Vijayalaxmi F. Patil, Patil, Shahid M. Bhat [] [] LDCLDC-IL, CIIL Mysore

Introduction Kannada & Available Language Resources Corpus Used In This Work a. Corpus Cleaning b. Corpus normalization TagTag-set Used In This Work Kannada POS Tagging POS Tagging Issues Conclusion References

Tamil Nadu. etc by about 35 million speakers (Wikipedia). Karnataka.INTRODUCTION Kannada is the official language of the state Karnataka. . (Wikipedia). order. It is very important language as it is not only one of the 22 scheduled languages of India but also one of the classical languages. Andhra. languages. It is spoken in Karnataka and its neighboring states like Maharashtra. Goa. Kannada is one of the Dravidian languages with SOV word order.

. It shares many morphological features with other Dravidian languages like defective verbs. paDu (passive) etc which are considered to be one of the type of an auxiliaries. some particles like inclusive particle kUDa (also) and some auxiliaries like –koLL (reflexive). like alla not and illa (no).CONT……… It is morphologically rich and agglutinative in its nature.

text. NLP. context. POS tagging is one of the important level and the ground work for other higher level stages in NLP. PartsParts-ofof-Speech tagging refers to the process of assigning a POS tag to the words of a text. In other words we can say that it is a process of marking the words in corpus which corresponds to particular parts of speech based on both its definition and the context.CONT……. .

Even if resources exist somewhere.KANNADA & AVAILABLE LANGUAGE RESOURCES Like many of the Indian languages. project. very little work has been done in the area of NLP for Kannada. language. . scale. POS tagger and morphological analyzer have been developed for Kannada under ILMT consortium project. they exist without public access (Murthy 2000) 2000). Further. From last few years LDCIL is engaged in creating language resources for Kannada on large scale. (DIT). It is a resourceresourcepoor language. CIIL has developed a corpus of about 3 million words for Kannada under a project funded by Department of Information Technology (DIT). Kannada.

Text Corpus is a machine readable collection of the text which is generally used as a raw data for various NLP. NLP. (Aesthetics). 10.CORPUS USED IN THIS WORK In the current work we are concerned with POS tagging of text corpus. .000 words of Kannada corpus from a single domain (Aesthetics). We have used 10. corpus.

CORPUS USED IN THIS WORK Category Aesthetics LiteratureLiterature-Short Stories Number of words 5654 Aesthetics LiteratureLiterature-Children's Literature 780 Aesthetics LiteratureLiterature.Autobiographies 856 Aesthetics LiteratureLiterature-Essays 6572 Aesthetics LiteratureLiterature-Biographies 2407 .

preprocessing. . It involves the following two subtasks. tagging. subtasks. Whatever we do with corpus to make it fit for tagging is generally called preprocessing.CONT……… Kannada corpus is not directly used for POS tagging because of various problems that need to be settled before actual tagging.

sentences and paragraphs according to the text available in the hard copies of the corpus. we have removed such elements. we corrected spelling mistakes.a. . Corpus Cleaning Corpus usually contains some extra symbols. We remain faithful to the text and keep some spelling variations as such which would be considered wrong spellings otherwise. otherwise. Sanskrit shlokas and some stanzas of poems. added some missing words and sentences. corpus. elements. poems. removed some extra words.

Since Kannada is highly agglutinative language (with severe fusion of grammatical categories). In corpus normalization.b. we tokenize corpus properly by separating punctuations from preceding tokens and by splitting sentences or phrases into their constituent tokens. we need to tokenize corpus so that we can assign POS tags easily. Corpus normalization Normalization is sort of tokenization. . tokens.

For Example: We segment “hELikoLLuttiruttidda” hELikoLLuttiruttidda” (had(had-beenbeenspeakingspeaking-himself) into ‘hELi’ hELi’ (having spoken). ‘koLLutta’ koLLutta’ (himself). (had). Similarly. ‘irutta’ irutta’ (been). NOUN: NOUN: mAtinallIga (now(now-inin-speech) = mAtinmAtin-alli (speech(speech-in) + Iga (now) PRONOUN: PRONOUN: adariMdEnu (with itit-what) what) = adariMda (with it) + Enu (what) PRONOUN: nimagArigU (toPRONOUN: (to-youyou-anyone) = nimage (to(to-you) + yArigU (anyone) . Similarly. and ‘idda’ idda’ (had).

categories. Which has a 11 categories and 35 sub categories. examples. token. set. .TAG SET USED IN THIS WORK In order to assign a tag to a token we must have a tag set according to which we will assign tag to a token. The tag set is summarizes below with examples. In this work we are using BIS Dravidian tag set.

NLOC includes the locations. and WhWh-word (PRQ) Pronominal includes nAnu (I). Common noun includes words like mara (tree). companies like Mysore. Reciprocal includes paraspara (each other). etc. NOUN: NOUN: In Kannada we have 3 types of noun namely Common (NN). (NST). keLage(down). etc. obbarigobbaru (each other) etc and WhWh-word includes words like yAru (who). Reflexive includes words like tAnu (self). Bajaj etc. avanu (he) etc. adverb what we call traditionally adverb of time and place for example mEle (on). swataha (self) ) etc. Proper noun includes words like name of places.CONT………. Reflexive (PRF). nInu (you). Reciprocal (PRC). Institutions. CIIL. manuSya (human) etc. giDa (plant). Proper (NNP) and Nloc (NST). keLage(down). Iga (now) PRONOUN: PRONOUN: In Kannada we have 4 type of pronoun namely Personal (PRP). Enu (what) etc .

For example bahudu (may). DEMONSTRATIVE: DEMONSTRATIVE: In Kannada we have two types of Demonstratives like Deicic and WhWh-word. bEku (should) etc. hOgi(having hOgi(having gone) etc. Infinitive. (which). hOguvudu(going) hOguvudu(going) etc. VERB: VERB: In verb we have 2 types of verb like main and auxiliary. noun. usually. Auxiliary verb has 3 types namely Finite. hOguvavanu (going person) etc. etc. word. . Gerund and finally participle noun. Gerunds includes baruvudu (coming). hOdanuhas gone) etc.CONT………. NonNon-finite forms includes baMdu (having come). hOgalu (to go) etc. Finite main verb includes words like baMdanu (has come). Auxiliary verbs in Dravidian languages occur with the main verb usually. Infinitive. WhWh-word includes yAva (which). NonNon-finite. Deictic includes A (that) and I (this). etc. Infinitive includes baralu (to come). Perticiple noun includes baruvavanu (coming person). main verb has 5 types namely Finite. nonnon-finite and Infinitive.

etc. muMde (front) etc. . jOrAgi (fastly) fastly) etc. hinde (back). ADJECTIVE: ADJECTIVE: Adjectives has no subsub-type and it includes words like suMdaravAda (beautiful). kliSTha (difficult) etc. keLage (down). ADVERB: ADVERB: it includes nidhAnavAgi (slowely). etc. etc.CONT………. POSTPOSITIONS: POSTPOSITIONS: it includes locations like mEle (on). slowely).

etc. Subordinator includes words like AddariMda (therefore). subordinator and quotative etc. etc. Interjection and Intensifier. etc. anta (that) etc. hAgU (and) etc. ordinator. etc. . Default includes kUda (also) etc. hAgAgi ( therefore) etc and quotatives are eMdu (that). etc. Intensifier. oh etc and Intensifier tuMba (very).CONT…… CONJUNCTIONS: CONJUNCTIONS: this is divided into 3 three namely cocoordinator. CoCo-ordinator includes words like mattu (and). Interjections like ayyO. ayyO. PARTICLES: PARTICLES: three sub categories in this section and they are Default. bahaLa (many) etc.

Foreign words usually includes book etc. Punctuations like ?. etc. RESIDUALS: RESIDUALS: it includes Foreign. etc. Unknown includes ------and finally Echowards includes mane gine (houses and other buildings). Ordinal. Unknown and Echowords. huli gili (tiger and others) etc. bahaLa (many) etc. Punctuation. etc. Echowords. Cardinal includes oMdu(one). . etc. oMdu(one). eraDaneya (second) etc. eraDu(two) eraDu(two) etc and ordinals includes oMdaneya (first). Cardinal and Ordinal. symbol includes @. General includes ella (all). < etc.& etc. Symbol.CONT……… QUANTIFIERS: QUANTIFIERS: we have 3 types in this namely General.

we have used this tool for tagging the above mentioned preprocessed corpus.KANNADA POS TAGGING LDCLDC-IL has developed annotation tool for POS tagging. In this work. We have used this customized tool for implementing BIS Dravidian tag set for Kannada. set. It is a customizable manual tool that can be used to implement any tag set. . corpus. Kannada. tagging.


sukhavAgi (happily). nishcitavAgi (surely). but there are other cases in Kannada where this Agi can come with the Proper noun likelike. If we tag it as adverb the important information like proper noun will be missed out in POS tagging. tagging. adverb. . Kannada has adverbial suffix which is responsible to make any word into adverb.rudranannu shivanannAgi kANuva kathegaLive (there are some stories where rudra is seen as shivA) shivA).POS TAGGING ISSUES 1. For example: example: hasanAgi (cleanly). AtmIyavAgi (closely).

iruvavanannu. auxiliary. marker. When we split this word into baMdu + iruvavanannu. baMdu + iruvavanannu here baMdu is main participle noun but iruvavanannu is an auxiliary with png and case marker. set. this iru with png and case marker should be an auxiliary participle noun but this auxiliary participle noun is not mentioned in the Dravidian BIS tag set. . baMdiruvavanannu (the person who has come +accusative case). We are considering it as auxiliary.e iruvudannu this token has auxiliary verb with gerundial marker and case marker which is an auxiliary gerund but auxiliary gerund is not there in the Dravidian BIS tag set.CONT…….. Similarly the word like baMdiruvudannu we split this word into two tokens to give auxiliary information i. 2. set.

CONCLUSION In this work we have summarized our experience of POS tagging of 10. . Moreover we have highlighted the problems which Dravidian languages face in general but Kannada in particular at the level of POS tagging because of their agglutinative nature.000 words of Kannada corpus according to BIS standards. 10. standards. nature.

1979. 3(4). Spoorti Kundargi. 2007. Avinesh and G. Soman.N. January. and K.J. Heidelberg. N. Kannada. Kernel based part of speech tagger for kannada. pages 2139 –2144. Antony. 11( 11(1). Shambhavi. Berlin. B. V. S. . ICADL’07 ICADL’07. Shridhar. Soman. Antony and K. Grammars). 2144. R Shambhavi. Computer and Kannada Development. T. In Proceedings of the IJCAI and the Workshop On Shallow Parsing for South Asian Languages (SPSAL). Computer processing of kannada language. 2007. P. Heidelberg.P. M Anand Kumar. IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security. Vikram and Shalini R. Hampi. Development of prototype morphological analyzer for the south Indian language of kannada. 2000. January. pages 109– 109–116. Technical report. 2011. 2010. kannada.Areference grammar of spoken Kannada. P Ramakanth Kumar. Karthik. and G Varsha Shastri. 2011. kannada. 2007. Kannada University. Shridhar. Sptember1979 Sptember1979. volume 4. July. Srividya. Schiffman. P. Jyothi. SpringerSpringerVerlag. 2010. 116. 2000. 2007. newfrontiers. Kavi Narayana Murthy. trie. pages 21– 21–24. Kannada (Descriptive Grammars). 2010 International Conference on. 24. H. Urs. B J Jyothi. P. Learning. Kundargi. approach. Hampi. Verlag. S. 07.J. Paradigm based morphological analyzer for kannada language using machine learning approach. Soman.P. In Proceedings of the 10th 10th international conference on Asian digital libraries: libraries: looking back 10 years and forging newfrontiers. Urs. Murthy.REFERENCES Schiffman. In Machine Learning and Cybernetics (ICMLC). July. 2010. Karthik. Kannada morphological analyser and generator using trie. Advances in Computational Sciences and Technology (ACST). PartPart-OfOf-Speech Tagging and Chunking using Conditional Random Fields and TransformationTransformation-Based Learning. 2010. language. Shastri. K Srividya. Soman.


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