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Learning Practices in Two European Regions: Bucharest Romania and Prienai Lithuania

Survey Research BILINGUAL PAPER


Romanian- English

In the frame of the Project City as a learning place - where learning is an adventure COM-11-PR-28-B-RO Booklet Learning Practices in Two European Regions: Bucharest Romania and Prienai Lithuania Practici de predare- Invatare in dou Regiuni Europene : Bucuresti- Romania si Prienai Lituania

Coordinator: Simona Gabriela LUCA - Teacher Training Center of Bucharest Romania Authors: Simona Gabriela Luca, Mirela Beiu, Renata Pavlaviien Prienai Municipality Educational Department, Luminia Tnase, Daniela Beuran, Olimpia Mateescu

The content of this publication does not reflect the official opinion of the European Union. Responsibility for the information and views expressed in the publication lies entirely with the authors.

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CONTENTS:
TEACHER TRAINING CENTER OF BUCHAREST ROMANIA .............................................................................. 4 PRIENAI MUNICIPALITY LITHUANIA ...................................................................................................................... 5 PROJECT DESCRIPTION .......................................................................................................................................... 5 PROJECT PARTNERS ............................................................................................................................................... 8 RATIONALE OF RESEARCH ................................................................................................................................... 9 THEORETICAL APPROACH ................................................................................................................................... 11 NONFORMAL EDUCATION ..................................................................................................................................... 13 OUTDOOR EDUCATION .......................................................................................................................................... 16 GETTING INSPIRED FROM PRODUCTIVE LEARNING ...................................................................................... 17 RELEVANT INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH REGARDING LEARNING IN SETTINGS DIFFERENT FROM SCHOOL CLASSES .................................................................................................................................................. 19 COMENIUS PROJECT CITY AS A LEARNING PLACE - STUDY .................................................................. 21 CONCLUSIONS ......................................................................................................................................................... 31 REFERENCES ........................................................................................................................................................... 36

CUPRINS:.
CASA CORPULUI DIDACTIC DIN BUCURESTI - ROMANIA .............................................................................. 39 MUNICIPALITATEA PRIENAI - LITUANIA ............................................................................................................. 40 PARTENERII PROIECTULUI ................................................................................................................................... 42 PRINCIPII FUNDAMENTALE ALE CERCETARII .................................................................................................. 43 ABORDARE TEORETICA ........................................................................................................................................ 45 EDUCAIA NONFORMAL ..................................................................................................................................... 48 EDUCAIA FORMAL.............................................................................................................................................. 48 EDUCATIA IN AER LIBER - DEFINITII ................................................................................................................... 50 PORNIND DE LA INVATAREA PRODUCTIVA ...................................................................................................... 51 CERCETARI INTERNATIONALE RELEVANTE REFERITOARE LA INVATAREA IN SPATII DIFERITE DE CLASELE SCOLILOR ............................................................................................................................................... 54 PROIECTUL COMENIUS ORASUL CA SPATIU DE INVATARE - STUDIU .................................................. 55 CONCLUZII ................................................................................................................................................................ 66 BIBLIOGRAFIE: ......................................................................................................................................................... 72

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Teacher Training Center of Bucharest Romania

Teacher Training Center of Bucharest is a leading institution for providing in-service-training and professional development for teaching professionals in Bucharest, the capital city of Romania. It is a public institution, a part of the national educational pre-university system. The Teacher Training Centre is the promoter of change and innovation required by the education system and develop training, research and informational activities. Our institution provides a various range of educational and training programmes: over 25 of different training courses for professionals in education in Bucharest, different subjects and duration, e.g.: Didactics of different school subjects, Character education, Communication and negotiation, Management, Leadership, Foreign Languages courses and many others. Our permanent staff is 30 persons, but each year we have over 6000 trainees and around 200 trainers. Our target group of teachers in Bucharest is over 15000 persons - teachers and school staff that work with students in the city. We have developed many educational projects and programmes involving teachers and students in collaborative activities, related to different subjects. The in-service training course that will be created within the poject City as a learning place - wehre learning is an adventure is an innovation for the Romanian education system and a way for our institution to respond to the teachers needs to find new ways for keeping students motivated for learning. The training materials will meet the requirements of the new Romanian National Education Law, adopted on the 10 th January 2011, which asks from the teachers to own competences to develop pupils life skills in accordance with the demands of the society in the 21 st century.

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Prienai Municipality Lithuania

Prienai Municipality coordinates and supervises the movements of schools and other educational institutions which are subordinated to the Municipality Council; it advises about the educational process and its quality; it analyses and evaluates the state of education in the region and using such data prepares educational services programmes to improve the quality of teaching-learning process. Moreover, it consults schools about the curriculum and the principle of the interpretation and adaptation of the education content, and the rights of the education providers to do so.

In November 2006, a Strategy for the Development, Implementation, Assessment and Renewal of the Content of General Education for 2006-2012 was adopted in Lithuania. The Strategy provides for the upgrade of the curriculum on the basis of the development of key competences. The revision of the content of general education programmes is geared to the differentiation and individualisation of learning with the main focus on learning outcomes and the relationship between the educational content and life, so, Prien rajono savivaldybs administracijos vietimo, kultros ir sporto skyrius together with schools of Prienai region took part in various projects about curriculum and it renewing processes. This Comenius Regio project would help to implement the curriculum renewal ideas.

Project description

City as a learning place where learning is an adventure


English - The proposed partnership is called City as a learning place - where

learning is an adventure. It aims at building a bridge between school and real life by extending the learning space beyond the school gates and exploring new learning sites into the city. Two European regions (Bucuresti-Ilfov and Prienai) will analyse, discuss, document and answer questions related to how to use different learning spaces in own cities to develop 10-15-year-old pupils competences required by the school curriculum. Based on these investigations, the two partners will design models of good practices within the field of city learning integrated into the national school curriuclum and elaborate an in-service training module for teachers and staff who will work with children in different city learning sites in each of the two regions; the external learning model will be then piloted in 2-3 schools in each of the regions and results will be published in a joint-book.

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The project will help raising the pupils motivation in learning (by offering them a wealth of opportunities for learning by doing, the entire city becoming our students classroom) and will improve the quality of education and training in both regions.

Romanian Parteneriatul propus se numete Oraul ca spaiu de nvare unde nvarea este o aventur. El are ca scop crearea unei puni ntre coal i viaa real prin extinderea spaiului de nvare dincolo de zidurile colii i explorarea de noi spaii de nvare n ora. Dou regiuni europene (Bucureti-Ilfov i Prienai) vor analiza, discuta, se vor documenta i vor rspunde la ntrebri legate de folosirea diferitelor spaii de nvare din oraele proprii pentru dezvoltarea competenelor elevilor de 10 -15 ani cerute de programa colar. Bazandu -se pe aceste investigaii, cei 2 parteneri vor elabora modele de bune practici privind nvarea n ora integrat n curriculum colar i vor concepe un modul de formare pentru profesorii i personalul care vor lucra cu copiii n diverse spaii de nvare din ora n fiecare din cele dou regiuni; acest model extern de nvare va fi apoi pilotat n 2 -3 coli din fiecare regiune iar rezultatele vor fi publicate ntr -o carte scris n comun de cele 2 regiuni. Proiectul va ajuta la creterea motivaiei pentru nvare la elevi (oferindu-le o mulime de oportuniti de nvare prin experien, ntregul ora devenind spaiul de clas pentru ei) mbuntirea calitii educaiei i formrii n ambele regiuni. i la

Lithuanian

Prien rajono savivaldyb gyvendina jau antrj tarptautin Comenius Regio partnerysts projekt Comenius Regio partneryst tai nuo 2009 m. Europoje gyvendinama Europos Komisijos finansuojamos Mokymosi vis gyvenim programos iniciatyva, kuria siekiama skatinti ir remti tarptautin bendradarbiavim vietimo srityje, traukiant ir vietimo valdios institucijas. Lietuvoje i program ir kitas Europos Komisijos ir LR Vyriausybs finansuojamas iniciatyvas administruoja vietimo main paramos fondas. Kol kas esame pirmieji Lietuvoje, antr kart gav finansavim tokio pobdio partnerystei. Projekt Miestas kaip mokymosi vieta kur mokymasis yra nuotykis pareng ir koordinuoja vietimo skyrius, projekto partneriai Rumunijos (Bukareto) vietimo darbuotojai. Projekte kaip vietos partneriai taip pat dalyvauja ilavoto pagrindin mokykla ir Veiveri Tomo ilinsko gimnazija, Prien vietimo centras bei Prien krato muziejus. Projekte nagrinjama problema mokini mokymosi motyvacijos stiprinimas (pasilant jiems daugyb

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patirtinio mokymosi galimybi bei netradicini mokymosi erdvi gyvenamojoje vietovje) bei mokymo ir mokymosi kokybs abiejuose regionuose (Bukareto - Ilfov ir Prien) gerinimas. Idja rengti projekt kartu su partneriais i Rumunijos kilo madaug prie dvejus metus, kai vietimo skyriaus vedjas Rimvydas Zailskas kartu su kit ali vietimo darbuotojais dalyvavo Vokietijoje, Osnabriuke vykusiame paintiniame vizite vietimo kokybs tema.

Projekto paraika buvo parengta atsivelgiant ir alies, ir savivaldybs kontekst: mokykloms pradjus dirbti pagal atnaujintas Bendrsias programas, paaikjo, kad bt tikslinga skatinti mokyklas diferencijuoti ir individualizuoti ugdymo turin, sieti j su gyvenimo kontekstu, ugdyt i bendrsias mokini kompetencijas. Mokykloms tai yra savotiki ikiai, todl, norint padti joms ibandyti ir pritaikyti naujas idjas mokymo(si) procese, apsisprsta projekte orientuotis btent veiklas, galinias sustiprinti mokytoj kompetencij organizuoti pamokas netradicinse aplinkose, parengti toki pamok scenarijus ir paversti juos tikrove. Kad tokios veiklos yra prasmingos, sitikinome jau paioje projekto pradioje. Atlikus projekte dalyvaujani mokykl mokini ir mokytoj nuomoni apie netradicines mokymo(si) erdves ir j teikiam naud tyrim, atsiskleid, kad pamokas ne mokykloje veda kol kas tik 11 proc. mokytoj, o 68 proc. 1015 met mokini yra dalyvav tokiose pamokose. Daniausiai netradicinse aplinkose vyksta istorijos, lietuvi kalbos, geografijos, biologijos, pasaulio painimo, mogaus saugos pamokos. Labiausiai mokiniams patinka mokytis gamtoje. Pamokose, kurios vyko netradicinse aplinkose, mokiniai labiausiai simin vietos ir alies istorijos faktus, imoko painti gamt ar s u diaugsmu sportavo. Mokytoj nuomone, mokymasis netradicinse erdvse neabejotinai padidina ir sustiprina mokini mokymosi kokyb ir efektyvum. Mokytojai, nordami vesti pamokas neprastose vietose, pageidaut tobulinti edukacini aplink ir ugdymo program krimo, bendravimo ir bendradarbiavimo ir mokymosi mokytis kompetencijas. Projekto metu toki galimybi tikrai bus. Panai ir partneri i Rumunijos situacija, tai isiaikinome kartu su ilavoto pagrindins mokyklos ir Veiveri Tomo ilinsko gimnazijos bei Prien vietimo centro ir Prien krato muziejaus darbuotojais nuvyk Rumunij. Vizito metu aptarme vis partneri uduotis ir atsakomyb gyvendinant projekto tikslus, kitais odiais tariant siekiant nutiesti tilt tarp mokyklos ir realaus gy venimo, ipleiant mokymosi erdv u mokyklos rib ir atrandant naujas mokymosi vietas savo mieste. Lankms projekto partneri institucijose Bukareto inspektorate, Mokytoj tobulinimo centre, pradinje mokykloje Titan Nr. 112 ir vidurinje mokykloje Eugen Lovinescu, taip pat, siekdami geriau suprasti alies kontekst ir bendradarbiavimo galimybes, susitikome su Lietuvos Respublikos nepaprastuoju ir galiotuoju ambasadoriumi Rumunijoje Vladimiru Jarmolenko. Comenius Regio projektas pradtas gyvendin ti nuo 2011-08-01 ir tsis iki 2013-07-31, jo metu, remdamiesi tyrinjimais, sukursime gerosios praktikos modelius, padedanius mokymsi mieste integruoti nacionalin abiej ali ugdymo turin, parengsime kvalifikacijos tobulinimo modul mokytojams bei kitiems darbuotojams, dirbantiems su vaikais netradicinse mokymosi erdvse abiejose alyse. is mokymosi modelis bus ibandytas 23 kiekvieno regiono mokyklose, o

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rezultatai paskelbti ir aprayti bendroje projekto knygoje. Visada norisi paklausti, o kas i to mokiniams? Atsakymas vienareikmikas jeigu projekto pabaigoje ne minti 11 proc., o kur kas daugiau mokytoj ryis organizuoti pamokas ne klasse, tikrai ne 68 proc. mokini, o gal net ir visas 100 proc. gals patirti KITOKIAS pamokas netiktas, intriguojanias, stebinanias pamokas, sudaranias slygas ne tradicikai mokytis, bet patirti nuotyk. Ir tuos atradimus daryti ne bet kur, o savo gimtajame krate.1

Project partners

ROMANIAN Partners Bucharest Region coala cu clasele I-VIII nr. 87 "M. Botez" coala cu clasele I-VIII nr. 112 Titan Liceul Teoretic Eugen Lovinescu Inspectoratul colar al Municipiului Bucureti Muzeul Municipiului Bucure ti Clubul Kiwanis Bucureti

LITHUANIAN Partners PRIENAI MUNICIPALITY LITHUANIA Veiveriu Tomo Zilinsko Gimnazija Silavoto Pagrindine Mokykla Prienu Svietimo Centras Prienu Krasto Muziejus

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http://www.svietimocentras.prienai.lm.lt/Projektai/2012-04-11%20Comenius%20Regio.html

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Rationale of Research

Educational institutes in both participating regions are in the process of adapting their learning patterns to meet the needs of both each individual and the whole society of the twenty-first century. The traditional role of the education has been to view students as merely receptors of knowledge and the role of the teacher was to impart knowledge. In both regions, it is usual that the teacher plays this role in the classroom. As a result, most of the pupils come to school without pleasure, some of them abandon school because it is high demanding and even the pupils who learn do learning not because they like it, but because they have to learn. But in todays world, school is no more the only place where we can learn. Learning

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_learningcould come from sources beyond the classroom:


museums, botanic gardens, local newspapers, zoos, theatres and other venues to learn by engaging in real world. Taking into consideration these conditions, instead of striving to keep students in school, we would better try to free them form the classrooms cage and extend the learning space as an attempt to give a solution to the problems encountered in education in both regions; the city itself can become our students classroom. Bucharest - Romania Romanias capital city has a wide network of educational units, both state-run and private ones, starting from kindergarten, up to the university level. Some three hundred elementary schools rear children since the age of 7, for the first eight classes. Having passed the National Test students can choose, according to the average mark obtained, from among the 91 secondary school units. If the elementary schools are more or less similar in curriculum, Bucharests secondary level educational units allow the largest variety of options in the country. There are several national colleges, most of them centenary (the best reputed and the most hunted for by the top students); the standard, so-called theoretical secondary schools, where students can major either in Science, or in the Humanities, focusing on the respective fields in further university studies; vocational secondary schools (of dance, sports, music and fine arts). There are also five economic/technical high schools and several others, specialized in confessional education. The lowest ranked secondary education units are the so-called School groups, consisting of a high school (usually offering curricula of technical or services education) and an Arts and Crafts School. The great majority of secondary school units are run by the state, but there are some private

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ones as well. The pre-university educational network in the region has the complex task of preparing for social and professional integration the youth of the largest urban area in the country, amounting to about two million inhabitants. For the last two decades, Romanias capital city has undergone major changes in terms of population welfare and occupational tendencies. The outsized state-run industrial units went bankrupt or transformed their profile one by one, leaving room for the more flexible private sector. Mass unemployment and the need of professional conversion has

determined a notable change in the educational requirements of citizens of Bucharest, adjusted to the more general demands of our time. Schools have now to adopt a more pragmatic philosophy, endowing students with marketable skills rather than a corpus of knowledge soon outdated. The consequent reform of the Romanian school system has brought our curriculum closer to education practices in the European Union. We are due to address more specifically the needs of children and teenagers to integrate in an ever-changing, often confusing and frustrating social reality, marked bf unemployment, the worrying increase of drug addiction, violence and delinquency among the youth as Bucharest statistics are highlighting of late. The dramatic drop of the students interest in conventional teaching is, among other causes, triggered by their perception of the school as a kind of incubator sealed out of the demands and concerns of real life. Therefore, we do need to assume a novel approach in teaching, by adopting hands-on methods, experiential learning and co-operative learning in all disciplines, which involve and train the student for an independent, successful after-school evolution. Prienai Region- Lithuania Prienai Region organize teaching - learning process according to the National Educational Strategy 2003-2012 approved by resolution of Seimas. General education content has been undergoing revision and the new content of general education is targeted at developing the key competences of the knowledge society. The revision of general education programmes and standards involves balancing the volume of the education content and reducing the learning loads. So, Prienai Municipality Educational, Cultural And Sports Department which coordinates and supervises the development of municipality schools, emphasizes renewing processes of curriculum paying attention to the modernization of education. Observing the state of Education in Municipality, the tendency of school children number decreasing is noticed. It depends on poor birthrate and emigration because of social-economical reasons. Comparing to average of the country, social-economical position of Prienai Municipality is poorer, so value-added (schools contribution to a student upbringing) problem in schools is very important. Paying attention to this, the most important strategical aim in our region is the quality of educational services, especially relationship between curriculum and life - context.

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Theoretical Approach

From old times, visionary psychologists and experts in education like Rousseau to Piaget have emphasis that real life experiences form the basis of learning. In his manual of pedagogy, Rousseau recommended for Emile having a whole year of learning by traveling. Gaining experiences that would have the major role for personal development and growing mature.

Later on, in our present Knowledge society, The European Union understood the significant role of different student placements in enterprises and companies. The major role of working altogether

end experiencing new environment and new country. Experiences may be planned to take place within lessons in school class, school laboratory, as well as in museums, parks or field trips. All learning settings have their advantages and weaknesses.

In pedagogy experiences worldwide, education considered as teaching and learning in different settings but school class, is called Outdoor education.

Outdoor education has been defined in a variety of ways throughout its history. Promoters of outdoor education were in UK, and USA, and later Australia. Those who influenced the field early on defined outdoor education with the needs of camping education in mind. For example, L. B. Sharp (1943), one of the earliest advocates of camping education, offered the following rationale for outdoor education: "That which can best be taught inside the schoolrooms should there be taught, and that which can best be learned through experience dealing directly with native materials and life situations outside the school should there be learned" (p. 363). As the field of outdoor education matured, organizations emerged that worked to gain support from school personnel. For example, Julian W. Smith began the National Outdoor Education Project in 1955. Smith elucidated the connection between outdoor education and the school curriculum in his definition: "Outdoor education means learning "in" and "for" the outdoors. It is a means of curriculum extension and enrichment through outdoor experiences" (Hammerman, 1980, p. 33). In education theory and practice, achieving best results in terms of knowledge, competence, personal development of students is the main goal. For this purpose many resources were used

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along times and countries. There is a continuous research in this matter among experts and teachers.

Starting from immemorial times, people spent time being "trained" to live in the world. For at least several million years, virtually all of these years of learning and training was conducted in the outdoors. Only recently when permanent walls constructed, members of modern Western societies have become collectively "shielded" from natural living and challenges, rhythms and observations of nature, etc.

Al along times, hundreds of years, education was conceived as taking place in a secure, calm environment called class and school. Efforts and researches were done to establish and design best classes and best schools. In Romanian education, many governmental efforts were done to improve schools and classes educational facilities.

There remains an instinctual need to re-kindle our inbuilt sensitivities to nature (E. O. Wilson). Thus, outdoor activities, outdoor recreation, and outdoor education serve a psychoevolutionary need within people maintain some form of psychological and physical contact with natural processes and environments.

Still, years by years in the post-modern times that we pass, along the knowledge society, a lot of organizations and institutions address education in a way or another. And this is happening in various places, by different approaches, many of them away of real educational purposes in business world. As educators, we have noticed a gap between these tendencies. Through this Regio project we proposed to create a natural link between the three types of education related with different learning environment end and experiences: Formal education Non-formal education Informal education. The innovation that our project brings is a new educational paradigm. Its essence is to develop and organize formal curricular education activities (class lessons) in non-formal educational settings and by using some of no-formal education strategies.

The main idea is to gather benefits from the two educational approaches and minimize their weaknesses.

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From this paradigm of learning

To this paradigm of learning

Nonformal Education Formal education Education provided in the system of schools, colleges, universities and other formal educational institutions that normally constitutes a continuous ladder of full -time education for children and young people, generally beginning at age five to seven and continuing up to 20 or 25 years old.(UNESCO. 1997a. International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED). Paris: UNESCO). Non-formal education Any organised and sustained educational activities that do not correspond exactly to the definition of formal education [see p.vii]. Non-formal education may therefore take place within and outside educational institutions, and cater to persons of all ages. Depending on country contexts, it may

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cover educational programmes to impart adult literacy, basic education for out-of-school children, work skills, and general culture. Non-formal education programmes do not necessarily follow the ladder system and may have different duration. (UNESCO. 1997a. International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED). Paris: UNESCO). The content of Nonformal Education is grounded in the theory and practice of some of the great educational thinkers of our time including Paolo Freire, Howard Gardner, David Kolb, Malcolm Knowles and Bernice McCarthy.

Experiential Learning Model (Kolb 1984) brought a very significant innovation in Non Formal Education. Experiential learning involves a continuous learning process grounded in an individual's experiences and transactions with his/her environment.

Characteristics of Non-Formal Education 1. Non Formal Education Program emerges as an innovation to solve pressing problem in a given society. 2. Its goal and purpose oriented not certificate oriented. 3. It emphasizes on tackling specific problems and rather than learning abstract subject matters. 4. It may help to initiate a program or a project after an experimental phase. 5. It is flexible, learner centered, and participatory. 6. It is more practical rather than theoretical.

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7. Autonomy at the program level and less chance for external control. 8. More economical because it could use existing facilities. 9. It is continuing life long process.

By this merging process proposed in our project, the formal education will include some advantages of non-formal education: Increasing motivation and personal awareness and ownership of tasks Interest, at activity We aim to conceive a whole didactics for formal ( curricular education) in non-formal places and educational settings. This small changing of educational paradigm is based on several reasons: Students: -need a natural, and flexible approach of learning as a process which takes place best in a natural environment and will be certainly used in another context than class along life. -will benefit of direct and stunning experience of learning, which will make it unforgettable and real, comparing to class where small samples of real life, simulations, pictures are brought in teaching and learning as didactical resources -will benefit of direct group management and natural communicational skills and arrangements and will empower social and communicational skills -will redesign their relation with teachers as learning guides and not the owners of through -will better understand lifelong learning by discovering and experiencing altogether with their teachers new learning experiences - will raise their attentiveness for environment: natural environment and city environment - will communicate with many other actors in society: from experts in different places to simple citizens, different expertise, involvement, age, rase, etc. - will notice how real life and random factors may intervene in learning, in education. Society will also benefit from education opening by interacting with students class when activities take place. On the other hand members of society play an active rol in learning activities created in city spaces.

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Outdoor education

an experiential method of learning by doing, which takes place primarily through exposure to the out-of-doors. In outdoor education, the emphasis for the subject of learning is placed on RELATIONSHIPS: relationships concerning human and natural resources. (Simon Priest (1986), p. 13)

appeals to the use of the senses - audio, visual, taste, touch, and smell for observation and perception. (Lewis, 1975) a means of curriculum enrichment, whereby the process of learning takes place out of doors. Outdoor education broadly includes environmental education, conservation education, adventure education, school camping, wilderness therapy, and some aspects of outdoor recreation (Lappin, 2000) an experiential method of learning with the use of all senses. It takes place primarily, but not exclusively, through exposure to the natural environment (Priest, 1990) interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary...an approach to achieving the goals and objectives of the curriculum. (Hammerman, Hammerman & Hammerman, 1985) going out into the natural environment, learning about and respecting the environment. (Ketchie) a learning climate for the things which can be learned best outside the classroom. (Smith, 1955) one of a range of mediums in which to offer informal educational opportunities addressing the personal and social development of both communities and individuals (Outdoor Edinburgh) a matter of many relationships. These relationships concern not only the natural resources, but also people and society. (Priest, 1986, p.13) an experiential method of learning with the use of all senses. It takes place primarily, but not exclusively, through exposure to the natural environment. In outdoor education, the emphasis for the subject of learning is placed on relationships concerning people and natural resources. (Lund, 2002) an international, experiential education phenomenon which engages people in adventurous activities for enhancement of the well-being of individuals, communities, and the environment (Neill, 2002)

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Getting inspired from Productive Learning

Another source of inspiration for our project was the Productive Learning pedagogical theory. The story began in New York, with a school called "City-as-School" was created in 1983. The school enable young people with a sense of responsibility, independence and achievement, while permitting them to become involved in an activity of their choice, anywhere in New York. Their activities at practice sites form the basis for their educational process. On 1st March 2012 a collaborative project was started between the IPLE and the Education Supply Centre (ESC) of the Ministry of Education in Lithuania. The aim is the introduction of Productive Learning in three schools in Lithuania. During the course of the project, participating teachers are trained on the basis of the study programme Productive Learning in Europe to assist their on-going work. August 2014. Productive Learning is a form of education which replaces traditional schooling during the last years of general school. This form of education started its development 20 years ago in Berlin in order to address mounting discrepancies and conflict between secondary school teaching and educational needs and interests of the pupils. From 1987 to 1991, Professor Jens Schneider and Ingrid Bhm (Med) established and tested, in co-operation with others, the basic principles of Productive Learning within the pilot project City-as-School Berlin. From 1991 to 1996, the concept of developing Productive Learning projects was drawn up and tested within the framework of an international IPLE project. This concept also includes a programme of further study in conjunction with these projects. Activity as the Basis of Learning The project will end on 30th

Underlying principle of the form of education Productive Learning is the participation of adolescents in social activities, particularly in professional life. The young people create individual curricula on the basis of experiences with activities within independently chosen real-life situations. For three months, they work three days per week at an independently chosen practice site, e.g. at a carpentry, in a vegetable shop, for a newspaper publisher, in a hospital, with Amnesty International, in broadcasting or in some other real-life situation. Culture and School Subjects as Tools

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On the basis of individual curricula, pupils employ the traditional educational heritage, including school subjects, in their productive activities. They use all cultural traditions in order to better understand and in order to improve their activities. In this way, school is no longer reduced to the teaching of school subjects. Also, the lack of application of what has been learned within the educational process - something which defined general school in the industrial age - is addressed. Additionally, this form of education offers a highly personalized, practice-related and therefore very successful professional orientation. Educational Objectives and Curriculum On the basis of German and European school legislation which defines pedagogical objectives in a similar fashion, the institute has formulated 12 Educational Objectives of Productive Learning. Productive Learning strives towards the best possible participation of the learning persons in their own educational processes. Through this participation, the learning persons change their status from being objects to that of being subjects of their own educational processes. The institute - in cooperation with educators from 12 Berlin school pilot projects and from three educational projects outside of school - developed a Framework Curriculum on the basis of these educational objectives. Within this framework, pupils study according to individual curricula and with the assistance of educators. Productive Learning enables pupils to obtain a school leaving certificate for secondary school. Educational Aspects (Curriculum Elements) and Methodology Within the most substantial curriculum element - Learning at Practice Sites - the young people choose a placement in a firm or in social, cultural and political institutions three times per school year. There they participate 18 hours per week and, at the same time, explore, question and reflect on their own activities. For 5 hours per week, pupils are able to discuss their new experiences in the Communication Group where they also prepare further activities, observations and research, and where they also personally reflect on their activities and process their new experiences. All this takes place in the Learning Workshop which replaces the traditional class room. 8 hours per week are linked to a subject but even these are connected to the practical experiences: German (respectively the national language), English and Maths in Productive Learning, the learning areas People and Culture, Society and Economy and Nature and Technology which are dealt with on the basis of epochs, furthermore one optional subject. In addition to the curriculum, a differentiated methodology of Productive Learning was developed which includes methods of individual learning, educational counseling, group work and International Learning.

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Productive Learning is intrinsically international and intercultural learning. The International Network of Productive Learning Projects and Schools (INEPS) consists of schools and institutions outside of school from more than 20 European and oversees countries. On the basis of the solid subject knowledge gained at home, pupils are able to continue their learning abroad. Since 1996, Productive Learning has replaced the standard education in school years 9 and 10 with school pilot projects in 16 secondary schools in Berlin. Beginning in school year 2002/03 seven secondary schools in Brandenburg and 21 secondary schools in Sachsen-Anhalt have introduced Productive Learning. Since 2005 25 secondary schools in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern have started Productive Learning programmes and in 2006 six secondary schools have introduced Productive Learning in Thringen. From 2009 seven schools in Sachsen introduced Productive Learning programmes. Several countries have started Productive Learning programmes as Finland, France, Hungary, Russia and Spain and more countries are examinating ways and chances of introducing Productive Learning, for example the Baltic countries, Bulgaria and Romania. The successes of Productive Learning prove the appropriateness of this educational paradigm and of the methodology for increasingly rapid social changes. High completion rates on all German school levels - "Hauptschulabschluss", "Realschulabschluss"/"Mittlerer Schulabschluss" - and a high rate of school leavers successfully embarking on the transition towards vocational training and professional life - 70% to 80% respectively - show that Productive Learning is not only theoretically plausible but that it is also successful and workable, particularly when we take into account that we are talking about pupils whose failure in school seemed to be a forgone conclusion. Because of the great successes of Productive Learning Berlin's parliament and Government have decided in 2004 to establish Productive Learning as a legal alternative programme which can be introduced by each secondary school in Germany.

Relevant International research regarding learning in settings different from school classes

Outdoor education is by itself a powerful teaching tool: through doing, facing challenges, and stepping outside students comfort zone, assuming ownership, workin g as or with leaders, learning process certainly takes on a new dimension. Outdoor education is an ideal catalyst for learning about these notions. (Anna Schmidt- USA 2006)

1)

In 1983, Minda Borun published a research related to: Planets and Pulleys: Studies of Class

Visits to Science Museums

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In this research she studied the effectiveness and impact of learning, by a museum visit or a museum lesson or a class lesson. The chosen museum was Museum of Science, Boston, USA. Cognitive and affective outcomes of class visits to museum were examined by comparing responses of fifth- and sixth-grade students randomly assigned to four conditions (control, exhibit only, lesson only, and exhibit followed by lesson) and two tests (verbal and visual). The study demonstrated that the group attending a classroom lesson in the museum scored highly than the group having lesson in the class. Study findings indicate that the particular strength of the science museum exhibit lies in the affective domain. Students found the exhibit much more enjoyable, interesting, and motivational than a classroom lesson.

2)

The University of Chicago published in 1998 In The Elementary School Journal , a

Quantitative and qualitative study that assessed the effects of an extracurricular science program on students' interest and learning about biology. Data was collected on a sample of 184 students in grades 3, 4, and 5 participated in a 6week curriculum involving hands-on biology activities in a laboratory setting in an elementary school. A focus in separate units each week, such as the study of fossils or animal coverings, was supported by (a) creation of portfolio artifacts and open-ended work-sheets, (b) inquiry-guided explorations of laboratory equipment and experiments, and (c) socially assisted learning provided by college students who served as docents in the lab. Effects of these experiences were assessed before and after the program with an attitude survey and a test of scientific problem solving. There were significant increases in students' interest in science and significant improvements in their problem-solving skills at all grade levels. Case studies of 18 students revealed that most students were highly motivated to use the docents, peers, and classroom resources to create their individual projects displayed at "Family Biology Night." Interviews with 3 teachers provided additional support for the benefits of the intervention. The project demonstrated motivational principles of effective instruction and illustrated how museums, schools, and universities can collaborate successfully. 2

3)

Emmett L. Wright realized an Analysis of the effect of a museum experience on the

biology achievement of sixth-graders published In Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 2006 Conclusion is that learning experiences that take place in a different place that school class is more susceptible to generate skills linked to the neurological development and personal development.
2

Scott G. Paris, Kirsten M. Yambor and Becky Wai-Ling Packard -The Elementary School Journal , Hands-On Biology: A Museum-School-University Partnership for Enhancing Students' Interest and Learning in Science, Vol. 98, No. 3 (Jan., 1998), pp. 267-288

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Comenius Project City as a Learning Place - Study

Methodology of study
The research was European. Commonly developed by Romanian-Bucharest and LithuanianPrienai project teams by: Discussing and common analyzing aspects of research Commonly conceiving the mythology of research Designing in Common of instruments of research- questionnaire Selecting the similar scale of target group in both regions. Participants in the questionnaire survey were teachers involved in the Comenius Regio project "City as a place of learning where learning is an adventure.

The aim of this research is to set a scientific (even at small scale) background to our project and to identify best ways, methods, strategies and places to implement the proposed educational innovation:

Teaching school lessons in non-formal educational settings offered by the city facilities Bridging formal and non-formal education by joining their strengths and overcoming their weaknesses.

The general hypothesis are: education in state schools in Romania and Lithuania is still traditional and old in our schools, based on classes and lessons pedagogical theory, designed by John Amos Comenius (15921670), and the curriculum is conceived in the classical division of school disciplines based on different sciences. the needs and expectations of beneficiaries of education are high, in trends with modern times. Teenagers are multitasking thinking, permanently on the move, are under influence of mass-media, of IT resources, are full of information and unstructured skills form society. In this context students appreciate challenges and adventure learning instead of classical settings of school classes. They often feel bored by school and school classes cant raise their need for learning and raise their curiosity. Teachers perceived students needs and tend to understand that some changes are needed in their teaching in order to connect with students. There are significant discrepancies among the two regions Bucharest and Prienai regarding educational practices and opinions based on multiple differences ( geographical, cultural, behavioral)

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As educators we need to explore, research a system, a methodology to raise curiosity and regain the natural spirit of curiosity and adventure of learning.

The survey idea was to screen the current situation regarding routine teaching settings and possible innovative interventions.

The research was realized in a period: December 2011- January 2012 It was a total of 80 teaches interviewed on a questionnaire base. And 125 students of 10-15 years old in the two countries Romanian and Lithuania 40 teachers in Bucharest. Romania participated with 3 schools and 40 in Prienai district Lithuania, participating with 2 schools. Schools were: 1. coala cu clasele I-VIII nr. 87 "M. Botez 2. coala cu clasele I-VIII nr. 112 Titan 3. Liceul teoretic Eugen Lovinescu 4. Silavotas Basic school 5. Veiveriai Tomas Zilinskas gymnasium

1. Teachers were asked in which places mainly they gave their lessons to students.

Teachers mainly give lessons, to their students in the classroom and in other school area. Only some lessons are given in non traditional spaces. Some of them mentioned places like: post office, fire station or medical office. Romanian teachers only mentioned school as places for teaching. They do a lot of outdoors activities, in different places in the city, but they are not lessons. They are mainly visits, trips. They are considered non-formal educational activities.

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Lithuanian answers
Lessons are mainly given

Romanian answers
Lessons are mainly given

In the classroom

6%
11% 5% 7% 46% in other school area in nature at the museums other places

In the classroom In school area

31%

94%

2. Teachers were asked how much they would believe city sett ing will impact students motivation.

It was interesting to know how much teachers believe that learning motivation of students increases by organizing lessons in unconventional places, like city places. According to the survey findings, teachers think that nontraditional learning spaces positively influence students' motivation. Most teachers believe that non-traditional places positively increase students` learning motivation.

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3.

Teachers were asked to reflect on and make a hierarchy of the best choices for organizing a good, special, effective lesson for the subject that they teach and mention what subject The teachers listed quite a lot of places and subjects. The results are summarized in this chart:

In both countries, classroom is considered the perfect place for an ideal lesson.

Still, teachers are open to conceive good lessons in nature and other places in the city.

Institutions in the city are also considered as places suitable for organizing lessons in. The most popular non traditional places for learning according to the hierarchy are parks, museums and nature.

Teachers identified and mentioned topics/chapters/lessons/learning units, suitable to a better development in unconventional places. The most subjects identified are: English language, biology, physics, primary, the mother tongue language, art, history, religion and music Places mentioned:

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Museum Church Park Factory Film/Theatre Opera Memorial houses Streets Library

After setting up the results we can state that almost all subject teachers have such lessons plans which they can give in unconventional places.

Teachers mentioned a various range of needs in order to feel methodological competent to develop a good lesson in an unconventional place. According to teachers options, they consider they need team work and models of good practice. But also information and training course is needed. Teachers have identified the main strategy and way to put in practice teaching in the city, teamwork. They also need information, but in practical way, as examples of good practices, models and not pure information. This is a good information to us to design the training course in an active manner and to organize and focus on sharing good practices and lessons samples.

In order to give lessons methodologically teachers need


good practice information 6% 14% 21% 21% clarifying concepts training course 13% 25% team work procedures

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4. According to your knowledge and opinion, what kind of curriculum is taught in activities like museum visits and activities, sport in the park, excursions in the nature or in the city?

This item was introduced to search if teachers can conceive places different from school and classroom, places to teach formal education.

Mostly non-formal education plan is carried out in non traditional educational places (at the museums, on the excursions).

The part of curriculum implemented in non traditional places

formal curriculum 16% 47% 37% non-formal curriculum informal curriculum

Choosing competences (according to the Occupational standards) that teachers intend to develop in order to be able to proceed professionally in organizing lessons in the city.

Teachers` intention to develop competencies


26% 10% 9%

16% 10% Communication Evaluation Curriculum Professional development Training students

29%

Training parents in the paradigm of the relation between www. school

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CONCLUSIONS

1. Teachers mainly teach their lessons in classrooms and in other school area. Only some lessons are given in non traditional spaces. 2. Activities organized in non-formal educational settings are mainly considered non-formal education. 3. Most teachers believe that non traditional places positively increase students` learning motivation. 4. The most popular non traditional places for learning according to the hierarchy are parks, museums and nature. 5. Most school subjects in non traditional places were identified like: mother tongue language, communication, (Lithuanian, Romanian) English language teachers, primary class teachers and physics teachers. 6. If teachers wish to organize such lessons, methodologically, they would need good practice examples, more information how to organize such lessons and team work practice. 7. Mostly non-formal education plan is carried out in non traditional educational places (at the museums, on the excursions). 8. Learning in non conventional areas increases, enhancing the quality and efficiency of students learning. 9. In most cases, teachers, in order to be able to proceed professionally in organizing lessons in the city, intend to improve curriculum, training parents in the paradigm of the relation between school, and training students` competencies. 10. Despite differences between Romania and Lithuania, as culture, background of human temper, teachers opinions regarding education principles are very similar, based on common European values and modern practices.

Learning in non conventional areas increases, enhancing quality and efficiency of students learning.

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STUDENTS` RESPONSES TO COMENIUS REGIO PROJECT "CITY AS A PLACE OF LEARNING - WHERE LEARNING IS AN ADVENTURE SURVEY

Target group of the students survey- 130 students 65 Romanian students 65 Lithuanian students 1. coala cu clasele I-VIII nr. 87 "M. Botez-(10-12 years old) 2. coala cu clasele I-VIII nr. 112 Titan 12-14 years old 3. Liceul teoretic Eugen Lovinescu (13-15 years old) 4. Silavotas basic school-(10-12 years old) 5. Veiveriai Tomas Zilinskas gymnasium (13-15 years old)

Students expressed their opinions about their learning practices, stated what they like at school, about non traditional learning settings outside school area. They were asked to reflect upon the most memorable lessons which took place outside the school.

Do students like learning?

3% 37%

love learning sometimes like sometimes not

60%

don`t like

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The investigators were interested in what in the concrete students like at school. The participants were given 7 answers from which they had to choose and all these answers were marked. The majority of students (54 responses 26%) state they like going to school because they learn a lot of interesting things. The students like meeting their classmates (46 responses 22%). They mention that they like using computers in the lessons (27 responses 14%). Some of the students notice the fact that they learn in cosy, beautiful classrooms (25 responses 13%) and 22 students (11%) say that they like school because they have lessons outside the school. 21 students(11%) like school because they have an opportunity to participate in project activities and only 5 students (3%) answered that they like working in the classroom with interactive whiteboard. (Figure2).

Students like school when they


3% 11% 14% 26%

11% 13% learn new interesting things meet their classmates learn in a cozy, beautiful classrooms have lessons outside the school work in the classroom with a computer work in the classroom with interactive whiteboard participate in project activities 22%

Teachers in the lessons


11%

8%

30%

51%

encourage learning in groups teach to search for the answers use non-traditional methods have lessons outside the school

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The students` opinion about their teachers` methods in the lessons.

Have the students ever had a lesson outside the school

16% 16%

68%

yes

no

I don`t know

Students` involvement in the lessons outside the classroom.


Places where students like having lessons in

31%

20%

19% 18% 12%

in class at the musem

at school in nature

in town

Places where students like having lessons in.

The assessement outside the school

30%

25%

24%

21%

yes

no

sometimes

I don`t know

How teachers assess students outside the school.

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CONCLUSIONS

1. The majority (97%) of 10-15 year-old students sometimes enjoy learning. 37 % of students love learning. 2. Most students like school, where they discover new and interesting things when they meet with classmates and learn in cozy, beautiful classrooms. 3. 11% of the surveyed students like learning in non-traditional learning spaces.

4. The students state that teachers in the lessons mostly teach them to search for the answers. They are encouraged to learn in groups too. 11% of teachers give lessons outside the school. 5. 68% of 10-15 year-old students participated in lessons outside the classroom. 6. Students like lessons given in nature most of all.

7. Mostly the Lithuanian language, geography, history, biology, exploring the world, human safety lessons were given in nontraditional environment.

8. In lessons, which took place in non-traditional spaces, the students remembered best local and national history facts, learned to know nature, did some sport. 9. 46% of students state that teachers assess their activities in marks or otherwise in lessons which are given outside the school. Part of students do not know whether their activities are assessed. 10. Most of the students would like to have lessons in nature, the second place mentioned is On the trips to other countries and the third place is In the sports events

General conclusions

Despite of significant differences between Romania and Lithuania (national, geographical, cultural, linguistically, social, historical), our findings reveal that educational practices and opinions regarding them are surprisingly much similar in the two countries at present, both on teachers group and students group

Both teachers and students in the two countries agreed that it would be a plus under multiple aspects to conceive and apply a methodology of using unconventional places to teach normal lessons for classes.

Almost all subjects and lessons can be taught in unconventional places if a rigorous methodology and a good interdisciplinary planning is done

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Almost all subject teachers have such drafts of lessons plans which they can give in unconventional places The lessons, teachers give to their students, mainly take place in the classrooms and in other school area. Only some lessons are given in non traditional spaces. Most teachers believe that non traditional places positively increase students` learning motivation. The most popular non traditional places for learning according to the hierarchy are parks, museums and nature. Most school subjects in non traditional places were identified like: mother tongue language, communication, (Lithuanian, Romanian) English language teachers, primary class teachers and physics teachers.

If teachers wish to organize such lessons, methodologically, they would need good practice examples, more information how to organize such lessons and team work practice. Mostly non-formal education plan is carried out in non traditional educational places (at the museums, on the excursions).

Learning in non conventional areas increases, enhancing quality and efficiency of students learning. In most cases teachers in order to be able to proceed professionally in organizing lessons in the city, intends to improve curriculum, training parents in the paradigm of the relation between school, and training students` competencies.

The majority students sometimes enjoy learning. Most students like school, where they discover new and interesting things when they meet with classmates and learn in cozy, beautiful classrooms. Some of the surveyed students like learning in non-traditional learning spaces. The students state that teachers in the lessons mostly teach them to search for the answers. They are encouraged to learn in groups too. Some teachers give lessons outside the school. Students like lessons given in nature most of all. In lessons, which took place in non-traditional spaces, the students remembered best local and national history facts, learned to know nature, did some sport. Some of students state that teachers assess their activities in marks or otherwise in lessons which are given outside the school. Part of students do not know whether their activities are assessed.

Most of the students would like to have lessons in nature, have trips, sports.

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Dear pupils, the survey participants. Our school is a partner of the Comenius Regio project "City as a place of learning - where learning is an adventure. Please write your opinion about lessons and activities outside the school, in your town. This questionnaire is anonymous. Please choose the best answer and / or write your opinion. 1. I (mark the appropriate answer): love learning sometims like sometimes do not don`t like

2. I like school when I (mark the appropriate answer ): learn new interesting things meet my classmates learn in a cozy, beautiful classroom participate in project activities have lessons outside the school work in the classroom with interactive whiteboard work in the classroom with a computer

3. Our teachers (mark the appropriate answer ): encourage learning in groups use non-traditional methods have lessons outside the school teach to search for the answers

4. Have you ever had a lesson that was outside the school? Yes No I don`t know

5. Please write what places do you like having lessons in? In the classroom In other places 6. Which lessons of what subject were not at school but in non-traditional spaces? At school In the town At the musem In nature

7. . What did you remember best and what have you learnt in these lessons most of all? (write please) ______________________________________________________

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8. Do the teachers assess (by marks or otherwise) your activities in the lessons outside the school? Yes No Sometimes I don`t know ______________

If they do, please write how you were assessed:

___________________________________________________________________ 9. In what places would you like to have lessons (mark with the priority order from 1 to 6)? In nature In the town squares In workshops On the trips to other countries In the lessons of cooperating schools In other places At the museums In the sports events In your parents` working place

Thank you for answering the questionnaire. Dear teachers, the survey participants Our school is a partner of the Comenius Regio project "City as a place of learning - where learning is an adventure. Please write your opinion about non-traditional teaching (learning) spaces outside the school in your city, which you use / would use in the educational process. Your honest answers will help the project participants to develop best practical models in non-traditional learning spaces which we will try at our schools and offer them to the others. This questionnaire is anonymous. Please choose the best answer and / or write your opinion.

1. The lessons you give to your students mainly take place in : In the classroom In other spaces (please specify): 2. How much do you believe that learning motivation of studentsincreases by organizing lessons in unconventional places, like city places? In school area In the city At the museum

In nature

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a) at all

b) little

d) much

e) very much

3. Please reflect and make a hierarchy (top 3) of the best choices for organizing a good, special, effective lesson for the subject that you teach (mention what subject) . Classroom nature school area packs museum other :.........................................

4.

Identify and mention topics/chapters/lessons/learning units, suitable to a better

development in unconventional places that you mentioned above: 1)................................................................................................................................................ 2)................................................................................................................................................ 3)................................................................................................................................................

5. If you wish to organize such a lesson, methodologically, you would need: clarifying concepts procedures information training course good practice team work

6. According to your knowledge and opinion, what kind of curriculum is taught in activities like museum visits and activities, sport in the park, excursions in the nature or in the city?

a) formal curriculum

b) non-formal

curriculum

c) informal curriculum

7. Do you believe that learning in non conventional areas increases, enhance, quality and efficiency of students learning?

a) YES

b) NO

8. Choose competences ( according to the Ocupational standards) that you intend to develop in order to be able to proceed professionally in organizing lessons in the city: a) Communication b) Evaluation c) Curriculum d) professional development e) Training students f) Relaia familie coal societate Training parents in the paradigm of the relation between school/ family/community Thank you for filling this questionnaire!

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References

Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and education. New York: The Macmillan Company. Higgins, P., & Nicol, R. (2 002). Learning as adventure: Theory for practise . London: Department for Education and Skills and Connexions Service. 38p. Higgins, P., Ross, P., Lynch, J., & Newman, M. (2004). Building the Scottish outdoor access code and responsible behaviour into formal education and other learning contexts . Perth Ken Gilbertson - Outdoor education: methods and strategies, 2006, U.S.A books.google.ro/books?isbn=0736047093 Newman, M., Higgins, P., McLaughlin, P., & Allison, P. (2004). Outdoor experiential education programmes for socially excluded young-people: An evaluation of a ten-day pilot programme. Venture Trust Scotland. 79p.

Nicol, R., Higgins, P. and Ross, H. (2006). Outdoor education: the views of providers from different contexts in Scotland. Dundee: Learning and Teaching Scotland. Priest Simon - The Adventure Experience Paradigm-2007, USA Ross, H., Higgins, P. and Nicol, R. (2006). Recognition of young people's achievements in outdoor learning activities. Dundee: Learning and Teaching Scotland. Scott G. Paris, Kirsten M. Yambor and Becky Wai-Ling Packard: The Elementary School Journal , Hands-On Biology: A Museum-School-University Partnership for Enhancing Students' Interest and Learning in Science, Vol. 98, No. 3 (Jan., 1998), pp. 267-288 The University of Chicago Press, Article URL:http://www.jstor.org/stable/1002260

Other web resources Teacher training Programme http://www.ushmm.org/education/foreducators/prodev/teacherfellowship Annual Educators Workshop http://www.evergreenmuseum.org/education/teacher-resources/ http://www.jstor.org/stable/1002260 Ghidul muzeelor Bucharest Museums Guide Romanian -

http://ghidulmuzeelor.cimec.ro/seljuden.asp http://files.peacecorps.gov/multimedia/pdf/library/M0042_nfemanual1.pdf

Experiene i Practici n Organizarea Educaiei colare : Bucuresti Romania si Prienai Lituania


Studiu de diagnoz LUCRARE BILINGVA
Limba Romn- Limba Englez

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In cadrul Proiectului City as a learning place - where learning is an adventure Orasul ca spatiu de invatare unde invatarea este o aventura COM-11-PR-28-B-RO Brosura Learning Practices in Two European Regions: Bucharest Romania and Prienai Lithuania Practici de predare- Invatare in dou Regiuni Europene : Bucuresti- Romania si Prienai Lituania

Coordonator: Simona Gabriela LUCA Casa Corpului Didactic din Bucuresti Romania Autori: Simona Gabriela Luca, Renata Pavlaviien Prienai Municipality Departamentul de Invatamant , Mirela Beiu, Luminia Tnase, Daniela Beuran, Olimpia Mateescu Traducerea n limba romn- Gabriela Simona Crian

Continutul acestei publicatii nu reflecta punctul de vedere oficial al Uniunii Europene. Responsabilitatea pentru informatiile si punctele de vedere exprimate in aceasta publicatie apartin in intregime autorilor.

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Casa Corpului Didactic din Bucuresti - Romania

Casa Corpului Didactic din Bucuresti este o institutie de prim rang in ceea ce priveste furnizarea programelor de instruire si dezvoltare profesionala pentru profesorii din Bucuresti, capitala Romaniei. Este o institutie publica, parte a sistemului national de invatamant preuniversitar. Casa Corpului Didactic este promotorul schimbarii si al inovarii impuse de sistemul de invatamant si desfasoara activitati de pregatire, cercetare si informare. Institutia noastra asigura o gama variata de programe educationale si de formare: peste 25 de cursuri de formare pentru profesorii din Bucuresti, cursuri cu tematici si durata diferite. e.g.: Didactica diferitelor discipline scolare, Educatia caracterului, Comunicare si Negociere,

Management, Leadership, cursuri de Limbi Straine si multe altele. Personalul nostru angajat permanent este format din 30 de persoane, dar in fiecare an avem peste 6000 de cursanti si aproximativ 200 de formatori. Grupul nostru tinta format din profesori din Bucuresti este de peste 15000 de persoane profesori si alti membri ai personalului didactic care sa lucreze cu elevii in oras. Am dezvoltat multe programe si proiecte educative implicand profesorii si elevii in activitati de colaborare, legate de diferite subiecte. Cursul de formare care va fi creat in cadrul proiectului Orasul ca spatiu de invatare unde invatarea este o aventura este o noutate pentru sistemul de invatamant romanesc si o modalitate pentru institutia noastra de a raspunde nevoilor profesorilor de a gasi noi mijloace in vederea mentinerii elevilor motivati pentru invatare. Materialele pentru instruire vor veni in intampinarea cerintelor noii Legi a Educatiei Nationale, adoptata in data de 10 ianuarie 2011, care le cere profesorilor sa aiba competentele de a dezvolta deprinderile de viata ale elevilor in conformitate cu cerintele societatii secolului 21.

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Municipalitatea Prienai - Lituania Municipalitatea Prienai coordoneaza si supervizeaza activitatile scolilor si ale altor institutii de invatamant care sunt subordonate Consiliului Municipalitatii; consiliaza in legatura cu procesul de invatamant si calitatea acestuia; analizeaza si evalueaza starea educatiei din regiune si folosind astfel de date pregateste programe de servicii educationale pentru a imbunatati calitatea procesului de predare-invatare. Pe langa aceasta, consulta scolile in privinta curriculum-ului si a principiului interpretarii si adaptarii continutului educatiei si a drepturilor furnizorilor de educatie de a desfasura aceasta activitate

In noiembrie 2006, a fost adoptata in Lituania o Strategie pentru Dezvoltarea, Implementarea, Evaluarea si Reforma Continutului Invatamantului General pentru 2006. Strategia prevede actualizarea curriculum-ului pe baza dezvoltarii competentelor cheie. Revizuirea continutului

programelor pentru invatamantul general este adaptata diferentierii si individualizarii procesului de invatare avand in centrul atentiei in principal rezultatele invatarii si relatia dintre continutul educational si viata, astfel, Prien rajono savivaldybs administracijos vietimo, kultros ir sporto skyrius impreuna cu scoli din regiunea Prienai au luat parte la diferite proiecte legate de curriculum si procesele sale de innoire. Acest proiect Comenius Regio va ajuta la implementarea ideilor de innoire a curriculum-ului.

DESCRIEREA PROIECTULUI

Parteneriatul propus se numete Oraul ca spaiu de nvare unde nvarea este o aventur. El are ca scop crearea unei puni ntre coal i viaa real prin extinderea spaiului de nvare dincolo de zidurile colii i explorarea de noi spaii de nvare n ora. Dou regiuni europene (Bucureti-Ilfov i Prienai) vor analiza, discuta, se vor documenta i vor rspunde la ntrebri legate de folosirea diferitelor spaii de nvare din oraele proprii pentru dezvoltarea competenelor elevilor de 10 -15 ani cerute de programa colar. Bazandu-se pe aceste investigaii, cei 2 parteneri vor elabora modele de bune practici privind nvarea n ora integrat n curriculum colar i vor concepe un modul de formare pentru profesorii i personalul care vor lucra cu copiii n diverse spaii de nvare din ora n fiecare din cele dou regiuni; acest model extern de nvare va fi apoi pilotat n 2 -3 coli din fiecare regiune iar rezultatele vor fi publicate ntr -o carte scris n comun de cele 2 regiuni. Proiectul va ajuta la creterea motivaiei pentru nvare la elevi (oferindu-le o mulime de oportuniti de nvare prin experien, ntregul ora devenind spaiul de clas pentru ei) mbuntirea calitii educaiei i formrii n ambele regiuni. i la

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Lithuanian

Prien rajono savivaldyb gyvendina jau antrj tarptautin Comenius Regio partnerysts projekt Comenius Regio partneryst tai nuo 2009 m. Europoje gyvendinama Europos Komisijos finansuojamos Mokymosi vis gyvenim programos iniciatyva, kuria siekiama skatint i ir remti tarptautin bendradarbiavim vietimo srityje, traukiant ir vietimo valdios institucijas. Lietuvoje i program ir kitas Europos Komisijos ir LR Vyriausybs finansuojamas iniciatyvas administruoja vietimo main paramos fondas. Kol kas esame pirmieji Lietuvoje, antr kart gav finansavim tokio pobdio partnerystei. Projekt Miestas kaip mokymosi vieta kur mokymasis yra nuotykis pareng ir koordinuoja vietimo skyrius, projekto partneriai Rumunijos (Bukareto) vietimo darbuotojai. Projekte kaip vietos partneriai taip pat dalyvauja ilavoto pagrindin mokykla ir Veiveri Tomo ilinsko gimnazija, Prien vietimo centras bei Prien krato muziejus. Projekte nagrinjama problema mokini mokymosi motyvacijos stiprinimas (pasilant jiems daugyb patirtinio mokymosi galimybi bei netradicini mokymosi erdvi gyvenamojoje vietovje) bei mokymo ir mokymosi kokybs abiejuose regionuose (Bukareto - Ilfov ir Prien) gerinimas. Idja rengti projekt kartu su partneriais i Rumunijos kilo madaug prie dvejus metus, kai vietimo skyriaus vedjas Rimvydas Zailskas kartu su kit ali vietimo darbuotojais dalyvavo Vokietijoje, Osnabriuke vykusiame paintiniame vizite vietimo kokybs tema.

Projekto paraika buvo parengta atsivelgiant ir alies, ir savivaldybs kontekst: mokykloms pradjus dirbti pagal atnaujintas Bendrsias programas, paaikjo, kad bt tikslinga skatinti mokyklas diferencijuoti ir individualizuoti ugdymo turin, sieti j su gyvenimo kontekstu, ugdyti bendrsias mokini kompetencijas. Mokykloms tai yra savotiki ikiai, todl, norint padti joms ibandyti ir pritaikyti naujas idjas mokymo(si) procese, apsisprsta projekte orientuotis btent veiklas, galinias sustiprinti mokytoj kompetencij organizuoti pamokas netradicinse aplinkose, parengti toki pamok scenarijus ir paversti juos tikrove. Kad tokios veiklos yra prasmingos, sitikinome jau paioje projekto pradioje. Atlikus projekte dalyvaujani mokykl mokini ir mokytoj nuomoni apie netradicines mokymo(si) erdves ir j teikiam naud tyrim, atsiskleid, kad pamokas ne mokykloje veda kol kas tik 11 proc. mokytoj, o 68 proc. 1015 met mokini yra dalyvav tokiose pamokose. Daniausiai netradicinse aplinkose vyksta istorijos, lietuvi kalbos, geografijos, biologijos, pasaulio painimo, mogaus saugos pamokos. Labiausiai mokiniams patinka mokytis gamtoje. Pamokose, kurios vyko netradicinse aplinkose, mokiniai labiausiai simin vietos ir alies istorijos faktus, imoko painti gamt ar su

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diaugsmu sportavo. Mokytoj nuomone, mokymasis netradicinse erdvse neabejotinai padidina ir sustiprina mokini mokymosi kokyb ir efektyvum. Mokytojai, nordami vesti pamokas neprastose vietose, pageidaut tobulinti edukacini aplink ir ugdymo program krimo, bendravimo i r bendradarbiavimo ir mokymosi mokytis kompetencijas. Projekto metu toki galimybi tikrai bus. Panai ir partneri i Rumunijos situacija, tai isiaikinome kartu su ilavoto pagrindins mokyklos ir Veiveri Tomo ilinsko gimnazijos bei Prien vietimo centro ir Prien krato muziejaus darbuotojais nuvyk Rumunij. Vizito metu aptarme vis partneri uduotis ir atsakomyb gyvendinant projekto tikslus, kitais odiais tariant siekiant nutiesti tilt tarp mokyklos ir realaus gyvenimo, ipleiant mokymosi erdv u mokyklos rib ir atrandant naujas mokymosi vietas savo mieste. Lankms projekto partneri institucijose Bukareto inspektorate, Mokytoj tobulinimo centre, pradinje mokykloje Titan Nr. 112 ir vidurinje mokykloje Eugen Lovinescu, taip p at, siekdami geriau suprasti alies kontekst ir bendradarbiavimo galimybes, susitikome su Lietuvos Respublikos nepaprastuoju ir galiotuoju ambasadoriumi Rumunijoje Vladimiru Jarmolenko. Comenius Regio projektas pradtas gyvendinti nuo 2011 -08-01 ir tsis iki 2013-07-31, jo metu, remdamiesi tyrinjimais, sukursime gerosios praktikos modelius, padedanius mokymsi mieste integruoti nacionalin abiej ali ugdymo turin, parengsime kvalifikacijos tobulinimo modul mokytojams bei kitiems darbuotojams, dirbantiems su vaikais netradicinse mokymosi erdvse abiejose alyse. is mokymosi modelis bus ibandytas 23 kiekvieno regiono mokyklose, o rezultatai paskelbti ir aprayti bendroje projekto knygoje. Visada norisi paklausti, o kas i to mokiniams? Atsakymas vienareikmikas jeigu projekto pabaigoje ne minti 11 proc., o kur kas daugiau mokytoj ryis organizuoti pamokas ne klasse, tikrai ne 68 proc. mokini, o gal net ir visas 100 proc. gals patirti KITOKIAS pamokas netiktas, intriguojanias, stebinanias pamokas, sudaranias slygas ne tradicikai mokytis, bet patirti nuotyk. Ir tuos atradimus daryti ne bet kur, o savo gimtajame krate.3 Partenerii proiectului

Bucuresti coala cu clasele I-VIII nr. 87 "M. Botez" coala cu clasele I-VIII nr. 112 Titan Liceul Teoretic Eugen Lovinescu Inspectoratul colar al Municipiului Bucureti Muzeul Municipiului Bucure ti Clubul Kiwanis Bucureti
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http://www.svietimocentras.prienai.lm.lt/Projektai/2012-04-11%20Comenius%20Regio.html

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MUNICIPALITATEA PRIENAI LITUANIA Veiveriu Tomo Zilinsko Gimnazija Silavoto Pagrindine Mokykla Prienu Svietimo Centras Prienu Krasto Muziejus

Principii fundamentale ale

cercetarii

Institutiile de invatamant din ambele regiuni participante se afla in procesul adaptarii modelelor lor de invatare pentru a veni atat in intampinarea nevoilor fiecarui individ cat si ale intregii societati a secolului douazeci si unu. Rolul traditional al educatiei a fost acela de a-i considera pe studenti simpli receptori ai cunostintelor iar rolul profesorului era de a transmite cunostinte. In ambele regiuni se obisnuieste ca profesorul sa joace acest rol in clasa. Prin urmare, majoritatea elevilor vin la scoala fara placere, unii dintre ei abandoneaza scoala deoarece este extrem de solicitanta si chiar si elevii care invata fac acest lucru nu pentru ca le place ci pentru ca trebuie sa invete. Dar in lumea de astazi, scoala nu mai este singurul loc unde putem invata. Invatarea ar putea veni din surse care depasesc spatiul clasei: muzee, gradini botanice, ziare locale, gradini zoologice, teatre si in alte locuri potrivite pentru invatare prin angajarea in lumea reala Luand in considerare aceste conditii, in loc sa facem eforturi pentru a-i tine pe elevi la scoala, mai bine am incerca sa-i eliberam din cusca clasei si sa extindem spatiul de invatare ca o incercare de a oferi o solutie la problemele intalnite in sistemul de educatie din ambele regiuni; orasul in sine poate deveni clasa elevilor nostri. Bucuresti - Romania

Capitala Romaniei are o larga retea de unitati de invatamant, atat de stat cat si private, incepand de la nivelul gradinitei pana la cel universitar. Aproximativ trei sute de scoli generale asigura educatia copiilor de la varsta de 7 ani, pe parcursul primilor opt ani de studiu. Dupa ce au

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trecut Testele Nationale, elevii pot alege, potrivit mediei obtinute, una dintre cele 91 de unitati de invatamant liceal. Daca scolile generale sunt mai mult sau mai putin asemanatoare in privinta curriculum-ului, unitatile de invatamant liceal din Bucuresti permit cea mai larga varietate de optiuni din tara. Exista mai multe colegii nationale, majoritatea cu o activitate de peste o suta de ani (cu cea mai buna reputatie si cautate de catre elevii cei mai buni); asa-numitele standard licee teoretice, unde elevii pot studia fie in cadrul profilului Real fie in cadrul celui Uman, concentrandu-se ulterior pe respectivele domenii in timpul studiilor universitare; licee vocationale (de dans, sport, muzica si arte plastice. Exista de asemenea cinci licee economice/tehnice si alte cateva, specializate in educatia confesionala. Unitatile de invatamant liceal considerate a avea cel mai scazut nivel sunt asa-numitele Grupuri Scolare, constand dintr-un liceu (care de regula ofera programe pentru invatamantul tehnic sau de servicii) si o Scoala de Arte si Meserii. Majoritatea unitatilor de invatamant liceal sunt de stat dar exista si cateva unitati liceale private. Reteaua de unitati de invatamant pre-universitar din regiune are sarcina complexa de a pregati pentru integrarea socio-profesionala tineretul din cea mai mare zona urbana a tarii, care se ridica la aproximativ doua milioane de locuitori. In ultimele doua decenii, capitala Romaniei a fost supusa unor schimbari majore in ceea ce priveste nivelul de bunastare al populatiei si tendintele ocupationale. Unitatile industriale de stat extrem de mari au dat faliment sau si-au schimbat profilul una cate una, facand loc sectorului privat mai flexibil. Somajul in masa si necesitatea conversiei profesionale au determinat o schimbare notabila a cerintelor educationale ale cetatenilor din Bucuresti, adaptate la cerintele mai generale ale timpului nostru. Scolile trebuie sa adopte acum o filozofie mai pragmatica, inzestrand elevii cu abilitati vandabile mai degraba decat cu un volum de cunostinte in scurt timp depasite. Reforma consecventa a sistemului scolar romanesc a adus curriculum-ul nostru mai aproape de practicile educationale din Uniunea Europeana. Suntem datori sa abordam intr-un mod mai clar nevoile copiilor si ale adolescentilor de a se integra intr-o realitate sociala in permanenta schimbare, adesea derutanta si frustranta, marcata de somaj, de cresterea ingrijoratoare a dependentei de droguri, a violentei si a delincventei printre tineri dupa cum evidentiaza statistici recente referitoare la Bucuresti. Scaderea dramatica a interesului elevilor fata de predarea conventionala este, printre alte cauze, provocata de faptul ca ei percep scoala ca fiind un fel de incubator sigilat aflat in afara cerintelor si preocuparilor lumii reale. Prin urmare, trebuie intr-adevar sa ne asumam o noua abordare a procesului de predare, adoptand metodele tehnicilor de investigare, invatarea prin experienta directa si invatarea prin colaborare la toate disciplinele, care implica si pregatesc elevul pentru o evolutie post-scolara independenta si de succes. Regiunea Prienai - Lituania

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Regiunea Prienai organizeaza procesul de predare invatare in conformitate cu Strategia Educatiei Nationale 2003 2012 aprobata prin rezolutia Seimas. Continutul invatamantului general a fost supus revizuirii iar noul continut al invatamantului general vizeaza dezvoltarea competentelor cheie ale societatii bazate pe cunoastere. Revizuirea standardelor si programelor pentru invatamantul general presupune mentinerea echilibrului intre continutul educational si reducerea sarcinilor de invatare. Astfel, Departamentul pentru Educatie, Cultura si Sport al Municipalitatii Prienai care coordoneaza si supervizeaza dezvoltarea scolilor municipalitatii, pune accentul pe innoirea proceselor curriculum-ului acordand atentie modernizarii invatamantului.

Analizand starea Invatamantului din cadrul Municipalitatii, se observa o scadere a numarului copiilor de varsta scolara. Aceasta depinde de diminuarea ratei natalitatii si de emigratia cauzata de problemele socio-economice. Comparata cu media pe tara, situatia socio-economica a Municipalitatii Prienai este mai slaba, astfel incat problema valorii adaugate in scoli (contributia scolii la cresterea si educarea unui elev) este foarte importanta. Acordand atentie acestui aspect, cel mai important obiectiv strategic in regiunea noastra este calitatea serviciilor educationale, indeosebi relatia intre curriculum si contextul vietii.

Abordare Teoretica

Din vremuri indepartate, psihologi vizionari si experti in educatie, de la Rousseau la Piaget, au evidentiat faptul ca experientele vietii reale formeaza bazele invatarii. In manualul sau de pedagogie, Rousseau recomanda ca Emile sa aiba un an intreg de invatare prin calatorii. Castigand experienta care ar avea un rol major in dezvoltarea personala si in procesul de maturizare.

Ulterior, in actuala noastra societate a cunoasterii, Uniunea Europeana a inteles rolul semnificativ al diferitelor stagii de formare ale elevului in intreprinderi si companii. Rolul major al muncii in ansamblu si al experimentarii unui mediu nou si a unei noi tari. Experientele pot fi planificate a avea loc in cadrul lectiilor din sala de clasa, laboratorul scolar ca si in muzee, parcuri sau excursii didactice. Toate spatiile de invatare au avantajele lor si punctele lor slabe.

In experientele pedagogice din intreaga lume, educatia conceputa ca proces de predare si invatare in spatii diferite fata de sala de clasa, este numita Educatie in aer liber.

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Educatia in aer liber a fost definita intr-o varietate de moduri de-a lungul istoriei sale. Au existat promotori ai educatiei in aer liber in UK si SUA si mai tarziu in Australia. Cei care de timpuriu au influentat domeniul au definit educatia in aer liber avand in minte nevoile educatiei de camping. De exemplu, L. B. Sharp (1943), unul dintre primii adepti ai educatiei de camping, a oferit urmatoarele principii fundamentale ale educatiei in aer liber: Ceea ce poate fi cel m ai bine predat in interiorul salilor de clasa acolo ar trebui sa fie predat iar ceea ce poate fi cel mai bine invatat prin intermediul experientei operand direct cu materiale indigene si situatii de viata in afara scolii acolo ar trebui invatat (p.363). Pe masura ce domeniul educatiei in aer liber s-a maturizat, au aparut organizatii care au lucrat pentru a obtine sprijin din partea personalului scolar. De exemplu, Julian W. Smith a inceput Proiectul Educatiei Nationale in Aer Liber in 1955. Smith a explicat in definitia sa legatura dintre educatia in aer liber si curriculum-ul scolar: Educatia in aer liber inseamna a invata in si pentru aer liber. Este o modalitate de extindere si imbogatire a curriculum-ului prin intermediul experientelor in aer lib er(Hammerman, 1980, p.33). In teoria si practica educatiei, obtinerea celor mai bune rezultate in ceea ce priveste cunoasterea, competenta, dezvoltarea personala a elevilor reprezinta obiectivul principal. In acest scop au fost folosite multe resurse de-a lungul timpului in multe tari. Exista o cercetare continua pe aceasta tema printre experti si profesori. Din vremuri stravechi, oamenii au petrecut timp pentru a fi instruiti sa traiasca in lume. Timp de cel putin cateva milioane de ani, practic pe toata durata acestor ani invatarea si instruirea s-au desfasurat in aer liber. Doar recent de cand ziduri permanente au fost construite, membrii societatilor moderne din vest au devenit in mod colectiv protejati impotriva traiului natural si a provocarilor , ritmurilor si observarii naturii, etc.

De-a lungul timpului, sute de ani, educatia a fost conceputa ca desfasurandu-se intr-un mediu sigur si calm numit clasa si scoala. Au fost depuse eforturi si s-au desfasurat cercetari pentru a stabili si a proiecta cele mai bune clase si cele mai bune scoli. In invatamantul romanesc au fost facute multe eforturi guvernamentale educationale din clase. pentru imbunatatirea scolilor si a facilitatilor

Pastram inca o nevoie instinctuala de a reinvia capacitatile noastre senzitive innascute fata de natura (E. O. Wilson). Astfel, activitatile in aer liber, recreerea in aer liber si educatia in aer liber raspund unei necesitati psiho-evolutive a oamenilor de a mentine o anumita forma de contact psihologic si fizic cu mediile si procesele naturale.

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Totusi, odata cu trecerea anilor in timpurile post-moderne pe care le traversam, in conformitate cu societatea bazata pe cunoastere, o multime de organizatii si institutii trateaza educatia intr-un mod sau altul. Si acest lucru se intampla in diverse locuri, prin abordari diferite, multe dintre ele departe de adevaratele scopuri educationale in lumea afacerilor. Ca educatori, am observat existenta unei discrepante intre aceste tendinte. Prin acest proiect Regio ne-am propus sa realizam o legatura naturala intre cele trei tipuri de educatie asociate unor experiente si medii de invatare diferite: Educatie formala Educatie non-formala Educatie informala. Inovatia pe care o aduce proiectul nostru este o noua paradigma educationala. Esenta sa este sa dezvolte si sa organizeze activitati educative din curriculum-ul formal (lectiile in clasa) in spatii educationale non-formale folosind strategii educationale non-formale. Ideea principala este aceea de a cumula beneficiile celor doua abordari educationale si de a reduce punctele lor slabe.

De la aceasta paradigma a invatarii

La aceasta paradigma a invatarii

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Educaia nonformal

Educaia formal

Se refer la educaia oferit i organizat n cadrul sistemului educational i n alte instituii educaionale formale, n cadrul educaiei obligatorii, ncepnd de la vrsta de cinci - apte ani i continund pn la 20 sau 25 de ani. (Clasificarea UNESCO. 1997a Internaionale Standard a Educaiei (ISCED), Paris. UNESCO)

Educaia non-formal Cuprinde orice activiti educaionale organizate i susinute care nu sunt incluse n educaia formal . Prin urmare, educaia non-formal poate avea loc n interiorul i n afara instituiilor de nvmnt, i pentru a satisface persoanele de toate vrstele. n func ie de contextele de ar, educaia non-formal poate acoperi programe educa ionale pentru de alfabetizare a adul ilor, educaie de baz pentru copii n afara colii, programe legate de aptitudini i de cultur general. Programele educaiei non-formale nu sunt nscrise n sistemul de nvmnt i pot avea durate diferite. (UNESCO. 1997a Clasificarea Internaional Standard a Educaiei (ISCED) Coninutul de Educaie Nonformale sunt fundamentate i se bazeaz pe teoria i practica unora dintre cele mai mari gnditori ai educa iei timpului nostru: Paolo Freire, Howard Gardner, David Kolb, Malcolm Knowles i Bernice McCarthy. Modelul de nvare experienial (Kolb 1984) a adus o inovaie foarte important n educaia non-formal propunnd educaia experienial. nv area experienial presupune un proces de nvare continuu bayat pe interiorizarea experien elor i tranzaciile cu lui / mediul su.

Caracteristici ale educaiei non-formale

1.Programul de educaie non formala apare ca o inovaie pentru a rezolva probleme legate de nevoi educaionale ntr-o anumit societate. 2. Educaia nonformala nu este orientat ctre certificare ci mai mult pe efectele de schimbri semnificative la nivelul grupurilor int.

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3. Se pune accentul pe rezolvarea problemelor specifice mai degrab dect de nvare general. 4. Aceasta poate ajuta pentru a iniia un program sau un proiect, dup o faz experimental. 5. Este flexibil, i participativ. 6. Este mai practic, mai degrab dect teoretic. 7. Asigur autonomie la nivel de program i un control extern mai sczut. 8. Mai economic, deoarece poate folosi dotrile existente n educaia formal. 9. Face parte din nvarea pe parcursul ntregii viei.

Prin aceasta mbinare, educatia formala va include unele avantaje ale educatiei non-formale Grad sporit de motivare, constientizare personala si proprietate asupra sarcinilor de lucru Interes fata de activitate Intentionam sa concepem o intreaga didactica pentru educatia formala (educatia curriculara) in locuri si spatii educationale non-formale. Aceasta mica schimbare a paradigmei educationale se bazeaza pe mai multe considerente: Elevii: - au nevoie de o abordare naturala si flexibila a invatarii ca proces care are loc cel mai bine intr-un mediu natural, invatare care, de- lungul vietii, va fi cu siguranta folosita si intr-un alt context in afara de clasa - vor beneficia de experienta invatarii directe si uimitoare, ceea ce o va face de neuitat si reala,comparativ cu sala de clasa unde mostre ale vietti reale, simulari si imagini sunt aduse ca resurse didactice in procesul de predare invatare - vor beneficia de management direct al grupului si de conditii si abilitati de comunicare naturale si vor fi in masura sa-si dezvolte abilitatile sociale si de comunicare - vor reconcepe relatia lor cu profesorii ca indrumatori ai invatarii si nu ca detinatori ai adevarului - vor intelege mai bine conceptul de invatare pe tot parcursul vietii descoperind si experimentand impreuna cu profesorii lor noi modalitati de invatare bazate pe experiente - isi vor dezvolta atentia fata de mediu: mediul natural si mediul urban - vor comunica cu multi alti actori din cadrul societatii: de la experti din diferite locuri la simpli cetateni cu expertiza, implicare, varsta, rasa diferite, etc.. - vor observa cum viata reala si factorii aleatorii pot interveni in invatare, in educatie.

Societatea de asemenea va beneficia de deschiderea sistemului de invatamant prin interactiunea cu clasa de elevi pe parcursul desfasurarii activitatilor. Pe de alta parte membrii societatii joaca un rol activ in activitatile de invatare create in spatiile urbane.

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Educatia in afara clasei

o metoda de invatare bazata pe experimentare si practica, desfasurata in special prin intermediul iesirilor in aer liber. In cadrul educatiei in aer liber, accentul in ceea ce priveste obiectul de invatare este plasat pe RELATII: relatii referitoare la resursele umane si naturale. (Simon Priest, 1986, p. 13)

solicita folosirea simturilor auditiv, vizual, gustativ, tactil,si olfactiv pentru observare si perceptie. (Lewis, 1975) un mijloc de imbogatire a curriculum-ului, prin care procesul invatarii are loc in aer liber. Educatia in aer liber include in linii mari educatia pentru cunoasterea mediului, educatia pentru conservarea resurselor, educatia pentru aventura, camping scolar, terapia prin intermediul zonelor salbatice si unele aspecte ale recreerii in aer liber. (Lappin, 2000 o metoda de invatare bazata pe experiente care implica folosirea tuturor simturilor. Ea se desfasoara in special, dar nu exclusiv, prin expunerea la mediul natural inconjurator. (Priest, 1990) interdisciplinara si multidisciplinara...o abordare in vederea realizarii telurilor si obiectivelor curriculum-ului. (Hammerman, Hammerman & Hammerman, 1985) iesirea in mediul natural inconjurator, invatarea despre mediul inconjurator si respectarea acestuia. (Ketchie) un climat de invatare pentru lucrurile care pot fi cel mai bine invatate in afara clasei. (Smith, 1955) un mijloc, dintr-o intreaga gama de mijloace, prin care sa se ofere oportunitati educationale informale cu concentrare pe dezvoltarea personala si sociala atat a comunitatilor cat si a indivizilor (Outdoor Edinburgh) o disciplina ce presupune multe relatii. Aceste relatii vizeaza nu numai resursele naturale, ci si oamenii si societatatea. (Priest, 1986, p.13) o metoda de invatare bazata pe experiente care implica folosirea tuturor simturilor. Ea se desfasoara in special, dar nu exclusiv, prin expunerea la mediul natural inconjurator. In cazul educatiei in aer liber, accentul in ceea ce priveste obiectul de studiu este pus pe relatiile care vizeaza oamenii si resursele naturale. (Lund, 2002

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un fenomen

educational international bazat pe experiente care angreneaza oamenii in

activiati indraznete pentru sporirea bunastarii indivizilor, a comunitatilor si a mediului inconjurator. (Neill, 2002)

Pornind de la Invatarea Productiva

O alta sursa de inspiratie pentru proiectul nostru a fost teoria pedagogica a Invatarii Productive. Povestea a inceput in New York, cu o scoala numita Orasul-ca Scoala, creata in 1983. Scoala ajuta la dezvoltarea simtului responsabilitatii, a independentei si realizarilor tinerilor in timp ce le permite sa se implice intr-o activitate aleasa de ei, oriunde in New York. Activitatile lor in spatii destinate practiciii constituie baza procesului lor educational. In data de 1 martie 2012 a fost demarat un proiect de colaborare intre IPLE si Centrul pentru furnizarea educatiei (ESC) al Ministerului Educatiei din Lituania. Obiectivul este introducerea Invatarii Productive in trei scoli din Lituania. Pe parcursul derularii proiectului, profesorii participanti sunt instruiti pe baza programului de studiu Invatarea Productiva in Europa sa sprijine munca aflata in derulare. Proiectul se va incheia pe data de 30 august 2014. Invatarea Productiva este o forma de educatie care inlocuieste pregatirea scolara traditionala in timpul ultimilor ani de scoala generala. Aceasta forma de educatie a inceput sa se dezvolte in urma cu 20 de ani la Berlin cu scopul de a se ocupa de discrepantele in crestere si de conflictul dintre procesul de predare din liceu si nevoile educationale si interesele elevilor. Din 1987 pana in 1991, Profesorul Jens Schneider si Ingrid Bhm (Med) au stabilit si au testat, in colaborare cu altii, principiile de baza ale Invatarii Productive in cadrul proiectului pilot Berlin, Orasul-ca-Scoala. Din 1991 pana in 1996, conceptul dezvoltarii proiectelor de Invatare Productiva a fost elaborat si testat pe baza structurii unui proiect international IPLE. Acest concept include de asemenea un program de continuare a studiilor in asociere cu aceste proiecte. Activitatea ca Baza a Invatarii

Principiul de baza al formei de educatie Invatarea Productiva este participarea adolescentilor la activitati sociale, indeosebi la viata profesonala.

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Tinerii creeaza programe individuale pe baza experientelor acumulate in activitatile desfasurate in cadrul unor situatii de viata reala alese in mod independent. Timp de trei luni, ei lucreaza trei zile pe saptamana intr-un spatiu destinat practicii pe care l-au ales in mod independent, ex. la o tamplarie, intr-un magazin de legume, pentru o editura de ziare, intr-un spital, cu Amnesty International, la radio sau televiziune sau intr-o alta situatie de viata reala. Cultura si Disciplinele Scolare ca Instrumente Pe baza programelor individuale, elevii folosesc mostenirea educationala traditionala, incluzand discipline scolare, in activitatile lor productive. Ei folosesc toate traditiile culturale pentru a intelege mai bine si pentru a-si imbunatati activitatile. In acest mod, scoala nu mai este redusa la predarea unor discipline scolare. De asemenea, este abordata problema lipsei aplicarii a ceea ce a fost invatat in cadrul procesului educational lucru care a definit scoala generala in perioada industrializarii. In plus, aceasta forma de educatie ofera o orientare profesionala extrem de personalizata, bazata pe practica si prin urmare de foarte mare succes. Obiective Educationale si Curriculum Pe baza legislatiei scolare Europene si Germane care definesc obiectivele pedagogice intr-o maniera asemanatoare, Institutul a formulat 12 Obiective Educationale ale Invatarii Productive. Invatarea Productiva se straduie sa obtina cea mai buna participare posibila a persoanelor care invata la propriile lor procese de invatare. Prin aceasta participare, persoanele care invata isi schimba statutul din a fi obiecte catre acela de a fi subiecte ale propriilor lor procese de invatare. Institutul in colaborare cu profesori din 12 scoli din Berlin participante la proiecte pilot si din trei proiecte educationale din afara scolii a dezvoltat un Curriculum Cadru pe baza acestor obiective educationale. In cadrul acestei structuri, elevii invata pe baza programelor individuale beneficiind si de ajutorul profesorilor. Invatarea Productiva le ofera elevilor posibilitatea de a obtine un certificat de absolvire pentru nivelul liceal. Aspecte Educationale (Elemente ale Curriculum-ului) si Metodologie Conform celui mai important element al curriculum-ului Invatarea in Spatii Destinate Practicii tinerii isi aleg un loc de munca intr-o firma sau in institutii sociale, culturale si politice de trei ori pe parcursul anului scolar. Acolo ei participa 18 ore pe saptamana si, in acelasi timp, exploreaza, chestioneaza si reflecteaza asupra propriilor lor activitati. Timp de 5 ore pe saptamana, elevii pot discuta despre noile lor experiente in Grupul de Comunicare unde ei pregatesc de asemenea activitatile urmatoare,

observatiile si cercetarea si unde ei pot sa si reflecteze asupra activitatilor lor si sa prelucreze noile

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lor experiente. Toate acestea au loc in Atelierul de Invatare care inlocuieste traditionala sala de clasa. 8 ore pe saptamana sunt dedicate unei discipline dar chiar si acestea sunt legate de experientele practice: Germana (respectiv limba nationala), Engleza si Matematica in Invatarea Productiva, ariile de invatare Oameni si Cultura, Societate si Economie si Natura si Tehnologie care sunt tratate in functie de varste, adaugand si o disciplina optionala. Pe langa programa a fost creata o metodologie diferentiata a Invatarii Productive care include metode de invatare individuala, consiliere educationala, lucrul in grup si Invatare Internationala. Invatarea Productiva este in mod intrinsec invatare internationala si interculturala. Reteaua Internationala de Scoli si Proiecte de Invatare Productiva (INEPS) este alcatuita din scoli si institutii din afara scolii din mai mult de 200 de tari europene si de peste mari. Pe baza solidelor cunostinte dobandite in tara la diferite discipline, elevii sunt capabili sa-si continue procesul de invatare in strainatate. Din 1996, Invatarea Productiva a inlocuit educatia standard din clasele a 9-a si a 10-a cu proiecte scolare pilot in 16 licee din Berlin. Incepand cu anul scolar 2002/03 sapte licee din Brandenburg si 21 de licee din Sachsen-Anhalt au introdus Invatarea Productiva. Din 2005, 25 de licee din Mecklenburg-Vorpommern au demarat programe de Invatare Productiva iar in 2006, sase licee au introdus Invatarea Productiva in Thringen. Din 2009, sapte scoli din Sachsen au introdus programe de Invatare Productiva. Numeroase state, cum ar fi Finlanda, Franta, Ungaria, Rusia si Spania, au demarat programe de Invatare Productiva si mai multe tari, cum ar fi de exemplu Tarile Baltice, Bulgaria si Romania, examineaza modalitati si oportunitati de a introduce Invatarea Productiva Succesele repurtate de Invatarea Productiva dovedesc caracterul adecvat al acestei paradigme educationale si a metodologiei pentru schimbarile sociale din ce in ce mai rapide. Rata ridicata de finalizare a studiilor la toate nivelele scolare germane "Hauptschulabschluss", "Realschulabschluss"/"Mittlerer Schulabschluss" si o rata ridicata a numarului de elevi care abandoneaza scoala dar trec cu succes catre pregatirea profesionala si viata profesionala 70% si respectiv 80% - arata ca Invatarea Productiva este plauzibila nu numai din punct de vedere teoretic dar ca este si de succes si functionala, mai ales cand avem in vedere faptul ca vorbim despre elevi al caror esec scolar parea a fi un lucru inevitabil. Datorita deosebitelor succese ale Invatarii Productive, Guvernul si Parlamentul de la Berlin au hotarat in 2004 sa recunoasca Invatarea Productiva ca fiind un program alternativ legal care poate fi introdus de catre fiecare liceu din Germania.

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Cercetari Internationale relevante referitoare la invatarea in spatii diferite de clasele scolilor

Invatarea in aer liber este prin insasi structura sa un puternic instrument in procesul de predare: prin actiune, infruntarea provocarilor si iesirea din zona de confort a elevilor, asumarea proprietatii asupra sarcinii de lucru, munca in calitate de sau cu lideri, procesul de invatare capata cu siguranta o noua dimensiune. Invatarea in aer liber este un catalizator ideal pentru a invata despre aceste notiuni. (Anna Schmidt - USA 2006) 1) In 1983, Minda Borun a publicat un studiu de cercetare referitor la: Planete si Scripeti: Studii ale Vizitelor Clasei la Muzee de Stiinta In cadrul acestei cercetari ea a studiat eficacitatea si impactul invatarii printr-o vizita la muzeu sau o lectie la muzeu si o lectie in clasa. Muzeul ales a fost Muzeul de Stiinta, Boston, SUA. Rezultatele cognitive si afective ale vizitelor clasei la muzeu au fost analizate prin compararea raspunsurilor elevilor din clasele a cincea si a sasea repartizati aleatoriu in patru situatii (control, doar prezentare de exponate, doar lectie, prezentare de exponate urmata de lectie) si doua teste ( verbal si vizual). Studiul a demonstrat ca grupul care a participat la o lectie in muzeu a inregistrat un scor mai mare decat grupul care a desfasurat ora in clasa. Concluziile studiului indica faptul ca forta deosebita a prezentarii exponatelor la muzeul de stiinta subzista in domeniul afectiv. Elevii au considerat prezentarea de exponate mult mai placuta, mai interesanta si mai motivanta decat o lectie in clasa.

2) Universitatea din Chicago a publicat in 1998 In Ziarul Scolii Elementare, un Studiu cantitativ si calitativ care a evaluat efectele unui program extracurricular de stiinte asupra interesului elevilor pentru biologie si invatarea acesteia. Au fost adunate date de la un esantion de 184 de elevi din clasele 3, 4 si 5 care au participat la un curriculum de sase saptamani ce presupunea activitati practice legate de biologie in cadrul unui laborator dintr-o scoala elementara. Concentrarea pe unitati separate in fiecare saptamana, cum ar fi studiul fosilelor sau tipuri de straturi protectoare ale animalelor, a fost sustinuta de (a) crearea unui portofoliu de artefacte si fise de lucru cu final deschis, (b) explorari in vederea unei cercetari ghidate a echipamentului din laborator si experimente si (c) invatare asistata public oferita de studenti de la colegiu care au tinut loc de conferentiari universitari in laborator. Efectele acestor experiente au fost evaluate inainte si dupa program printr-un sondaj de atitudine si un test de rezolvare a unor probleme stiintifice. Au existat cresteri semnificative ale interesului elevilor fata de stiinta si ameliorari considerabile ale abilitatilor lor de a rezolva probleme la toate nivelele scolare.

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Studiile de caz efectuate pe un numar de 18 elevi au aratat ca cei mai multi au fost puternic motivati sa foloseasca drept conferentiari universitari colegi si resurse ale clasei pentru a-si crea proiectele individuale pe care le-au prezentat la Noaptea Familiei in Biologie. Interviurile cu 3 profesori au oferit un sprijin suplimentar in privinta beneficiilor actiunii. Proiectul a demonstrat principii motivationale ale instruirii eficiente si a ilustrat cum muzeele, scolile si universitatile pot colabora cu succes.

3) Emmett L. Wright a realizat o Analiza a efectului unei experiente la muzeu asupra rezultatelor obtinute la biologie de catre elevi de clasa a sasea publicata in Jurnalul de Cercetare in Predarea Stiintelor, 2006 Concluzia este aceea ca experientele de invatare care se desfasoara intr-un loc diferit de sala de clasa sunt mai susceptibile sa genereze personale. abilitati asociate dezvoltarii neurologice si dezvoltarii

Proiectul Comenius Orasul ca Spatiu de Invatare Studiu de diagnoz


Metodologia studiului
A fost o cercetare europeana dezvoltata in comun de catre echipele de proiect din Romania Bucuresti si Lituania Prienai prin: Discutarea si analizarea in comun a aspectelor cercetarii Conceperea in comun a metodologiei cercetarii Proiectarea in comun a instrumentelor de cercetare chestionar Selectarea unei scale similare a grupului tinta din ambele regiuni. Participantii la sondajul pe baza chestionarului au fost profesori implicati in Proiectul Comenius Regio Orasul ca spatiu de invatare unde invatarea este o aventura. Scopul acestei cercetari este acela de a configura un cadru stiintific ( chiar si la scara mica) proiectului nostru si de a identifica cele mai bune cai, metode, strategii si spatii pentru a implementa inovatia educationala propusa:

Predarea lectiilor in spatii educationale non-formale oferite de facilitatile orasului. Corelarea educatiei formale cu cea non-formala prin cumularea punctelor tari si inlaturarea punctelor slabe.

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Ipotezele generale sunt: educatia in scolile de stat din Romania si Lituania este inca traditionala si invechita, bazata pe teoria pedagogica a orelor si lectiilor, elaborata de John Amos Comenius (1592 1670), iar curriculum-ul este conceput in maniera clasica a impartirii disciplinelor scolare pe baza diferitelor stiinte. nevoile si asteptarile beneficiarilor educatiei sunt mari, in pas cu timpurile moderne. Adolescentii gandesc mai multe sarcini de lucru simultan, sunt permanent in miscare, sunt influentati de mass-media, de resursele IT, sunt plini de informatii si abilitati nestructurate pentru societate. In acest context elevii apreciaza provocarile si invatarea aventura in locul clasicelor spatii ale salilor de clasa. Ei adesea se simt plictisiti de scoala iar salile de clasa nu le pot incuraja nevoia de a invata si nu le pot ridica nivelul de curiozitate profesorii au perceput nevoile elevilor si tind sa inteleaga faptul ca sunt necesare anumite schimbari ale modului lor de predare pentru a mentine legatura cu elevii. exista deosebiri semnificative intre cele doua regiuni Bucuresti si Prienai in privinta opiniilor si a practicilor educationale bazate pe comportament). multiple diferente (geografice, culturale, de

Ca profesori avem nevoie sa exploram, sa cercetam un sistem, o metodologie de a trezi curiozitatea si de a recastiga spiritul natural al curiozitatii si al aventurii invatarii.

Ideea sondajului a fost aceea de a prezenta situatia actuala privind spatiile de predare folosite din rutina si posibilele actiuni inovative. Cercetarea a fost realizata in perioada: decembrie 2011 ianuarie 2012 Un numar de 80 de profesori au fost intervievati pe baza chestionarului. Si 125 de elevi cu varste cuprinse intre 10 15 ani din cele doua tari Romania si Lituania 40 de profesori din Bucuresti Romania au participat cu 3 scoli si 40 de profesori din regiunea Prienai Lituania au participat cu 2 scoli. Scolile au fost: 6. coala cu clasele I-VIII nr. 87 "M. Botez 7. coala cu clasele I-VIII nr. 112 Titan 8. Liceul teoretic Eugen Lovinescu 9. Silavotas Basic school 10. Veiveriai Tomas Zilinskas gymnasium

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5. Profesorii au fost intrebati in ce locuri predau cel mai des lectii elevilor.

Profesorii predau cel mai des lectii elevilor in clasa si in zona scolii. Doar unele lectii sunt predate in spatii non traditionale. Unii dintre ei au mentionat locuri cum ar fi oficiul postal, remiza de pompieri sau cabinetul medical. Profesorii romani au mentionat doar scoala ca loc de predare. Ei fac o multime de activitati in aer liber, in diferite locuri din oras, dar acestea nu sunt lectii. Ele sunt mai ales vizite, excursii si sunt considerate activitati educationale non-formale.

6. Profesorii au fost intrebati cat cred ei ca va fi de mare impactul mediului din oras asupra motivatiei elevilor.

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A fost interesant de aflat cat cred profesorii ca va creste motivatia elevilor pentru invatare prin organizarea lectiilor in spatii neconventionale, cum ar fi spatiile din oras. Potrivit concluziilor studiului, profesorii cred ca spatiile nontraditionale de invatare influenteaza in mod pozitiv motivatia elevilor. Cei mai multi profesori cred ca spatiile nontraditionale cresc in mod pozitiv motivatia elevilor pentru invatare.

7.

Profesorilor li s-a cerut sa reflecteze si sa stabileasca o ierarhie a celor mai bune alegeri pentru organizarea unei lectii bune, speciale, eficiente pentru disciplina pe care o predau si sa mentioneze ce disciplina este. Profesorii au listat o multime de locuri si materii. Rezultatele au fost centralizate in aceasta diagrama:

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In ambele tari, clasa este considerata locul perfect pentru o lectie ideala.

Cu toate acestea, profesorii sunt deschisi catre ideea de a concepe lectii bune in natura si in alte locuri din oras.

Institutiile din oras sunt de asemenea considerate a fi locuri potrivite pentru organizarea lectiilor. Cele mai populare locuri non-traditionale de invatare, potrivit ierarhiei, sunt parcurile, muzeele si natura.

Profesorii au identificat si au mentionat subiecte/capitole/lectii/unitati de invatare, care pot fi mai bune dezvoltate in locuri neconventionale.

Disciplinele identificate cel mai frecvent sunt: limba engleza, biologie, fizica, discipline din invatamantul primar, limba materna, arta, istorie, religie si muzica. Locuri mentionate: Muzeu Biserica Parc Fabrica Cinematograf /Teatru

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Opera Case Memoriale Strazi Biblioteca

Dupa organizarea rezultatelor putem afirma ca aproape toti profesorii chestionati au astfel de planuri de lectii pe care le pot desfasura in locuri neconventionale.

Profesorii au mentionat o gama diversa de cerinte pentru ca din punct de vedere metodologic sa se simta competenti sa dezvolte o lectie buna intr-un spatiu neconventional. Potrivit optiunilor profesorilor, ei considera ca au nevoie de munca in echipa si de modele de buna practica. Dar de asemenea sunt necesare informatii si un curs de formare. Profesorii au identificat principala strategie si modalitate de a pune in practica predarea in oras munca in echipa. Ei au de asemnea nevoie de informatii, dar intr-un mod practic, prin exemple de bune practici, modele si nu doar pura informatie. Aceasta este o informatie buna pentru noi in vederea conceperii unui curs de formare intr-o maniera activa, a organizarii si concentrarii asupra partajarii exemplelor de bune practici si a modelelor de lectii.

8. Potrivit cunostintelor si opiniei dumneavoastra, ce tip de curriculum este predat in activitati cum ar fi vizite si activitati la muzeu, sport in parc, excursii in natura sau in oras?

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Acest punct a fost introdus pentru a afla daca profesorii pot concepe locuri diferite de scoala si sala de clasa, locuri pentru a preda lectii formale.

Cea mai mare parte a planului de educatie non-formala este realizata in locuri educationale nontraditionale (la muzee, in excursii).

Alegerea competentelor (potrivit Standardelor Ocupationale) pe care profesorii intentioneaza sa le dezvolte pentru a fi capabili sa actioneze profesional in organizarea lectiilor in oras.

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CONCLUZII

11. Profesorii isi predau lectiile mai ales in clase si in alta zona din scoala. Doar unele lectii se desfasoara in spatii non-traditionale. 12. Activitatile organizate in spatii educationale non-formale sunt in principal considerate a fi educatie non-formala. 13. Majoritatea profesorilor cred ca locurile non-traditionale cresc in mod pozitiv motivatia elevilor pentru invatare. 14. Cele mai populare locuri non-traditionale pentru invatare, potrivit ierarhiei, sunt parcurile, muzeele si natura. 15. Majoritatea disciplineor scolare predate in locuri non-traditionale au fost identificate a fi: limba materna, comunicarea (Lituaniana, Romana) si profesorii de limba engleza, profesorii din invatamantul primar si profesorii de fizica. 16. Daca profesorii doresc sa organizeze astfel de lectii, din punct de vedere metodologic, ei ar avea nevoie de exemple de buna practica, mai multe informatii despre modul in care sa organizeze astfel de lectii si practica lucrului in echipa. 17. Cea mai mare parte a planului de educatie non-formala este realizata in locuri educationale non-traditionale (la muzee, in excursii). 18. Invatarea in zone neconventionale creste, sporind calitatea si eficienta invatarii studentilor.

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19. In majoritatea cazurilor, profesorii, pentru a fi capabili sa actioneze profesional in organizarea lectiilor in oras, intentioneaza sa imbunatateasca curriculum-ul pregatindu-I pe parinti in privinta paradigmei relatiei dintre scoala si formarea competentelor elevilor. 20. In pofida diferentelor dintre Romania si Lituania, ca apartenenta culturala, temperament, opiniile profesorilor privind principiile educatiei sunt foarte asemanatoare, bazate pe valori europene comune si practici moderne.

Invatarea in spaii neconventionale sporiete calitatea si eficienta invatarii elevilor.

RASPUNSURILE ELEVILOR LA SONDAJUL PRIVIND PROIECTUL COMENIUS REGIO ORASUL CA SPATIU DE INVATARE UNDE INVATAREA ESTE O AVENTURA

Grupul tinta pentru sondajul elevilor 130 elevi 65 elevi romani 65 elevi lituanieni 6. coala cu clasele I-VIII nr. 87 "M. Botez-(10-12 years old) 7. coala cu clasele I-VIII nr. 112 Titan 12-14 years old 8. Liceul teoretic Eugen Lovinescu (13-15 years old) 9. Silavotas basic school-(10-12 years old) 10. Veiveriai Tomas Zilinskas gymnasium (13-15 years old)

Elevii si-au exprimat opiniile in legatura cu practicile lor de invatare, au declarat ce le place la scoala, si au exprimat opinii referitor la spatile non-traditionale de invatare din afara scolii.

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Cercetatorii au fost interesati de ceea ce concret le place elevilor la scoala. Participantilor le-au fost date 7 raspunsuri dintre care ei au avut de ales si toate aceste raspunsuri au fost marcate. Cei mai multi elevi ( 54 raspunsuri 26%) declara ca le place sa mearga la scoala pentru ca ei invata o multime de lucruri interesante. Elevilor le place sa se intalneasca cu colegii lor de clasa (46 raspunsuri 22%). Ei mentioneaza ca le place sa utilizeze calculatoarele in timpul lectiilor (27 raspunsuri 14%). Unii dintre elevi remarca faptul ca invata in clase frumoase si confortabile (25 raspunsuri 13%) si 22 de elevi (11%) spun ca le place scoala pentru ca desfasoara lectii in afara scolii. Unui numar de 21 de elevi (11%) le place scoala pentru ca au posibilitatea de a participa la activitati de proiect si doar 5 elevi (3%) au raspuns ca le place sa lucreza in clasa pe o tabla interactiva. (Diagrama 2).

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S-au evideniat rspunsuri cu privire la practivile pedagogice actuale , referitor la: Opinia elevilor despre metodele folosite de profesorii lor in timpul orelor de curs. Implicarea elevilor in lectiile desfasurate in afara salii de clasa. Locuri care plac elevilor pentru desfasurarea lectiilor.

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CONCLUZII

11. Celor mai multi dintre elevii de 10 15 ani (97%) le place sa invete uneori. 37% dintre elevi iubesc sa invete. 12. Celor mai multi elevi le place scoala cand descopera lucruri noi si interesante, cand se intalnesc cu colegii de clasa si cand invata in clase frumoase si confortabile. 13. 11% dintre elevii chestionati declara ca le place sa invete in spatii non-traditionale de invatare. 14. Elevii declara ca profesorii in timpul lectiilor le predau mai ales facilitandu-le si incurajandu-i in descoperirea raspunsurilor. Ei sunt incurajati de asemenea sa invete in grupuri. 11% dintre profesori isi desfasoara lectiile in afara scolii. 15. 68% dintre elevii de 10 15 ani au participat la lectii in afara salii de clasa. 16. Elevilor le plac cel mai mult lectiile desfasurate in natura.

17. Mai ales lectiile de limba lituaniana, geografie, istorie, biologie, explorarea lumii si siguranta umana s-au desfasurat intr-un mediu non-traditional.

18. In lectiile care s-au desfasurat in spatii non-tarditionale, elevii si-au amintit cel mai bine fapte din istoria nationala si locala, au invatat sa cunoasca natura, au facut sport. 19. 46% dintre elevi declara ca profesorii le evalueaza activitatile prin note sau in alte moduri in timpul lectiilor desfasurate in afara scolii. O parte dintre elevi nu stiu daca activitatile lor sunt evaluate. 20. Celor mai multi elevi le-ar placea sa faca lectii in natura, al doilea loc mentionat este in excursii in alte tari si al treilea loc este in evenimente sportive

Concluzii generale

In ciuda diferentelor semnificative dintre Romania si Lituania (nationale, geografice, culturale, lingvistice, sociale, istorice), rezultatele noastre arata ca practicile educationale si opiniile legate de acestea sunt surprinzator de asemanatoare in prezent atat in grupul profesorilor cat si in grupul elevilor.

Atat profesorii cat si elevii din cele doua tari au fost de acord cu faptul ca a concepe si a aplica o metodologie de folosire a spatiilor neconventionale pentru a preda lectii normale ale orelor de curs ar fi un castig sub multiple aspecte.

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Aproape toate disciplinele si lectiile pot fi predate in spatii neconventionale daca se realizeaza o riguroasa metodologie si o buna planificare interdisciplinara. Aproape toti profesorii au astfel de schite de planuri de lectii pe care le pot desfasura in spatii neconventionale. Lectiile pe care profesorii le predau elevilor lor se desfasoara mai ales in clase si in alta zona din scoala. Doar unele lectii au loc in spatii non-traditionale. Cei mai multi profesori cred ca locurile non-traditionale cresc in mod pozitiv motivatia elevilor pentru invatare. Cele mai populare locuri non-traditionale pentru invatare potrivit ierarhiei sunt parcurile, muzeele si natura. Majoritatea disciplinelor predate in spatii neconventionale au fost identificate a fi: limba

materna, comunicarea (Lituaniana, Romana) si profesorii de limba engleza, profesorii din invatamantul primar si profesorii de fizica. Daca profesorii doresc sa organizeze astfel de lectii, din punct de vedere metodologic, ei ar avea nevoie de exemple de buna practica, mai multe informatii despre modul in care sa organizeze astfel de lectii si practica lucrului in echipa. Cea mai mare parte a planului de educatie non-formala este realizata in locuri educationale non-traditionale (la muzee, in excursii). Invatarea in zone neconventionale creste, sporind calitatea si eficienta invatarii studentilor. In majoritatea cazurilor, profesorii, pentru a fi capabili sa actioneze profesional in organizarea lectiilor in oras, intentioneaza sa imbunatateasca curriculum-ul pregatindu-I pe parinti in privinta paradigmei relatiei dintre scoala si formarea competentelor elevilor. Celor mai multi elevi le place sa invete uneori Celor mai multi elevi le place scoala cand descopera lucruri noi si interesante, cand se intalnesc cu colegii de clasa si cand invata in clase frumoase si confortabile. Unora dintre elevii chestionati le place sa invete in spatii non-traditionale de invatare. Elevii declara ca in timpul lectiilor profesorii le predau mai ales facilitandu-le si incurajandu-I in descoperirea raspunsurilor. Ei sunt incurajati de asemnea sa invete in grupuri. Unii profesori isi desfasoara lectiile in afara scolii. Elevilor le plac cel mai mult lectiile desfasurate in natura.. In lectiile care s-au desfasurat in spatii non-tarditionale, elevii si-au amintit cel mai bine fapte din istoria nationala si locala, au invatat sa cunoasca natura, au facut sport. Unii elevi declara ca profesorii le evalueaza activitatile prin note sau in alte moduri in timpul lectiilor desfasurate in afara scolii. O parte dintre elevi nu stiu daca activitatile lor sunt evaluate. Celor mai multi elevi le-ar placea sa faca lectii in natura, sa faca excursii, sport.

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Instrumente de cercetare - Chestionare Chestionare pentru Profesori Versiunea in limba romana Stimati colegi, profesori, In scoala noastra se desfasoara proiectul Comenius Regio "City as a place of learning where learning is an adventure Orasul ca spatiu de invatare, in care invatarea est e o aventura (2011-2013) De aceea, dorim sa cunoastem opiniile dumneavoastra referitoare la valorificarea altor spatii cu potential educativ, in afara de spatiul scolar, in activitati cu elevii. Raspunsul dumneavoastra sincer ne ajuta sa evidentiem experientele dobandite si le valorificam pentru extinderea acestora la nivelul educatiei formale. activitatilor de predare-invatare-evaluare din cadrul

2. n majoritatea cazurilor, leciile pe care le derulai cu elevii au loc: (enumerati in fuctie de frecventa 1- cel mai frecvent, 6 cel mai rar ): In sala de clas In incinta colii In oras In muzee In natur n alte spaii ( va rugam specificati)................. 3. n ce msur considerai c organizarea i derularea leciilor n spaii neconvenionale, in afara salii de clasa, sporesc interesul i motivaia elevilor pentru nvare: (marcati un singur raspuns) Foarte mult Mult Putin Deloc

3. Care sunt locaiile care apreciai c pot constitui cadrul cel mai potrivit pentru derularea activitilor didactice din cadrul disciplinei Dvs. (alctuii un top 3): sala de clas natura curtea colii parcurile oraului muzeele altele:.......................................................................................................................................... .. 4. Identificai subiecte/teme/uniti de nvare din cadrul disciplinei pe care o predati, care se pot desfura cu succes n aceste locaii: 1)............................................................................................................................................ 2)............................................................................................................................................ 3)............................................................................................................................................

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5. Pentru a organiza cu success astefel de lectii in spatii neconventioanle, considerati ca aveti nevoie de: (bifati raspunsurile dorite) Clarificari conceptuale clarificari procedurale Informatii Un curs de formare exeple de bune practici lucru in echipa de profesori activitile

6. n opinia Dvs., crui tip de curriculum aparin, preponderent,

precum vizitele la muzee, sportul n parc, excursiile n natur, etc .: (marcati un singur raspuns) a) formal b) non-formal c) informal

7. Considerai c procesul nvrii n contexte neconvenionale conduce la acumulri calitative n educaia elevilor: a) DA b) NU 8. Care sunt domeniile de competen (conforme cu Standardul Ocupaional) pe care dorii s le dezvoltai pentru a organiza in mod profesionist lectii in spatii din oras: (incercuiti raspunsurile dorite) a) Comunicare b) Evaluare c) Curriculum d) Dezvoltare profesionala

e) Formarea elevilor f) Formarea parintilor. Relaia familie - coal - societate

mulumim!

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Chestionar pentru Elevi Versiunea in limba romana

Dragi elevi, Scoala noastra participa la proiectul international Comenius Regio Orasul ca spatiu de invatare, in care invatarea este o aventura . Asa cum stiti, putem invata in scoala, in clasa, dar si in alte spatii din oras, muzee, parcuri, biserica sau in excursii. Va rugam sa completati acest chestionar pentru a cunoaste care sunt locurile si modalitatile in care preferati sa desfasurati activitati si lectii. Chestionarul este anonim, de aceea va rugam sa bifati raspunsurile, conform opiniilor voastre sincere.

1. Imi place sa invat ( bifati un singur sapuns!) Foarte mult Mult Putin De loc

2. Imi place scoala pentru ca (Bifati reaspunsurile alese de voi mai multe ): Invat lucruri noi si interesante Invat impreuna cu colegii mei lucrez in clasa pe computer la ore folosim tabla interactiva particip la activitati din proiecte

Invat in clasa mea, care este frumoasa

Mergem in diverse locuri din oras parc, muzeu, excursii

3. Profesorii nostri (Bifati reaspunsurile alese de voi mai multe): Ne incurajeaza sa lucram in grupuri Ne invata sa cautam raspunsuri utilizeaza metode moderne de predare organizeaza lectii in afara scolii

4. Ati participat la lectii desfasurate in alte spatii, in afara scolii? (bifati un singur sapuns!) Da Nu Nu stiu

5. In ce spatii ati prefera sa faceti ore? (Bifati reaspunsurile alese de voi mai multe) In clasa In scoala In oras La muzeu In parc, in natura

In alte locuri ( unde?) 6.Ce lectie, din ce materie ati desfasurat-o intr-un alt loc decat la scoala? Dati un exemplu!

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______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ____________ 7. Ce va amintiti din acea lectie, ce v-a impresionat si ce ati invatat din aceste lectii desfasurate in alte locuri? Va rugam sa notati! ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ __________________ 8. Ati primit note pentru activitatile sau lectiile din afara scolii? ( bifati un singur sapuns!) Da Nu Uneori Nu stiu ______________

Daca da, cum anume ati fost evaluati?

____________________________________________________________________ 9. In ce locuri ati prefera sa desfasurati lectii/ sa faceti orele de curs obisnuite?puneti in ordine preferintele voastre ( 1- primul loc/maxim- 6 ultimul loc/minim) In natura/ spatiu verde La muzeu Pe stadion/sala de sport La locul de munca al parintilor In spatii din oras ( parc, alei, strazi) In workshops In excursii in alte tari In proiecte de colaborare intre scoli In alte locuri

Va multumim pentru raspunsuri!

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Bibliografie:

Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and education. New York: The Macmillan Company. Higgins, P., & Nicol, R. (2 002). Learning as adventure: Theory for practise. London: Department for Education and Skills and Connexions Service. 38p. Higgins, P., Ross, P., Lynch, J., & Newman, M. (2004). Building the Scottish outdoor access code and responsible behaviour into formal education and other learning contexts. Perth

Ken Gilbertson - Outdoor education: methods and strategies, 2006, U.S.A books.google.ro/books?isbn=0736047093 Newman, M., Higgins, P., McLaughlin, P., & Allison, P. (2004). Outdoor experiential education programmes for socially excluded young-people: An evaluation of a tenday pilot programme. Venture Trust Scotland. 79p.

Nicol, R., Higgins, P. and Ross, H. (2006). Outdoor education: the views of providers from different contexts in Scotland. Dundee: Learning and Teaching Scotland. Priest Simon - The Adventure Experience Paradigm-2007, USA Ross, H., Higgins, P. and Nicol, R. (2006). Recognition of young people's achievements in outdoor learning activities. Dundee: Learning and Teaching Scotland.

Scott G. Paris, Kirsten M. Yambor and Becky Wai-Ling Packard: The Elementary School Journal , Hands-On Biology: A Museum-School-University Partnership for Enhancing Students' Interest and Learning in Science, Vol. 98, No. 3 (Jan., 1998), pp. 267-288 The University of Chicago Press, Article URL:http://www.jstor.org/stable/1002260 Alte resurse web:

Teacher training Programme http://www.ushmm.org/education/foreducators/prodev/teacherfellowship

Annual Educators Workshop http://www.evergreenmuseum.org/education/teacherresources/ http://www.jstor.org/stable/1002260 Ghidul muzeelor - Bucharest Museums Guide Romanian http://ghidulmuzeelor.cimec.ro/seljuden.asp

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