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TRANSFER AND FLUID FLOW TRANSFER AND FLUID FLOW
PRADIP DUTTA
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
INDIAN INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE
BANGALORE
Outline Outline
B i f H t T f Basics of Heat Transfer
M h i l d i i f fl id fl d h Mathematical description of fluid flow and heat
transfer: conservation equations for mass,
momentum energy and chemical species momentum, energy and chemical species,
classification of partial differential equations
generalized control volume approach in Eulerian g pp
frame
HEAT TRANSFER HEAT TRANSFER
BASICS
What is Heat Transfer? What is Heat Transfer?
“Energyintransit duetotemperaturedifference.” gy p
Thermodynamics tellsus:
Howmuchheat istransferred(oQ)
H h ki d (oW) Howmuchworkisdone(oW)
Final stateof thesystem
Heat transfer tellsus: eat t ansfe te sus:
How(bywhichmechanism) oQistransferred
At what rateoQistransferred
Temperaturedistributionwithinthebody
Heat transfer Thermodynamics
complementary
Heat transfer Thermodynamics
complementary
MODES MODES
Conduction
 needs matter
 molecular phenomenon (diffusion process)
i h b lk i  without bulk motion of matter
Convection
heat carriedawaybybulkmotionof fluid  heat carried away by bulk motion of fluid
 needs fluid matter
Radiation d o
 does not need matter
 transmission of energy by electromagnetic waves
APPLICATIONS OF HEAT
TRANSFER
Energyproductionandconversion Energy production and conversion
 steam power plant, solar energy conversion etc.
Refrigeration and airconditioning
D ti li ti Domestic applications
 ovens, stoves, toaster
Cooling of electronic equipment
Manufacturing / materials processing
 welding, casting, forming, heat treatment, laser machining
Automobiles/ aircraft design Automobiles / aircraft design
Nature (weather, climate etc)
(Needs medium, Temperature gradient)
T
T >T
.. . . . . . . . .
T
2
T
1
T
1
>T
2
. . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . .
q’’
. . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . . . .. . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . .
q
. . . . .
solidor stationaryfluid
………….. . ..
RATE:
. . . . . . .
solid or stationary fluid
RATE:
q(W) or (J /s) (heat flow per unit time)
Conduction
(contd ) (contd…)
x
Rate equations (1D conduction):
T
1
T
A
Differential Form
q =  k A dT/dx, W
k=Thermal Conductivity W/mK
q
T
2
k = Thermal Conductivity, W/mK
A = Crosssectional Area, m
2
T = Temperature, K or
o
C
k
x = Heat flow path, m
Difference Form
q= kA (T
2
– T
1
) / (x
2
– x
1
) q k A (T
2
T
1
) / (x
2
x
1
)
Heat flux: q” = q / A =  kdT/dx (W/m
2
)
(negative sign denotes heat transfer in the direction of
decreasing temperature)
movingfluid
T
s
>T
∞
moving fluid
T
∞
q”
T
ss
Energy transferred by diffusion + bulk motion of fluid
Rate equation
(convection)
q”
y
y
U
·
T
·
T(y) u(y)
U
·
Heat transfer rateq=hA( T T ) W
q T(y)
T
s
u(y)
Heat transfer rate q = hA( T
s
T
·
) W
Heat flux q” = h( T
s
T
·
) W / m
2
h=heat transfer coefficient (W /m
2
K)
not a fluid property alone, but also depends on flow p p y , p
geometry, nature of flow (laminar/turbulent),
thermodynamics properties etc.
Convection
(contd…)
Free or natural
convection (induced by
buoyancy forces)
May occur with
phase change
(boiling,
Forced convection
(inducedbyexternal
(boiling,
condensation)
(induced by external
means)
Convection (contd…) ( )
Typical values of h (W/m
2
K) yp ( )
Free convection gases: 2  25
liquid: 50  100
Forced convection gases: 25  250
liquid: 50  20,000 q ,
Boiling/Condensation 2500 100,000
T
1
q
1
”
T
2
q
2
”
RATE:
q(W) or (J /s) Heat flowper unit time q(W) or (J /s) Heat flow per unit time.
Flux : q” (W/m
2
)
Rate equations
(Radiation)
RADIATION:
Heat Transfer by electromagnetic waves or photons( no
medium required. )
Emissivepower of asurface(energy releasedper unit area): Emissive power of a surface (energy released per unit area):
E=coT
s
4
(W/ m
2
)
c= emissivity (property)……..
o=Stefan Boltzmannconstant o=StefanBoltzmann constant
Rate equations
(Contd ) (Contd….)
”
q”
d
T
s u r
q”
co n v.
q
r a d.
Area=A T Area = A T
s
R di ti h b t l f d Radiation exchange between a large surface and
surrounding
Q” =co(T
4
T
4
) W/ m
2
Q
r a d
= co(T
s
4
T
sur
4
) W/ m
2
Substantial derivative Substantial derivative
( ) t x x x , , ,
3 2 1
  =
d
dx
d
dx
d
dx D
3 2 1
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
    
dt x dt x dt x t Dt
3 2 1
c c c c
dx D c c   
dt
dx
x t Dt
D
i
i
c
c
+
c
c
=
  
D c c   
ti
local l substantia
i
i
x
u
t Dt
D
c
c
+
c
c
=
  
component
convective
component
oca
derivative
substa t a
Conservation principle(s) Conservation principle(s)
• mass is conserved
• momentum is conserved
• energy is conserved gy
• chemical species are conserved
•• …
}
( ) t x x x , , ,
3 2 1
¢ ¢ =
D D Du
}
= u
V
dV ¢
( )
source
V V V
change
dV dV
Dt
D
dV
Dt
D
Dt
D
} } }
= = =
u
¢ ¢ ¢
Conservation principle p p
for an elementary volume dV::
( ) dV dV
Dt
D
¢ ¢ =
( ) ( ) dV
Dt
D
Dt
D
dV dV
Dt
D
¢
¢
¢ + =
Dt Dt Dt
( )





+ =
dV
dV
Dt
D
Dt
D
dV ¢
¢


.
\
dV Dt
dV
u D
i



c ¢
dV
x Dt
i
i


.
\
c
+ = ¢
¢
Conservation principle
( )
u D D



c ¢
( ) dV
x
u
Dt
D
dV
Dt
D
i
i


.

\

c
c
+ = ¢
¢
¢
dV
x
u
x
u
t
i
i
i
i


.

\

c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= ¢
¢ ¢
( ) dV
(
(
c c¢
i i . \
( ) dV u
x t
i
i
(
¸
¸
c
+
c
= ¢
¢
Conservation principle Conservation principle
for an elementary volume dV::
c D
( )
¢ c c
¢ ¢
¢
=
c
c
+
i
i
x
u
Dt
D
i d f fi l l V
u
i
V
( ) ¢ ¢
¢
+
c
c
÷ =
c
c
i
i
u
x t
integrated for a final volume V
bounded by a surface A::
u
i
n
i
dA
dV
V
AA
( ) ( )
} } }
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
=
V V
i
i
V
dV u
x
dV
t
dV
Dt
D
¢
¢
¢
¢
called as “ Reynolds
Transport Equation
} } }
= +
c
c
=
V V A
i i
dV dA u n dV
t
¢ ¢
¢
(RTE)”  a relation
between a system and
control volume.
Conservation of mass Conservation of mass
Total mass remains constant. For a control volume,
the balance of mass flux gives the mass accumulation rate the balance of mass flux gives the mass accumulation rate.
( ) 0 dV
D
( ) 0 = dV
Dt
µ
set :
 then density, = µ ¢
 mass =
}
µ 
V
dV
 0 source no = ¢
Conservation of mass Conservation of mass
continuity equation
for an elementary volume dV::
V
( )
µ c c
i t t d f fi l l Vb d d b
u
i
n
i
dA
dV
V
A
( )
i
i
u
x t
µ
µ
c
c
÷ =
c
c
integrated for a final volume Vbounded by
a surface A::
n
i
A
dA u n dV
t
V A
i i
} }
÷ =
c
c
µ
µ
Here (n
i
u
i
) is a scalar quantity:
for outward flow (away from
the surface) positive
V
for inward flow negative
Incompressible flow Incompressible flow
for an incompressible fluid: µ=const : f p f µ
written for an elementary volume dV::
c
V
0 =
c
c
i
i
x
u
or a final volume V bounded by a surface A::
u
i
n
i
dA
dV
V
AA
0 =
}
A
i i
dA u n
A
Conservation of momentum Conservation of momentum
Rate of change of momentum will cause fluid acceleration.
For a control volume we consider the balance of momentum fluxes For a control volume, we consider the balance of momentum fluxes.
( )
j j
F dVu
Dt
D
= µ
j
j
F
Du
dV = µ
( )
j j
Dt
th l it d it u µ ¢
force
j
on accelerati
mass
Dt
µ
set :
momentum
then velocity, density


j
j
dV u
u
=
=
}
×
µ 
µ ¢
e unit volum per force 
j
V
F = ¢
Conservation of momentum Conservation of momentum
momentum equation
for an elementary volume dV:
( ) ( )
c c
c
c c
o
( ) ( )
j i j
i
j
F u u
x
u
t
=
c
c
+
c
c
µ µ
( ) ( )
i
ij
j i j
i
j
x
f u u
x
u
t c
c
+ =
c
c
+
c
c
o
µ µ µ
d
ij
p
c
+
c
÷
o
i j
x x c
+
c
Conservation of momentum
V
u
i
dV
V
integrated for a final volume V
bounded by a surface A::
u
i
n
i
dA
dV
A
( )
inlet outlet
convection
change momentum
} }
c
÷
( ) ) . (
} } }
} }
÷ =
c
c
d
A
i i j
V
j
dA dA dV f
dA u n u dV u
t
µ µ
stress n deformatio stress spherical forces body
} } }
+ ÷ +
A
i
d
ij
A
j
V
j
dA n dA pn dV f o µ
Stress  strain relationshipp
xx
22
( )
2 1 1
x u u =
21
o
xx
22
xx
11
p
d



c
c
c o o
dV
x x
p
dV
x
dF
i
ij
i
ij
i
ij
j


.

\

c
c
+
c
c
÷ =
c
c
=
o
o
o
3
3
2
2
3 2
0 0
u
x
u
x
u
u u
c
=
c
c
=
c
c
¬ = =
1 1 u u u c
 
c c
( )
2 1 1
1
1
0 x u u
x
u
= ¬ =
c
c
¬
2
1
2
1
1
2
12
2
1
2
1
x
u
x
u
x
u
c
c
=


.

\

c
c
+
c
c
= e
Stressstrain relationship Stress strain relationship
for Newtonian fluids :
1
2
cu
generalized :
12
2
1
12
2µe µ o =
c
=
x
d
ij
d
ij
µe o 2 =
deformation stress = = 2 X viscosity X deformation
strain rate
d
ij kk ij ij
e e o e + =
3
1
j j j
3
(
(
c



c
+
c
k i
j
d
u u
u
o
1 1
2
(
(
¸
¸
c
÷


.
\
c
+
c
=
k
k
ij
j
i
i
j
d
ij
x x x
o µ o
3 2
2
NavierStokes equations Navier Stokes equations
( ) ( )
d
p
c
c c c
o
( ) ( )
i
ij
j
j i j
i
j
x x
p
f u u
x
u
t c
c
+
c
c
÷ =
c
c
+
c
c
o
µ µ µ
+


.

\

c
c
c
c
=
c
c
i
j
i i
d
ij
x
u
x x
µ
o


.

\

c
c
c
c
÷


.

\

c
c
c
c
k
k
ij
i j
i
i
x
u
x x
u
x
µo µ
3
2



c c



c
c
c
d
u
u o
1


.

\

c
c
c
c
+


.

\

c
c
c
c
=
c
c
i
i
j i
j
i i
ij
x
u
x x
u
x x
µ µ
o
3
1
NavierStokes equations Navier Stokes equations
( ) ( )
c c
( ) ( )



c c



c
c c
=
c
+
c
j
i j
i
j
u
u
p
u u
x
u
t
µ µ
1


.

\

c
c
c
c
+


.

\

c
c
c
c
+
c
c
÷
i
i
j i
j
i j
j
x
u
x x
u
x x
p
f µ µ µ
3
1
for an incompressible fluid µ=const
with a constant viscosity µ=const with a constant viscosity µ const
( )
2
1
j j
u
p
f u u
u c
+
c
÷ =
c
+
c
µ
( )
2
i j
j i j
i
x x
f u u
x t c
+
c
=
c
+
c µ µ
Surface force decomposition Surface force decomposition
dV
p
dV dF
d
ij ij




c
+
c
÷ =
c
=
o
o
o
dV
x x
dV
x
dF
i i
ij
i
j


.
\
c
+
c
=
c
= o
since:
j i
ij
x
p
x
p
c
c
=
c
c
o
the total stress F
j
can be separated into the spherical and deformation components:
dV dV
p
dF
d
ij
j
c
c
+
c
c
÷ =
o
x x
i j
j
c c
Work decomposition Work decomposition
dx dx
33
c
dV dV
dx dx
22
uu
22
1
1
2
2
dx
x
u
u
c
c
+
12
dx
c
+
o
o o
dx dx
11
xx
11
xx
22
1
1
12
dx
x c
+ o
12
o
total work done on an elementary volume:
dx dx
11
xx
11
xx
33
total work done on an elementary volume:


.

\

c
c
+


.

\

c
c
+
1
2
2 3 2 1
12
12
dx
x
u
u dx dx dx
x
o
o
= ÷
. \
c
. \
c
2 3 2 12
1 1
u dx dx
x x
o
Work decomposition Work decomposition
( )dV u
x
dx dx dx
x
u
x
u
12 2
1
3 2 1
1
2
12
1
12
2
o o
o
c
c
=


.

\

c
c
+
c
c
=
generalized total work done on an elementary volume can be separated generalized  total work done on an elementary volume can be separated
into the kinetic and deformation components:
( )
i
j
ij j j ij j
i
x
u
F u u
x c
c
+ =
c
c
o o
work
n deformatio
work
kinetic
work
total
Conservation of mechanical energy
"change of kinetic energy is a result of work
d b t l f "
start with the momentum equation :
done by external forces"
( )
j j
F dVu
Dt
D
= µ
j
u ×
Dt
ij j j
u dV dV f
u u
dV
D




c
+




o
µ µ
forces external by work change energy kinetic
2
j
i
j
j
j j
u dV
x
dV f dV
Dt


.
\
c
+ =


.
\
µ µ
Conservation of thermal (or internal) energy ( ) gy
Net heat flux entering a control volume results in rate
of change of internal energy of change of internal energy
( )
ij ij
i
q
dV
Dt
D
e o uµ +
c
c
÷ =
q
i
dV
V
j j
i
x Dt c
T
k
c
n
i
dA
dV
A
i
i
x
k q
c
c
÷ =
( )
i
j
ij
i i
x
u
x
T
k
x
dV
Dt
D
c
c
+


.

\

c
c
c
c
= o uµ
sfer heat tran
n work deformatio
sfer heat tran
conduction
change energy internal
. \
Conservation of thermal energy
set :
e temperatur heat specific  cT =
}
× ¢
gy
energy internal 
V
u
T
dV cT
c



c c
=
}
µ 
fer heat trans 
i
j
ij
i i
x
u
x
T
k
x c
c
+


.

\

c
c
c
c
= o ¢
thermal energy equation
for an elementary volume dV:
( ) ( )
i
i
T
cTu
x
cT
t
c
 
c c
=
c
c
+
c
c
µ µ
i
j
ij
i i
x
u
x
T
k
x c
c
+


.

\

c
c
c
c
= o
Conservation of thermal energy
integrated for a final volume V
u
i
dV
V
gy
bounded by a surface A:
i
n
i
dA
dV
A
( )
outlet inlet
convection energy internal
change energy internal
} }
c
÷
dA u cTn dV cT µ µ ( )
} }
} }
c
c
÷ =
c
A
i i
V
u
T
dA u cTn dV cT
t
µ µ
k d f i d ti
} }
c
c
+
c
c
+
V
i
j
ij
A
i
i
dV
x
u
dA n
x
T
k o
sfer heat tran
n work deformatio
sfer heat tran
conduction
Conservation of chemical species
Net species mass transfer across the control volume faces + chemical reaction
within the control volume results in a change of concentration of chemical g f f
Species in the control volume
( )
s
s
i
s
R
q
dV m
D
+
c
= µ
q
i
s
dV
V
( )
i
R
x
dV m
Dt
+
c
÷ = µ
s
c
n
i
dA
dV
A
i
s
s s
i
x
m
q
c
c
÷ = D
( )
chemical to due
k source/sin
s
i
s
s
i
s
R
x
m
x
dV m
Dt
D
+


.

\

c
c
c
c
=
D µ
reaction
chemical to due
transfer mass
diffusion
change ion concentrat
Conservation of chemical species
set :
ion concentrat mass pecies 
s
m s = ¢
mass species 
s
V
s
dV m
 
=
}
µ 
reaction chemical
and diffusion 
s
i
s
s
i
R
x
m
x
+


.

\

c
c
c
c
= D ¢
mass transfer equation
for an elementary volume for an elementary volume dV:
( ) ( )
i
s
i
s
u m
x
m
t
 
=
c
c
+
c
c
µ µ
s
i
s
s
i
R
x
m
x
+


.

\

c
c
c
c
= D
Conservation of chemical species
integrated for a final volume V
q
i
s
dV
V
bounded by a surface A:
n
i
dA
A
ti i
( )
outlet inlet
convection species
change ion concentrat species
} }
÷ =
c
c
÷
A
i i
s
V
s
dA u n m dV m
t
µ µ
} }
+
c
c
+
c
V
s
A
i
i
s
s
A V
dV R dA n
x
m
t
D
reaction chemical
to due k source/sin
transfer mass
diffusion species
V A
i
Class of Linear Secondorder
PDEs
• Linear second order PDEsareof theform • Linear secondorder PDEs are of the form
h A H f ti f d l
H Gu Fu Eu Cu Bu Au
y x yy xy xx
= + + + + +2
where A  H are functions of x and y only
• Elliptic PDEs: B
2
 AC < 0
( d h i i h h ) (steady state heat equations without heat source)
• Parabolic PDEs: B
2
 AC = 0
(t i t h t t f ti ) (transient heat transfer equations)
• Hyperbolic PDEs: B
2
 AC > 0
(waveequations) (wave equations)
MODULE 1: Review Questions
• What is thedrivingforcefor (a) heat transfer (b) electric current flow
and(c) fluidflow?
Whi h f th f ll i i t t i l t ? • Whichoneof thefollowingisnot amaterial property?
(a) thermal conductivity (b) heat transfer coefficient (c)emissivity
• What is theorder of magnitudeof thermal conductivity for (a) metals
(b) solidinsulatingmaterials(c) liquids(d) gases?
• What are the orders of magnitude for free convection heat transfer
coefficient, forcedconvectionandboiling?
• Under what circumstances canoneexpect radiationheat transfer to be
significant?
• An ideal gas is heated from40ºC to 60ºC (a) at constant volumeand g ( )
(b) at constant pressure. For which case do you think the energy
requiredwill begreater?Explainwhy?
• A personclaims that heat cannot betransferredinavacuum. Evaluate p
thisclaim.
MODULE 1: Review Questions
(contd ) (contd...)
• In which of the three states (solid/liquid/gas) of a matter, conduction
heat transfer ishigh/low?Explainyour claim heat transfer ishigh/low?Explainyour claim.
• Namesomegoodandsomepoor conductorsof heat.
• Showthat heat flowlinesandisothermsinconductionheat transfer are
l t h th Will thi diti h ld f ti h t normal to each other. Will this condition hold for convection heat
transfer?
• Distinguish between Eulerian and Lagrangian approach in fluid
h i Wh i th E l i h ll d? mechanics. WhyistheEulerianapproachnormallyused?
• DerivetheReynoldstransport equation.
• Derivethecontinuity (massconservation) equationindifferential form
for incompressibleflow.
• Definesubstantial derivative. What is thephysical significanceof the
substantial derivativeinanEulerianframework?
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