Inayet Hadi and Doug McBee Professor Deserai Crow Pad 5005 Sec.

001 The Policy Process and Democracy Logic Model Development Problem Definition The reconstruction of the economic infrastructure in Kandahar Province, Afghanistan has decreased significantly since 2005. This has created many problems such as historically high unemployment, decreased living standard, and increased public moral issues. The foreign aid that is available, is not being spent to address these problems because of the over reliance of foreign contractors who are price gouging, and not using local resources or labor. Government corruption is also hampering the delivery of government services and rebuilding efforts. . Community Needs Without improved economic infrastructure in key areas of the Province a human crisis is inevitable. Currently, Kandahar’s labor force is minimally trained due to thirty years of instability caused by the Russian invasion, the subsequent civil war, and the Taliban rule. Eighty percent of the population is predominately tied to the agriculture sector. Because of the lack of access to alternative viable income, some of the citizens of Kandahar are turning to growing, harvesting, and transforming the poppy plant into a tradeable commodity used in exchanging for consumable products and services from the international community. A major incentive to grow poppies is based on the existing poor infrastructure of dams, water canals and pumping stations. They lack capacity to supply licit crops with enough water to grow. On the other hand, the poppy plant requires less water to grow and become harvestable with little effort as compared with most food crops such as corn, wheat, rice, and etc... Financing for growing poppies is plentiful from the private sector while financial assistance to the average farmer to grow licit crop is nonexistent either in the private or public sector. The foreign aid that is available for the reconstruction of Kandahar Province has been given to foreign contractors or stolen by corrupt officials. The work projects that are taking place have little oversight or accountability either by the Kandahar government or the local citizens. In most cases, local contractors are not aware that a contract is been awarded and what the stipulations of the contract are. Furthermore, there are no job training programs to address and fill the gaps that are hindering the reconstruction of Kandahar. As a consequence, the lack of skilled labor has had a negative impact on the local economy. Most foodstuff items and other nonperishable goods are imported and supplied from outside the Province. Desired Results The desired result for the citizen’s of Kandahar Provinces is to create sustainable employment opportunities that rebuild the public’s infrastructure to encourage the private

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sector to rehabilitate existing factories, and build new ones with a trained local workforce. While keeping in mind the Kandahar tradition of farming and agriculture, the infrastructure to support this sector needs to be revived, repaired and improved. This would maximize licit crop output, and allow for growth and distribution of fruits such as grapes, pomegranates and nuts like pistachios which are local favorites. To limit the over dependence on importing foods that can be grown locally will help Kandahar have the ability necessary to have a sustainable economy. The improved agriculture infrastructure must be dedicated to accomplishing this goal. To keep farmers from continuing to plant poppies, local and international law enforcement agencies should use a variety of policy tools available that have been successful in other regions. These should include inducements and penalties that would limit and prohibit the cultivation of poppies in Kandahar. Influential factors The reasons that infrastructure reconstruction has stalled are easy to state but difficult to overcome. Growing poppies brings in greater profit than food crops. Insurgents still threaten local citizens who are friendly to the Allied forces. The American troops are still fighting the Taliban, AlQuida and chase rumors of Osama Bin Ladin through out the country. Both the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF), and the U.S. led Operations Enduring Freedom have both refrained from being directly involved in the eradication of poppy fields. With the arrival of foreign contractors and humanitarian aid workers, greed and corruption of the local government has become an accepted way of doing business. . The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) for the next fiscal year will provide direct funding to the central government of Afghanistan in order to distribute to local governments. The opening of the European Union and United States markets for Afghanistan agriculture products will help in the successes of creating a sustainable economy in Kandahar Province. Strategies Kandahar citizens need to be employed and could easily be utilized to rebuild the infrastructure. The best way to encourage economic growth is to let the community development councils (CDC’s) already established throughout the Kandahar Province decide how to allocate the funding to meet their needs for a strong economy. They could decide what is important for their economic growth, and then provide financial assistance directly from the CDC’s while ensuring that funds are allocated in a transparent and accountable manner. Support the Afghan National Police coordinated with CDC’s to eradicate the poppy fields in Kandahar. Assumptions The average citizen is more invested in his country than foreign labors. Skill based training could be implemented at a minimal cost to address many of the labor trade issues. Existing factories when repaired will produce basic goods manufactured in local factories thus creating jobs for the citizens of Kandahar. Once the agriculture infrastructure is repaired the dams and canals could again have water flow sufficient to contribute to increased agriculture output and trade. There is recognition by the

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international community in Afghanistan that reconstruction efforts must be expedited in order to win hearts and minds of the local citizens. This program can become effective in addressing the need because of the Afghan value of, "work like a slave, but eat like a King." It means it is better to earn a living through work then it is to earn a living by begging.

Strategies * Working with the newly formed community development councils (CDC) established in the various districts of Kandahar province to regenerate licit economic activity. -Funding should be given to realizable and noncorrupt CDC that can be held accountable in a transparent manner. - Minimize the number of government bureaucratic channels or middlemen that can influence the distribution of financial aid. * Support police units in consultation with CDC to eradicate poppy fields.

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Assumptions * Fixing local infrastructure in Kandahar province will allow trade to increase.

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* The average citizen would be more invested in their country than foreign labor. * Unemployment will decrease when the average Kandahar citizen is giving the opportunity to work. * Afghan value, "work like a slave, but eat like a King." It means it is better to earn a living through work then it is to earn a living by begging. *Recognition by international community that reconstruction efforts must be expedited.

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Influential Factors *Fighting amongst the various actors continue in Kandahar province. *International security forces are not involved with eradicating poppy fields. *U.S./E.U. have given special preference to Afghan goods, and provides financial support to export Afghan agriculture products to foreign markets. *USAID will give direct financial aid to the Afghan government, instead of international contractors.

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Problem or Issue *Reconstruction has decreased significantly in the Kandahar Province of Afghanistan since 2005. - Unemployment remains historically high. - Foreign aid is not being spent on reconstruction project. - Corruption of government official is rampant on all levels. - Foreign contractors are price gouging, and not using local resources or labor.

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Desired Results (outputs, *Kandahar citizens need to be employed, and could be utilized to rebuilt the public infrastructure. *Existing factories need to be repaired and expanded.

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*Agriculture infrastructure needs to be cleaned and repaired to maximize output. * Local food crops should be grown and dependence on importation limited. *Poppy cultivation should be discouraged by economic incentives and law enforcements.

Community Needs/Assets *Kandahar citizens are living in poverty, and subsisting on products and services purchased and produced outside of Kandahar. *Agriculture infrastructure is severely damaged as a result of the Russian invasion and the civil war. * The lack of information by Kandaharís business community of contracts being awarded and implemented.

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