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FRED H.

REDMORE
Glossary

Acid. A substance that produces H+ ions or donates a proton; turns blue litmus red; and neutralizes a base. Acid anhydride. A nonmetal oxide that forms an acid when mixed with water. Activation Energy. The energy necessary for two colliding species to react. Alcohol. An organic compound that contains the OH group. Alkali Metal Group. The group IA elements in the periodic table. Alkaline Earth Group. The group IIA elements in the periodic table. Alkane. A hydrocarbon that has all single bonds (a saturated hydrocarbon). Alkene. A hydrocarbon that contains double bonds (a type of unsaturated hydrocarbon) Alkyne. An unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains triple bonds. Alpha Particle. A type of radiation that is identical to a helium nucleus ( Amine. An organic compound with the general formula RNH2 ; often referred to as the organic analog to ammonia. Amino Acid. An organic compound that contains both amine group (---NH2) and the acid or carboxyl group (---COOH) Amorphous solid. A solid in which the particles are arranged in an irregular manner, thus it has no specific shape or structure. Ampere. A rate at which electric current flows, equal to one coulomb per second.

Amphiprotic substance. A substance that can either donate or accept a proton, such as HCO3-. Amphoteric substance. A substance that can act either as an acid or a base. Analytical Chemistry. The field of chemistry pertaining to the examination or analysis of a substance, either qualitatively or quantitatively. Angstrom. A unit of length equal to 10-8 cm; the nanometer (nm) is usually used in place of this unit. Anhydride. A substance that contains no water, such as an acid anhydride (nonmetal oxide) or basic anhydride (metal oxide) Anlon. A negatively charged atom or group of atoms (contains more electrons than protons). Anode. The electrode at which oxidation takes place. Aromatic compound. An organic compound that contains benzene (C6H6). Arrhenius acid. A substance that produces H+ ion in water solution. Arrhenius base. A substance that produces OH- ion in water solution. Atmosphere (atm). A unit of pressure equal to 760 torr (760 mm Hg) or 1.0 x 105 Pa. Atom. The smallest unit of a particular element that undergoes chemical change; it is composed of a nucleus that contains protons and neutrons (and hence has a positive charge), surrounded by electrons in energy levels.

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Atomic Mass Unit (amu). The relative unit used to compare the masses of atoms, based on an atom of the isotope carbon-12 having an atomic weight of exactly 12. Aufbau order. The order in which electrons occupy orbitals in an atom. Avogadros number. The number of units (atoms, ions, molecules, formula units and so on) in 1 mole of a substance, equal to 6.02 x 1023. Balanced equation. A chemical equation that contains exactly the same number of each atom on each side of the equation. Base (alkali, hydroxide). A substance that produces OH- ions or accepts a proton, turns red litmus blue, neutralizes an acid. Basic anhydride. A metal oxide that forms a base when mixed with water, sometimes called a basic oxide. Beta particle. A type of radiation identical to an electron. ( Bidentate. A ligand, in a complex, that has two points of attachment to the central atom. Binary Acid. An acid composed of hydrogen with only one other element. Binary Compound. A compound composed of only two elements. Biochemistry. The branch of chemistry concerned with the substances, and reactions of these substances, in living material.

Boiling Point. The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals atmospheric pressure. Bond Angle. The angle formed between three atoms in a molecule. Bond length. The distance between the nuclei of two atoms joined together by a covalent bond. Bond order. The number of bonds formed between two atoms in a compound, as found in the molecular orbital model of bonding, by taking the number of e- pairs in BMO (bonding molecular orbitals) minus the number of e- pairs in ABMO (antibonding molecular orbitals). Bond strength. The force holding two atoms together in a covalent compound, measured by the amount of energy necessary to break the bond. Boyles Law. The volume of a gas is inversely proportional to the pressure, at constant temperature. Bronsted Lowry acid (Bronsted acid). A substance that can donate a proton (H+) to another substance (proton donor). Bronsted Lowry base (Bronsted base). A substantce that can accept a proton (H+) from another substance (proton acceptor) Calorie (cal). The amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree Celsius. (1 cal = 4.18 J) Catalyst. A substance that alters the speed of a reaction without being consumed in the reaction. Generally speeds up the reaction. Cathode. The electrode at which reduction takes place.

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Cation. A positively charged atome or group of atoms; has more protons than electrons. Charge density. The charge on an ion divided by the radius of the ion. Charles Law. The volume of a gas is directly proportional to the Kelvin (absolute) temperature at constant pressure. Chelate. A complex formed by a polydentate ligand, which forms a ring (cyclic) structure. Chemical change. A change that alters a substance by forming a new substance. Chemical Equation. A notation that shows what substances are reacting (reactants) and what new substances are being produced (products). Chemical Equilibrium. The point in a reversible reaction where the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction. Chemical Properties. Those properties of a substance that can be observed only when a chemical change takes place in the substance. Chemistry. The study of matter and the changes that it undergoes. Colloid. A mixture in which the dispersed particles are large enough to be seen but not large enough to settle out; intermediate between a true solution and a precipitate. Combination Reaction. A reaction in which two or more substances combine to form two or more new substances. Compund. Two or more elements chemically combined in definite and constant proportions. Condensation. Change from gas to the liquid phase. Conjugate pairs of acids and bases. The original acid (or base) and the new acid (or base) formed in a Bronsted Lowry acidbase reaction.

Conversion factor. A factor that a number is multiplied by to change the unit but not the value; it is always equal to one. Coordinate covalent bond. A covalent bond in which one atom furnished both electrons. Coordination compound. A complex substance made up of two or more simpler substances, each of which can exist independently. Coordination number. The number of bonds formed around the central atom in a coordination compound (complex). Coulumb. A unit used to measure the amount of electrical energy that flows one second by a current of one ampere. Covalent bond a bond formed by two electrons that are shared between two atoms; often called electron pair bond. Critical pressure. The pressure necessary to liquefy a gas at the critical temperature. Curie (Ci). The mass of a radioactive substance that will give a 3.7 x 1010 disintegrations per second. Daltons Law of Partial Pressure. In a mixture of gasses, each gas exerts the pressure it would exert if it were by itself; thus the total pressure is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of each gas in the mixture. Decomposition reaction. A chemical reaction in which one substance breaks up into two or more new substances. Delocalized bond. A pi bond that is spread out among three or more p orbitals rather than being localized between only two atoms.
Density. The mass of a substance occupying a unit of volume. Dibasic acid. An acid that contains two replaceable hydrogen ions. Page | 3

Differentiating electron. The electron that makes an atom different from one before it in the periodic table. Dipole Attraction. The forces of attraction between two polar molecules. Distillation. Separation of substances with different boiling points by driving off the lower boiling portion and leaving everything else. Electrolyte. A substance that breaks up into ions when put into solution. Electrolytic cell (Electrolysis cell). A cell in which electrical energy causes a chemical reaction to take place. Electromotive series (activity series). Listing of metals (and hydrogen) in order of decreasing activity; anything higher on the series will displace something lower. Electrons. A part of an atom with a -1 charge and negligible mass; found in energy levels around the nucleus. Electron Affinity. Energy released when an atom gains an electron to form a negative ion. Electron Capture. A type of nuclear reaction in which the nucleus captures an electron to form a neutron from a proton; sometimes called K capture (since the electron is generally from the first or K shell of electrons) Electronegativity. The general tendency of an atom to attract electrons toward itself in a compound. Element. A pure substance composed of only one kind of atom. Empirical Formula. The simplest formula of a compound; gives the smallest, whole number ratio of atoms that make up the compound. Endothermic. A reaction that absorbs heat. End point. The point where the indicator in an acid-base titration changes color.

Energy Level. A region in space, of some general distance from the nucleus, where a group of electrons is most likely to be found. Enthalpy of Formation (Hf). The amount of heat transferred in a reaction for which 1 mole of a compound is formed from the elements in the standard state. Enthalpy of Reaction (Hr). The amount of heat transferred in a given reaction. Entropy. A measurement of the amount of disorder of a system. Enzyme. A substance that catalyzes a bilological reaction in the body. Equilibrium Constant (Keq). The mathematical expression for the relationship between the concentration of products and reactants in an equilibrium reaction. Equivalent Weight. The formula (molecular) weight of a substance divided by the number of electrons transferred in the reaction involved. Equivalent weight of acid, base or salt. The formula weight of an acid or base divided by the number of replaceable H+ or OH- ions present; for a salt it is the formula weight divided by the total positive or negative charge. Essential Amino Acid. An amino acid that is needed by the body but cannot be synthesized by the body; thus it must be provided in the diet. Ether. An organic compound with the general formula R O R. Evaporation. The process whereby a liquid changes to a gas, due to molecules of the liquid escaping into the gas phase. Exothermic Reaction. A chemical reaction that gives off heat. Family. A subgroup in the periodic table. Faraday (F). The amount of electrical energy necessary for the transfer of 1 mole of electron in a reaction; equals 96, 500 coulumbs Page | 4

Fats and oils. Esters of glycerols and fatty acids. Fats have saturated carbon chains and oils have unsaturated carbon chains. Fatty acids. Organic acids with relatively long carbon chains (approximately 10 to 20 carbons). Filtrate. The substance that passes through the filter in a filtration process. First Law of Thermodynamics. The Law of Conservation of Energy. Formal Concentration (F). Equivalent to (M) concentration. Formula. A notation that tells what atoms, in what proportions, are present in a compound. Formula Unit. The smallest unit that contains the number of atoms indicated by the formula for a substance (such as Na and NaCl). Formula (Molecular) Weight. The relative mass of a substance, based on the atomic weight scale and the formula for the substance. Free Energy (G). The amount of energy available to do useful work in a chemical reaction; found from the enthalpy, entropy and kelvin (absolute) temperature using the equation G = H - TS Gamma Rays. Radiation that consists of rays of short wavelength, caused by the energy changes in nuclear reactions. Gay-Lussacs Law. The pressure of a gas is directly proportional to the Kelvin (K) temperature, at constant volume. Grahams Law of Diffusion. R = rate of diffusion; m = weight

Halogens. The group VIIA elements in the periodic table. Heat of fusion. The amount of heat necessary to convert a given amount of solid to liquid, at the melting point. Heat of vaporization. The amount of heat necessary to convert a given amount of liquid to gas, at the boiling point. Hesss Law. The H of an overall reaction is equal to the sum of the H values of each step in the reaction. Heterogeneous Equilibrium. A chemical equilibrium in which there are two phases present, such as gas and solid or solution and solid. Hunds Rule. When electrons occupy orbitals of equal energy, one electron occupies each orbital before there is any pairing. Hybrid Orbital. A new type of orbital formed in the formation of a covalent bond such as sp, sp2, sp3, dsp2 and d2sp3. Hydrate. An ionic compound formed from an active metal and hydrogen, in which the hydrogen is H-. Hydrocarbon. An organic compound composed of only carbon and hydrogen. Hydrogen bond. The force of attraction between the hydrogen atom in one molecule and an electronegative atom in another molecule. Hydrolysis Constant (kh). The constant for a hydrolysis reaction. equilibrium

Hydrolysis of salts. The reaction of a salt with water to form a weak acid or weak base. Hydronium ion. The H3O+ ion formed by H+ in water solution; often written as H+(aq) or just H+ for simplicity. Ideal Gas. A gas that behaves according to the postulate of the kinetic theory of gases. Page | 5

Group. A vertical column in the periodic table. Half-life (t1/2). The amount of time that it takes for one-half of a given amount of a radioactive species to decay.

Immiscible. Substances that will not mix. Inhibitor. A catalyst that slows down the speed of a reaction; sometimes called a negative catalyst. Inner Transition Elements. The series of elements from 57 through 71, and 89 through 103. Inorganic Chemistry. That branch of chemistry having to do with the study of all elements and compounds other than carbon compounds. Ion. An atom or group of atoms that has charge due to losing or gaining one or more electrons. Ionic Bond. A chemical bond formed by the electrostatic attraction between ions in an ionic or electrovalent compound. Ionic Equation. A chemical equation written in such a way that strong electrolytes in solution are written in the form of their ions. Ionization constant (Ki, Ka or Kb). The equilibrium constant for the equilibrium reaction representing the ionization of a weak acid (Ka) or weak base (Ka). Ionization constant of water (Kw). The equilibrium constant for the ionization of water (H2O === H+ + OH-); Kw = [H+][ OH-] = 1.0 x 10-14. Ionization Energy. The amount of energy necessary to remove an electron from an atom or ion. Ion product. The product of the concentrations of the ions, raised to the proper powers, from the equation for the ionization of a slightly soluble substance. Isotops. Atoms of the same element with different masses, due to different numbers of neutrons. Joule. A unit of energy equatl to 107 ergs Ketone.

Law of Conservation of Mass. Matter (or energy-matter) cannot be created or destroyed. Kinetic Energy. Energy in motion. Law of Definite Proportions (Constant Composition). A chemical compound is always composed of the same elements in the same proportions. Law of Mass Actions. For the rate determining step in a reaction, the rate is proportional to the concentrations of the reactants, raised to the power of the coefficients in the balanced equation. Le Chateliers Principle. When a stress is placed on a system at equilibrium, the equilibrium will shift in such a way as to relieve the stress. Lewis acid. A substance that accepts a pair of electrons in a reaction (electron pair acceptor). Lewis base. A substance that furnishes a pair of electrons in a reaction (electron pair donor). Lewis structure. An electron dot formula that shows the arrangement of the electron pairs in a compound. Ligand. The species attached to the central atom in a coordination compound (complex). Limiting reagent. The reagent that is all used up in a chemical reaction, and thus limits the amount of products that can be formed. Lipids. Fats or Oils. Macromolecular substance. A substance in which covalent bonds must be broken to melt the substance, such as a diamond. Magnetic quantum number (ml). The quantum number that specifies a particular orbital in a given set. Mass number. The closest whole number to the relative mass of a particular isotope; equal to the number of protons and neutrons in the atom.

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Matter. Anything that occupies space and has mass. Mechanism of a reaction. Shows what steps the reaction goes through in forming the final product. Melting Point. The temperature at which the liquid and solid phases of a substance can exist in equilibrium. Metabolism. The chemical changes in digested food that either produce energy (catabolism) or form complex molecules (anabolism) for storage or further production of other substances such as tissue. Metathesis reaction. A double displacement reaction, in which two reactants form two products. Miscible. Subtances that will mix. Mixture. Two or more substances, in variable proportions; can be homogeneous or heterogeneous. Molality (molal concentration m). Concentration of a solution expressed as moles of solute per kilogram of solvent. Molarity (molar concentration M). Concentration of solution expressed as moles of solute per liter of solution Molar Mass. The mass (in grams) of one mole of a substance. Molar volume of a gas. The volume occupied by one mole of gas. Mole (mol). The amount of substance in grams, that contains Avogadros number of units. Molecular Formula. The actual formula for one molecule of a composed (as opposed to the empirical formula)

Molecular orbital. The orbital formed by the overlap of atomic orbitals in the formation of a covalent bond; holds a pair of electrons. Molecular (formula) weight. The sum of the atomic weights in the formula of a substance. Molecule. The smallest particle of a gas; sometimes considered as the smallest particle of a substance that retains the properties of that substance. Mole Fraction. The moles of one component of a mixture divided by the total number of moles in the mixture. Monodentate. A ligand, in a complex, that has one point of attachment to the central atom. Multiple bond. Two or three bonds formed between two atoms in a compound. Net Ionic Equation. An ionic equation in which only the reacting species are shown; all spectator ions are eliminated. Neutralization reaction. A reaction between an acid and a base; generally, forms water plus a salt. Neutron. A particle with a relative mass of 1 amu and no charge, found in the nucleus of an atom. Noble Gases. A member of the last group of elements in the periodic table. Nodal Plane. An area in space, within an atom or molecule, where there is zero probability of finding an electron (such as along the internuclear axis of a pi bond). Nonelectrolyte. A substance that does not break up into ions when put into solution.

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Nonpolar molecule. A molecule in which the electron cloud is generally distributed over the molecule, and thus no one part of the molecule is more positive or more negative. Normal Boiling point. The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to 1 atm. Normality (N). Concentration of solution expressed as equivalents of solute per liter of solution. Nuclear fission. A nuclear reaction in which a nucleus splits into two ore more parts of approximately equal mass and charge. Nuclear Fusion. A nuclear reaction in which two or more nuclei combine to form a new nucleus. Nuclear Reaction. A reaction in which there is a change in the nucleus of the reacting species. Nucleus. The center of an atom; contains protons and neutrons. Orbital. A region in space within an atom or molecule where there can be no more than two electrons. Order of Reaction. The exponents in a rate law, which tell how the rate changes as the concentration (or pressure) of a given reactant is changed. Organic Chemistry. The study of compounds of carbon. Osmosis. The process whereby a solvent flows through a porous membrane into a solution. Osmotic Pressure. The amount of pressure that must be applied to a solution to prevent osmosis. Oxidation Number (state). The apparent charge on an atom in a compound; a way of accounting

for where the electrons are most likely to be in a compound; used in nomenclature and balancing equations. Oxidation potential. An electrode potential in which the reaction is written as an oxidation reaction (the reactant loses electrons) Oxyacid. An acid that contains oxygen such as H2SO4. Oxyanion. The anion of an oxyacid such as SO42-. Pauli Exclusion Principle. States that no two electrons in a given atom can have exactly the same set of quantum numbers (which is why there can be no more than two electrons in any orbital, and these two must have opposite spins). Percent Concentration (by mass).

Percent Yield. The actual yield in a reaction divided by the theoretical yield times 100. Period. A horizontal row in the periodic table. Periodic Law. The properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers. Periodic Table of Elements. A table of the elements, arranged in order of increasing atomic numbers. pH. The negative log of the H+ ion concentration; Phase diagram. A graph of temperature versus pressure for a given substance, showing the relationship between the three states Phenol. An organic compound containing the benzene ring and the OH group, thus, an aromatic alcohol. Page | 8

Physical Change. A change that can be observed without changing the composition of a substance, such as a change of state. Physical Chemistry. The branch of chemistry having to do with the theoretical mathematical aspects of matter and its changes, such as in reaction rates, mechanisms, bonding and structure and thermodynamics. Physical Properties. Those properties of a substance that can be observed without changing the composition of the substance, such as melting point, boiling point, and vapor pressure. Pi bond. A bond formed by the sideways overlap of p orbitals in a compound; formed after the sigma bond. pOH. The negative log of the OH- ion concentration. Polar Bond. A covalent bond in which the electron cloud is shifted more toward one atom, due to a difference in electronegativity of the atoms. Polar Molecules. A molecule in which electron cloud is not equally distributed and thus one part of the molecule is more positive and another part is more negative. Polydentate. A ligand, in a complex, in which there is more than one point of attachment to the central atom. Polyprotic acid. An acid that has more than one replaceable H+ ion, such as in the dibasic acid H2S. Positron Particle (B+). A type of radiation that is equivalent to a positive electron ( Potential Energy. Energy a particle contains due to its position in space.

Precipitate.A solid material that forms in a reaction and will eventually settle out of the solution. Principal Quantum Number (n). The quantum number that specifies the energy level. Products. The substances formed in a chemical reaction; written on the right side of the arrow. Protein. A complex organic molecule, made up of amino acid groups. Proton. A particle with a mass of about 1 amu and a +1 charge, found in the nucleus of an atom. Pure Substance. An element or compound. Radioactivity. A property of certain unstable isotopes, which give off various types of radiation, such as alpha, beta, positron and neutron. Rare earth elements. The first inner transition series of elements; the lanthanide elements (atomic numbers 57 through 71). Rate Determining Step. The slow step in a reaction that goes in more than one step; determines the rate at which final product can be formed. Reactants. The substances that are reacting in a chemical equation; written on the left side of the equation. Reaction rate. The rate at which reactants are used up or products are formed in a chemical equation. Reduction potential. An electrode potential in which the reaction is written as a reduction (the reactant gains electrons)

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Replacement reaction. A reaction in which an active metal displaces a less active metal, or hydrogen, from solution. Representative Elements. The A subgroups in the periodic table; valence electrons are in s and p orbitals; have only one incomplete energy level. Resonance Forms. Two equally correct Lewis structures that can be drawn for a molecule. Reversible Reaction. A reaction in which the products that are formed react to form the original reactants. Salt. The product formed when an acid reacts with a base, generally considered to be an ionic substance. Saturated solution. A solution that contains as much of the solute as it can hold at the given temperature. Secondary Quantum Number (l). The quantum number that describes the sublevel, or type of orbital (s,p,d,f and so on) Solubility product constant (Ksp). The equilibrium constant for the equilibrium between a solid and its ions in solution. Solute. The substance being dissolve in a solution. Solution. A homogeneous mixture in which the component parts (solute and solvent) can be varied. Specific Gravity. The ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a standard (usually water at 4oC); thus it is a pure number, equal to the density expressed in grams per millimeter. Specific Heat (heat capacity). The amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of a

given amount of substance by 1o; usually expressed as cal/ goC. Spin Quantum Number (ms). The quantum number that specifies the spin of the electron in an orbital (+ or -1/2) Standard temperature and pressure (STP). 0o (273 K) and 1 atm (760 torr). State Function. A function that does not depend on the path by which the process takes place. Stereoactive pairs of electrons. Pairs of electrons in a covalent compound that determine the shape of the molecule; sigma bonding and nonbonding (lone) pairs around the central atom. Stoichiometry. Chemically equivalent amounts, either from the formula for a compound or from a balanced equation. Strong acid or base. An acid or base that is completely ionized. Strong Electrolyte. An ionic substance that is completely ionized in solution. Sublevel A subdivision of an energy level in an atom; made up of a set of orbitals, such as the s level, p sublevel, and so on. Sublimation. The process where a solid changes directly to a gas, without going through the liquid phase. Supersaturated solution. A solution that contains more of the solute than it can normally hold at a given temperature. Surface Tension. The property of a liquid that draws the molecules at the surface of the liquid in toward the body of the liquid.

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Symbol. A notation used to represent a particular element; the first letter of the name, and in some cases one other letter (some symbols come from the latin name). Theoretical Yield. The calculated yield from a reaction, using the limiting reagent. Thermochemical Equation. A chemical equation that includes the amount of heat absorbed or given off for a particular reaction. Tiltration. The process where the amount of solution necessary to complete a reaction is measured accurately into another solution, such as the amount of acid necessary to neutralize a give amount of base. Torr. A unit of pressure equal to a millimeter of HG. Transition Elements. The B subgroups in the periodic table; generally, the differentiating electron is in a d orbital; also, they generally have two incomplete energy level of electrons. Triple Point. The point on a phase diagram where all three phases can exist in equilibrium. Unsaturared solution. A solution that contains less solute than it can hold at a given temperature. Valence Electrons. The outermost electrons in an atom; the ones that are used in forming compounds. Van der Waals Forces. Weak forces of attraction between nonpolar molecules in a liquid or solid. Vapor Pressure. The Pressure exerted by the vapor being given off by a liquid, at a given temperature.

Voltaic or Galvanic Cell. A system in which a chemical reaction produces electrical energy. Weak acid / base. An acid or base that is only partially ionized. Weak Electrolyte. An electrolyte that is only partially ionized. The names of elements derived from Latin: aluminum (Al from alumen) antimony (Sb from stibium) beryllilium (Be from Beryllus) bismuth (Bi from bisemutum) boron (B from Baurach (Persian Borax)) cadmium (Cd from Cadmus) caesium (Cs from Caesius) calcium (Ca from calx) carbon (C from carbo) cerium (Ce from ceres) copper (Cu from cuprum) copernicium (Cn from the Latin for the Polish name Copernicus) gold (Au from aurum) indium (In from indigo) iron (Fe from ferrum) fluorine (F from Fluor) gallium (Ga from Gallia) germanium (Ge from Germania) hafnium (Hf from Hafnia) hassium (Hs from Hassia) holmium (Ho from Holmia) lead (Pb from plumbum) lutetium (Lu from Lutetia) manganese ( Mn from Magnetum) mercury (Hg from hydragyrum (also named from Mercurius)) neptunium (Np from Neptunus) nitrogen (N from nitrum-genes) osmium (Os from osme) Palladium (Pd from Pallus) phosphorous (P from phos-phoros) platinum (Pt from platina) plutonium (Pu from Pluto) Page | 11

polonium (Po from Polonia) potassium (K from kalium (also named from potassa)) radium (Ra from radius) radon (Rn from radium) rhenium (Re from Rhenus) rubidium (Rb from rubidus) ruthenium (Ru from Ruthenia) scandium (Sc from Scandia) silicon (s from silicis) silver (Ag from argentum) sodium (Na from natrium) sulfur (S from sulfra) tellurium (T from tellus) Tin (Sn from stannum) tungsten (W from wolfram) uranium (U from uranus) ----- END ------

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