CONTRAPUNTAL

TECHNIQUE
IN

THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY
BY

K

O.

MORRIS

OXFORD
AT THE CLARENDON PRESS
1922

Printed in England

O

(£^

TO

PERCY CARTER BUCK
IN

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF A DEBT
LONG OUTSTANDING

.

it as the printed texts did not give the necessary indication. van to Maldeghem^ and Henry Expert equally familiar every student of the period. whether actually inserted by I have used only the for the or not. and for the purposes of this have thought it best to retranspose all quotations. acci- In most of the collections named the editors distinguish dentals. To widen the range of illustration. the former being I enclosed in a bracket or placed in small print above the note. . G and F clefs throughout.g. in order to facilitate perusal of the work by non- professional readers who may be interested in the subject. The large are collections of Proske. reproduced this distinction where possible —e. and was manifestly impossible for me to scour the Continent in order to flat verify every individual sharp and in the manuscripts. and the English composers. and this preface need only concern with texts themselves. First. for they are scholars of international repute. from have those actually written in by the composer. The accidentals indicated are in every case (in my judgement) him such as the composer intended. as to the of this volume is set forth in the itself opening chapter. The editors of these respective volumes need no tribute all of mine. I have also had recourse to Pedrell's Hispaniae Scholae Musica Sacra. inserted by them to meet the requirements oi musica fict a. Haberl's Repertorium Musicae Sacrae. and from each of these I have drawn interest- ing examples that probably could not have been obtained from any other source. But their book I editions are usually transposed. In other examples it was not always possible do so. Where a standard library- edition exists — as of Palestrina and Orlando Lasso — this text has of course been followed. Orlando Lasso. to in the examples taken from Palestrina.PREFACE The general scope and purport the textual procedure adopted. with a double G tenor. and Barclay Squire's Ausgewcihlte Madrigcile.

A fool-proof notation is Readers who cannot easily obtain access to the editions already big library mentioned may like to know of some comparatively cheap and popular editions of sixteenth-century music of which they may (1) possess themselves Breitkopf & Hartel publish a large collection of masses and motets. likewise obtainable from Messrs. Bauerle. They likewise publish an ISeries. all that is meant here by metrical ' ' is that the harmonic accentuation within each measure of signature. These compositions are metrical ^ —as definitely should for the metrical as Rahhi hen leap to the eye. editors. There is Dr.: viii PREFACE was to be illustrated. and others. Byrd. That would be wrong . Chester. J. (3) & W. 39a. Ecclesiastical Music). let that the measures of this music group themselves into regular periods just as the measures of the poetry group themselves into regular lines. not varying unless there is a change are not grouped in any such regular con- formation. Novello's have done a good deal —Palestrina's Stahat Mater. (3) & W. Regular barring alone can ensure and true rhythm the reader must good ear and his good neither possible nor understanding. and several of his Masses (all . as in Regular barring has been adopted throughout. edited Squire's by Haberl. except where some special point Exx. but they are not now all in print). Fellowes's wonderful edition of the English Madrigal Composers. is The measures themselves uniform and periodic. 38. and Tallis of these have been published' in the Octavo Edition. edition of Tallis's Lamentations (in the Cathedral edited by Royle Shore). and 40a. . The tendency of modem but I cannot agree. I am aware. me warn the student against supposing ^ To prevent possible misconception. J. and Squire & Terry's These can usually be edition of Byrd's Five-part Mass. masses by Tye. Ezra or Locksley Hall trust to his — and the metre this. Chester (Department of There is the Collection Palestrina (Saint-Gervais). published by Stainer & Bell (nineteen volumes so (4) far). Also Barclay Ausgewahlte Madrigdle. is all in the other direction. obtained from Messrs. desirable.

if used and with caution. A. Terry . Whyte. M. but halves the measures. 0. for instance.) . R. halves merit. vols. of Avion. all. Shepherd. The Fellowes edition. Fox-Strangways for the unreserved generosity with which he placed the whole of his library at my disposal. and even quarters . and iii (Laudy & and of the popular edition of Tudor Church Music in course of issue now It by the Oxford University Press. must be understood that the above editions are not of equal Bauerle.) . is full of lamentable misprints. by Tye. his note values without telling the reader editors of the what he has done so do the re- Collection Palestrina. H. and other of their contemporaries above to Mr. intelligently But they can be of service. In conclusion. I should like to express my best thanks to Dr. is admirable in every way. for the loan of his Taverner manuscript scores to Miss Townsend Warner for the similar loan of manuscript scores . .PREFACE (H) ix Mention should Masses (Gary Co. also be made of the Downside Motets and i & Co. The Downside edition and all tains the original note-values. of course.

17 between Metre and Rhythm as valid for music as for poetry Stress accent and Quantity accent Importance of the latter in music Its function in determining the rhythmical structure of sixteenth-century music Time-signatures of purely metrical significance... Plagal and Interrupted the sixteenth century — Modulation. rules governing portant factor leaps. of the Cmito Fermo Orders — Reform suggested not tion of as a challenge to authority but as a vindica- II.ficta. V. . scope. KHYTHM The distinction . how formed — meaning. THE POINT OF VIEW . . (2) practical Rhythm the vital factor Faulty method of instruction — — Ineptitude it. and practical Phrygian ' '. HARMONY Music a progression from concord to concord Discord originally a device for obtaining rhythmic variety Number of harmonic changes permissible in a bar Variety of colour-effect obtainable with limited means Points to be considered in detail The interval of the fourth. MELODY Compass. . . — IV. how 33 — — — — — — — — — — .SYNOPSIS OF CHAPTERS I.. application — Cadence. — — — Futility of the Five PAGE 1 Discrepancy between the Rules of Counterpoint as usually taught and The latter the only the practice of the sixteenth-century composers authority worth considering— Object of studying.. 38 — movement an imThe melodic technique of Palestrina Two or more — Intervals — Conjunct notes when student — Regular barring recommended. how far a concord Chord of the six -four Passing notes Double passing notes in thirds and sixths Two-part analysis the ultimate test of harmonic propriety Accented passing notes. its — Rules for '. . . .. its meaning in Cadences Range of modulation permitted in each Mode. — III.. . (1) historical. THE MODAL SYSTEM Definition of the 7 term Mode tinction of no real value position of the object ' Modes its ' — Musica ' — Plagal and Authentic forms — This disfrom a polyphonic point of view — Trans. without influence on Rhythm Freedom and Balance the ideal aimed at Prevalence of cross-rhythms Explanation of the — ' ' ' ' — — — — — time-signatures in use at this period — The Proportional System. permissible — Tied — — General if hints to guide the not misunderstood. .

FUGUE. ' ' The modern Cyclic symphony anticipated and thematic unity of Not properly speaking The Madrigal by Taverner and Palestrina The secular equivalent of the Motet Similar a form in music to it in general outline. — PAGE — — — — — — VI.SYNOPSIS OF CHAPTERS used xi — Changing — notes . AND DOUBLE COUNTERPOINT Fugue properly speaking a period ' . the two parts being usually in Double Varieties of Double Counterpoint most commonly met Counterpoint Canon. rules for preparation employment Ornamental of — Suspensions. CANON. VII. 45 — No — method ' rather than a ' form ' in this fixed rules for its continuation. SOME TECHNICAL FEATURES OF THE ENGLISH SCHOOL analj-sis as 64 The value of technical an aid to real comprehension The Boldness of curve their English writers scalic rather than modal Their harmonic freedom Experiments in formation melodic ideal Their fondness for harsh effects of cadence and resolution of discord Rhythm the crowning glory of the False relationships a speciality — — — — — — — English technique of Diligence No detailed critique hitherto possible modern English research Its value as the foundation for a true — — — critical estimate of our national achievement. rules for their resolutions and resolution Forbidden consecutives Why forDouble and triple suspensions The text-books and the composers at variance as usual bidden ? What rules are really observed by the latter Chromatic harmony Modal Harmony. '. definition Melodic Inversion with in the sixteenth century — — — is — of — stricter century — than Fugue — — Sparingly — used in the later sixteenth Its abuse by the previous generation. once the exposition complete the Subject the Answer elasticity of their relationship Two-part subjects not uncommon. . so-called. VIII. DESIGN The Motet — Derivation of the term — Textual analysis the foundation Harmonic and Intermediate types of of the structure — Fugal Motet — A specimen of each analysed — The Mass — Its main divisions — Variety in length of — Contrasts of texture to be found — Modal ' 53 ' '. a rare in sacred music of the period meaningless term. though differing in many details of style and Chromatic freedom Its prevalence relative rather than idiom ' ' — — — ' ' — — — — absolute.

44. Tye. 69. 60. 35. Morley. 16. 210. 239. 128. 209. A. Tallis. 167. 15. 106. 245. 117-123. Palestrina. Marenzio. 18. 157. Farmer. Wilbye. 172-176. 202. 54. 149. 246. 220. Byrd. 107. Whyte. 57-59. 144. 17. 199-201. 163. 154. 240. Lasso. 98. 70. 36-40. 86. 48. 143. 230. Bugsworthy. 226. Soriano.. 135. Guerrero. 161. 89. 221-223. 75. 103-105. VeccM. 136. 41. 249. 192-195. 90. 150. 68. 203. 243. 225. 204-206. 45. 155. 124. 91. 153. 125-127. 186. 132. 244. de la Rue. de Wert. Hassler. 72-74. 237. 56. 46. 0. 145. 165. 260. 101. Taverner. 242. 164. 47. 31. 162. 255. Orlando. 214. 108. 42. 160.. 259. 62. 32-34. 180-184. 215. 224. 247. 116. 241. 96. 211-213. 151. 29. 63. 208. Pevernage. Gabrieli. 233. 97. 93. 231. 177. 166. Morales. Croce. Bertani. 178. 250-254. 76. 168-171. 88. 216. 196-198. . 99. 49. 257. 94. 229. 232. Weelkes. 77-81. 92. Sweselinck. 219. 228. Gibbons. 133. 64-66. 227. 19-25. 258. 158. 217. 234. 95. 156. 185. 159. 238. Vittoria. 146-148. 87. 129-131. Gesualdo. 55. 51-53. 256. 248. Brumel. 100. 43. 179. 30. 261. 218.INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS Aichinger. 152. 134.

only.: THE POINT OF VIEW ' Since the death of these Great Masters '. ' yielded their loving obedience These will naturally be illustrated in every bar that these great com- posers wrote. Vittoria rules. The Rules he ' ' prescribes are those. which are distinguished by the sign [given] from those of . yielded their loving obedience. and those novelty whatever. p. — — of their contemporaries. Vittoria. : higher authority. Eockstro.' At stro this point. quotations have indeed been made from the works of Fux and other famous contrapuntists but in order to explain his meaning with sufficient clearness to meet the demands of those who are entering upon the study of counterpoint for the first time. Palestrina. and the greatest rules have been. we find that Mr. we feel deeply ashamed that one at Bars 2. & Co. to which '. therefore. when it comes to the point. the difficulty of finding passages the Great Masters exactly adapted to illustrate the precise Rule falling under discussion was so great. He has had to write most of them himself. Rockstro has confessedly been unable to find any such illustrations. Domine. 244S B . ^ The Rules of Counterpoint. that this plan was unavoidably. the logical processes of Mr.^ ' it [counterpoint] has undergone no change whatever. or possibly can be. to which Palestrina. the author has found it necessary to write a large number of additional examples. It must be taught now if taught at all exactly as it was taught in the latter half of the sixteenth century. . therefore. 9.' A few pages later we come upon ' the following passage It was the author's original intention to have illustrated the present Treatise entirely with examples selected from the works of But. Rockappear to have suffered an interruption. observes Mr. Introduction. No new added to it. 5. it will be noticed. almost the only passage he quotes from a sixteenth-century composer is one from Byrd's Aspice. though very Abundant reluctantly. subjected to considerable modification. Our little Treatise. Luca Marenzio. contains no The rules it prescribes are those. and on this passage the only comment he finds to make is that Byrd has ignored the last clause of Rule LXI Naturally. . Yet. and 17 of our own countrymen should be detected in such licentious ' '. and those only.

in the main. goodness only knows. who goes all through the list in a spirit of dispassionate inquiry. and THE POINT OF VIEW we It is hasten to inquire what the provisions of Rule LXI may ' be. he is entitled to ask whether it .' . Yet the or less. or follow Mr.: 2 behaviour. why they have been perpetuated. or a crochet and two quavers. we may remark that exceptions They are to be found even in to this rule are somewhat frequent. A Passing over the fact that Mr. an exposition of sixteenthcentury technique. Byrd? what are we However. Rockstro. if possible. will : be content with assumptions. And if these things are done in the If this is green tree. He will demand reasons. as a matter of fact. and the impartial observer. . No student worthy the name. will begin to understand only too well his ' ' perpetual difficulty in finding passages exactly adapted to illustrate ' the precise rule falling under discussion '. Other rules are even less fortunate. Palestrina. Admirabile Commercium '. there is no need to expect from the nefarious to insist unduly on this particular rule. Before devoting his time to counterpoint. and. It is nevertheless an instance. to show that the loving obedience of which Mr. a purely academic by-product. rather an obvious instance. They are. . in his example. Eockstro and Professor Prout ? The present volume is the writer's answer to this question. be tied to another minim or crochet. it assumes that that technique is deserving of study. quite a fair case (though no more) can be made out. in the beginning of the next bar. Rockstro speaks is not always so readily forthcoming as one might have expected. has caremeasures into two. for instance. — — of them succeed one another with ostentatious rapidity in the space of some twenty measures. should always. It is. Eockstro are not peculiar. after two crochets. so far as it concerns himself. is something altogether Music that never was on sea or land. it passes the wit of man to explain. more the same as those to be found in almost every text-book of counterpoint. What then are we going to do ? The rules of counterpoint are found to have no connexion with musical composition as practised in the sixteenth century are we to abandon the rules. or abandon the sixteenth century? Follow Byrd and Palestrina. as such. worded as follows minim placed at the end of a bar. what shall be done in the dry ? what we find in the blameless Palestrina. Who invented them. In the Mass there are fifty-seven of them at one point in the Sanctus nine fully cut Byrd's ' . Music written to meet their requirements sui generis. for which. however. rules of Mr.

usually of two. for the composer at any rate. and realize more fully the con- tinuity of musical progress. fusion between rhythm and metre. nature. A student of painting does not regret the time he spends in copying past. To the sixteenth century they can In that period there is no conturn. We learn. there is the and what he stands purely historical aspect of the question. may and That appreciate a particular style it is not necessary to practise actual practice you is true enough. for the insight models by Rembrandt or Van Dyck or other great masters of the he thus obtains into their technical aims and methods helps him to appreciate their genius and develop a sense of style. acquire some sense of scholarship. there is an imaginary metrical accentuation which imposes a regular alternation of strong and weak beats to which the ' ' Having got so far. But. Every serious musician should have some knowledge of the history of his art. from it. and primary rhythm which measures out the bars them' ' ' selves into neat regular groups. which places a strong accent at the beginning of each bar and admits a certain variety of figure in between those accents. mechanical sing-song. not in vain. for in doing so he will enlarge his mental horizon. It and from no other motive than be said that to understand it. Similarly a musician should not hesitate to spend a few months in mastering the idiom of the great sixteenth-century composers. but it is also true that by acquire an inside knowledge that you get in no other way. The rhythmical accentuation of each part is free. at long last. four. Now. and to seek a way of escape from it. that of intellectual curiosity. Above all. In the deserving of study for its own sake. For three hundred years or so we have been slaves of the bar line. even though his own bent as a painter may lie in quite other directions. the study of the sixteenth century has a very real practical as well as a historical interest. probably. but. to distinguish between secondary' rhythm. and our conception of rhythm has become purely metrical. and its technique is quite it is certainly unlike the technique of any succeeding period first . independently of the actual rhythmic accents. for guidance. we have suffered ourselves to remain in complacent ignorance. Of the wider implications of the term . The sixteenth century is beyond all question one of the great periods of music. and of the manner in which his materia musica has been accumulated. place. the lesson it has to teach him is that of rhythmical freedom and subtlety. rhythm and of its true and eight.THE POINT OF VIEW is 3 to gain likely to prove a profitable study. composers are beginning to tire of this monotonous. we stop.

E. betray their belief that tonality. in order to we know what its principles really were. mainly. from a study of this period. We no longer imagine development to consist in saying in Gb what you have already said in Bb. to take certain that just as we find it. both by precept and example. if taught at all. The starting-point has been the conviction that counterpoint. that the present writer has found himself compelled to reject in toto the traditional methods of instruction. as Mr. In the sixteenth century the student will see of those I have met. principle that really matters any case. is a convention that has . It is for this reason. he finds out that in order to write in the idiom of Morley or Orlando Lasso or Vittoria. must be taught. Kitson (the only authority to betray any real uneasiness) gets no further than to say scholastic counterpoint is the adaptation of the principles of Palestrina to modern conditions In the process of adaptation. this is the first fact to force itself on his notice . One might add. M. ' ' outlived ^ its utility. and many composers. as was said. As soon as a student begins the study of sixteenth-century music. and to reject the view which holds it to be. of the last three hundred years. and back again. English and foreign. although the melody of each voice pursues its own way untrammelled. as it seems to him. This. is ? somehow disappeared and in the nineteenth century any less obsolete than the . is by far the most valuable lesson a composer has to learn. he has to slough all his old preconceptions. the rhythmic principle the only . — has — sixteenth Is it not better to it approach the sixteenth century in a spirit of humility. Vincent d'Indy's Cours de composition musicale is the sole honourable exception Neither Bellermann nor Padre Martini offers any guidance on this point. and in no spirit of iconoclasm. and to indicate an entirely new and. the passing from one clearly defined tonality into other related tonalities. that it is possible to search diligently through all the text-books ^. too. what rhythm really is. perhaps for the first time. to put the student on the right track. in its present form.4 THE POINT OF VIEW harmony of the composition has to conform. unfortunately. before make we begin to try and adapt them ? It will also be of advantage to the composer to acquire some insight into the workings of the old Modal system.ockstro says. Hitherto it has not been so taught even Dr. a more hopeful line of approach. On all sides to-day is heard an outcry against the shackles of the major and minor scale on all sides we see an inclination to re-examine the problem of musical form. at the moment. and ask himself. ' '. and never find so much as a hint of it. exactly as it was taught in the sixteenth century. .

Rockstro or shall we is an exception. even in those days. . method of writing counterpoint. of real value. and indeed the only possible. If he used the text-book type of Canto Fermo at all. however. an obsolete survival. he did not spread it out in front of him in a row He broke it up into fragments. As for the Five Species. 9. that the rules of counterpoint need revision. that the Canto Fermo (in the sense in which the text-books take it) was. there are certain features of it which he cannot Here again. but why cannot they be simply amended where necessary'? Why must you challenge the entire system? Why cannot you leave us our Canto Fermo A reform that most foolish to and our Five Species ? The answer is. is to paralyse his melodic invention at the outset. and VI the student now turn to the opening chords of Palestrina's Stahat Bone Jesii (Ex. or malicious. introduced into any part of the No accidental of any kind must be exercise but the Final Cadence with the exception of an occasional but even this Bb to correct the Tritonus or the False Fifth Let can scarcely be tolerated. We grant you. One singles out Mr. is needed will inevitably encounter opposition. first. and also to give him an utterly false idea of musical history. of stolid. . '. but once more his disingenuousness fail to find call it his excessive ' Rule CXXXV. and treated them thematically with all the rhythmic ingenuity he could devise. he did so as a deliberate archaism. and his articles in Grove's Dictionary contain much that ingenuousness ? — — is too apparent. It is for this very reason that his Rules of Comiterpoint cannot be passed over in silence. except in Modes I. the text-books fail suggestive. What in another is probably ignorance. unappetizing semibreves. 39) or of himself how he is to account for them.THE POINT OF VIEW the working of rather a different system . 194) and ask Mater (quoted in Ex. Mr. that in many details they bear no relation to the practice of the great Polyphonic School of composition. . V. him. . II. for he was a pioneer in the field. like similar works by lesser authorities. Rockstro with reluctance. note 1). for most of them carefully evade the question. and assume that such opposition is necessarily blind. To set such things before the student as the normal. . 5 and though he will find here that the system is more closely allied to our own than is usually admitted. experience to whom this book will not commend itself at first sight. Rockstro or he must scrap Palestrina. It is the old story either he must scrap Mr. . they may say. as he did occasionally (see p. in is him it is is sheer dishonesty. When a sixteenth-century composer set to work to compose on a Canto Fermo. There are many teachers of wisdom and perverse.

From arbitrary rules. But what do I gain by it ? It must not be thought that the method of instruction implied in the sequence of chapters in this volume involves or permits any — relaxation of discipline. of variety teach the student plausible defence for them. claiming a sanctity to which they have no right. all of which he has already learnt or should have learnt from his elementary lessons in harmony. at least. and do more than anything else to cause that conis fusion between metre and rhythm from which it is the special mission of counterpoint (rightly understood) to deliver us. and preparing and resolving the simplest forms of discord. ' think it is rather fun to put you through it again. You have already been through it. or any other place where this music is habitually sung. Apart from this. he will not be content to to take their place. Of course. He will find that where he was formerly chastised with whips. of Lasso and Palestrina. for he will . he is entitled to be free. They are just a kindly warning. that he may not suspect us of any amiable desire to cast authority to the winds. but we — . all the student can possibly learn from them is the method of employing passing notes. . The student who embarks on it in any such belief will be rudely disappointed. These remarks are not intended for a moment to discourage the learner. if counterpoint is frankly taught on this basis if the teacher says openly to his pupil. but there are plenty of genuine rules ready And if he is wise. in theory. that their ultimate sanction rests in the practice of Tallis and Byrd. a certain limited variety of rhythmic figure fitted in between regularly recurring metrical accents. he is now chastised with It is much easier to write like Cherubini than to write scorpions. like Byrd it requires far less exertion to produce a ream of scholastic counterpoint than a single page in the vein of Mr. have begun to realize its beauty. know. But the pupil's reply is inevitable: 'It may be fun for you. What we call counterpoint is only elementary harmony. They perpetuate the tyranny of the bar line. Thomas Morley. He will then have a knowledge of counterpoint which no book can impart. He will begin by frequenting the precincts of Westminster Cathedral. in such an attitude.' — 6 it THE POINT OF VIEW needs a more skilful advocate than the present writer to find any They do untold harm by professing to whereas all they really admit rhythm. and call it by a longer name' there is candour.

recognized a further set of distinctions. (Plagal and Authentic melodies alike. whether ascending or descending. the order TTSTTTS . and your next series would be merely a repetition of the first. you envisage a new aspect or mode ' such modes can you have? Clearly. Evert student knows that if you take the diatonic series of notes represented by the white keys of the pianoforte. you reach the octave. is the same as that of the Hypomixolydian [Plagal] mode but the last note of a Dorian melody must be D. seven Authentic. differing. and from each G other tones . for instance. but on the compass of the melody. D— d. seven. ^ These names were borrowed from the modal system of the ancient Greeks. and seven Plagal. . based not on the order of the tones and semitones. but it must not be imagined that the Greek system and the ecclesiastical system were identical. To enter into the difference here would merely befog the student. You are working on the same diatonic series. The modal system. will give other scales. Ex. How many between the final of that mode and its octave. what names were given to them. but by selecting another note as your starting and finishing point. the sequence of notes lying between C and c (or any of their octaves) constitutes what we that it is call the major scale. in that they all consist of five tones and two semi- . the compass of the Dorian [Authentic] mode. 1 will show exactly what they were. in the E scale it is STTTSTT.) There were thus in all fourteen theoretically possible modes. whereas that of a Hypomixolydian must be G. of course. unless he intends to make it a special branch of study. him and possible to start also on any other notes of the that the notes from E to e say.^ and which notes .g. It may not have occurred to series. had to end on the final of the mode: e. and semitones varies with each respective is In the C scale. or similar to the major scale. . similar. yet differing from it. however. it was said to be in its Plagal form. in that the order of the tones scale. If a melody in any given mode lay of that series.' II THE MODAL SYSTEM I. and to g. the mode was said to be in its Authentic form if it lay between the dominant of the mode and its octave. who would be well advised not to trouble his head about Greek music. for after the seventh.

the compass of the corresponding Plagal mode is B-b. if you are writing in a mode whose Authentic compass suits a tenor voice. must necessarily be difficult. although. and of treble to alto. in practice. for instance. 3. except that in the fourth mode the dominant is A and not Gr. mode. and conservative writers stiU pre- ferred. and G respectively. the imperfection of the fifth and the redundancy of tke fourth (B-F. was not fitted to serve as the most prominent note (after the final) of the mode. When we adhere to the old ecclesiastical have seen the modifications which. F-B) making the series quite unusable. it may already have occurred to the student that between Authentic and Plagal. The natural compass of a bass. . The distinction between Authentic and Plagal can easily be Bold Young Farmer for inillustrated from English folk-song. First of we must now consider. time being. That the dominant of the third mode is C. to maintain in polyphonic composition for mixed voices. . The mediant of an Authentic mode always serves as the dominant of the corresponding Plagal mode. to tradition of eight modes. That the eleventh and twelfth modes are purely theoretical. not B. as compared with that of a tenor. i. crept into the modal system. Trees they do grow high is stance. with their corresponding Plagal forms. and published in 1547. These modifications II. It should be here stated that this theory of fourteen possible and twelve actual modes did not pass unchallenged. e. the dominant being normally a fourth below the final). The reason is that although B was the original dominant of the mode (as you would expect. probably. E. Therefore. Earlier theory recognized eight modes only.: 8 served as THE MODAL SYSTEM tlie tlie dominant and mediant respectively in each. the student should notice I. all. even in much later times. That (possibly for the same reason) the mediant of the seventh mode (and the dominant of the eighth) is C and not B. It was found. the series starting on D. C was eventually substituted for it. is about a fifth below similarly with the relationship of alto to tenor. valid enough from a purely melodic point of view. 3. being a constituent of the forbidden tritone F-B. ' ' Plagal (Hypodorian). it will be the corresponding Plagal compass that will lie most naturally for the the distinction . we shall see that the difference is one of doctrine rather than of reality. both in Plagal and Authentic forms. It was first formulated by Glareanus in a work entitled Dodecachordon. is Authentic (Mixolydian) For ' '. F. if not impossible. that B.

How then. which can only be determined for certain by looking at the last note of the bass. and vice versa. It is the bass which gives you the final of the mode in which a composition is written. on Gr. the final note of the bass must be restored to its untransposed position in order to declare the mode. as a rule. it may be as well to also that all the modes could be taken in a transposed position a fifth below their normal range. the Canto Fermo is given impartially to other voices besides the tenor. and devise rhythmical variants of these for fugal treatment (see Chap. : 9 and so on. If the tenor and treble are Authentic.^ In this case. In all of these. 2 But the accidental Ab must not be employed in the transposed form of a mode. While we are touching this point. And if you turn to the composition of the period to see what happens. when all composition was based on a plain-song melody sung by the tenor. of course. you find this is actually the case in four-part composition for mixed voices. two parts keep generally to the Authentic compass. convention is. for instance. this strict writing on a Ca7ito Fey-mo had been superseded by other methods. the true final is D. and elsewhere.THE MODAL SYSTEM bass.e. the alto and the bass will be Plagal. though. he would employ it. and the com1 It was still employed occasionally. as Plagal. the other half admittedly in another ? is that such descriptions are purely conventional. If the bass ends. This is The answer . if half of it is in one mode. . By the sixteenth century. and the convention governing them is that the compass of the tenor If that is Authentic. however. much as composers to-day still write every now and again upon a ground bass. although Eb can be used freely in the untransposed form. or as Plagal. however.^ a composer was free to invent his own themes if he wished. of course. mention to indicate such transposition. But the tenor continued to dictate the name of the mode to the whole composition quite irrationally. the whole part is the determining factor. and there is a Bb in the signature. break it up into its com- ponent phrases. 18 and 19) in Orlando Lasso's Sixth Penitential Psalm in Aichinger's Antiphonae super Psalmos. . with a Bb in the signature III. . a survival from earlier times. Nos. i. can you speak of a composition as being in any given mode when. the tenor which decides as to whether the form of that mode is to be considered as Authentic . thematically. and if he used a plain-song melody (as he still very frequently did). two to the Plagal. Instances of the use of a strict Canto Fermo in semibreves can be found in Byrd's Cantiones Sacrae (1589 series. VII). the other parts singing round it in faux-bourdon or some other form of discant. it may well be asked. for the tenor did not necessarily end on the final of the mode. composition is considered as Authentic if Plagal.

who the discretion of the were expected to introduce them in performance. these old works freely to whatever pitch they think best adapted There is no theoretical difficulty to the needs of a modern choir. though Modern editors.' In other words. ^ ' by the author of the treatise Ars contra- Music is called Ficta when we make a tone to be a semi- and conversely a semitone to be a tone. Coussemaker. divisible into because for a long time such alterations did not appear in the written music. See Oxford History of Music. for the simple reason that (as above stated) the alterations were not at first permitted ^ to appear in the selves clearly subject. you can get the Dorian series (starting on Eb). transtransposition form of in the ecclesiastical music posed. necessitated. for they were taught by the sol-fa methods. and the chromatic singers. and cbnsequently the semitonic signs can appear between all tones. 72-81. and so on similarly with any other number. No doubt the singers of the sixteenth century could have sung their melodies at any pitch. a certain difference of opinion as to the exact interpretation of these rules. however. The differentiation between one mode and another depends not on any absolute difference of pitch. cit. on the and one cannot turn 2 ' Ancestor of our own Tonic Sol-fa. pp. by putting.' . and always will be. either of sharps or flats. To learn what : is known as Musica we can do no better than take the definition given us puncti tone. only the one form of transposition was in use. by the laws of what this means. For every tone is two semitones. The earlier theoretical writers do not always express them- to the actual compositions for enlightenment. Any other in secular music. in appearance at least. op. be). ii. there was less orthodoxy. Quoted by Wooldridge. five flats in your signature. in alterations were left to accordance with certain more or less clearly understood rules. It was called ' Ficta as we should say. in the signature. as was said. the Phrygian (starting on F). Scriptores. It must here be frankly stated that there is. the custom itself remained. iii. transposing everything a fifth down or a fourth up. Musica Ficta means. chromatic alteration. the diatonic integrity of the modes should be respected. transpose see. or rather. by a single flat in the signature (Bb. The next modifications to be discussed are those permitted. as we shall of the period is extremely rare. vol. but on the relative disposition of the tonic and semitonic intervals. Ficta. about this whatsoever. the Lydian (starting on Gb). ^ . for instance.^ but as a matter of notation. indicated. as the case might IV. And long after this prejudice had disappeared. 23. Ecclesiastical tradition required that. 10 position is THE MODAL SYSTEM either in the Dorian or the Hypodorian mode. .

the tendency is to reduce the tone to by chromatic e. because and Chromatic alteration was largely taken for granted throughout the Polyphonic period. Gb. Eft. by which time the madrigal writers had virtually ceased propriety. alteration when possible. and then falls or rises by the same a semitone interval. and Ab. . the diminished fifth. Gft. to pay even a nominal respect modal The most important use cadence. Bb always being sung instead of Bt] where necessary for this purpose. the student who observes these rules cannot go very far astray. The convenience of being able to alter the remaining intervals of the scale (D-E. B B or C Db C. A B A Afi A Bb A (but never. 5. both in melody and harmony. 3. discretion. as a rule. Eb. 1. . also came into general use. Gi?. and the following rules must be taken for general guidance only. g. and the chromatic notes necessary for this purpose. C-D) in a similar manner could not be overlooked. DS. the accidentals inserted in the music being. G-A. "Where a melody rises or falls by a tone. Bb. These latter five made their appearance tentatively in secular music. g. E. Cft. was soon recognized that this purpose could as well be by sharpening the F as by flattening the B.THE MODAL SYSTEM music. and he had much better adhere to them rigorously until he is experienced enough to use his own There is different periods . The subject does not admit of dogmatic ruling at the same time. Off. It was the necessity for correcting these intervals that first gave rise to Musica Ficta. They are not to he taJcen as the enharmonic equivalents of A±?. This is is in the formation of the explained and illustrated in the next section of this chapter. 2. Eb. are the only chromatic notes permitted in the strict modal system of the sixteenth century. are forbidden intervals. Db. apart from the perfecting of the tritone. scope of this treatise. These chromatic notes. It effected 4.. The tritone and its correlative. only those which the singers could not be trusted to introduce at their own discretion. 6. of chromatic alteration. but they are not used with some of the earlier any freedom until to the close of the period. 11 evidence that the scope of Musica Ficta varied at and (probably) in different localities with highlytrained singers it became doubtless a matter of instinct rather than To investigate such a mechanical application of definite formulae. It is beyond the a matter in detail is the task of the historian. the as progression A G A would often be sung AJ? A Gft A.

Sponsa Christi. as already explained. except E and B. it ' one degree It is in this sense that Shakespeare says That strain again. The beauty of the opening phrase of Veni. was found that the most natural and satisfying method in two-part writing was for the accompanying voice to ascend to the final by a semitone. 1 ' By ' bass ' is meant here tlie lowest of the parts employed at the moment. 6 and 7). On the other hand. with one or more notes doubled (Exx. 192). the other either rose by a tone to the fifth or fell by a semitone to the third (Exx. In writing for four or more parts. 24^^ it is precisely the logical application of this rule. Thanks to the aid of Musica Ficta. and the cadence of a plain-song or falling ' melody was formed. from Sacerdotes Domini (Ex. causing the Ftl of the alto to be answered by the Fjf of the treble. One of the first problems harmony had to solve was the accomit paniment of After various experiments by the other voice or voices. in Che cadence Db. the final chord would be this melodic procedure that of the octave. the penultimate that of the minor third (Exx. 4 and 5). as a rule. 8 to 14). in the former case. one or two further remarks must be added about the normal cadence. Before explaining the treatment of these degrees. Cadence in its derivative sense. 2 and 3 illustrate this in its simplest form). had a dying fall. do not yet exist).: 13 THE MODAL SYSTEM But it must be only a tendency its indiscriminate application as a rule would have disastrous results. in the the final chord would be the unison. the cadence is simply a variety of one of these forms. must now consider the type of cadence used in the modal writing of the sixteenth century. ' We ' of course. should consider each case on its own merits. that gives the cadence extraordinary fascination. In three-part writing. it was found that while the two upper parts were engaged in the manner just described the best thing the bass ^ could do was to ascend to the final by a fourth or drop to it by a fifth (Exx. as described in the last section. The student. If the cadence itself was in the bass. This could be done either above or below. The acting bass '. so to speak. to its final. for instance (see Ex. when he has occasion to use such progressions iii his own writing. by descending. means simply 'fall'. would be utterly ruined if the E were sung as Eb. emphasized that this is . its V. these cadences can be formed on any degree of any mode. . the penultimate that of the major sixth latter. . one of the upper parts rose by a semitone to the octave.

cadence is usually treated in binding manner' i. it is usually made major by the help of Musica Ficta. the . and tended to merge into the Ionian. thanks to the sharpening of the F at the cadence. but meantime a glance at Exx. Moreover. and so also in any important cadence that marks the end of a clearly-defined musical section. Secondly. so that really we have only four modes instead of six. may make this plainer The student will already have realized that this uniformity of cadential treatment. as we should say. between Authentic and Plagal went by the board. {d) In composition for three or more parts. Exx. complete. the tenor. the tenor almost always does one of these two things (except in a Plagal cadence which will be considered later). In the cadence at the end of a composition (or one of the main sections of the Mass).THE MODAL SYSTEM 13 (a) It will be noticed in the above examples the final chord is not invariably. are reduced to for B. by the constant substitution of Bl? Dorian and Lydian modes became virtually transposed forms of the Aeolian and Ionian respectively. Even in four-part writing the sixteenth-century masters often preferred to omit the third from their final chord. 15 to 23 will give the student some idea of the preparation and formation of cadence in the composition of the period. together with the other alterations permitted by Musica very largely the distinction between one mode and another.e. so that our twelve possible modes (the B modes being impossible in any case) Ficta. proceeds to the final by the rise of a fourth or fall of a fifth. instead of falling a tone to the final. (b) When the third is present in the final chord. The treatment of suspended discords is explained in Chapter V. . though its capitulation was not so abject as that of the Lydian. when the bass skeleton in ' The examples its simplest form. no matter on what degree of the mode it occurs. Elsewhere it is at the option of the writer to sharpen the third if it is naturally minor. whose Bb actually appeared in the signature. of cadencfe already given show the harmonic In practice. lost a good deal of its personality. parts But in an intermediate cadence the spacing of the be quite different. whose resolutions may be plain or (within certain clearly defined limits) ornamental. tends to obliterate six. single or double suspensions are introduced. 24 and 25 will than any verbal explanation could do. may rise a tone to the third. but not to flatten (c) it if it is naturally major. This is the second of the imporFirst the distinction tant modifications mentioned on page 8. the Mixolydian (Gr) mode. In the final cadence this is invariably the case.

with their corresponding modes. following this up with a Plagal cadence as reinforcement (as illustrated by Ex. dominant progression. descending to the final by a semitone. the chordal proE Gfi E. especially in Palestrina.e. four Authentic modes. as a matter of fact. did not admit of a perfect cadence. Two 1. The Phrygian cadence was formed by the bass. 26 to 31). . who has a special fondness for this device). (the Phrygian) remained distinct from the others. he may be wise to prepare the way for it by a full close. 32 to 34). is often used as an intermediate cadence for the sake of variety in compositions that are not in the Phrygian mode it can be formed in this way on D and A as well as on E. Very often the Plagal cadence alone is used. A is the Dominant of the Hypophrygian mode). (i.'The Plagal cadence may also be used freely in all the other modes . to admit the the two was it and to exclude the Aeolian and Ionian. versa. ^y^. The interrupted cadence is used as freely in the music of the sixteenth century as in music of the harmonic period. 36). ' ' * ' . and to use it effectively both care and judgement are required. The Phrygian cadence. who employs the true Phrygian cadence very sparingly. whilst the upper part ascended by a tone to the octave above.e. well and good but he must remember that this is modern terminology.14 THE MODAL SYSTEI^ Theory was tlius quite justified in recognizing eight modes only Plagal forms). It is in itself less directly as well as the Phrygian (Exx. In reality vice not and former modes that were absorbed into the latter. No recipe can be given for its employment it is a matter of musical instinct. In four-part writing and gression being thus F A D— could be doubled in the penultimate chord. are worth mentioning : It is particularly effective in fugal writing. ' ' . when the ' inter- ruption ' is caused by the thematic progression of the bass (Ex. the The E mode it because motion of the additional part was from A to Gfi. points. conclusive in character than the perfect cadence. Lydian and Dorian It was illogical. But as this cadence is in itself of a somewhat upwards. as the note Dj? did not exist. however. or lowest part. 35 from a motet by Vittoria. and that. and the final chord completed by the addition of the B (Exx. it was often reinforced at the end of a composition by a Plagal cadence (i. If the student likes for convenience to think of this as a sub. the A or the D (or both) inconclusive character. however. In three-part writing. Until the student is certain of his ability to handle it properly. one in which the final chord is preceded by the chord on the fifth below the final in this case on A. however.

di Contrapunto. and what range of modulation is permitted in each given mode. for instance. refer only to plain-song in polyphonic music the range of modulation permitted in each mode is. !5 !> )5 D F '--'s -'- • It forbids modulation on the second as ' must be observed that Padre Martini (a very great authority) and seventh degrees of any mode being troppo irregulare and alienissima dal Tuono [Saggia ' ' ' This rule is so frequently cannot be taken as absolute. Wooldridge (like myself) found some difficulty in arriving at a final conclusion. 200. the reiterated close on D at the words et propter nostram salutem descendit de coelis in the Credo of Palestrina's Missa Papae MarcelU. no separate list is given for the Plagal modes. Such conceptions are quite foreign to the writers of the sixteenth century what is meant is simply that a cadence has been formed (in one of the ways above described) on the note G. D. In the same composer's hymn. for instance. rather more restricted. the Plagal and Authentic modulations are not always given as identical. Wooldridge' s table (given in the Oxford History.^ Dorian DA F. vol. 26. which is in the C mode. note). But in a series of articles by the same writer which appeared in the Musical Antiquary in 1912-13. C. G. and more sparingly.. although his list does not agree in every detail with that here given. When you hear. See. that he . THE MODAL SYSTEM 2. the progression instead of being upwards from dominant to submediant is often downwards to subdominant both words being used in their ' '. in a position where its The usual tables of cadential character is unmistakably felt. in a word. of a modulation to G occurring in a composition in the Phrygian mode. infringed that it ' ' 1 Mr. in practice. as it is extremely doubtful whether. Evidently Mr.r . G. p.5 5> D. pp. 37). ii. 201) suggests had come to a similar conclusion. The following list has been arrived at empirically by the present writer. )5 55 )) ^' A&F. cadence.> C. any absolute distinction between the Plagal and Authentic forms can be ' ' ' ' . regular and conceded modulations commonly given. . established. modern sense It (Ex. from the point of view of modulation. 55 j> . it does not mean that the harmonic centre of gravity has shifted from the tonality of E to that of G. ' remains to explain what is meant by modulation ' at this period. parte prima. Modulation means. ' ' 15 In the music of this period.

because (owing to the non-existence of Dfi). . No cadence is ever formed on the note B. because not only the final ' ' ' ' . note chord but the penultimate chord as well (which would require the Aft) cannot be formed. it cannot be made the basis of a major triad. there are two clearly marked Similar instances are not hard to find.16 THE MODAL SYSTEM Ergo. Even the Plagal and Phrygian cadences are therefore impossible the perfect cadence more obviously so. wliicli is Tantum in tlie E mode. closes on D.

This would be the merest sing-song. that is to say. 3) that in the polyphonic music of the sixteenth century a double system of accentuation is employed. ing of Milton's Paradise Lost Of Man's first disobedience. Sing. but the student who gives it a few moments' consideration will find that it is not really so unfamiliar as he may think. The rhythmical accentuation of each individual part is free. but it is somewhere in the back of your head all the time. metrical accents are falsely emphasized at the expense must be preserved. Yet the metrical scheme also persists. as a kind of pattern or standard to which every line of the poetry is referred. whereas the composition as a whole does conform to a fixed metrical scheme in which strong and weak accents succeed one another in a pre-determined order. the accents do not occur at strictly regular intervals. rhythm and The latter . and the fruit Of that forbidden tree. You may not hear it. Heavenly Muse . more or less unconsciously. whose mortal taste Brought death into the world. This idea may seem difficult to grasp at first. it is the common five- but only a very ignorant person would accentuate the lines in this manner when reading them : Of Man's' first dis'obe dience and' the fruit' — — — — — \^ ^ \j \j Of that' forbid'den tree whose mor'tal taste.: Ill EHYTHM It lias already been observed (see p. And the delight of reading good verse arises largely from this duality of apprehension. \_» and so natural on. in which the of the stress of the words. In the rhythm of poetry there is a precisely similar duality. and all our woe. . for comparison. There is no doubt as to the metre of this foot iambic metre which is scanned thus : . for it enables us to distinguish between the more and the less important elements of the thought which the words convey. Take the familiar openas any one may quickly convince himself. .

for . a convention observed only for metrical purposes. and is . to and of each measure) has a purely metrical significance. Let me try to make . sometimes they coincide. the ear catches the stress in all variety. it tends to assert itself over them and to make itself felt as the accentual centre of the group. a short more or less short. The performance of concerted strict music only made possible by the observance of these timeits proportions. and exercises no control whatever over the rhythmical accent. which habitually employed and recognized in poetry. and often actually determined. advisable to discuss rather more fully the mark the beginning between stress accent and quantity accent.18 RHYTHM as it Each verse comes is both true to its itself and true to type . the rhythmical problem before the poet chaos. A semibreve is always equal to two minims. or whatever the ratio is may be. in orderly recurrence. In most languages the mathematical distinction between long and short (one long = two shorts) is largely theoretical. Meantime. short and long. or five quavers in that of a dotted crotchet. once it is realized that a double system of accentuation is is no difficulty The only thing that the custom of the bar-line. before proceeding to demonstrate this by example. short and long. on the other hand. Too much coincidence means monotony too much at-oddness means Now. quantitative relationships are stress. to strike the just balance. every note has to receive just value. be shown later that the bar-line (inserted in modern editions of sixteenth-century music for convenience to the eye. mathematically exact. may stand in the student's It will way is he has come to regard as necessarily indicating a strong rhythmic accent. and a dotted semibreve to three. the new relationship can still be stated in mathematical terms. very many syllables are potentially short or long. according to the amount of stress it receives in utterance in our own language. the space of a semibreve. sometimes they are at odds. and can judge (by the sense of the words) whether they are stressed or unIn other stressed. there in applying a similar conception to music. that you can classify them as short or long. it is. Consequently. Between the rhythmical accent (the accent of stress) and the metrical accent (the accent of quantity) there is a continual inter- play . and if that value is longer than the values of the notes in the immediate vicinity. and even if a composer likes to complicate matters by writing five crotchets to be played in instance. words. a long syllable is difference more or less long. In practice. and so on. by In music. quantity is dominated. and it is only when you see them in a particular context. the mind retains its hold on the quantities. | or I. perhaps.

there was no c2 . In the music of the sixteenth century ' agogic ' accent felt that it. So strongly. as there are in music. Had the notes in the example above been of equal duration. That instant is quite enough to make you conscious that an accent has been created. Try as you may. with an imaginary stress on the first note of each group. In the example already given. which catches your attention and keeps it in suspense for an instant until the flow is resumed. there is of course no difficulty. where the composer does not fit the music syllable by syllable to the text. that a note which is either preceded or followed (and followed) still more strongly. 38).EHYTHM this clear 19 by an example (Ex. save by an act of sheer violence. the student must find strongly felt. the tendency would have been to hear them mentally as regular groups of two. no metrical indication of any kind to prejudice you. cannot do that. without the aid of any dynamic increase. no text to show you where a stress might be required by the sense of the words. The reader. But in many places they give no such indication notably in certain movements of the Mass. inserting at the beginning of the piece the text to which it is fitted. Suppose you try to articulate the passage. but writes the music simply as music. you will not be able to feel that the main accents fall in any other places than the ones marked. modern There are the words. accommodate the syllables of the To articulate such passages. Now it is important to bear this principle in mind. one that is both preceded and by notes of smaller value than itself tends to have the force of an accent. That principle may be expressed briefly thus. and leaving the copyist or . when as a matter of fact it has not been so reinforced. for the simple reason that at each of these places there is a momentary arresting of the rhythmic flow. Here you have no time-signature. will naturally want to know how he is to find out where those accents are. indeed. certainly. is the force of the almost be said to carry its own making the listener imagine it has been reinforced by stress. It is obvious that to split it up into regular groups of three or regular groups of four is impossible. it may stress with there are no stress marks and sforza7idos. the singer (as the case text to their appropriate musical phrase. or four notes. finding that the bar-line gives him no clue to the position of the rhythmical accents. Here one does not. because the varying magnitude of the notes affords an actual basis of differentiation which the ear cannot ignore. and where they indicate (as they often do) the accentuation of the music to which they are set. three. out where the accents of duration are most be) to -^ may and in the preceding paragraph he has been given a principle on which to look for them.

should always test the rhythmical structure of his own counterpoint in this manner a properly constructed melody will convey to the ear just the same sense of freedom and balance as the prose . in which case you feel a lack of freedom. You can always tell when a piece of prose sounds unrhythmic. a melodic period will be felt as rhythmic or unrhythmic in so far as the distribution of the accents complies with this twofold artistic requirement freedom and balance. ambiguity but melodies are not always so obliging. there will be many doubtful cases. The rhythm of a phrase is frequently (some would say always ') anacrusic that is to say. There miist be enough of them to hold the melody firmly together and prevent it. They are too few. from sagging. exercising an important influence on the harmonic structure of the composition. The student may 1. and when you come to analyse it. built up of clearly defined accentual groups. the result being a feeling of hurry and congestion. and he will do well to bear the following maxims in mind : Accents should be neither too many nor too few. — . 2. It is largely a matter of discretion and common sense the important thing is to have some method whereby you can apprehend a melody as a rhythmical organism. you generally find its failure due to one of three causes 1. If the student happens to find a passage that is quite unamenable to analysis by the methods here suggested. and not as a haphazard series of unrelated sounds. The stresses are too many. 3. but they should not be so close together as to detract from each other's importance. and a rhythmical analysis of the same passage by different hands is quite likely to show some divergence in detail. often find himself in doubt. the accented note is not necessarily the first note of the phrase. They are too regular in their occurrence. but having nothing to do — . It has already been said more than once that the time-signature at the beginning of a sixteenth-century composition is of purely metrical significance. he is justified in regarding ' . He composition of a good writer. it as a case of dormitat Homerus — a momentary lapse of technique. Even so. but may be preceded by an unaccented note or series of notes an 'up-beat' as we should call it to-day. In music. just as in cases (1) and (2) you feel a lack of balance. 2. so to speak.: 20 RHYTHM . That does not matter in the least. in precisely the same manner. which gives an impression of flabbiness and want of vigour.

in Example 40 triple (|). The harmonic aspect of the question is discussed in Chapter V for the moment. the rhythm of the single voices that we have to consider. No. No. Our first two examples are very well known they are both from Palestrina's Stahat Mater. for instance. . i. Morales (Spain). and it can be seen at once that to attempt to place a strong accent at the beginning of every such group is to make nonsense of the words for instance . that in secular composition (madrigals. No. the size and conformation of the rhyth- The above is clearly gibberish. Fac ut tecum lugeam > > \^ \-> v_/ \^ fac ut ardeat cor > meum > In amando Christum Deum. language. No. while the stress marks indicate the real rhythmical accentuation. : mical groups as — — is irregular. to save space. It will be noticed that in both cases the scansion that is to say. 45 from Bertani ^ (Italy). 43 from Byrd (England). In Examples 39 a and 40 a we have the same two excerpts barred out in accordance with the real rhythmic accentuation in this case. however. Furthermore. the top line of the music only is given. 44 from Morley (England). but a few more examples are appended which have been purposely chosen to show that the principle enunciated is not confined to any one country. the ^ Quoted in Arion. rhythm of the words and not merely to reproduce their metre. but at that time resident in Munich). 42 from Orlando Lasso (Flemish. Examples 39 and 40 show them barred out at regular intervals in accordance with the time-signature. the signature is duple {%). To do so. It remains for the student to satisfy himself that such cases as this are normal. It must be remembered that the stress marks do not indicate anything in the nature of a violent sforzando. or school of composition. and not exceptional. he must study the scores of the period in detail. It now remains to prove that this is true. vol. 41 is from necessarily coincide with the metrical accents. . and so on) the principal of irregular accentuation is not so systematically followed as in the great sacred forms of music. this principle is observed whatever the time-signature may be (in Example 39. but are there merely to show that the rhythmic accents do not No. to bring out the and designedly so. In these examples the imaginary metrical divisions are shown by the bar-line. It is also worth noticing. it is. the intention being. canzonets.: EHYTHM 21 with the rhythmical structure of the parts taken individually. we shall see. .

does not exercise any control whatever over the rhythmical structure of any of the individual parts. it must be observed that a composer is nevertheless free to a considerable extent to settle the details of his rhythm in accordance with his own purely musical requirements. In the third measure. that even in setting a metrical text (this liberately chose — v^|— ^|— wj— w) he dean irregular musical accentuation. sacred or secular. for instance. it will be taken as clear that the measure or time-signature of any polyphonic composition of this period. frequently not the measure indicated by the timesignature of the composition. are also quite a To the question. the third hymn is in the trochaic four-foot. If the former is duple.) why did he not so set them? the only answer can be that he fair preferred it otherwise . From now onward. (Exx. While this is true in a general sense.23 EHYTHM tlie Mass and Motet. Here the second syllable of Stabat is unimportant. as he actually does. — — syllable oi dolorosa — clearly the accentual receives the value of a semibreve and no more climax of the line also but in this case the . (&) into 3 + 5. — semibreve follows a note of only half its own value. and vice versa. How skilfully he reconciles the two can be realized by examining the first instance in detail. so that the ear . musical equivalent of the verbal rhythm. on the other hand. groups of 8 do not coincide at all with the metrical divisions. but from its position before another consonant and particularly the consonant m it acquires a certain quantitative value. The examples already quoted from the Stabat Mater are worth considering rather more closely from this point of view. But he is careful to put this semibreve in between two other notes of equal value. and in the second of them the rhythmical Andr^ Pevernage) . It was remarked above that the words of the text often indicate the rhythmical outline of the music. as giving greater freedom and flexibility without in any way distorting or violating the rhythm of the words. so that it is not made unduly prominent. then. measure is Morley) illustrate this clearly. Examples 48 and 49 (both from illustrate the further point that a rhythmic group of 8 units need not subdivide geometrically into two fours or four twos in both these passages the unit of 8 divides arithmetically (a) into 6+2. and as a matter of fact he gives it the value of a semibreve. the latter is Examples 46 and 47 (both from often triple. It is obvious that Palestrina could equally well have set these lines without telescoping the measures. Frequently you will come across melodic sentences wliicli resolve naturally into regular units of duple or triple measure but the interesting thing to note here is that such . The composer is therefore at liberty to dwell on it to some extent. 50 and 51.

The difiiculty is largely one of preconception. the choirmaster can be trusted is all — — that needed to make its rhythmical importance unmistakable.' EHYTHM will 23 more easily recognize its accentual force. that any momentary reduction in the rate of the rhythmic flow tends to create an accent. they loved to make the rhythmical accents of each part cross and clash with those of every other part. A few examples have been chosen to illustrate this device. and that such an accent. In the examples so far given the text has clearly indicated to extent the rhythmical outline of the music.. He will not regret his crutches as soon as he finds out that he is not really a cripple. and more will be found in Chapter YIII. Applying this principle. having found already that in sacred music (even to metrical words) this same freedom. for it is an aspect of technique . This constant rhythmical conflict is the most vital and suggestive feature in the whole of the sixteenth-century technique. is the rhythmical ideal to which the composer aspires. of realizing that the bar-line is not really the tyrant we have come to imagine it. and the one which the student should above all endeavour to imitate in his own counterpoint exercises. A slight increase in dynamic stress for which. tends to carry its own stress with it. As soon as the student is able to convince himself of his new-found liberty. this irregularity which never degenerates into confusion. That is just what we should have expected. whether there is any evident reason why he should have given this particular one the is preference. It will not be a waste of time for the student to examine some of the remaining examples by himself. for it is a real technical discipline. He may find it hard at first. In articulating these passages the only principle to guide us is the one already enunciated. viz. he will feel nothing but delight at being free to construct his rhythms in accordance with his own artistic instinct. we find once more that the accents occur irregularly. and that the rhythmical groups or units defined by them are correspondingly irregular in size. and (2) if so. but this need cause him no discouragement. considering carefully in each case (1) whether the composer could have found other rhythmical equivalents for the given texts. some To supplement these. But the composers of the sixteenth century were not content with the effect obtainable by contrasting the real rhythmical accent with the imaginary metrical accent. Above all. though strictly speaking an accent of duration onlj''. one or two examples from settings of the Mass are appended to show the student how the same ideal of freedom and balance is aimed at by the composer when there is no verbal rhythm to influence him.

56 the signature is C instead of (J: and the unit is the crotchet instead of the minim] Here one must observe the prevalence of the 3-note rhythm telescoping the 4-note measures. the fourth beat being the commencement of a new phrase. In Ex. them. except that. same time in the but the accents clash systematically at in the interval of a beat. is must be repeated. the student could feel himself on sufficiently firm ground and many of an extraordinary now be clear why we have method of procedure. at the section commencing with the words Immaculata castitas (the whole of this motet is quoted in M. It was necessary in order that when we came to illustrate the varieties of rhythmic combination which distinguish the music of this period from all the music of a later date. 55 the minim is edict. and not be compelled to ask do you arrive at this ? Why do you scan this part in such and such a manner. it stated). the bar-lines are inserted show the metrical divisions. tlie Englisli composers paid special attention. the unit. as pains to carry out further analysis on his The method they illustrate is the rule. — ' ' . not the exception. The rhythmic analysis. the principles of rhythmical articulation examined at such length governing a single line of melody. ? How ently ' All we have to do now is to leave the examples to speak for themselves. . while the stress marks show where the rhythmical accents are most strongly felt. and the occurrence of four consecutive 5-note rhythms. in the tenor part measure) is (commencing at the third beat of the sixth worth noticing. aided by common . to In these examples. as previously. but is explained by the termination of a phrase on the third beat of the ninth measure. In Ex. for the same rhythm prevails at the alto part. determined on general principles (already sense it is not intended as a dogmatic exposition. The next two instances (both from Byrd) call for no particular comment. and to assure the reader that though they have been chosen specially to illustrate this aspect of the technique. Byrd and Morley in It will daring and resourcefulness. Another fine instance of the same device is to be found in Josquin des Prds' motet Ave Maria. they are in no sense abnormal. The melodic progression of the tenor measures 8 and 9 is also unusual in Palestrina. and the ingenuity with which these 3-note rhythms are made to overlap one another in the different parts a curious complexity which is usually more characteristic of the English madrigalists than the Italian.24 EHYTHM particular. Vincent d'Indy's Cours de Composition musicale). and any one may satisfy himself who will be at the own account. exhibit to whicL. and this other part quite differto understand the ' at every turn. in which every detail claims the authority of a papal One or two points claim attention.

(I time m our notation). musical history will constantly come across the terms Mood. : . (3) Time Imperfect and Prolation Perfect o (4) • iop|0 III ppp III (2 o (2 time). Byrd (with his habitual carelessness in these matters) has used the signature C indifferently in both cases. . . RHYTHM 25 although the minim is the unit in the first instance and the crotchet in the second. part (despite the signature C) each beautiful one from Wilbye). ^ In conclusion. Time. The carefulness of Palestrina (as illustrated in the two previous examples) is no In the short extract (Ex. becomes prominent. appeared (though the term was sometimes used loosely as a synonym for Time). . pp^o (2) o • ppp opp pp II fD o o . . starts off in a smoothly-flowing | measure. Time Perfect and Prolation Imperfect (sign O or 0). to : relation of the Breve to the Semibreve O or 0). . in which a 5-minim phrase. a few words about the time-signatures employed _ The student of in the sixteenth century may not be out of place. treated In the last example (a very canonically. in Mood Imperfect. o p»r:3 I i o II fs>p (I time). a Long was equal Time expressed the Ct ). likewise could be perfect (sign usually absence of a dot. Mood two. or imperfect (sign C or Prolation expressed the relation of the Semibreve to the Minim. Time Imperfect and Prolation Imperfect II (sign Ct ).. is the 2-minim sequence in the bass heard against two freely-moving upper parts. and he should know what they mean. in its proper senses. viz. the two lower voices the feature combining to pit their stress against that of the upper one. . They all refer to the methods of sub-dividing a note into notes of lesser value. pp pp II time). and Prolation. Prolation was to be taken as imperfect. and could also be perfect ('greater') or imperfect Its perfection was expressed by means of a dot. and the time-relationships in actual use were the four combinations of Time and Prolation. also from Byrd) less characteristic. By had the dis- end of the sixteenth century Mood. to three Long and the Breve in Mood Breves. (sign G). (1) (very rare) Time Perfect and Prolation Perfect (sign O). in the ('lesser'). 59. it expressed the relations of the Perfect.

This proportional notation was sometimes to indicate useful for supplying the defects of the existing mensural system. They show that each measure contains so many semibreves. the sixteenth century could. and Proportions of Inequality. Suppose a sixteenth-century composer wanted to write a passage sounding as in Ex. In addition to these time-signatures. : . such accents being shown only by the conformity of the harmonic procedure in the matter of cadences. what we should call a measure. or three times. Similarly. and not the minim. f correcting |. by inserting the words Proportio Dupla. The original note-values. or vice versa. This was especially in secular music. To the individual part their significance is entirely nonrhythmical.J Towards the end of the century the sign C "was also employed. Early in the sixteenth century the Flemish composers habitually employed unnecessary and complex proportions in order to puzzle the layman and guard the mysteries of their latter. 61 a. have both indicated ^ time. Proportio sub-dupla. |. ruled otherwise. (I. . however. or simply the signs f | i. or Tripla. (J Custom. and merely arithmetical. or four previous value. . and so on). so O or O could be used indifferently for f by analogy. and similarly with the other proportions. as we have already noticed (Exx. and semiquaver in the latter book corresponding precisely to that of minim. In the first book of madrigals (published 1555) the signature is always <$ and the time f in the second book (published 1586) the signature is always C and the time "|. for instance. had no sign when . by means of the Proportional system. indicate greater complexity in the subdivision of note values. 57 and 58). or |. and so on. the treatment of crotchet. two . The former expressed what we may call geometrical relationships e. are purely metrical. to indicate quite irrational. for just as time. the composer indicated that each note must now receive only |. And at the risk of wearying the reader. This is clearly seen by a perusal of Palestrina's madrigals. so far as they indicate a system of accentuation. The to be divided into three crotchets instead of a minim was but this could be done by the help of Proportion. &c. crotchet. or Quadrupla. could be restored simply by inverting the proportional sign. The Proportions were roughly of two kinds Proportions of Multiplicity. g. it must be reiterated that these C and should. quaver. or J of its previous value. meant that each note had times its to receive twice. time-signatures. 61 Proportion did it for him in the manner shown by Ex. and quaver respectively in the former. sub-tripla.26 EHYTHM . suspensions. The English composers were less exact in the matter of notation. of course. . each of which is in turn equivalent in value to so many minims they show nothing more than that. the crotchet being the unit.

40 a) an approximate transformation of values has been made to emphasize this point. 27 but repute. (I). . otherwise the note-values in the illustrations are those actually employed by the composer. inserted. f.EHYTHM craft. used mainly as a kind of mental gymnastic in the training of singers and composers. I. They are from a hitherto unknown Tudor composer named Bugsworthy. There is no reason why the modern student should not try his hand at some exercises in the more unusual comin fact. 62 is purely mechanical. But here again he must keep the distinction between rhythmical accent binations . such as |. The proportion known as sesquialtera. Exact guidance is impossible to give. and not content himself with merely finding. 63 has six- demanded some slight mental activity. Neither of them is of any great musical value but it . those of inequalit}' need not trouble us Beside the simple geometrical proportions already mentioned. Ex. but one may say that to the sixteenth-century composer a semibreve meant very much what a minim or even a crotchet means to-day. 62 and 63 have been notes. and metrical accent in the forefront of his mind. g. It was the sixteenthcentury way of saying 'I = of preceding a direction which is actual composition. it is extremely desirable that he should do. f ^q. more complex relationships. f. ' ' ' '. . is obvious that while Ex. . and seldom. The student should perhaps be warned against giving the teenth-century notes their nineteenth-century time values. ever. found their way into The other Proportions — — much. successive groups of seven notes which may be sung plausibly against successive groups of five To illustrate the difference. bj. Exx. three of the new notes having to be played in the same time as two of the old. howwas of considerable utility its effect was to shorten the value of each note by one-third. The mind must free itself from the association of white notes with slow tempo In one example (Ex. ' I — in constant use to-day.the end of the centur^^ the practice had fallen into disand the proportions were used mainly. if ever. were recognized in theory. as we saw. e. and so The more elaborate of these were on. for bona fide notational purposes.

It is recommended. upwards and downstrict . melody may be of some First. and not merely in terms of pitch. it is in rhythmical misconception. that the student (2) should work within these limits. Underlying all the rules and . Nine times out of ten when we speak of melody we mean rhyth' ' ' ' . in this. hoped. The English composers. or in the Plagal form of that mode. slightly amongst the different authorities but it is substantially defined in these two rules (1) That such extension must never exceed a major third in any : one direction. That the total extension (upwards and downwards) must never exceed that of a perfect fourth. the remaining details of melodic construction will not cause him the slightest difficulty. The these forms has already been given (Ex. as may be seen from instances given in Chapter practice vin. and once the student has grasped the rhythmic principles followed in the sixteenth century. were a law unto themselves. The extent of the concession varies . The reason why a piece of academic counterpoint never suggests for an instant the melodic outlines of Byrd or Lasso or Palestrina is invariably found to lie The reader of this volume. it may now wards. as a matter of fact. as a matter of discipline. All the examples of rhythm quoted in our last chapter were at the same time examples of melody. to which. as in other respects. as to interval and pitch. is usually conceded. that is to say. will be able to keep clear of such misconception but a few remarks about the purely melodic elements of the sixteenth-century . the of the Palestrina school conforms very closely. as to '^^ assistance. a series of notes whose mutual relationmic melody ship is considered in terms of accent and duration. Every melody must be conceived as being in a definite mode. and as being definitely either in the Authentic compass of each of be added 1) that in practice a certain extension of compass. compass.IV MELODY practice The connexion between rhythm and melody is so close that in it is dangerous to try and isolate them from each other. however. Second.

' '. "Wooldridge {Oxford History. 376) in the following terms 'The governing principle. More than two leaps in the same direction are almost alwaj^s . The student had better regard it as a maxim for general guidance that is to say. and undoubtedly gives the clue to one of Palestrina's technical secrets. have become fixed in their memory. Wooldridge admits. however. The following more specific rules will be found to embody the melodic technique of Palestrina with a fair degree of accuracy 1. Unaccompanied singers to-day are sometimes asked to sing progressions that the sixteenth-century singers certainly could not have managed. as Prof. however. . technically speaking. . It is not.' The italics are ours and they are there because the passage is an important one. ' ' . previously heard on instruments which find the pitch mechanically and without any trouble. Palestrina himself. If they can do so. 29 is the general principle that each part must be easilyand if some of the restrictions imposed seem arbitrary. were by no means easy or familiar to singers who had to find them by the ear alone. a rule that can be applied mechanically.e. the student must remember that many intervals and progressions which to us (thanks to centuries of harmonic and instrumental training) have become easy and familiar. is beautifully varied by the constantly changing value of the notes [i. ' '. same direction are Subject to this condition. provided that every time he does so he can satisfy himself that he cannot write the passage equally well without infringing it. of Palestrina's melody is of course that of conjunct movement this. Two successive leaps (if taken at all) should be preceded and followed by movement (preferably conjunct) in the opposite direction of the leaps. does not so apply it exceptions he says may be found even in his own work and. tchich are permitted upon the condition of not continuing in the direction of the leap. everything depends on the manner of the infraction. it is only because such progressions. with no instrumental doubling to cover up inaccuracies. secondary rhythm] and also by occasional disjunct intervals. as a rule which he may infringe. the following pairs of leaps in the possible occasionally . but immediately returning by gradual motio7i towards the point of departure. as a matter of fact. the exceptions are much more frequent than that may be found might lead one to suppose. so that their sense of relative pitch is permanently extended.: : : MELODY observances singable. bad two leaps in the same direction preceded or followed by a step in the same direction hardly less so. And in any case. ii. 2. . The general method of melodic construction is expounded by Prof.

13. but should obviously be used with great caution in any other part. Leaps of an augmented fourth or diminished fifth are forbidden. The second of two crochets (if a harmony note) can leap to its octave. and third descending followed by fourth are less frequent. (/) Perfect fourth descending. leap. followed by perfect fourth. perfect fourth. followed fifth. . but. cadence deserves particular denunciation. as a rule. 4. The employment of chromatic intervals is forbidden likewise that of augmented and diminished intervals. the direct leap of these intervals forbidden care should be taken to avoid any melodic progression that brings them into 10. 8.30 (a) MELODY Perfect fifth ascending or descending. The leap of the major sixth is forbidden (exceptions to this enough to necessitate its rigid observance). Any larger leap.) {g) Perfect fifth followed by minor third. followed by perfect fourth. followed by minor third. 12. Leaps of the major and minor seventh are forbidden . Quavers should be employed very sparingly (except in the . 11. followed by major third. {d) Minor third ascending or descending. Not only undue prominence. or to its fifth (or lesser interval). and perfect fifth. 3. is either preceded or followed by movement in the opposite direction. Usually it is the latter leap followed by step is much more common than step followed by (e) : leap. Leaps of the octave and of the minor sixth wms^ both be preceded and followed by movement in the opposite direction of the 5. by perfect (c) (These are fairly common in the bass. Major or minor third ascending. The leap of a minor third is occasionally both preceded and followed by a step in the same direction. (Fourth ascending followed by third. 7. The leaps that can be so treated are those of the major and minor third. The common text-book rule permitting the use of the rule are rare latter in 9. also any leap exceeding the octave. is . (&) Perfect fourth ascending or descending.) Major third ascending or descending. is only permissible in a real emergency. not to its minor sixth. followed by major or minor third. or vice versa (and still more by a major third). 6.

it is perhaps better not to use the tie. The rhythmic figure' f^ is not used by Palestrina. mind 1. or bass as the case may be. strictly speaking. soprano. apply in Ct (i. 31 They must only be employed they must be both in pairs i. Scriptural. can only be tied to a note of equal value. never on them. because the entire movements quoted in Chapters VI and VII will give him excellent models for a start. 113). he will begin to construct his own melodies. tenor. as the equivalent of a crotchet approached and quitted by step. i. and in addition to what has already been said. (The student will remember that ties do not. the following few points should be borne in .e. to quavers (3) and semiquavers respectively.: MELODY cadential formula . It must be written definitely for a particular type of voice. If the note is prolonged by half its normal duration. . 3. e. ' ' . as stated.e. . In C (4) time what is here said of crotchets and quavers applies pari passu shown at Ex. These opening chapters have attempted to set before him the necessary data specific examples of sixteenth-century melody are not given. It 4. liturgical. and for further specimens he must turn to the scores of the period. I . By now. but to place a dot on the other side of the bar line. or to one of half its own value except that at the end of a composition a semibreve or breve may be prolonged into the final chord. Rules 12 and 13.) A tied crotchet (except in C. . A note and best avoided. The entire plan of this book is based on the author's conviction that the counterpoint of the sixteenth century should be first approached by way of melody and rhythm. and they must only be employed between the minim beats. The melody should be thought of in long stretches as long as the duration of one of the movements in a Mass. should be set to definite words. exist in the music of this period. alto. and that the student should make himself thoroughly familiar with the type of melodicrhythmic outline to be aimed at before attempting the harmonic combination of such outlines in two or more parts. though it can be found elsewhere. probably. and therefore ties are sometimes necessary as a matter of notation. the motets quoted in Chapter VII. or of — 2. or secular. %) time. ^ time) is of very rare occurrence. They are only notes whose value is prolonged beyond the conclusion of the measure it is convenient to us to use bar lines to show the conclusion of each measure. Rests should be of sufficient frequency and duration to meet a singer's requirements.

32
5.

MELODY
Although the melody
is

for

one voice only, yet

it

must be

to

a certain general extent imagined in connexion with other

imaginary voices. The composition as a whole, for instance, would be punctuated by cadences, and this particular voice would have to play a definite part in the formation of such
cadences.
at

what

point,

The student should therefore make up his mind and on what degrees of the mode, these

imaginary cadences occur, so that at those points his melody may shape itself accordingly. It is not necessary that such cadences should always coincide with the conclusion of a phrase in this particular voice.

Sections

may

overlap

:

that

is

to say, while three out of four voices, perits

haps, bring their phrase to

conclusion at a cadence, the
phrase, so constructed as

other voice

may

enter with a

new

to assist in the formation of the cadence, but proceeding

course without interruption (see, for instance, the entry of the tenor in Veni, Sponsa Christi, quoted in full, Ex. 192, or the entry of the alto with the new theme to the words praeparavit in aeternum in the fiftieth bar of
its
first
'

on

'

the same work).
is a vexed question which every teacher must As the incidence of the measure is a real factor in the construction of the work (see above, p. 17), the present writer is inclined to recommend regular barring, with a stress mark But if this ( > ) to show the incidence of the rhythmical accents. is used, it must be clearly understood that it implies nothing in the

The use of bar-lines

decide for himself.

nature of a sforzando.

V
HARMONY
I. Before discussing the harmonic technique of the sixteenth century in detail, it is well to remind the student that concord is the basis of it all. Discord is an incident, a momentary interrup-

Imagine four people walking abreast one of an instant, and then has to run to catch the others up or possibly one of them waits for him, and then the two run together till they have got into line again with the other two. The sixteenth-century view of discord (and it is a mistake to assume without consideration that this view is permanently obsolete) is
tion of concord.
;

them
;

stops for

that of a similar breaking line.

Instead of

all

the parts moving

together to the

left behind (susfor him to rejoin pended) for a them, concord being restored as he does so; such interruption is governed by certain clearly defined methods of procedure, which are known as the preparation and resolution of discord but though some such definition is necessary for the purpose of explanation, it is misleading in so far as it seems to endow the discord with an objective existence. Strictly speaking, the discord itself is merely a method of preparing a fresh concord, and the object of such
;

new concord, one of them gets moment and then the others wait

preparation (not in

itself necessary) is to

obtain variety of texture,

maintain their rhythmic independence. At the same time there is no doubt that the sixteenthcentury composers, hj constantly employing such procedure, became increasingly sensitive to the emotional effect of discord, and to the possibility of employing it for a harmonic, and not a purely rhythmical purpose. It is also necessary to be quite clear beforehand as to the number of harmonies that may be employed in a measure or (as it may be convenient to call it) a bar. Many text-books say that two harmonies in a bar are permissible, others, challenging them, that only one can be permitted. Both these views are quite arbitrary and may be disregarded. It all depends on the time-signature. In * time (Ct) there are four metrical accents in the bar, and thus each minim beat is potentially (not necessarily) a new harmonic unit, i. e. you can have four harmonies in the bar (or three or two or one, B 2446

and

to enable the different voices to

34

HARMONY

In f time (O or 0) it depends but not as a rule more than four). on tlie speed of the movement. If the pace is fairly rapid, the semibreve is the unit, and you cannot have more than three harmonies in the measure, intermediate minims being treated as nonaccentual. In slower tempo, the minim can be taken as the unit, and a change of harmony is permitted on each minim beat if In I time (G) the measure is divided into two groups of desired. three minims, and each group may have its own three harmonies. Similarly in | (O), if the student wants to practise himself in this extremely rare measure, there is no reason why each of the three groups of three minims should not have its own three harmonies. In * time (C) the crotchet is the unit, and once more four harmonies are permitted. For the greater part of the period we are considering, the standard duple measure, in sacred music at any rate, was the ^, not the I, and the student would be well advised to adhere to the former of these, unless he is working to a secular model. And in the latter case he must be quite clear that a bar of i is equivalent to a bar of gj and not to half a bar of g- The

change

purely one of notation. assumed that the student has already a knowledge of Elementary Harmony. If he has not, he would be well advised to acquire it from some other source before attempting to master the
is

11. It is

to the general

complicated technique of the period under discussion. With regard method of harmonic progression, all we shall do here is to remind him that (apart from the proper treatment of discord,
for his

which will be explained presently) he must depend

harmonic

effect very largely on the variety of sound that can be extracted from This is mainly a matter of spacing and of the imperfect concord.

doubling unexpected notes; any double sounds convincing if it arises naturally from the progression of the parts, i. e. if the note doubled is approached and quitted in both parts by conjunct and contrary motion. The spacing, too, should always be considered in connexion with vocal colour. If you are writing in five parts, you have five combinations of four different voices available, and by employing the different registers of each voice in varying combinations (e. g. the tenor in his highest register on top, the alto in his lowest at the bottom, and the soprano (low) and bass (high) intermediately, a great variety of colour-effect is obtainable. In six-part writing you have many more four-part combinations available, and, by a similar freedom in combining the different registers, you can get an almost inexhaustible variety of timbre, and your seemingly simple common chords and chords of the sixth become susceptible of constant subtle differentiations of quality. These fine shades are

and ultimately it was only employed in this d2 . ideas as to the best it is may give the student some unison. and the combinations of these (i. it is a fifth. The | chord was so frequently preceded . best advantage. 1. In six- part work.and three-part writing to vary the fuller four-part combinations. treating the handful of chords the the octave. When writing for four voices. Changing notes. The Interval of the Fourth. concordant interval. and the various formulae employed resolution. Never think of your chords in the abstract think of them not only as chords. a judicious contrast of perfect with imperfect concords. and was felt to require resolution by the descent of one degree to the third. the major and minor third. 3. for instance. by force of association. hoped. e. The interval of the fourth and chord of the 2The use of accented and unaccented passing notes. combined with a rhythmical conflict. 4. the major and minor sixth. it actually acquired the character of a discord. Even . | and fifth. can give the ordinary ear quite enough to engage its undivided attention. rather. and the but more so than the third or sixth. As harmony developed. in their 5. and five-part combinations can be drawn. less concordant than the The treatment of the fourth Scientifically. 2. Prohibited consecutives. three-. the perfect chords). These we must examine in their due order. but as combinations of vocal colour. and you will soon cease to complain that your material resources are too limited you will complain. viz. is often puzzling to students at first. and apply the same principle consistently. Suspensions. . four-. by a suspension {% 3) that the fourth ceased to have the effect of a concord. there should be a very moderate amount of six-part writing: the full six-part effect should generally be kept for a climax and for the end of a movement the six parts being regarded in the main as a reserve. 1. in two-part writing. let there be frequent passages of two. triad or | chord came into constant use. These general remarks. would not combine with the third) fell into disrepute moreover. whence an infinite variety of two-. unlike the fifth and sixth.: HARMONY to a sensitive ear 35 more expressive than any gross modern combinaand tinkling cymbal. the fourth (which. that for their very prodigality you cannot use them to the tions of sounding brass . There are now certain specific points calling for detailed consideration. I manner of — which constitute his harmonic material.

115 and 122). resolving on to the | chord (see below. e. but they are very rare. 71 is not permissible. as in Ex. but in practice the chord is usually treated as a double suspension. Theoretically. 66-8). and must But between any two of the upper parts it is be so treated. the minim can also be treated as This. 72 and 73 from Palestrina).36 HARMONY manner. and such a progression as that shown in Ex. Double passing notes in thirds and sixths are freely used (Exx. 65. a concord. and the last crotchet (F). quitted in conjunct is movement Exx. is a discord. there is nothing to prevent the sixth remaining while the fourth resolves (| 3). Such notes are commonly of crotchet value. Unaccented passing notes of course can be used freely in between two harmonies. is somewhat infrea passing note (Exx. 70 the preceding harmony is the chord of the fifth. occurring between any of the upper parts and the bass. In Ex. in resolving it. As regards the chord of the 4. but where the harmony is only changing at the semibreve. i. The only rule governing such pro- . Exx. 69 and 70 illustrate what meant. 69 the second crotchet in the second bar being a constituent of the preceding harmony can be quitted by leap. for the E persisting in the bass). only. discussed in the next section. The interval of the fourth. and may be sounded freely without preparation so long as it forms part of the harmony of the | chord (Ex. quent. 64 illustrates this point the G's and the C on the second beat of the measure could not be sounded against one another like this if it were not . however. which can be used freely without preparation. and that consequently a crotchet that looks like a new harmony note may have to be treated technically as a discord. that is to say. are constantly heard as upper constituents of the and ^ chords. In Ex. the rule being that such notes must be approached and quitted by conjunct motion (the exception to this rule is. The student should remember that the minim is normally the smallest harmonic unit in f measure. Even the augmented fourth is so used. 'changing notes'). Exceptions to this rule can be found. s. diminished 5^ fifth. 2. although it is impossible to regard this interval But of course both it and its correlative. It cannot be regarded as creating a new harmony of the sixth. the as a concord. not being a constituent of that chord. it will be clear from the above remarks that it must be treated as a discord. must be quitted by step. Passing Notes.v.

and if the progression stands the test. though without rhythmical significance as regards the individual parts. he can use it without fear. sixteenth century). employed in combination. It is impossible to explain this chordally in . Exx. This restriction is in accordance with the accepted metrical rule that the timesignature. 74 (the passage quoted actually occurs in Assumpta est Maria. minims are constantly treated as unaccented passing notes. whenever doubtful as to the rightness of a particular prois of which in itself perfectly normal therefore. be used with some even in Palestrina's hands they often sound perfunctory and conventional. the parallel motion is maintained until concord with the remaining part or parts is reached. gression. but not (so far as the writer's observation goes) as accented passing notes There seems to have been a this applies equally to the % (G) time. be gression. however. Accented passing notes of crotchet value are occasionally taken in any part on the even beats of the measure. the student should apply this test of horizontal analysis. in any case. HARMONY a series of 37 gressions seems to be that once two parts have started on such moving thirds or sixths. either in ^ or f time (Exx. dox writers like Palestrina avoid using them in an upward progression. Often a note in one of the parts (usually the bass) has to do a kind Take the progression shown by Ex. and which may. whatever the tempo. does yet indicate a regular system of strong and weak harmonic accentuation throughout the composition as a whole. tacit agreement that the minim was too imposing a figure to be treated as an accented passing note.. Such parallel . The B in the bass is a from the point of view of the soprano. terms that would have been intelligible to Palestrina explanation is very simple. In his own writing. restraint progressions should. but tenor and bass are in concord on each beat. . and also on the odd beats of the measure. each and regular. The whole passage must be regarded as a complex of three two-part progressions. but this and similar progressions are exceedingly common in all the writings of the of double duty. be used sparingly. It is obvious that by working on such principles he will obtain (as the sixteenth-century composers obtained) a considerably wider range of harmonic freedom than the text-book rules allow. but as far as concerned it is a harmony note. Similarly the E in but the real passing note the tenor the tenor is is a discord against the F of the soprano (and its resolution is normal). in a downward proIf the f is fairly fast. 75 and 7& afford further illustrations of this in four and five parts. or their effect is weakened. more Orthoparticularly in the upper part. These accented passing notes should. 77-81).

instead of falling step by step to the next degree. In the other two cases. The first note of the group must be of the value of a dotted {d) minim. trina. e. or of a dotted minim. 95 and 96). v. (Ex. Byrd's five-part more freedom in the treatthemselves much Earlier writers allow ment of the figure.38 3. a harmony note. the fourth note will also be of the value of a or upwards. Apropos of this formula. The third note may be of the value of a minim. The governing conditions {a) are : There After is always a group of four notes comprising the formula leap of a third. but (so far is as the most orthodox writers go) always with certain definite re- Subject to these restrictions. 95 will show. and may commence on any beat of the measure though Palestrina prefers it to start on one of the even beats. that a discordant passing note. it is minim ' This formula may be employed in any part. It is constantly used for introducing variety of style into composition. Parry remarks {Groves Dictionary. and must be a harmony note. (6) its (c) degree to the note omitted in its leap. 314) What is particularly noticeable about it ig) . : ' is that it gets so thoroughly fixed as a figure in the is minds of musilost sight of. p. This irregular treatment is found repeatedly in writers like Josquin and Pierre de la Rue.' This is not historically correct. as Ex. may fall by the leap of a third to a new harmony note. If (e) [f) a minim. the principle is. the fourth note will be a crotchet. the voice concerned must return one (Exx. ' work of Palesand later still we find John Farmer. ' ' The strict method of resolution does not acquire the force of a rule until the latter half of the century. in his madrigal Take Time while Time doth last' (1599). its return As an example he quotes a passage from one step backward]. or of a crotchety and is. vol. s. ii. cians that ultimately its true significance sometimes and it made actually appears in a form in which the discord of the seventh by the passing note is shorn of its resolution [i. Harmony '. strictions. noticeably in the Byrd was only following an older tradition. in any case. 82 to 90 will enable us to frame the proper rules for the employment of this formula. The group of instances given in Exx. briefly. and treated as a passing note. using the figure exactly as Brumel had used it a hundred years or so before (Exx. HARMONY Changing Notes. Mass 94). 82-4). which too cursorily mentioned in existing text-books. It is worth noticing too that earlier in the same Credo Byrd employs the formula strictly .

discords being prepared on the first beat. The student may also notice Exx. the first. especially Suspensions. It will be noticed from Exx. In f measure (O or 0) the same principle may be followed. 105). of course it may proceed by conjunct : or downwards. ' ' ig) as having three accents only in each measure. 101). third. 100. the B in the bass are accented D and the second B are harmony harmonic skeleton of the passage being shown in (e) (/) The treatment of the suspension looks at first more regular than it actually is. these chords are taken on three successive minim beats. 4. The use of the figure in | and I time is shown in Exx. sight ' '. 102. The second notes. a curious instance from Palestrina of a double group of changing notes in fourths between alto and tenor. But more often. 98. and the discord itself on the resolution occurring intervening (c) strong ' beat. either is a concord.HARMONY a la Palestrina. The student had better avoid In the second of these examples. discord being prepared on the first. and resolved on the third minim beat of any group (Ex. 107 and 108. rarely first D in the soprano and the passing notes. But in slow sustained passages semibreve beats may be substituted for minim beats (Exx. 106). the first this. 89 and 90 that the use of the nota gambiata (as the Italians call it) can be combined with conjunct movement in one or more of the other parts. (6) As ' a rule. fourth. 97) which the soprano clashes recklessly. against He is Appended (Ex. or disjunct motion. the preparation and ' ' weak on the beats of the measure. and resolved on the third (Exx. and fifth beats being regarded as strong the second. 39 evidently knew very well what he was about. taken on the second. 99). in which . In Ex. and succeeded by a chord of resolution. by the way. even if an incidental clash is thereby created. id) More the crotchet beat is substituted for the minim beat (Exx. and either upwards In the case of suspended discords various restric- tions have to be observed {a) Every discord must be preceded by a chord of preparation. If the note suspended freely. if the tempo is fairly fast. (a not uncommon usage. 104. taken on the second. f time is considered Ex. and sixth as weak (Ex. each three-minim group is similarly treated. 103). In I measure (G). 91-3. 93 it is seen combined with a suspension in one of the other parts at a cadence).

(h) (i) resolution of a discord is effected by the fall of one degree in the part suspended (Ex. Other ornamental resolutions. Definite examples from actual composition can be found passim in the illustrations to this The and other chapters. 118. and sixth can be freely used (Exx. 121). also . Its treatment is then that of . 115 is theoretically all right. 117 to 126). 127) cf. 131. be heard together in different parts (other than the bass) of the same chord. 86. VIII. minim are rare. 128. Such resolution is often given one of the ornamental forms shown in skeleton form in Exx. there is something to be said for consistency in treating suspensions. 130). 125). The idiom shown (Jc) formula in cadence. 123. 37) is usually the only way of explaining such passages theoreti' ' cally (Ex. 116. except occasionally to avoid the consecutives otherwise arising from the resolution of a suspended fifth. And even that of a complete chord (Ex. 132). and does not imagine himself to be writing is in Ex. and there is no reason whatever why these should not be employed. Double suspensions of the third. as in Ex. are very rare. and the semibreve in the second but despite Palestrina's authority. 107. 114 a particularly common in the (l) Eoman style. 128 is resolving. Ex.40 tlie HARMONY taken as the unit of preparation and resolution in the first bar. But a number of resolutions used in the English school will be found in Chap. (m) A discord are both and its resolution should not. While a discord more of the other parts may move to a new note of the same harmony (Ex. but not idiomatic. fifth. The method of horizontal analysis described above (p. 99. 109 to 113. moving in conjunct and contrary motion (Exx. as a rule. and such instances is . In this way a chain of suspensions can often be formed. or even create an entirely fresh harmony (Exx. bar 1). one or (bar (o) 2). 109). But the resolution is frequently heard in the is bass whilst the upper part (n) suspended (Exx. and best avoided. fourth. (p) A discord may be sounded on the odd beat if the note creating the discord has been heard as part of the concord on the previous beat (Exx. provided the student works consistently to an English model. 129). Ex. such as that shown in Ex. except occasionally when the two parts concerned 119.

The procedure may be expressed in general form somewhat as follows . Here. the consecutive thirds of Brahms. However. can be quite as mechanical and meaningless as the consecutive octaves. fifths. while the fourths and fifths fell into a disrepute from which it has been the privilege of the twentieth century to rescue them. The natural perversity of mankind is certain to assert itself against restrictive legislation of this sort. our present task is not speculative. In any case. you rarely or never find such as those shown in Exx. whereas consecutive thirds and sixths (within reasonable limits) are tolerated ? The present writer can give him no certain answer. which ordained that the perfect concords only should be employed in the music of the Church. The question is merely. the rules of the Five Orders of Counterpoint show that their perpetrators have no intention of consulting the ' ' ' composers whose practice they profess to codify. To-day it is the turn of the thirds and sixths to be viewed askance by serious composers. This licence is 41 frequent in the madrigalists. the student may well ask. 137-43 so rarely that when you do find them you may reasonably consider them as an inadvertence. octaves but of any other interval if the sequence continues for He any length of time. What were those conditions ? . is The rule prohibiting consecutive fifths and octaves familiar to every student. Let us put them on one side and turn. but merely echoing one another at a higher or lower pitch. Why are consecutive fifths forbidden absolutely. once again. the consecutive major ninths of Debussy. and we know (for it can be established inductively) that in that period certain consecutives were as a matter of fact prohibited under certain conditions. xi. We are examining the music of a particular period. chap. The various theories that have been advanced can be disposed of with ludicrous ease ^ probably the whole business dates back to Pope John's edict of 1322. not only of creating a true polyphony. but more sparingly used in sacred music. 133-6 on the other. as usual. can see for himself that two parts moving in octaves are not independent of one another at all. the consecutive minor ninths of Stravinsky.: ' HARMONY an ordinary suspended discord. and the inevitable result of the Pope's edict was that the thirds and sixths (under the protective cloak of faux-hourdo7i) became more than ever established in popular favour. however. but practical. . On the one hand. Watt's The Foundations of Music. and fourths of the earliest organum. — ^ Cf. Dr. Prohibited Consecutives. to the music of the period. 5. you do constantly find the progressions shown in Exx. and thus not This is true.

) A suspension may be said to temper the wind to the shorn consecutive. Palestrina. seems to have borne it with considerable fortitude (Ex. there is not the slightest objection to the harmonic succession of fifths or octaves. Consecutive fifths by contrary motion are also best avoided between extreme parts. but that they are less likely to be heard. . ' ' The student should note. every school . Consecutives on successive semibreve beats are broken by the intervention of a minim if it is a harmony note. no matter what the value of the note. and in any case when writing for four voices or less. The reason is not that such progressions are harder to avoid in five-part than in fourpart writing. 152) . Consecutive bare fourths are of frequent occurrence between upper once again one can only remark that the rule forbidding them is out of all relation to sixteenth-century practice. 146 and 147 are continually met with in writers of 145). Consecutive unessential discords are occasionally created by the . but this is by the student. And consecutives usually forbidden are often tolerated when there is a break in the sense of the words to lessen their consequentiality (Ex. 148) and in composition for more than two parts passages such as those shown in Exx. that such progressions as those shown in Exx. The scholastic rule that ' Passages which would be incorrect without suspensions are equally incorrect with Consecutive 2. . them is demonstrably out of all relation to the facts. Consecutives on successive minim beats are similarly broken by the intervention of a crotchet not otherwise. but not if it is a passing discord. it is said. Consecutive octaves are best avoided even by contrary motion. provided they do not occur between the same pair of voices. 149 and 150 are so common that the rule cannot possibly be mainespecially. 3. HAEMONY fifths (and a fortiori consecutive octaves) are forbidden between any two parts if no other notes intervene. 144). tained. or even between one outer and one inner part (Ex. (This is the doctrine if it is a harmony note of Morley. however. 153). too.42 1. 151. Some writers lay stress on the avoidance of consecutive major tritonal effect of In two-part writing such a progression is too strongly felt to be endurable. and it is in every way substantiated by sixteenthcentury practice. parts (Exx. the ' ' thirds on successive whole degrees of the scale. Occasionally you find even a sequence of exceptional and had better not be imitated |'s (Ex. ' In writing for five or more parts consecutive fifths by contrary motion are not seldom found between two of the inner parts.

in the style of the period. explain in conclusion that such a thing has never existed. Ftl-Gfi. it is ' Modality only in a derivative ' sense that harmony can be described as is modal '. but master and pupil will have to arrange between themselves where the line is to be drawn. and so harmony not. sible Such on. there is a great deal to be said for observing the whether you are working to a sacred or a secular model. have always an air of anachronism harmonic purity and rhythmical freedom are the most important lessons we have to learn from the sixteenth century. ' same harmonic '. ' ' ' '. is instance. for instance. Hidden consecutives unless one part proceeds (fifths except between the extreme parts. whilst the Dorian was merged in the Aeolian (our melodic minor scale). But as we have already seen (Chap. and octaves) need not be feared There it is best to avoid them Text-books usually specify the Passages as is uncalled for. As a matter of for — Eb-Cji. and the ordinary rules of Musica Ficta should be disregarded in places where their application would produce one of the chords named. Chromatic harmonies in the music of this period. but this restriction shown ' in Exx. practical convenience. 43 Ex. In that sense you might say that modal harmony diatonic series of notes harmony formed strictly from the constituting the mode in which the melody of any given piece ' ' In the Dorian mode. so much so that there is no historical sanction for ruling out any progression as impossible. frequent as they are. occurrence. This question will be discussed briefly in Chapter VII. through the practice of Musica Ficta. step of a semitone. . tended to lose the Lydian and the Mixolydian became their modal identity virtually indistinguishable from the Ionian (our major scale). 154 is an example of a formula to be found in all writers of the period. 155 and 156 are of ' common Chromatic harmony was not acceptable in sacred music of the It is obvious that by the help of Musica Ficta various augmented and diminished intervals are theoretically possixteenth century. BQ-Eb. modal harmony would be powerless to sharpen the C or flatten the B. . the modes. I) this was what the sixteenthcentury composers invariably did. however.' HARMONY use of accented passing notes . As various text-books express a pious hope that the student is familiar with what is called Modal Harmony it may be as well to restrictions . Any one who speaks of modal harmony as a historic fact can only mean the type of harmony that was used by composers of the modal period Such harmony is to all intents and purposes our is written. or a similar chord. is properly a term of melodic definition . As soon as harmony was invented. by step. Secular writers allowed themselves much greater harmonic freedom.

We shall find presently. that the transition from mode to scale is decidedly more advanced in the music of the English composers of this period than in that of their foreign contemporaries. except that tonality in the modern harmonic sense did not yet exist. whilst modulation. . as explained above (p. however. did not mean quite the same thing for Palestrina as it means for us. 15).44 diatonic major HARMONY and minor harmony in its simplest form.

It is better. not a form. and the student will find many other motets which are essentially similar in general structure. and the student apt to imagine that it sprang suddenly into being. (in this possible to distinguish two main That in which the imitation is continued strictly throughout in other words. of course. and the essence of it lies (as similar to that of the older fugue written we all know) in the imitation by in the sixteenth century. VI CANON. but fugue itself is of much greater antiquity. S. Ex. in all its classic symmetry. AND DOUBLE COUNTERPOINT FuauE is is apparently a delicate subject . it is not usually mentioned in text-books on Counterpoint. That in which the imitation is discontinued when once the subject has been answered. a procedure. one voice of a phrase or subject previously announced by another. a canon (whose full description is ficga per canonem. to think of fugue not as itself a type of musical pattern or design. Bach. in fact. fugue according to rule '). This was types all that was meant by Fugue sense) it is but of fugue 1. but which are yet not fugal. at any rate. 192) is an excellent example. But. the principle of design here is precisely on a Canto Fermo taken from Plain-song. or (it may be) fugal only in one or two sections. That is. wrong Bach invented and brought to perfection many details of fugal construction as we now understand it. ' . The true descendant of the sixteenth-century fugue is the special type of fugue (so frequently found in the Cantatas of Pachelbel and J. but as a method of building up in detail a structure whose main outlines may have been determined on quite other principles. at the command of J. of which the motet Vent Sponsa Christi (quoted in fall. it is evident that the structural outline is determined very largely by the words themselves. in such cases. Let us postpone the consideration of Canon for the present. It is.: — . S. Bach) in which some well-known chorale tune is taken. and consider the more limited type of Fugue. FUGUE. therefore. 2. and each of its phrases treated successively as the subject of a fugal exposition . The only difference is that the sixteenth-century fugue (as one would expect) is not so straitly bound by the shackles of metre and tonality.

There is. p. whereas the length of the movement twenty-four measures. in the main. however. ' cipia ' ' ' ' . and no further allusion need be made to it. far ^ more often used Cf. unfortunately. begin on almost any note of it. that the first and the fifth notes of the mode are First. however. indeed. This type corresponds. 28) it need not. in detail. to what ' we understand by the announced or answered. This must lie within the strict compass composition as a whole is written (see of the mode in which the above. Fugue. AND DOUBLE COUNTERPOINT 1. . and Ex. for commencing than any : other. nulla musicae regula numerum certum the two terms were used interdeclaravit. perhaps. is such that sixteenth-century sense) aspects of it This will give the student an idea of what Fugue means (in the it now remains to discuss one or two . It may be remarked. but. The subject is fugue. FUGUE. The modification of the answer marked A is. Petra Sancta) well illustrates this more extended type of exposition ' of a fugue. a slight technical flaw. begin on the final of that mode.46 CANON. nothing that could be called a counter-subject. as to the subject. The voices proceed in free counterpoint until the composer considers he has dealt sufficiently with this portion of his text and passes to the following section (in which a new theme may be treated in just the same way). which was the invention of a later period. the so-called Gregorian Tones being identified with the modes in which they were respectively written a confusion that is very properly condemned by Glareanus in the Dodecachordon. even in the third Quot differentias seu printhe remark of Petrus de Cruce {Tradatus de Tonis) unusquisque eorum [tonorum] habeat. Considerable use is also made of the subsidiary figure. the theorists could never agree amongst themselves as to which these notes were.' By tones he means here modes changeably by mediaeval theorists. In theory. by each voice in turn. seeing that throughout the rest of the movement the subject invariably appears without modification. only It may. but apart from this the workmanship is superb. it will be noticed. 1. is complete at the beat of the ninth measure. there is no reason why further reference should not be made to the subject if the composer so desires it. at the place whilst the grave and austere splendour of the music praise itself seems an impertinence. At the same time. whose first entry is marked B.^ and it does not seem necessary to burden the reader with a list of their differences and contradictions. ' ' — . and the subject is in evidence almost the whole of the time in one part or another. however. certain notes in each mode were permitted (these being known as the Initials or Principals of the mode). first is The exposition proper.57 (the opening Kyrie of Palestrina's five-part Mass.

but because of the intervals at which the answers are made ' tonal ' . in which the answer corresponds strictly. save only that the first two entries are almost invariably in close order. so is that from Tallis. — a regular system of descending thirds exceptional. if not transposed. or with D again if it suits his compass. The latter often approximates closely to what we should call a 'tonal' answer. FUGUE. e. so that subject and answer between them declare the mode of the composition. (a precisely similar device quite appears again later in the course of the same motet). to which reference has already been made in this chapter. Exx. nor need the successive entries of subject and answer show any mutual correspondence. the answering voice enters before the statement of the subject is complete. the tenor announces a theme in the Dorian mode starting on D. interval by interval. S. might not lie well for a soprano. For an instance of real fugue. It may be either a strict (or 'real') answer. for instance. not because of any modification in the answer. or at the fourth or (above or below). as a change from the single-part subject. There is no rule governing the order of entry of the different voices. Between the close of each entry of subject or answer and the beginning of the next entry. to the subject. althougii B is not a recognized initial of these modes. 158 and 159). or a modified answer. very often at no greater distance than a measure. or even half a measure (Exx. and vice versa. AND DOUBLE COUNTERPOINT 47 and fourth modes. for instance. 160 to 167 have been chosen to show the kind of modification to which an answer may be subjected it will be seen that many of the devices . and is answered by the bass starting on A. codettas (as we should call them) of varying length may be interposed. i. and that the soprano then enters on D the alto can now answer him with G if he likes. fifth above). Next as to the answer. The subject may be announced by any voice (subject of a Hypodorian course to the practical consideration of compass melody. in which case it would be better to announce it in the alto or counter-tenor. and leave the soprano to answer it at the fourth or . fourth constantly being answered by fifth. This fifth may take place at the octave or unison. This is Skeletons pnly are given here for the sake of clearness the sign + means that the harmony is completed by the entry of another . voice at the place so marked. Suppose. we need look no further than the opening fugue of the motet Veni Sponsa Christi. anticipate the methods of J. ' ' ' ' ' ' .CANON. Bach and other composers six-part The example from Vittoria is noteworthy of a later date. Very often. a two-part .

as usual. Ex. In D. similarly. and the bottom one up a fifth. for the benefit of readers who may not have been through a course of Double Counterpoint. Ex. 169. one part might stay while the other moved up or down a twelfth but in practice.: 48 CANON. AND DOUBLE COUNTERPOINT is subject used. or the top part moves down an octave.) There are many kinds of Double Counterpoint. Likewise in Double Counterpoint at the twelfth. In Double Counterpoint at the octave. and so on. the voices entering. in pairs. . the commonest varieties being those at the octave. FUGUE. or as treble to the other's bass. C. and then taken up once more by the bass. tenth. one part stays while the other moves up or down a tenth. usually. Counterpoint. 1 . they are said to be in Triple Counterpoint. In Double Counterpoint at the tenth. of course. —-^ 2. for example. from the same composer's Missa de Feria. the following table is used . parts. Double Counterpoint. except that this time the two parts of the subject are treated more deliberately in double counterpoint concerning which a few general remarks may not be out of place. the whole passage having a charmingly natural and spontaneous air. one part stands still while the other moves up an octave or down an octave as the case may be. Here the accompaniment of the melody might almost be called a countersubject. First of all. at the twelfth. and twelfth (instances of all these will be given in due course). all of (If there are three which may similarly change places with each other. and for this purpose it is only necessary to construct a numerical table and reverse it. and two themes or subjects are said to be in Double Counterpoint when one of them will serve either as bass to the other's treble. To know whether a given pair of subjects will invert in any of these ways. one must find out what each given interval will become in the inversion. on the same plain-song melody as the Motet similarly entitled). 168 is an instance from Palestrina's Mass Veni Sponsa Chrisfi (built. is a similar instance. for immediately after the exposition it is used as a melody by the soprano. either the bottom part moves up an octave and the top one down a fifth. a brief explanation seems Double Counterpoint is sometimes called Invertible advisable.

from . "Walford Davies (see his article ' Invertible Counterpoint ' in Grove's Dictionary) quite rightly scouts is the notion that this of practical competence. all taken. and most often in fugue. save in so far as it could be made to serve a purely artistic purpose. One example of this has already been given (Ex. The last of these examples (Ex. tips. He is is particularly ingenious mixing the species note in Ex. Dr. but not so much.CANON. and employs it systematically. by made to finish in the octave and how in Ex. FUGUE. is evidently . he uses the device very sparingly. 169) in Exx. handled with the utmost assurance and virtuosit3% Besides the harmonic inversion which we call Double Counterpoint. In Palestrina one is constantly coming across passages that look as if they were going to be treated in strict double counterpoint. like its fellow. Other varieties of Double Counterpoint have each even at the octave (the simplest form) the harmless fifth inverts into the troublesome fourth. where he rather likes to announce a subject in two parts and then invert them in the answer. 176) is a really fine specimen of triple counterpoint. and cannot be used unless it is preceded and followed in a certain manner. Now these three varieties of Double Counterpoint the octave. though this. All this is to be found in the text-books. and to overcome them he will do well to rely on experiment and common sense more than on the next step. after beginning at the tenth. 175 after starting at the ninth (most intractable of them all) he slithers comfortably into the octave after a few notes. tenth. their own little difficulties instruction. from the motet Terra Tremuit. the purely melodic type of inversion can also be found in sixteenth-century music. the inversion takes place at the twelfth. 172 to 176 are . and twelfth —were — inversion at familiar to the theorists of the sixteenth century. and practised occasionally by its composers. as one might expect. how his counterpoint. The itself AND DOUBLE COUNTERPOINT 49 sixth has to be coaxed when and flattered until it consents to turn inverted into a suspended seventh falling one degree at . 174 a slight modification in the alto part. 170 and 171. due to any lack of theoretical knowledge or No one who studies Palestrina's work can doubt that he had every known device of the period at his finger and that he regarded double counterpoint in just the same light as canonic or proportional ingenuities that is to say. as — a technical discipline. to be quietly mastered and then as quietly discarded. and then somehow they just manage to miss it. At any rate. is Luca Marenzio. on the whole. whom at Exx. But the composer of this period who really enjoys this harmonic inversion. but the student will not find the difficulties very formidable.

either above or below. Such imitation may take place at any interval. for instance (as in Ex. '". is to grow rather weary. the similar treatment of a subject in more than 179. and just a little self-conscious. i. as will be seen.50 CANON. 185) is actually. 183) two voices only are treated in canon.^ in which the subject is answered by strict inversion is . the be). of whose unfailing dexterity (to tell the truth) one begins His sacred music. a canon per recte et retro. It too was used frequently (though. by no means invariably) to vary the fugal opening. but carried on continuously through the whole of a movement. or at any rate. it is not necessary that all should take part in the canon very often. just a little mechanical. or whatever the interval may If the vox consequens is in turn imitated by a third voice. a canon eight in four with the additional ingenuity that in each pair of voices the part of the lower is that of the upper begun at the end and sung backwards. one part shown in Exx. for all its brilliance. or tenth above. canon is spoken of as a canon three in one '. as he could easily making the inversion have done by taking the cantus up to C at for not him the second beat of the fourth measure. Or you may leave two or more canons worked simultaneously in the same composition by four or more voices in this case the canon is known technically as a canon 'four in two^ Byrd's Diliges Dominum (part of which is quoted in Ex. Canon has already been defined as a special type of fugue in which the imitation is not discontinued after the subject has been answered. ' . . Barclay Squire's Ausgewdhlte Madrigdle. 178 one feels positively grateful to strict. each phrase as it is given out by the vox antecedens being taken up and answered by the vox consequens. 3. make octaves by contrary motion with those of the second bass. Ex. e. 177 is the begin- ning of a madrigal by Sweelinck. AND DOUBLE COUNTERPOINT a device that was practised assiduously but employed sparingly in actual composition. for instance. the other parts moving in free counterpoint such a canon is spoken of as a canon two in one at the unison (or fifth below. FUGUE. whilst the second and third notes of the second tenor also make octaves by contrary ^ From Mr. 178 and both from the indefatigable Marenzio. and has to allow himself a good deal of freedom. . Canon. and so on. The first two notes of the second tenor. In a composition for more than two voices. In Ex. simple or compound. for some considerable period. It will be noticed that even Byrd cannot make the parts particu- larly interesting. ' '. ' .

replies the master. in a specimen fugue given him for perusal. 51 The canon is nevertheless an not only stricter than a Fugue by virtue of its length This is illustrated by a passage in form also. and from that point of view it is certainly deserving of study. CANON. and so with the remaining intervals. the subject). notes. to show that he was thoroughly at home in the labyrinth of Proportional Combination. FUGUE. We also give two more extended examples of Canon. e. It is not clasdcus for the study of the sixteenth-century canon. musically one of his most valuable works . the subject of a but whereas the three lower voices are set free five-part fugue have answered after they the subject. — — . asks if this is not irregular. and vice versa.' That is to say. when each phrase of the vox consequens is usually an exact repetition of that previously announced by the vox anteElsewhere. it will be noticed. which may be considered the locus interval of a fourth ' is ' . AND DOUBLE COUNTERPOINT motion with those of the astonishing tour de force. third answering to third. yet is it the point (i. fifth to fifth. Morley's Plains and Easie Introduction (1597). Even Palestrina's resources are taxed in one satisfy himself that ' . whilst the interval at which the answer is made the second above calls for more dexterous management than an answer at the unison. 183) is part of the last movement of the Missa Brevis. and rather more ingenious a three-part movement which takes the form of a canon None of the parts therefore three in one for men's voices only. The Missa ad Fugam should be regarded mainly as a masterpiece of technique. the intervals of the answer must correspond to those of the subject. the canon is. The other example (Ex. observing that. minor. first bass. and so on. both from Palestrina. the A Canon is it is stricter in answered by that of the fifth. where the pupil. in Canon. At the same time. that of is free. 184) is slighter in form.. fourth to fourth. No '. it is not necessary that the intervals should be identical (unless the canon is at the unison or octave. 180-2) taken from Palestrina's Missa ad Fugam. Arme (like Josquin and so many of his contemporaries). The first (Ex. This is shown clearly by two or three illustrations (Exx. we might not rise one note higher nor descend one note lower than the Plainsong did but in Fugues we are not so straitly bound. — ' '. the two upper ones maintain their strict canon at the unison right up to the end of the mass. the canon being in this case a canon two in one at the The subject of unison' carried on between the two upper voices. a major second may often be answered by a cedens). he wrote it doubtless to just as he wrote his mass on L' Homme he had a perfect command of canonic device. although it rise five For if it were in canon. at the same time.

course. examination is . Canons by diminution. entirely unexpected which is at once and entirely convincing. moreover. Padre — . but was not employed with any great frequency. Josquin des Pres. ne cesses Otia securis insidiosa nocent meant that the answering voice was to take no notice of rests. ' . and so on. and other composers of the late fifteenth and early sixteenth century delighted in displaying a most perverse ingenuity in the construction of canons. Canon was in fact a nev/ toy. * '. one voice only was written out. but to pass straight from one note to the next canons by augmentation or diminution were often indicated simply by a bewildering multiplicity of time-signatures placed at the beginning of the single stave. AND DOUBLE COUNTERPOINT or two places. and seeing how many new games they could invent. It was a recognized branch of the art. puzzle Canons of every description. lustitia et Pax se osculatae sunt and so on clama. Pierre de la Rue. Ockenheim. ' ' ' '. It all helped in the development of musical technique. for wMcli Palestrina would probably bave been ploughed in a Mus. and did no harm beyond wasting a good deal of the singer's time. . In this we may see a reaction against the canonic debauches (one can use no other word) of the preceding period. notably in measures 9 and 10. taken from compositions of this period. . is delightful as music.52 CANON. were poured out in their hundreds by these too ingenious minds. and it The return to sense and sanity came in due was Palestrina who led the way. the other voices being expected to take their cue from some enigmatical Latin motto prefixed thus a Canon per recte et retro would be indicated by the words Canit more Hebraeorum '. The whole piece. on a single stave. Canons cancrizans. applied (as explained on but if the method of two-part horizontal analysis is p. Bac. less Martini enumerates (in Part II of the Saggia di Contrappunto) no than fifty-six of such enigmas. and creating a certain flutter in the ecclesiastical dove-cotes. Canons by augmentation. 37) it will be found that the harmony ' ' in each case perfectly correct. especially the final cadence. To make them as difficult as possible for the singers. Canons per recte et retro. and they were usually inserted in the one place where they were peculiarly inappropriate the setting of the mass. 24 and 26. perhaps. From the practical point of view that is. FUGUE. and it was natural that musicians should spend most of their time playing with it. as much as the student need know about the use of canon in sixteenth-century composition.

by the sixteenth century the word was understood (and had long been understood) to mean a piece of unaccompanied vocal music. of course. one may remind the reader that interesting experiments were being made. The Motet The Motet is an ancient form of music. and similar collections he will find the first at attempts in many directions glad to follow up. (2) the chordal. but the volumes just mentioned are those most an English student. 15). That may well be so in any case. . and the very derivation of its name is uncertain. . composers were only too for instance. was being easily accessible to carried out in other countries besides England. II why it is better to speak of the final ' rather than the 'tonic'). roughly. as a rule. There is no reason why the three methods should not be combined in a single motet. ' : . the words being taken. The instrumental forms lie outside the scope of this volume the same time. the later which Similar exploration. and of a sacred character. from scripture or from the liturgical books. the Madri. . as a rule. in PartJienia. of course. one section being in free polyphony. and the Toccata. in secular music. with a clearly defined cadence on one of the regular modulations of the mode (see p. the suite. the Mass and the Motet gal.VII DESIGN The purpose of this chapter is to explain briefly the . the Air and Variations. and yet not fugal. main types of is choral design followed in the sixteenth century that to say. (3) the intermediate. the next a set fugal exposition. The general principle of design in every case is the same the text is analysed. and that in the Fitzwilliam Virginal Book. on the final (the reader will understand from Chap. the cadence of the last section being. and each clause of it treated musically as a more or less complete section. in sacred music. the next in chords. 1. For each section the composer had. three methods of treatment at his disposal (1) the fugal. and so on but for the sake of clearness the motets . of moderate length. Modern theory is inclined to associate it with the French mot and to explain motetus (whence 'motet') as a later Latinized form. ending. Fantasia. in which the texture is clearly polyphonic and not harmonic or chordal.

The mode is G. The melody is treated strictly as a Canto Fermo (not in the scholastic sense !). is extremely There is no uncertainty in the severe. 188-91. Accipe coronam. 39-50. explained in the last chapter). . and apportioned to Measures 1-19. divided here as usual (for the sake of convenience) the text as follows by bar-lines. so that the student may more easily follow the method of musical construction. and it is therefore reproduced at the head of the composition. so often declared to be rhythmless '. ' ' . A few points are worth mentioning. The notation in semibreves is conventional. in its proper liturgical place. Words and melody form an antiphon.54 DESIGN which a single cliosen to illustrate this chapter are compositions in method is pursued consistently from start to finish. the concessions in each case being well within the limits mentioned at . Now let us turn for a moment to the text. Tenor and cantus are in the authentic compass. Sponsa Christi. the rhythm of plain-song follows the natural stress and therefore cannot be exactly reproduced in modem musical notation. is above all things the art of combining rhythms. of course. one must point out how very wide of the mark is ' the prevailing impression that sixteenth' century counterpoint is formless or vague in structure '. Sponsa Christi. quam which may be translated thus Come. of the spoken word. have already seen that this same counterpoint. receive the diadem which the Lord hath prepared for thee for ever. thou Bride of Christ. The whole motet : consists of sixty-seven measures. alto and bass in the Plagal. Veni Sponsa Christi. „ „ „ Veni. Each of these sections is a complete fugue (in the sixteenthcentury sense. which may be found. The first. Quam tibi Dominus. ' ' We whose irregularity is most skilfully regulated now we see that its design. Palestrina's four-part motet. the four themes being shown in Exx. This runs as follows : Veni. 20-39. 51-67. is an example of the fugal method. : coronam. and the subject of each is based strictly on the section of melody to which the corresponding words are sung in the antiphon. . Before going any further. and highly organized. accipe tibi Dominus praeparavit in aeternum. so far from being inchoate or muddled. the modulation is firmly controlled thematic definition the whole thing is clear in conception and logical in execution. Praeparavit in aeternum.

Its The composition (by convention) in the seventh mode (not transposed). and of course. therefore. the melodic irregularity is more perceptible to the eye than to the ear. which the three quadruple measures are telescoped by four Another telescope may be seen in the last of I rhythms. G (measure 19). the order of entry is differThe second fugue is ent. irregular in two ways first. prepares the ear for the final cadence. also. C (measure 38). In each of the other fugues (commencing respectively at measures 20. but each time the answer is a real answer. each entry being accompanied by free counterpoint in two or more of the other parts (doubtless for the sake of variety) second. illustrates several points of com- harmony. but only thirty-six of these are in four-part less. The motet. the theme is never announced by itself. and the clearly cadential nature of the passage. Measures 26 and 28. the final close on G. the remainder being in three parts or . D (measure 50). length is sixty-seven measures. way in which the C. IV. where the C does double duty as the last of these one group of changing notes and the first of another. but one whose rare beauty we can begin to appreciate in the twentieth. Note the charming way in Measures 28-30 (tenor part). In the last section. note the persistency with which the theme (tenor) insists on being heard up to the very end. is 55 as a whole. the first part of exposition is given to cantus and alto in close order. the rhythm of the whole passage being delightfully subtle and intricate. the remainder of it being an exact repetition at the octave by tenor and bass. viz. position mentioned in earlier chapters of this (1) volume Measure 14. and the . The modulations which conclude each main section. 39. the theme appears twice in the tenor (measures 20 and 26) before it is heard at all in the bass. The harmony crotchets is justified by two-part ' horizontal analysis (3) '. are all perfectly regular. (4) (5) In measures 36-8 (bass part) the double skip of fourth followed by fifth is preceded by a step from outside but thanks to the long pause on the C in measure 36. and 51). measures. The leap to the octave from the second of two (2) is worth noticing. whose Flf sounds particularly refreshing after the obstinate FP sustained by the bass in the previous measure a progression impossible in the tonal system of — the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. .: DESIGN the beginning of Chap. whose first thematic entry is at measure 28. . softening into B. In the opening fugue. though selected chiefly as a specimen of fugal construction.

until everything is ready for a climax. harmony. in the opening section and (which is quoted) the two cantus parts and the alto start off deliver a sharply-defined musical phrase of six measures' length. This is answered verbatim. et super hanc petram aedificabo Ecclesiam meam et tibi dabo non praevalebunt adversus eam et portae inferi claves regni coelorum ("Thou art Peter. and at the same time hardly any plain chords or note-against-note counterpoint. and 51). however. This table gives us the „ „ 18 which is built up by contrasting different groups of voices possible variety of timbre being employed. (apart from those on the Final) are all on C (measures 20.. six-part „ clue to the musical design.' These words are sung in Church to a melody that is virtually the the motet Tu es as Veni Sponsa Christi. when they all join Thus. answering each other antiphonally with chords. the following combinations . by tenor. but the section Palestrina). is constructed is quoted (Ex. and the whole composition gives the impression of a firmness and solidity The length of the as clear-cut and stable as the very rock itself. sextus (whose compass is here roughly that of a baritone). the general principle of design is to this extent the same. The motet rather too long to be quoted entire in this book. Tu es Petrus (also by by quite a different method. and its themes are not taken from the plain-song melody at all. except in one passage where for half-a-dozen measures or so. in which there is no trace of fugue. every and the forces gradually increased. 47. the three-part harmony is enlarged to four parts. already quoted Petrus. work is 84 measures. and bass. to produce a massive six-part with one another. The closes are unusually frequent and emphatic. and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it | | | : | my and I will give thee the Keys of the Kingdom of Heaven "). of which. the voices divide into two threeat the words non praevalebunt part choirs. Nevertheless. and on this rock I will build church. and the same method is pursued consistently throughout the composition. roughly. ' '. 193) is of sufficient extent to illustrate the method employed. from the six-part motet. The ' text is as follows : Tu es Petrus. in three-part harmony. 32. is not built on a Canto Fermo. 22 measures are in three-part harmony four-part 34 „ „ „ five-part 10 „ „ „ same . for the next twelve measures. an octave lower. Then. 24. 56 DESIGN Our next example. that each section of the text forms the basis of a clearly marked musical The mode is again G (authentic) and the principal closes section.

for their purpose is purely devotional. . It needs no great insight to see how easily each of these irregularities could have been avoided by a composer who attached any great importance to them.t&ee the cantus and alto proceed in consecutive major thirds descending one whole degree. for the first time. the two lower parts holding the D as elaboration of workmanship. that Palestrina did not. as it were. it will be noticed that Palestrina contrives to violate several of the text-book maxims in measure two. The rest of the work is built on precisely similar lines. just enough discord to vitalize the music. As an example of the shorter and simpler type of motet is sub- Bone Jesu. its own note of melody. chordal (the being an example of the third). Here the texture is. and continues until the thirty-second measure. however small. we cannot learn much from them. in measure seven by oblique motion. where it is is treated as a passing chord and for the space of a minim beat heard clashing against the sustained P of the cantus part above. A . fellows. over the surface. perhaps. A. being the bold use of the chord E C G in measure 23. in measures eight and nine in the cantus and alto parts. when the first main division of the motet ends with a full close on C. perhaps. T. every one is in some measure enriched. C. T. B C 2. the inference being. C 2.DESIGN : 57 . the consecutive perfect fifths B-E and A-D are simply dodged by a suspension in measure twenty. interesting. 194) Palestrina's the three classes mentioned above. being successively employed 13-15. S. A. C. and there are no comAt the same time the progression of each part is always plications. the unison is approached by similar motion. for instance. without disturbing its essential simplicity. inevitably. the full six-part harmony is employed. and more immediate in their appeal than their larger and more intricately wrought Technically. . ' ' : though to ensure the forbidden tritone in the upper parts being given full prominence. . Then. the only point that calls for comment 20-24. and that must be the justification for inserting this motet in a book which professes to be purely technical in purpose. to and they make no pretence But by the contemplation of a flawless work of art. however simple. of second the main. and very often they are of extreme beauty more touching. is no elaboration of the text. S 16-19. perfectly straightforward. Even in these few chords. The method is essenThe writing itself is tially architectural. in joined (Ex. and the effect cumulative. there is just enough movement every now and again to cast a ripple. A. There Tu es Petrus almost every syllable of which receives large number of sixteenth-century motets are of this short and simple character.

to give some sense of textual continuity. the latter only 24. examples of each kind can be found Palestrina's Missa ad Fugam. the dimensions of the Mass vary a good deal thus Palestrina's mass.. (2) The Gloria. the Credo are set more simply. the Missa Assumpta est Maria is polyphonic in texture but not consistently fugal. such as the Mass for the Dead. treatment. while the more exegetical parts of the text e. with no repetition at all if the composer so desires. is some 650 measures in length. one mode as a rule prevails (except in masses for a special occasion.g. whereas in plain note-against-note counterpoint the text can be set continuously. In a colossal work like Bach's is B minor Mass. as already remarked. and evenMissa cuiusvis Toni} : — ^ Or Mass in any mode you like '. the Gloria. and the Mass was designed. (5) The Benedictus. The difference arises from precisely the same cause as the corresponding variety in the length of the Motet. Missa Quarti. and very often the title of the Mass is taken from the mode in which it is written e. each of these sub-sections . (6) The Agnus Dei. the fugal method involving as a rule a good deal of textual repetition. Subject to this restriction. Quinti. 192 and 194). and in each case resolves into four sections. Of the two motets quoted in full in this chapter. Toni. however. resolving naturally into smaller groups or sub-sections. while Orlando Lasso's Missa Quinti Toni is predominantly chordal. 8exti. DESIGN The Mass. The words of the Mass need not be quoted here. whereas the text in each case is of roughly the same length. and Agnus Dei) being treated fugally. it was not feasible to work on such a scale.: — 58 2. which differs both in text and construction from the ordinary mass). Benedictus. and Sanctus are sections of considerable length. a famous composer of the fifteenth century. g. In the Mass. Admirahile Commercium. (3) The Credo. Of these. certain sections (especially the Kyrie. of course. treated as a separate movement but in the masses of the sixteenth century. Credo. The difference in the length of the composition is due entirely to the method of musical . In this mass the mode can be ' . is strictly fugal throughout. The essential thing to be remembered by the student of musical design is that they fall into six main divisions (1) The Kyrie. In the Mass as in the Motet. as a rule. (4) The Sanctus. But more often the method is mixed. whereas the same composer's Iste Confessor is but 370. an ingenious composition by Ockenheim or Ockeghem. the former is 67 measures long. intended for strict liturgical use. Veni Sponsa Christi and Bone Jesu (Exx.&c.

indeed. p. 195-195 D will be found some of the guises in which the opening strain of Aeterna Christi Munera is presented in Palestrina's mass of that name. But the most interesting modern adaptation of sixteenth-century structural principles is to be found in Vincent d'Indy's string quartet in E (op. in so a formal type of structure. U . whilst the musical texture employed altered at will commonly by changing the position of the clefs on the stave. on the one hand. and Taverner's Westron Wynde is The sixteenth-century another example that will repay study. . vol. ' ' which a single thematic germ reappears in various transformations throughout all the movements of the work. also Michel Brenet. Every student of Counterpoint may be recommended to make a thematic analysis of that work (which is published in miniature score). DESIGN . g. and such kindred varieties of secular music as the Chanson. as for literature. All one can say is that the term Madrigal is of wide and vague application. Vestiva i Colle and Nasce la gioja mia) are based on themes taken from madrigals by himself or other contemporary writers. the Canzonet. The theme is usually treated with great rhythmic freedom in Exx. Music. g. g. a close affinity with the modern theme and variations. iii. but Professor Wooldridge has missed the real clue to the title. 45). . or those by a folk-song (cf. For a detailed explanation see Ambros.. Mass on a Canto Fermo has. but the Madrigal was never for music. but the composer might write on his own themes if he likes. the mass it is built VeniSponsa Christi) or a Latin hymn (e. ii. The Madrigal. 59 But more often the Mass takes its title from the Canto Fermo on which this is very often a plain-song melody (e. or on Homme Arme. in . the numerous masses on Some of Palestrinas Tye and Taverner on Westron Wynde). Geschichte. The name connotes a spirit rather than a form it is not possible to lay down in theory any hard and fast rules for its composition. 178. 65. and in practice it is equally impossible to trace any clear dividing line between the Madrigal so-called. Musique et Musiciens de Quotations from this mass can be seen in the Oxford History of la vieille France. for nothing will show him more convincingly how much a modern composer may learn from the methods of Palestrina. and also with such cyclic symphonies as Liszt's 'Faust' Symphony and Berlioz's Sympho7iie Fantastique. Some account of the Madrigal will naturally be looked for in this chapter. p. v/ much as its general outline and character depend on the words is chosen for setting. masses (e. and the Ballet on the other. 3. which is the adjustment of the clef. but that on the whole it is the secular equivalent of the Motet. Aeterna Christi Munera). 213.

in fact they are clearly symptomatic of a decline. Jahrh. until by the end of the century a complete scheme of chromatic harmony and modulation was within the grasp of a really adventurous musician. is not to investigate formal differences. Graduals. The student must not for an instant think that these are typical specimens of madrigalian writing. . The technical difference between the Madrigal and the Motet. rhythmical continuity and firmness of outline. For the moment. will be taken as representing various other types of sacred music. such as Hymns. If for the sake of brevity and convenience the term Madrigal is employed. and the fugal. The voices in these madrigals were no doubt doubled by instruments a custom that had been growing in frequency. see Kroyer. just as the term Motet. even in his sacred . the term will be used generically to represent its class. Lamentations. but to emphasize some of the differences in style which distinguish the secular music of the sixteenth century from the '^ \ sacred music of the same period. and so on) were gradually and tentatively introduced ^ one by one. in short. The necessity of this will be apparent to any one who tries to sing Ex. They are. Improperia. Such passages in no sense represent their age. from whom Exx. notably in the work of Orlando Lasso. 196 to 198 are taken.60 DESIGN a mixture of the chardal. Prince of Venosa. 198 without the assistance of a piano. the polyphonic. these words being used in the same sense in which they have already been taken to define the three outstanding types of motet. who shows. and the purpose of the concluding section of this chapter. is one of style rather than of form. in fact. The accidentals permitted by Musica Ficta were introduced not merely to form a cadence or to avoid the tritone. in their reliance on the easy blandishments of harmony. the student will understand that the characteristic features we shall discover are to be found equally in secular compositions bearing other names. and so on. so far as technical style is concerned. nevertheless. The tendency in its extreme form may be seen in the works of Carlo Gesualdo. a logical though extreme development of what had been going on for a long time. but to create chromatic progressions in the melody whilst the accidentals not so recognized (Dfi. Die An/dnge der Chromatik im iialienischen Madrigal des ZVI. From the early part of the century composers had allowed themselves much greater latitude in the use of Musica Ficta when writing madrigals than when writing for the church. despite its title. — ^ For an exhaustive (not to say exhausting) account of chromatic experiment in the sixteenth century. and their neglect of the more vital elements. Ab. as it frequently will be. First of all as to Mode.

Occa- words ' my Throat song runs is sore ' (First set. 200). of "Weelkes. 201 the Cfi here is vouched for by Sandberger. History of Music in England. but is more likely to have learnt the chord from Byrd. Exx. 199). One of the strongest features of the English madrigalists is their ability to introduce such occasional touches of realism into their work without allowing the habit to master them in the Italian madrigalists the structural continuity and melodic outline are often sacrificed fruitlessly in the attempt to illustrate every tiny detail of the words. 199 to 201 show the way in which he endeavoured to employ chromatics to illustrate such phrases as 'lagrime nove' (Ex. In a brief and summary account like the present it is difficult to describe and illustrate the harmonic licenses to be found in the madrigalian writers without appearing to assign an undue importance to such things. . : In no composition shall you prove admirable except you put on and possess yourself wholly with that vaine wherein you compose. with characteristic audacity. are not unanimous. editor-in-chief of Breitkopf and Hartel's complete issue of Lasso's work). than strange sharps. Precisely the same chord (augmented sixth) is used by Wilbye in his realistic illustration. madrigal * My on sharps He probably knew Lasso's work.' . but as a matter of fact you can turn page after page without finding anything to dismay the orthodox. The gist of the matter is well expressed by Morley in his Plaine and Easie Introduction . who uses the device both melodically (as at the end of Cease Sorrows now ') and harmonically (as at the beginning of Hence Care. DESIGN music 61 Psalms. p. however. Byrd uses strange flats more freely . and among the Englishmen. all ' ' sional chromatics are indeed too common in the madrigalian writing of the sixteenth century to need illustration. On a priori grounds the Dt is improbable See Walker. thou say"st (Ex. 'mutato stile' (Ex. uses it in a motet (Civifas SancH tui)} Other well-known instances of chromatic progression on a considerable scale are to be found in the madrigals of Cipriano di Eore.. But trate a parenthesis ' a particularly happy employment of the device by Wilbye to illusis quoted from his madrigal 'Thou art but young. who. or at any rate further illustration than is afforded by the examples already quoted. for example a strong liking for and whose madrigals naturallj* exhibit the same tendency. No. The best madrigalists of the best period rely more on rhythm and general lightness of treatment than on recondite harmonies and unexpected chromatics. 345. 202). dolcezz' amare (Ex. so that you must in your musicke be wavering like the wind ' 1 The MSS. Thou art too cruel '). ' — in the Penitential — . 27) to illustrate the '.

and twenty-ninth measures. you must not make a close (especially a full perfect. not in the employment of chromatic intervals. in which an attempt is made to define some of the peculiarities which distinguish the English music of the sixteenth century from that of other schools. for instance. It is too long to quote entire. but a larger rest than that of a minim you may not make till the sentence be Lastly. . otiierwliile effeminat. as some you may set a crotchet or dunces have not scrupled to do minim rest above a comma or colon in the dittie. — . . . they seem more appropriate to the next chapter. . and indeed anticipate in a singular manner such passages as the opening of the middle section of the Organ Fantasia in G major. had been using it in very similar fashion for twenty years or more.62 DESIGN sometimes grave and staide.. on the whole. 203) is nevertheless from the English school the six-part Draw on. close) till the sence of the words be perfect. the contrast between the serene mystery of nightfall and the anguish of the lonely human whom the night encompasses ? The harmony is curiously modern. twenty-eighth. ' ' . you may maintaine points and revert them. but its artistic beauty alone would justify its choice. the opening section of the madrigal is plainly in the diatonic key of D major. the better you shall please . use triplaes [i. but rather in the avoidance of them. and the powerful suspensions in the twenty-seventh. e. at the thirty-second measure. and the preference for bold and simple effects the sustaining of the double A. Of course the piece is entirely non-modal despite the flat in the signature. in the sixteenth measure.. Bach himself. but. Wilbye's second set of madrigals. . S. yet the opening pages bring to our minds an almost physical sense of twilight and deepening shadow and has any composer ever voiced more beautifully than Wilbye. for Byrd.' . The chord of the dominant seventh in the twenty-eighth measure need not startle us. and the more varietie you show. At the entry of the words My life so ill there is an abrupt change to the tonic minor. with touches of dominant and sub-dominant in the nineteenth and twenty-first measures respectively. Some examples from his pen might well have been inserted here. There is no far-fetched attempt at pictorial illustration in it. we must also take heed of separating any part of a word from another by a rest. as we shall see. Morley carried out his own precepts with consummate skill in mastery of rhythmic device he is second to none of his own or of any other period. — ' '. Sweet Night from John . followed three bars later by a perfectly orthodox modulation to its relative . triple proportion] and show the verie utmost of your varietie. The example chosen to illustrate the madrigal style (Ex. which are worthy of J.

mere point it may be. In conclusion. not of mode. however. and then as quickly abandoned. yet the tendency is to greater freedom than composers usually allow themselves in the Motet. that this tendency is universal it naturally becomes more marked towards the end of the century. and so to a large extent does Palestrina six . and in the work of Gesualdo. which is hearted. for instance. generally speaking. in his all first set of madrigals. Naturally. for the Madrigal is not necessarily light' '. It should not be thought. dignity. in which the answer makes little pretence of corresponding. with the subThe subject. ject. that is with a Bb in the may be said. perhaps.— DESIGN major. as we have seen. But the earlier madrigalists Arcadelt. the style depends largely on the sentiment of the words. 63 The principle throughout is that of key. Willaert. that although the fugal through the Madrigal. . almost every trace . of some three or four quickly taken up by the other voices. may of modal writing has been obliterated. The formal Fugue is replaced by a fugue of imitation. but is content to reproduce its rhythmic shape. — in A. numbers are written strictly in the Phrygian or Hypo- phrygian mode transposed signature. interval by interval. a notes. and the same be said of nearly all the English madrigals. the to say. and although numerous madrigals can be found in which the answer is strict and the exposition regular. is often shorter. even in madrigals of the more serious type. and their immediate successors closely to the dictates of the — kept pretty first modal system. But greater freedom is not incompatible with proper and the formalities of double counterpoint and strict canon are out of place. it principle runs all too.

probably has a psychological counterpart. but he will realize that you cannot have the one without the in the idiosyncrasies of the craftsman he will try to discern the mentality of the artist. yet have no true musical understanding. and really implies a corresponding difference in outlook. and it would be unreasonable to demand that they should be able to do so. They themselves not be able to follow such criticism. we are conscious of a profound emotional and spiritual difference. But this incapacity. for in the technique is the clue to the personality. It is onlj' with the technical aspect of these differences that we are now concerned it may be remarked. This fact of rhythm. an incapacity precisely opposite made himself mechanically familiar with musical technique. whether between one man or another. viewed as a whole. is too often forgotten by those who decry all technical criticism. of course. and another. they may be unable to deduce the spiritual from the technical. but that difference can only be expressed in music by technical means. In the music of Schumann and Purcell. however.VIII SOME TECHNICAL FEATURES OF THE ENGLISH SCHOOL apology is needed for devoting part of a book that is intended primarily for English. for instance. The real musician. whereas the others. who is bound by neither of these limitations. or between one school . is certainly their mis- may There a man may have is. for the composer's message never reaches him at all. though liable to misconception. or at best concede it a purely technical interest. he will find other . which differed in many important No respects from those of contemporary foreign composers. much that is significant. much that will widen his understanding . can grasp its essential purport. of texture. for these are the elements of musical speech. He will not mistake the means for the effect. . and fortune. that every technical difference. if Schumann wants to express in music a certain set of convictions or states of mind^ his music is bound to reveal a predilection for certain types of harmony. can well afford to spend some time on considerations of a purely technical character. He is in far worse case. though it is not their fault. students to a consideration of the specially English methods of composition. And in the peculiarities of English sixteenth-century craftsmanship.

which retained a good deal of its individuality. the prevailing mode is Phrygian. foreshadowing our own major and minor scales. sweet Night with its sudden change from tonic major to tonic minor. as to Mode. First of all. In Tallis's Lamentations. say. and in this instance. sweet Amaryllis . e. . in the Aeolian mode. Adieu. in the Plaine and Easie Introduction of 1597. one might add. The sixteenth-century Modal System. with hardly an exception. Another proof of scale-feeling is to be found '. Such instances are not hard to the diatonic key of Bb time. D with one flat. both in its natural and transposed forms (i. The English composers at a comparatively early date seem to have felt that the compromise was doomed. in which all the modes tended to lose their identity. In this practice he was followed by all the great madrigalists here and there (as for instance in Morley's Hark Alleluia ') you find a piece of deliberate modal writing but the effect is that of an intentional archaism. find in the English writers ' . ' ' . Of far more significance is Byrd's frank abandonment of both the Dorian and the Phrygian modes. but in the middle. or G with two flats. and that a two-scale system must clearly replace the old ecclesiastical modes (of which Morley speaks. Palestrina's Super flumtna Bahylonis. but inserted boldly as a key signature). whose first movement has similarly a second subject in Bb major. ' ' ' '. the sentiment is curiously un-Phrygian. then. at the words plorans ploravit (' she weepeth sore in the night '). as something quite antiquated and remote). is And the composer of to-day who can retranslate what he has thus learnt in terms of modern musical going to help to restore the true technique is the man who English musical tradition. and you see at once that the point of view is totally different. His minor movements are written. Even the Phrygian mode. and to merge into two general types. was a compromise.TECHNICAL FEATURES OF THE ENGLISH SCHOOL of his 65 own musical ancestry. ' . as we saw. has already been pointed out (see above. Compare the piece with. But an isolated experiment in modulation of this kind might mean little. for instance (composed probably about 1580). The scalic feeling of Wilbye's madrigal Draw on. was roughly handled by the Englishmen. comes a section whose tonality can only be described as ' ' major— a collocation unheard of at that and clearly foreshadowing John Ireland's E minor sonata (published 1919). which are not left to the tender mercies of Musica Ficta. p. another very striking one is Wilbye's which (despite a single flat at the signature) is unmistakably in the key of G minor but the last ten measures form a kind of epilogue which is no less unmistakably in the key of G major. 62).

apparently. but his fondness for the sequential organization of melody. Ex. demanding from his tenor and contratenor such a range as that shown in Ex. Next. 204-6). a device invented. or to secular music Exx. perhaps. 208 to 216 from earlier composers like Tye. whereas the Englishmen set greater store by vitality and boldness of outline. had he not already been warned that the Englishmen were in many respects a law unto themselves. In Ex. it is a case of distinguishing the artistic ideal in the technical method. it is one of the most remarkable passages in the whole of sixteenth-century music. prohibition is of all the rules. in the Of this we give three striking instances from In these we can see plainly the transition from the old sense of modulation to the new its use. in Crowned with Flowers'. now widespread partiality for this type of melodic curve. Byrd (Exx. First of all there . all the Englishmen use it when- ever they have a mind its to do so. too indeed. and a good many other things. as to Melody. nevertheless. In the Roman school. . dipping. but to pass rapidly and easily from one tonality to another. What Palestrina and his school aimed at was perfect smoothness of progression and beauty of sound. 207 ? Nor is this angularity peculiar to Byrd. The reader who has marked and digested the rules of progression set forth on p. as well as later men.. but always with the same unexpected rapid sweep. of course. and Taverner. that is to say. and more genuinely vocal in character. 215 Wilbye takes the same interval sequentially . the one that is most seldom infringed. 206 the harmonic changes at measures 5 and 11 are remarkable. not to mark a point of repose. but they are more easily conducted. 211 and 212 from Taverner illustrate not only the bold undulations beloved of that composer. Exx. and the whole passage (clearly dictated by the character of the words) shows how freely Byrd was able to move about in such remote tonalities as F minor and Ab major. 209 from Robert Whyte shows the forbidden leap of a major ninth a leap. illustrate a . with whose work Taverner was doubtless acquainted. 216 shows that the same writer is not afraid to treat the strictly forbidden interval of the major sixth with an equal want of — ceremony. Whyte. goes by the board altogether of what use to prate of authentic and plagal compass when we find Byrd. As usual. . Mode. 66 TECHNICAL FEATURES OF THE ENGLISH SCHOOL growing employment of harmonic sequence. 30 might well be outraged at the sight of the leaps and plunges which the English composers expected their singers to make. moreover. * ' ' ' ' . Ex. in successive measures indeed. by Brumel. 213 also illustrates this propensity. In Ex. The modulations are not so striking as some of those in Gesualdo. which is continued in the same direction Ex. now soaring.

a piece of carelessness on Byrd's part). we find in the first measure in the third. Many features of great harmonic interest are likewise to be found in the English composers. both from Tye. 219 and 220. More varied methods of resolving discord. 2. from Byrd. in 1. they are a clear three octaves apart. passing notes create an even stronger discord. and employ them without hesitation on the strong beats of the measure. . The English composers frequently disregard this metrical restriction they employ accented passingnotes generally with greater freedom. while at one point. it is convenient to point out two other harmonic F 2 . In this place. as we saw. The effect. In the school of Palestrina. In Exx. too (though it is not strictly relevant to the heading of the paragraph). show a similar use of the augmented fifth in Ex. moreover. 221. . the soprano and bass alone being in action. More experimental formation of cadence. Such an experiment could only have been conceived by a mind of . that of the the chord of the dominant seventh . the breach being thus continually widened. is cumulative. is the persistently sequential character of the melody as a whole then there is the way in which the f measures are telescoped sucfinally. Greater freedom in the use of accented passing notes. 3. 217 and 218. especially for ' what are called false relationships A few examples have been chosen to illustrate each of these turn. for the passage quoted is merely the climax of a long stretch of two-part writing which is started by contratenor and second bass. Passing Notes. on the weak beats of the measure. we see the discordant interval of the fourth thus sounded without preparation on the first beat of the measure Exx. diminished triad in both places. accented passing notes are by no means infrequent. then taken up by alto and tenor. from Orlando Gibbons. 4. A preference for the harsher forms of discord. They may be classified roughly under four heads 1. and finally by soprano and first bass as here shown. . there is the cessively by a ^ rhythm and then by a | astonishing emptiness and hollowness of timbre. but thej'' are only employed. as a rule. it will be noticed. singular daring and originality. 222-5 the clearl}'. the chords arise naturally from the progression of the parts. and are created at a strong beat of the measure (the signature <t instead of C is here In Exx. it will be noticed. and the following points are worth attention '. .: : TECHNICAL FEATURES OF THE ENGLISH SCHOOL 67 .

It : — fall must form a consonance with the remaining part or parts. 231). seventh is approached (Ex. In A. The duration of the beat depends. 230). is clearly analogous.B. from Wilbye. frequently in Byrd. It may fall a third and then rise a second (rare Ex. and B. the following methods are employed. in which the introductory note has somehow become detached from the note it prepares. The passage may serve as a reminder that not only suspended discords but 'changing notes' are treated with greater freedom by the English composers than by the Flemish or Italian. Fellowes regards it as a conscious classify. in whose work it occurs so frequently (in the mannerism. 2. manner shown at Ex. 232. three beats thus being required for the whole process. : way to imitate them in his own . The suspended note may fall a fifth and then rise a fourth to the note of resolution (Exx. except that the F in the upper part is a concord and not a suspended discord. V. . in C the crotchet in O and (^ it may be the minim. It was given as a rule above (p. Ornamental Forms of Resolving Discord. creation. 232 ) In Ex. may fall a fourth and then rise a third (Ex. preceding beat. 226) is it would seem to more difficult to of the employment Dr. D. and D are shown in combination. by composers of the English school A. of course. 235 and 236 are not to be found. much it is not though freely. is ' ' . but such instances are not easy to find. It may rise a second and then fall a third (Exx. B. for the self-subsisting seventh as a dominant chord of the emphasized. the intervening note reached by the N. on the time-signature in Cl it is the minim. the English writers allow the creation . 237-9 show two distinct varieties. Exx. 227 and 228). however. In addition to the forms of resolution mentioned in Chap. (though really very seldom).: 68 TECHNICAL FEATUEES OF THE ENGLISH SCHOOL The first peculiarities. and resolution of discord should take place on successive beats. The as to be a positive process. Such resolutions as those shown in Exx. the Gr being a free passing note. and a figure to be found very imply a recognition of the chord. 234 the two forms A. and there is no reason why a student should go out of his writing. 231). and found its way into the The second (Exx. but is Occasionally usually the semibreve in O and G it is the minim. the chord known to modern theorists as that of the added sixth present writer inclines to regard it rather as an unusual type of appoggiatura. with varying degrees of frequency. C. 233). 39) that the preparation. The form D is a particular favourite of Tye. 229.

241 (sign G) within that of a minim. and one spirit. exactitude. . Ex. convertere ad Dominum from Tallis's splendid Lamentations a work whose tragic and sombre intensity of conviction is hardly reached by any other music of this period. 242 is appended. Ex. 69 and resolution of a discord to take place within the duration of In Ex. 245. 243). the process is comIt is pleted within a crotchet beat. . A case in point is the Hierusalem. the lesson was made being a new fashion was admitted for the but nowadays it is grown in such common use as divers raritie ' . Such a solecism is very rarely to be found it serves to show how important it is that metrical strictness should persist and make itself felt through all the rhythmic independence of the individual parts. '. The real inventor of it.: TECHNICAL FEATURES OF THE ENGLISH SCHOOL a single beat. self this rare licence. or indeed of any period. is no less beautiful. Cadence. radically different from that of sixteenth-century counterpoint. beautiful one. 244 is a particularly . but such a method is degenerates into confusion. and though wholly different in Byrd was a pupil of Tallis. ' stereotyped than those of composers like Lasso or Vittoria. not recommended that a student should permit himthis is preserved. The . in Ex. however. for in Ex. might easily suppose that he borrowed the idea from his master. . though the details are differently contrived. for instance (sign C). The forms of cadence to be found in the English writers are less These experiments are not always successful sometimes a composer spoils a fine composition by ending with a tentative and unsatisfying cadence that leaves no sense of finality. — . . if he wants to. is clearly related to it. 3. illustrate the To extremely unpleasant a suspension on the strong beat and creating . the secret of which is the juxtaposition of the sharpened and flattened seventh (CCl and Cfl). would seem once again to be the enterprising Taverner. Morley's comments are of when This point close in the counter (is) both naught and stale. for it will and unless tend to weaken his sense of metrical rhythmical freedom easily Of course there is no reason why a modern composer should not throw metre overboard and write frankly in prose rhythm. effect produced by preparing it on the next weak beat (and not vice versa). cadences in the Lamentations are masterly Ex. 246 (quoted in Morley's Plaine and Easie Introduction) we interest find all its essential features. Yet the effect of all that has gone before is marred by the hesitation in the bass as it proceeds to the final The other cadence (see the penultimate measure of Ex. 240. from Byrd's Gradualia. .

From instances already given the student will have seen that the tendency of the English school in general is towards a bolder and more rugged type of harmony than foreign composers permitted themselves. measure but two.— 70 will TECHNICAL FEATURES OF THE ENGLISH SCHOOL make no scruple to use it it enough be left out. (c£ 225). but the Palestrina cadence is quite perfect another instance of the exquisite judgement that enables him to carry off a situation with which a less unerring genius is not quite able to cope. in this cadence the bass. though in few parts. coming between D and D. however. 251 is given to show the free until one examines it in detail. which can be paralleled. (Bb) at the final cadence. the secret of it is the tact with which the Etj and the Eb are played off against one another. trina (Ex. but not as a rule in such an a similar formula freely emphatic position. or by the descent of one degree. in any case. is of constant occurrence. by the alto voices in the despite the bold sustention . those Organists particular ones have). Ex. 248 (also quite experimental) ' ' ' . The cadential formula shown in Ex. instead of approaching the final by the interval of the fourth or fifth. even in those days. whereas it might well be very usuall with our Organists. The cadence sounds so natural and convincing that one does not realize its novel and daring character Ex. Byrd uses seventh use of the dominant Ex. from Palesis from Taverner . and we of to-day can surrender to the spell of '. A few more such instances may be cited. however. is not wholly convincing. 249). The however.' ' Evidently the cliche was not unknown. where the seventh (Gr) is treated as an ordinary changing note. In Ex. General Characteristics of Harmony. In Ex. Once more. the discord and space of a single beat while to get his harmony right Byrd does not hesitate to make his tenor sing Etl. the second is an unusual treatment of the note. but as the resolution of a passing not as a note being treated resolution occurring within the its prepared discord. 222. 4. Echoes of it are to be found at the end of Purcell's Full Fathom Five'. the cadence without the necessity of reminding ourselves that it was once common property. 247 is a quite experimental feminine cadence from Byrd Ex. would normally be sung as Eb in accordance with the customs of Musica Ficta. of the last ' ' B and D The Taverner passage. have ceased from troubling (at least. 250 there changing note formula. and although the E. Two concluding instances are given from Byrd. comes up to it by a stepwise ascent— a most unusual progression at a close. 252 . although there is an Eb in the key signature.

F. and Cj$ in com- be seen. but extremely palatable to those may who have once acquired a taste for it. for they positively went out of their way to bring about these clashes in a single chord. it is therefore not necessary to treat practice to be here at any great length. one peculiar manifestation of it which cannot be overlooked. that they should dare put such things on paper. by using an upward-resolving suspension in the bass. But the Englishmen went much further than the foreign composers. and has is collected it some curious instances . and call it harmony ? So. he will see that the progression of the will turn to p. after touching D goes down to Bb. . too. The origin of the . In Ex.TECHNICAL FEATURES OF THE ENGLISH SCHOOL the accented passing note (Eb) in the alto fashion on a is its 71 taken in orthodox double clash against the D of the cantus and the B of the tenor creates a very aggressive dissonance. Its harmony in general has a rough tang. 253 is similar in character the combination of D. and so on. England. whether specifically intended by the composer or not. But our fathers and grandfathers were sadly perplexed at some of the things they found. Ct] and CS. and that is the fondness of these writers for what we Dr. in scale passages. and no wonder. E. There is. in his History of Music in call false relationships. Ex. of the measure. weak beat A. except that the ultimate resolution But so marked a is by the fall of an augmented second Cfi to Bb. — : . Walker. 255-8. so that fairly close It should be added. 254. however. B. to sharpen the seventh going up and to flatten it coming down. the same composer manages bination. it will — is characteristic of English composition better realized by a perusal of the music in long stretches than by examining a few singular instances. would inevitably occur quite often. found in the rules of Musica Ficta if the student and note what is there said under heading (6) and then examine Exx. that there juxtapositions of Btl and Bb. to employ the notes E. the treatment of the suspended note being thus in strict conformity with English principles. has devoted a considerable part of one chapter to this subject. was a general tendency on the part of singers at this period. and G into a single chord is remarkable even for Byrd. Mendelssohn never played them such pranks who were Tallis and Gibbons and these other old fogies. the editors with one consent began to edit timely suppressions and To us to-day it is simple and natural proceeding . 11 parts is quite logical. A. it seems a perfectly merely honouring the claims of the intellect in preference to those of the senses a sacrifice which a composer of the highest order must always be ready to make. which is not suit every one. The bass. armed with a pen mightier than any sword. but .

This volume has missed its aim entirely if it has failed to make it clear to the student that counterpoint is rhythm. Whether this variation is an oversight on Byrd's part. quite fit for the best Victorian society The examples already but curiously unlike their real selves. a mistion within a triple measure. was merely a by-product of rhythmical experiment the whole of sixteenth-century texture is essentially an interweaving of independent rhythms. Ill). and . moreover. Rhythm. for instance. Despite the many individual features that harmony of the English composers. or whether it is intentional. nomer. but one or two more may fitly serve to conclude this chapter.72 TECHNICAL FEATURES OF THE ENGLISH SCHOOL judicious emendations were the order of the day. for of the five parts only one bears the genuine triple-time nothing less Some examples have already been given ' ' signature (Cf)).^^ ^^^ same time. the composer's intention becomes perfectly clear. Once the contrapuntal explanation is grasped. and so bring these pages to a close. which is never allowed to become mechanical note. is of no moment. is the con. The basic idea of the work. Byrd. I I I O O I I I I 1 I I . The example from Byrd (Ex. and not (as commonly said) a combination of melodies. as we have seen. emerged with their hair curled and their beards trimmed. where the soprano breaks in with quite an independent rhythm of its own. the alto complicates matters by contradicting the accents of the soprano in every possible place. — C^ trast of the three-one {(^f:> I I O G p pa p p) . The essential feature of the madrigal is the persistent conflict of the three-one and the six-two accentuations a conflict. and the six-two (p p p ggg). It is none the less true that the peculiar their mastery of rhythmic device. quoted will show the type of passage that thus caused our ancestors — to stumble. the seventh and eighth measures. it is by their rhythm that they live. apart from the simplest concords. is rhythmically far in advance of any music that has been written since. which stands for what we should call compound duple time. They have no monopoly very is little else. as to is mark the melody and the above all of rhythmic freedom. the others all bearing the sign C. none the less. & Co. the two measures together resolving into 2 + 1 + i. (see Chap. 259) has been chosen to illustrate his fondness for rhythmical combinaTriple measure is. for all the music of the period. and it would take than a volume to do justice to this aspect of their technique. perhaps. Harmony itself. until finally Tallis. . Finally. quite presentable. and further comment unnecessary. exhaustible wealth of enterprise glory of the Englishmen They seem to have an inand resource.

205). for they show an equally consummate mastery. hesitation in deciding . His technique he learnt from Byrd. or the radiant imagination of Wilbye. and his best work is full of a gusto and vivacity that mark him out as a chosen representative of the Comic Spirit in music. Fellowes's edition of the Psalms. Morley is perhaps the least of his peers the passion of Weelkes.. as one reads a novel. but equally relevant in this place. the reader may turn to the short extract from 'Arise. As a composer of he has not madrigals. Both are to be found in Dr. If the members of a class would put their heads together and sing them. The signature here is C but it will be found on analysis that the rhythm of the top part is a regular 4 that of the other parts an equally regular |. the writer would be inclined to name Arise. the profundity of Gibbons. them sung at racing speed. quoted to illustrate quite a different aspect of Byrd's technique. my Dear as the most exhilarating tour deforce in the whole collection. Whither away so fast is not far behind. and then go and do it himself. would be pedantry three voices only are employed all the student has to do is to see how it is done. . and to say that the pupil was worthy of the master is both to give him his bare due and to pay him the highest compliment his heart could desire.. In sheer exuberance of rhythm Morley has never been surpassed there are so many passages in our madrigalists which take one's breath away that one must needs hesitate to speak in superlatives but if driven to an offhand choice. . he is yet one of its most characteristic figures. after what has been said before. 73 and the present writer had much which of his pieces to select for the illustration of it My Mind to me a Kingdom is '. the only musical text-book ever written to be read for its own sake. Analysis. ' ' ' ' . Our last two examples are both from the pen of Mr. and every student should make a point of reading and if possible hearing them for himself. and with two of the most exciting episodes from this pair of canzonets. Lord (Ex. Sonnets. and Though Amaryllis dance in green were abandoned with very great reluctance. our somewhat lengthy list of The reader must imagine both of illustrations comes to a close. get up. For another example. yet with a resolute enforcement of every stress and counterstress that may serve to darken the plot and complicate the issue. ' ' ' ' . and Songs of 1588. But though not himself the greatest in an age of greatness. they would really learn more about counterpoint in half-an-hour than any master could teach them in a month. Thomas Morley immortal author of the Plaine and Easie Introduction to Practical Harmony. — : . in this volume. TECHNICAL FEATURES OF THE ENGLISH SCHOOL It is a favourite device of Byrd's. lightly and breezily.

Barclay Squire. The foregoing remarks. We need not expect the judgement of the world to coincide with our own. but the attempt will be ineffective and our knowledge. It may. but we can insist that judgement be passed only by competent observers. . be added that materials for such a critique have hitherto been lacking vast quantities of important works have been buried away in part books. and even where the work of scoring and publication has been carried out. indeed. but on the consensus of European opinion. 74 TECHNICAL FEATUEES OF THE ENGLISH SCHOOL Therels always danger in the attempt to deal cursorily with a however great one's vigilance. Now. likelihood that French critics will try to do so in the future. Fellowes. before . More than that they are not intended to do. however. . Mr. Thus armed. it is hoped. That knowledge must be extensive and thorough. A man. may not be his own judge. perhaps. and the ultimate verdict on the Tudor composers will not depend on our national predilections. there is always the chance that something vital may be omitted in the process of sumlarge subject. But we must see to it that that opinion is based on adequate research and thorough knowledge of the period under review we must raise our voice in no uncertain protest against any critic who attempts to pass judgement on a hasty or partial survey proceed. we are very sure of ourselves . Mr. the more important half has already been published. marization. may give the student some idea of the lines on which technical examination must we can form a just critical estimate of our national achievements in the sixteenth century. The only reply unless is to pull theirs harder. Dr. and that its foundations rest on a bedrock of reason and justice. and the preparation and issue of both the sacred and the secular work has been taken in hand of the latter. of the material which our scholars have placed at his disposal. and it must be a knowledge of their work as well as ours. Terry (to name no others) have been hard at work.. Arkwright. the result has been too often untrustworthy. things have been changed scholars like Dr. we can feel secure. German critics have pulled our nose in the past there seems every .

EXAMPLES .

.

6. Mediant D. j^X"-'^.. EXAMPLKS. O.4. Mediant.1.U. Hypodorian. Lydian Dominant Mediant ' C.2.P. Dorian. Ex. Modeviii. Mediant A. Mode 35: xiv.C * Mode ix. O * Mode Vii. Dominant E. Ex. H 8 I IKE Ex. Mode I.^u.7. =«= =541 - «- Mode iii. Mode ii. Hypoaeolian. Mediant F. I *5 r-(^ XE m teFl L^ 3i: ^Tr —©3i: S M jDl. * • * •y -rr- -» --" • * Modes Mode Xi & Xii (Locrian and Hypolocrian. Mixolydian. . Hypoionian. • A * 3tt: ^^ Mode Vi. Hypophrygian "^"^-'^^ .Hypomixolydian. O Dominant E. Ex.8. # Mode V. Dominant F. Mediant £. Ex. 3ci: Dominant C. 33: Mode iv. Medicint B. Phrygian. Aeolian. * » "= iF -e- • • * Ex. Dominant G. Mediant C. ^^^^r^' Mediant G. ^ Mediant G. i^ominan.103. Dominant D. 3a: -^*> Ex.) Not used. ^^I Ex.3. Mode X. Hypolydlan Zjf=3KZ Dominant A.. Dominant A. Mediant E. Xiii.5. Ionian.

U. Ex. In 2 parts. p Palestrina. In 3 parts. In 2 parts. (Sanctus) ^^ -»^ ^ M-ii- r o^ :«: w »: :«: s Ex «-« ^ -In -^ iM©: 4 parts.4 Ex. Ex.11. (Benedictus). Mi ssa. Croce. W m Cy IK ^*" ' '. Fy CA. Ex. Sectional Cadence. .. U. =& v^H)^ 0. mus. tX. MissaTertii >V Tom. pa^gg^j-^jia^^ Missa. °" Idem. ( Sanctus) f * iW: 1=«=t: S :§: XE ^^ _ . Missa Quarta. /*!. ' ' Palestrina. 551=22 r p ^ -T r— p~^^^^*^ ^ aS: S iH^^^^Vt dfe-^ ^ r ^\<i\ff^(<r . 108. Ps: Pen: VII. Xfl«rfa Szow. Missa. ' In 3 parts.13. Jj^^ Co«/%jj'or. (Credo). N9 8. p. Ex. I. oo I^ 6 parts.9.12. Missa Bre^is (Credo). p„ Palest rina. Assumpta t>d% i =g == est Maria.ig " W A> op. i i fPf^f^ ^r" ttf ^ -B- stzz^t ^ i •. nj In 5 parts. Mibsa.10. Ex. ^^ ^ parts. J?^^/«a C<»/«. Ibidem. Agnus Dei xsi s ^J S i^ •^ . . Orlando Lasso. Palestrina. (Bfenedictus). w zsn ff _Q_ ffi "XT" ^ sn =§= 5^ s "cr jm 3i: zoz s Magn. ^ -^ ?i -O-TV te :«= *i^ rr * ^--^---f^t> ^ nfj " f P^f TMiDf^ ^ 19 Ex ^ ^^ ^ parts p„ Palestrina. ( Christe Eieison) . P ^*' 4«. aO.

f ex. U. « 3=t '• ^ -sa3e: m "*> S Ex 29 ^^ "^ ^:^:^ * Orlando Lasso. ^^'^^' Ibidem (Credo r rr * . vos ovtnes. oc Ibidem. . i «L^3=^ s ^•wjc. Palestrina. I ^ (lii 3i: 0. m Tt^ J ort r Plagal cadence in 3 parts. ^ M (Form II). tX. jCt ^f#^ t± £^ 6? -»- J fe ^ 7T? ^W ^ Ex.^trina> Missa Brevis (Benedictus) 3X1 3cr ^—^-f-f^ ^ j Cw qq In 4 parts. ex. % ^tI^~^^'= ^ ^^ra r -^ t* -cr yr ^ r ^^ Ex. qe Interrupted Cadence (Form l). '\h ^*' ^^' Ibidem OVgnus Dei). r ^ cfi parts. Magnum Mysterium. pait. oz. 3 parts. 2 parts. Vittoria. Ex.^ r-rrr~r -©-=- w 1^ ^ ^ f Cy i=r-~: 0) In 4 parts. Vittoria. 4 parts. Missa. Ex. Idem. In 5 parts.Missa Quarti Ton M ( » mO -X51 ^^ r=T^ i^a- ^Benedictus). Fy ^^^^Final Cadence.^^ ^ i p^3 S I 331 ^ &c. *= IN o^ 1. _ «^ In 3 parts. ^^ /. JU. Yittoria.28. Gaudent in Coelis. 103. 35. Oculus non Vidit. 3i: ~Kr ^ ' "Phrygian" Cadence.Ex. (Gloria) Gau-dent in coe ^ m &c.26. Regina Coeli. 27. 37.P. (fee.

fff 1^^ f J^ f r ^r^fr"^^^^ &ri ^ Ex.ta 33: fr ^ &c.Q. i=z4=P ^. !ZZ— ^ £ §: 33: -©- :sn jux - x^ig~:s: ta o i^ cri ^^^I^TE bat ma-ter do lo. it in a * - F=^ ^ # g man - do Chris -turn f^ m^-rf=r ut 0. 1 P^ b^^zi ^ p*^ - 3X! -Q- o Colu - A ~cr g-e - il« >0 TT- :m=^=^ ar - 1^ 8~P^ cor Fac ut te -^ cum am. -e- i - m cru-cemla-cri i\ fj *. o -^-. gTTtf- :^=:§: — €>Sta - S £>. in a ^¥^ g ^ ^ - 31: —^«^ 33: E <> EE^ N _Q "O Q_ <> :^ man . 38.% 39a Bta - bat ma-ter do lo 5 JOL a t> ^S ro - sa JSl \r~: — — K>- JUX. fac ut ar - de - at cor 4- me um. 40.40? (The Fac ut note-values reduced for the purpose of illustration to their approximate te - cum ^ modern equivalent). bi com' pla ^r - "1 &c.turn um. 108.P. I Falestrina. . De II SI - bi ^ ^E^^EE^f^^^^ com - pla U.ro cru cem la- mo 33= A -40-fl A^ *»- A 3$ Ex. -te^ is ^ ^^-^^ J r 31: 3x: # JOZ -&- Ex. Ex.39. Ibidem.' 35: S De <r h»- o ut 35=^=3 :«: si pep 31: H -e>^ do Chris. r— SfaMt Mater. ^^ lu - g-e ^^ nrrj — um : -am.5 — Ex. fi-o fac ut de-at me um.

U. Officium Defunctorum.fort.fort in g vain thou vain thou dost ease Ex.'^ i peii^^^ Pour I'ombre et ^ I'orabre et pour la soif. cor-ding' to the mul ^ - to: - "^sm of ti tude Thy com-pas. ir~m ^feg^L^:^^^=#^=^ fe£ hence a. com.way. 45. ^=^2 H! es T±=^ sind doch ^^F=^F^se - riz^-^—S- . "Ch'ami la Vita" 6 -4 . Pevernag-e.8. tu - ae lieder. O. me-re des mal - iieu-reux. "Recherche qui voudra'. "Still it E yet rny heart ne-ver ^ >-4 3 ^4 ^ ^E ne-ver di • 8 ^4 =r---=t^j^^=Tff^ff^ di.49. mi la ^ vi frieth'..h'. ::^4__ &c. Lectio (I) III. pour pour la soif. in g ^4 _ 6 i we. 103 . 47. 5 I . 31: hie tern g-lau - ben wan deln Ex. es lig #^^ al - -odie. Bertani. . Neue Teutsche 4 2 __ 11. 3-part canzonet.42. Ex. Morales. ^4 3. "O God which art most merciful' 3 4 3S: ac - ^5 ^4 v=^ seen &C. grand chaleurs.si-ons Ex. 44.' re des mal-heu -reux. P.eth.^ sind doch se - lig: al - le die.' ta ^ ^ nel ^EEEfeEf tuo bel no Morley. Idem. runt me Ex.pour ?^ Ex. "F^is que je vive'. com. 48. 43. blow. 4 5 2 ^3 3 2 4 :=-2 1^ Blow. Idem.rant ^ les 4 i&C. 31 ^~J nus -(I) i J=3 . S in le rech ^Ei^^^S - &c. my heart ne-verdi - - - eth. Morley. Byrd. ray heart eth. 46.Ex. - &c. ^^^^^^ fe =^(1) &c. al - le die. Ex. blow your pipes ^^-r^^-^^=tri^ with glee re - sound ing- Ex. me-re des raal - heu-reux. du . q "Why I sit I here complaining-?'' 3 . ffrom "Arion"] 3 ::>2 T * cha . Orlando Lasso. she - pherd.41.

. fi o -«- Ky ri - e. 53. &c. 52. Qui ^2 3 &c. Assumpta Est Maria. >2 V'^'J 5 r Ky - ri .e. 108. IdenijMissa. bat ma-ter do . ut ar Ex.U. Ibidem 3 ^2 i Et in spi y * p - m a Sane ~ £ et 221 ri -turn tum Do-mi~num. cum lu-g'e-am. 4 r^4 t ^ 35 s=* Qui ve - :3Si nit &c. M'isa Papae Marcelli 3 5 3E -&- g « —©lei i^s Ky ^ ^ ZSEL -G- ^ - lei - Ex. De Beata Virgine. firrrr Sta - ^3=p= zst o ut te - 1 ^> - 1 a Ky ^n: fac. &c. ^^ e - m - <i> lei son. 54. Brumel. Qui cum Ex.50. # no - fi' g Do W ff m W=0 mi - ne ^ mi - ^^ ni. e - lei O.Ex.lo - ro - sa fac.o que M - pro ce dit. vi-vi-fi - can - tem. Palestrina.51. P. Missa. Qui Ex. e lei ^ &c. r^ ex [ r r ''-n^-^ - Pa tre Fi - li.

i omi - p j r g Z2=^ J J o ^ * JJJ J» ^ J S l3fe ^ ^ se ^^ (^ 3:1: J W » J < > * (mun)-di. 10 11 13 ^ IP bis. i bis. Missa.P. 9 Ex.1 ^ ^ 1 — . 0. Aeterna Ckristi Munera feflr~o: (mun)di. |g mi - ^m ^ tl- 7- rv 1^' — f rj ^^ IS ^ i bis. 103 . m S 35: ^S o no - re bis. di ^a p^ \ (mun)-di J ^ Jjjj i J— ^ - izz: fg ra bis. 55. (? fg -g :^fc=j ^ 1__P- /^ g " gj p iSLi- ^ o\ -7? g ^f bis. ^> re - re bis. r"T^ d mi se - J < / ^^ gi =. U.^ W: bis. ' ' rj 1 a se - fed 1 - re ^^ g^ /J " -& — —e?^ bis. Palestrina.

strut ^ to or' s'un bel ^ &c. g^^ftft to or' s'un - S bel fior f rg : m'ha qua - si il cor di. Palestrina. re - mit ted (fee.U.strut *EE fio -fit fes orj ^ s'un S=P m'ha qua siil cor di - tel fior strut ^ J ^ ^=£ orj ^^ bel fior tk^ g s'un m'ha qua - siil cor ^^ di. s'un bel fior.. i - are whose wick ed ^ Right blest "Osins. zzz - ted be. 57. ^ ^ —o Right blest ^ 3i: they. # by God re mit - ted by God ^ re-mit - ted &c ^ N they.strut to &c. 10 J Ex. . by- &c. whose wick. Mori quasi i9- il mio core V-{^\k^ bel fior. ^ fior m'ha ^ • - d o- qua si 11 cor di. whose wick ed sins. -d—^ .strut to ^^ A - to J Ex.ed V Right blest are by God re - mit m be. ^ whose ^ - m ed sinS. jO. 56. ^i=i- m'ha qua si il cor ^m i di ff strut to <fec. 103. p. Byrd. N9 2. are they. Songs of Sundry Natures. orj s'un bel fior - m'ha qua g -^^^ - si il cor di. wick God re - mit - ted O.

-^ ?z: ^z^r==^ r-' ^ ost - re - re no bis o re - &c re no - - bis &c N m^ O. to make me w^ stray&c stray. 3^E^ Blind be no ^^ Blind be ^ no be more ^ _ mj' guide^ to make ^ Fi Blind no more my guide to make me stray ^m Blind be ^ 2Z blind JSZ a more mv guide __ ^ more s^ my guide be no 3 me stray -0 # guide to * J * make my ^t=r=f to ^ me stray. P. -iSL^ stray. 59. w=^r-f^ ^ to make. me stray blind ^ be make me to make ^^^ me stray. to m stray&c.11 m ^ y Ex. 58. &c. r=f^i^ bis 103. . blind make be no more to. i W ¥^ '*T7W.U. rTf=f my Idem Four-part Mass. 3x: ^s ^ Ex. Ibidem N? 16. my ^ me make me guide to make ^^ ^^^ _1 me stray. guide to make me stray &c. to make stray&c. to w^^ make S stray.

P. Ex. 63. m^Bugsuorthy. 61? iS Ex. Super-tripartiens quartas.< dy's m ^^ P do - Ev 'ry bo - dy's do ing- it. "Down in a Valley!' Ex. 62.12 Ex.61. 60. 4 ^=^ B Ev - 'ry - bo - do ing- it. NO 10002. Ev ^ bo - . w=r=0 m l» ^ * Jl 1S^ -e- \pl^^f : ^m e ^ dys - ^ w w a :S=3C 3e: ^ / Sesquiquarta < ! Ex. -I ^ J 'ry - Ev f bo - J dy's Jdo - ing ^ it % ing it. Ibidem. . Wilbye. 103. w N9 10001. U. do M ^' ^ ing" it. J do - J ing- J it 0. Conceits and Vapours.

Ex. (Christe Eleison). Wittorisi. "I though* that Love'! ^ 5t £ Ex. A s _Q_ 351 ^T=T -^ ^ I). 76. (Benedictus).71. ^^1 Ex.Palestrina. g!3^:^=f^ Ex. ^ i^ ^JJJJ^ 3 F + 8=31: f^ » r rr » d \ ?^ m r iS- f i2_ T &c- 3^ stiia ^^^^mmmm^ rrr tfff B>rd. Ibidem (Christ© Eleison).72. . 69. (Credo). Ibidem. (Ag^us Dei ^ i ?E ^p A ^ j-^ J-J-^ r f" -^ i &c. (Faulty progression).70. Ex. ^ % ^=^ U UKr^ i 5 3 &c. 5^^^^^ fe^ iE 1 Ex. — ^^ ih^ KbJa^riffe &c. Ibidem. Palestrina.66. 75. Missa. 65. Assumpta est Maria^ (Kyrie I). ^^ ^ f 1^ '&c. Ex. ^d-^jwa Pe :^ 3a: r r :^^ ^^ ^-^ SaS '^ (7af/«. Ibidem. — Vi Ex. rf^ 22 "^ &c. Vent Creator. Ex. £1 O 3i: Ex. Ex. Ibidem. ^jja7«^/a ^j^ Jlfar/a (Benedictus).67.' 5^ V (^/ f-^ :^ J^ i ggr- r=^ ^m 2^^ 3r: T 0. ^ ts 3 Ex. U. * &c. 74. Palestrina. p. S r f J J " ^ &c. 68. Ibit^em. s ^>= <h o » (&C. 64. Idem^ "Have Mercy upon me'. 73.— Ex. 103.Missa. Missa.

Palestrina. Ex. -^^ ^ ^—f— J m t^ &c. t^- ^-~^ :&^J 331 J ^ i- ^ f &c. i=r- =§= A * I &c. 78. ^ Gaudent in Coelis. Idem. W\<s. 108. -H- TC :»: -o- Ex. 0. Idem. Missa. Missa. Orlando Lasso. Idem. r 1===^^:^ ^ 311 &c.P. Iste Confessor^ . SSI r r &c. Idem. 88. Ex. J &c. Aiie Regina (Sanctus) ^^^^^^ ^4 J «>" Se Ex. " Ex. 80. Ex. Idem. 81.JamChristusAstm A^nus Dei I).^ 14 .^^ ^ ^3 ^iAE& ^ JJ^^^ J: i^ "S-- ^ (Vf Ex. s -€»- ^ Jno: J. i7/^j Sanctificatus Ex. SI U. Ex. ^^ sa Ex. f P fr — ^ iEE3 &C. 86. 82. Petra Sancta (Gloria). Idem. M-issa Brevis (Kyrie I). is«-=- ^ ^ Ex. . 89. Ps: Pen: II.79. Wi.'&^.83. 85.ss?i. ^ ^^^^=prp^^w^^+-ip^^^^^^^^ f r ff Ex.sa de Feria (Sanctus). Palestrina.77. 87. Ex. Mis.

Palestrina. ^E?EEE^ ^ 3 fe= :5i &c. VI). 95. 1 =3= ifc Ex. 97. Hodie Christ us nat us (quick time. Ex. ({) p. Palestrina. 92. Fer. i^ «^ P=f fc ^ ^^^^^ Sr^ J- §^^ pi ^d^ i^^ iiS :!=«: ?^ Ex. Ex. Byrd. Da deafa Virgine (Gloria). (Lectio I. Lamentubatur Jacob. Morales. Sacerdotes Domini. p. ^ *c. 99. signature C)1 WE^ T ^^ i- * &c . 93. ^jg i r- ^ ^S Ex.91. 96. 3^ ^ .. Idem Magnificat Ex. 103.J rv- Yi S- AS-- Yf=f^====f^ s ^^^ Ex. "I thought that Love' (quick time. 4-part madrigal. Byrd. ^^ 2=©: g -J S A J F? ^ O- ^ J=^^ * 5 -part Mass. Missa Brevis V 'Take Time whilst Time dolh lastV (Agnus Dei I). S^*H^ f iEEizt tiSE^ ^ i Ex. Palestrina. S^ 7y^~^«:" &c. Tollite jugutn (fairly slow time-. signature (|)). ±=S= ^ ifct r r 3i: r F ^^^^^^P Ex. U. 94. original signature est. Palestrina Lamentations. «^= ^^ ' -\ ! J ^ viii Toni &c J. ^£S ^^i^^f-^p i 5??^^P^ F^W :Jr ^^^ «: 3^ &c :i -JSLZ—Z ^^^^^f^ Ex.100. Brumal. John Fanner. 98. — 15 Ex.90. ii ^ i* 0. J. Missa. Idem.

Idem. i * far--^-^ ^^==^ vj 3a: P^ o 3r: :«= (l^)-s- &c m r^ ± -O- ^ t . Idem. xe: SE: # ZTz^Jf. P. Ornamental forms of resolution. * * M^ Ex 106.113.112 r Ex.Lj-4I fn^ 3£ f=f^ f^ &C. Palestrina^MisssLj Assum^ta est Maria. Gandent in Coelis. t w de la Rue."0 you that hear this Voice'. i J^^^J f f f=P &c. 16 Ex. Lauda -H- Sion. ^^ (Osanna).35: r« — O -mi Ex.107.jFj-i p ^r Jj^ :«= :»: r 0.101. 3^i -«. -f^ 3i: 33: :^ :^^ dst 3s: >. Ex. err' r r O'- ..Assumpfa est Maria Ex. ^^^^^=^==f=:^ r ^±r-YT Ex. Ex. 103. U. Palestrina.ff ' ^ &c. J ^ J J J Ex. ^ ± ^ rrr^ f jugum 3s: ^^rr"' *Tf i ^L &c.' Ex 105.111. P. (Harmonic skeleton) J^ >J 3E . -JT^"^ T Ex.110. . Missa. 'Eenedictus). Idem. :«: ~cr jCEj :J: :«: * ^ &c.108. Byrd.109.. ^ ^ T^'4J Tollite ^ te= r^-^ Ex. Ex. I i: :§: r J J ! —o- 351 =B=c :«: 3:4: -» &cj Ex.102.103.114. Ave Maria (Osanna).115. Ex. Missa. Simplp form of resolution. 104.

3i: Ex.P.124. &C.o„) <^. . ^^^^ :^2Z r &c te 0. Missa. Missa.£1. ii. 5-par^ass (Chris. i &c. Missa ct'€ Feria. €H (it)f ^ ^ j-rr f 1 322 ^ S ^ T i ? &c. Ex. Assumpta est Maria iXgnxx^ Dei) (Treatment of the | chord as a double suspension ). * '*r. Ex. Palestrina.Aeterna Christi Munera Ex. 17 r-^-v Ex. Jam Christus Astra Double suspension of the 6th as a ^ chord.. Double suspension of the 3rd as a ^ chord. i?tf ^ca^a Double suspension of the 5th. Agnus Dei L Another instance from Palestrina.122. I 1 ?: m ^^^ i J J J 33: ^ ^ (Credo). 119. Palestrina. Byrd.128. is r r^ 1 ^ n rr f ^ i g i ^':^^(Lp::ffro?v'?4^ifttho^dV(cVEt'l6) 1> Ex. s J J Ex.e Elei. 126. Eleison).121. Missa de /<?na. nomine Jesu Cfiriste. Ex.123. I fM zss: J m «: Ex. 5. Another instance from Palestrina. followed by that of the 3rd as a ^ chord Ex.-_ Ex. I).. Missa.117. Palestrina. o Palestrina. &c. 120. (Kyrie Double suspension of the 6th. Another instance from Palestrina i r^ ^ ^^ * Si ^ ^ JOE Ex. _ .116. F?r^/«fc' (Credo). sa S ^^ ^ ^^ J^ 3 rf . Missa Papae Marcelli^ (Kyrie). Palestrina. U. Missa Brevis (Credo). Missa Erev^s (Agnus Dei II).125. Guerrero. Byrd.118. Double suspension of the 4th(Christt. J ^ -^^ I &( r 103. yiissa. Palestrina. r -p- M=d=^ &c.part Mass (Treatment of the | chord as a double suspension of the 6th).

143.131. >^ ^ '•' Ex. . * a T-r- ^ -f^^^^ Ex. 103. Idem. •~*Tr~ 3x: i ^ ^^ =3: exceptional). Ex. Palestrina. H^- ^ ^ \. (an actual instance from A. Iste confessor (Gloria) . (Kyrie ^=w Tff: ?z=^ 3E Ex. Missa. Innocetdes ^ro Ckristo. oc ci .135. Palestrina. Luca Marenzia. Ex. s ^ 3s: an Ex. Ex. O. iS" — /»- ^ K ^ -XSL &c.4-^ 3i: ^ Ex.ca. ' r i^^^^^^ &- Ex. but quite fe^ W Si. T rr ^ Coeli (Kyrie II) Ex.138. Ex. Idem. Ave Regina Coelorum (Christe Eleison). Palestrina. Missa.130. "Leggiadretto Clorinol' " ti f ^^^ ^^i^=5 &C.134.ta etc. 3! r ^^m est Maria I). Missa. r-^'f-p ^ J. .(Qui) tol - &c. Missa.139. Duo Seraphim cl amah ant A - p.142. T^ Q r J ^i STlri <» =g Tf Oi-m- ^^ ^^ YTjrrri - iUA .137.133. Gabrieli. &c. Orazio Vecchi.140 Ex/141^ Ex. Aichinger.132. Assumpta m a i ^ r.U.129. est Maria (Agnus Dei).si lis pec - ta mun sunt il WfTf ^=^=:^ pec.(dii &c.136.— — 18 Ex. -©- ^=^ 33. Si ? feg Ex.. p. £ Assumpta ca - ^ Missa. &c. Regina ft i ^— —^^^ — *t T &c.

19

Ex.144. Falestrina, O Bone /esu.

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Ex.156. Vittoria, O vos omnes.

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^ L i^Jio tenor. Missa. J | » J^4j>j> -o-4.167.) i Sacrum Convivium. Trahe me post (Subject in cantus I ^11.) jCC ^ P=^ w ¥ TT IV Vocum.) s « -^-= p- ^ ^ ri "PT — ^ Ex. Soriano. (Answer by Bassus I.) fL.) m Ex. 103.) a JZ ^ (Answer by zc tenor. Derelinquit impius.164. Hassler.162.) ZSSL (Answer by bass. Ex. ~m—w ^ 3s: Ex.163.) (Answer by 31: alto. Tallis.) (Answer by Bassus II.U. .) (Answer by contratenor.) ^ ^P O. ^^ (Answer by E X.) W=W -^^ J rj Ex. Nos aute m gloriari.P. 166.) ^ i* (Answer by cantus. ^ 4|| . {Kyrie) (Answer by tenor (Entry of Subject in bass. MarenziO} Mistf Rex Ministros. Missa.I 65. Missa.) ^ ^. Tallis.) II.161. Missa Tertia (Subject in cantus.J [-ff | l . (Subect in alto. (Subject in alto. -©-= — o rJ ^ JJJ I I JJ ^ (Answer by (Answer by I* bass.) ^ ^ te.) -0—5^ g jTjJ-J^lv*. (Answer by S ^^ ^ tenor. {Christe eleison) (Answer by alto.) -jO.) ig -o-^ 32 ^ alto..Vittoria.) (Subject in bass.« — ** l|4|i ^ r 22 Ex. S (Subject in tenor. In Die Tribulafionts. Orlando Lasso.

I Kyrie eleison. 169. (Kyrie II.U P. Missa. % S Q S — Sanctus. (Sanctus. m ^ (b)fv P rv zz: O O.) ^ XE -e &c. Ex. Veni Sponsa Christi. 168i Palestrina. .) Sanctus. Missa de Ferta. f4fe ^ ^P^=^ -tS^ ^F^^ Bassus. i^ \ -3SL * i: J ^^ ^^ ^ 1 ^ -«- P ^ &C. Kyrie eleison. ^ -»- i 5^ &c. tT O - *^ ALTUS.* J Cantus. 311 J Kyrie eleison. O * ?7 e:±32 F?2=# KZ ^^ 3 s ^ DEE &c. _ 23 — «- K Sanctus. Tenor.103. Idem. Sanctus. ^ cr 3CE &c ^^ ? &( Kyrie eleison. ^j-- r r '^ f^ -©- ^ Ex.

.24 Ex. ^ ^ Cantus.P. 3f p^ ** o -Q G- P m ^ iS>- TSL ^ &c./^ Cum Jucunditate.172. .170. o " ^ by altus and bassus) «: &C ^ ^^ »=^ ^^ -jSI Ex. Ibidem (the same entries inverted at the Cantus 12*2" ^=^ Tl=^ i &c. r r^ Itf^ Altus. ^«^^ f> -e- Bassus.103. E «=^ W=m. &c. P a. &c ^g ¥=* ' J & Tenor. ^3| ^ «: xx: Ex. * & -o- * J r -o- Tenor.171. Marenzio. > ^^ Bassus.lestrinsiy Terra Tremuit. Cantus. e ALTUS. Altus. &c 0.U.

Te Deum Patrem. $ t> < *J J i> g) ^^ P i> ^ &c.r ^^ ^^ ^ -e- -o- &c. ^^ "N Bassus. V • Ex. (the same entries inverted by cantus and tenor y.174.P. a HE 1^^ O. &c. rr r m m ^^ . g* ( # g— i o e * ziz^ /. i f f Tenor. Ibidem.A F 25 at Ex. (inversion at the ^ ^ lOt^j changing to the 8*?) Cantus. # n &c. . I-' the l2tJ>. Idem. ALTUS.changing to the 33: 8*3^) Cantus ^ ^' j. Bassus.173. s ^^ ^ J Tenor. ^ij Altus.~m W . iS*- r ilJ- J ^ fe f^^ p (J • m ii gi 1 ? r.U. 103. - P # &c.

and A. Altus. i # z2: ^^ :^-crT> —^'-r— ^ ^ — ^ ^^ £ t:* 3: 3CC J w=^ ^ W §i p gy. i Mt O iS^-^ "f^Tf ^J r [g r. . /s/e est Joannes. ^ &c ^^ ^ Bassus. ^'' &c.176. f y^ ^ [> Cantits. at the 9*^ changing. Triple Counterpoint. (p.IOS.to the 8** 3x: 77-«- B)j Z3j :3s: -»- . Princeps gloriosissime. (Subject in T and Inversion by C.P. ^^ g»^' *J^^ ^ -=-]» ' /J' » tf <! *'" ^ •J &c.175< Idem. Et«t 3sr Ex. Idem.g 2Q tX. ^m ^ DCE :ss: zaz Jf ^ ^ m J T O. ^^ Tenor.U.

103. Order. "Poi che non volete" (Answer by inversion) ^ d • 3a: .27 J -jsi 3r: ^ 'J ^ LJlA jCE « i J U ^^ &c. ^ c. 31: :M: ^^ ? O.177.U. A B A B C B B C E D E E D A C C A D E Sweelinck. i=* 1^ Q ^ Ex. 3i: &( ^^ 3ce: &c. ^ ^ Themes. P. A. g % W=i- &c.

iF== -cy :§: 3x: ^ TT ^ I Ex. Ibidem (Credo) I i I &c. &c.178. Palestrina. Marenzio. -©- f — . f^M^ 3s: 3E Si -«- 3^ Tbnob. 33: V P w ^ J* Ex. Ibidem. sn 3a: i9 ^ Ex. IS > ? o ^ Jifwsa i ad Fug-am (Kyrie) -«- Ex. U.. ')= i\~ ^ &c. P. &c. Hodie Com-pleti Sunt.180. (Benedictus) I u o 3s: o rj &c 33: 0. - . Idem. 108. Altus. f ^ ^^ tt: &c &c iE Bassus.179.182.181. i ©-• ^ y & ^ t 35: I* Tenor. Te Deum Patrem (Answer by inversion) -/^A Cantus.2H Ex.r y — ^fF=g= Bassus. ^ -e^- &c 31: JDC g/ P &c. (Answer by inversion in two parts) Cantus. 3E^ Altus. .

o i> fet m: &c >^ o TTT- ^ wS ^ Ag"nus Dei Agnus Dei &c ^P£ «: o xn ^ r^ (^ *^ rv : o il tt ^ »J g ( ^ ^^^ -» ^ > ^^ ^^ ^v^ d=t: ^ ^3^ 3i: O *i ^ 311 *> »=- xr: ^ 331 iO P^*^ 3a: t% g) O &C Itt I I *= i» 6 P xn 3s: i:t &c.U.Ex. Paiestrina. Canon two Agnus Dei in one at the unison. c^c. JJ- ^ rj 3t i gl 7:^--e- 35: ^ ^ &C. . J. 103. IE # 3Z22 f &c. SSI p t ''^ " O. 29 -^ f. Missa Brevis.T.183. # i-i5_y^ 3SI • d ^ o ** Agnus Dei &c ^ Ag-nus «: Dei &c.

103.P. Missa.' m o Pleni Sunt Coeli &c. (Sanctus) * Pleni Sunt Coeli &c. 184.U. f. r o . P ~?g- ^ i> ffl jcrrr ri" *N '^•" i -©- Z2ZZ2Z ** r o g >v i 32: y #-"-« r ^ J ^ '' f re #=F ^ P r -€^ W^ an / V o lA m P rj £ . Palestrina. tip 4=4- 3=Z2 t> • fl ) zz: e=3CC •^ O. o /v i> Q. Sacerdotes Domini Pleni Sunt Coeli &c. f.80 J Ex.» i is^-w —»ry ^^ (Of*' | ^ ia ^ ri ^=22 r ^# ^ cr it± 31: i -s*-^ ^ r^ r^ - ffl « ^ » 1^ 77 ^ |5^ rv ^ ^ ^ P - i i"^» ^ i 351 ? g l ^ xe: /J -T g |g |[^-^ l^ -^ ^^=^ ^^ 3a: g=i::±=2Z -«- ^ «—o-«(> ri-^ £ (^' r rf^ >.

185. XT cr Ex. f Si fe^ 35r ^ *> » ©- g* g t f foo TJ" /v rj /rJ s ^^ ^^ > ^ J i rj JC£. J 31 ^ Canon Eight in Four. 3 Sl^ 3E CI f? 4> zzuzz 15 cr ^ J J azza X>"" — l9 —O- o 3 -23 —^r jv t> : O. Diliges Dominum Deum.1O8 . " Ks [' j rz—is. Ibidem (the last six measures).P. rJ ^^-^-f^ -O- o a r^ zzzxs: 3 r 3CC XE ZZZTE XE 22 IE go ^ •w f? ct- C C ' -e- -e- o *> X5 i# #f ~: r^ /d ^^ ^5>— ^ 1^ ^ ^^ ^ 3 i ^ ( g g f rc *> ^ i 3a: t 3E ^ *> I.g Ex. per Recte et Reiro. ^ ^? -4S» ^? tt -©- i> rJ^ 6 rj m: -xr rJ ^^ IE r J zss. Byrd. -e r f- X51 35: 5 r -^' -o- yj n -©- -o33: ^^m Si «> /j < i^ r. in zzzzz i> u m i5HS^ X51 rj K\ 3 a o v f I ZZIZZ ^ IE 77~7g i9-<^ an ^^^ f .U. fi- > tf.186.

32 Ex. . 5E Ve - f ni. ^ ^^ 10 ¥.. Tenor. Vent Sponsa Christi Cantas.P. iS> 19- JCC fe J J J : ^—xr rj — r??- A a 13.189. &- Ve \> - ni. «> 6Chris 4 rJ- m^ \ Spon - sa b. ^ \ Ex. * Ve ni.138. Spon sa Chris ^^m -»- ( g w ^ j> 3s: 35: ^ ^=iffi m > •^ :«: ic ni. p *> j 9^ xs: n^ -©- fi -©ni. Ex. V ' f m^ ? f^ ^ d d x^ Spon sa Chris Altus.192. 3t Ve Bassus.U. SpQii • P Chris g * ^ JJ Ve sa 15 M: i> p -o^ *> « P f^ ( 9 ^ o- g) '^ '^ P ^=zi "^^m ** ^ ?Z=^ o # «: O.191. *^ i* Ex. 108. 3i: ^y^-TT^O Chris ti. Motet. Spon <> - - sa Ac - ci - pe. bi mi nus prae pa - ra vit ae ter nam. Palestrina. Co t> ti 35: do - <\ - i\- XE in -©- -O - quam Ex. o Ex.187.190. **' ^^e- -o ro - ©nam.

.ci-pe r^ g *> ^ 25 iL ^ 30 I << g » * *V ^ t 1 g ^=22 ^ —ifj—g- ri Q ^ fJ -©- g. 3 ^ 3lS1 f^ ig _o_ i I :«: p r^ o 35 -© ©- ^^ o * 3^ ^ i ff -o- €> '" d '^ « J d: fi P mf t a g -e- > m 40 i I t=L ^ o o o Quamti-bi t> p Quam ^—1^ Do-mi-nus /v p ti - ZZ bi P Do.P Ac P ¥ r: r ? - '^ ^ ci - ^ ^ i> ci-pe CO ^ ^ < ! o jj J P ^ a Ac ci. i> ^ ^ z'.pe CO ^ rv <6 ^H Ac XSI - pe CO F=^ - ~rr ro nam i Ac. g^ o— nam \ P 3-f?. P.mi JCC - nus ^^ ¥ ^ r^ j :«= g Quam » P^^ H«=^ ^ -« ti-bi Do -mi ^ ^ 3x: 6 ti G- «: Quam O.J i 20 .^ A r^ ^ o rj -e- F =M: ? ^ -©- m. - bi 103.U.

.U.108.34 J 45 ^e i fJ <9 « rg-rr t=t xjtzzzjzznsi i zz=^ ±± *=^ ^ P^ ^ ^^ jsn o O' M f - ? r=^ fc ji ~N ? ff fg ^ 50 Z2=5=X 2x: ^ ^ prae - Do-mi-nus I ^ sL td zx- f ae 5s: pa.P.ra-vit in ter I - num I # ^Y <y — a O" - t pa ra-vit 3E in 3 XE prae ae-ter ^ ^^s prae - Ji> J a ffrr ^ pa - e ^ ra -vit in — 55 fc ^ num O (V W=^ ^ 3x: —^ 60 3x: gl 1" ^ ^^ - ^^ TSL XE o fi g g ra-vit in -©ae - f2^—# m \ m prae - pa ter ^i ^65 Tn « - &-& ae-ter num ^ rJ g} r J d XE ^ m g^-TJ ^ ^^ ^ o- =S= ^-6>- -w O (V 1 IE g /y 3E 22=52 ^ XE XE :t=t: S ^-^ i •S^ O 0.

Et ALTUS. Bt m 7-^ pe S pe I su-per hanc W -e>- tram -o- -e — ©su-per hanc Tu es Pe trus. es Pe - trus. Cantus. Et su-per hanc X5 pe - tram Sextus.di-fi-ca bo ec-cle 1^^^ O.Et su-per hanc pe - tram g^ w^w^ g (H'd~^^ l Tu ^ m Tu ^ es es Pe - trus. Motet.193. (baritone) ^.103. I'm es Petrus (first section). Cantus. Palestrina.35 Ex. . es Pe trus. II. SEE^ -e- Tu Tenor. Et su-per hanc pe ?7-1» tram. I* i w w d^ 3E ^ Tu. J. tram y a pe 15 S^ dj g XE ^g^ tram ae tram a P o - di-fi-ca bo ec-cle ^ iH* i ^' pe fdiJahi^t:^ # i o c di-fifj o ca <y ^—G—G-^ bo ec-cle tram ae n t di-fi.Et su-per hanc Pe - trus. '^- Bassus.U. m Et 3s: pe - su-per hanc. P.ca bo ec-cle m 2=?z: ftFlt ^ IS si - 351 — ""= 3CE am jj-j^- "Jjj^ ^^ :ti: -ope tram m ^ :?z: i j2- § - ae. ^ 10 _ p s su-per hanc su-per hanc ^ ft -^- Et ^ 351 3 331 E^ es Et su-per hanc Tu Pe trus.

103 ^ :t=t .si I =P= bo- w- :& de .fi - ca - xn ae - «^-g - JtE ^ T5- di .di-fi - ca bo ec-cle.fi- ca g ca - (P TSr 3S1 3s: ae .U.si-am ^ bo cle SI - ^^? am ec - «= cle - & 33: si ^-&ae.fi bo ec cle am me am 3a: di - f fi - xx: g g - M cle ca bo ec am me am ae di fi ca TSl. p p - F=^ cle ZZ! am ae.di .ca ^^ - p^ 'T t-^ ZSSl cle - si-am me - am y-g ec-cle - si am me W- n rj xx: 311 - ^ "JSSl P am ae.di-fi bo ec-clesi- 1^ zx: am me > m bo 3n: ec - ii cle - -o^ si - S- ag tii am 0.di- fi ca bo ec ^ :^ di .fi ca bo ec cle am g a ae - s ^ Zi bo ec o - di - fi .36 ^ fi rj ^s rj iv ii di.P.

198.1959 Melody in Agnus Dei 31: o ^^yg t9-p-i^ 1^^ 35: Ex. 103.lbD^ Melody i j m Credo. ^ Ex. . -eei iiH ^ :§^ J^ fff >Jo gbj iJiO« ere - J 3s.r«a C/irx5/x if««e^ra. ne Je - 87 su. Idem.195(' ^^ in tj^c. '^t?/«. ¥ i\ ri rJ O O \ " rJ rJ fi m &c. Missa. .194. F.' Ex. Palestrina.»Ardo per te'. - Mi se I - re I -' re no w i ^^ 'y<K 3S1 -o — m e- " S ^'' " -« —©ifit o . jcs: S re - y^ a r bis qui tu as i> - ti tu I—" Fg=iff «=§: o :«: <> fT^ ^&- ^^ ti-o-sis i^ / ^ mm ss: de xx: :§=^ n H «: 3s: 33: mis - ti nos San-g^ui.1959 Melody J J in I r JJ-U:J ^ Agnus Dei I Ex.U.197. ^ 35: Ex. rr ff 55?: -&^ %f M -e- *= S: J. (from the bass part of "Gia piansi'. ZSL II. 3X ^^ i i o S: J ^11 XE <^ Ex. ^ Melody . Palestrina Bo - Bone Jesu.196.Ex. Gesualdo. _ ^ ^ r^ loca i\t j tX.. "Ardita Zanzaretta" Ex. t/g „ . .ne Tvr> z: tu - o pre - SI - mo.') O. « o £k. Idem. in Kyne. Melody Sanctus.195.

103. . best QZ friend IT - 5 those Draw. "se si alto pon g^ir.P.' s^ ^S m Ex.199.201.203. "Hor qui son'. Idem.U." r &c. on. 200.4 "Thou en: art but young. And thou Shalt wish (but wishes n all i shall te r S ^^ fail 3^ r^ i i ^P r T 1Z~ shall thee) and thou shalt wish (but wi - shes all J.^ r 3S £x.' Ex. Wilbye. Ex. Orlando Lasso. ^=wi MZjE P $ Iff f f ^ r r £t &C.tfeou says't'. sweet ' ?^ draw on sweet Draw. &c. J(H — i p I ^ ^^ m %^^## 3i: far. Madrigal. '-'Draw ^^g ? Draw. Wilbye."Hora per s tL^ii^^j!^^. fail thee)&c I » 1 on. sweet k " <'- 3x: nig'ht.202. best 1^— friend T5 un to those ^ ^S 0. on sweet un to E on sweet nig'ht. Ss: ^E^ -g^ —w~ nig'ht. Sweet Night!' ja_nig-ht T^r^ ^ 3 J^^ -^ — T pec nig'ht Ex.

That do ^ a W^ rise ^ ^^^^ pain - from ful me-lan-cho jCE ^^ friend un - -s?- ^r f best to those f night.— 10 — — 15 — — 39 15 & friend ^P to S^ those cares. best -zr- on friend un i -zj — draw m ^ draw XT J —C draw on sweet nig-ht on sweet night i ^W on sweet niffht. draw to those on sweet fc^ Draw -TJ'.best un to those un to those JJt=^J=#i:^ 1^ oa sweet ^^3 friend un - IJTcares. -* 3 ^ to That do a - ~~o cares best friend those P night. best S draw -&^ ^ t sweet night. . best m friend -V 73 ^^ cares.103.best f^ if friend un - ^ wm^ cares. on sweet night. * 5 — «« <5i -o cares. on sweet nig-htjbest friend un - to those draw ^ S Draw 20 . — srdo pe^ a rise + pain - That from fui P^ to trxr I those cares.P.ti. to those O.U.


40
25

^^
me

o' -

—rsJ
-

r}

rJ

zr
ly,

*
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^
a

lan-cho

from

pain

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ful

^
me
-

1

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«»

«^
-

-rr
-

^^
pain
-

ly

from

pain

-

ful

me

Ian

cho

from

ful

w ^^
rise,

^
rise

gl

from

pam

-

ful

me

-

':z^

M
tr2? -

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S
-

p
ful

e>-^
Ian

That

do

from pain

me
-©-

3s:
cares. that

-e^

do

a

rise

from

pain

ful

me

-

Ian

cho

m
y

3s:

«i

XSu
6*-

ssc

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do

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ful

me

-

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cho

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30

35

^
Ian


-

s)-

^^
My
life

cho

ly,

i
I

^^ ^
me
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cho

-

ly,

z?

lan-cho

ly,

My

^
My
life

^
ill

^
so
life

35:
fares.

so

throug'h want of comfort

22
ill

35:
throug'h

life

so

•if want

of com-fort

fares,

7

nS
cho
-

ly.

^
My
My
life

My

so

life so

i»-

'

ly,

so

0.U.P.103.

#


31:
fares,

#
41

i
I

E
ill

^
want of comfort

throug:h

^^ ^
40
That

i
thee
I

un

-

to thee.to

w-fThat un
-

^
to

F
thee,that

i
-

87
thee

Jt;|»
I

p

un

to

con-se

m 9
ill

f
faresT"
tff^

i

J J-

A
- to

through want of comfort

That un

I
ill

^

"m

c^=¥
thee.

*

*
that

through want of comfort

fares.That un- to

un

-

to

thee

I

^^m ^^
S
^

^
ill

That un

-

to

thee, that un-to

thee

5#—

331
fares,

m m m
I

through want of comfort

con-se

i^
-

45

^
That

con-se -crate

it

whol

ly,

aE
crate
it

whol

ly.

i^^
thee
I

^
whol
-

That

un

^^
-

35:
thee

to thee to

con

-

se

crate it

ly.

That un

-

to

thee

I

con

-

se

-

crate

it

whol-ly

^
con
-

itaf
it

ۥ

se -crate

whol

ly

3
I

0it

f^JT

'

^'
-

con

se-crate

wholly,That un

to

thee

I

con

^m
-

That

se

crate

it

whol

^^
crate
it

gm
whol
ly,

m
thee

That

un

-

to thee, to

O.U. P. 103.


^^


32:
ly:

^^ ^
r
un
-

pi

i

f

J.
it

^^
whol
-

50

330
night draw

to thee

I

coa

-

se-crate

Sweet

I
i i

^

^^
-

&C.

XE
ly:

con- se

crate

it

whol

Sweet

—a

That

un

-

to thee

m
I

-9

Wit

con- se-crate

s
*
it

^

—&

wholly: Sweet

night draw

^^^
un
-

^ m
thee

w

to thee

to

con- se-crate

wholly:

ly,-

whol

-

ly:
iS>-

Sweet

night draw

on

m
>

-=
I

r
I

r
con
-

p
se-crate

^whol
it '"^t:

-

ly;

Ex.204. Byrd, Sacerdotes Domini.

fe

:s=

^
XE

i^i-'-

-o

u

m
H
35:

-rr

3
&c

^
ll'
i'.
I

3s:

H

F=^

f
^

Ex.205. Idem, "Arise Lord

into

Thy

Rest!'

J

J
re

*
joice

g
re-joice

Re -joice
!>"

*

22:

^^j
joice,and

re-joice re-joice re

let

&c

<^

?

m m

m
-

J
joice

J

J-

J)

fg
l9

g

i

re-joice re

&c.

!>"

<<

f

f

f^

?
re-joice

f
&c.

—by
#—

<5^

(re)- joice re-joice

and

let

'>=
k''

<^
(re)-

r
joice

?

r
re

^^
joice re-joice

iM i
&c.

jEZC

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and

^
let

&(

let the saints re(joice

re-joice re

-

joice

&c.
0.U.F.103.

and

&c.

. "Come. Idem. Taverner.^. Idem.103.wTKT fj rj rr Ex.P.43 Ex. ^ P^P^ ^^ m j^ I ^=m ±d ^^ o 3s: -fs- ^ 0. (Contratenor) v^oniraienoD (Tenor) vienorj Ex. 77-77 zzz: — I^ . Amavit.*r/ ' T f^ ^^^ ''• : r) ^' 4 ^ F=^= Ex. I .208.206. -=g=:ijg ftfrv Ex. a a fj a es. Missa. s -« — (S^ -^^iJjjJ^^I^STfrr I r° 1— 1'-" 1 Ex.1 fca iM-^ g^^^i - p -©^ 6^ O *^- -»^ fe <g &I 1^.211. Missa Corona Spinea (Pleni Sunt Coeli ^ SS ? =g=^^ -©.210. Gloria tibi Trinitas (Gloria). 'VX'' &c.207. a fji n a &ig. Whyte. s=^ -J ^E$E asr S J J' W^-i'Jf^ of f.213. ^H-» 35 z? — 1 1 J ^Z7 p 3a: i^^ :?2: &c. ^ ^ &c.a i a=22 i ^i^ ^-^ i5-^ m i : 1 (3 i£ un - u I r? 4=i make * choice g ^i» i ^ choice.212. Tye. Idem.3s: i3a: ^^ *> I . (Agnus Dei). To/a ptilcra /?S=Zi ZL 5» arnica mea.U. flats. ^ - ^ li\>J un - J^ J couth sou rest sharps and p. U i^ S U I ^^ 3. Z?^7^s Misereatur. woeful Orpheusf \> i'j 7 J r J-vr ZJK. 209. Ibidem. ^^ make \ and T couth Iff" V ly*v flats Ex. &c. 351 ZZIEilZfcZZ Ex.

Four-Part Mass.' '"rrF &c.] . (Sanctus). Ex. 2^S.IOS.J ^^ J Ex.' :§: ^ *> XE o = . Idem. Byrd. "All as a Sea!' ^ r i« IS 'A_ I&C w^ .' 4^^^r J.. 216.244).44 Ex. ' P' i^ fj* i^ I r r r I Ex.227. Ex. Ibidem.222. IE "XT S^ Ex. Byrd."Love not for Comely grace'. tr ^r J jrp J ^ '&c. Idem. ^ r s^ &c. ^ me Fairest Flowers!' ^ P^ ^ j J J r N.219. Ex.Ex.220.U. Wilbye. \\\^. Gibbons.' Ex."Come Shepherd Swains!' I B^ P t ^ Ex."What our Life?" 3^ ^\>i^ } J. "Yet if that Age!' is &c. Wilbye. f m 4V Eug-e Bone {Gloria) Ex.221. y=^ rr r . ¥^ Ex.226. f &c. I <^rPi^ rpir ih\{ Ex. Aspice Domine (Cf. JT]\j}^^ me &G. 223. ^ Si vL I 'HI}} ^ i r 5 l>.217.224. <> 3ce: ^^^P ^y r Swan'. Wilbye."Crowned with t:^-^ ^^^ ^ ^p^ ^^^E^^ M^ rJ^tr J 7J J ^^ ^^^ J | Flowers'. Tye.B. 225. "Sing: ye to our Lord'.Gibbons. Missa. ^ Ex.P. f^ i O.i'<b- ^^ te v."Florag-ave I fe^ V'i. „ ^Lt^ J . 215. 214. Byrd."The Silver ^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^ Ex.c. Idem .jj=l^ ^ ii i^ ^ -©is &c. Whyte.\ j u JOl. Laetentur.

Missa. Tye. ^ Ex.236. 4- ^^ f^P^T r ^ 33: ± 5fe^ r — J &c. 240. i^ J-J r J J r &c. Ibidem. "Christ Ex. Ex. J J XE nJ Ex. Ex. 238. Gibbons. "Dainty Fine Bird!' ^il- rr ^ f ^ ^^ zl *• ^ ^ J--^ ^ F r^cfF^ 0. whyte. P Ex. "Lord in Thy wrath Ex. 239. Byrd. Byrd. (Gloria). 234. 233. Ibidem. -»1» Ex. Incorrect resolutions.U. ff^^ i J 3s: J ^1 #S 7—-=g 35: f^=P Ex.237. Tallis. Idem. Euge Bone. J ^-^' J ^ f P rr ^ 31^ ?^^^ T ^^^ J ^ &c.' i I.P. 232.r 45 Ex. P ^ ^ r ff" r 3v: ^ ^ t^ r Ex. i r 5 r^r r r r P^^ i 35: xsc &c. Mass (Benedictus). Whyte.103. 229.231. Aspice Domine. *'.' Ex.228. Deus Misereatur. I ^^ ^g{ ^=i^ i i^i^ ^ &( J ^ ffp ir A 2231 is ^ Risen A-ain!' (Part ^E ^ II) ?^ 3s: Ex.235. Byrd."There where I saw. . <'0 Praise God in his holiness. 230.

Missa. Ibidem. Byrd. n i V N ' \> < '. Ex.249.P."Chrish is Risen Ag-ain. TalUs. . Euge Bone (Credo) i ^^ =F^^ N. Palestrina. Lamentations.IOB. 248. T ^ III. ^ ^^ IW r ^m r -e- p ii 3te ^ r * # o tz5 9ZIISE: i^ 3E^ ^W rTf art <T\ Ex. f i ^ ^ JJ Ex. Tye.I. J-fJ I <> 3S <» Jf^^ ^ ^ ^^ ffi^^^-r-p'r^ ^ ^ Ex. 250. - 'J -» Zr^=f ^-^pH ^ & i F=^ S Z &c Ex. Lectio Fer :^ ia fctte ^ ^ Y^ 8 J J :«= rS -e»- ^® ^ £ ^ M: mM PE -ar » Ex. Byrd.244. p J. 246. f— I. Quoted by Morley ^ T J J o . J. m rm^ r^ 3e: s ki^ ^^p m I r° j J^ k"<^ ." . 247.241."Mine eyes with Fervency. Byrd. 243. Lamentations Bk. 242. from Taverner. Taverner.$ i AuUU s ^"=='T=T=r^=^ ^^ ^ jJ .>'i * ^ Ex. Gloria tibi Trinitas (Osanna) ^ » :. Missa. rrr rff r flFrf^ a: * :i=t- i^ 4=U q=t: r" Ex. ^ -i Si- Ex. Byrd/'But not too soon!' frf.r Ex. Lectio * ^ tl ^ t. ^T-ttHi .U. Sacerdotes Domini. 245.^ ]^f i=^ ^irTirtMm f^f^Mf >f^ r ^^ ^ ft r^d-^ i-'-'^r t* ^- O.

?^^ Tallis.— 47 Ex. thou wilt despatch me. Ex.257. I^ s ^^3 &c. 251. Idem/'Behold how good a ¥^rf^ r O ^ 1 F ^ &( i P i ^ thing] „ Ex. -ir«f — If ^=S1 :i:- g-^ fond. Idem. f Bf^ &c. ii-4 fe=^ I. fair and ne - ver for. ^^m ^ If M - ver and ne fj fj f—p Bassus.255. if wo-men could be ^ and ver ^r If gl--^-^^ wo-men could be 0. so P - (Wilt) thou L_ li.^ * » i? -^^ ^ ^ S — n^— i iffo- ^+|-^ fair: tc Ex." » &c. "If Women could be ^^ im- -g^If ^>-- wo -men could be ^P ALTUS. ^eU— ^ If XE 7i fair wo -men could be and Tenor. 4 part Mass.F.U. 258. 254.d. t'lfr ^ r 1^ SEE^S * grzzx IZiZZHS !*• . ^^P Cantus. ^^ "N wo-men could be fair and ne - ver fond.ard ne Bassus.r ss^ Ex. Ex." Ex.108. Idem/'O That most rare ±Ei^~ f= \f--rf-fr ^ "Come woeful J J Orpheus'. Lamentations.''0 care. I ¥^r^ J 1^> ^ ^ &c. Civitas Sancti tui. 252. dead ly &c. h. Weelkes.' 'i^^f"=jf^ &c. ' ^ fJ ^ fair ^ - wo men could be and ne-ver iond." -w- ^^ Ex. 256. Idem. Byrd. Byrd. 259. .J J ^-^4ft me. p^ s Ex."Blessed is He.253. St W=^=G^ J 1T= ^i" ^J. Byrd. B !l jrz-fxi ?z: ^ sting (^W --r. J J ^ FPi^ f^=^ ^ breast.

Altus. are ^S W^ whilej what. j =^ - -cr ta ken. fXTT. N?7. 33: - 5=35: ty might —cecon-ti-nue stui ver or that their teau -„ 721 a 35: - " ti-nue still. I fond.ty might con &c. Morley. ^ do T i you so? a lack ^^ f> m- the while) r> ^ do 0 so? % lack the what.P. 1 down? well. you halt? r . 3-part canzonets. ^ what. S what. f ondjor that their beau ty might con nue still -o^ o- ^ &c. might con-ti . down? fair then well - ver - ta ken. #=f%^ ty might con - ne - ver or that their beau ti-nue still &c. ta ken.IJ 0. ^ maid.103. ^' t-^^ well ^ t'-tt'^ -' I ^ mock me. or that their beau. ne - -vef. ri^. "• see you mean W^ or to J else I s catch you. are :M3 m zm. jo: -e- ^ ti - ^ > Cantus. down? J)^'.U. run ^ 1 m — f- Canttts. well o -ver . you pret-ty maid. 1._^ 3^ run or else I P catch you. Ex. whilej what.nue still -« |S^ ^ fair and i fond. go con-ti - &c. 260. "Whither away so fast ?" - E well f-J^—=^ I S nean to see you mock me. or that their bean ty might con - nue still. II S (for)-sa - g^iiil ken? -t^ — I ^ say run 1 or well see you mean to mock me. you halt? ^m do -m so? • a you lack ^^ the - what. are ^ you you £eeS^S pret-ty maid. XS2 m X5Z ^ —o- l< ti- O 3s: nue still ne - ver fond.# J fair M ^^^ and ne - M fond. you halt? you a ^^ else I 5 catch you.

. fc5=T=:J ling-. Up \ J =^ A'ine Spice Cake. Run J mm ^j *> 1 1 then. ii^zg^ ^^^ cake Sops wine^ Sops ^ in in wine. Sops_ in wine ^^^ 3 ^ ^ in get up my dear. and ^ =_ then and g-et a bride lae<? ^^ get Wbride. Sops wine. ^ then. ^ ^ a a - f wine are ig now a ^ i Fine. 261. Run then. Ibidem. ^ J in ^ Spice cake. * Spice Cake. a pace and get a lace 0. are a dea. t wine are ^ dea - ling".i'.' Spice Cake. Sops_ in wine Sops in ^m \ i Fine.Sops ^wine in ^^3 5 w— wine are dea 35: ling-. in wine.103. ^^ - pace. "Arise J 1 Camtus I \.' are now deal ing-. run a -pace. run. ^ Run Then. run a pace. ¥^^ Spice cake. - ' g^ IE dea. N9 20. Sops ^ £^^^ wm^ Spice cake. run. Run <s i ^' ling-. ^ ^^ pace. Tenor. a P Obride a - pace. ^ ^ dea in wine. are a dea y ^-^ ling-. Spice cake. get. Sops in are deal ing". run ^^P a a -pace. a - fe p^^'^ pace.Sops_ ALTTJP.Sops in in wine. Spice Cake. Run then. run 22 a - pace then. Sops i^i=^ ? Spice cakes are a ^ dea Sops_ Spice ^ ling-. ^ ^ F^=?^ Run.^ 49 Ex. ^ ^^^ run a run £ a pace. Sops in wine.P.U. ling-. Sops in wine. - pace I N r run ^^ then run ^ ^ a -pace.

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