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Introduction
Indonesia language is a national language which has approximately 225 million native speakers. Indonesia language plays important roles in society. Since Indonesia is a multicultural country which consists of various ethnic groups, Indonesia language becomes a unitary tool for communication in dailly life. Indonesia language is a medium for transfering knowledge and technology. It is also widely used in communities, at schools, in public offices, and in the mass media. Recently Indonesia language becomes an international language. There are 35 countries and 130 institutions teach Indonesia as a foreign language. Many overseas scholars come to Indonesia in order to study Indonesia language in real context situation. Besides that they study different kinds of social subjects in Indonesia. One of destinations to study Indonesia is Yogyakarta. Yogyakarta is famous as a education city because Yogyakarta has a lot of universities, institutions and private courses. Yogyakarta is known as a cultural city because of its cultural and social heritage. Many foreign students come to Yogyakarta to study Indonesian Language or to learn social and culture of Indonesia. There are some qualified universities, institutions and private courses in Yogyakarta teaching Indonesia as a foreign language such as University of Gadjah Mada, State University of Yogyakarta, University Technology of Yogyakarta, Wisma Bahasa, Alam Bahasa, etc. Since foreign students come from various backgrounds and needs in studying Indonesia language, stake holders of curriculum should consider students’ need and background. Need analysis is required to maintain student’s needs and wants especially in learning Indonesia language as a foundation in making curriculum and syllabus. As in this assignment, I propose a need analysis of Indonesia for beginner. I choose this assignment because my institution (Balai Bahasa Yogyakarta) is

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meet the audience The team of need analysts is formed. Using information. 2. using information means how the stake holder use the gathered information. To collect the information takes several steps. The team 2 . The information embraces student’s need in learning Indonesia language. From above explanation. gathering information encompasses types of questions and instruments will be used to carry out need analysis. The three basic steps are 1. and 3. Therefore. As Brown (1995:35) states that “ Need analysis is activities involved in gathering information that will serve as the basis for developing a curriculum that will meet the learning needs of particular group of students. as Brown (1995:36-54) mentions that there are three basic steps in conducting need analysis. The first step is activities to make several decisions regarding the purposes of need analysis. The third step. it can be inferred that need analysis is activities in gathering information. 2. The members of analysts are three teachers who teach Indonesia and two experts of curriculum designers. Making basic decisions about the needs analysis.going to make a short course for foreign students. the procedures of need analysis applies in this project are a. The second step.” From Brown’s definition. the need analysis proposed in this project is aimed to set a syllabus for Indonesia for beginner. Description of Project Need analysis is a series of procedures which is aimed to collect information. The three steps are interrelated steps which determine the result of need analysis. Gathering information. who will be involved in need analysis and types of information. The obtained information is usefull in setting up Indonesia syllabus for beginner.

meetings and questionaires. The criteria is 1. Basic decisions are made to determine who is the target group. and time and budget of need analysis. validity and usability. The second term is for gathering the information. The team devides the project into three terms. teachers of Indonesia as a foreign language. limit time and determine the target group The team of need analysts manages to conduct need analysis in one year which is from January. Finally.meets the audience. how to collect the information. Many foreign students attend Gadjah Mada University to study social and cultural studies. interviews. first year student of Gadjah Mada University. the collected information is formulated into a report of need analysis. first time come to Indonesia. Scope and Limitation The population of the target group is foreign students who study in Gadjah Mada University. c. The audience is head of institution. observation. 3 . The report describes students’ needs and motivation in learning Indonesia for beginners. The target group are some first year foreign students who study in Gadjah Mada University. The meeting is intended to make basic decisions of need analysis. The instruments for gathering information are existing information. The team also determines the target group about whom the information will be collected from. 3. 2. b. Sampling is made based on certain criteria. Gadjah Mada University is choosen because it is famous for its social and cultural studies. what type of information should be collected from the target group. test. The first term is for making a plan of conducting need analysis.December 2009. The characteristic of instruments should represent reliability. and consultant of education. The audience of this project is a team who has interest in need analysis. conduct the need analysis The team selects and decides types of instrument.

age 18-35 year. first time come to Indonesia. gathering information and using the information. The characteristics of foreign student are English as their first language. After setting the purposes of need analysis. The target group is foreign students who attend Gadjah Mada University.1 Making Basic Decisions Basic decisions concern about the groups which will be engaged in this project. The three parts are making basic decision. The purpose of the need analysis are gathering information on 1. and the purposes of need analysis. What are basic communication competencies that foreign students’ language most want to learn? 2. This framework of need analysis is the guidance to carry out need analysis. The schedule as follows The Schedule of Conducting Need Analysis Activities Making Basic Decision Gathering Information Processing Information 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 X Months 6 7 X X X 8 X X 9 X X 10 X X 11 X 12 X 4. audience. attending first grade. The Involved Groups There are four groups which are involved in this need analysis. need analysts and resource groups. The audience is the head of Balai 4 . types of information. and points of view.3. Implications In this part. What is students’ attitude in learning Indonesia language? 4. The steps are conducted for a year (January-December 2009). and 4. English as first language. the framework of conducting need analysis is made. and age 18-35 years. The implementation is devided into three parts. a. The four groups are target group. I disscuss about the implementation of my project.

The resource group is teachers and experts of curriculum designers. priorities. teachers. The need analysts is a team consits of three Indonesia teachers and two experts of curriculum designer. Beside that. The ability question is applicable to 5 . 38) means information that is learning most desired by chosen group. and attitude. meetings. priority. b. topics. language used etc. The problem question is designed to find out what types of problem the foreign learners face when the first time they learn Indonesia. observation. Types of questions employed are problem. language skills. 43) classifies five types of questions in gathering information. abilities and attitudes. The priority question is used in detecting which topics. Deciding Types of Questions Rossett (1982) cited in Brown (1995. should be put at first. The types are problems. and program administrator. The Types of The Information The types of information used in the need analysis of Indonesia as foreign language for beginner are democratic philosophy and diagnostic philosophy. abilities. The democratic phylosophy is choosen because the project is aimed to seek what kinds of communication skills.2 Gathering Information The process of conducting need analysis is deciding types of questions and using the instruments. a. and questionnaries. the project is aimed to find what most of foreign leaners’ attitude toward Indonesia. The diagnostic philosophy is taken into accout in gathering information relating to the way how to prioritize the students’ skill in mastering Indonesia. Diagnostic philosophy is choosen in order to figure out what kind of urgent communicative competence skills. The types of questions employed in this project are problems. topics and situations that students should master. In implementing need analysis some instruments are used. language situations that most foreign students really want to learn. ability. diagnostic philosophy refers to a need that is compulsory to be mastered. test. The four types of questions are aimed to collect information. 4. The instruments are existing information. interview.Bahasa Yogyakarta. According to Brown (1995. The democratic philosophy (cited in Brown (1995. 39). priorities. attitudes and solutions.

placement. Literature review covers review of the same program that has been used by other institution or university.gather information on what students’ language competence ability when the first time they learn Indonesia. Test Test is carried out in order to find out the level of proficiency. Existing Information The existing information used in this project is Indonesia as a foreign language program from other courses and universities. The attitude question seeks information on learners’ attitude toward Indonesia. Other existing information is literature review. Implementing The Instruments There are four instruments used in gaining the information. UKBI test is designed in order to measure the students’ competency in speaking. The test provides information about the level of language profeciency and aspect of language competence should be put first. the target group is selected randomly (see appendix). This part discusses how the information is collected by using the instruments. The interview is also a foreign 6 . interview. 1. 3. Interview Interview is used to the target group and resource group. b. Booklets can be a resourceful information. writing. Due to the limitation of time and energy. Some courses and universities provide booklets concerning program of Indonesia as language. and reading in Indonesia. Interview is aimed to gain information from the target group. UKBI is a standarized test for Indonesia which is similar to TOEFL (Test of English as Foreign Language). and questionnaries. The test given to the foreign students is UKBI (Uji Kemampuan Berbahasa Indonesia). The test is given before the students enroll program of Indonesia as a foreign language. or achievement. listening. Literature review is also resourceful material as the basis in implementing need analysis. 2. diagnosis. The instruments are existing information. The instruments use inseparably because each instrument strengthens and completes each other in colleting information. test.

1. The report describes the results of survey questionnaires. suggestions as to which language skills should be focused in courses for foreign students The questionnaire is piloted and revised before distributed to the foreign students.done to the resource group. The information is sorted by certain considerations refering to the purposes of need analysis. Questionnaires is employed to invstigate the foreign students’ attitudes toward various aspects of program. there are some considerations to design a questionnaire (See apendix 2). The questions are organized into the following sections. linguistic demands relating to listening skill. writing skill and difficulties that students face in these skill. The resource group is comprised of ten teachers who teach Indonesia as foreign language. The process of selection takes part following the process of collecting information. Therefore. writing. listening. interview. 3. 7 . reading skill. Questionnaries According to Richards (2001. The purposes of the need analysis are to find information on basic communication competencies foreign students’ language most want to learn and students’ attitude in learning Indonesia language. 72).3 Processing Information The collected information is analyzed and selected. existing information and test together with series of recommendations. 4. 4. After processing information. 2. 4. overview of problems encountered by foreign students in learning Indonesia. the prioritization is important in deciding what the foreign students should lear first when they study Indonesia. The process of analyzing and selecting information can be cumbersome and time consuming. speaking skill. The teachers have taught Indonesia language as foreign language in Gadjah Mada University for more than two years. the report of need analysis is made. and reading) in learning Indonesia. backgroud information concerning foreign students’ background language skill (speaking.

8 . The process of gathering information has three steps. the result of need analysis is described in a report together with a series of recommendations. making basic decisions. At the end . using the instruments and processing the information.4. The target group of need analysis is foreign students who study Indonesia in Gadjah Mada University with certain criteria. Summary The need anaysis employed in this project is aimed to gather information on basic communication competencies foreign students’ language most want to learn and students’ attitude in learning Indonesia language.

Do you like studying Indonesia? Why? 3. Overview of Learning Motivation 1. How do you learn new Indonesia vocabulary? c. and learning motivation. How do you comprehend Indonesian expression in conversation? 10. Is learning Indonesia is the same as you learn English? Why? 8. Do you have difficulties in learning Indonesia grammar? Why? 9. Which language skill should be mastered first? Why? 7. What problems do you face in reading Indonesia? 4. What problems do you face in speaking Indonesia? 5. Why do you learn Indonesia? 2. What kind of activities do you like most when learning Indonesia? Individual or group? Why? 2. skill needed. Here are example of questions: a. Do you practice a conversation in Indonesia? Why? 9 . Background Information 1. Where are you from? 2. What is your native langugage? Is English your first language? b. How long are you going to study in Indonesia? 4. What problems do you face in writing Indonesia? 6. What problems do you face in listening Indonesia? 3. What is your current course of study? 3.Apendix 1: Sample of Needs analysis questions of interview for foreign students The questions of interview are given to foreign students in order to gain information on the students’ background. Overview of Skills Needed 1.

Designing a questionnaire The considerations in desining a questionnaire are taken from Richcards (2001..g. g. How will it be administered (e.”In your college English course. Can the question be understood? Is the wording unambiguous? b. by mail. Are other questions needed on this issue? c. did you. “do you agree that a communicative approach is the best way to teach a language?”) f.. Will it be useful to carry out some interviews before designing the questionaire. to answer a question such as “How much English do your students use outside of class”)? d. or groupadministered)? 2. 72-73). g.g.. in order to get a sense of appropriate topics and issues? b. 1. Does it contain vocabulary likely to be known by the learner? d.) c. How the questions are worded a. How will the questionnaire be piloted? d. Preliminary questions a.?”) 10 .Apendix 2. How large will the sample be? Is it representative of the whole population information is needed about? c. Will the respondents be willing to give the information asked for? (e. Is the question biased in one direction? (e. Should the question be made more specific and more closely related to the respondents’ personal experience? e. Can the respondents answer this question? Do they have sufficient information (e. Is the question really necessary? How will the information it provides be used b.g. Does the question contain any unstated assumptions? (e. self-administered.g.. Is it appropriate to ask this question? (e..”How old are you?”) 3. Can the question be shortened? (Aim for not more than 20 words. The types of information asked for a. “Does your teacher know how to teach English?”) g.

. that is. Is the answer to the question likely to be influenced by the content of preceding questions? 4.. between “strongly agree” and “strongly disagree”) e..e. Checklist: a set of terms that describe different attributes or values d. Would a more personalized (or personalized) version of the question be better? h. Closed question: one that is answered by choosing alternatives provided c. Open question: one that can be answered freely and where no kind of choice is required in the answer b. Ranking: items are ranked (e.g. “Have you used the things you have been taught out of class?”) f.g. The type of items in the questionnaire a. Inventory: a list that the respondents mark or check in some way. Are there any prestige questions.g. 11 . Is the wording biased or emotionally loaded in any way? g. Rating scale: a value is given on a scale (e. which students are likely to try to answer to give a good impression of themselves? (E. from 1 to 9) according to some criteria f.

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