Metadata of the chapter that will be visualized online

Chapter Title Copyright Year Copyright Holder Corresponding Author Lumbreras, Luis Guillermo 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York Family Name Particle Given Name Suffix Division/Department Organization/University City Country Email Investigador Asociado Instituto Francés de Estudios Andinos Lima Peru Henry Tantaleán

Comp. by: SampathKumar Stage: Galleys Chapter No.: 317 Date:23/3/13 Time:00:23:06 Page Number: 1

Title Name: EGA




Lumbreras, Luis Guillermo
´n Henry Tantalea ´ s de Investigador Asociado, Instituto France Estudios Andinos, Lima, Peru

3 4 5


Basic Biographical Information
Lumbreras is one of the most influential Peruvian archaeologists of the second half of the twentieth century. He was born on the 29th of July in 1936 in the city of Huamanga, Ayacucho. Moving to Lima to complete his education, first in La Recoleta school, and later, in 1951, he continued his secondary education at Antonio Raimondi college. From the 4th year in secondary school, Lumbreras founded a study group with his classmates, dedicated to doing research and holding social gatherings and informative lectures on subjects of history and archaeology. Lumbreras studied at the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (UNMSM), obtaining his Bachelor of Arts and Humanities in 1959 and his Doctorate in Arts with special mention in Archaeology and Ethnology in 1960. ´l At the time of his university training, he had Rau ´ rcel, Jorge C. Porras Barrenechea, Luis E. Valca ´ Matos Mar as professors. The Muelle, and Jose visiting professors he had the opportunity to work with were John V. Murra, John Rowe, and Juan Comas. In 1960 Lumbreras joined the faculty of the ´ bal recently reopened Universidad de San Cristo

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Au1 31

´ sar de Huamanga in Ayacucho. There he met Ce Guardia Mayorga, with whom he systematically studied Marxism. This phase represents the greatest part of Lumbreras’ political and philosophical training, in which he matures his thinking due to the immersion in the Ayacucho reality, not only in the university, but also in the field and in political work. In 1966 Lumbreras returned to Lima to teach in different universities, among them the UNMSM. In this same year, he began excava´n de Huantar where he would tions in Chavı excavate its most important archaeological context, the Galerı ´a de las Ofrendas (Gallery of Offerings). During these years, his Marxist thinking matured, as it can be seen in the text he ´n (Lumbreras devoted to his excavations in Chavı 1993). At this time, he masterminded what would to be an important analytical category of his work and of the so-called Archaeology as a Social ´gica Science school, unidad arqueolo socialmente significativa (socially significant archaeological unity). In 1960 he published the book De las Artes, los Pueblos y las culturas del Antiguo Peru ´ (translated by Betty Meggers in 1974 as Peoples and Cultures of Ancient Peru) (Lumbreras 1969), a classic text in which the influence of positivism and culturalism of his academic training is still notable. However, he also laid out achronological sequence contrary to that of John Rowe, suggesting more evolutionary stages based on social processes.

32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64

C. Smith (ed.), Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4419-0465-2, # Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Comp. by: SampathKumar Stage: Galleys Chapter No.: 317 Date:23/3/13 Time:00:23:07 Page Number: 2

Title Name: EGA

65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 Au2 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110


Lumbreras, Luis Guillermo

In 1970, Lumbreras organized the symposium ´ctonas en Ame Formaciones auto ´rica (Native Formations in America) in the 40th International Congress of Americanists, in Lima, aiming to unite the leftist intellectuals of Latin America. Already consolidated in the UNMSM, his Marxist position became more notorious and influential. It materialized in one of his most popular books De los orı ´genes del estado en el Peru ´ (On the Origins of the State in Peru) (Lumbreras 1972). In that book, it is clear that what moved him towards Andean prehistory was, in a Marxist style, class struggle. Based on notes he made for an archaeology ´n course he taught at the University of Concepcio in Chile, he published his most popular theoretical book, La Arqueologı ´a como Ciencia Social (Archaeology as a Social Science) ´ (Lumbreras 1974). This text would inspire Jose ´n de Luis Lorenzo to organize the Reunio ´ n) in 1975, Teotihuaca ´n (Meeting of Teotihuaca establishing common lines of action in the historic materialist perspective that the participants were developing in their own countries. From that meeting and from the one he organized in Paracas, Peru, he crafted his book Arqueologı ´a de la Ame ´rica Andina (Archaeology of Andean America) (Lumbreras 1981), where he laid out culture-historical areas for this part of the American, influential in Andean archaeology to this date. In the 1970s, and under the auspice of Juan Velasco Alvarado’s military government, Lumbreras worked in providing the archaeological cultural material the Peruvian state needed ´ n 2005). One of the most important (Tantalea positions he held was that of director of the Peruvian National Archaeology Museum between 1973 and 1979. During the 1980s, his career would encompass teaching and research. In those years, he wrote extensively for the journal Gaceta Arqueologı ´a Andina, refining his chronological and cultural sequence of 1974 (Lumbreras 2005). In 1989, he was named professor emeritus at the UNMSM. The following year, he toured Europe,

giving classes in Spain – Universidad Complutense de Madrid (1991) and Universidad ´ noma de Barcelona (1991–1994) – and Auto Germany (1995–1996) where he continued developing his Marxist approach, especially regarding the origins of the state (Lumbreras 2005:192-229). In 1996 he returned to South America. He spent 4 years in Brazil, teaching at the Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, in Rio De Janeiro. Settled again in Peru in 1999, Lumbreras was appointed National Director of Culture, supporting Peruvian archaeology with regional projects, such as the symbolic Qhapaq ˜ an, the purpose of which is to elevate the Inca N road system to UNESCO’s World Heritage List. Today, outside of government and university structures, Lumbreras continues to be active, publishing and lecturing in the Marxist approach that has provided him with a holistic and global perspective of the pre-Hispanic, historic, and contemporary Andean world.

111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132

▶ Marx, Karl ▶ Marxian Archaeologies Development: Peruvian, Latin American, and Social Archaeology Perspectives ▶ Social Archaeology


134 135 136 137 138

LUMBRERAS, L. 1969. De los Pueblos, las culturas y las artes en el antiguo Peru ´ . Lima: Moncloa´ nico. Campodo - 1972. De los orı ´genes del estado en el Peru ´ . Lima: Milla Batres. - 1974. La Arqueologı ´a como ciencia Social. Lima: Histar. - 1981. Arqueologı ´a de la Ame ´rica Andina. Lima: Milla Batres. - 1993. Chavı ´n de Hua ´ntar. Excavaciones en la Galerı ´a delas Ofrendas. Mainz: VerlagPhillip von Zabern. - 2005. Arqueologı ´a y Sociedad. Lima: MNAAHP/ INDEA/IEP.

139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151

Comp. by: SampathKumar Stage: Galleys Chapter No.: 317 Date:23/3/13 Time:00:23:07 Page Number: 3

Title Name: EGA

Author Query Form
Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology Chapter No: 317

Query Refs. AU1 Details Required ´ bal de Please check if “Universidad de San Cristo Huamanga” should be changed to “La Universidad ´ bal de Huamanga”. Nacional de San Cristo ´ n (2005) in the Please provide details of Tantalea reference list. Author’s response

It´s ok as "Universidad Nacional de Done


Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful