y (E.) o f subspaces o f E and i f E:=((En.2. where t h e i n f i r m m i s t a k e n o v e r a l l x(i)EEi p o s s i b l e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f x as a f i n i t e sum x : = z x ( i ) .d e f i n e d and P i n j e c t i v e by ( 2 ) .2.* @((En.tn) f o r each n and i f x:=(x(n):n=1. Then D(X)=ind(D(Kn):n=1. t h e n t h e f a w i l l y P:= (p(q.tn) :n=1.4..) rm'ly ( i n t ( K n ) : n = 1 .tn)-+ be e q u i v a l e n t if f o r e v e r y n t h e r e e x i s t mand c o n t i n u o u s i n . t ) = i n d ( ( E. (E.4..) (gn:n=1. ) has a p a r t i t i o n o f u n i t y : Indeed..2.. t e l b u s t h a t B(E) i s i s o m r p h i c t o E and s i n c e AoB i s t h e i d e n t i t y on E and B i s continuous: Indeed..) I f a l i n e a r space E i s covered b y i n c r e a s i n p sequences and (Fn:n=1.. ). . % P r o p o s i t i o n 8.2..2..sn):n=1. By c o n s i d e r i n g t h e q u o t i e n t sern'norm of p:= Zp..2. B o J n i s continuous f o r each n s i n c e i s a f i n i t e sum o f continuous m p p i n g s ...... a ..) BoJ.2. s a n d y a r e s a i d t o E...2.) nuous seminorm.tn):n=l..) (En.4: I f ( E . pnGcs(En. i f D i s a l o c a l l y f i n i t e P a r t i t i o n o f u n i t y subordinated t o t h e faand i f B . ) i s i s a sequence o f c o n t i a l l possible o f vectors a sequence o f p o s i t i v e s c a l a r s and q:=(Pn:n=1.f f o r each stands f o r t h e mapping f P i t i s easy t o check t h a t (BD:p=1.tn):n=l..2.5: (En:n=1.t)=ind((En.3: Hausdorff.2.) & i s a vector o f the d i - r e c t sum @((En.). Now H. ..... P r o o f : S u f f i c i e n c y i s c l e a r . .j P d e f i n e d b y B(x):=(B (x):p=1. Consider t h e mapping B : ( E . B i s w e l l . w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e c a n o n i c a l hommorphism A one can show t h e f o l l o w i n g P r o p o s i t i o n 8. t ) . 2 .) and %:=((Fn. a r e i n d u c t i v e sequences.).%):for 7 and b)..

i n ( E ..) En and s e t ( Fn. t ) .t ):n=1. f i x n and l e t m>n be a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r such t h a t (E....) i f (F. can be found such t h a t En = ( E n n F ) + ( E n n G ) h o l d s a l n n g b r a i c a l l y . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e t r a n s i t i v i t y o f f i n a l toDolo- . ) = i n d 7 * = i n d F. D e f i n i t i o n 8.2.) i s c o n t i n u o u s .2.) and Fn-l f a i l s t o be den- ( b ) I f (E.G) i s a conplenented p a i r i n ( E .tm) 0 ( E m n G ..2( i ) . t ) = i n d g = i n d g * .s):=(EmAF.8: The p a i r (F. .CHAPTER 8 269 P r o p o s i t i o n 8.). i.G) is i s an e q u i v a l e n t se( 2 ) (F. a neighb o f som p o i n t i n E k y 1 L k -Cn.G) (En..2.4.G) O b s e r v a t i o n 8. b o t h spaces a r e c l o s e d i n (Em.tn+l ..tn+l).J 0 ( EmnG.T\F and on E m A G .t. l o c a l l y complenented ( ( E n A F .2.9: i s l o c a l l y conplemented i n ( E ..sk).). ) . For and G2k:=( Fk. t ) ...sn) :=( En.) 5 and F r e s D e c t i v e l y .tl.).tm) 0 (Em/\G.) En i s dense i n (En+l..3..6: L e t z a n d F b e i n d u c t i v e sequences. t ) se i n ( E . En+l. t ) = i n d ( ( Fn.tn). t h e r e e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r m'l/n such t h a t t h e c a n o n i c a l i n j e c t i o n EmflF..2. ( i i ) f o l l o w s d i r e c t l y f r o m 1.sn):n=1. i f f o r every n i s s a i d t o be l o c a l l y conplemented i n ( E .2.t.t) is and hence E l i s dense i n t h e n e v e r y neighb o f a p o i n t o f En+l .tn):n=l. P r o o f : ( i ) By t a k i n g a p p r o p r i a t e subsequences o f g*:=( ( En..)----+ (EmAF.tn):n=lyZY. ces f o r t h e same i n d u c t i v e l i m i t .tn)-+( has a d e f i n i n g sequence such t h a t a l l i t s merrbers a r e den- L e t F and G be subspaces o f (E. t n ) O(EnAG.tn):n=l. t n ) 4 ( Fn.. B y 0.4.tn) =ind(Gn:n=1.2.) quence t o ((En.. Set (Em.t)=ind((En.2. t ) (E. hence ( E m A F ) A E n = E n N and (EmAG)AEn = E n A G a r e c l o s e d i n Indeed.. ( i ) i f & a n d T a r e e q u i v a l e n t then i n d F = i f i d 5 t o p o l o g i c a l l y .). (1) F A E and GAEn a r e c l o s e d i n ( E n y t n ) f o r each n: n Indeed. has a d e f i n i n g sequence none of whose n-enbers i s dense i n t h e n e x t step: For each n choose x( n ) C En+l\ F r 6 c h e t space.sn) f o r n=2.2.sn) :n=1..e.tn):n=1.t)=ind((En.s p a c e (E. spaces and i f i n d t = i n d y t o p o l o g i c a l l y t h e n 5 and F a r e d e f i n i n a seauen- ( i i ) i f ' E a n d F a r e sequences o f Frechet andFare equivalent. s e t G2k-l:=( Ek.tn):n=1.t. which we denote a g a i n b y ( ( E .7: ( a ) Every p r o p e r ( i f ) . nay suppose t h a t t h e and $*: =( ( Fn .tn)@sp( x( n ) ) which i s a ( E . s i n c e (F.sn)--( each k. a subsequen- ce o f t h e i n d u c t i v e sequence ((En. :n=1. se i n (Fn.2..4.)..tn):n=1.t)=ind((En.tk) ) a r e c o n t i n u o u s . t ) i s continuous.t). Moreover.4..Z... i s a p r o p e r (LF)-space such t h a t each i n (E. t m ) .. Since s and tm c o i n c i d e on E. Thus ( E . we c a n o n i c a l i n j e c t i o n s ( E n . t ) : (En.20( i ) *// O b s e r v a t i o n 8.t. ( E .Clearly.3.

The following conditions a r e equivalent: ( i ) (F.2. I f f i s not s u r j e c t i v e . t ) . F and G a r e t r a n s v e r s a l t o each other and F and G a r e closed ( i v ) E=F+G.9 i t remains t o show t h a t ( i v ) i n p l i e s ( i ) . a r e Proof: According closed i n ( E n Y t n ) f o r each n. e ..4. and we a r e done.270 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEX SPACES gies.// u In Chapter 1 we proved t h e c l a s s i c a l open-napping theorerr (1. f o r every m there e x i s t s n > m such t h a t ( E m .2.t)O(G. f i s s a i d t 3 be s e q u e n t i a l l y open i f . t n ) : n = 1 .tn) pology finer than t f o r each n. . i .s) .) @ ind(( EnAG.2. .) i s onen.2. u ) i s an (LF)-space.4.G) i s l o c a l l y conplenented i n ( E . Since F and G a r e “stepwise closed” 0 ( EnAG. G ) i s conplenented in ( E . t ) x ( H . 3 .2. t ) ind(( E n . 3 ( i i ) ) . F and G a r e t r a n s v e r s a l t o each other and FnEn and GAE. ) . be a surjective continuous linear mapping.19) applied t o t h e associated i n j e c t i v e nap. .2. .. t ) = ( i i ) ( F .t)-+(F.s) and f as above and suppose t h a t F has an . t n ) i s continuous. t ) x ( H . I f each FAHn i s closed i n ( H n . t n ) : n = l .20 ( i i ) ) . t ) and every n .2.) = (F.t)+(H. s ) f o r the induced s u r j e c t i o n . s ) = ( F . s ) . f:(E.. Then. t h e sane procedure shows Theorem 8.11: (OPEN-MAPPING THEOREM FOR (LF)-SPACES) Let E a n d F be (LF)-spaces and l e t f : E + F f i s open. u ) .sn):n=l.) be (LF)-sDa- a l i n e a r mapping with closed graoh i n ( E . Then Let ( E .tn):n=1. i f f has closed graph i n ( E . . A s sets E = ( ( EnAF) 0 (En/’IG) :n=1. f(U)AHn i s a fl-n&b i n ( F A H n .n a b U i n ( E . f o r every 0 . (H.2O(ii) and 8.4. ) . t ) = i n d ( ( Enn F. (H. 2 0 ( i i ) ) and s e t F:=f(E) and g : ( E .tn):n=1. Also i n Chapter 1 w e proved a closed graph theorem f o r (iF)-spaces (1. s ) (and hence continuous by 1 .+ ( F .2. 2 . According t o 1. t ) . 4 2 : Let ( E .11 show t h a t f i s seauential l y open and hence g i s open i f and only i f ( F .t) Proposition 8.then ( F .10: Let F and G be subspaces o f an (LF)-space ( E . 2 . t m ) -+( E n A F .u):=ind((FAHn.. t ) = i n d ( ( E n . ces.) .. t o 8.2. Since q u o t i e n t s o f (LF)-spaces a r e again (LF)-snaces ( 7 .s)=ind( ( Hn.sn):n=1. t n ) @ ( E n A G . 1. ( E . Theorem 8 .2O(i). .4.35) via the closed graph theorem (1. 2 .. . . t ) ( i i i ) E=F+G.tn) i s a Frechet snace endowed w i t h a t o we have t h a t (EnnF. s n ) . s n ) .2. i f g:(E.

.2. . In order t o show t h a t e proceed as follows: 7 . 2 . . r s ) f a c t o r i z e s continuously t h r o u @ ( EJ ) and such t h a t n( j .4.) and s e t .s ind( ( Enytn) G 4 ( HnnGysn) :n=1. t ) -// .10 a p p l i e s t o show t h a t ( F . t h e spak k k ce ( E i .20( i ) ) of GROTHENDIECK's f a c t o r i z a t i o n Proposition 8.4. . 3 ( i i ) allows FT\Hn i s closed i n (Hn. s ) = ( F . G ) i s l o c a l l y conplewnted and 8.15: Let ( (..2.( E ) = FAHm is closed i n (Hmys. t i ) is continuously enbedded i n ( E n ( k ) Y t r r ( k ) ) and hence ( ( E n(k)Y P P tkdkl):k=l. such t h a (LF)-spaces.s). . f o r 1 6 p S d k ) and 1 L i C k .. . Hausdorff .sn) f o r each n w us t o assune t h a t f i s i n j e c t i v e and hence we nay suopose t h a t E i s a subspace of H . s ) such t h a t ( Fs . ) .). 2 . On the o t h e r hand. s ) ( t h a t i s . t . ( E J . t ) i s an (LF)-space. t J ) = ind((EJn.( s ) ) : j = 1 .) f a c t o r i z e s continuously through a c e r t a i n n ( ( E J n (j . r ):s=l.4. Then g i s open.2.9(2) implies t h a t ( F . s ) y t J n . s ) not an (LF)-space. ) of p o s i t i v e i n t e c p s such t h a t . Consider t h e i n j e c t i o n J : ( Hm. . . f o r each s the Frechet space j . Then 8. i. . Then ( E . t ) be . 2 .)f o r each m.Z. . T h e n ( E . 4- // Corollary 8. : ( E . Then t h e induced s u r j e c t i o n i s open. t ) i s an (LF)-space i n d ( ( F .E J . Z . J .13: (KOTHE'S H O M O M O R P H I S M THEOREN) Let E and F be ( L F ) spaces and f : E . J):j=1. W e s h a l l give two m r e consequences theorem (1.tJn):n=ly2.+ ( E J . ) which i s c l e a r l y continuous.sn) f o r each n ) ..14: Let ( E . Z . 2 .4.Z..CHAPTER 8 27 1 a l g e b r a i c conplewnt c1 which i s stepwise closed i n ( H . s ) < n( j . t E. . t J ) f o r t h e continuous canonical p r o j e c t i o n . . For J every j and s t h e r e e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r n ( j . j = 1 . t J ) : = i n d ( ( E J n .. t ) .inductive .) be a sequence of Hausdorff . Z . s ) n ( j . t J ) : .20( i ) t h e r e e x i s t s a s t r i c t l y i n c r e a s i n g sequence ( n ( k ) : k = l .t h e l i n ' t o f an i n . Proof: By 1. Proof: Suppose t h a t ( E . creasing sequence of (LF)-spaces ( E J . 2 0 ( i ) . s + l ) by 1 . s s P . s ) ytJn( j . GnHn is closed i n (Hn. Since this l a s t space i s continuously 1 embedded i n (H. . t ) = ~ ( ( E ~ J . Proof: Suppose t h a t we have already shown t h a t F i s steowisz closed i n (H. t J n ) : n = l ...s).. j = l . . . 3 .4.J n i s properly contained i n EJn+l f o r a l l j and n .+ F a l i n e a r mapping w i t h closed graph i n ExF such t h a t f ( E ) i s of f i n i t e codinension in F .. . u ) and t h u s 9 i s open. Proposition 8..) i s an inductive sequence d e f i n i n g ( E . .

s ) 1 i n g vectors 4 j ) c EJ such t h a t x( j ) 6 Fk f o r each there exists a p o s i t i v e inteper k n(j. t ) an a b s o l u t e l y convex 0-nghb U = u(Un:n=1.i n d g and each s t e p i s c o n p l e t e . ( i i i ) En i s c l o s e d i n (En+l. s e l e c t - u( and ( ( E J n ( j .e.1. I n p a r t i c u l a r . t h e r e e x i s t s i n ( E . w i t h Un=UnEn f o r each n. ) a r e e q u i v a l e n t sequences. t 2 ) .18: If ( E . i s c o n t a i n e d i n sone . t ) = s . E:=((En. Un such t h a t b e i n g an a b s o l u t e l y convex 0-nghb i n ( E n y t n ) : Indeed.tn):n=l. s ) : j = 1 7 2 .2.17: ( i ) tn+l induces on E I f (E. i s an (LF)-space.t2) Set U2:=acx(U1U#) which i s an a b s o l u t e l y convex O-n@b i n ( E 2 .t) i s s e q u e n t i a l l y c o n p l e t e f o r each n. u ( U ( E j n ( j . t h e n En i s c l o s e d i n ( E . s ) .t)=hs-x.2.) convex 0-n@b U1 i n (E1.t)=ind((En.16: ( i ) If (E. a h y p e r s t r i c t i n d u c t i v e liP P f i t o f a sequence o f q u a s i .) i s a s t r i c t l y i n c r e a s i n g sequence o f subspaces o f E.lO(iii)). if (E.272 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEX SPACES ( F k y r k ) a g a i n b y 1.then t induces on each En i t s own t o p o l o g y tn and i n i s Hausdorff (8. . t ) 20).t)=hs-< Let (E...t)=s-indE p a r t i c u l a r (E. the f o l l o w i n g conditions are equivalent: i t s own t o p o l o g y tn f o r each n n ( i i ) t induces on each En i t s own t o p o l o g y tn f o r each n ( i v ) En i s c l o s e d i n ( E . Then x( k ) CPk( Fk) C E n( k . In p a r t i c u l a r .t ) and i s bounded t h e r e . WAEICU1.... ) .2.c o n p l e t e spaces i s again quasi-colrplete (8.tn+l) Observation 8.t)=ind ..j) k .4.20(i . t ) i.. . .i n d ( ( En.2. Thus ((Fk. t ) ( E .4.rk):k=1.. . .t)=s-inds ( i i i ) I f (E.1.t) ( i i ) If (E.s=1. k ) J a c o n t r a d i c t i o n . ) where ( En:n=l. C o n b i n i n g 8.tn+l). . given any a b s o l u t e l y t h e r e e x i s t s a 0-nghb W i n (E2.2.1. Our n e x t P r o p o s i t i o n s u m r i z e s we1 1-known r e s u l t s P r o p o s i t i o n 8. j .2.2. t ) = s .4. ( i v ) I f ( E .16 w i t h 1.9).tn):n=l.. ) = :s=1..j+l)\EJn(j.2.36 one y t s P r o p o s i t i o n 8.1. and i f En i s c l o s e d i n (En+l.). 24).) Fk:k=1. I/ S t r i c t ( g e n e r a l i z e d ) i n d u c t i v e l i n ' t s were t r e a t e d e x t e n s i v e l y i n 8. t ) f o r each n ( v ) (En..2.then e v e r y bounded s e t B of ( E ..tn):n=lY2..2. (8.l.) which i s n o t t h e case: Indeed.4. t h e n ( E . t J n ( j .) i s conplete (8.. .tl).

.CHAPTER 8 273 such t h a t U .t)=ind((En. . t ) extending a l l p(Un). w i t h x = z y ( j ) and x q .t u p l e (q1. Let x be a vector of E w i t h q ( x ) = O . I and define qn:=qn-l + p. and l e t (E. ) i s as desired This is r e s u l t l i e s a t the core of the proof of 8 . Un being a O-n&b i n ( E n .. t ) an absolutely convex O-n@b U =u(Un:n=l. ~ ~ E l = U 1 . Proceeding by induction w e c o n s t r u c t an i n c r e a s i n g sequence of absolutely convex 0-nghbs ( U n : n = 1 . q n .. Since t h e r e e x i s t p o s i t i ve s c a l a r s ( b ( n ) : n = 1 . t n ) which extends P(U. . Note (t) J 4 J .. . t ) which w i l l t u r n out t o be a norm.ZY.. ) with Un+lAEn=Un f o r each n . s i n c e Un (UnEn+l)nEn. t ) .18. . . 1 6 ( i ) . Observe t h a t i f t h e g a u g o f U n .. 4 . Moreover. .t)=s-ind((En. .).2.19: I f (E.4.20: Let pn be a continuous norm on ( E n .. f o r n=2.4. ( y ( j ) ) . inductive limit i s s t r i c t . t ) inducino on each E n i t s own topol 0 sy t n . t k ) theN a continuous sewinorm q on ( E k + l y t k + l ) which extends q (8. then t h e following conditions a r e equivalent: ( i ) ( E . . .. 3 .4. .. the // Proposition 8.. ( i i ) follows as i n 8.4. x ( j ) E E j j i s a continuous norm on Then ( E . Define q ( x ) : = i n f { E q . 2 . First r e c a l l t h a t dven a continuous norm q on a s t e p ( E k . Given any p o s i t i v e nunber b t h e r e e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e N N i n t e g e r N > n an3 vectors y ( j ) EE. . 2 . Proof: I f ( i ) holds.) s t r i c t l y i n c r e a s i n g sequence of subspaces of E such t h a t each ( E n . There e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e s r n such t h a t x € E n . t ) i s a s t r i c t (LB)-space ( i i ) There e x i s t s i n ( E . t n ) f o r n=1. each p ( U n ) i s a continuous seminorm on ( E n . p n ) s a t i s f i e s t h a t p(x):= i n f { t p j ( d j ) ) : x = z x ( j ) . and (En:n=1. .b(n)pn f o r each n . . t h e n ..3.n @ b in ( E n y t n ) ( i i i ) There exists a continuous norm on ( E .. t ) Proof: re exists Set ql:=pl (Enytn). ( d j ) ) : N=1... has a continuous norm. t n ) .3. 4 . J According t o 8.tn):n=ly2y.. I f ( i i ) holds.q.l < q n on En-. q i s a continuous seninorm on ( E . x = q x ( j ) j .2.. .4... x ( j ) C E j . . each (En. 2 . Then U : = u ( U n : n = l . = t n ) i s a Banach space and. .C b. In a d d i t i o n .) alsc? s a t i s f i e s f o r each n . suppose t h a t ( * ) f o r every n .1 f o r n= 2. t n ) i s conplete. and p ( U ) i s a continuous sen'normon ( E .) where U n = U / \ E n i s a bounded ( a b s o l u t e l y convex) O .tn):n=l.4..2 .) is a Proposition 8. .18). the n-tuple ( p l . The equivalence between ( i i ) and ( i i i ) follows observing t h a t p(U) i s a continuous norm on ( E .-~) f o r n = 2 .) such t h a t qn>.2.

t. S i n c e (ql. ) and T:=((F 1 14 1 1 1-In ln d e f i n e d by ( E n .. t ) .p(n.y ( n ) C F n .n o r n a b l e ) F r e c h e t space o f a l l r a p i d 1 l y d e c r e a s i n g sequences of s c a l a r s . . t n ) and c o n t i n u o u s n o r m pk on (Ek.J F O follows.. q u o t i e n t .2. .tn):n=l. E and J are e q u i v a l e n t and hence i n d E = i n d 3 t o p o l o g i c a l l y ( 8 .n)) Then ( E .. s n ) : = l x . .n):=qn/Ek (p(l.2.. . . By 8.tl) has o b v i o u s l y a s e p a r a b l e i n f i and 4.D. h e n c e i t c o n t a i n s a seS i n c e (G. ~ . t ) has a c o n t i n u o u s n o r r . . . y ( i ) ) .4..qn) satisfies (*)..23: . P r o o f : F o r k $ n and p(k. R e p l a c i n g 1’ by 1’ and s by 1 one o b t a i n s a s t r i c t (LB)-space w i t h a n o n .. S t r i c t n e s s i s a p r o p e r t y w h i c h i s n o t i n h e r i t e d by e q u i v a l e n t sequences . t ) = @ ( ( En. 4 . j ) = x ( n ) . x l x(O)x(O)x and ( F n . we nay a p p l y 4.8 subspace H s t r i c t l y d o n i n a t e d b y a F r e c h e t space ( H . s b e i n g t h e ( n o n .s ):n=1. where each (En. . 4 . .. ... .. t ) .274 rJ m .s).sl):= i s a non- we nay suppose t h a t (E1.3.3.20 a p p l i e s t o show t h e c o n c l u s i o n . .. n ) such t h a t p ( k .4. Re- p e a t i n g t h i s argurrent q n ( x ( n ) ) & z q ... 2 . j ) ) .t)=s-ind((En.t u p l e (pl.. S e t t i n q x ( i ) : = y ( i ) f o r i=1. ( b ) Every s t r i c t (LF)-space ( E . ( r e s t r i c t i o n o f qn t o E ) . ( y ( . t n ) : n = l . n .5 t o o b t a i n a dense S e t t i n p (Fl.tn) has a c o n t i n u o u s norm qn.tl) nite-dinensional (H.21: Let (E.sn):n=1.. hence t h e r e e x i s t p o s i t i v e s c a l a r s c ( k ..n). t h e n . S ~ ) : = ( € ~ .. we have x = F d j ) and L q .pn) saf o r a l l n>k.tn):n=l. t h e n q : = z q n i s a c o n t i n u o u s norm on ( E ..) i s a (gDF)-space w i t h c o n t i n u o u s norm 9 . ( F . t h e n . 6 ) . Note t h a t s enbeds c o n t i n u o u s l y i n t o 1 Clearly.. p a r a b l e c l o s e d subspace (G.. i s a non-strict a s t r i c t d e f i n i n g sequence o f Banach spaces.tl).2. e v e r y d e f i n i n g sequence o f F r e c h e t spaces f o r K( N ) . n ) p k t i s f i e s ( * ) and 8.~ .d i m e n s i o n a 1 .) not isomrphic t o K(‘) has a d e f i n i n g sequence o f F r e c h e t spaces w h i c h i s n o t s t r i c t : Indeed. .) ( a ) Set z : = ( ( E n . t n ) : = l x .2. whereas d e f i n i n g sequence o f non-normable F r e c h e t spaces. i s i n f i n i t e ..22: I f ( E . _ ~ )f o r n=2. N 6 qn(y(n)) + q n ( 3 y ( j ) ) qn(y(n)) + qn-l( Z . m J . n ) C c ( k .s t r i c t d e f i n i n g sequence o f Banach spaces.l . . A c c o r d i n g t o 8 .tk) C l e a r l y . S i n c e z y ( . // O b s e r v a t i o n 8.5 each ( E n . s a t i s f i e s ( * ) .2.4. ) i s such t h a t each ( En.n. ? I // C o r o l l a r y 8.3... . s ) .-l BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES u t h a t x(n):= g y ( j ) = x we have q n ( x ( n ) ) - &y(j) b e L o n g t o En. x l xsx(O)x(O)x Exanples 8. ‘E i s 1 .tn) :n=l. r e s p e c t i v e l y . 6 ( i i ) . ( x ( j ) ) S b . ) ..t u p l e k s a t i s f i e s t h e c.6.2.. . F:=((Fn.) s t r i c t d e f i n i n g sequence o f F r e c h e t spaces f o r ( E . . t ) = i n d ( ( En.4.

ces o f a space ( E .t) i s isonorphic f o r some Frechet space F i f and o n l y i f t h e r e e x i s t s a d e f i n i n a se- k :=( ( En. P ( b ) 8 . Then x t U .2.24: t o FxK") quence Let (E. E ' ) o r i f (E'.. t coincides w i t h s Proof: (i) C l e a r l y .tn) :n=1.2. S e t t i n g i s satisfied i f (E.4.s).2.2. s i s f i n e r t h a n t . L e t U be an a b s o l u t e l y convex 0nghb i n (E.4.t) be a p r o p e r (LF)-space. L e t Ln be a f i n i t e .). i s c o n t a i n e d i n U A E . 4 .4.2. it i s m t r i z a b l e and ( E . i s a Frechet space.) i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m ind((En..q s i n c e x belongs t o 2-'(U/\E q 4 UAE q 8. i s clear that s=t(&) such t h a t ? and 8. ) be an i n c r e a s i n g sequence o f subspaThen Proposition ( i ) i f sone E 8. i s dense i n ( E .2. and U n E i s a O-n$b P Our c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s i f VCII.s)' : Indeed.n a b i n ( E . t h e c l o s u r e t a k e n i n (E .s(E'. . i f ( E . Thus 9 and hence x 6 4 ). 4 .t) P i s a O-n$b ) i s a 0 ... t ) and t h e c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s .22 OK"1 'I/ .) o f F r e c h e t spaces such t h a t d i d En+l/En)(+m corn Since Set (En+lysn+l ) : = ( E n y t n ) 0 (Lnytn+l). .t).2. t ) .2. s ) ' . 1.29( ii).b a r r e l l e d space ( E . i f ( E . P r o p o s i t i o n 8. .). t=n(E. E ' ) and w i t h a sequence o f subspaces (En:n=1.t) = (Elytl) is closed i n (E. and t h e d e f i n i n g sequence Z ! i s strict. 2 5 ( i ) t coincides w i t h s. by d e n s i t y .d i m e n s i o n a l subspaces.. shows t h a t t induces on each En t h e t o p o l o g y tn. t ) and s e t (E. b u t ( E .5.. Thus K ( N ) i s ( u p t o isomorphisn) t h e o n l y s t r i c t (LF)-space f o r which e v e r y d s f i n i n g sequence o f Fr6chet spaces i s s t r i c t . i n ( E . I f x € V t h e r e e x i s t s q)p such t h a t x E E 9 9 -1 2 ( U n E ) .25: L e t ( En:n=1.. i n 8..161.36 shows t h a t s ~ c+ oinc ~i d e s w i t h tn+lyhence tn+linduces tn on En.E') and i f (E'. P r o o f : Only s u f f i c i e n c y meeds p r o o f . t ) i s n o t t h e i n d u c t i v e l i r i t o f f i n i t e .E)) i s not l o c a l l y corn such t h a t ( E . A c c o r d i n g t o 4.CHAPTER 8 275 i s s t r i c t .E') and.E)) i s l o c a l l y conplete. Then 2-'(UnE closure V i n (E.. t c o i n c i d e s w i t h s P (ii) i f t=m(E. On t h e o t h e r hand.t) :=(En:n=1.t) and.). t ) stands p l e t e : Indeed. t ) .38 we gave an e m n p l e o f a l a . t ) w i t h t # d E . t ) ' = ( E . (E. hence El (E. t ) i s metrizable. (ii) f o l l o w s d i r e c t l y from // Observation 8. n=1.d i n e n s i o n a l plerrent o f En i n En+ly each (En+lysn+l) Now 8 . 2 5 ( i i ) f a i l s i f t # n ( E .. s i n c e ( E . t ) '=( E.28 shows t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r p i s a 0-ncJb i n ( E .1.t):n=l.s(E'. t ) f o r K(N) endowed w i t h t h e sup-norm.t):n=1..s):=ind((En. 1 6 ( i ) ( o r 8. t h e n t c o i n c i d e s w i t h i t s Mackey t o p o l o - gy.26: ( a ) The h y p o t h e s i s o f 8 .2.t).2.t) and o f i n f i n i t e c o u n t a b l e codinension..1. i t s i n (E. 4 .

m ? n ) ) be a p r o j e c t i v e sequence and ( E . . .4.). t n ) : n = 1 . ..b(Enl.30: I f E = proj( En:n=1.barrel ed and q . Observation 8. . b ( E ' . 8 .27: Let ( ( E n .t) f o r each k. . E n ) ) : n = 1 . On t h e o t h e r hand. . Since t h e transposed napping J n ' : ( E ' .E') and the conclusion of 8.4. ( P n . 1 6 ( i i i ) . t ) .2. 3 . .).16( i i i ) ) . E n ) ) i s continuous f o r each n .E))-(En'. 2 . ( c ) Every Fr6chet space ( E . s i s coarser than b ( E ' .E))=pro. Proof: W e f i r s t check t h a t (E'. l e t ( p k : k = 1 .n @ b f o r s and we a r e done. t ) = T ( E n : n = l .) i s a s t r i c t (LR)-space.+ E is a homomorphism Since each E n i s a ( O F ) . i s a l s o a O .t r i v i a l s e n ' n o r m d e f i n i n g t h e topology t such t h a t Fk:=pk-'(0) contains Fk+l:..b(E'.2. E ) ) . . Proposition 8..4.p r o j ( ( E . t ) = s . ( E .29: I f E=s-ind(En:n=1. ) . ). .b(E'. S t r i c t p r o j e c t i v e l i n ' t s of a n sequence o f Banach spaces a r e c a l l e d quojections.j((En'.) is a reduced s t r i c t projec. .En)):n=1. t h e n ( E ' . 2 . t ) i t s p r o j e c t i v e l i n i t .4.b( E' . E ) ) is the s t r i c t p r o j e c t i v e 1 i v i t of ( ( E n ' .En)):n=l. 2 . s i n c e ( E ..b(En'. . t h e desired conclusion was shown t o hold f o r every x. 4 . .4.'k+l s e t Ek:=(E/Fk.28: ( a ) Every Banach space i s a quojection. 2 .En)) i s open and surjective.2. Definition 8. b ( En' .b( En' . i f B i s a bounded s e t i n E t h e r e e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r p such t h a t B i s bounded i n E by 8 . t i v e l i m i t of Banach spaces. ) . . E ) ) + ( E n ' . ( E .. .b a r r e l ed spaces need not be Mackey spaces ( s e e 8 . s ) : = p r o j ( ( E n ' . E ) . ) can be considered as t h e s t r i c t p r o j e c t i v e l i n i t of the sequence (" ( En:n E J ) : J a f i n i t e p a r t of N). Thus B " .276 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEX SPACES ( C ) t can be d i f f e r e n frorr dE.2 . /I Proposition 8. P which i s a O-n$b in ( E ' .b( E ' .E))=s-ind((En'. t ) = p r o j E k where a l l l i n k s Ek-+ E k .+ ( E n . t n ) . t ) i s s a i d t o be t h e s t r i c t p r o i e c t i v e l i n i t of t h e p r o j e c t i v e sequence i f each P n : ( E ..b(En'.l are surjective hommrphism.b( E n ' .. 4 0 ( b ) . ( b ) Every countable product of Banach spaces i s a quojection.) be an i n c r e a s i n g sequence of n o n . N o w each J n : E n .4. 2 . Set ( E l .4 0 ) properly ( t h a t i s none of t h e p k ' s i s a norm) and . (E'. t n ) i s s u r J e c t i v e and open and we w r i t e ( E . 2 ) . Clearly.s p a c e . E n ) ) : n = 1 .b(E'. t ) without a continuous norm i s t h e s t r i c t p r o j e c t i v e l i m i t of a sequence of Fr6chet spaces w i t h continuous n o r m : Indeed. (Note t h a t t h e conclusion follows f o r every countable inductive linsit i n which bounded s e t s behave well a s i n 8.25( i i ) s t i l l can be t r u e : Indeed. ( c ) inply t h a t Jn':(E'.

o n l y n e c e s s i t y needs p r o o f . A c c o r d i n 9 t o ( * ) . BnCPn(A) and we a r e done..)'BW1 ( t h i s can be done set B s i n c e a l l Em a r e norned and t h e c a n o n i c a l n a p p i n g a r e open).CHAPTER 8 277 P r o o f : The c o n t i n u o u s mappings Pn. I f we check c o n d i t i o n ( * ) o f 8. i s c o a r s e r t h a n b(E'.4. L e t B be a bounded s e t i n En f o r some f i w d n.4.33: are equivalent: L e t E be a F r g c h e t space. which i s bounded i n E. . Thus E i s i s o m r p h i c t o K k i n g B as t h e c l o s e d u n i t b a l l i n En one g e t s t h a t En' b e i n g a Banach space.2.En)):n=l.. d e f i n i t i o n s .:Em-+ >/n. I f fin. P r o o f : I t f o l l o w s fron-8. .. c o n d i t i o n ( * ) ensures t h a t each on En' f r o m w h e r e o u r c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s . 2 .30 i s t h a t e v e r y s t r i c t p r o j e c t i v e l i r m ' t o f a sequence o f norrred spaces s a t i s f i e s ( * ) . s t r ic t ( LB ) -space.6. // Observation 8.).2.29 // The f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t i s a c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f q u o j e c t i o n s which f o l l o w s e a s i l y fro-rr.32: The s t r o n g b i d u a l o f a s t r i c t (LB)-space i s a g a i n a and 8. t h e open-napping t h e o r e m 1.4. The f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s (i) E i s a quojection (ii) (E/q-'(O). Tai s f i n i t e d i w n s i o n a l .Replacing compact by weakly conpact.b(En'.36 and 2.E) To show c o n d i t i o n ( * ) . Since E i s Montel... f i n d bounded subsets B m i n Em such t h a t Pm-l 9 JB.b(E'. I n p a r t i c u l a r N a q u o j e c t i o n E=projE i s Montel i f and o n l y i f E i s i s o m r p h i c t o K o r f i n n i t e .E))= ind((En'. . ) .3. :=Pm(Bn) and d e f i n e A:= E A n ( B k : k = 1 . t h e r e e x i s t s a bounded s e t P i n E such t h a t P n ( A ) 3 B ( t h e i n c l u s i o n h o l d s even w i t h o u t c l o s u r e ) .30.) i s a Banach space f o r each q € c s ( E ) (iii) Every q u o t i e n t o f E which admits a c o n t i n u o u s norm i s a Banach space ( i v ) E ' i s t h e i n c r e a s i n g u n i o n o f weakly c l o s e d subspaces generated b y bounded sets.d i m n s i o n a l : Indeed.4. I f man.31: The c o r e o f t h e p r o o f i n 8. N i f E i s infinite-dirensio- - nal. C o r o l l a r y 8. f i x n and l e t B n be a bounded subset o f En. C l e a r l y .4. o u r f o r r r e r argunent shows t h a t a q u o j e c t i o n E=proSEn i s r e f l e x i v e i f and o n l y i f each En i s r e f l e x i v e . A i s r e l a t i v e l y conpact and hence B i s r e l a t i v e l y conpact i n En.40(d) En a r e s u r j e c t i v e and open f o r m we s h a l l have t h a t (E'.. b(En'.En) Moreover.4.10( ii) P r o p o s i t i o n 8.

( e ( n ) : n C N k ) i s an unconditional b a s i s f o r G k and G k A G s = ( 0 ) f o r kfs. . t ) . ) w i t h an unconditional b a s i s i s isomorphic t o a countable d i r e c t s u m of Baan nach s p a c e s p G n .11.36: A s t r i c t (LB)-space which i s not i s o m r p h i c t o a countable d i r e c t sum of Banach spaces. each G n being a closed subspace of ( E n .(l)) which in t u r n i s i s o m r o h i c t o s ( P .Nk:=(nEN: e ( n ) E E k \ E k. 9 ) . 2 . t ) c o n v e r F s in sow (Er. ) be an unconditional b a s i s f o r ( E . t n ) : n = l . Let ( E . F i r s t Proposition 8. n ] ) ) N . I f (In is the closed semiball and U stands f o r ( f t : E: s u p ( \ f ( t ) l : t t R ) Q ) . Clearly. n ] ) . ~ h l . T h u s E = f D G k holds a l g e b r a i c a l l y . .t).4. Proof: Let ( e ( n ) : n = 1 .Ch. The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s a l s o topological according t o 8. the closure taken in ( E . E n : = E / q n .35: A proper s t r i c t (LF)-space ( E . t n ) with an unconditional basis. .278 BARRELLED LOCALLY CON VEX SPACES Exarrples 8.28(c) t o deduce t h a t being a Banach space since U i s bounded.36 w i l l show.4. Since E has no continuous norn7. 2 . t ) .4.tr)=(Er.Note t h a t C ( R ) i s i s o m r p h i c t o ( C ( [ . S t r i c t inductive l i m i t s of a sequence of Frechet spaces a r e not necessar i l y i s o m r p h i c t o a countable d i r e c t sum a s 8. rlefine Eo:=[O). 1 0 . TIETZE's extension theorem t e l l s us t h a t Un=U+qn each n.\ O ) i s a quojection. t k ) = ( E k .34: Set E : = C ( R ) f o r t h e space of a l l real-valued continuous functions on t h e real l i n e endowed w i t h the t o p o l o g o f conpact convergence defined by t h e family of seninorm q n ( f ) : = s u p (I f ( t ) \ : t & [ l .n . what follows we s h a l l prove t h e existence of quojections which a r e not i s o norphic t o a countable product of Banach spaces.III). t ) = i n d ( (E n .1 ) and G k : = s p ( e ( n ) : n € N k ) . t ) which i s continuous and a l s o surj e c t i v e due t o t h e f a c t t h a t a convergent sequence in ( E . p ) be a r e f l e x i v e Banach space a n d F a closed subspace which i s not corrplemnted in ( E . which i s a -1 (0) for bounded s e t i n E . t h e space & ( X ) limits of a N ( E ( [-n. The space k(R) i s isomrDhic t o N (MITIAGIN. In t h e s a w fashion one can prove t h a t LPloc(R) .n])) For a r b i t r a r y i s also isomr- In phic t o s N ( s e e V. we apply 8.n .4. each Gk i s a closed subspace of ( E k .4. t ) . p ) (such a subspace F can be . - TGk d) Q // Example 8. non void open s e t s X i n t h e euclidean space. Ther e e x i s t s a natural i n j e c t i o n -( E . Thus E E=s-projEn. 3 .4. i s a l s o a quojection i f endowed w i t h t h e Fr6chet topolocy described by t h e seninorns q n ( f ) :=( j-a a l f ( t)l P d t ) Other function spaces can be seen t o be s t r i c t p r o j e c t i v e sequence of Frechet spaces. Floreover.

a s s o c i a t e d c o e f f i c i e n t f u n c t i o n a l s which i s an u.4. If ( E .4. . F i x a o o s i t i v e i n t e g e r k . S e t Uk f o r t h e c l o s e d u n i t s e n ' b a l l generated by pk.4. ) i s a s t r i c t (LB)-space. . ) E ~ ( E . s e t R k : = ( $ ( G . i s i s o m r p h i c t o @(Hn:n=1.. on (I+' m( F .p) )z f o r a s u i t a b l e subspace M.p)). t ) Example 8.. t h e n ( E .2. Z ..H i l b e r t Banach spaces due t o a r e s u l t o f LINDENSTRAUSS Y and TZAFRIRI).) be t h e sequence o f basis f o r o f them i s a norm.. d e s c r i b i n g t h e t o p o l o g y t and such t h a t none and U k o C E k ' f o r each k.t)-+G. f r o m ( E x T T ( F. Thus ( H . .2.).28(c). = Then (H..4. J+' m be a continuous p r o j e c t i o n and c o n s i d e r i t s r e s t r i c t i o n t o Fj+l.2.CHAPTER 8 279 found always i n n o n . ) o f (E. We keep t h e n o t a t i o n o f 8. Then R:=s-projRk i s a q u o j e c t i o n whose s t r o n g dual i s ( H . Then each Rk i s a Banach space whose d u a l i s Fk and Rk appears as a q u o t i e n t o f Rk+l.. Gm can DQ be considered as a t o p o l o g i c a l subspace o f F .2. there e x i s t p o s i t i v e integers k Fk-jGF-+Fj-+Gn.36. ? ) )s .2..Il) OD be a BK-space ( s e e W. Clearly.2. t a c o u n t a b l e p r o d u c t o f n o n . ..t r i v i a l FrPchet spaces w i t h c o n t i n u o u s n o r m a n d ..) 6 Z endowed w i t h t h e norm q( x):= lip( x(n)):n=1. <n t o g e t h e r w i t h continuous i n j e c t i o n s Since Gn induces on Gm i t s own Banach topoloqy.) where Ek stands belongs t o an i n c r e a s i n g sequence (pi :i=1. ) and p k continuous sen'norns on ( E . E' = u ( E k ' : k = 1 .q):k=1. Since G i s conplenented i n ( H . 2 . J+Z Then t h e r e e x i s t s a continuous p r o i e c t i o n t h e r e f o r e a l s o a continuous p r o . f o r ( E/pk-'( O : .6( i i ) . r ) r e s p e c t i v e l y . Theoren.2.2.. p ) x such . t ) .p) and and a normal sequence space S a . L e t (Z. .) . t ) . p ) x ~ ( F . and hence i t i s v e r y easy t o J check t h a t Gm = ( $ ( E .2. d u c t o f Banach m a c e s . A c c o r d i n g t o 8.s(E.4. . 8. p ) c o n t a i n s a non-complenented c l o s e d subspace F i n (E..E)).jection which i s n o t i s o m r p h i c t o a c o u n t a b l e p r o Choose now (E.) l e t (u(n):n=1.ll.. a c o n t r a d i c t i o n .p.k) w i t h Hi a Banach space. j e c t i o n i s as d e s i r e d .37: A quo. p ) x M x v ( F. t ) ind(Gk:k=1.67) and s e t Fk:=( T ( E .t) be a FrPchet space which does n o t have a c o n t i i s isomrphic t o and hence i s n o t has an u n c o n d i t i o n a l b a s i s . < TI. t ) L e t (E.t)=s-proj(Ek:k=l. t isomorphic t o a c o u n t a b l e p r o d u c t o f Banach spaces. e ( n ) l u ( n ) I (El .p) )z f o r t h e space o f a l l x : = ( x ( n ) : n = l . s(E'. such t h a t ( E . i n (E'..38: nuous norm. 00 0 l e t P:(tI.. t ) unconditional basis. ) i s an u n c o n d i t i o n a l b a s i s f o r ( E .t):=ind((Fk. o ) t h a t ( p ( x(n)):n=1. (j Gk b e i n g @(Hi:i=lY.... P ) ) ~ and f r o m E o n t o F. F o r each k.conditional Then e v e r y u E E ' has an expansion u = z < u . r ) x ~ ( G / F ' .G)). xG(F.)I\. Z t o be t h e d u a l s o f a Banach space ( G . I f (e(n):n=1. Proof: A c c o r d i n g t o 8. Suppose t h a t (H.s(E'.

s(E'.b( E ' . = F i r s t observe t h a t ( E . I n o r d e r t o show t h a t J 1x( j ) converys i n (E. pk(x)=O.. t h e r e e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r i such t h a t . . t ) and a r e s e q u e n t i a l l y c o n p l e t e and hence. t ) (E'.e(n)> # 0 ..(e(n)) space and a l s o t h e o p e n . i ) because i f t h i s i s t h e case. E ) ) ..) k k' and t h a t each Fk has a continuous norm. and s i n c e Qk i s a continuous Let x t F k with F i r s t we check t h a t pk/Fk i s a ( c o n t i n u o u s ) n o r m o n ( F k . (Bn:n=?.e(n)> : rtMi)) : U C U ~ ~ = )s u p ( ~ ~ ( ( u . T h i s s e t i s E-equicontinuous and hence c o n t a i n e d i n s o w E k ' ..v ( F . 2 . . C l e a r l y the canonical i n j e c t i o n E l U m I o-( E ' .. t ) . e ( r ) ) < u ( r ) . a l g e b r a i c a l l y .s(E'.2. .2. . . . E ) ) 0 0 i s continuous and E ' = f e G . i s a c l o s k d subspace o f (E'. t ) . e ( n ) ) : r&Mi) = 0.E)) i s corrplete and has a f . T h e n q ( G i . x ) e ( n ) : n t N k ) Claim: . m j e c t i v e : Indeed. s . f o r each k . t ) ( d ) ( u ( n ) : n &Nk) i s an u n c o n d i t i o n a l b a s i s f o r (Gk. a c c o r d i n 5 t o (1) and t h e one has = #.) which i s c l e a r l y continuous and i n j e c t i v e .b(E'. i s i s o m r p h i c toTT(Fk:k=1..j be a v e c t o r o f 7 F . k j (0) i f k#j ( b ) E ' equals a l g e b r a i c a l l y t o (c) (e(n):ntNk) ( e ) I f Qk:E--rF TGk i s an u n c o n d i t i o n a l b a s i s f o r ( F k . t ) .) o f Banach d i s c s . w i t h E o ' : = ( 0 ) . t h e r e e x i s t s i such t h a t U k o C @ ( G .. E ) ) . i ) .4.35. t h e c l o s u r e taken i n ( E ' . 2 . Z .E)) ( a ) Nk"Nj Nk:=(n t N : u ( n ) C E k ' \ E k . . x > e ( n ) . t ) by T ( x ) : = J (Qj(x):j=lY2. l e t ( dj):j=l. s ( E ' ...2.t) (andc+hrence t h a t T i s s u r j e c t i *fV ve) t a k e i n t e g e r s s L r and c a l c u l a t e pk( = 0 a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c l a i m .x(i. J suppose ndMi= U ( N . Our a i m i s t o prove t h a t ( E . GkAG...m p p i n g t h e o r e w 1. : j = l .i) . Each 6 . - For each k d e f i n e . : u (Uko) F i x k. The ca- . . b .280 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEXSPACES E ) ) . t ) Ics i : * i Frechet z x ( j ) ) < z z ( Icu(n). T i s a l s o s u r m u ( N . . k * 1eNK p r o j e c t i o n and hence Fk i s complenented i n ( E . then j* 4 pk( e( n)=O. Since x= z ( < u ( n ) . s ( E ' . : j = 1 . and t a k e t h e sewin o r m p k . choose a p o s i t i v e i n t e m r i as above. E ) ) i s also J corrplete and has a f .S(E'. The p a r t i a l sum o f t h i s expansion f o r m a bounded s e t i n ( E ' .E)) i s t h e napping XI-* Z < u ( n ) . = ( 0 ) and F A F J . Since ( E .F)) and J J hence (G. Then p k ( e ( n ) ) = sup(l<u.lp. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e c l a i m .36 shows t h a t T is a t o p o l o g i c a l i s o m r p h i s m . b . C a l l i t H.. s .l ' ) G := k s p ( u ( n ) : n CNk).e(r)>u(r). Thus (1) u ( n ) € E k ' whenever <u.Z. b ( E ' . i f n Mi := Suppose o u r c l a i m t r u e and d e f i n e t h e n a p p i n g T : ( E . n a n e l y p /F argurrent used i n 8. . f o r n CNky u ( n ) vanishes on x s i n c e i t belongs t o E k ' we have t h a t x=O as d e s i r e d . given k TFj ' Proof o f t h e C l a i m F i r s t observe t h a t i t i s enough t o show t h a t . Fk:= $ ( e ( n ) : n c N k ) .j = 1 .e(n))l : u CUko) = J s u p ( I Z (((u.

t)=ind((En..3. . t h e r e s t r i c t i o n f * of f .1: Let E and F be spaces and f : E .2O(i). u ) by a subsequenc e .. ) i s an ..+ ( F n y u n ) i s continuous and thereP P f o r e 1.2.) be (LF)-spaces.: Fix n and consider Fn as U ( f ( E S n f . we m y replace t h e d e f i n i n g sequence f o r ( F .b( E ' . u ) : n = 1 .hommorphism -----------. . 2 According t o 1. u ) .1 (F.).)). .2.+ ( F .. ) has closed praph.) 4 H - ( E l . f i s (weak1y)conpact i f t h e r e e x i s t s an absolutely convex 0-nghb U i n E such t h a t f(U) i s (weak1y)relatively conpact i n F.t ) : n = 1 .4.5. ) . . . t h e r e e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r i such t h a t UkoC@(G.n @ b i n ( F n . which we denote again by ( ( F n .11) which provides information on t h e behaviour of the mapping a c t i n g between s t r i c t (LF)-spaces.i n d ( ( F . u ) = s . 1 a s desired. ) . .+ i n d ( % : n = 1 .1 ( F n ) ) : s = l Y . t ) .tn):n=1.. Since t h e inductive l i m i t s a r e s t r i c t ..2O(i). u n ) : n = 1 . u n ) . Definition 8. such t h a t t h e r e s t r i c t on of f t o each E n takes i t s values i n Fn and i s continuous a s a m a p p i n g (Enytn)--+ Fn (y u n ) . 2 .. t ) . n n n n f : ( E . f*:(E T\f.5 Regularity conditions in countable inductive l i r r i t s . . P T h u s f ( U ) i s a O-n@b i n ( F .CHAPTER 8 28 1 nonical i n j e c t i o n s i n d ( % : n = 1 .f .2: A space E is a (FSw-) FS-space i f i t can be described as a p r o j e c t i v e l i m i t of a sequence of spaces w i t h (weak1y)conpact l i n k s . 2 ..5. ( (LSw)-) (LS)-space i f each J n .i -. ) ) i s a O . E ) ) a r e continuous and . The proof i s conplete. n + l i s (weak1y)conpact. Definition 8. 2 . According t o 1.( F n ) .2. . n . Then U 1 p 1 f . t ) x ( F .36 shows t h a t f* i s open and t h a t Fn coincides with f ( E n f . 2 . 2 .5.+ Fa l i n e a r napping. N o w we prove f 1 s s u r j e c t i v e s a I f ----------. . f ( E D n f -1( F . ) ) i s Ba re and dense i n ( F n y u n ) f o r sore p .1( F n ) .2. ( F .i) . . u ) a l i n e a r mapping w i t h closed y a p h i n ( E . P n E r\f-'(Fn) i s a 0-nghb i n ( E D N o w l e t U be a 0-n$b i n ( E . .2.( F .t! =s-ind( ( E . hence t h e embedding E' // M e s h a l l f i n i s h this s e c t i o n by proving the open-napping theorem f o r s t r i c t (LF)-spaces ( a p a r t i c u l a r case o f 8. t P ) and hence f(1J)nFn 3 f(UAE A f . u ) s i n c e n was a r b i t r a r y and w e a r e done. Definition 8. 8.:j=l.. t ) . Accordina 'k n t o 1.3: An inductive 1 nit (E. then ---. Let (E.

x-Pn(a.) are vectors of E . . x c E f o r every x i n ( x ( n ) y ( n ) : n = l . .Z. Proof: Let U be t h e closed u n i t ball of E .5.. Z . Z . € as above. Since p ( a ) b sup( l a ( n ) l : n = l . . where b/a i s t h e sequence ( b ( n ) / a ( n ) : n = l . . E beinp a Banach sequence space such t h a t the canonical u n i t vectors forrr a Schauder b a s i s f o r E . \ \ ) be a Banach sequence space such t h a t the canonical u n i t vectors ( e ( n ) : n = l .. I \ . E(an+') can be considered as a subspace of E(an) by mans of the enbedding J n : = J ( a n f l . Z .) w i t h a(n)#O. x = T x ( n ) e ( n ) .). Z .IV. 2 . we apply DS. .y:= N : a . If E=co ( r e s p . .111 stands f o r t h e usual norm on L ( E ) . . t h e canonical i n j e c t i o n J ( a . . .).b:=(b(n):n=l.2.Z.5.)CK E Then R ( E ) contains K(N) and. Let S ( E ) be the c l o s u r e of in R ( E ) .P n ( a ) ) = 0 i f and only i f a C S ( E ) .. ) c o n z t i t u t e a Schauder basis f o r I f x:=( x ( n ) : n = l . . R ( E ) can be normed by p(a):=lllA(a)lll . For each n .282 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES Let € : = ( E . Set R(E):={a=(a(n):n=l. .5: For a a n d b as above. . b ) i s conpact i f a n d only i f b/a C S ( E ) . x i s continuous. Since ( e ( n ) : n = 1 .. ) i s a b a s i s f o r S ( E ) .y:=(y(n):n=l.. ) i s a vector of E . 5 . ) be a sequence of sequences such t h a t a n ( i ) # O f o r every n and i a n d suppose a n / a n t l C R ( E ) . . ) CKN : a . . .b):=D( l / b ) O A ( b/a)oD(a). 2 .x\\ . . I t i s easy t o check t h a t ( e ( n ) : n = l . Moreover.+ E defined by D ( a ) ( x ) : = a . Since ( e ( n ) : n = l . Z . Proposition 8. and we s e t P n ( x ) : = & x ( i ) e ( i ) . Z . I t i s c l e a r t h a t b / a t R ( E ) i f and only i f J ( a . t h e napping A(a) i s conpact i f and only i f a t S ( E ) . ) . R ( E ) i s contained in la . the . .x)ll : x t U ) = l i p sup( I\ A(a-Pn(a))(x)ll : x t U ) = lim p ( a . Z . b ) : E(a)-+ E ( b ) defined by J(a. a n ) . x i s an a l g e b r a i c isomrphism which i s tooolopical i f E(a) i s normed by \ I x \ \ ~ : = \\a. ) i s a Schauder b a s i s f o r S ( E ) and t h a t S ( E ) i s contained i n co. n = 1 .b(n)#O f o r each n and consider t h e canonical i n j e c t i o n J ( a .. the l i n e a r mapping A(a):E> 5 1. ) .4: I f a (R(E). . we w r i t e x. Set a:=(a(n):n=1. endowed w i t h t h e normp. E defined by A ( a ) ( x ) : = a . I f x:=( x(n):n=l. Corollary 8.. Z . Z . 2 . // Fix a sequence a : = ( a ( n ) : n = l . . . ) i s a basis f o r E .P n ( a ) ) = 0 . Definition 8 . . .5 t o obtain t h a t A(a)(lJ) i s r e l a t i v e l y compact iff lim s u p ( Ily-Pn(y)ll:ytA(a)(U)) = lim sup( I\ a. ) with a(n)#O f o r every n and define E(a) : = { x = ( x ( n ) : n = l . b ) i s continuous. ) . l i m p ( a .Z. x C E f .1 1 ot l'.p>l). d v e n a < R ( E ) .. . where l11. .. 6 : Let an:=( an( i ) : i = 1 . The d i a q n a l transformation D ( a ) : E ( a ) .Z. .5.

k) d e f i n e p(n.j). p>l.an)). s a t i s f y i n g (1) b u t n o t ( 2 ) i t Set bn( i.r~t$l-~mce: l e t B be a bounded s e t i n E . shown t o have a q u o t i e n t i s o m r p h i c t o 1 1 and K2. has a q u o t i e n t i s o m r p h i c t o lP 226 and 254). Pr(B) i s i s o m r p h i c t o Fr.430.n+2. Ei'-"_M.2. i f x E B .d i r r e n s i o n a l Frechet-Monte1 space which has a continuous n o r m and l e t ( pn:n=1. Z. For each p a i r o f D o s i t i v e i n t e g e r s (n.5. Pr b e i n g t h e c a n o n i c a l p r o .k):=pn i f k < n and s e t E:= N " k ~x=(x(n)::"=l. .which i s Fr6chet-Monte1 I n f a c t . . ) be an i n c r e a s i n a sequence of n o r m d e s c r i b i n g t h e t o p o l o g y o f F w i t h p .5.2. I t reads: (1) K(E.7: K(E. p > 1 ) i s a FS-space ( w i t h E=co. i s a FS-space i f and o n l y i f ..) i s c a l l e d t h e Kothe echelon space o f space K(E. K6the echelon space o f o r d e r p 21 which i s Frechet-Monte1 b u t n o t FS-space ( s e e V.433.an) ve i n t e g e r n t h e r e e x i s t s r > n such t h a t an/arC S ( E ) . and hence B C .an) n such t h a t sup( a r ( j ) / a n ( j ) : j C N ' ) and ( a ) above. ( a ) i t i s easy t o check t h a t R(co) = R( 1 ) = R( lP) = 1" 1 1 and hence S(co) = S ( l ) = S ( l p ) = co.bn) i s a FSw-space which i s n o t a FS-space.5.p> 1.. K(lD.7 1 o r l P . ( d ) We p r o v i d e an easy way o f c o n s t r u c t i n g Frechet-Yontel spaces which a r e n o t FS-spaces: l e t F be an i n f i n i t e .p>l) i s Yontel i f and o n l y i f f o r e v e r y subsequence N ' o f N and f o r e v e r y n t N t h e r e e x i s t s r> a l s o K1...It i s easy t o see t h a t E endowed w i t h t h e n e t r i z a b l e t o p o l o g y d e f i n e d b y ( q k : k = l .l = i f and o n l y i f f o r e v e r y nCFI t h e r e e x i s t s r a n such t h a t . On t h e o t h e r hand. K(lP..which w i l l be proved i n Chapter 1 1 . bn(i..22-23 c o n t a i n s an exanple o f a K6the echelon space o f o r d e r p. t h e sDace K(ll.. #F.p.k)(x(n)) i s f i n i t e f o r a l l k 3 .5. and i s a Frechet-Monte1 space which i s n o t an FS-space.Ch.n .bn) is i s c o n v e n i e n t t o r e p l a c e j b y a double i n d e x ( i . 1or p).. I f p >1.2. hence Pr(B) i s r e l a t i v e l y ( . F i x i n g a p o s i t i v e r w i t h r > ( l / b ) s u p ( q k + l ( x ) : x E B ) . f o r e v e r y subse- quence N ' o f N. ( b ) KOTHE s v e a c r i t e r i o n f o r K( 1 . a x-Pr( x ) ) 4 b. conpact i n Fr..9.pp.(1)). one has ( 2 ) K(E..) i s a Frechet space.a order zero (resp. . every b u t n o t a FS-space and which has a q u o t i e n t i s o m r p h i c t o lD.j):=in f o r i=n+l.631.k):=pk i f k > n and p(n. sup( a r ( j ) / a n ( j ) : j G N ' ) I n o r d e r t o f i n d a sequence (an:n=1.8: an) t o be Monte1 extended by GROTHENDIECK f o r K(lP.)EF : qk(x):= q n p(n.p>/l. O b s e r v a t i o n 8. By 8. k a D o s i t i v e i n t e o e r and b > O .CHAPTER 8 283 n ):=proj(E(an):n=1.Z..II.an) = =(see 1 ( w i t h E=lP. f o r e v e r y p o s i t i - P r o p o s i t i o n 8.j): = j n f o r i = e v e r y j . ( c ) I n K1.) -. C l e a r l y ..2... j e c t i o n .bn). 1.

( i i ) f o l l o w s d i r e c t l y f r o m ( i ) . .2. P r o o f : ( i ) L e t f:E-+F s o l u t e l y convex O-n$b be a (weak1y)comoact napping. O n t h e o t h e r hand. ( i i i ) can be seen i n K2. F ) ) .. To p r o v e ( v ) f i r s t observe t h a t . E ' ) ) .2.284 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEX SPACES Pr(B) + (J-Pr)(B) C P.) = p r o j ( En' ':n=1. There e x i s t s an abi s a b s o l u t e l y convex (weakFA and J:FAF for U i n E such t h a t A:=*) 1y)conpact s e t i n F.// 1 . l i n k i s weakly conpact.t) sequence o f Banach spaces d e f i n i n g ( E .t)=ind(En":n=1. ) which i s t h e l i m i t o f A o v e r t h e p o i n t s o f E ' = u ( E n ' : n = l . J:E+E E i s n o t a FS-space: given p o s i t i v e i n t e q e r s r > k .t h conponent i s t h e i d e n t i t y ( F y r r p r ) a ( F ... + ( y : q k ( y ) < b ) i s r e l a t i v e l y compact i n E. .. r pr) which i s n o t conpact s i n c e F i s i n f i n i t e .+ ( E ' .. b ( F ' .2.2.En')).. FSw-spaces a r e r e f 1 e x i ve.ak) res_________-__-----_k t r i c t e d t o t h e r .$42 2.)) weakly conpact. . A converges t o x i n (E. .2.E')) and hence ( E . according t o ( T i ) parable (8.s(E. ) d e f i n e s a v e c t o r o f p r o j ( En:n= i s reflexive.( r e s p . . t ) . ) ) . ( i v ) L e t (E.3.t)=proj(En:n=1.. we have t h a t f=JOf* f r o m where t h e conc l u s i o n f o l l o w s . ) .5.d i n . Then (E. f i s weakly conpact i f and o n l y i f i t s b i a d j o i n t f " f"(E")CF o r i f and o n l y i f i t s a d j o i n t f ' : ( F ' . t ) . b ( E ' .) space f o r each n.e n s i o n a l . FS-spaces a r e F r e c h e t spaces.. i s a (FSw-) FS-space t h e - r e e x i s t s an e q u i v a l e n t p r o j e c t i v e sequence o f Banach soaces d e s c r i b i n g ( E . t h e p r o j e c t i o n s pn:( E. F a Banach space and f : E . J:(E. 2 .) (resp. FS-) space w i t h En a Banach space f o r each n. Since each Since l i n k s Thus a r e weakly conpact. P r o p o s i t i o n 8. s ( E . bounded i s a FS -space w i t h En a Banach W s e t s a r e r e l a t i v e l y conpact. ( v ) FS-spaces a r e Fr6chet-Monte1 spaces (hence s e p a r a b l e ) .. 2 . The analogue c o n c l u s i o n h o l d s f o r ( LSw).52).t) (i) Every (weak1y)compact mapping between spaces f a c t o - r i z e s t h r o u g h a Banach space. .+ F a continuous lin e a r napping.t)-En a r e weak-weak c o n t i n u o u s .j(E n :n=1. x:=( x(n):n=1. S e t t i n f f* f o r t h e m p p i n g f:E-+ t h e continuous c a n o n i c a l i n i e c t i o n . W satisfies is be a ( L S ) ..(2) and ( i v ) i s a consequence o f ( i i i ) . =pro. l e t A be a bounded Cauchy n e t i n ( E . .s(En. t ) .and FS -spaces. E ) ) (resD.. hence each pn(A) converges t o a c e r t a i n x(n) i n (En.qr)--(E. i s a ( (LSw)-) (LS)-space t h e r e e x i s t s an e q u i v a l e n t i n d u c t i v e If (E.9: ( i i ) I f (E.2. hence FS-spaces a r e Monte1 spaces and hence seI f (E.(B) being the i d e n t i t y ..t)=ind(En:n=1. (iii) I f E i s a normed space.

t ) and i f i s @-bornivorous. t ) : Indeed.t):n=1. t ) = i n d S .tC&]) i s l o c a l l y conplete.) which a r e FS-spaces. .11: Let E be a l i n e a r space and ( E n : n = 1 . s i n c e ‘‘a SOW EK=U(EKAEn:n=l. ... d . 2 .an) i s a FS-space. I f E : = ( ( E n .r e c u l a r i f every bounded s e t of ( E . s coincides w i t h t h e topo1og. . t ) i s r e g u l a r .2. t r ) f o r some r ( i i i ) E is regular i f i t is d . i s 6-bornivorous.5.. s ) : = i n d ‘ E . i t coincides w i t h E . I f ( E .2. The proof of 8.) and each EKnEn i s closed i n E K . every nenber o f @ i s l o c a l i z e d i n sow En and i s c l e a r l y bounded i n ( E n . Since G i s the s t r o n g bidual of E . we say t h a t ( E . If is r e g u l a r .s(E..r e g u l a r o r (“-regular r e s p e c t i v e l y .4.9(iv) shows t h a t E= p r o j ( l ” ( a n ) : n = 1 .. ) an increas i n g sequence of subspaces of E covering E . ( b ) If @?i s the farm’ly of a l l a b s o l u t e l y convex corrpact subsets of (E. I f @3 stands f o r a t o t a l s a t u r a t e d f a n ’ l y of bounded subsets o f ( E . . Then 8.r e g u l a r and Q .r e y l a r .r e y l a r o r / 3 .5.. b?. t n ) : n = l . ) i s an i n ductive sequence and i f ( E . the condition i s @-bornivorous“ i s s a t i s f i e d i f w e suppose t h a t each E n i s closed i n ( E .12: Let ( E . ) .) i s a FS-space.10: I f E:=K(co. d . K i s a Banach d i s c and. T h u s condition ( 2 ) i n 8. 2 . t ) be a space. t ) . then (i) is 6 . Suppose each E n i s endowed w i t h a Hausdorff l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o w t n . .CHAPTER 8 285 Observation 8. t ) i s l o c a l i z e d i n sone E n isJ-requla_r i f every bounded s e t of ( E . :=( En:n= 1.). . hence r e f l e x i v e . 8.2.2. Definition 8. The following r e s u l t i s a r e f o r m l a t i o n of e a r l i e r propositions .s)‘ = E ’ i f and only i f (E’. W e s h a l l concern ourselves w i t h t h e study of t h e aforemntioned behaviour i n f u l l g e n e r a l i t y .2.. .). i s bounded i n ( E r .5. Conversely i f G:=proj(lm(an):n=1. E contains E K f o r P p and hence t h e conclusion. Observation 8. i f KC@.5. E ‘ ) ) ..8(b) char a c t e r i z e s those spaces of the type proj( la(an):n=1.5.29 shows t h a t a d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e dual of an inductive l i m i t can be achieved t h r o u @ knowledq on t h e behaviour of i t s bounded s u b sets.30 shows t h a t ( a ) If 0. . which i s l o c a l i z e d i n so (ii) ne E n .r e y l a r . ) an i n c r e a s i n g the s t r i c t inductive sequence sequence of subspaces of E covering E and ((En. t ) .y t(L2.1. (E. 2 . i t s closed subspace E i s again a FS-space.

3.... E i s recylar i f and o n l y i s a ( .4. b e i n g ((En. By 8. tf one has t h a t (E.5.14: ( a ) every h y p e r s t r i c t i n d u c t i v e l i m i t i s r e y l a r by 8.4. AOE. 7.6. hence S reduces t o ( 0 ) as d e s i r e d .) n bounded s e t s a r e n e c e s s a r i l y l o c a i z e d i n s o w s t e p . ( e ) 8. i n t h i s case. ( i i ) If (E. A c c o r d i n ? t o 4. n! there i s a (E/F) is i n f i n i t e . I t i s w o r t h t o m n t i o n t h a t . S C E f o r sorre p and i s bounded i n ( E t ) P P' P which i s a H a u s d o r f f space. By t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n . t h e n (E. E i s n o t h y p e r s t r i c t .29). and s e t S:=n(U:UC%). i s a f i n i t e s e t hence c l o s e d i n En f o r each n. P r o o f : ( i ) and (ii) f o l l o w d i r e c t l y f r o m d e f i n i t i o n s . Our n e x t two p r o p o s i t i o n s ensure t h e e x i s t e n c e o f such a p a t h o l o g y i n mny cases.286 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES P r o p o s i t i o n 8.. t ) i s Hausdorff. t ) (E. observe t h a t i f ( E . S i s a bounded subspace o f ( E .2.c l o s e d but not t-closed since O B A . hence s t r i c t i n d u c t i v e l i m i t s w i t h c o n p l e t e s t e p s a r e r e y l a r . ( b ) t h e r e e x i s t r e g u l a r s t r i c t i n d u c t i v e l i r r i t s which a r e n o t h y p e r s t r i c t : Indeed. To show ( i i i ) l e t be a b a s i s o f 0-nghbs i n ( E .7. C l e a r l y .6 we c o n s t r u c t e d a (LB)-space E=indE which has a n u l l sequenn ce A n o t l o c a l i z a b l e i n any s t e p . ( c ) s t r i c t i n d u c t i v e l i r r i t s need n o t be r e g u l a r .E))=proj((En'.2. ( i v ) was a l ready known t o us ( s e e t h e p r o o f o f 8. 1 . t ) u. t ) which i s n o t l o c a l i z a b l e i n any subspace and which i n t e r s e c t s each subspace i n a f i n i t e s e t .b(En'. 8 ) o f t h e sequence o f subspaces.16( i i i ) . E=ind(F :n=1..tn):n=1.d i t e n s i o n a l . Thus E i s n o t r e g u l a r and i t s t o p o l o g y t i s d i s t i n c t f r o m t** s i n c e A i s t * * . t** and. Since each F p e r dense subspace o f E. o f p r o p e r subspaces o f E c o v e r i n g E and c o n t a i n i n g F and hence dense i n E By 8 . A t t h i s p o i n t . ( i v ) I f ( E . t a k e E as t h e non-complete s e p a r a b l e Monte1 space c o n s t r u c t e d i n 4.). then ( E . t ) = i n d . i s n e t r i z a b l e and i f one i s a b l e t o c o n s t r u c t a s t r i c t l y t h e n t h e r e i s a n u l l sequence o f non-zero e l e n e n t s i n (E.t**) space.t) i s r e g u l a r . b ( E ' . By r e y l a r i t y . t ) i s recylar i s reaular (iii) I f (E.8 whose t o p o l o g y i s n o t t h e s t r o n g e s t l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y b u t s t i l l has a l l i t s bounded s e t s f i n i t e . Now i t i s easy t o and n i s a pro- .t) i s separable). s i n c e t=t* ( 8 .r e c y l a r . ( d ) I n 7.4.5.t) c a r r i e s t h e i n d u c t i v e toDolonJ i s not a topological linear i n c r e a s i n g sequence o f dense subspaces c o v e r i n p E ( t h i s i s e a s i l y done i f ( E .26(a). t ) .) ( i ) i f % i s an i n d u c t i v e sequence e q u i v a l e n t t o regular.3.t)=s-indE .2. // Observation 8.En)):n=l. 4 . 2 5 ( i ) .13: if$is Suppose ( E .2. dense subspace F o f E such t h a t d c o n s t r u c t a sequence ( Fn:n=1.t) then ( E ' ...44 shows t h a t t h e s t r o n g dual o f a d i s t i n g u i s h e d FrPchet space .

6.d i m n s i o n a l seoarable F k h e t space w i t h a continuous norm. 2 . t i s Hausdorff and each En i s dense i n ( E . i s r. .F). . Clearly. n ) ) . .5. then E=U(Ek: k=1. ) . .. 8. 2 . // Observation 8. Proof: Let ( y ( n ) :n=1.l). . ( E .. l ) . .r e g l a r s t r i c t inductive l i m i t . ). Set Ao:=( x(0.k)) f o r k = 1 . . . t ) .2. there is a p o s i t i v e i n t e s r r such t h a t x C E r and hence x = y + ? b ( i ) x ( O . t ) : Indeed. W e check t h a t E l is dense i n ( E .G)) f o r each n. // Proposition 8. 2 . I t i s convenient t o replace the index n i n x(n):=n-’y(n) by a double index (n.d i m n s i o n a l d i s c i n a space ( E .. ) . null sequences i n ( E .) be a l i n e a r l y independent’sesuence n A. A i s a bounded s e t i n ( E .5.x(O.15: Let G be a non-normble i n f i n i t e . t ) . 2 5 ( i ) . Z .) and A.CHAPTER 8 287 can be described a s a r e g u l a r (LB)-space. 2 . Since ( E . .. 1. . Complete and B : = U ( A k : k = 1 . . . t ) which i s s t r c t and not regular. ) i s a n u l l sequence. b ( r ) ) .2. . t ) .. Each sequence A k converges t o x(0. 7 which is contained i n B . Proposition 8. Since G i s separable t h e r e e x i s t s an i n f i n i t e countable dinensional subspace F of G dense i n G. ) of subspaces such t h a t En#En+l and En i s a proper dense subspace of (E. 4 .r). Proof: By 2. ) i n t h e usual way by mans of the correspondence ( n . ) be a sequence i n E w i t h x ( n ) G E n + l \ E n f o r n = O ..2. t ) can be described as a n o n . ) f o r k = 1 . B k : = ( x ( k . r ) : n . (E.) f o r k = 1 . According t o 8 .. i ) i s t h e limit o f A i . .. .Z.. r ) w (n+r-1)(n+r)/(2-( n t 1 ) ) . t ) which i s not l o c a l i z a b l e i n any s t e p . I f Ek:=sp(CUBU(x(O. given x C E . t ) and B U A o t o a b a s i s of E such t h a t E = sp(CUBUAo).t)=ind((E.b(E.. . Since each x ( 0 .) i s a null sequence i n EA and hence i n ( E . Let ( x ( n ) : n = 1 . . 2 . .5. .. .15(b). l . . . A. 2 6 ( i ) . 4 . t ) = i n d ( ( E n . . The sequence (n-’y(n):n=1. 2 . .3.k)+x(k.2.k) i n ( E . r = l .t):n=l.). E can be w r i t t e n a s t h e union o f an i n c r e a s i n ? sequence ( E n : n = 1 . b ! e enurnrate t h e sequence ( x ( n . t ) i s m t r i z a b l e s e l e c t p o s i t i v e real n u h e r s ( b ( n ) : n = 1 . . .. N BUA0 i s l i n e a r l y independent.20 shows t h a t a bornological (DF)-space can be described a s a r e a r l a r (LN)-space. ) such t h a t A : = ( b ( n ) x ( n ) : n = l .. x ( O . . .. i s a bounded s e t i n ( E . There e x i s t s a t o p o l o y t on E : = G ’ such t h a t ( E .. Z . 2 .. . t ) which i s not l o c a l i z a b l e in any s t e p .. There e x i s t s a d e f i n i n g sequence f o r ( E . I f t:=s(E.r):r=1. t ) : n = 1 . and hence i n El i t follows t h a t x i s adher e n t t o E l in ( E .17: AonEn= ( x ( O ... 2 . i ) f o r sow y i n B U C and s c a l a r s ( b ( l ) . Accordina t o 8 . t ) . . r ) : r = 1 . hence i t i s a closed s e t . t ) .. 2 . and a l l S k a r e o w s e t Ak:=(x(O.r) : r = l Y 2 .16: Let A be a closed i n f i n i t e .

Now 4.). and hence t#t**. t ) = i n d ( ( E n .e t r i z a b l e (LF)-sDaces (even normed (LF)-spaces). t h e c l o s u r e t a k e n i n ( E .) and n o t l o c a l i z a b l e i n any s t e p . A .s p a c e s a r e never m e t r i z a b l e .. N o n . I n 8.19: I n contrast w i t h the s i t u a t i o n f o r pro. t ) a ) by 8.t r i v i a l c r i t e r i a f o r r e g u l a r i t y o f (LF)-spaces a r e n o t known.I f i n 8.5.5. t n ) : n = l . i s not closed i n (E. Moreover. E i s a Banach space.t) since 0 4 A . Local conpleteness ( s e e Chapter 5 ) i s r e l a t e d t o r e y l a r i t y ( s e e 7. a BAIRE c a t e g o r y a r q u w n t shows t h a t Ek=E f o r i s proper. t ) .7 we s h a l l c o n s t r u c t p l e n t y o f non-conplete n . 2 .Z. I t i s w o r t h t o note t h a t i n most examples i t i s enough t o check t h a t t h e (LN)-space i s . t h e r e e x i s t s a c o f i n a l i n d u c t i v e sequence which we denote a g a i n as above such t h a t sequence i n ( E .s t r i c t ) i n d u c t i v e l i m i t which i s n o t r e g u l a r : Indeed. 8. some k and t h a t i s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n c e ( E .. i s a 0-nghb i n ( E . Whether l o c a l l y complete Hausdorff (LF)-spaces a r e c o n p l e t e i s a l o n g . We s h a l l see t h a t ( E . t ) // O b s e r v a t i o n 8.tn).t each En i s c l o s e d i n ( E .. T a k i n g X ( ~ ) C E ~ + ~ \ E ~ . some . t ) . Thus T =rnEp P a 0-nghb i n ( E .t)=s-ind((En.10( i)shows t h a t t=t on E and hence P P P ) : n = 1 . 1 6 ( i v ) .s t a n d i n g q u e s t i o n o f GROTHENDIECK. A m r e o r l e s s s a t i s f a c t o r y c r i t e r i o n f o r (LN)-spaces i s given below.. t ) .t) as d s i r e d .1. Since (E. 4 . ) ..16.4. s i n c e ( E . T P i s a O-n@b i n ( E .18 shows t h a t ( a ) A ( E ) .s p a c e i s c o v l e t e i f and o n l y if i t i s quasi-complete.3) and one has ( b ) A H a u s d o r f f (LF)-space i s r e g u l a r if and o n l y if i t i s l o c a l l y cornplete. c o f i t a i n s P P is a s u i t a b l e n u l t i p l e o f A and hence i s a O-nc$b i n ( E .18: Proof: I f (E. A. ) o f mu1 t i p l e s for P r o p o s i t i o n 8.t) f o r each n.l o c a l i z a b l e bounded s e t . Z. completeness o f an i n d u c t i v e l i m i t does i n general n o t f o l l o w f r o m t h e comp l e t e n e s s o f t h e steps (however see 8..2.tn):n=l. .3.16( i v ) ) .jective l i m i t s .3. t ) i s netrizable.t ) and t h e r e f o r e f. t ) i s b a r r e l l e d : ' Indeed. t h e c l o s e d u n i t b a l l i s a n o n .5. l e t T be a b a r r e l i n ( E D . .t)=ind((En. Since (LB)-spaces a r e (OF)spaces. i s a null s u i t a b l e s c a l a r s b ( n ) can be found such t h a t (b(n)x(n):n=1. On t h e o t h e r hand.288 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEX SPACES i n (En. t = t ( 4 and. s i n c e ( E . Proper ( B ) .) i s n o t complete.2.. Any such space i s an example o f a ( n o n .2. t ) . i s a m e t r i z a b l e p r o p e r (LB -sDace Kn i s bounded i n ( E n t l ' . of Kn can be found such t h a t E = U(An:n=l. tntl) and hence a s u i t a b l e i n c r e a s i n g sequence a :=(An:n=1.) and if Kn denotes t h e c l o s e d u n i t b a l l o f (En.. t ) f o r each n... T h i s i s a F r 6 c h e t space by 8 .2.

suppose ( E ' .. 2 2 a p p l i e s t o y i e l d t h e e x i s t e n c e of a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r p such t h a t BCpC P*// Observation 8..pUn. b ( E ' ..).5.20: I f ( E . observe t h a t 8. . t ) = i n d ( ( E n . . On t h e o t h e r hand. 2 .u.. t ) i s bornological.) i s increasing. i n ( E .tn. I t i s c l e a r t h a t ( E ' . This i s t h e content of 8 .2. I f & s t a n d s f o r t h e sequence (nUn:n=1.2. In a d d i t i o n . A t t h i s point observe t h a t i f ( E . Since each Kn i s bounded i n ( E n + l y t n + l ) . 2 2 ( i ) and e x a w l e s enjoying t h i s propert y w i l l b e d v e n i n 8. ... To prove s u f f i c i e n cy. t h e polars taken i n E . ) i s a (LN)-space. . . t coincides w i t h s .) and. and hence the conclusion.2. . t ) : Indeed. n s i n c e ( E .s):=g-ind(En. hence i n (nUn. . 2 .. t n ) : n = 1 . b ..1. Thus t ( @ ) i s coarser than s b u t . . 8 . s i n c e t and s coincide on E .5.) of a b s o l u t e l y convex 0-nghbs i n ( E n . b . t i s coarser than t ( 6 L ) . 2 . . . . . t n ) : n = = 1 . t ( l % ) ) . NOW s e t (E. b .) i s a f .) for each n . t ) .. t ) t h e r e is a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r p such t h a t BCpG t h e closure taken i n ( E . The sequence ( V n o : n = l . t ) can be described as a (LN)-space i n d ( ( E n . a sequence (U : n = 1 . . ) such t h a t U n C U n + l f o r each n . t ) . .2. t ) . t X ) = i n d ( E V o:n=1. l e t Kn be t h e closed u n i t b a l l of ( E n y t n ) . i s a f . then f o r every bounded s e t B i n ( E . t ) . ) w i t h the property required i n 8. ) i s a f . un coincides w i t h tn on En. P' Proof: Set (E. u n i s f i n e r than t n and both topologies coincide on U n . because r e w l a r i t y follows then e a s i l y by a corrpactness a r g u m n t (weakly compact absolutely convex s e t s i n Hausdorff spaces a r e closed) and by t h e following Proposition 8. t ) = i n d ( ( E n . s . E ) ) . ) i s a sequence of absolutely convex O . t h e sequence (nUn:n=1. E ) ) Iretrizable and l e t ( V n : n = l . .tn) and t h e r e f o r e V i s a O-n$b in ( E . Set U n : = b ( n ) K n f o r each n .5.2.21(a) shows t h a t ( n U n : n = 1 . Accordinq t o 8.. 2 .5.5. 2 . s .2. a sequence ( b ( n ) : n = 1 . ) of p o s i t i v e s c a l a r s e x i s t s such t h a t (b(n)Kn:n=1. ) be a decreasing basis of 0-nghbs i n ( E ' .t. . E ) ) i s even a Fr6chet space. By 8. t ) .. t n ) : n = l .. i n ( E . ( E ' ... t n ) : n = l . b ( E ' . t=t(ct) and..27.n @ b s i n ( ( E n .p=1. s ) .nUn. .21: ( a ) i f ( E . ) having an increasing sequence (Un:n=1. . . E ) ) i s n e t r i z a b l e i f and only i f ( E . .). ( b ) Regularity i s achieved i n ( a ) via 8. 1 .. .n=ly2. b ( E ' .. s .23(c). given any bounded s e t B in ( E . t = t x and n e c e s s i t y follows. 2 . t ) is a bornological space. ) . b ( E ' . . 2 . t ) and ( E . i f ( E .):=g-ind(E. i f V i s a O-nc&b i n ( E . is a O-n@b i n ( n U n . t ) i s r e g u l a r .20 i f each Kn i s closed i n ( E .1.20 can be found: n Indeed. 2 . 5 . VnnU.CHAPTER 8 289 Hausdorff . ) i s Hausdorff and ( U n : n = 1 . 2 . t n ) which a r e closed in ( E . 2 . C l e a r l y .5.

3. A c c o r d i n g t o ( i ) . i n (E. t ) s-closed (and hence s ( a ) .s( s. c e and l e t Kn be t h e c l o s e d u n i t b a l l o f (En. A c c o r d i n g t o ( b ) .48. p=1. I f K i n (E..Z. Thus Y:=((E. I n t h i s dual p a i r .. // we o b t a i n an i n c r e a s i n g se- ( a ) S e t t i n g E :=lP.~(CL)).t)=ind((En.a (LN)-space. t ) : = i n d ( E :p=l. By 8. ce each Kn i s c l o s e d i n (Kn+l. t ) i s the strona can be m d i f i e d t o be a f .t) space.42. we is Proof: ( i ) i s a l r e a d y c o n t a i n e d i n 8.22: L e t (E. hence U"" i s a O-n@b i n (E. is a FrPchet space has a b a s i s of i(Y)=t i s finer whose dual i s E . corrplete b y 8.2.Y). t ) .) i s a funand hence ( E .b.) The a (DcF)-space: Indeed. r e q l a r and we nay suppose t h a t space (E.5.41 and 8. Given xfO i n E t h e r e e x i s t s a p o s i belonF to (E.5. By (E. Since Pr/E tiausdorff.Z.. U" is a bounded subset o f Y and Since U=U"" by t h e b i p o l a r theorem and o u r assurrption.t). s . A c c o r d i n g t o 8.). b . s ( a ) = s ( a ) ( & ) and t h e r e f o r e ( E .2.tn) ( i ) I f each Kn i s c l o s e d i n ( E . each Kn i s s ( a ) . u.19( b ) ) i s r e c y l a r (hence l o c a l l y (ii) I f t h e r e e x i s t s a H a u s d o r f f l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o y s on E such t h a t each Kn i s conpact i n ( E .~)=(Kn+l.c l o s e d ) O-n@bs than b( E.3..b(E.Y)). i n (E.21(c) i s a f. i s even t h e s t r o n g dual o f t h e FrPchet space Y .J) 8. ( E .tn):n=l. t h e p r o o f i s complete.b.5. t ) dual o f a FrPchet-Monte1 space due t o 8.).Z...5..3.. Kn=Knoo f o r each n and hence t = i ( Y ) .b o u n d e d and. t ) Z. t ) a ) )i s a : = ( K n :n=1. i f t i s s . is stands f o r t h e c l o s e d u n i t b a l l o f E P i t i s easy t o check P that P K ~ C ( P + ~ ) K fo ~ r+ each ~ p.p o l a r .t)'.24 shows t h a t U i s a f ..3...t[U.t) be a H a u s d o r f f (LB)-snaf o r each n. Examples 8. C o r o l l a r y 8.5.t).40(b).tn):n=1. N P quence o f subspaces o f K Set E:=u(E :p=l. P P t h e c a n o n i c a l p r o j e c t i o n s .21(b)... ( E .). C l e a r l y . (E.s..2..2. (E. t i v e i n t e a r r such t h a t Pr(x)#O.t) . Now suppose t h a t ( E . each K P N i s c l o s e d i n K and hence and hence 8. my suppose t h a t s i s s t r i c t l y c o a r s e r t h a n t . s i n 8. danental sequence o f conpact s e t s i n ( E . On t h e o t h e r hand.) (E.t)=ind((En. s ) .) i s r e g u l a r and i t i s c l e a r t h a t (Kn:n=l. t ) i s a (non-strict) regular (LB)- .t) then ( E .. Then.290 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEX SPACES ( c ) Now suppose t h a t each Kn i s corrpact i n (E.23: and Pn:KNAK ( E . On t h e o t h e r hand.5. s ( a ) ) i s a semi-Monte1 (_BF)-space. i n (E.t) i s c o n p l e t e . Moreover. t ) i s t h e BEREZANSKII-dual o f a FrPchet space Y and hence c o n p l e t e . i f UCU.s(a))'..s(a)). Thus (Kn:n=l.1.22 shows t h a t ( E .

( d ) Keeping t h e n o t a t i o n of ( c ) ...s(En.E')). Kn i s c l o s e d i n (E. I t i s a m t t e r o f b r u t e f o r c e t o show t h a t each Kn i s c l o s e d i n t h e F r i k h e t space m ( ( F n . ..Z.) hence i n ( E ..En')). Since E:=((En. An:= C 1 .) s t r i c t l y f i n e r b y 8...1 ) ) C Z ] p r o v i d e d w i t h t h e norm 111 xII1 := 1 I ( rl( x( 1)). j ) I : i . s ~ + ~ ( ~ ( n + .2. t ) Since each Gn has a t o t a l o f (E.11 ) be a normal BK-space w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n a l p r o p e r t y (*) i f x:=(x(n):n=l. 2 .s(E.36).. . the canonical i n j e c t i o n ( E . The t o p o l o g y t i s f i n e r t h a n and even t h e t o p o l o g y induced b y t h e norm p(x):=sup( I x ( i . . we have an exanple o f a F r 6 c h e t space w i t h a continuous norm whose s t r o n g b i d u a l does n o t have a c o n t i n u o u s norm. Now 8.Z.. s easy t o check t h a t .2.) . x(i. (E.i=l.2.j)l x(i. t ) .CHAPTER 8 29 1 ( b ) L e t (En.. For each n.tn) (x(i.) i s an i n d u c t i v e sequen) and ( E .2.E')). ( F : k 1 n) x T ( 6 : .2. i = l y 2 .U ) b u t n o t co. L e t Kn be t h e c l o s e d u n i t b a l o f En.sn):n=l.rn):=co 2 .Z. .sn) Moreover. ( J " " 5 lx(i.j)[')l'' 00 ...)I4 + 1 ) ) t h a t i s En= ( . t ) ....E')) spaces such t h a t f o r each n t h e r e e x i s t s a continuous i n j e c t i o n (G and such t h a t t h e c l o s e d u n i t b a l l o f (Gn.) i s dense i n (Fn. t ) 2 i s a regular and Z : = 1 . and ((Gn.sn):=l Me know t h a t (E. t h e n II XI\ . En:= { x = ( x ( k):k=1.rn) where En':=(En.l ) ) . (Fn.2..) be t h e space o f a l l double-indexed s c a l a r sequences x:= such t h a t pn(x):=max~sup(~x(i. ce. t ) : = i n d Thus ( E .rn). . ... ) C n ( F k : k (n)xTT(Gk: k> n ) : ( rl( x( 1)) . and so ( E . Observe t h a t p and On t h e o t h e r hand. 1I. each En i s dense i n En+l Fn.x(m).. F i x n and w r i t e Kn as A n S n . i s a r e g u l a r (Ll3)-space. ) i s H a u s d o r f f ..rn-.. ) Thus each En i s a Banach space. Bn i s conpact i n (En.) (Fn.. s e t . . and hence ( E ..5. . l e t ( Z . p b l .2..j):i. . We s h a l l see t h a t t h e s t r o n g b i d u a l (E".. 11.) s a t i s f i e s $1. r n ) : n = l . s e t E:=u(En:n=l. D u a l i z i n g . t ) . each ( E n y t n ) i s a Banach space i s o n-1 x12..E')) no t o t a l bounded s e t ...) . hence i t i s conpact i n and hence i n ( E ..t) has bounded s e t ..rn-l( x( n . . j ) 1 2 : j>n. ) i s an i n c r e a s i n g sequence and (En:n=1.t)=ind(En:n=1.rn):n=1.. I1 xmll < 1 . .4.2. (Kn: .) Consequently.) i s continuous and henand i s Hausdorff. j = l . .tn):n=l.j)=O o t h e r w i s e ) and Bn:= ( x : ).. (B)-space. ) ) z ( s e e 8.2. ) i s an i n d u c t i v e sequenIt ce ( w h i c h i s s t r i c t i f each rn induces sn on Gn)..22( i ) can be i s r e g u l a r .Z.s(E.t) (x: sup(Ix(i. sn( d n ) ) . . s ~ ( x ( n ) ) ) .)CZ i s such t h a t e v e r y s e c t i o n x m : = ( x ( l ) . for j > n a n d Z ( I x ( i .( ~ ( n .j<n. . C l e a r l y . s e t (Gn.j=l.O. . norphic t p ( 1 is finite] C l e a r l y .i=l.j)~: j < n . can be t a k e n as ( Z .. a p p l i e d t o show t h a t (E.. be sequences o f Banach s )n' n i s c l o s e d i n (Fn.2.j)=O 'E ..tn)'. s ~ + x( ~( n+l)) kan) n=1..b(E".5.+ x ( ( ce (E.rn).. Note t h a t e v e r y l P ..O. Z . .s(E. ( c ) L e t ((Fn.t):=ind(En:n=1.18. t ) .rn):n=l. ..)dl pn c o i n c i d e on An and hence An i s c l o s e d i n (E.

5. ) P r o o f : Ye s h a l l check ( * * ) i n b o t h cases: ( i ) l e t (E.2.2. . ..E'). and hence ( E " .. En+l". - P r o p o s i t i o n 8.) f:n=1. b ( E " . t 2 ) t h e r e i s a s u f f i c i e n t l y s m l l b ( 2 ) > 0 such i s bounded i n ( E 2 . t ) i s t h e continuous i n j e c t i o n E n "-+(E". Z .t) is reglar..... b e i n g t h e c l o 1 . nloreover.) i n A are 4 l- Ur:= Z b ( i ) K i .):n=l.s):=ind(En":n=l. s=b(E".25: an:=(an(k):k=1. t ) which i s n o t bounded i n any ( E n y t n ) and l e t x ( l ) C A be a v e c t o r which i s n o t i n K1. t h e n i n d ( l P ( a n ) : n = 1 . ) be a (LN)-sDace w i t h .24: (**) f o r a l l r a p i d l y d e c r e a s i n o sequence ( b ( r ) : r = l . . henle ( ( l/n)x(n):n=l. f o r a l l k and c o u n t a b l e i n d u c t i v e l i m i t s o f r e f l e x i v e norned spaces a r e r e c u l a r .) k=1. n=1.) )z. f i x 11 n.and (LSw)-snaces a r e r e g u l a r . and s e t z : = ( z ( k ) : i n T" w i t h z(k):=O f o r k f j and z ( i ) : = x ( j ) .5. choose x( sure taken i n F .Z3 does n o t converge t o ..2.. A l s o each En" embeds c o n t i n u o u s l y i n i s aoain (8. // C o r o l l a r y 8. (l/n)dn). t h a t no En" i s dense i n (E". so t h a t s has t h e s a w bounded s e t s as b(F". ( t h e c l o J z { q ( t h e c l o s u r e t a k e n i n T " ) and we a r e done. 11. show t h a t (E". s ) a r e g u l a r (LB)-space).E"') i s a (LB)-space. t h a t x(i)q!Ul+b(2)K2.#U.By To 1.t)=ind((En.t. . Thus we have t o check t h a t no En'' i s dense i n T": Indeed.292 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEXSPACES Since ( Z . has t h e sane bounded s e t s as b ( E " .2. F ' ) ) n . Since x ( j ) # C . each En" can be w r i t t e n as ( T T ( ( F k y r k ) " : k ( n ) x ~ ( ( G k ..E"'). t 2 ) i .t)=ind((En. Proof: L e t A be a bounded s e t i n ( E ..). S e t b( l ) : = land Lll:=b(l)Kl. .) o f p o s i t i v e s c a l a r s K.b(E". The b i a d j o i n t napping o f each continuous i n i e c t i o n En L( E . i s c l o s e d i n (En+l.11) and a l l (Gn.) U2:=Ul+b(2)K2 Since U1 i s c l o s e d i n ( E 2 . s ) enbeds c o n k u o u s l y i n t o (E".) \z. t i ) y i = l y 2 y .b(E".tn):n=l.E')). so t h a t A#2U2. ( i i ) If n. I n p a r t i c u l a r .r. 2 . (b(n):n=1. E ' ) ) .) ( i ) ( L S ) . We s e t U:=L)( llr:r=l. . " ) . . E" c o n t a i n s and hence E " i s dense i n T".2.2.. Fqoreover.b(E".e.29 w i l l show t h a t ( F " ..2..2.2..2.. . and f o r a l l n.b( E " .. Clearly.b(E". s k ) : k ? n) Set (E".sn) a r e r e f l e x i v e . s a t i s f i e s a n ( k ) > O and O < a n ( k + l ) < a n ( k ) i s r e g l a r for p>l. and t h e r e f o r e (E". .E')) c o n t a i n s no t o t a l bounded s e t i t i s enough t o check Set T:=(~((Fn.. a c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n c e x ( n ) & A and A i s bounded.5.) zero.E"') i s c o a r s e r t h a n s. t h e s e t $ b ( r ) K r sed u n i t b a l l of ( E i .Z.) )z.rn):n=1. J i ) c F j " \ F1. errbeds c o n t i n u o u s l y i n t o T " = ( T ( ( Fn.r @(Fn:n=l. E ' ) and (E".20(ii). Then (E.tn+l)...2. b( E". t h e r e i s an x ( 2 ) ( A \2U2.C l e a r - l y . a r a p i d l y decreasino sequence o f p o s i t i v e s c a l a r s and a sequence (x(n):n=1. L e t (E.E'))... E enbeds c o n t i n u o u s l y i n t o t h e Banach space T. obtained w i t h ( l / n ) x ( n) By i n d u c t i o n .

(F. By ( i ) . Since Kn i s conpact i n ( F n .o r a (LSw) -space. I f E i s a (LSw)-space.s):=ind(En':n=1. The canonical i n j e c t i o n s En* F n ~ E n + la r e c o n t i nuous. j ( E n : n = 1 . we nay assune t h a t E i s t h e reduced proj e c t i v e 'limit o f the sequence ( E n : n = l . T b ( r ) K r i s weakly conpact i n Fn+l f o r each n .2. I t s transposed napping Jn. i f F ' : = . Since J i s continuous.25 shows t h a t A i s contained and bounded i n sore E n . 5 . 2 .) is a ( (LSw).2.. Fn coincides w i t h ( F ' i s a Banach space.2. Hence each (weak1y)compact l i n k Pn. E ' ) ) . E i s r e f l e x i v e . G n ) ) . hencg (E. which i s a (weak1y)conpact s e t i n ( E n + l y t n + l ) . A i s r e l a t i v e l y compact i n E n + l y hence ( A .. ( i v ) The strong dual of a (FSw-) FS-space i s a ( (LSw).n+l:En+l + E n has dense r a n 9 .) (LS)-space. Without l o s s of a n e r a l i t y .t):=ind(lP(an):n=1. ( i n p a r t i c u l a r . { f // Proposition 8 . . ( i v ) Let ( E .Gn+l)-continuous f o r each n . 5 . By 8 . hence closed a s desired. f o r every r a p i d l y decreasing sequence m ( b ( r ) : r = l Y 2 . n + l a r e (weak1y)cov pact.. we my suppose t h a t each s t e p i s a Banach space and t h a t the canonical i n j e c t i o n s J n .5. To prove ( i i i ) . t h e same argunent shows t h a t A i s hence E i s r e f l e x i v e .2.and (LSw)-spaces a r e conplete. .. .). s ( E . t ) = p r o . .t h s t e p .. 5 . 5 . s e t K. ) be a ( FSw. .) (LS) -space i s a (FSw-) FS-space. then E i s r e f l e x i v e . 1 .CHAPTER 8 293 2 . t ) as d e s i r e d . and t h e canoni) ' . The closed u n i t ball Kn of l p ( a n ) N is bounded and closed a s a subset of K by m a n s of t h e i n j e c t i o n J:E+ KFJ . 1 8 ) . i t s bounded s e t s a r e n-etrizable).n+l i s conpact. I f E i s a (LSw)-space. 2 . According t o ( i i ) .) FS-space w i t h Banach spaces E n .c. Since Jn. hence i t i s t h e strong dual of a Fr6chet space ( s e e ( i i ) ) and t h e r e f o r e conplete ( 6 . . 8. r e c t l y f r o v 8 . ~ ( F n . 2 .. Moreover..) (LS)-space and conversely..5. ( i i ) follows d i r e l a t i v e l y conpact i n ( E . Proof: ( i ) Let E = i n d ( E n : n = 1 . ) be a ((LSw)-) (LS)-space. (i!) Set (E. I f A i s a bounded s e t of E .. . t n + l ) = ( A . 9 ( i i i ) ) . 9 ( i i ) .. t h e closur e taken i n ( E n + l y t n + l ) . ) .t)=ind(Fn:n=1. Further Gn:=F' ( KnO) ( KnO) cal i n j e c t i o n Fn-+ Fn+l i s s( Fn.n+l:En'-+E n+ 1' is i n j e c t i v e and (weak1y)conpact ( 8 . then E i s Monte1 and s a t i s f i e s t h e s. t h i s s e t i s closed. suppose t h a t E i s a ( L S ) . Set - Fn:=(En+l)K f o r each n. 2 6 : ( i ) I f E i s a (LS)-space. I f Sn i s t h e closed u n i t b a l l of the n . ( v ) A convergent sequence i n a (LS)-space converges i n sore step( t o the sane 1 imit).:=S. hence r e f l e x i v e by ( i ) . 1 3 ( i v ) . ( i i ) The strong dual of a ( (LSw).M. (**) i s s a t i s f i e d .) according t o 8.s ( Fn+l.Gn ) . ) w i t h E n Banach f o r each n . Since b( r)J(Kr) = J ( b( r)Kr). . ( i i i ) ( L S ) .) of p o s i t i v e s c a l a r s . T h u s each J(Kn) i s conpact in KN.

294 BARRELLED LOCALLY CON VEX SPACES = pro..2.En')). L e t (Un:n=1.s(En.tn)..t)=ind((En.. Since AAUn-l = AC\EnAUn-l contained i n U A/ U l' n-l i s c l o s e d i n (En. By t a k i n g i s closed i n (En. o r each n . By i s t h e s t r c n g dual o f t h e FSw-space ( E ' . // .s)'. b ( E ' .s(En.(1). and hence r e l a t i v e l y c o r p a c t i n Ep+l.2.e. then and A a subset o f E.5. R e p l a c i n g hyperplanes by a r b i t r a r y subspaces t h i s equivalence i s no l o n g e r t r u e ( s e e 8.')) and o n l y i f A n € .26(iv). ( E ' ..s)= (v) Let (dr):r=l..')) and hence i n (E.t) i f and o n l y i f A i s s e q u e n t i a l l y closed.F)) = proj(En":n=1.28: A i s closed i n (E. bounded i n sone s t e p E Since A i s P i t i s conpact t h e r e and hence t and t h e t o p o l o g y o f E p + l c o i n c i d e on A f r o m w h e r e t h e c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s .E)) and t h e c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s .20(v). t ) . P r o p o s i t i o n 8. an e q u i v a l e n t d e f i n i n g sequence o f Banach spaces. 5 .j(E n : n = l .. i s c l o s e d i n (En.2.) the l a s t e q u a l i t y b e i n g a consequence o f 8 .tn):n=l.5.co(E.) be a (LSw)-space f o r each n. Set 4:= which i s a conpact s e t i n ( E .s(En. Since (F.t) be an i n c r e a s i n a By sequence o f s u i t a b l e n u l t i p l e s o f t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g c l o s e d u n i t b a l l s .b( E ' . i s a (LS)-space.En')) and i s we have t h a t and t h e r e f o r e n' i s conpact i n (En. then (F'.) i n (En.Z.t).E')) K1.10.co(E.tn) ( i i ) If (E. I f A i s a b s o l u t e l y convex. (F. The second a s s e r t i o n f o l l o w s f r o r r 8..t) i f (and o n l y i f ) HAEn i s c l o s e d (i.s(En.5. be a c o n v e r F n t sequence i n (E.2.E')) f o r each n. E ) ) . A i s c l o s e d i n ( E . 5 . t ) = ind((En.E. I f AAEn i s c l o s e d i n (En.En')) which i s a conpact s e t i n (En.5.Z.t)=ind(En:n=1... A i s c l o s e d i n (E. t ) i f f o r each n. i s c l o s e d i n (En.s(En.tn):n==1. and hence i n ( E .26( v ) f a i l s i n ( LSw)-spaces ( s e e 8. 2 5 ( i ) .. (F. t ) t h a t i s t=t**.) A is a (LS)-space and we my suppose t h a t t h e sequence c o n v e r F s t o zero.) c l o s e d i n Ep+l.s) i s reflexive.) (O]U(dr):r=l.27: 8. t ) .tn):n=l. but ( i ) L e t (E...) i f (and o n l y i f ) each AAE.En')) W e a p p l y ( i ) .s(E.b(F'. AAIIn-l i s conpact i n E n and hence c l o s e d i n (En. ) . . we see t h a t A i s c l o s e d i n (E.. P r o o f : ( i ) P a s s i n g t o an e q u i v a l e n t d e f i n i n g sequence i f necessary we my suppose t h a t each En i s a Banach space.E')) ( i i ) Suppose t h a t each En i s a Banach space and keep t h e n o t a t i o n as i n ( i )F .5. >21. A i s c l o s e d i n ( E .t)=ind((En.37) I t i s c l e a r t h a t a hyperplane H i n a c o u n t a b l e i n d u c t i v e l i v i t ( E . / / Observation 8.2.s(En. By 8 . (E.2.E. .6).. Z . i f i t i s stepwise c l o s e d ) f o r each n . i f AAE.. A i s c l o s e d i n (E. 9 ( i v ) .tn) i s closed i n (E.5.) 8.

Observe t h a t 8.tn):n=1. a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r p such t h a t KCE. A c c o r d i n g t o (***). t ) .. and i s conpact i n ( E ( i v ) -___ s t r o n g l y boundedly r e t r a c t i v e ( s .2. . // P P Exarrple 8. t ) i s con( i i ) boundedly r e t r a c t i v e ( b . t ) .29 d o r f f and 9 . (Er. t h e r e i s r 7 n such t h a t (An. Since each Banach space En" has p r e d u a l . There Since t and tr i n d u c e t h e and hen- e x i s t s a n e t K i n An c o n v e r g i n g t o x i n ( E .// ce a l s o i n ( E .t P P P ' ! i n ( E .t) S i n c e A i s bounded i n F .. D (iii) c o n p a c t l y r e F l a r i f . ) i f e v e r y n u l l sequence i n ( E . )..).5.29: i s r e g u l a r and ( E .5. We s h a l l check t h a t tln3An. t r ) . each the s a w topolot o f i n d n and an s t e p i s a complete (gDF)-space and suppose t h a t (***) f o r e v e r y n t h e r e i s c y . shows t h a t F i s r e q l a r ( a n d hence which i s the l a s t p a r t o f the proof o f 8.) n+l i s H a u s d o r f f and p .tn):n==1. ) there i s i f i t i s r e g u l a r and i f f o r P' D t ). r .CHAPTER 8 295 P r o p o s i t i o n 8.tr). t ) . r ..5.5.31: r such t h a t t and t L e t (E. n and hence A i s bounded i n ( E .t ) f o r p : = m d r .tn):n==1. D e f i n i t i o n 8. t h e c l o s u r e taken i n ( E .t)=ind((En.t)=(B. t ) . t ) i s c o n t a i n e d i n some E and i s a n u l l sequence i n ( E . and A i s bounded i n ( E r . t ) .tn) r i s regular.r e g l a r .3.tr) l h u s x=y. E I' a r e i n j e c t i v e . n ) . such t h a t A C Z n . r . P r o p o s i t i o n 8. t ) .2.t)=ind((En.t. t ) I f (E. ACEn" f o r SOE l o c a l i z e d i n sow Er. t ) A F i s continuous and i s a l s o Hausdorff. Then ( E .19 P r o o f : I f A i s a bounded s e t i n ( E . t ) induce on e v e r y bounded s e t o f (En.. l e t x C i n .2.2. An i n d u c t i v e sequence ( ( En. f o r each c o m a c t subset K o f ( F ..2.t)=(An.tr). Now l e t A be a bounded s e t of (E...t) H a u s d o r f f ) . a b s o l u t e l y convex bounded s e t An i n ( E n .) be H a u s d o r f f . t h e n i n d ( En1':n==1. b . we a p p l y 8.. Moreover.30: I n 7.32: d u c t i v e lin't ( E .3.) i s a (LN)-space such t h a t t h e b i a d j o i n t m p p i n g s En1'+ P r o o f : Set F:=ind(En":n=1. t n ) L e t Hn be t h e c l o s u r e o f An i n (Er. ) .5.5.tr).r e p l a r . S a m u n i f o r r r s t r u c t u r e on t h e a b s o l u t e l y convex s e t A n y K i s a Cauchv n e t i n hence t h e r e i s y&Er such t h a t K converges t o y i n (Er.25(i) hence (E. t h e c a n o n i c a l i n j e c t i o n ( E . o r i t s i n - i s s a i d t o be (i) s e q u e n t i a l l y r e t r a c t i v e ( s . ) i f e v e r y bounded s e t 3 t a i n e d i n sow E and (B.6 we c o n s t r u c t e d an i n d u c t i v e l i n ' t o f w e i @ t e d shows t h a t i t i s Faus- co spaces w h i c h was n o t r e g u l a r . Then To prove o u r c l a i r r . ACHnLEn. . and t h e r e f o r e xCHn.

) Fr i s coarser than 5. . f o r each c o v a c t K i n ( E . t n ) . : Indeed. and hence ( K . r . ) J J i n d u c t i v e l i m t s (E.x..296 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES e v e r y n t h e r e i s i such t h a t .5..) p a c t l y r e c y l a r . t ) = ( K . r .. I f #do i s a vector o f S .t) i s s.2. and 8.34: n=1.c o n v e r c e n t sequence t h e r e e x i s t s a o o s i t i v e i n t e F r k such t h a t i t i s F k .3. r .r. and e v e r y s t e p i s q u a s i .5.c.33: ( a ) s. 8. n o t be s . r e y l a r (LN)-space. hence i n sow i f each steD we nay o m i t r e w l a r i t y i n 8 .5..2.. L e m 8.t). i s a n u l l sequence i n ( E . A sequence ( x ( n ) i s 5 . I f f o r e v e r y y .M. i f and o n l y i f i t s a t i s f i e s t h e W. ) f o r sone j and t h e c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s .. 18 show t h a t non-conplete n e t r i z a b l e shows t h a t s t r i c t (LN)-spaces need $ a f i l t e r on A. t ) t h e r e i s j such t h a t K i s even s i n c e t i s Hausdorff. and (LS)-spaces (9.2. 1 6 ( i i i ) ) .t) and ( E ..t)=ind(En:n=1.t)=ind(En:n=1.t)=(K.ti) = i n d u c t i v e l i m t s a r e b . 5 . I f ( E .c o n v e r c p t i f f o r every F i n 3 there is a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r n( F ) such t h a t x( n ) C F f o r n > n( F ) . (A. i s b. ( e ) i f (E. t ) i s a (E.b. r . i f U i s a b a s f s o f O-n&bs i n t h e i n d u c t i v e l i m t E. Thus x=O.. Conpactly r e F l a r i n d u c t i v e l i r i t s a r e Hausdorff: t h e c l o s u r e o f ( 0 ) i n t h e i n d u c t i v e l i r v t (E. t h e sequence (O. D e f i n i t i o n 8.. t ) and s e t K : = A u ( O ) which i s a conpact s e t ..r. t .5.) be a seauence o f f i l t e r s on a s e t A and T a f i l t e r on A w i t h c o u n t a b l e b a s i s ..16(iii)) (Y)) a r e s . r ..O. then t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e i n t e F r r such t h a t Proof: L e t (Ur:r=l.x. r .2.C. 4 . t ) i s a b o r n o l o o i c a l (DF)-space. s e t S:= / \ ( U : U t U ) .5. .) ( H a u s d o r f f ) s t e p .) L e t A be a s e t and (LF)-spaces a r e n o t s .) a r e s . t ) i s b .14(c) Our c o m n t s above 8.4. ( c ) a c c o r d i n g t o 8.31 i s a c o n p l e t e (d)F)-space. Observation 8. t . f o r e v e r y bounded s e t A o f ( E n . t h e n i t i s q u a s i c o m l e t e (see 8 .5.!. which i n t u r n i s conpact.r. henis COW a r e c o n p a c t l y r e c u l a r .20 shows t h a t ( E .C.26 ( f ) hyperstrict inductive l i m i t s (8.. (. i f and o n l y i f i t s a t i s f i e s t h e s. r . be a d e c r e a s i n g b a s i s o f y a n d suppose t h e con- .35: Let (pn:n=1. i n d u c t i v e l i r m ' t s a r e a l s o H a u s d o r f f : Indeed. t ) . J ( b ) s .c o n v e r p n t . Then (K. l e t A be a n u l l sequence i n ( E . t ) ce compact i n sone H a u s d o r f f s t e p and so i t reduces t o ( 0 ) .2. 3 2 ( i v ) ( d ) i f ( E .5. Corrpactly r e y l a r conpact i n E .c o r p l e t e .

Since x(n. . n 1 ..x( l .t) is n e t r i z a b l e : Indeed.. ( i ) (E. inductive l i m i t s are regular. t ) (resb.1).r) Cur\[/.c o n v e r c e n t .26(i). Now An i s r e l a t i v e l y conpact P i n (E. r .) (8.3. Set T ( r e s p .n ) . which i s complete b u t n o t s. hence we s e l e c t v e c t o r s x(n. x( 1. ..c.5. yn w i t h l!r4Vn for all r For each n t h e sequence f o r e v e r y r.) ?-converges.t) ( i i i ) (E.CHAPTER 8 297 c l u s i o n n o t t r u e .. x(s.r){\/. . f a c t we s h a l l deduce f r o m 8.5. f o r a l l r. Z. a we a r e g o i n g t o show t h r o u g h examples t h a t .5. . has a c o u n t a b l e b a s i s s i n c e (An.35). and t h e r e f o r e (E. x ( n . . I n p a r t i c u l a r . . Hence which i s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n since By h y p o t h e s i s t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e i n t e q r s such t h a t H ?.n) . which i s Y .2). .r.. and (ii) imlies (iii) is hence borno!de s h a l l see t h a t i s a Vontel (DF)-space. ) w i t h p 7 1 as c o n s t r u c t e d i n 8.. S e l e c t t h e sequence H x( 1.c. . t h i s example shows t h a t t h e rrere c o n d i t i o n f o r an i n d u c t i v e l i r i t t o have i t s n u l l seouences l o c a l i z e d ( F i s r e g u l a r ) does n o t i m l y t h a t i t i s s .5. ( a ) l e t E be a Frechet-Vontel space which i s n o t a FS -space o f t h e t y p e E = p r o j ( lo( an):n=1.t) l o c j c a l . :n=1. ( x ( n . shows t h a t t h e Montel space F does n o t s a t i s f y Thus Moreover. // L e t (E.C..2.3.2. 2 .t) Proof: ( i ) i n p l i e s ( i i ) f o l l o w s f r o m 5. n + l ) . s i n c e f o r f i E d k..s. t h e r e e x i s t s r a n such t h a v t h e c a n o n i c a l i n j e c t i o n E A ..f E 4 n conpact. t ) . (x(nYr):r=1.5.to each? c o n v e r c p l t sequence i n An i s y r .c.).5.t) // O b s e r v a t i o n 8.t) be a H a u s d o r f f l o c a l l y convex space w i t h a P r o p o s i t i o n 8.2.t)=ind(EA is given n. . I f (iii) i s satisfied. Since Fs.x( 1 .35 o b t a i n a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r s such t h a t i s f i n e r than?-.c. i s a r e g u l a r (LB)-space E f a i l s t o be quasi-normable (8. i n P EA ) r e s t r i c t e d t o An w i t h p > n .b. (ii) (E. we a p o l y 8.5. ..) does n o t Fn-converpe. .r)+iV.x( n .M. s + l . r ) : r = s .c...r..5. ( b ) b e f o r e we proceed t o show t h a t s. (E. F.c o n v e r i p t f o r s o w r.x( 2 . r ) : r = I . obvious. ) . I t s s t r o n g dual F i s a (LSw)-space which i s n o t a (LS)-space (8.. . r ) C U k f o r r > k and n = 1 .58. a c c o r d i n g t o t h e M..36: f.!~. . S. 3. hence 8. with Fs i s c o a r s e r t h a n 3. ? c o i n c i d e s and t h e c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s ..26). . .37: 8(b). (An:n=1. on ( E .S-conver(es. F ) f o r t h e f i l t e r o f O-n@bs i n ( E .2). x( 2.36 ..2. so does i t s subsequence ( x ( s .. F o r each n t h e r e e x i s t s Vn i n and n. .t) The f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s a r e e q u i v a l e n t : i s a !LS)-space i s Pfontel and s a t i s f i e s t h e s. e v e r y 3.20). i s Montel and s a t i s f i e s t h e M.

. Observe t h a t E s a t i s f i e s t h e r..P i s coarser than . . ) be a F . .tn):n=l. a c o n t r a d i c t i o n . 2 . a c o n t i n u o u s l i n e a r mapDina. The i d e n t i t y E + i n d ( E :n=1. J : F A . bounded i n ( E n . e x i s t s a s t r i c t l y i n c r e a s i n g seauence ( En:n=1.t)=ind((Fn. ) Ry r e g u l a r i t y t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e i n t e F r n such t h a t ( b ( r ) x ( r ) : r = l . t ) ( GROTHENDIECK-FLORET’S FACTORIZATION THEWEW) L e t E be a m t r i z a b l e space.c o n v e r g e n t sequence i n F.. A c c o r d i n g t o 8.39: a s t r i c t i n d u c t i v e l i r r i t (E.c o n v e r g e n t .for w r i t t e n as u ( ~ . .t h e f i l t e r generated by t h e b a s i s o f 0-nghbs i n ( F n . .n= 1 .5. o f p o s i t i v e s c a l a r s such t h a t ( v ( n ) : . t p ) . . Z . . t ) ind((Fn. . . . ) n=1.2. Then ( f ( v( n ) ) :n=1.2.tn):n=l. Then f f a c t o r i z e s t h r o u & a s t e p : Indeed.2.2. Thus s i n c e f i s continuous. .. ( F.2. o t h e r w i s e we nay supnose t h a t E can be 1 (F.( F .5.16. z . A c c o r r l i n q t o 8.298 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEXSPACES 1 . n = l .) such t h a t t h e r e i s no s t r i c t l y i n c r e a s i n g h y p e r s t r i c t d e f i n i n g sequence o f . Z ..5.+ ( F . 3. and a sequence ( b ( n ) : n = l . f i l t e r generated b y ( f ( U ) : P r o o f : L e t U b e a b a s i s o f 0 . .35. 2 . ) o f dense subsoaces such does n o t f a c t o r i z e inductive l i m i t t h a t E=ind(E : n = l .. hence t h e c o n c l u s i o n . // Example 8. can be i n p r o v e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way P r o p o s i t i o n 8. There e x i s t a b a s i s (Vr:r=1.d i r r e n s i o n a l Banach space. 2 . ) i s bounded i n F.Z.) ~ . . ) . ) be a n o n . . 2 O ( i ) Let ... Then t h e r e i s a n o s i - i s continuous. i n E and y ( r ) c \ / r such t h a t f ( y ( r ) ) = x ( r ) .) and f : E . r = l . ( c ) L e t E be a r r e t r i z a b l e space. s i n c e E i s r r e t r i z a b l e .. Then 1 .c o n p l n t e n e t r i z a b l e (LF)-space and A a c l e a r l y does n o t h o l d . t n ) .. . ) i s a n u l l sequence i n ( E n .2.+ ( F D . v( n ) :=b( n ) x ( n ) . f ( b ( r ) y ( r ) ) = b ( r ) x ( r ) i s a bounded sequence i n ( F . ( F . Z . 2 . ? t h e U C U ) and o f O-n&bs F. . .38: of spaces and f : E . t ) . .2.n m b s i n E. 2 . L e t ( x ( r ) : r = l . . 2 O ( i ) f a i l s t o be t r u e i f e i t h e r E i s a non-corrplete n e t r i z a b l e space o r F i s a (LV)-space w i t h n o n . t h e r e i s an unbounded sequence ( b ( r ) : r = l . such t h a t Thus ( x ( r ) : r = l .tn!:n=lyZy. . there bounded s e t i n F w h i c h i s n o t l o c a l i z e d and c o n s i d e r t h e c a n o n i c a l i n j e c t i o n E be an i n f i n i t e . Z . Select vectors x ( n ) ~ f 1 -( F ~ + ~ ) L each n.) and. 2 .5. L e t F=ind( Fn:n=1.c. . 2 . ) . ... t ) 8. t ) a proper s .t)=s-ind((E.+ F .37(c) which i s n o t l o c a l i z a b l e . 2 .1. t n ) . t n ) there i s a p o s i t i v e inteoer and D is hence F n .’ ( F ~ ) : ~ = I .. ) a r e q u l a r i n d u c t i v e lin’t a c o n t i n u o u s l i n e a r m p o i n g . ) i s a n u l l sequence i n ( F .c. t i v e i n t e c p r p such t h a t f : E ...5. . r ..) o f p o s i t i v e s c a l a r s such t h a t ( b ( r ) y ( r ) : r = l .) i s a nu1 1 sequence.) n n t h r o u g h any s t e p . .c o n p l e t e s t e p s .

Set Fn for t h e f i l t e r y t e r a t e d by a h a s i s o f 0-nghb such and % f o r t h e f i l t e r y e r a t e d by t h e s e t s F b : = ( y ( a ) : a b b ) ...5.41: Then ( E .p) n=1.38 i i ) .t)=in3((Enytn):n=l. p).. I n f a c t m r e i s t r u e L e t (E..) be a s .) i s a (LV)-space t h e n i t i s a p p l y 8.t)=ind((En.// C o r o l l a r y 8.c.>.2..tn):n=ly2. s. P r o o f : ( i ) I f A i s bounded i n ( E . i s a p r o p e r c l o s e d subset o f S e t t i n g (E.p)-+(Fr.) (Fr+..rGNxY.p)--r(G. x ( n ) ) f o r each n.. t ) . F h a s c o u n t a b l e b a s i s .p):n=1.. r . .p).2. P r o o f : F i r s t observe t h a t i n a space F.25(i). t h e continuous canonical i n j e c t i o n 8.2. be a Cauchy sequence i n ( E ..). 5 :=(Fn:n=1.35 t h e r e i s an i n d e x a .) i n (Enytn).16( J : ( F.) L e t (x(p):p=1.r.42: L e t (E.2. !de c a l l ( x ( n .p)=ind f o r som r a c c o r d i n p t o 8. P r o p o s i t i o n 8.5. t o be t r u e i f ( F .. . ) .5.2. we a r e done (i) I f (E. L e t ( G y p ) be a normed space and F an i n f i n i t e L e t (x(n):n=1.$ 4 ) n...2. r ) : t h e n e t a s s o c i a t e d t o t h e sequence ( d n ) : n = l . n u o u s l y as J:(F..t = i n d ( ( E . r ) : n . If .CHAPTER 8 299 subspaces FnCEn f o r ( E ... r ) 6 ( p . T h i s i s p o s s i b l e s i n c e t h e p r o o f o f 8.Z.p). i .t ):n=l. a c o n t r a d i c t i o n .c. i f and o n l y i f i t i s r e g l a r and s a t i s f i e s t h e Y. Cauchy i f and o n l y i f t h e c o u n t a b l e n e t ( x ( n . (LF)-soace.r. q ) .4.40: regular..t).. t ) and s e t ( y ( a ) : a b A . > ) f o r i t s a s s o c i a t e d n e t . r t N x N . r ) : = x ( n ) . i s s e q u e n t i a l l y complete.5.38 t o t h e c a n o n i c a l in. t ) // I n particular.p): I t f o l l o w s t h a t Fr=Fr+ r s i n c e F i s dense i n ( G y p ) .2.tn):n=1. (G.t 1.a) converges t o 0 i n sore ( F .) k i s an h y p e r s t r i c t factors conti- d e f i n i n g sequence f o r ( G y p ) . Z . e . ...5. 2 .iecClearly.r.p) C o r o l l a r y 8.4. then i t i s n n (ii) I f (E. t ) .t):=(G.5. A c c o r d i n p t o 8. Hence t h e r e i s p.2.) i s converys t o 0 i f n s p and r L q .p)=ind((En.38 shows t h e r e s u l t i s a s s u m d t o be s . By 8. r .t)=ind((En. that the net (y(a):a>ao. > / ) where x ( n .. and ( n .5.) he a c o d i m n s i o n a l subspace which i s dense i n iG. l i n e a r l y independent sequence i n G \ F taken as pre-images o f a l i n e a r l y i n dependent sequence i n G/F and s e t En:=sp( F U ( x( 1) .. p t and t h u s ~o )nvergx i n ( E a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r po such t h a t ( X ( ~ ) : P ~ / D c P’ P i n (Eyt). Now F s i n c e ind((Fn. t ) (LF)-spaces a r e l o c a l l y c o n p l e t e . t i o n EA-t(E.) i s s. ( i i ) follows f r o r ( i ) . i s r e g l a r by i s s t r i c t and each Fn i s c l o s e d i n (Fn+l. s. a sequence ( x ( n ) : n = l . . The f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s a r e e q u i v a l e n t : .) be a H a u s d o r f f ( L F ) - space. . n=1..

(LF)-space and A : = ( x ( n ) : n = l .2. r . t ) does not have a p a r t i t i o n of unity ( 8 . 1 ) . On the o t h e r hand. i f x t x and U i s a 0-nghb i n ( E .d i w n s i o n a l since i t i s contained i n @ ( E n : n = l .). . suppose t h a t ( E . . ) he a s . t ) i s s. t ) : Indeed. i f E i s a (LE)-space. According t o 8 . t ) .y t ( 1/2)U. ) isomrphic t o ( E . W e f i n d k such t h a t y C F k and. F i s closed in ( E . c .c.d i w n s i o n a l . I f we a s s u w a l l E n a r e Banach spaces. . t h e closures taken i n ( E . Proposition 8. Then H ( a s above) i s closed i f and only i f A i s a basic sequence in ( H . . t ) i s r e a r l a r and s a t i s f i e s the M . I f H=F a n d i f t=t**( i .4.tn):n=l. t ) = i n d (En:n=1. ) a sequence in El which i s basic i n each ( E n . Z . Moreover. . . 5 . t ) . ( i i i ) ( E . Thus X . So H i s closed in ( E . S e t t i n ? H : = U ( F k : k = 1 . Moreover.. s i n c e t on Fk i s coars e r than t k . E i s a (LS)-space i f and only i f E i s Montel and 5 . i s closed in ( E n . and l e t Fk be t h e c l o s u r e in ( E k . . 2 6 ( i ) . - . Definition 8. t n ) : n = 1 . c . G i s Montel and hence @ ( E n : n = l . H. . i s f i n i t e . ) i s a (LS)-space which i s not i s o m r p h i c t o K ( N ) . 4 .2. 2 .. t ) has a p a r t i t i o n of unity.5. t k ) of F k : = F n E k .r.(^)). 2 . . . 2 6 ( i i ) ) . J=N a n d t h a t i s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n . ( i v ) ( E . c . 2 . One l a s t r e m r k on (LS)-spaces: I f ( E . t n ) f o r each n!.c.300 BARRELLED L O C A L L Y CONVEXSPACES ( i ) ( E .. t ) i f and only i f HAE. ( i i ) ( E . . c .44: Let ( E . . ( F o r an examnle of t h i s s i t u a t i o n see DUB IN SKY. G i s bornological and hence i t i s endowed w i t h the s t r o n o e s t i o c a l l v convex t o p o l o 9 . t ) i s l o c a l l y corrplete and s a t i s f i e s the P . t h e r e e x i s t s z i n FkCF such t h a t y-z t ( 1/2)U. T h u s G i s i s o m r p h i c t o K ( ' ) f o r S O R index s e t I . Every bounded s e t o f C. B y 8. . . r .5. 5 . r ) A G f o r sone r .43: A sequence ( x ( n ) : n = 1 .r)AG i s f i n i t e . t ) . e . . .3 there e x i s t s a conplenented subspace G of @ ( E n : n = l . ) in a sDace E i s s a i d t o be a basic sequence in E i f i t i s a b a s i s f o r t h e closed subspace i t aenerates. r' observe t h a t i t does not follow t h a t HAEk = F k .t)=ind((En.Z ~ I I . Since i t s dual I K i s a FS-space ( 8 . t h i s l a s t sDace i s a norned subspace of the space G. . 2 . 2 . one has t h a t FC there i s y t H such t h a t x . Let F be a subspace of an inductive l i r r i t (E. t ) i s s e q u e n t i a l l y conplete and s a t i s f i e s the '1. Indeed. t ) i f a n d only i f H=T. . 2 . t ) = i n d ( ( E n . ) i t follows t h a t Ti = F. then ( E . t n ) and s e t F : = s p ( A ) .

4. is /I I n the construction of 8. rJ Proof: F k = E k and hence E = H . . 2 . . t p( n+ 1) ) and hence i n ( K . t n ) : n = l y Z . . t ) f o r r 2. Set y ( n . and D i s a l s o a null sequence i n ( E . t ) : Indeed. s e r i e s i s Cauchy and hence converaent in sore ( E k . (LN)-space a n d l e t K be t h e closed u n i t ball o f ( E l y t l ) .46: L e m 8. r = l .. . t ) t h e r e i s a p o s i t i ve i n t e g e r p such t h a t F a ( n ) x ( n ) = 0 in ( E .91) and ( Z . .. t k ) . ) 1 U+4 has no unconditional b a s i s due t o 8. r ( i ) ) w i t h ( n ( i ) : i = l . i ( n . our non-constant sequence contains a subsequence converging t o 0 in ( E . hence ( B .\I ) : = 1 2 . . Then xCG(A). t ) s i n c e y ( n ( i ) . t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r k such t h a t x t F k . Observation 8.. t h e n x L H .r):r=1. . R e c i w o c a l l v .35. . C i s a null sequence i n ( K .J r ( F . .):n=1. . hence x= 00 H=F. ) a basis f o r each ( E k y t k ) .CHAPTER 8 301 rmst show t h a t A i s a b a s i s f o r H. r ) : = ( l / n ) x ( n . r . Ide 00 Llo Corollary 8. i n the no-th row). l e t x c i . ) a s t r i c t l y increasing sequence of p o s i t i v e i n t e w r s . hence x= z b ( n ) x ( n ) in ( H .45: With the same notation as above. t ) . i f ( x ( n ) : n = 1 . w e nay s e l e c t a s t r i c t l y increasinq sequence ( p ( n ) : n = 1 .5. Z . r ( i ) ) : = ( l / n ( i ) ) x ( n ( i ) . r ) in (K. //. / .36 take ( E. i t either has a subsequence C located i n one row ( s a y .3. ( F .4.51 o r iust .l.t p(n) : n . p ) ~ .TZAFRIRI. Then t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r q ) l such t h a t ( K . t ) . .47: Let ( E . t ) : Indeed.( n + l ) ) .] such t h a t f o r each n. Thus x t F k . .p):=l'. t ) i s a s t r i c t (LS)-sDace and hence s . The s e t B:=ACI(O) i s s e q u e n t i a l l y c o m a c t i n ( E . b v v j r t u e o f sequential P P r e t r a c t i v i t y .2. Since K i s absolutely convex. r . r ) : = ( n + r . r .q#2. 9 q+r Proof: Suppose t h e conclusion not t o be t r u e . t ) = ( K . t k ) and hence in ( H . t ) = i n d ( F k : k = 1 . then i t i s a basis f o r ( E . t ) i s s . Since ( E . t ) . given any non-constant sequence i n €3. In both c a s e s . r ( i ) ) and K i s bounded i n ( E . Accordin9 t o hypothesis. Z . I f + Fb(n)x(n) i n ( E k .2. Each s t e n Fk:= P ( f i ( E . a( n ) = Q f o r each n.p.5. 2 . ) i s a null sequence i n ( K y t D ( n + l l ) b u t not ) . . t ) . t ) . t h i s /-. o r i t contains a subsequence D of terms y ( n ( i ) . h u t ( H . p ) w i t h unconditional b a s i s ( s e e LINDENSTRALlSS. r ) : r = l y 2 .5. ) ordered as a sequence by mans of t h e n a p p i n o . t ) = i n d ( ( E n . t ) . ( x ( n .( 1). ) of posit i v e i n t e o e r s and a f a n i l y of sequences { ( x(n. ( H . t ) i s rretrizable (8. 2 . . p ) : = a non-conplenented closed subspace of ( E . p ) ) z has an unconditional b a s i s . ) be a s . . Proof: I f H i s closed. t ) NowB i s preconpact i n ( E . r ) and consider t h e N x N rmtrix A : = ( y ( n .. . I f T a ( n ) x ( n ) = 0 i n ( H .l ) ( n + r ) / ( Z .

. ) .fi7 t o 3 ) ) = ( Kq(2) . (see 8.. 1 . notions s.t a ( n+l) .c.19). hence un i s c o a r s e r t h a n t K on (pKq(n)’tq(n+l) q(n) q ( n ) for each n.b o r n o l o d c a l (DF)-soaces. S i n c e K i s a O-n@b i n (F: ) . such t h a t ( Kq(l). t ) = i n d ( ( En. P r o o f : I t i s enough t o show t h a t i f ( E . b .r. ) f o r each Our c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s i f we c o n s t r u c t a sequence o f p o s i t i v e i n t e c e r s < .. 8 . s i n c e ( K q ( n ) ’ t q ( n + 2 ) ) = ( K q ( n ) y t q ( n + l ) ) f o r each n.c. . (Kn:n=1.tq( 1 f o r j >/ n+ 1.pKq( n ) . is complete if . t h a t u i s c o a r s e r t h a n t on E and hence b o t h t o p o l o d e s c o i n c i d e . q( n ) yu)=(Kq( n ) ytq( n + l ) ( ) . be t h e sequence o f c l o s e d u n i t b a l l s o f ( ( E n . ) .tq( f o r j 2 3 .2. then i t i s s.Kq(n) .1. F o r n o n . A p p l y i n g a o a i n 8.... to( q ( n ) On E q ( n ) . u i s f i n e r than t and.tn):n=1.. such t h a t (Kq(n)yt’=(Kq(n).) of p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r s such t h a t ( K q( n ) . ( E .49 shows.tq( n+l) S e t ( E .38 L e t ( E .5. t ) i s s . r . t ) c o n t a i n i n g a subsequence i n e v e r y row o f t h e n a t r i x and P(l).47.t) being s. we f i n d q ( 3 ) ) q ( 2 ) such t h a t ( Kq ( 2 ) ’tq( Ks( 2 ) By r e c u r r e n c e we t h u s d e t e r m i n e a s t r i c t l y i n c r e a s i n g sequence ( q ( n):n=1. 8 .c. */I ..2.49: s a t i s f i e s the M.26 a p p l i e s and un i s 9( n ) q( n ) ytq( n ) coarser than t ..tq(2))=(Kq(l).5.i n d ( Eq(n) . /I C o r o l l a r y 8.5.3.. I t i s n o t d i f f i c u l t t o e x t r a c t f r o m A a n u l l sequence i n ( E .)) :n=l.5...) the Let Theorerr 8. Then ( D K ~ n dn! ) f o r each p.un)= . A c c o r d i n q t o 8. A c c o r d i n g t o 8.n=1. shows t h a t bounded subsets o f E a r e n e t r i z a b l e and t h a t E and o ~ l y i f i t i s l o c a l l y corplete..5.302 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEXSPACES n o t i c e t h a t B i s c o u n t a b l e and hence compact i n ( E . ) w h i c h we nay suppose i n c r e a s i n g .. r . O b s e r v a t i o n 8.50: t r u e as 8..c.tq(n+l) n.2.. Clearly..M.r.5. < q ( n ) < .40( i ) .b. . I=( Ks( n ) .r.) b. 8.2. Then ( E ... t ) and erbeds c o n t i n u o u s l y i n t o a n e t r i z a b l e soace). 7 a p p l i e s t o ) f o r each n . t n ) : n = l ... 4 9 f a i l s t o be 8. t ) be a b o r n o l o g i c a l (DF)-space. .P= 1 . ) we have S i n c e ( E ..un) : = g .5..2. Set q ( l ) : = l .48: For e v e r y (LN)-space ( E . t ) i f and o n l y i f i t s a t i s f i e s t h e s. Since Set ( E (K .r.tD(2)’ a contradiction with (E. F o r b o r n o l o g i c a l (!IF)-soaces E w i t h t h e M. . coincide.c. ( KQ( 9 u I=! Kq ( n ) y t ) = ( K q ( n ) ’ t q ( n + l ) ) f o r each n t h e c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s .tq(i)) t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e i n t e e r q ( 2 ) ) q ( 1) f o r i 2 2 . t ) = i n d ( ( Ea( n ) .. 5 . .i n d ( Eq( n ) .p t) ( . u ) : = g .tq(n+l) show t h a t . hence c o n t a i n i n 9 subsequences w h i c h a r e n o t n u l l sequences f o r t . 2 .5.. and s ..2 ..... t ) q(l)(q(2) i s remlar..

nn t h e i s closed i n ( E . ) . t ) and i f F is a Mackey space. a. t ) . Definition 8. t ) if (F.3. E ' ) ) f o r each A i n F i s sequeno t h e r hand. F i s well-located i n ( E .6. t ) i f and only i f ( E ' . we say t h a t F i s stenwise closed Proposition 8. t ) : Indeed. t ) i f t = s on F. hence a stepwise closed suhspace of ( E . // Corollary 8. t n ) : n = l . t n ) : n = = l .4: There is a stepwise closed subspace of t h e sDace P ( K ) which i s not closed. t ) i s a (LF)-space. ( E .3: I f (E. ) . Moreover. i f FAA i s closed i n ( E . 6 . then F i s l i n ' t subspace. .6. t C a ] ) i s B-complete. Observation 8.2: ( a ) Closed subspaces of inductive l i m i t s a r e stepwise closed.~ i s a Pausdorff ( L F ) space and i f a i s t h e family of a l l s e t s A of E such t h a t F. E ) and D'(X) i s not S - conplete ( 7 .6. 2 . .6. I f F i s well-located i n ( E . t ) = i n d ( ( E .. ( b ) Stepwise closed subspaces of ( LSw)-soaces If Fn:=FAEn i s closed i n ( E n . . // Definition 8.6.c o d i w n s i o n a l stepwise closed SubsDaces of ( E .6. t ) .t)=ind((En. 5 . s ( E . t ) . 2 8 ( i ) ) .6.t)' and F i s a l i m i t subspace of ( E .3. a r e closed ( 8 . then F is l i m i t subspace of ( E . Proof: I f F i s a stepwise closed subspace of ( E . one has t h a t f i n i t e .CHAPTER 8 303 8. a.tn):n=1. ? .6: ( 3 ) i f F i s a l i m i t subspace of ( E . t h e conclusion follows frorr 8.. s ) : = i n d ( (F n . Observation 8. t n ) . t ) : n = l . F i s well-located i n ( E .6 An introduction t o well-located a n d linrit subspaces. t ) .Z. s ) i s a ( L F ) - . t ) = D ( X ) in 8. t ) i t i s c l e a r t h a t FAA hence F i s nearly closed. then every stepwise closed suhspace F of ( F . Proof: S e t ( E . s ( E . Z . t ) i s continuous i f and only i f i t s kernel i s closed. Since t l G ] = b ( E ' . in ( E . 6 ) . t ) = i n d ( ( E n . t n ) f o r each n . Set n n F n : = F n E n f o r each n and ( F .1: Let F be a subspace of ( E . t ) i s a (LF)-space and ( F . t ) a n d t h e concl usion f o l 1ows. E ' ) ) f o r each A in t i a l l y closed i n ( E . . ( b ) i f F i s stepwise closed i n ( E .s)' = (F. i s weakly compact i n sow ( E n . . t ) . since a l i n e a r f o r r on an inductive l i m i t ( E . ( F . t ) a r e closed.6.5: Let F be a subspace of ( E . ) . I t i s c l e a r t h a t stepwise closed hypewlanes a r e closed. t ) i s closed i n ( E . .

sn): ( i i ) i s t h e c o n t e n t o f 6. and To p r o v e ( i i i ) .6. n=1.7: located.t) w i s e c l o s e d subspaces o f ( E . t ) paces o f ( E . t h e f o l l o w i n g two c o n d i t i o n s a r e e q u i v a l e n t : (1) a l l s t e p a r e c l o s e d and ( 2 ) a l l s t e p w i s e c l o s e d subsIndeed. t ) whenever one t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s i s s a t i s f i e d : ( i ) F i s stepwise closed i n (E. 2 ..c l o s e d s e t s o f F. .tn) w h i c h i n t u r n i s c l o s e d i n (En. t ) .t) ( v ) (E.3..+ ( F . hence c l o s e d i n ( E .tn):n=l.tn) i s a p r o p e r (LF)-space i s r e g u l a r and ( F . A c c o r d i n g t o (l).6. t ) ( c ) f o r (E. t ) .s) i s semi- i s r e y l a r . closed i n (E.2. I f u E ( F . i t i s c o v e r e d by an i n c r e a s i n q .6( c ) .8: Set Fn:=FnE f o r each n and ( F . Thus A i s c l o s e d i n ( E n . t n ) S i n c e t=t**. i s closed i n (F/\En. P r o o f : ( i ) L e t J : ( F. l e t F be a s t e p w i s e c l o s e d subspace then u-’(0)nEn f o r each and (2) = and suppose t h a t (1) i s s a t i s f i e d . 6 ..flF are well-located: BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEXSPACES i s c o n t i n u o u s . not well-located.4.6. t ) o f (E. s ) . hence i n ( F .2. s ) .t) Montel.t) ( i i ) Tile c l o s u r e o f Fn i n (En.n=1.304 space and t h e i d e n t i t y ( F .tn):n=1. Thus F n E n i s and m t r i z a b l e .s)-( F.For b a r r e l l e d (4.2(b) P r o o f : (i) 8.). each ( E n .t).tn) hence u € ( F . t ) ’ n. .t).2.t) ( i v ) (E. u . s ) : = i n d ( ( F .1. t ) .).4 and f o l l o w s f r o m 8.11. Then F i s a l i m i t n n subspace o f ( E . Eloreover. t h e F r e c h e t space ( E n .6. t ) and t=t**on E i s o f f i n i t e c o d i w n s i o n i n E .. By 8 .tn) (F. be an i n d u c t i v e sequence o f F r e c h e t spaces w h i c h i s a d e f i n i n g i t i s enouqh t o show t h a t F i s s t e p w i s e sequence f o r ( F . P r o p o s i t i o n 8.6(c) and (ii) from 9. i s closed i n ( E . s ) ‘ . Then A O F n i s c l o s e d i n (F..7. ) ... Our d e s i r e d c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s i f we show t h a t J naps s . i s a countable-codinensional subspace o f and F n E n = U ( H k p E n : k = 1 . n i s F r e c h e t and ( i i i ) F i s o f c o u n t a b l e c o d i n e n s i o n i n E.6. /I L e t F be a subspace o f (E. L e t A be a c l o s e d s e t i n ( F . t * * ) . t n ) . The r e v e r s e i m p l i c a t i o n can be shown by c o n s i d e r i n g a g a i n k e r n e l s ( i ) Stepwise c l o s e d subspaces o f (LSw)-spaces a r e w e l l - (ii) The space D ( X ) c o n t a i n s a s t e p w i s e c l o s e d subsDace w h i c h i s and 3. By 8.6) f i x e d n. t n ) i s bornologcal i s a (DF)-space and (F.tn) f o r each n.3. FAE. l e t ((Hn. s=t.l ( O ) o f 1 i n e a r forms.. each (En.6. P r o p o s i t i o n 8.t)=ind((En. 6 ( b ) .) f o r each n.tn) i s closed i n (E. f o l l o w s .t) ~-l(O)nE... and hence c l o s e d i n (En.t) t h e c o n t i n u o u s c a n o n i c a l i n j e c t i o n .c l o s e d s e t s i n t .

E)) and ( ( F . s i n c e (LS)-spaces a r e Monte1 spaces and so a r e t h e i r c l o s e d subsp- // We keep t h e n o t a t i o n i n 8. I t s transposed nappinc J ' :( F ' . k=1. bounded i n ( E r . I f F i s i n a d d q t i o n w e l l .t). t ) . i s c o n t i n u o u s and has weakly dense r a n p (K2. t ) has as transposed m o p i n s J ' :( E ' . t ) .r+l.6. Observe t h a t i f ( E . F i s a l i n t subspace o f ( E . i f h:=sup(tn.. Stepwise c l o s e d subspaces o f ( LS) -spaces a r e c l o s e d and t h e second i s a d i r e c t I t can a l s o be deduced f r o m P r o o f : The f i r s t p a r t f o l ows f r o m 8 .b((F.s)'. e v e r y l i n e a r f o r m on F which has c o n t i n u o u s r e s t r i c t i o n s t o each ( F n y t n ) i s continuous on ( F .6.9: 1i mi t su bspaces. 2 8 ( i i ) . t ) ' = F ' and J:( F.b(E'. since ( H On t h e o t h e r hand.b( F ' .55 a r e s a t i s f i e d . Again by 4. .l o c a t e d .). B y 8.3. L e t G be a countable-codimensional a l g e b r a i c c o n p l e m n t o f F n E n i n En and s e t Gk:= s p ( ( H k n E n ) U G ) .s)-+(F.2. ( 4 ) ) .s) i s a l s o a (LB)-space.l o c a l t e d i n (E. Clearly. H nEn is r+q r+q b a r r e l l e d i f endowed w i t h t h e t o p o l o g y induced b y tn and o b v i o u s l y dense i n (FnEn.CHAPTER 8 305 t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e i n t e e r r such t h a t sequence of subspaces. i t i s immediate t o check t h a t (F. F ) ) Frechet spaces. r+q AEn. and t h e c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s . Hence r+q A E n y h ) i s a Frechet soace. En=U(Gk:k=r. t ) and hence can be extended c o n t i n u o u s l y t o i s a (LB)-space and F i s stepwise closed.E)) +( F' .s t h e c a n o n i c a l i n j e c t i o n J:(H r+q cide. s ) ' . hence (E'. t h e n are (F.l o c a t e d F. Given a i s bounded i n (Fr.v ( E . r+q ( i v ) I f (E. 1 .t) i s r e g u l a r .t) i f and o n l y i f J ' i s o n t o . 2 8 ( i i ) consequence o f 8.tr) and t h e r e q u i r e t e n t s t h e r e e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e F r r such t h a t A i s Thus AAF. ~ 3 2 . H r n E n i s dense i n ( F n E n ..5.2. s ) ' .6.F)) .t) ( v ) Set J:( F .. o f 8.3.3. t ) (E.tn).t) O b s e r v a t i o n 8.6. t r ) . 5 . e . i . t ) i f and o n l y i f J i s a h o m m r p h i s m . 8.. T h e r e f o r e J i s a t o p o l o g i c a l h o m m r p h i s m // C o r o l l a r y 8.b( E ' .s) F. 1 .s)'. f o r t h e continuous c a n o n i c a l i n j e c t i o n . (F. 1 0 ( i ) ) i s d e f i n e d on Hr+qf\En.tn). hence b a r r e l l e d . i f J i s a weak h o m m r p h i s m ( K 2 . Set J:(F. Since i s b o r n o l o g i c a l .F)) f o r t h e c o n t i n u o u s c a n o n i c a l i n j e c t i o n . t n ) .8( i) by v r t u e o f 8 . 5 . and F i s w e l l . s ) .h) has c l o s e d graDh and.s) H i s regular and hence t h e c a n o n i c a l i n j e c t i o n J : ( F. F o r w e l l . A c c o r d i n g t o 1. i s l o c a l l y bounded.s) ' = ( F .8(v) aces. there e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e integer q such t h a t ( G .tn) i s B a i r e . 4 .6. ~ ( ( F .t)+( (F. 2 .2. J i s continuous.b( F ' .. ( 7 ) ) .tn)--'(Hr+qnEn.12.10: F)-((F. shows t h a t tn and h c o i n - AEn = F A E n i s c l o s e d i n (En. F ' b e i n g t h e dual o f ( F .6.s) --+ ( E .f32. t ) bounded s e t A o f ( E .

tn):n=1. t ) . t ) . s ) : = i n d ( ( $3En)AH:k=1. Now sunpose f:(E.?) isomrphic t o 1 1 which i s ( o f course) n o t r e f l e x i n ve.2..t)')) which i s a (LF)-space accorwe have S i n c e t h e r e i s a c o n t i n u o u s l i n e a r b i j e c t i o n J between and s i n c e G i s w e l l . t ) b e i n g lm ( l / a n ) which i s i s o m r p h i c .l o c a t e d i n ( F . t h a t f i s a weak homrrorphisnl.t).6. Z .t) i s a h o m m r o h i s m Since G i s steowise closed i n ( F .l o c a t e d i n ( F . . located i n (F.l o c a t e d subspace ( o f a (L5v.306 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES B e i n g a c o n t i n u o u s l i r l e a r s u r j e c t i o n between F r e c h e t spaces.11.(G..4. t ) = I ( qEn m o f Ranach sDaces and a then ( H . w i s c o n t i n u o u s on E/f-'(O).6.+ ( F .m(E.t)' I/ I n what f o l l o w s we s h a l l p r o v i d e an exarrple o f a c l o s e d subsoace o f t h e s t r i c t (LB)-space (8. Set v c : = (x. ) has t h e Mackey t o p o l o g y in ') Conversely. 8 ( c ) . s ) ' (G.l o c a t e d i n ( F . ) w h i c h a r e n o t FS-spaces. c o i n c i d e s w i t h s and hence J i s an i s o m r p h i s m by 1. t ) . E/f-'(O)---(G.3.r) 1 n p r o j ( 1 ( a ) : n = l .(G. t ) .t)')) have t h a t ( G .13) which i s n o t w e l l .t)=ind((Fn.. J ' i s ooen.)-space) exa ml es .3(ii). ( i i ) i s c l e a r .v) 1 1 f-'(O)' and l e t w be t h e l i n e a r f o r m on G d e f i n e d b y < f ( x ) .el spaces o f t h e t y o e (G. and we s h a l l d e r i v e sow consequences o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f such a c o u n t a b l e d i r e c t sum ( E . and hence G i s w e l l .4. P r o o f : A c c o r d i n g t o o u r c o m n t s a f t e r 8. t ) ( i i ) f i s a h o m m r p h i s m i f and o n l y i f G i s a lirrit subspace o f ( E .G)) i s t h e (LB)-space i n d ( l m ( l / a 00 ):n=l.. ..(G.6. Ry K2. w ( ( G . P r o o o s i t i o n 8.in that (G.2. . t n ) : n = 1 .20 = m (G. ve t h a t f. # ( H . s ) ' and hence t h e r e e x i s t s a s e q u e n t i a l l y c o n t i n u o u s l i n e a r f o r m on H I n 8 . t c l o s e d subspace H such t h a t . t h e r e e x i s t s a q u o t i e n t (G/L. .).G)) f o r t h e c a n o n i c a l s u r j e c t i o n and T : ( E . which i s n o t continuous.t)') ( i i ) . t ) . 5 . i f ( H .( 0 ) C f ' ( ( F . .(G.12: which i s n o t subspace. (G. s ) : = i n d ( ( G A F n . Exanple 8. The s t r o n g dual (G'.E')) we (G.11: and f : E . ) be (LF)-spaces a c o n t i n u o u s l i n e a r warming such t h a t G : = f ( E ) i s s t e p w i s e ( i ) f i s a weak h o m m r p h i s m i f and o n l y i f G i s w e l l . Then L e t E and (F. and t h e c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s .l o c a t e d (8.* I( f o r t h e c a n o n i c a l hommorphisrr. 2 . (G'.tr(G. ding to 7. 8 ( b ) we gave exanples o f Fr@chet-Wont. t ) .6. A c c o r d i n g t o 9 .y) Set Q:(G.(5). w > f o r e v e r y x i n E.Z.).b(G'.r)--+(G/L.12) and an example lipit o f a w e l l . Thus. 5 . t ) closed i n ( F . ( E .(32. suppose t h a t G i s w e l l - To show t h a t f i s a weak h o m m r p ' l i s m i t i s enough t o p r o f ' b e i n g t h e t r a n s p o s e d m p p i n p o f f..b(G'.Z. t ) ' ) .

i s not reflexi- ve t h e r e e x i s t s a l i n e a r f c r m u ~(L'.. t h e r e e x i s t s a l i n e a r form h on G such t h a t h=koT.G/L))' such t h a t u 4(L'. which were n o t FS-spaces.14: exanple).s):=ind((+En)T\H:k=1..2. i f (H. s ) whose impe i f H:=T B y hence t h e c o n c l u s i o n .G)). ( H .s)'=(H. Now.r) nJ t o ( l m ) ( N ) . G ) ) p a i r (G/L.t)'=(lP) since ( l P ) N u i s s e q u e n t i a l l y continuous on ( H .t) and ( H . Moreover. Since ( I q ) ( " ) -1 I (L ). t ) Thus s # t as d e s i r e d . t ) ' ) . r \ = p r o j ( l P ( a n ) : n=1. s ) ' . r ) by Q c o n t a i n s (E. t h e r e i s no bounded s e t i n ( G ..s)' b u t (H. t ) N /H.). G I L ) ) ' . The space (LL.6.G) (E. t ) = T E n o f Banach spaces and a then (H.3 f o r a n o t h e r . t ) a (gDF)-space ( E .t)'= c l o s e d subspace H such t h a t . t ) . and so s = m ( H .r) f o r t h e canoni- c a l s u r j e c t i o n and T : ( E .8( c ) .)... and there- a contradiction. We s h a l l see t h a t g E ( H . b(G'. t ) h a v i n a a c o u n t a b l e .). t ) is i s n o t a (gDF)-space.6. H i s closed i n does n o t have i t s Nackey t o p o l o g y s i n c e H/T.m(G'. (H.( E . g i s bounded on e v e r y bounded s e t of H and hence g € ( H . (H.s)'. (H.G)) f o r t h e canonical hommrohism.13 and keep t h e n o t a t i o n t h e r e . does n o t c a r r y i t s Mackey t o p o l o q y : Indeed.b(L'. desired i n e a r form.2.s(G'.b a r r e l l e d ( s e e 6.G))'. T i s a honumrphism. we have t h a t and. OD . which i s a c l o s e d subspace = ( L .G)) i s t h e (LSw)-space i n d ( l q ( l/an):n=1.n(G'..t) a b o r n o l o g i c a l space ( F . Since ( G . b u t i t i s a c l o s e d subspace o f n a l subspace H which i s n o t even q u a s i .t)#(H.t). t ) ' .5.LLj.LI).. i s a separable F r e c h e t space. hence k 6 ( G ' .t)' Observe t h a t s and t c o i n c i d e on t h e bounded s e t s and have t h e s a w bounded s e t s . i f B i s t h e c l o s e d u n i t b a l l o f (WL. Hence I f u t(H.2.h. s ) ' \ ( H . t ) ' : Indeed. L e t (H.13: a c o u n t a b l e d i r e c t sun. Set Q:(G. compact. t ) . u i s the Exanple 8.5. ( H .r)+(G/L.c o d i w n s i o be as i n 8. o f (E.CHAPTER 8 307 Since (G/L.G)) f o r e i t s r e s t r i c t i o n u b e l o n 9 t o (H.8(b) we found Frechet-Monte1 spaces o f t h e t y p e ( G . The s t r o n g dual ( G I . 1 p h i c t o (L. A c c o r d i n g t o 8. t ) . z and b(G'.t) h o l d s by r e f l e x i v i t y . p > 1 . t h e r e i s a r e f l e x i v e q u o t i e n t (G/L.6.s(G'.G)=dG'. I n 8. .. Set H:=T ( L ) and g:=uoT on H.t).) w i t h ~-'+cj-'=l.s). B i s weakly c o m a c t b u t n o t i s Montel. b ( L L . Consider t h e dual p a i r (G/L.?) i s o m o r p h i c even t o lP.s(LLYG/L))' I -1 J . d G ' . t h e r e e x i s t s a continuous l i n e a r e x t e n s i o n k t o (E.+ ( G ' . Since k vanishes on T-'(O). Consider t h e dual b e i n g 6 1 q ( l / a n ) . u i s continuous on ( H . s i n c e u t ( L L .G))' . Thus ( H .s( G ' .( 0 ) i s i s o m r i s t h e s t r o n a dual o f (lP)N. On t h e o t h e r hand. which i s i s o m o r p h i c t o (lq)"). E x a m l e 8. i f g € ( H .

The r e s t r i c t i o n f ( n ) o f f t o ( F A F n . t h e i n j e c t i o n (En.t). t ) = sbe a l o c a l l y bounded l i n e a r mapping i s a l o c a l l y bounded mapnino on a be i t s ( u n i q u e ) be t h e l i n e a r and l e t s : ( F . apply 8 . i s c o n t i n u o u s as d e s i r e d .2. i t s l i n e a r span and p u t F:=sp(AUH).b a r r e l l e d .). P r o p o s i t i o n 8.tk) f o r each k . L e t s ( n ) : ( T n .t)--rL - t h e c l o s u r e taken i n ( E .4.25( ii). T h i s l a s t space i s Frechet.... Set Hk:=Fk+E and (H . t ) has t h e s t r o n - ( V + A ) A H k 3 ( V n H k ) + ( A n H k ) 3 ( V A F k ) + ( A n G k ) and t h i s l a s t s e t i s a O-n@b hence (V+A)AEn i s a 0-nghb i n ( E n . Since F = U ( T n : t o o b t a i n t h a t ( E . Thus \/+A i s a C)-n@b i n and ( G . K Now s e t Fk:=TEn.d e f i n e d .. ) c r e a s i n g sequence o f f i n i t e .2. (F.d i m e n s i o n a l spaces. hence s i s w e l l . A:=U(An:n=l.t) .2.6.d i m n P r o o f : ( i ) i n p l i e s (ii) i s the content o f 8. f o r an i n w i t h Fn:=FnEn and l e t G be a c o u n t a b l e .tn):n==1. t ) i s b a r r e l l e d . t ) .41). .t)=ind((En. Each Fk i s separable..t):n=1. i n (E. t ) = i n d ( ($E n ) n H : k= 1..2.t). I f ( i i ) holds. hence t h e r e e x i s t s a c o u n t a b l e dense i s dense i n ( E .) and ( E . t ) ind((Tn..) s i o n a l a l g e b r a i c conplenent o f F i n E.5. L e t V he and A an a b s o r b i n g a b s o l u t e l y convex s e t i n fi. F i n a l l y observe t h a t d i m (F/H) i s l e t F be a countable-codin-ensional subspace o f i s a (LF)-space E. C l e a r l y .2c)(i) and f i x i n g n. t ) continuous l i n e a r e x t e n s i o n t o (Tn. i s continuous f o r s o w k.. Then G = U ( G k : k = 1 .r ) : = k k (Fk. 4 .. B y 1. .) be a (LF)-sDace and I t i s obvious t h a t s.2. i s a conplenented p a i r i n ( E . Set P f o r i s bornoloaicai: subset Ak i n Fk. 2 . hence continuous. t ) and n o t c o n t a i n e d i n any En. t ) . . t n ) .tk) 8 (Gk.G) q s t l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o y .15: ( i ) (F. . F i s closed i n (E.. t ) hence (F.t) Let (E. ) b y 8.tn)-(Hk. hence (F. C l e a r l y .s) i n (Hk. i t would even be b a r r e l l e d s i n c e i t i s s e q u e n t i a l l y c o n u l e t e a contradiction) Hence ( H ..2. t ) + L m p p i n g whose r e s t r i c t i o n t o each Tn c o i n c i d e s w i t h s ( n ) .8(iii). s e t Tn:=FnFn.6..L i n t o any space L.rk). !rle s h a l l see t h a t ( F . (E. and consequently i t s r e s - t r i c t i o n f.) Indeed. Our c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s i f we show t h a t f i s continuous.rk) any 0-nghb i n (F. b o t h m p p i n g s c o i n c i d e on Tn f o r each n. t ) f o r each n. i n f i n i t e countable.t) were q u a s i . set. and hence a (LFf-space ( i i i ) c l e a r l y i n p l i e s (i) and our p r o o f above shows t h a t F i s complenented i s a q u o t i e n t o f (E. Since s ( n ) c o i n c i des w i t h s ( n + l ) on F A F n f o r each n. 2 5 ( i i ) Let f:(F.2.. n=1.tn):n=1.t).s):=ind((Fn. n e t r i z a b l e space. I t i s e q u i v a l e n t ( i i ) F i s stepwise c l o s e d and each F A E n i s a p r o p e r subspace o f F ( i i i ) F i s closed i n ( E .t).t) I n p a r t i c u l a r .308 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPA C€S n o t q u a s i b a r r e l l e d (see above o r proceed i n t h e f o l l o w i n o w a y : (8. If (H.

1 w i t h resoect t o t h e quotient topology on Y=F/G i s t h e f i n a l topoloay on 1 i s t h e f i n a l topology w i t h respect t o the mappings (QooJn:n=1. . . By 4.. hence rJ c the i n j e c t i o n s (Gn/F. r n ) : = ~ ( ( E i . and W i i n ( F n + i y s n + i ) yi=l. i f xEll:= then I<x. i = l . t h e r e s t r i c t i o n o f f t o (Mn+q.1 . s coincides w i t h G on G/F=r?. ) . r n ) : n = 1. hence i f f E(M.un). u ) be an infinite-dimensional Frechet space. i=n+l. On the o t h e r hand. ..2. r n ): n = 1 .2. . and i f ()o:G+FI i s t h e r e s t r i c t i o n of q t o G .. . Since f r e s t r i c ted t o each (Mn.1.CHAPTER 8 309 8. by construction.. t . t ) ' = ( M . . u ) i s a (LF)-space. . More- over.) and i f M:= Proof: According t o 4. 2= // Proposition 8. .2.:n)-+G/F.u)=ind((Mn.s space f o r each n .f)]<2. Proposition 8.rn+q ) is continuous. t i ) : i = 1 . Gn:=Q-'(Mn) J . t ) : n = l .4. . 2 . I f ():E-. r ) ' . 2 . i = l Y 2 ..sn) i s a Frechet o w s e t (G. n ) x T ( l d i : i = l . . n + q and W I i n ( F 1 1 i n+q+i ' .n+Z. s i n c e s i s f i n e r than u on on M and s and u coincide on F .) i s a (LF)-soace.4. 2 . F a closed subspace of (E. I f ( ~ 1 .t) i s continuous. . . t n ) : n = l .q. . .6. t h e very d e f i n i t i o n o f s shows t h a t u i s f i n e r than s on F.$) such t h a t (M. . i n i Proof: For each n .1: Let ( E .E/F stands f o r t h e canonical s u r j e c t i o n . . r ) : = i n d ( ( M n . .. . . . .).t)=ind( (PI n . sn=unon Mn and sn coincides w i t h u on F and by 2.+ ( G n y u ) N and t h e m p p i n g Qn:Gn-z(Gn/F. . ( M .2.5. . F i n a l l y . s i ) : (Mn:n=1. . t i ) . s i s f i n e r than u. Since sn=un on Gn/F=Yn. Qn being t h e r e s t r i c t i o n of 9 t o G n .s):=ind((Gn.u) and P I a proper dense subspace of (E/F. I f J n :G n 4 E i s t h e canonical i n j e c t i o n . N n ) : n = l . 2 . s n ) i s b a r r e l l e d and sn i s f i n e r than t n . ( M .. w e apply 2. Z . ) .4.7. 2 . t i a l w i t h respect t o the canonical i n j e c t i o n G n . Set ( M . .. G. ) .7 Non-conplete n e t r i z a b l e and nornable (LF)-spaces.. t ) = i n d ( ( M n ..un)=(Mn. Since each sn coincides w i t h u on F.. hence there a r e absolutely convex O-n@bs V i l i n ( E .7. .1 t o conclude t h a t s coincides w i t h u on G as desired. 2 . n . ) . r i s f i n e r than t on M and.). s and u coincide on F: Indeed. n = 1 . n( V j : i = l y . . .. our conclusion follows i f we show t h a t ( M .7. Clearly.2. there a r e absolutely convex O-n&bs V i i n u ( E i . By 4. t ) i s b a r r e l l e d . then (M. t n ) : n = l . ) be a fatrily of b a r r e l l e d m a c e s and s e t ( E . . . t ) : = ~ ( ( E n .).).2: Let ( ( E n . G:=Q-'(M) i s a proper dense suhspace o f ( E .r)' i t i s enouqh t o show t h a t the r e s t r i c t i o n of f t o each (Mn.rn) i s continuous. 2 . (G.un):n=1. .. .q)xTT( Fn+q+i : i = l . ) . n ) x T ( ( F i . Let Fn be a dense subspace of ( E n y t n ) such t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s a topology sn on Fn such t h a t ( F n .. u ) a n d ( G .5. ... s i n c e t on M coincides w i t h i t s Mackey topology. can be endowed w i t h t h e t o p o l o y s. such t h a t .

.2..) i s a t o p o l o ~ c a l subspace of (E. .r e g u l a r p .r e p l a r i n d u c t i v e l i m i t s which a r e n o t r e p l a r : Indeed l e t E be an i n f i n i t e ..)EU' /I and (O.I .O.7.f)\Gl...tn):n=l..)xn(Wi:i=l.t)N...4: and ( K ) "N N . i n d ( f i :n=l... By d e n s i t y ..7. There e x i s t a D o s i t i v e i n t e y r p and O-nc&bs W 1 1..2.7.d i n e n s i o n a l Banach suace and l e t t be t h e s t r o n g e s t P w and ( G . such t h a t .r e c y l a r i n d u c t i v e l i r m ' t const r u c t e d i n ( b ) above.310 BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES s ~ + ~ + i=1... (x(1) i s continuous on (M. . Then E:=GxH has t h e d e s i r e d p r o o e r t i e s . i f x CU' :=T( \li :i = l . s ) : = l o c a l l y convex t o p o l o g y on E..+i: :i=1.))for j=l. N i n d ( ( F n .d i r r e n s i o n a l . P r o o f : C l e a r l y . X i s a hounded s e t o f ( G . .t)=ind((En....m).) .2 w i t h (En.. I f X stands f o r t h e c l o s e d u n i t b a l l o f F. which i s a 0-n@b i n (E. i=1.. ( b ) t h e r e e x i s t d .xExFxFxFx.. Z I f x : = ( x ( n ) : n = l Y 2 . s i n c e X i s n o t f i n i t e . s ) which i s o b v i o u s l y l o c a l i z e d i n e v e r y s t e p b u t i t i s n o t hour.r e g ~ l a ri n d u c t i v e l i w i t c o n s t r u c t e d i n 8. x(n+q).... .tn+l)..9d 100 E l i s contained P xT P+l m 0 i n (2-h)n(E1)N..Wpl i n (Elytl) such t h a t ld11x.. ~ ) . ( c ) t h e r e e x i s t i n d u c t i v e l i m i t s which a r e n e i t h e r d .. ..2 shows t h a t ( G .O.. t h e n 8. \dpn i n ( E n y t n ) such t h a t NInx (\dj n:n=1. i t i s easy t o show by r e c u r r e n c e t h a t T E n C P+{ n..x(n+q+2) ...2 Set Z : = n Vi ( :i=l.. 2 1 1 p n PI xnEnC i W n G I/ N ( a ) t h e space K c o n t a i n s p r o p e r dense subspaces which N a r e (LF)-spaces: Indeed..t ) : = K and n N (Fn.t). ) <U. .r e p l a r d .. ~n:=Ex.... now i t i s easy t o P W check t h a t CU and t h e p r o o f i s complete. Now s e t V..5.. u . L e t I 1 be a c l o s e d a b s o l u t e l y convex O-n@b i n G.2. A s i m i l a r r e a s o n i n q p r o v i d e s us w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g P r o p o s i t i o n 8. .) be an i n d u c t i v e l i m i t Then G : = o f spaces such t h a t each En i s a dense subspace o f (En+l..m.7... t ) . i n ( E n . f .Z.x(2p)-'V x T E .:= acx( u .x(n+q+l). (2p)-'Vlx .). t ) N is continuous. . T ( Fn+q+.Z... .O. t n ) N f o r each \dl n . ) ~ Z . ...3: L e t (€.2. f o r each n and r e c a l l t h e i s o m r p h i s m between K Observation 8. then since Thus.t)". . s i n c e U A ( E n ) N i s a O-n$b t h e r e e x j s t 0-n$bs (2-h)A(En)N. Moreover. n + q ) x m . t n ) :n=1.+ ( E . t h e n I(x. t h e c a n o n i c a l i n j e c t i o n G .t). . i t i s enough t o a p p l y 8. (2-1 U ) n ( E n ) N . I f F : = ( E ..O.2.r e q u l a r r o r 13-rep r l a r : Indeed. n ) x T ( Vi ' n F i : i = n + l i s a 0-nghb i n (Mn. s ) = E and thislsa non-proper n N i n d u c t i v e l i m i t ..o and \J:= 3. l e t H be t h e n o n ..30 and l e t G be t h e n o n . .. p > l .f)1\(2.ded..s ) : = s o r lP.n+q) x Fn+q+i I<x.

Z . . absolutely convex s e t A i s closed i n (Gn. u ) and s e t W n p : = 0-9( V n ) f \ Z f o r p .sn) can be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h s p ( E ' U Q ' ( M n ' ) ) . 1. Since (E.) from (y. and u n i s t h e topology on described by the falrily of selrinorm { p ( n . Z ..sn). Z 1. .2. n = 1 . 2 . Monte1 o r a FS-soace). Mn' being the t o p o l o g c a l dual of ( M n y u n ) . Then ( F . each ( M n .- Z co k . 2 . 2 .).sn):=s( s e e 8 . I/ Proposition 8.s ) i s r e f l e x i v e ( r e s p .) such t h a t (Q(za)) converges t o sone v i n ( F l n y s ( F ~ n y F l n ' ) ) . j = l . . ) converainq t o a . ) be a decreasing b a s i s of 0-nghbs i n ( V n Y u n ) .sn). For every u i n Mn' . u ) Pontel . u ) : n = l . Given a sequence ( x ( p ) : p = 1 .. n = 1 . ) be a decreasing b a s i s of O-n#bs in ( E . . Since t h e G n ' = ~ p ( E ' U Q ' ( M n ' )the .. . j ) l : i = l . r . 2 .I . t h e r e i s a s u b n e t (z. each Mn i s t h e P P space of a l l double-indexed sequences x:=( x ( i . . Monte1 o r a FS-space). u ) . The net ( Q ( y a ) ) converges t o Q ( z ) i n KN and i t i s contained i n t h e bounded set Q ( A ) . say V = i n d ( ( V .. u ) . j ) : i .sn) and l e t ( xa) be a net in A. u ) be a non-normble Frechet space which i s r e f l e x i v e ( r e s p .7.u)=ind((Gn.u)=ind((Gn. a (LF)-space (G. z belongs t o A as desired. t h e r e e x i s t s a closed subsoace F of ( E .. ) i n A .7. For fixed n . Since ( E . r .n+13: 1 n i t e f o r r = l Y 2 . I f (Fn. Let A be a bounded closed subset o f ( Gn. u ) such t h a t ( E / F .2.u) be a non-norrmble Frechet suace. Z . 4 ( a ) ) .5: Let (E.6. u ) and Q' t h e transposed m a p p i n g t o 9.) frorr (x. (1) Suppose ( E . Clearly. . s i n c e net (z. . k = O . t ) i s isomorphic t o KN. ( 2 ) Suppose ( E . t h e tooological dual G n u of (Gn. G:=Q-'(M) (LF)-space by 8.u) i s F'ontel. s ( E .sn):n=l. Q(z)=v and thus z € G n . W p = 1 .1.6: Let ( E . . (G. . .7. u n ) m+. ) . . . . . n . w e have t h a t < u . . 2 . .and k=0. . .) converges t o z i n (G..za) and. I f Q:E + E / F i s the n n endowed w i t h the tooology induced by u . Then t h e r e e x i s t s a uroper dense subspace G which i s a (LF)-space. j = l . E' t h e topological d u a l of ( E ..F.sn):n=1. 2 . .. . Proof: By 2. t h e r e i s a subsequence ( y ( p ) : p = 1 . . n n Proof: According t o 8. . 4 ( a ) .1. . u ) i s r e f l e x i v e . A i s r e l a t i v e l y conpact in ( E . . ) such t h a t ( i I x ( i .')). i s a FS-space. j ) \ )]is f i p ( n . .. Let ( V n U : as a proper dense subspace o f ( E .5.16. . . Let A be a bounded closed a b s o l u t e l y convex subset of . .s(G. E ' ) ) . . .7. Q ( z a ) > = ( Q'( u).) exists e keep our former n o t a t i o n . u ) contains proper dense subspaces which a r e (LF)-spaces. Since ( Y n . k ) : r = l . By 8 .. u n ) i s r e f l e x i v e . and l e t ( Z : p = 1 . .. ther e i s a s u b n e t (y. 7 .Gn. i s a canonical s u r j e c t i o n . such t h a t each (G . u ) r e f l e x i v e . Clearly.CHAPTER 8 31 1 Proposition 8.) converging t o a c e r t a i n point z C ( E . 7 . K N contains a proper dense subspace 11 which i s a (LF)-space. r ) . k ) ( x ) : = m x ~ s u pI(x ( i .

Z . a FS-soace.10.Z. ) o f d i s j o i n t non-degenerate c l o s e d s u b i n t e r v a l s o f [O. F o r each k . (Q(y(p)):p=l.. t h e r e i s a subsequence ( z ( p ) : p = l .which i s i s o m r p h i c ve i n t e p r m)h such t h a t Vn O i s conpact i n ( N .4.) i f t h e r e e x i s t sequences (Mn:n=1.. A c c o r d i n g t o J.un) i s a FS-space. l ) .10...) a has u n c o n d i t i o n a l b a s i s . i f t h e r e e x i s t s a sequence o f o r t h o s n a l p r o j e c t i o n s w i t h i n f i n i t e .4. d e f i n e P k ( q a ( i ) x ( i ) ) f o r each x:= L a ( i ) x ( i ) i n ( E . . t h e r e e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r h > p such t h a t Z O i s compact.7: Pn(Pr(x))=O ( i ) A sequence (Pn:n=1.Z.un) which c o i n c i d e s F i x e d r. Thus z b e l o n g t o Gn. the conclusion t h e t o p o l o g c a l dual o f ( Gn.d i n e n s i o n a l r a n s s .) M and N such t h a t M and N a r e t r a n s ( i i i ) A F r e c h e t space ( E . D >l% s o l i t i n t o i n f i n i t e l y many D a r t s : and choose an i n f i n i t e sequence ( [ a n y b d and t a k e Indeed. t ) conditional basis f o r (E. Thus (z(p):p=1.t) :=x(a(j)x(j):jGSk) and l e t (Sk:k=1. S i n c e (Mn.l).d i n e n s i o n a l q u o t i e n t .) converaes t o O(z) i n K N .) follows. Observe t h a t each Pk( E ) a d m i t s a s e p a r a b l e i n f i n i t e ...Z..l] .z & W n r - Q ( z ) & V nr i f p>pl(r). i s a sequence o f o r t h o a o n a l p r o j e c t i o n s w i t h i n f i n i t e .312 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEXSPACES c e r t a i n z i n (E..sn).2. t h e r e e x i s t s a p o s i t i = HZ r r . on a F r e c h e t space ( E .. t ) : = C ( O .1. l e t (x(n):n=1.) s i t i v e i n t e g e r s i n t o i n f i n i t e d i s j o i n t s e t s . t ) i n f i n i t e . i n P i f r ) h ... ) t h a t (Q(z(p)):p=l.) z(p)-ztZr w i t h Q ( z ) . ' ) p P rn and bence W n " i s c o r p a c t . 7 . converges t o z i n (Gn...2. (Mn :n=1. N1 s p l i t s i n t o PI2 and N2 and so on.7. given t h e 0-nghb W n = ZPnSnp P P' P i n (Gn. 8 : ( a ) i f a F r e c h e t space ( F . (Pk:k=1.2. Thus acx(Z " U S" " ) i s c o r p a c t i n $n t o HSn m i n ydn P P m P and J. S i n c e ('In.u) H be and l e t Sn .) i n E such t h a t E s p l i t s i n t o M1 and N1. t ) . t h e r e e x i s t s p o ( r ) such t h a t f o r sufficiently larqe f o r p > p o ( r ) .2.2.un) such i s Y o n t e l . p. i t s p l i t s i n t o i n f i n i t e l y m n y p a r t s : Indeed. . ) o f continuous Droiections D e f i n i t i o n 8.) be an un0 be a p a r t i t i o n o f t h e poC l e a r l y .u). suppose f i r s t ( E . m I/ .. t ) + N..1 g i v e s t h e c o n c l u s i o n .2.=Q-'(Vn ) .2.. t ) i s an c r t h o g o n a l sequence o f projections i f s p l i t s i f there exist _ s p_ l i t_ s _ i n_ to f o r a l l n f r . and Lp(O.) converges t o a c e r t a i n v i n (Vn. There e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e 9 r p d r ) w i t h Q ( z ( p ) ) Thus z ( p ) . O b s e r v a t i o n 8 . Let Since A i s closed. o r e q u i v a l e n t l y .sn).d i m e n s i o n a l c l o s e d subspaces v e r s a l t o each o t h e r and E = M i n f i n i t e l y many p a r t s arid (Nn:n=1..sn) ( 3 ) Suppose (E. ( b ) The spaces C ( 0 .. l ) :n=1. ( i i ) A F r e c h e t space ( E . from (y(p):o=l.d i n e n s i o n a l ranges.2..2...

El i s dense i n ( E .. . P i s idempotent and P ( E k ) C E k .t) has a separable i n f i n i t e m n y D a r t s ( M :n=1. Moreover. hence i t s range i s i n f i n i t e . p ) ) CV. The p r o o f i s complete i f we show t h a t t and s c o i n c i d e on each Ek. .s):=ind((Ek.. :=0 i f x a ( a n y b n ) and . Then ( E . Pn(E)=Mn f o r each n.. (G.5 subspace Hn such t h a t ( H n . ) be t h e o r t h o m n a l sequence o f p r o i e c t i o n s w i t h t h e r e e x i s t s i n each ( Y n .P .P ( x ) E U P P k+P and s e t y : = x + q ( x ( i ) .2.2. ) i s a b a s i s o f 0-nqhbs i n P such t h a t Uk+UkLUk-l and each Uk i s c l o s e d and a s o l u t e l y convex.cJand [ d ..d i m n s i o n a l and separable.sn).k=1. hence each Pn( E ) has a s e p a r a b l e i n f i n i 1 1. l ) . q i n c e EkCEk( 1) and k( 1)) p.t) Indeed. P . .tk):k=l. .Z.). Set Fn:=P. P-'(O) =(fl(P:-'(O):ki .2.t) be a Frechet space which s o l i t s i n t o i n f i n i t e l y such t h a t each (Mn. L e t V be a c l o s e d a b s o l u t e l y convex 9-nghb i n (Eo. By s t a n d a r d arguments.) such t h a t an( cn c dn< bn f o r each n.-'(Gn) a p r o p e r dense subspace Gn which i s s t r i c t l y dominated by a Fr6chet Endow each Ek w i t h a Fr6chet t o p o l o g y tk h a v i n g as b a s i s o f O-n@bs t h e s e t s {EkT\UT\(n(Pn-l(Vn):n=k.2. s i n c e VAF EknUA(A(P.( 0 ) :s=k( 1) . Set P f o r t h e r e s t r i c t i o n o f Z ( P : k S n L . Pn(f)(x):=f(x) &.t) space (Gn. C l e a r l y . F o r ( E . hence U n P .o) : U b e i n g a 0-ncJb i n ( E . t h e p r o j e c t i o n s c o n s t r u c te-dimensional q u o t i e n t . (Eo.9: L e t (E. F u r t h e r n < p ) ) T \ E k . p) t o Ek. t ) and Yn a 0-nghb i n ( G n Y s n ) i ..8 and Ek:=r\(Fn:n=k. n ( A ( Ps..2.. .. l e t f o r p=1.CHAPTER 8 313 ( [cn. t ) :=Lp( 0 . b ..) n dimensional q u o t i e n t ..tk( 1 ) ) .2. p ( 1 ) ) ) CV. Choose k( 1 ) ) p and. .) i s a s t r i c t l y i n c r e a s i n ? sequence o f subspaces and each tk+l induces on E k a c o a r s e r t o o o l o q y t h a n tk. ( y ) = P . t ) such t h a t .):j=l. D e f i n e p r o i e c t i o n s i f x ( [ c n y d n ~ ... t ) i s n o t b a r r e l l e d . l ) . ] .. t ) such t h a t Ek(l)nUIA(r\(Pn-l(0):n=k( l ) . t h e r e e x i s t s p( 1)) k( 1) and a 0-nqhb lJ1 i n ( E .dn]:n=l. For f i x e d b .. .7.k+l k( 1) i s a 0-nghb i n (Ek( 1) . t ) : (E. t ) c o n t a i n s a p r o p e r dense subspace which i s a (LF)-space.). t h e s e r i e s converges -1 i n Uk. ( x ) = x ( j ) c G hence t h e c o n c l u s i o n .6. one has t h a t Ulr\ P( Ek) C E n U .p 7 t e d as above y i e l d t h e d e s i r e d r e s u l t .-'(0):n=k.. . such t h a t x(p) . t ) (Hn. choose x(p) i n G F o r each j .s) i s a (LF)-space and s i s f i n e r t h a n t on Eo. Each Pn(E) : = l i n e a r f u n c t i o n on i s isomorphic t o C ( O .?. .. 2 . i f ( U : p = 1 . By 4. (Ek:k=1. We a r e done i f we show t h a t y E E 1 = r \ ( P .p( 1))) k( 1) m r e . J J J jy Now s e t (Eo. hence y € x + U k . t h e r e i s p > k and a O-n$b and f i x k . Since J J L! i n ( E .. B y 4. x € E .3.) a p r o p e r dense t h e r e e x i s t s i n each f o r a l l n. Proof: L e t (Pn:n=1. ( x ) + x ( j ) . . .P i ( x ) ) .k+l..s) V n E k is a 0-nghb i n ( E k Y t k ) . Theorem 8.l ( O )1 C V .

2 . ) i s dense in ( E / H . t ) i s not b a r r e l l e d and the conclusion follows from 4 . f i s i n j e c t i v e : Indeed. i f nJ 00 .)=:G i s a proper dense subspace of ( E . t h e r e e x i s t s a biorthoqmal sequence ( d n ) . Set Q : E + E / H f o r the canonical s u r j e c t i o n . I f Fn i s t h e closure of Fn i n ( E .sn):n=1. t ) and definp f:l'-E by wans of f ( a ) : = q a ( n ) b ( n ) x ( n ) f o r a : = ( a ( n ) : n = 1 ..2. is Proof: To Drove s u f f i c i e n c y suopose t h a t (F. a BAIRE category arquwnt shows t h a t F i s dense P i n ( E . .314 CV.7.. Thus G = E .d i m n s i o n a l . t ) .5.) a proper (LF)-sr)ace.7.1. Observation 8. 6 .s):=ind((Fn. t ) i s rretrizable. 5 ) o r s t r i c t l y dominated by Frechet spaces ( a . ( b ) 2.10: Non-conplete norned (LF)-spaces e x i s t in abundance. t ) .8 and 4. u ( n ) )such t h a t sp( x ( n ) : n = 1 . 5 .7. t h e conclusion follows applying 4. t ) be b a r r e l l e d .12 t o obtain t h a t Fr = G f o r some r s i n c e ( G .t) i s obvious.16 shows t h a t every non-nornable Frechet space has a separable infinite-dinensional q u o t i e n t . t ) i s assured t o he a F r k h e t space having a q u o t i e n t which i s separable and s p l i t s i n t o i n f i n i t e l y nany p a r t s by mans of our l i f t i n g procedure 8. . ( E . t ) has a separable infinite-dimensional Q u o t i e n t i f and only i f t h e r e e x i s t s a proper dense subspace G s t r i c t l y dominated by a proper normd (LF)space ( G . 8 ) .2. O n the o t h e r hand. Proposition 8. Conversely.. 2 . By our previous arguments.2. t ) f o r each n . /I Corollary 8. one has 1 2-1(UnP-1(0)) + 2. D P In the second case. 1 .2.(1!. . we would aoply 8. Since P-'(O) BARRELLED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES t h a t !4 := and P ( E C ) a r e topological complemnts i n ( E k . ) i s bounded in ( F / H .. By 2 . t ) from where t h e conclusion follows. t ) and nroperly contained f o r s o m p . .AP(Ek)) CV and i t i s a 0-nghb in ( E k . 3 .3. t ) . ..11: ( a ) 8. Moreover. S h o u l d ( G . I n t h e f i r s t case. t ) such t h a t ( F / H .) = E o r d(Fn:n=1.6. Next we provide a f u r t h e r c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n in t e r m of proper dense subsoaces dorm'nated by (LF)-spaces.12: Let ( E . t ) .6.. . N t ) i s separable and i n f i n i t e . ( G . s ) .. S e l e c t o o s i t i v e s c a l a r s ( b ( n ) : d n=1.) such t h a t ( b ( n ) x ( n ) : n = 1 . 3 .. a c o n t r a d i c t i o n .9 renains t r u e i f ( E . we s t a t e i t i n the context of Banach spaces. Since F i s s t r i c t l y dominated P by a Frechet space ( F . t h e existence of such quotients i s equivalent t o the existence of proper dense subspaces which a r e not b a r r e l l e d ( 4 . The c o n t i n u i t y of f : l 1 +(E. suppose t h a t H i s a closed subspace of ( E . then u(Fn:n=1. 2 . 6 .7. t ) be an infinite-dirrensional Banach soace.2. ) €1'.7.

8 4.2. Whether t h e r e c i p r o c a l i s t r u e i s unknown t o U S . a p p l y u ( i ) t o a n n i h i l a t e a ( i ) f o r each i. // O b s e r v a t i o n 8..2.7. ) n o f subspaces h a v i n g p r o p e r c l o s u r e s i n E such t h a t some subsequence i s a . l2 and 1' i s s e p a r a h l e and 8. i f E i s a (LF)l-space. t ) . ( b ) s i n c e lc0 has a q u o t i e n t i s o m r p h i c t o s p l i t s i n t o i n f i n i t e l y m n y p a r t s (8.1: s i n p l y a (LF)i-space) A p r o p e r (LF)-space E i s s a i d t o be o f t y p e (i) (or i f i t s a t i s f i e s t h e c o n d i t i o n ( i ) below.7.5. G:=Q-'(F) i s a p r o p e r dense subspace o f rJ s = r on M/H=N.8 Completions and q u o t i e n t s o f (LF)-spaces. a c o n t r a d i c t i o n ..T) h i s a p r o p e r dense subspace N s t r i c t l y dominated b y (N. C l e a r l y .7. Thus (E/H..s) (M.r) (F.8(a)). .r):=l'.1.7.2.4.. s i n c e F i s a p r o p e r dense subspace o f ( E / H .11(a) shows t h a t loo i s 8.).2: any p r o p e r (LF)-space belongs t o one and o n l y one then E be a d e f i - t y p e : Indeed..12 shows t h a t Er i s dense i n E f o r some r.7.13: ( a ) we have a l r e a d y seen t h a t a Fr6chet space E has a separable i n f i n i t e . C o n s t r u c t a sequence ( F :n=1. i s n o t m e t r i z a b l e .2 and n n 1 t o c o n s t r u c t on M:=Q.) n i n g sequence none o f whose nenbers i s dense i n E. 3 : (1) E has a d e f i n i n a sequence none o f whose nernbers i s dense i n E ( 2 ) E i s n o t n e t r i z a b l e and has a d e f i n i n g sequence each o f whose menbers i s dense i n E ( 3 ) E i s metrizable. 8.s) such i s a (LF)-space. i t i s enough t o show t h a t . D e f i n i t i o n 8.. 8.. 2 . The r e v e r s e i m p l i c a t i o n i s a l s o t r u e : l e t E be a (LF)-snace covered b y an i n c r e a s i n g sequence o f r a r e subspaces.) i s a normed (LF)-space. t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f a s u i t a b l e (LF)-space. Suppose E r r e t r i z a b l e and l e t (En:n=1. Since E=U(En:n=3.7. t h e r e e x i s t s a p r o p e r dense subspace F i n (N.CHAPT€R 8 0 315 x a ( n ) b ( n ) x ( n ) = 0. t h a t (G.( N ) a F r 6 c h e t t o o o l o g y s such t h a t s = t on H and B y 8.5 N Accordinq t o such t h a t and 8.r ):n=l. t ) . I n o r d e r t o c h a r a c t e r i z e ( LF)'-spaces.r)=ind((F . i = 1 .9. f i r s t observe t h a t ( LF)l-spaces a r e b a r r e l l e d spaces covered b y an i n c r e a s i n g sequence o f r a r e subspaces.d i n e n s i o n a l q u o t i e n t i f c o n t a i n s a p r o p e r dense subsnace which i s an (LF)-space.Z. A l l (LF)-spaces here a r e assumed t o be H a u s d o r f f . Now a p n l y 2.8.2.8. O b s e r v a t i o n 8. F i s a p r o p e r dense subsnace o f ( E .

. . K(N) and complemented i n F.2.v(n)) =1. i s b a r r e l l e d . .2. . a s t a n d a r d arclument shows t h a t each K 7'- i s c o n p l e t e i n 1'-. t h e n F i s i s o - =) ( H x K ( " ) . Z .) i s a (LF)l- space. t ) <x(n). v ( n ) > = O i f yCFn. Z .) F=ind( ( Fn. Yince S u i t a b l e h o m t e t i c s o f t h e b a l l s cover lD-.3.5: Let D be a p o s i t i v e i n t e q r and ( p ( n ) : n = l . F = H x K ' ~ ) = H x ( K ( ~ ) x K ( ~ ) 'I='' m a n s i s o m r p h i s v and H i s a t o p o l o g i c a l complement o f a K ( ~ ) i n F.2.20 show t h a t lPi s complete. BARRELLED LOCALLY COPIVEX SPACES E and you a r e done.1. 1'- I f Kn i s t h e c l o s e d u n i t b a l l o f l p ( n ) . Since t h e c a n o n i c a l p r o j e c t i o n s on t h e c o o r d i n a t e s a r e continuous. Moreover. 2.316 d e f i n i n o sequence f o r P r o p o s i t i o n 8. s t e p c o n t a i n s a l g e b r a i c a l l y K ( N ) and hence 1D. i n j e c t i v e . c o n t i n u o u s and s a t i s f i e d ToS = J .8.. . ) C l e a r l y .2. ) . // O b s e r v a t i o n 8. J b e i n g A c c o r d i n g t o ti.6.4 and 8. o f T t o each ( F n . L e t G be a t o p o l o g i c a l conplement o f H i n F and l e t ( ~ ( n ) : H.) be a b a s i s o f and comf o r each n. 8.v(n)> :n=1.Define which i s l i n e a r and s u r - b y m a n s o f T(x):=( <x. Exarrple 8. S t r i c t (LF)-spaces a r e ( L F ) p a c e s .8. suopose n n t h a t F i s t h e u n i o n o f t h e i n c r e a s i n g sequence ( F :n=1.1... 1'- a strictly i n c r e a s i n g sequence o f r e a l nunbers c o n v e r g i n g t o p such t h a t 1 < p ( n ) < p f o r each n.. Since t h e r e s t r i c t i o n i s continuous.2. . x K ( ~ ) = m r p h i c t o F x K ' ~ ) : Indeed. where ( a ) i f F c o n t a i n s K(N) c o v l e v e n t e d ..8. each H i s c l o s e d i n F and F = u ( H : n = l ..3.. . Conversely. < y . A c c o r d i n g t o 4.. L e t F be a b a r r e l l e d space. a c c o r d i n g t o 8.) o f proper c l o n sed subspaces such t h a t v e c t o r s x(n) CFn+l\Fn and continuous l i n e a r f o r m v ( n ) on F can be s e l e c t e d w i t h T:F-+K") j e c t i v e .8.3: conplemented. t b e i n g t h e F d e f i n e d by S ( T ( x ( n ) ) ) : = x ( n ) S(K(N)) i s isomorphic t o o r i g i n a l t o p o l o g y on F. .).. . plemented i n F. Set Ho:=G and H n : = s p ( G V ( x ( l ) . Set 1D-:=ind(lP(n):n=1. f o r each n i s l i n e a r . $ 7 .. one has t h a t T i s continuous.t):n=1. . i s a (LBI-space and each i s Hausdorff. (b) i f E i s any (LF)-space.i s a (LB)2-space.2. F i s n o t t h e union of an i n c r e a s i n g sequence o f r a r e subspaces ifand o n l y i f F does n o t c o n t a i n K( N ) P r o o f : Suppose t h a t F c o n t a i n s a subspace H isomorphic t o K(') n=1. x ( n ) ) C l e a r l y .2. ) . Prop.4: FxK"'). The mapping S:K(N)+ t h e i d e n t i t y on K(N). E x K ( ~ )= i n d ( @KxEin=1.

N o w w e s h a l l provide an exanple o f a non-complete (LB)?-space whose comp l e t i o n i s a (LB)-space.2y..15.3 t o show t h a t . i f Fn:=( E n . .6 we constructed a n o n . 4 ( b ) .8. ) .t)=ind((En. ) . ) be a complete (LF)2-soace. .s p a c e ( E . . . s i n c e s t r i c t (LF)-spaces a r e comnlete. 8 .= ind(KNxlP(n):n=1. .8. t ) i s not a (LF)-space. 3 . The s t r o n o dual of a d i s t i n y i s h e d Fr6chet space w i t h a continuous norm i s a l s o a complete (LB)2-space. t n ) N . 3 ( i i ) ) . Exanple 8. 6 ( i i ) would inply t h e e x i s t e n c e of n u h e r s p ( j l ) d p ( j 2 ) < o ( j 3 ) ( p such t h a t 1 p ( s 2 ) and lP('3) induce the s a m topology on l P ( j l ) .6: (1) A complete (LF)l-space which is not a s t r i c t (LF)space: Set E : = l P . ( 2 ) A non-conplete (LF)l-space which i s not a s t r i c t (LF)-space: Let F be any non-conplete (LF)-space and set E:=FxK("). .r e y l a r ( a n d hence non-conplete) Hausdorff ( E ) . Apply 8. a c o n t r a d i c t i o n . t k ) : k = 1 . t ) N i s t h e inductive l i w i t of ( F n : n = 1 . E i s not a (L8)-space because otherwise 8 .s t r i c t . According t o 8.7: A conplete (LF)2-space which i s not a (L8)-space: Set E:= KNxlP. Set G:=FxK("). Since each E n i s dense i n ( E . 2 . t ) N . ( 2 ) The completion o f a (LF)l-space needs not be a (LF)-space: Take F as N t h e non-complete ( LF)2-space constructed above whose conpletion ( E . ( i i ) Each E k i s dense i n ( E . T h i s l a s t space i s not a (LF)-space.18) and hence E is not w t r i z a h l e . t k ) = c o ( l / a k ) w i t h a k ( i .i s a conplete (LB)2-space. ? . a contradiction N t o the mininality of K . 2 .. t ) " x K ( N ) .tn):n=l.5: (1) The conpletion of a (LF)2-space needs not be a ( L F ) space: Let (E. 1'. E i s conplete and a l s o a ( L F ) l space due t o 8 . t h e conplete space ( E . ) provided w i t h the topology induced by ( E .7. 4 .d N ) . . j ) =ijf i ( k and a k ( i .2. 2 . According t o 8.CHAPTER 8 317 Exarples 8. . t ) . t ) N and hence F i s N dense i n ( E .) f o r some sequence ( p ( n ) : n = l . j ) = l otherwise. .8. Again F i s a non-complete (LF)l-space and hence n o n . then F n : n = 1 .5.5. i t i s not n e t r i z a b l e (8. In 7. Exanples 8. . E i s not a s t r i c t (LF)-space because i f i t ~ e r e ~ S . Thus E i s a (LF)2-space.8. each Fn i s dense i n ( E .4. G i s a (LF)l-sDace whose conpletion i s ( E . t ) s i n c e K ( N ) i s contained i n E l . According t o 8 . t ) = i n d ( ( E k . Since 1'is a (LB)-space. s i n c e (LF)-spaces a r e s t a b l e by q u o t i e n t s ( 7 . ) such t h a t ( i ) ( E k . . 6 ( i i ) N w i l l irrply the existence of a coarser norm topology on K .3. 4 ( b ) . 8 . 4 . t ) i s not a F:=u( (LF)-space.

Z. . 2 . j ) f o r a l l and a l l j.318 BAR RE L L ED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES Thus ( E . ) such t h a t [ u ( i ( p ) .v C 2 . t ) . . we g i v e t h e f o l l o w i n a Exanple 8. hence P' bounded i n ( E . ACpF Thus A Cpfi. j ) : = u ( i y j ) f o r i=l.E): Indeed. there i s v:=(v(i.20.F')) i s comA P A non-conplete ( LB)2-space whose c o p l e t i o n i s a (LS)-sna- i s one o f i t s t o p o l o g i c a l subspaces. t ) p l e t e and ( E . 2 .. .j=l.) and t h e r e f o r e and t h e r e f o r e (E".29 shows t h a t t h e b o r n 2 l o g i c a l space (E". j ( p ) ) l ) r (E'.. f o r sow i n d e x D . b ( E ' ..Z. I f t h e c l a i K i s t r u e . :p=l..b(E".b(E". t ) i s a (LB)2-space. Set A:=(v.b(E". hence every bounded s e t o f E i s i n f i . A f t e r these p r e l i m i n a r i e s . Since E L w __________________ Proof o f the clairr: L e t u : = ( u ( i .. f i x k and I t i s enough t o show t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a such t h a t A i s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e c l o s u r e 'FJi o f PI i n K being the closure i n (E. j ( p ) ) : = l . (E". ) 0 converqes t o z e r o o f positive integers v(i. 2 . coincides with b(E'. F ) ) = (E'.5.E")) and ( j ( p ) : p = 1 .E')) contains (E.. L e t v P E E ' be d e f i n e d by A i s bounded i n i f i # i ( p ) . . t h e p r o o f o f 8. b ( E ' .8. ( E k .E')x) in ce . bounded s e t ?1 o f (Ek. j = l . Since MCE1.dE'. i s r e g u l a r .)..n+2. h E i s b o r n o l o g i c a l . j ) : i .j):i. ) A /- i s c o n t a i n e d i n E" t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r m such t h a t u & 1 ( l / a ? i and j . ... E ' ) ) . j ) l & h a m ( i .Z. i t s s t r o n g dual ( E ' . k " Thus E = i n d ( l m ( l / a ) n E : k=1. F i r s t .j):=O u n i f o r m l y i n j. sow 1co( l / a r ) .t) (E.E')x) k i s isomorphic t o i n d ( l a ( l / a :k=l.E")) i s i s o 1 k nwrohic t o p r o j ( 1 ( a ):k=l.. Set u n ( i .t) o f the closed u n i t P' P b a l l K o f ( E . .t ) . t ) .. t h e c o r m l e t i o n E o f A i s contained i n E".).. Since u eE. ( i v ) F o r each k .t).Z. t ) ) l e t A be a bounded s e t o f ( E . o u r z o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s : Indeed.) and t h a t i s a (LR)-sDabe a v e c t o r o f E . o t h e r w i s e we f i n d a o o s i t i v e numher r and s t r i c t l y f o r each p .) i n E such t h a t u . \ j # j ( p ) and v ( i ( p ) . By 8.2. Since (E".7. fi Claim: E i s l o c a l l y dense i n E.t) and c l e a r l y ? L3.2. Indeed. a c c o r d i n g t o 6. and hence a p o s i t i v e s c a l a r h can be found such t h a t I u ( i .. h ( E " . .t) as t h e (LB)-space nentioned above. Moreover. we check t h a t t h e sequence ( u ( i y j ) : i y j = l .n and :=0 f o r i=n+l.m(E'. t ) ' .r A " i s a u-nghb i n ( E " . ( i i i ) I f E ' : = ( E . Take ( E . 2 .. 1 P and hence u+2. M i s bounded i n (El.b(E".t) as a t o p o l o g i c a l subspace. ) i n c r e a s i n g sequence ( i ( p ) : p = l . . .1r A " and hence .. t ) (E. .9: ce. Set M f o r t h e s e t o f a l l s e c t i o n s o f P P P every vector o f K M i s c o n t a i n e d i n K(N) and bounded i n ( E P ' t D \ . On t h e o t h e r hand.5.

) = i n d ( ( F n / ( E n A G ) . . 2 . 2 .:) i s i s o m r p h i c t o a q u o t i e n t of a Frechet space ( E . n . j ) : = j f o r i = l .. f o r every 0-nc-hb U i n (E . Thus S=S.?) i s i s o m r p h i c t o an i n f i n i t e . t ) . t n ) : n = l . 2 O ( i ) apolied t o the i d e n t i t y gives t h e e x i s tence of a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r p such t h a t Q ( E ) i s enbedded i n Q ( E ) from where P our conclusion follows. j ( p ) ) \ > r . r ) P D i s a hommrphisrn and hence. t ) f o r every 0-nghb IJ of ( E r . . t ) : ( i ) (E/G. t n ) : n = l . j ) .r/2 = r/2. 2 . (E/G.. On the o t h e r h a n d . . t ) d ( E / G . our former a r g u m n t shows t h a t Q : ( E . .. n + 2 . ) . b ( E " .j)=O i f i = n + l . b ( E " .?) = ind((Q(En). Moreover. p u t G:=(x&E": x ( i . j = l . Since ( u ( i . j = 1 . 2 . Clearly. . The proof i s finished i f we check t h a t each un belonps t o E.. j ) : i . F i x n and s e t L : = ( x C E : x ( i . given b > O t h e r e e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r n > IT. E ' ) ) . .( O ( U ) ) = U+G i s a O-n+b in ( E . t ) and ( i i i ) follows. E ' ) ) i s isok ):k=l. j ) = O i f i = n + l . ? ) . .r and hence l v ( i ( P ) . j ) l / a m ( i . t ) and (i) holds. .2. j =1. i f ( i i ) holds. . ) converges t o u i n loo(l/am) and hence converges l o c a l l y i n ( E " . First. j ( p ) ) . j ) \ : i = n o .. . . t r ) Proof: I f ( i ) holds. Conversely. < e a r e done i f ( E . Hence ( u : n = 1 . . j ) = O i f i = l .. t ) = ind(( E n .. 1 3 ( i ) and hence (E/G. t ) = ( S . . t h e closure taken in ( E . Taking now f l : ( E .t ) . t ) 4 ( E / G . n ) and 5:=(x&E: x(i.v ( i ( p ) .) b .T) i s a Fr6chet space. and hence i s o m r p h i c t o loo.CHAPTER 8 319 1 l u ( i ( p ) . .n sup( I u ( i . 3 ( i i ) . c k ( i .2. t ) s i n c e E i s norrral and hence E = S @ L . . j ) l < b f o r i>. t ) @ ( L .( E / G . Therefore Q i s a homomrphismby 7 . .. j = 1 . t ) i s isomorphic t o co. n o + l . P. 1 . . N o w we s h a l l deal with separable infinite-dinensional quotients. . . t ) . j ( p ) ) [ S 2. ) = 0) n s u p ( [ u ( i . Q. ) .Tn):n=1.). ) i s again a (LF)-space by 7 . i s a 0-nghb i n ( E .. ? ) . The following conditions a r e equivalent f o r a Hausdorff ( E . Thus ( v / a n ) i s not a n u l l sequence f o r each n and t h a t i s a contradiction since vCE. j ) \ / i A =0) and t h e r e f o r e ( S .no and 8 each j . ) and l e t Q:E--+E/G be the canonical s u r j e c t i o n . 1 .2. such t h a t l u ( i . and k= mrphic to ind(lPO(c 1. On the o t h e r hand.u ( i . Z .d i m n s i o n a l Frechet space ( i i ) t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r p such t h a t Q ( E ) = Q ( E ) P( i i i ) t h e r e e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r r such t h a t lJ+G. observe t h a t ( G .10: Let G be a closed subsoace o f a (LF)-space ( E . Iv then Q : ( E . n + Z ..Z. 2 . . . s i n c e u n C S . 3 . O ( I f ) i s a O . . . M w e show t h a t S *'?.. t ) i s a continuous l i n e a r mpping from a Frechet space P P onto a b a r r e l l e d space. S = ( x & G : l i m l x ( i . ) converges t o zero uniformly f o r J . j ) : i . . (E/G. . . P P If ( i i ) i s s a t i s f i e d .n m b 1 P O in ( E / G . A " / \ Proposition 8. . For n>.Thus ( i ) implies ( i i ) . .8. 2 .

Thus.320 BARRELLED LOCALLY CONVEX SPACES rJ F i n a l l y . Q -1 (Q(11)) = U+G i s a Q-nphb i n ( E .8. t h e r e e x i s t s a sequence o f nunbers (p(n):n=1. Indeed. suppose t h a t F/H is an i n f i n i t e . That means t h a t . i f f o r sow c l o s e d subspace F... 1 O ( i i ) $ t h e r e i s an i n d e x s such t h a t l P .Th. t r ) N i s B-complete. i s a (!B)2-space ( b ) lPno q u o t i e n t o f which i s an i n f i n i t e .8.d i m e n s i o n a l . t ) is L e t (E.. and hence t h e r e e x i s t s an a b s o l u t e l y convex 0-nghb TI i n (Elytl) TIi s not . a contradiction. 2 . P r o o f : We my suppose t h a t ( E . such t h a t i s a FrPchet space.8. t h e r e e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r r such t h a t ?(Fr)=O(F).?) U i n (Er..) o f a FS-sDace w i t h a continuous n LB l2-space.$15. T h a t i s Q(U) = Q(U) i s a 0-nghb i n (E/G.7). hence Er+G = E. l p . /F = i n d ( l P ( n ) / F :n=1. 1 2 ) ..d i m e n s i o n a l my be a s s u n 4 dense i n ( E .d i m e n s i o n a l FrPchet space: Indeed.. norm i s a ( c ) t h e s t r o n a dual F=ind(F :n=1.' = 1 = -1 ( s e e BANACH. each ( l p/( n Fn ) I Y and hence each l P ( n ) / F n .3.2. s i n c e N Q( C z Q(U) = Q(U) and s i n c e 0 i s open. suppose t h a t ( i i i ) i s s a t i s f i e d and s e t O:E + E / G f o r t h e r e s t yu r w r i c t i o n o f Q t o Er .2.tr)+ (E/G. ) be a (LFI3-space..Ch. T h a t i s . Then f o r i n d i c e s n and r. // O b s e r v a t i o n 8. T h e r e f o r e G(Er)=Q(Er)=Q(E) and ( i i ) i s s a t i s f i e d . t ) ( s e e 8 . t ) . Since ( E . t ) n e t r i z a b l e and b a r r e l l e d . t ) has a q u o t i e n t i s o m o r p h i c t o a separable i n f i n i t e .d i m e n s i o n a l q u o t i e n t which i s a Frechet space. ! i i s o f f i n i t e dimension k h incomparab e l i n e a r dirrension o f lq(n) and lQ(r). El Since (El.Prop7).tn):n=1./ F i s an i n f i n i t e dimensional Frgchet space. f o r each i n d e x n. hence Q i s open o n t o i t s i m g e . Accordin!: t o 5. and o u r hyN - p o t h e s i s i l r p l i e s t h a t Q i s n e a r l y open o n t o i t s i m o e . Then F/H i s a Banach space and a l s o a Schwartz space ( HY3.tl) i s a n r o e e r (LF)-space. B u t ( E r .10( i i ) . Q:(Er.( l). Then F does n o t have an i n f i n i t e .11: ( a ) K(N) i s a (LF)l-space which does n o t have an i n f i n i t e . where p ( r ) .t) i s continuous. 8 .2. I P .t)=ind((En.) 7.12: FrPchet space. f o r e v e r y O-n@h Since Q i s continuous. P r o p o s i t i o n 8.d i w n s i o n a l FrPchet space f o r sow c l o s e d subseace H o f F and l e t Q:F-+ F / H be t h e c a n o n i c a l s u r j e c t i o n . ( E l y t ) cannot be b a r r e l l e d .) w i t h F n : = F A I D ( n ) f o r each n ( s e e such t h a t lPn A c c o r d i n g t o 8 .tr). C l e a r l y .XII.d i m e n s i o n a l q u o t i e n t which i s a FrPchet space. hence f i n i t e .2./ F i s o f f i n i t e dimenp( n)-'+q( n sion k.' + q ( r ) . Then ( E . i f t h i s i s n o t t h e case.3(ii)). one has F$ FrLy whzre " = " means here i s o m r p h i s m = (lP(n)/Fn)l = (lp(r)/Fr)'= the ./ F = l p ( s ) / F .

is a O-n$h in B y recurrence. Then t o p o l o g y on E such t h a t ( E . t ) and a bounded s e t A o f ( E t ) such t h a t rJ P' D i s separable and i n f i n i t e .. Since ( E . As i n t h e p r o o f o f 4. i s n o t a 0-nghb i n (€. such t h a t G A E j t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e i n t e g e r j>. t h e r e e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e o e r b such t h a t P + U 3 fr + Ll 3 7 + IJ f o r V r u n n i n ? through P' D t ).2. // P r o p o s i t i o n 8.8. (E..t2).t2).t ) .. (G+h) L _ _ - a b a s i s o f 0-nghbs i n (E2. Thus. Since (Flyt) i s n o t b a r r e l l e d . f a i l s t o be t r u e .) o f r a r e a b s o l u t e l y convex s e t s . Vn+l:=Vn+acx(x(n)). 1 hence G+I!.3. t ) i f we show t h a t (E/G.3. Suppose t h a t no such q u o t i e n t e x i s t s . Thus. t ) . I f ( E .. ) (E. ( I n p a r t i c u l a r .t) P' P Set G:=sp(V) and G i s a p r o p e r dense subsoace o f P i s dense i n ( E . F1 i s o f uncountable co- dirrension i n E (4.2.t) has a separable q u o t i e n t w h i c h i s i n f i n i t e . (E.d i n . claim :There W. s n ) : n = l y Z y .. s ) : = i n d ( ( E n . such t h a t Vl:=V and < x ( i ) . f o r each n.) x(n)cUn\sp(Vn) and (f(n):n=1. (E.) w i t h t h e J 3 .d i n .) sumrmtive p r o p e r t y U n + + lU n + l b e i n a a b a s i s o f 0-nghbs i n CUn f o r each n.. Since ( E .5 (x(n):n=1. (Un:n=l. t ) i n (E2. f o r i = n and =O f o r i >n. t ) DO- does n o t c o n t a i n a c o n p l e m n t e d copy o f K ( N ) y we a o p l y 8.). c l o s u r e taken i n ( E .p in E j* i s o f i n f i n i t e codinension Now we proceed as we d i d i n 4. .6) and hence t h e r e e x i s t s a p o s i t i v e i n t e q r p).+T n :n=1. The c l a i m f o l l o w s TICG+A and ( E / G . 8 . i s o f uncountable codimension i n E .. hence T1 - such t h a t f o r every I f t h e c l a i n . l O ( i i i ) .2 such i s or' i n f i n i t e codinension i n ( F .2. E can be covered by t h e i n c r e a s i n g u n i o n o f t h e sequence (T1+T2+ .) . t h e s e t + T2.t) i s n o t b a r r e l P s ) whose c l o s u r e i n (E..t) l e d .13: L e t (E.5.6. we a o p l y 8.t)' t o o b t a i n sequences (vn:n=1. t ) .. t h e r e i s an a b s o l u t e l y convex O-n@b i n ( E which. f ( n ) ) = l .12 t o g e t a c o n t r a d i c t i o n .n a b T2 i n ( F 2 .3 t o o b t a i n a s i t i v e i n t e g e r p such t h a t E i s n o t a 0-nghb i n ( E . i s a O-n@b i n ( E . has e v e r y ( H a u s d o r f f ) (LF)-space has an i n f i n i t e .s. t ) i s a m t r i z a b l e b a r r e l l e d space. t h e r e s u l t i s i m d i a t e . t 2 ) T1 + T2 .e n s i o n a l separable Q u o t i e n t ) .8..2.O-nghb t h a t FII\E e x i s t s an a b s o l u t e l y convex 0 .. t ) . Tl + 14 i s a O-n@b i n ( E . Fl:=sp(T1) i s a p r o p e r dense subspace o f ( E . f(n)(Vnoc(E. t ) . a c c o r d i n g t o 4. A c c o r d i n g t o 8 .t). t ) .t) and t h e c l a i m f o l l o w s . 1 G+(l+b)ll.2. G+( l+b)U 3 Since A i s bounded i n ( E .t) be a b a r r e l l e d space and l e t s be a f i n e r i s a (LF)-space.6.t) K(") complemented.?) i s a F r e c h e t space.2..6. P P P f i n d a c l o s e d subspace G o f ( E .t ) ..e.d i r r e n s i o n a l . Then. Proof: I f (E.e n s i o n a l . t ) f o r e v e r y 0-nQlb Ll i n ( E it is enough t o show t h a t = ACbU. the a 0-nghb i n ( E .CHAPTER 8 321 i.

many a u t h o r s have c o n s i d e r e d weak b a r r e l l e d n e s s c o n d i t i o n s .( 11). 9 ) . ‘loreover. WNWER d e f i n e d t h e s i x e d t o p o l o g y y ( s .) b a r r e l l e d spaces were i n t r o d u c e d by !*IEBB .) a finite-codimensional (E. w h i c h i s due t o 1-IAELBROECK.1. where L!.t) turns t o be l o c a l l y convex if s and t a r e l o c a l l y convex. 3 . 21).(4) who i n i t i a t e d i t s s y s t e m t i c s t u d y .2. An e x t e n s i o n o f q e n e r a l i z e d i n d u c t i v e t o n o l o q i e s t o a r b i t r a r y t o p o l o g i c a l l i n e a r spaces can be found i n TURPIN.f(l)) . z(s. If s and t a r e l i n e a r t o p o l o o i e s on a l i n e a r space F.( 1).ROELCKE.1.tn):n=1.1.( 1) .(l). hence i n ( E . A b s o r b i n g and b o r n i v o r o u s sequences o f a b s o l u t e l y convex s e t s were c o n s i dered by VI?LDIVIA. The t r e a t r e n t o f t ( a ) was c o n t i n u e d b y RIIESS.( q u a s i . I/ be a (LF)-space. ( 1). I f F i s a finite-codirrensional hence subsoace o f E.t) i s a p r o p e r (LF)-space. 8. GROTHENDIECK i n t r o d u c e d (OF)-spaces i n o r d e r t o g e n e r a l i z e p r o p e r t i e s shared b y s t r o n q d u a l s o f F r 6 c h e t spaces ( 8 ..( 1). 3 . The s t u d y of g e n e r a l i z e d i n d u c t i v e l i p i t t o o o l o g i e s as d e f i n e d i n 8 . I n t h i s fundarrental a r t i c l e . Proof: Sufficiency i s c l e a r by 7 .1 -(y+ z a ( i ) x ( i ) . ( 1).) b a r r e l l e d spaces were t r e a t e d i n DE WILDE e t a l t .322 Define i n d u c t i v e l y a(l):= BARREL LED LOCAL L Y CON VEX SPACES M-4 - (y. . t ) as t h e t o n o l o q y whose 0-nchbs b a s i s i s aiven h v Unr.DOSTAL.( 1).(4) i n o r d e r t o i n c l u d e and comprehend t h e mixed t o n o l o o i e s o f WIWEGER. E a r l i e r e x a m l e s o f countab l e i n d u c t i v e l i w i t s o f snaces endowed w i t h t h e t r i v i a l t o p o l o 3 y can be seen i n R@3ERT.( 1) .t)=ind((Fn.1 a( i ) x ( i ) converges a b s o l u t e l y t o s o w z i n ( E .12 were d i s c o v e r e d by W IN EGER .14: L e t (E. . 8.( 1).FLORET. 8.6. If P r o p o s i t i o n 8. . We f i n i s h t h e p r o o f as i n 4. the r e s u l t i s i m d i a t e . f(n)) f o r each i.9 Notes and remarks. 1 was i n i t i a t e d b y GAI?LIMG.( 1) and was irml i c i t e l y c o n s i d e r e d b y GROTHFNDIECK.\(n\l+U(n)).SCtWARTZ.(4).24 a r e t a k e n f r o i n RUESS.6.1. each En i s o f i n f i n i t e codirrension i n E i f ( E . B IERSTEDT.1. /I 8. ( 11) and i t s p r o o f and f o r m u l a t i o n i s t a k e n f r o m R U E S .GARLING. a(n):= .. t ) = K(N). If( E . t i s c o a r s e r t h a n T ( s .5. t ) and t a y e e on t h e s-bounded s u b s e t s o f F.( 11) and LFVIN. t ) .( 2 ) and ROELCKE. .( 4 ) .) b a r r e l l e d space appears f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e i n HIISAIN. c g .( 4 ) . .( q u a s i . F i s n o t c o n t a i n e d i n any En.( 23) and DE WILDE. a). 1 . s .( q u a s i .24 and t h o s e r e s u l t s Given a t t h e b e g i n i n o o f 8 .15.( 2 ) .( Several a r t i c l e s and surveys have s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d o u r p r e s e n t a t i o n : 4) and RIIFSS.8.1. 1 a r e due t o GARLING.27 i s due t o ROELCKF.18 and 8. ) .( 3 ) ( 8 .HOUET.1. The t o p o l o q y t ( C L ) as d e f i n e d h e r e appears i n RnELCKE.( 1) e x t e n d i n g t h e i d e a s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e s e w i n a l paoer o f DIEUDONNE. t ) and r ( s .( 2 ) . The c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s f r o m 8. t ) # K ( N ) . t ) .( 1).25 i s due t o DE UILDF e t a l t .( 3) .U(n) a r e t-C-nphbs and a s-O-n$h. Then f o r n1/2 f o r a f i x e d y i n V1 and check t h a t a ( i ) x ( i ) C I J i .2( b ) .( 1). The b a s s of 0-nghbs f o r t( as g i v e n i n 8. subspace F i s a ( L F ) - space i f and o n l y i f i t i s c l o s e d i n ( E .( 2) and t h e completeness c r i t e r i o n o f RAIYO\/. 3 ( i i ) . l a . 8. The concept of x . (1) e x c e p t 8.SAXON.

46 i s due t o R O B E R T .44 i s due t o GROTHENDIECK.16 a r e due t o SAXON.2.n.( 1) (and LIGAUD.( 11) and 8. F ) i s a Frechet space f o r every Frgchet (Banach) space F.3.2.3( i i ) ) . Foreover. ( 9 ) and TSIRULNIKOV.62.p. ( 2 ) and ( 3 ) under t h e