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email@example.com, Choong Seon Hong, KHU
Why Future Internet? What is Future Internet? Status of Current Internet
of Internet Growth Merits and Demerits of Future Internet
Summary of research effort of Future Internet
GENI, FIRE, JGN2, AsiaFi, etc
Challenges & Requirements of Future Internet Architecture of Future Internet Concluding Remarks
Why Future Internet?
A growing and changing demand
increasing user control of networks/services/applications For interconnecting ‘things’-TV/PC/phone/sensor… For convergence: networks/devices/services : ITS, Smart Grid, U-City, …. Mobility Security
Current technologies can be, and need to be improved significantly
scaling up and more flexibility For better security For higher performance and more functionality
What is Future Internet? (1)
Need to resolve the challenges facing today’s Internet by rethinking the fundamental assumptions and design decisions underlying its current architecture Two principal ways in which to evolve or change a system
approach (Incremental) approach (Clean-slate)
system is moved from one state to another with incremental patches
system is redesigned from scratch to offer improved abstractions and/or performance, while providing similar functionality based on new core principles It is time to explore a clean-slate approach In the past 30 years, the Internet has been very successful using an incremental approach Reaching a point where people are unwilling or unable to experiment on the current architecture
What is Future Internet? (2)
Slate design of the Internet’s architecture to satisfy the growing demands Management issues of Future Internet also need to be considered from the stage of design
Research Goal for Future Internet
research for Future Internet and designing new network architectures Building an experimental facility
6 What is Future Internet? (3) Need a ‘clean-slate’ approach .
S campus) The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) created open standards for the use of the Internet Request for Comments (RFC) standards documents .History of Internet Growth (1) 7 Stage One: Research and Academic Focus (1980-1991) Debate about which protocols will be used (TCP/IP) The National Science Foundation (NSF) took a leading role in research networking NSFNet1: “supercomputer net” NSFNet2: a generalized Internet (thousands of Internet nodes on U.
History of Internet Growth (2) 8 Stage Two: Early Public Internet (1992-1997) Federal Networking Council (FNC) made a decision to allow ISP to interconnect with federally supported Internets The National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) adopted Tim Berners-Lee’s work on the World Wide Web Mosaic. Netscape started us down the path to the browser environment today It was watershed development that shifted the Internet from a command-line. and file-transfer in the kind of user interface to the browser world of full-screen applications In the fall of 1996. a group of more than thirty University Corporation for Advanced Internet Development (UCAID) Subsequently become known as Internet2 . e-mail.
etc. and price-performance improvements in personal computers xDSL. data. The “bubble” years laid the foundation for broadband Internet applications and integration of voice. and video services on one network base . FTTH.History of Internet Growth (3) 9 Stage Three: International Public Internet (1998-2005) The Internet achieved both domestic and international critical mass of growth Fueled by giant bubble in Internet stocks that peaked in 2000 and then collapsed Fiber-optic bandwidth Improvements to gigabit-per-second levels.
universal network Recently debated policy issues: net neutrality Two of the few surviving U.History of Internet Growth (4) 10 Stage Four: Challenges for the Future Internet (2006-?) The Internet has become a maturing. worldwide.S. telcos intended to levy special surcharges on broadband Internet traffic based on the application and on the company Millions of Internet users Growth in functionality and value of the net could never happened if there had been discrimination in managing packet flow If the telco’s well funded campaign succeeds Progress toward universal and affordable broadband access would be further delayed Then .
TCP variants for high bandwidth delay product networks. but provide the service for those users who require it Openness: low barrier to entry.g. and current effort towards cross-layer optimization Demerits .. and ubiquitous access “Nothing wrong – just not enough right” Pervasive and diversified nature of network applications require many functionalities Current network architecture doesn’t support E. earlier work on TCP over wireless networks.Merits & Demerits of Current Internet 11 Merits The original Internet design goal of robustness Network architecture must not mandate recovery from multiple failures. freedom of expression.
Research Institute for Future Internet(1) 12 US NSF Future Internet Design (FIND) Global Environment for Networking Innovations (GENI) Future Internet Research and Experimentation (FIRE) EIFFEL’s Future Internet Initiative European Commission FP7 Projects : www.future-internet.eu/) .futureinternet.html Goto the EU Future Internet Portal (http://www.eu/activities/fp7projects.
Kyung Hee University KOREA .13 Research Institute for Future Internet(2) AsiaFI by CJK China : NSFC & MOST 973 Fundamental Research Project MOST 863 High-tech Project CNGI Project JAPAN NICT’s NeW Generation Network (NWGN) Japan Gigabit Network II (JGN2) AKARI Project Future Internet Forum (FIF) Networking Lab.
US NSF – NeTS 14 National Science Foundation (NSF) An independent federal agency created by Congress in 1950 Supports for all fields of fundamental science and engineering With an annual budget of about $5. and proof of concept implementation of hardware and software Funding: approximately $40 million per year Four areas of networking research Future Internet Design (FIND) Networking Technology and Systems (NeTS) Wireless Networks (WN) Networks of Sensor Systems (NOSS) Networking Broadly Defined (NBD) . algorithms.92 billion A program in NSF Covers all properties of information networks including network architecture. protocols.
communications. transparent and affordable participation in an information-based society the Division of Computing & Communication Foundations (CCF) the Division of Computer and Network Systems (CNS) the Division of Information and Intelligent Systems (IIS) CISE is organized in three divisions: Supports GENI project . communications and information systems in service to society To contribute to universal. to uphold a position of world leadership in computing.S.US NSF – CISE 15 Computer Information Science and Engineering (CISE) The Directorate for CISE has three goals: To enable the U. and information science & engineering To promote understanding of the principles and uses of advanced computing.
if we could design it from scratch .FIND (1) 16 What is FIND? Major new long-term initiative of NSF NeTS research program Created in 2006 Funded project seeking to design a next-generation Internet called the ‘Future Internet’ Research goal About end to end network architecture & design as well as implications of emerging technologies on Future Internet Invites the research community to consider What the requirements should be for a global network of 15 years from now How we could build such a network if we are not constrained by the current Internet .
or routing 2006: Funded 26 projects July. 2007: Proposals are evaluated Three FIND research meetings/year Phase 2 (Current Phase: 2009~2011): proposes overarching network architectures using research and knowledge gained from the 1st phase Phase 3 (2012~2014): demonstrates ideas on experimental infrastructure (GENI) .Status 17 Three phases Each phase will last about three years Phase 1 (2006~2008): focuses on components or parts of an architecture such as new schemes for security. naming.FIND (2) .
GENI 18 What is GENI? A planning effort initiated by the NSF CISE Directorate Experimental facility to validate research (infrastructure to demonstrate research) A nationwide programmable facility for research into Future Internet technologies Launched in August 2005 Consists of two components GENI research program(s): will continue CISE’s long-term support for basic research and experimentation in networking and related topics GENI research facility: will be a state-of-the-art. global experimental facility that will foster exploration and evaluation of new networking architectures (at scale) under realistic conditions .
19 Core Concepts of GENI Programmability : May download software into GENI-compatible nodes to control how those nodes behave Virtualization and Other Forms of Resource Sharing Federation: Forming a part of the overall “ecosystem” by the NSF portion of the GENI Experiments of an interconnected set of reserved resources on platforms in diverse locations Networking Lab. Kyung Hee University Slice-based Experimentation .
Networking Lab. Kyung Hee University . based on the Emulab system from the University of Utah. based on the PlanetLab system from Princeton Univ. “OMF” control framework from Rutgers University.20 Current GENI Clusters “PlanetLab” framework. “ORCA” control framework from Duke University and RENCI. “ProtoGENI”control framework.
emulation.GENI – Status (1) 21 YEAR 1970s~today 2002 2003 2004 Activity Funding of networking research and infrastructure Network Research Testbeds Program Experimental Infrastructure Networks Program Network simulation. and experimental facilities funded (~$20M) Consolidation of networking research programs into a larger new program NeTS with emphasis on next generation networks that go beyond Internet (~$40M/yr) CISE GENI team formed Five GENI facility planning grants Facility Conceptual Design Creation of the Computing Community Consortium (CCC) The formative stages ‘GENI Science Plan’ revision GENI Facility ‘Conceptual Design’ almost completed 2005 2006 2007 2008 Beginning of construction .
2014) •More Experiments •More Production Use •Some Educational Use . Kyung Hee University Year (20011.GENI – Status (2) 22 Spiral development Year 1 (2009-2010) •GENI-enabled backbone deployments •OpenFlow Campus deployments •Early WiMax Deployments Year 2 (2010-2011) •Some early experiments •Some production traffic on GENI •Complete WiMax Deployments Networking Lab.
New Project by NSF-CISE (Aug. content protection and privacy. 27. analyzing the relationship between technical design decisions and public policy Networking Lab. Kyung Hee University NEBULA: Jonathan Smith (University of Pennsylvania) eXpressive Internet Architecture: Peter Steenkiste (CMU) . network security. fast forwarding. tradeoffs between mobility and scalability and on opportunistic use of network resources to achieve effective communications among mobile endpoints The technical challenges in creating a cloud-computing-centric architecture Refine the interface between the network and users. 2010) 23 Named Data Networking: Lixia Zhang(UCLA) Technical challenges: Routing scalability. trust model. and communication theory Mobility First: Dipankar Raychaudhuri (Rutgers University) Using GDTN.
Research in EU (1) 24 The Seventh Framework Programme for research & technology development (FP7) The main financial tools through which the European Union supports research and development activities covering almost all scientific disciplines FPs have been implemented since 1984 and generally cover a period of five years with the last year of one FP and the first year of the following FP overlapping FP7: 2007 ~ 2013 (7 years) Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) One of the major research themes in FP7 Critical to improve the competitiveness of European industry and to meet the demands of its society and economy .
Research in EU (2) 25 FP6/IST (Information Society Technologies)/FET (Future Emerging Technologies)/FIRE FP7/ICT/FIRE EIFFEL (Evolved Internet Future for European Leadership) Launched by the EU Commission (J. technological and socio-economic drivers Technical challenges Policy challenges Planning and coordination group . July 2006) as a support action (SA) for FP7 Group of technical experts acting as an individual Forms Future Internet Initiative (http://www. Da Silva.eu) Released a white paper in December 2006 Structure: 4 working groups Evolution scenarios.future-internet.
Zurich June: Publication of the final report of the FIRE expert groups Sept. 2008. and to build a multidisciplinary constituency 6-7 March 2007: FIRE workshop. Brussels Expert groups to define a long-term vision. 10. FIRE LAUNCH .Event and Workshop (GENI-FIRE workshop) Goal FIRE Status .FIRE (1) 26 What is FIRE? An activity or initiative aims to scope and consolidate the European work in networking testbeds Aims at providing a research environment for investigating and experimentally validating highly innovative and revolutionary ideas on future Internet January 2007: Preliminary meeting between Panlab and OneLab 14-15 Feb 2007: First FIRE expert group meeting.
FIRE (2) 27 Two related dimensions Promoting experimentally-driven long-term research on new paradigms and networking concepts & architectures for the future Internet Building a sustainable. dynamic. large scale experimentation facility by gradually federating existing and new testbeds for emerging or future internet technologies Strengthened European position in the development of the Future Internet Global consensus towards standards and strengthened international co-operation through interconnected test beds and interconnection capabilities offered to third countries Higher confidence in the secure use of the Internet through test beds enabling trusted access to e-Services The expected impact is : .
FIRE Projects – first wave 28 * FIRE will be in Call7 (closing early 2011) .
29 FIRE Projects – second wave * Starting 1 May 2010 Networking Lab. Kyung Hee University .
JAPAN – NWGN (1) 30 NeXt Generation Network (NXGN) Improvement of IP networking to provide Triple-/Quadruple- play services NeW Generation Network (NWGN) Network architectures and main protocols are different from IP networks .
and invested toward the service start in 2007 NWGN is in the research phase Various projects funded by NICT (National Institute of Information & Communications Technology) from underlay networking to applications MIC is making a new report on a policy for future network research projects which Japanese Government should support .JAPAN – NWGN (2) 31 NXGN is now being deployed. standardized.
JAPAN . the academia. the government and regional organizations Supports activities from the basic or fundamental research and development to the demonstrative experimental testing towards practicalities Fosters the research of network-related technologies with diverse ranged applications for the next generation Can be utilized by any user if its utilization purpose is research and development .JGN2 32 NICT has launched the JGN2 project with an open testbed network Aims to realize the research and development for Information Communication Technology Since April 2004 following the project of JGN (Japan Gigabit Network) from April 1999 to March 2004 In collaboration with the industry.
Kyung Hee University .33 What’s “New Generation Network” or NWGN? Examples: Next Generations Cell Phones > 2G > 3G > 4G? Internet > IPv4 > IPv6 > IPv? New Generations New Generation Network (NWGN) Revised NXGN 1) clean-slate 2) modification Present Network Next Generation Network (NXGN) Past Network 2005 2010 2015 AKARI … a small light in the dark pointing to the future Networking Lab.
AsiaFI carries the following activities among others. In order to coordinate the research and development.asiafi.Architecture & Building Blocks Working Group .7 (www. Network Science.Mobile & Wireless Working Group BoF : Education. Named Data Network. Recursive Network AsiaFI Schools . WGs : .AsiaFI 34 Found in 2007.net) Asia Future Internet Forum (AsiaFI) was founded to coordinate research and development on Future Internet among countries in Asia as well as with other continents.
2006 WGs–February. 2007 5th International Conference on Future Internet (June 2010) Global Future Internet Week (2011 & 2012) .KOREA . service & testbeds First forum meeting –September. wireless.FIF 35 Future Internet Forum (FIF) 1st BOF Several researchers started an informal meeting in April. 2006 Several monthly BOF meetings followed First stage: to June. 2007 Review prior activities related to future Internet research Second stage Propose areas that we can contribute most Problem definition WGs: Architecture.
): Fall. etc. 2006 Granted research funding CCN. Smart Node. & Comm. KOREN. Service Traffic Measurement. KREONET Plan to extend to experiment FI protocols and ideas Existing testbed networks . SDN. Linked Data.FIF – Research activities 36 Propose research projects to MIC (Ministry of Info.
Research Roadmaps of Future Internet 37 Roadmaps of Future Internet in EU. US and JAPAN NGI Euro-NGI(€5M) FIRE Euro-FGI .
Challenges of the Internet 38 Security Worrisome to everyone (user. routing system Quality of Service It is unclear how and where to integrate different levels of QoS Economics How network and service operators continue to make a profit ..g. application developers. operators) Mobility Little support for mobile applications and services ISPs face the task of providing a service which meets user expectations Reliability and Availability Problem analysis Toolset for debugging the Internet is limited Scalability E.
unified network Explicit facilitation of cross-layer interactions Distribution of data and control .Requirements of Future Internet 39 Highly available information delivery Verifiably secure information delivery Support for mobility Interworking flexibility and extensibility Support for a scalable.
Architecture 40 Keywords Virtualization Virtualize network resources and provide customer-specific services Programmable Service-oriented architecture (SOA) Define layer’s functions as services and converge the services to support the network operations Register services. discover services in repository and acquire necessary services Cross-layer Divide design network layers and support a cross-layer mechanism .
Virtualization .GENI 41 Virtualize network resources and provide customer-specific services Resource Controller Aggregate Slice Coordination CM Virtualization SW Substrate HW CM Virtualization SW Substrate HW CM Virtualization SW Substrate HW CM : Component Manager .
and Optimization Define layer’s functions as services and converge the services to support the network operations S2 Application S1 M1.1 M1.2 S3 Control Agent M1.1 S4 M2.3 Physical Interfaces Method Precedence Constraint Service .3 M5.SOA (1) – FIND’s SILOS 42 Service Integration. controL.1 S5 Policies and Strategies M3.3 M5.2 M7.2 M1.2 M4.4 M2.
SOA (2) 43 Register services. Interact Client Service Provider 3.1 Invoke Service Description .2 Receive Service Description 3. Find Service 3.3 Reply Service Requester 3. discover services in repository and acquire necessary services Service Description Discovery Agencies Service Repository 1. Publish 2.
Cross-Layer Design – JGN2 44 Divide network layers and support a cross-layer mechanism Application Cross-layer Control Mechanism Overlay Network (IP + α) NW / Post IP NW Underlay Network Photonic NW Mobile NW Sensor NW .
Integrated Architecture 45 End Application (Content) A C E F D B G End Application Layer Overlay Network Content-based routing User-based QoS … Application Layer TCP + Service + Application Layer Transport Layer Layer Functionalities Service Definition Cross-layer Control Mechanism (Control Agent) Service-Coordination Layer (SOA) Reliable transmission Service Repository In-order delivery Error detection … Segmentation Flow control IP + α Forwarding Header error detection QoS-guaranteed Routing … Encapsulation IP Layer Underlay Network Physical + MAC Layer Photonic NW. Mobile NW. Sensor NW. Resource Virtualization . etc.
Kyung Hee University 46 .46 A New Trend for FI European Future Internet Initiative PPP (EFII PPP) Founders Main Objectives : Creation of new European-scale markets for smart infrastructures with integrated ICT functionalities Networking Lab.
47 Application Services of EFII Networking Lab. Kyung Hee University .
48 Program Structure . Kyung Hee University .EFII Networking Lab.
Kyung Hee University .49 Steps -EFII Networking Lab.
Kyung Hee University .European Green Cars initiative PPP(Public-Private Partnerships) Energy-efficient Buildings Factories of the Future • Budget: 12Million Euro • Deadline : 2010 ~ 2013 • Topic -Transtormable factory .Advanced electric vehicle concepts .High performance insulation system Networking Lab.50 Practical Projects –EFII PPP Green Cars • Budget: 10Million Euro • Deadline : 2010 ~ 2013 • Topic .Learning factory • Budget: 10Million Euro • Deadline : 2010 ~ 2013 • Topic .Energy efficiency Building .Networked factory .
manageability. scalability. we can imagine all possible mechanisms to solve the drawbacks of current Internet How can we validate our proposed architecture and management issues? What topic can we focus on? . manageability. identity. security & privacy. etc. Research Goal Performing research for Future Internet and designing new network architectures Building an experimental facility Propose an integrated architecture of Future Internet Investigate possible research topics towards management of Future Internet In a design phase. etc. mobility. Future Internet Clean slate design of Internet architecture considering security. freedom of expression and ubiquitous access Challenges: mobility. robustness. addressing & identity. scalability. robustness.Concluding Remarks 51 Current Internet Root cause of problem: tremendous pace of increase of its use Merits: openness.
edu/internet_futures/ http://net.jp http://cordis.eu/fp7/ict/fire/ cfit.eurongi.References 52 Course material of DPNM of POSTECH.net/ .jgn2.asiafi.net www.ucdavis.panlab.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ERM0640.net www.fif. Spring 2008 www.geni.europa.pdf http://www.net www.net www.
Question and Discussion 53 .
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