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Horticultural Environmental Responses Quiz

Name: Horticultural Responses to Temperature 1. The concentration of solutes in a solution is a. Osmosis b. Osmolarity c. Turgor Pressure d. Atmospheric Pressure Hour Date:

C. Kohn, Waterford WI

2. Water will move from an area of ____________solute concentration to an area of ____________concentration a. Low, High b. High, Low c. None of the above; solute concentration does not affect water movement 3. Why does lettuce become limp if you add salad dressing too soon? a. The saltier dressing pulls water out of the plant cells b. The plant cells lose turgor pressure c. Osmosis and osmolarity pull water out of the cell d. All of the above would be accurate explanations 4. The vacuole of the plant cell acts as a a. Storage and Landfill Site b. Structural support c. Osmolarity regulator d. All of the above 5. Frost damage to a plant is actually more similar to a. Heat damage b. Pest Damage c. Dehydration Damage d. Radiation Damage 6. When snow peas are exposed to sub-freezing temperatures, they become _______ to prevent intracellular freezing. a. Sweeter b. Saltier c. Sour d. Bitter 7. Pure water, without any nucleators or disturbances, will freeze at a. 32 F/ 0 C b. 0 F/ -18 C c. -40 F/ -40 C d. -460 F/ -273 C

8. The leaf buds on a tree avoid freezing in winter by a. Pure water free of nucleators outside the cell b. Higher osmolarity inside the cell to lower the freezing point c. Both A and B d. None of the above 9. __________ lipids have a kink in their molecular structure due to double-bonded carbons. This ________ their freezing point a. Saturated; raises b. Unsaturated; raises c. Saturated; lowers d. Unsaturated; lowers 10. A plastic sheet prevents freezing by trapping what kind of energy? a. Radiation b. Conduction c. Convection d. Latent Heat Exchange 11. Spraying citrus with sprinklers so that they freeze over is an example of what kind of heat exchange? a. Radiation b. Conduction c. Convection d. Latent Heat Exchange 12. Which of the following would be most effective in preventing a radiation inversion over a field of crops? a. Misters b. Mulch c. Helicopter d. Wind Break Horticultural Responses to Water 13. Which of the following forces is or are responsible for the formation of continuous ropes of water inside the xylem? a. Adhesion b. Cohesion c. Transpiration d. Adhesion and Transpiration together 14. Which of the following forces is or are responsible for the movement of the rope of water up the xylem a. Adhesion b. Cohesion c. Transpiration d. Adhesion and Transpiration together

15. Which of the following kinds of soil water is NEVER available to plants a. Hygroscopic b. Capillary c. Gravity d. None of the above; all water in the soil is available to plants 16. The soil under Miller Park is primarily sand; why is this necessary? a. To enhance plant growth b. To ensure maximum water retention for grass growth c. To ensure maximum drainage to prevent flooding d. To ensure maximum nutrient availability to enhance the greenness of the grass 17. Which of the following describes the point at which soil is at or past saturation of water? a. Wilting Point b. Field Capacity c. Hygroscopic Water d. Gravity Water 18. In order for water to naturally move from the soil to the plant, which of the following must occur? a. Positive water potential in the soil b. Negative water potential in the soil c. Higher osmolarity in the roots d. Higher osmolarity in the soil 19. Condensation forms on your can of soda in summer because a. The cooler air around the can reaches 100% humidity more easily than the warmer air further away b. Water is being pulled through the aluminum of the can due to the positive water potential of the soda c. Water in the air is being attracted to the moisture in the can; the aluminum is impermeable and causes the water to condense d. Soda is wet so the can will get wet too 20. Why is it a good thing for the plant that the Casparian strip is an apoplastic barrier? a. It means that once water moves into the root hairs, it cannot escape b. It means that once water moves into the xylem in the root, it cannot escape c. It means that water can move around cells once inside the center d. It is NOT a good thing and reduces water uptake from the soil into the plant 21. What causes the stomata to close? a. Increased turgor pressure in the guard cells due to potassium uptake b. Decreased turgor pressure in the guard cells due to potassium loss c. Increasing intensity of sunlight d. Minimal CO2 in the atmosphere

Horticultural Responses to Light 22. The taller the wavelength of light, the _________ the light a. Brighter b. Darker c. Bluer d. Redder 23. The wider the wavelength of light, the ___________ the light a. Brighter b. Darker c. Bluer d. Redder 24. Plants primarily use the _______ and ______ colors of light a. Red and blue b. Red and green c. Blue and green d. Green and yellow 25. Phytochromes, the receptors that serve as the trigger for many plant activities, respond to _____ light a. Blue b. Red c. Green d. All 26. A plant grown under blue light will appear a. Tall and spindly b. Short and squat c. Normal d. Sad and lonely

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Horticultural Calculations - Questions missing work will be marked wrong (even if they have the right answer) 27. Growing Degree Days: A farmer intends to plant corn on May 1st. Corn requires 2450 Growing Degree Days. Corn has a base temperature of 50o F. Average high and low for each month are a. May - High: 70; Low: 50 b. June High: 80; Low 60 c. July High: 90; Low 70 d. August High: 85; Low 65 e. September High: 75; Low: 55 On what date can we expect this corn to mature if the year follows these averages?

28. Relative Humidity: The weatherman says that the relative humidity on this hot 86o F day is 50%. Your basement stays around the average temperature for the year, which is about 59o F. Will you need to turn on the dehumidifier in your basement to prevent condensation? Explain and show your work Tempe (C/F) 0/32 5/41 10/50 15/59 20/68 25/77 30/86 Absolute Humidity (g/m3 ) 4.8 6.8 9.4 12.8 17.3 23.0 30.4