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Educational & Vocational Counseling

BASELINE STUDY

European Network on Youth Employment


10/2010

Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2

OCT 2010

With support from the European Union

| Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2

OCT 2010

| Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2

This baseline study was prepared by: Ms Maria Angeliki Zanaki Working Group Coordinator Consultant, KESEA (Center for Counseling and Vocational Training) Romanou 4A, P.O. Box 1070 Nicosia, Cyprus T: 0035722817900 mariangela.z@kesea.com.cy / mzanaki@gmail.com Ms Stamatiki Gkogka Coordinator of Communication and Program Development Officer, Center for Hellenic Studies Aeginis 12, 2100 Nafplio, Greece matinagk@otenet.gr Ms Vilma Jankuniene UNDP Lithuania, project manager Gostauto 40 a, Vilnius, Lithuania T: 0037068212972 vilmjank@yahoo.com Ms Kassandra Teliopoulou Director of training, Institute of Training & Career Guidance Averof 34A, Athens 14232, Greece T: 00302102586970 kassandra.tel@iekep.gr

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We would like to thank Ms Rosa Maria Hernandez Crespo for her help in the review of the Spanish national system of guidance. We would also like to thank the Euroguidance centre of the Slovak Republic and the Central Office of Employment Service of Slovenia for taking the time to respond to the questionnaire. Finally, we would like to thank all the Greek, Cypriot and Lithuanian counselors who dedicated of their time to fill in our questionnaire.

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2

CONTENTS

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1.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .6

2.

INTRODUCTION ..9 2.1. DESCRIPTION OF GENERAL FRAMEWORK OF THE BASELINE STUDY ..9 2.2. THE IMPORTANCE OF EDUCATIONAL AND VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE: DEFINITION, C ONTEXT AND DELIVERY .14

3.

RATIONALE OF THE BASELINE STUDY .23

4.

SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY .25

5.

MAIN ISSUES TO BE ASSESSED IN THE CURRENT STUDY . 28

6.

METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH 29

COMPILATION OF INDICATORS 31 | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

7.

Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 7.1. ISSUES IN YOUTH EMPLOYMENT IN EUROPE.. ..31
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7.2.

C RITERIA USED FOR THE SELECTION OF GOOD PRACTICES 38

8.

NATIONAL MEASURES AND POLICIES .48 8.1. C AREER GUIDANCE AND PUBLIC POLICY . 48 8.2. POLICIES AND NATIONAL SYSTEMS OF GUIDANCE: LEGAL AND POLICY FRAMEWORK , D ESCRIPTION OF S ERVICES DELIVERED , AND DELIVERY METHODS .52 8.2.1. GREECE 53 8.2.2 CYPRUS .. 60 8.2.3. LITHUANIA ..67 8.2.4. SWEDEN ..73 8.2.5. GERMANY 80 8.2.6. HUNGARY 91

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 8.2.7. ROMANIA 98 8.2.8. SPAIN . 105

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9. QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS 118 QUESTIONNAIRE DATA 118

10. GOOD PRACTICES (APPENDIX I) ..123 10.1. COMPLETED PROJECTS ...124 10.1.1. MEVOC Q UALITY MANUAL FOR EDUCATIONAL AND VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE ..124 10.1.2. INTERNET SITE OF CAREERS EUROPE, EUROGUIDANCE C ENTER , U.K130 10.1.3. C AREER GUIDANCE SERVICES FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP 135 10.1.4. O N THE MOVE: NEXT STOP LABOUR MARKET ..138 10.1.5. C AREER DIRECTIONS .143 10.1.6. C AREER GUIDE FOR SCHOOLS NETWORK145 | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 10.1.7. BORDERLESS GUIDANCE..14 9 10.1.8. DEVELOPMENT AND ELABORATION OF THE OPEN INFORMATION, C OUNSELLING AND GUIDANCE SYSTEM (AIKOS)..151 10.1.9. E UROPEAN GUIDANCE & C OUNSELING RESEARCH FORUM153

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10.2. ONGOING PROJECTS 156 10.2.1. C-XTRA EU PROJECT 156 10.2.2. K EY COMPETENCIES FOR ALL (KC4A LL) 159 10.2.3. EUROPLACEMENT ..162

11. CONCLUSIONS .165 12. RESOURCES USED (APPENDIX II) .173 13. SOURCES OF
INFORMATION

180

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2

1.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

OCT 2010

The foundation of the Youth Investing and Empowering strategy lies on the fact that young people constitute one of the most vulnerable groups in society and a precious resource in our aging society. Recognizing the multi-level challenges that young people face in their effort to achieve autonomy, the EUs vision is that the young make the best of their potential. To this end, the pivotal role of work relating to youth unemployment, school failure and social inclusion on the one hand and improving the skills of the young while also providing leisure time on the other, is highly stressed. In this strategy, the overarching and interconnected goals set by the European Commission are three-fold: create more opportunities for youth in education and employment, improve access and full participation of all young people in society, and foster solidarity between youth and society. The challenges that young people face are so inextricably linked that a cross-sectoral policy approach on youth strategy involving policy makers and stakeholders at EU, national, regional and local levels is the only effective way to achieve the Investing and Empowering the Youth vision. EU strategy stresses the importance of Investing in Youth, by investing greater resources to develop policy areas that affect young people in their daily life and improve their well being, and Empowering Youth, by promoting the potential young people have to renew the society as well as the opportunities available to contribute to EU values and goals. Within this framework, a Youth Employment European Network of Partners which ensured a cooperation among Belgium (Flanders), Cyprus, Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Spain, and Sweden, with provision for future expansion) was set up in 2009. The aim of the Network is to promote solutions faced by the young through developing the dynamics of | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 cooperation, mobilizing authorities and Organizations, identifying and publicizing best practices in three learning areas: Youth entrepreneurship, Educational and vocational counseling for the young, Youth mobility. The current baseline study refers to the Youth Education and Vocational Counseling learning area. The scope of the current baseline study is to provide the network with information concerning Vocational Guidance services across Europe. Guidance and Counseling in the Member States of the European Union is provided through a wide diversity of structures, delivery systems and education, training, employment and unemployment practices in private and community sectors; career guidance is embedded in different contexts and activities may take various forms. The main issues of concern in the current study refer to describing the current legal, policy and delivery frameworks in vocational guidance services across 8 European countries as well as to provide a systemization of the varying national frameworks within which guidance operates. It has also been within the scope of this study to provide examples of good practices that young people and guidance practitioners may benefit from. A review of policies and national systems of guidance (whereby the legal and policy framework, services delivered and delivery methods) will be described in the context of policies which dictate the provision of guidance. This will involve all participating countries (Greece, Cyprus, Lithuania) and 5 more EU countries with confirmed varying CG systems: Sweden, Germany, Hungary, Romania and Spain. Moreover, in order to gather information on the use of tools and methodologies applied in CG settings, both in the employment and the education sectors of the participating countries, a questionnaire was devised and distributed across guidance practitioners. Unfortunately, the sample size was insufficient and therefore the conclusions that have been drawn following the analysis of the results should be considered as a
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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 general and speculative indication of the directions to which a proper sample size would point. In addition, desk work was conducted in order to suggest effective practices in Guidance aimed towards the young. Special focus was placed in tracing practices that would be useful for students, students at risk of dropping out, young people seeking career management and career information advice, young people seeking to explore career opportunities across the EU, young people seeking guidance in entrepreneurship issues, young people with low qualifications, or at risk of unemployment. Moreover, emphasis was placed in pinpointing practices that can be useful for practitioners employed in CG services, be it in the employment or the education sector; practices that incorporate a quality assurance element. Conclusions were drawn from the study conducted in the aforementioned areas. An emerging conclusion relates to the finding that there still seems to be a large gap separating the theory and the practice of guidance provision, i.e. tools, methodologies and processes employed in career guidance services seem to stand quite apart from the policy framework within which the former operate. Moreover, there seems to be a lack of systematization of the (more than) many CG tools and methodologies that exist among the various CG structures aimed at the young.
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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2

2.

INTRODUCTION

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2.1.

DESCRIPTION

OF THE GENERAL FRAMEWORK

Five years following the endorsement of the Lisbon Strategy, the European Council identified two priority areas: economic growth and promotion of employment. To this effect, the Commission adopted an EU strategy, Youth Investing and Empowering, referring to youth policy for the coming decade. Recognizing the multi-level challenges that young people face in their effort to achieve autonomy, the EUs vision is that the young make the best of their potential. In order to achieve this, the approach adopted was focused in two areas: (a) Investing in Youth, by putting in place greater resources to develop policy areas that affect young people in their daily life and improve their well being, and (b) Empowering Youth, by promoting the potential of young people for the renewal of society as well as for giving them the opportunity to contribute to EU values and goals. The foundation of the Youth Investing and Empowering strategy lies in the facts that (a) young people constitute one of the most vulnerable groups in society and (b) young people constitute a precious resource in our aging society1. In this strategy, the overarching and interconnected goals set by the European Commission are three-fold: I. II. III.
1

create more opportunities for youth in education and employment, improve access and full participation of all young people in society, and foster solidarity between youth and society2.

European Commission: Press Release "A new era of EU youth policies", IP/09/644 on Rapid, 27 April 2009 (http://ec.europa.eu/youth/news/news1458_en.htm) 2 EU Strategy for Youth Investing and Empowering: A renewed open method of coordination to address youth challenges and opportunities, Brussels 2009 (http://www.se2009.eu/polopoly_fs/1.1758!

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2

To this end, the pivotal role of work relating to youth unemployment, school failure and social inclusion on the one hand and improving the skills of the young while also providing leisure time on the other, is highly stressed. The EU Strategy for Youth purports that an integrated cooperation framework is mandatory 3. Indeed, the challenges that young people face are so inextricably linked that a cross-sectoral policy approach on youth strategy involving policy makers and stakeholders at EU, national, regional and local levels is the only effective way to achieve the Investing and Empowering the Youth vision. Within this framework, a Youth Employment European Network of Partners which ensured a cooperation among Belgium (Flanders), Cyprus, Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Spain, and Sweden, with provision for future expansion) was set up in 2009. The aim of the Network is to promote solutions faced by the young through developing the dynamics of cooperation, mobilizing authorities and Organizations, identifying and publicizing best practices.

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The European Network on Youth Employment identifies the following over-arching objectives: To provide networking opportunities for pertinent national and European bodies To exchange information and knowledge as well as innovative approaches regarding youth employment issues To identify and transfer good practices with regard to youth employment To design and develop common products suitable for dissemination

menu/standard/file/communication_final.pdf) 3 EU Strategy for Youth Investing and Empowering: A renewed open method of coordination to address youth challenges and opportunities, Brussels 2009

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2


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To create synergies between relevant national and European policies To draw up proposals regarding national and European policies and practices in the field of youth employment. Such proposals may be capitalized in the framework of OPs Interim evaluation Reports and their potential Revisions

Moreover, the European Network on Youth Employment purports that the short term vision is the development of a common perspective between the members of the network. This short term vision would allow: -The collection and comparative evaluation of best products and practices developed in the framework of the community initiatives and of the OPs of the current programming period for the following learning areas: a. Youth entrepreneurship, b. Educational and vocational counseling for the young c. Youth mobility -The development of a Common Reference Framework for the

employment policies of the young, which will determine: common specifications among good products and practices in the above learning areas proper conditions that allow the effective implementation as well as the creative transition of good products and practices in the above learning areas among EU member states. Moreover, the long-term vision of the network is the dissemination of tools that will be developed and evaluated, both within member states of the network as well as in other member states which might want to be interconnected, so the results and products of the network will comprise an input in the review procedures of Operational Programs of ESF.

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 The three learning areas fall under the policy priorities of the EU for the promotion of full youth participation in education and employment. At the same time, an important element of the network viewpoint is the EQF as a powerful liaison point for these learning areas. This liaison is validated on the basis that the development and implementation of EQF 4: Constitutes an indispensable condition for the enhancement of young students and employees mobility , by safeguarding the validation of knowledge obtained through either formal or informal learning paths Is interconnected with the development and usage of a framework of common principles and tools of educational and vocational counseling, relating to the objective of detecting learning gaps and recommending pertinent guidance on the base of compatible vocational profiles and equivalent training modules. The above can also be related to the objective of high qualified young people who do not find a job connected to their study and the emergence of the need to proceed in counseling before choosing the domain of their studies. Serves the development of youth entrepreneurship in the EU, mainly through the determination of common operations that will be impressed upon in an agreed profile, which in turn will be achieved through the combined use of personal and group counseling and training tools.
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The connection of the three learning areas within the EQF adds cohesion to the operational framework and each project of the proposed network while it also underlines that the learning areas are developed and connected to the specifications, philosophy and the broader objectives of EQF.

European Commission (2008) The European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning EQF, Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 Consequently, the operation, products and objectives of the network correspond and contribute to the development of a transversal youth strategy, building on cooperation between policy makers and stakeholders at European, national, regional and local levels, to the extent that they are developed in the common base of EQF. The projects of the network that will be developed in the three learning areas aim to support youth transition from school, university or long-term unemployment to the labor market and employment. Insofar as the operation and structure of the network are concerned, three working groups were devised, whereby each working group is assigned to each the aforementioned learning areas. Three baseline studies are among the initial outputs of the network, each corresponding to the thematic areas of concern, i.e. Youth Entrepreneurship, Youth Education and Vocational Counseling, and Youth Mobility. The current baseline study refers to the Youth Education and Vocational Counseling learning area.
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2.2.

EDUCATIONAL AND VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE : DEFINITION , AIM, CONTEXT AND DELIVERY


IMPORTANCE OF

THE

OCT 2010
5

Defining Guidance

The terms counseling, vocational/ educational counseling, career guidance, guidance have been used interchangeably in one too many research papers. Indeed, in an attempt to define guidance, one should take into consideration not only the varying activities that are encompassed in the term (and the process of guidance), but also the varying roles that different countries assign to the people whose occupation is to deliver guidance services5. In a rather simple yet all encompassing definition adopted by Sultana (2004), guidance is a multidimensional activity established in different contexts with varying meanings to different practitioners. Career Guidance, based on the needs, interests and abilities of each person, is primarily designed to assist individuals in shaping and managing their careers throughout their lives. Various definitions of guidance exist 6; however, a common denominator can be extracted insofar as the pedagogical nature of the services provided is concerned. To this effect, it is considered that the services provided within the context of guidance form an integral part of Life Long Learning (LLL). According to the definition adopted in the OECD Career Guidance Policy Review, Vocational Guidance refers to services intended to assist people,
For example, guidance counsellors (e.g. Flemish speaking Belgium, France, Greece, Iceland and Ireland, to guidance counsellors (eg. Flemish speaking Belgium, France, Greece, Iceland and Ireland), career education officers (Iceland), study counselors (Finland), career path counselors and school godmothers (Czech Republic), guidance teachers (Malta) (for a review see: A Career Guidance Policy and Strategy for Compulsory Schooling in Malta , Ministry of Education, Youth and Employment 2007. 6 For a review, see section 2 of Guidance Policies in the Knowledge Society, CEDEFOP 2003.

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 of any age and at any point throughout their lives, to make educational, training and occupational choices and to manage their careers (OECD, 2004, p.19)7. The same definition was used in a review by the World Bank, the only difference being that instead of vocational guidance the preferred term was career development8. Since the Lisbon Council and the Commissions Memorandum on LLL there is widespread consensus that high quality guidance provision throughout life is a key component of education, training and employability strategies to attain the strategic goal of Europe becoming the worlds most dynamic knowledge by 20109. based society Guidance has a vital role to play in maintaining a highly
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qualified and economically viable society. It also holds an important role in supporting sustainable economic growth and social stability. Over the years, cooperation at European level within education and training has come to play a significant role in creating the future European society. Indeed, economic and social developments in Europe over the Moreover, the last decade have increasingly underlined the need for a European dimension to education, training and counselling. enlargement of European Union has added a new dimension and a number of challenges, opportunities and requirements in the field of education, training and counselling. The successive development of the European education and training programmes has been a key factor for improving cooperation at European level.

Aims & Context of Guidance

7 8

OECD (2004), Career Guidance and Public Policy: Bridging the Gap , OECD, Paris. Watts, A.G. and Fretwell, D. (2004), Public Policies for Career Development: Case Studies and Emerging Issues for Designing Career Information and Guidance Systems in Developing and Transition Economies, World Bank, Washington, DC. 9 Commission of the European Communities: A Memorandum of Life Long Learning, Brussels, 2000.

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 Educational and vocational guidance is addressed to those who have not yet entered the labour force, to job seekers, and to those who are employed. The combined knowledge and understanding of the self on the one hand, and the labor/ education market on the other, offers people a way to make educational and vocational choices that will allow them to utilize their maximum potential in the fittest environment 10. Career guidance enables individuals to use their acquired skills and knowledge in order to make the best possible decisions about work and learning. The process can be delivered by trained individuals employed in the education or employment sector, or it can be obtained on its own. This involves the use of counseling sessions/ interviews, group interviews, printed literature, career management learning, assessment tools, and the much discussed ICT-based information and tools 11.
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The aims of Guidance and Counselling in the context of LLL can be summarized as follows: Guidance helps to build confidence and to empower individuals as well as making people aware of new career possibilities, including civic, leisure, learning and work opportunities and promotes the balance of life and work; It promotes employability and adaptability by assisting people to make career decisions both on entering the labour market and on moving within it.

Guidance aims to: enable citizens to manage and plan their learning and work pathways in accordance with their life goals;

10

For theories of Counseling and its effectiveness, see in Athanasou, James A.; Esbroeck, R. van (Eds.): in International Handbook of Career Guidance, Springer, 2008.
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For a review see James F. Malone, Randy M. Miller & Garry R Walz: Distance Counseling: Expanding the Counselors Reach and Impact , American Counseling Association, 2007

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OCT 2010
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assist educational and training institutions to have well motivated pupils, students and trainees who take responsibility for their own learning and set their own goals for achievement; assist enterprises and organisations to have well motivated, employable and adaptable staff, capable of accessing and benefiting from learning opportunities both within and outside the workplace; provide policymakers with an important means to achieve a wide range of public policy goals; support local, regional, national and European economies through workforce development and adaptation to changing economic demands and social circumstances; assist in the development of societies, in which citizens actively contribute to their social and democratic development.

In this context, Guidance and Counselling can help to: achieve a better match between skills, interests and qualifications on the one hand and available job opportunities on the other; help to improve the allocation of labour across regions, industries and occupations in the face of labour supply and demand fluctuations resulting from technological and structural change; make a key difference between the successful and unsuccessful implementation of active labour market programmes.

Guidance and Counselling in the Member States of the European Union is provided through a wide diversity of structures , delivery systems and education, training, employment and unemployment practices in private and community sectors12. Career guidance is embedded in different contexts such as in schools, universities, training institutions, public employment services and workplaces. Activities may take various forms, individual or group based, face-to-face or at a distance. The process of guidance can be complemented with career education, which may tackle issues such as self awareness in relation to others and employment, the
This diversity has been collected in the Cedefop report on Guidance Policies in the Knowledge Society: trends, challenges and responses across Europe, 2004.

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 exploration of job opportunities, the development of career decisionmaking, and the application of knowledge and skills. The Standing Conference of Associations for Guidance in Educational Settings13 identified the following activities of guidance: Informing Advising Assessing Teaching Enabling Advocating Networking Feeding back Managing Innovation/Systems change
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Moreover, 4 further activities have been added to the list 14 Signposting Mentoring Sampling work experience or learning tasters Following up

Delivery of Guidance Services

Due to its increasing significance, career guidance is higher on the public policy agenda than ever before. During the past years, three influential international organizations have commissioned policy reviews in this area. Namely, The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), based in Paris, conducted a Career Guidance Policy Review that involved 14 countries (OECD, 2004). The World Bank then decided to use an adapted form of the OECD process to conduct a parallel review in 7
13

UK, 1992 Peter Plant: Quality in Careers Guidance. A paper prepared for an OECD review of policies for information, guidance and counseling services Commissioned jointly by the European Commission and the OECD, 2001.
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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 seven middle-income countries (Watts & Fretwell, 2004). Finally, the European Commission, as part of its policy work on lifelong learning, decided to use the OECD questionnaire to collect information on all the existing and new European Union member states that had not been involved in the OECD review and produced a report covering career guidance policies across the European Union as a whole (Sultana, 2004) 15. The aforementioned OECD, World Bank, and EC reviews cover 37 countries altogether. The 37 country studies, along with the three synthesis reports and a number of other commissioned papers, constitute the largest database on career guidance policies. The review reports examined the delivery of career guidance services. Among others, a key point that was demonstrated was that no country had yet developed an adequate lifelong guidance system. To that end however, all countries indicated examples of good practice, and across the range of countries these indicate what such a system might look like-recognizing that in terms of its detail, it might take different forms in different countries. The key points can be grouped under 13 headings 16. I. That career education and guidance in the school setting has a very important role to play. career exploration etc. Indeed, many countries include career included, depending on the country education in the academic curriculum (career management skills, education system), be it as a separate subject or one infused across the curriculum. Even more effective systems include tasters or The role of career education and guidance choices, provide people with a deep sampling programs. immediate (pending)
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addressed to students is three-fold: help young people make understanding of LLL, provide people with the foundation of LL career development.
15

The core documents can be found on two Web sites: www.oecd.org and www.crccanada.org/symposium. 16 An article by A.G. Watts (Career guidance policy: an international review) based on the synthesis of the three reviews (Watts & Sultana, 2004), addressed the delivery issue.

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II.

That career education and guidance in schools across various countries may not be properly differentiated from the broader process of guidance. Indeed, in many countries guidance in such counselors are found to adopt a holistic role whereby educational, vocational, social and personal guidance is provided; systems, the reviews found consistent evidence that career guidance in schools tended to be marginalized in two respects: First, that guidance counselors became more occupied with the personal and behavioral problems of a minority of pupils rather than with the majority of pupils in relation to their educational and vocational choices; second, guidance on such choices tended to focus mainly on educational decisions viewed as ends in themselves rather than on their vocational implications and on longer term career planning. These findings raised the question of whether the career guidance role might be split off, both to protect its resources and to address its distinctive competence requirements.

III.

That the provision of an employment form of career guidance, coming from outside the school and offering services linked with the labor market, can prove very effective in the kind of guidance services it offers. The reviews state the examples of the United Kingdom and Germany for further references.

IV.

That a growing policy concern is around young people at-risk; lowqualified, drifters in and out of unemployment, dropouts form formal education. The reports suggest that effective ways of helping these youngsters can be met in services that adopt a personalized approach that can provide for their educational, vocational, social and personal guidance needs.

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V.

That the provision of career guidance services in tertiary education does not seem to suffice, at least in most countries. The transition from university/ college to the labor market constitutes a difficult process, especially when takes into account the changing labor market needs and trends17.

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VI.

That there is a need for improved provision of career guidance services in the workplace. Despite the fact that such services may be affected by the interests of employers/ organizations, the fact remains that such services make up a very significant part of LLL.

VII.

That PES (Public Employment Services) across countries should incorporate the LLL element in their services with greater intensity. The resources currently aimed towards helping the unemployed (as is the case in most PES) should integrate life-long learning strategies and lifelong access to career guidance. As such, PES career guidance services could incorporate the element of career guidance services in the workplace, thus helping people respond to change and sustain their employability effectively.

VIII.

That career guidance can have a very significant role to play in adult education. It can assist people in realizing the depth and quality of their acquired skills, while at the same time enabling them to identify and explore new opportunities that may come their way, having a deep understanding of their own (transferable) competencies.

17

See: A report by the Expert Group on New Skills for New Jobs prepared for the European Commission:New Skills for New Jobs: Action Now, February 2010

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IX.

That provision of career guidance services in senior citizens seems to be inadequate in most countries. It would seem that provision of such services can contribute to the well-being of individuals who are dealing with retirement issues, as
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well

as

to

the

general

improvement of the social care system .

X.

That valid and reliable career information is essential for goodquality career guidance services and good-quality career decision making. The quality of career information publications should be ensured and checked by governmental organizations.

XI.

That web based services, help-lines, distance counseling methods altogether, have much to offer in the provision of career guidance and counseling. As such, it would seem that a trend of incorporating access to such services with the personal, face-to-face interviews, in a creative yet widely applicable manner would prove very effective.

XII.

That the actual facilities whereby guidance services are provided need to be redesigned in most of the countries so as to incorporate the ITC resources that have increasingly become a large part of the guidance services. The facilities need to be open access, with clear signposting and employees who will help clients operate on the ICT (if such help is needed), while counselors should be available both for brief support and for long interviews.

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For analytical discussion, see Pamela Clayton: Third-age Guidance: research into guidance needs and methodologies. IAEVG International Conference: Careers in Context: new challenges and tasks for guidance and counseling, September 2005.

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XIII.

That an issue of whether career guidance services should be designed on an all-age or age-specific basis has been raised. To that extent, while all-age services may be more cost-effective, agespecific services tend to be more focused on the distinctive needs of the age group in question.

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3.

RATIONALE

OF THE BASELINE STUDY

The aim of the current study, expressed in the vision of the European Network on Youth Employment, is to describe and assess effective career guidance tools applied in the youth target group. The process of assessing the effectiveness of career guidance tools/ activities is by itself problematic, whereby a number of intertwined difficulties arise. As Hughes et al (2002) point, the outcomes of career guidance activities are beset by a recurring set of issues: One can identify a wide range of factors influencing individual career choice and decision-making, and/or which can impact on outcomes; Career guidance does not seem to constitute a discrete process; rather, it is embedded in other contexts The nature of career guidance, the depth of work applied in varying contexts and the target groups vary considerably, thus making it very difficult to compare evidence from different studies An agreed set of outcome measures for career guidance or common methods for gathering data does not seem to exist so as to provide researchers and academics with a common framework Apart from the problems arising when one tries to assess the effectiveness of guidance tools, a set of additional difficulties inherent in the area of guidance should also be taken into account. which arise when attempting to describe: What guidance is and what it is intended to do; As Maguire and Killeen (2003) point, these difficulties refer to fundamental definitional problems

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The range of tools and activities included in the career guidance process;

What makes a tool effective, i.e. what constitutes a positive effect; Observing reduced drop-out rates, for example, is usually an indication for effective guidance services; effective guidance services however may also result in transferring to a different course or even to becoming employed, thus making drop-out a positive effect;

Specifying the range of the effect that guidance can have; indeed, differentiating between the effects of the guidance process per se and the effects that a whole range of contributing (and impossible to control to that effect) factors may have on a person is almost unattainable.

To sum up, as most research and academia conclude, if one were to argue that a specific tool holds the key to effective career guidance, one would undeniably stumble upon a range of pitfalls. As Herr (2001) states, the frequent difficulty in research and, by extrapolation, cost/benefit analyses in career development lies in verifying the relationship between quality outcomes and the specific career development interventions, often the measures of such outcomes are crudely measured and the career development interventions are not adequately isolated or the treatment described. To this end, for those who hold an undeniable belief in the effectiveness of career guidance, hard-on evidence may not be the primal issue of concern. On the other hand, as Maguire and Killeen (2003) argue, being such a vital and central issue amongst policy makers accountable for investing funds across the world, one needs some evidence upon which to base their assumptions.

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 In order to deal with for some of the aforementioned difficulties, in the current baseline study: To control for the definitional problems, the terms career guidance, career counseling, educational guidance, vocational guidance have been used interchangeably and all refer to the LLL encompassing definition applied by OECD (2004); To control for the vast range of activities that are included in the Guidance Activities umbrella, guidance services which are publicly available have only been taken into account;
OCT 2010

4.

SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The specific learning objective in the learning area of the educational and vocational counseling of the young is the emergence and dissemination of best practices concerning the adaptation of counseling tools. It has already been pointed out that the area of vocational guidance encompasses a very wide array of issues and activities. To this effect, in order to specify the scope and objectives of the current study, we have narrowed our search according to the criteria mentioned below: 1) That the findings of the current study may prove fruitful for the target group concerned, i.e. the young. To become more specific:

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 Concerning the age range, we have adopted the most common definition adopted by European countries to identify youth,
OCT 2010

according to which young people from 15 to 24 years are included; In specifying our target group further, a conceptual distinction between young people at school and young people seeking employment has been adopted throughout this study. To this effect our focus is dual, extending to services that can be useful to students and to job seekers; Insofar as students are concerned, we adapt a specification concerning the general population of students but also one that applies to students at risk, low qualified young and migrants; our aim is to find tools and guidance services they could benefit from, in order to improve student retention rates in vocational education and training as well as to improve their employability, especially by means of alternative learning approaches such as ICT-based, usercentered, interest-oriented etc.; Insofar as young job seekers are concerned, our scope includes findings that can be useful to young unemployed and young employed, seeking career guidance, whether they fall in the low or the high qualified scales. The baseline study aims to provide findings about information on detailed careers options about each career and to match to suitable careers based on interests and qualifications, focusing on methods using technology and facilitating young people to have better access to valid and reliable information, as well as to practices bridging the gap between school and the world of work; Concerning university students, and graduates not continuing their education, in the transition (process) to the labor market at all degree or post grad levels in any discipline, the main aim is to promote the counseling tools/practices, enabling the aforementioned people to enter the labor market. We will focus on | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 practices that enhance the development of graduates transferable skills, and provide them with procedures for quality work
OCT 2010

experience, adapted to improve their own competence sets. Special attention will be paid on the lifelong guiding practices in order to recognize how well vocational guidance supports graduates in their transition to the labor market. 2) That the findings of the current study may prove useful for the professionals working with the target group concerned. In line with the aforementioned distinction between young people in school and young people in the job market, this refers to: Guidance professionals employed in the education sector and,

Guidance professionals working in the employment sector;


To this effect, our aim is to gather tools/practices that may help counselors assess their own counseling skills and quality of services provided. Our aim is to highlight practices that enhance multilingual and multicultural communication between vocational guidance and counseling professionals, trainers and beneficiaries in the training and working environment and, as a consequence, practices that contribute furthermore to to mutual the exchanges of between colleagues and enrichment cross-European vocational

guidance and counseling services.

3) That the findings of the present study are in line with the current trends and issues in policies and activities concerned with vocational guidance. Since guidance delivery methods are intertwined with the policy frameworks adopted at national (and European) level, one of the

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 aims of our study involves describing the legal and policy frameworks of several European countries. 4) That our findings may serve the long-term aims of the Network, to the extent that is possible. Since all the areas of concern of the European network are interconnected, it was within the scope of this study to be able to provide some good practices that may touch upon the areas of youth mobility and youth entrepreneurship. The European Commission aims to highlight the awareness of entrepreneurship as a dynamic and social process where students may identify possibilities and develop ideas which they use to create practical activities either in social, cultural or economic contexts. Taking into consideration this policy, another aim is to identify practices that facilitate entrepreneurship as well as close contact with local companies as a means for guidance and counseling, and practices that help students develop entrepreneurial skills.
OCT 2010

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2

OCT 2010

5.

MAIN

ISSUES TO BE ASSESSED IN THE CURRENT STUDY

The main issues of concern in the current study refer to: Describing the current legal, policy and delivery frameworks in vocational guidance services across 8 European countries Mapping the various vocational guidance services that can be accessed by young people in the participating countries Gathering the opinions of experts on the effectiveness of the vocational guidance tools applied in their field of expertise Suggesting good practices in various areas of vocational guidance services aimed towards young people

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2

6.

OCT 2010

METHODOLOGICAL

APPROACH

The methodology that was applied in order to fulfill the objective and the general scopes of the current baseline study consisted in collecting and assembling three different sources of information.

(a)Desk Work A review of policies and national systems of guidance whereby the legal and policy framework, the services delivered and the delivery methods will be described. This will provide a systemization of the varying national frameworks within which guidance operates.

(b)Questionnaire Data A questionnaire will be distributed across experts/ professionals that are employed in guidance-related organizations/ structures. questionnaire is three-fold: -On one level, we seek to gather information concerning the actual tools that are being utilized in guidance settings in order to be able to assess and evaluate the effectiveness of these tools; -On a second level, we seek to gather the opinions of experts on guidance policy issues in order to be in a position to draw some conclusions on the degree to which guidance professionals consider that guidance tools and methodologies satisfy the policy conceptual framework; -On a third level, we aim to draw some conclusions on the current state and the opinions of experts relating to guidance quality assurance The aim of the

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 systems, an issue which has been the center of attention in various guidance papers19. (c) Case Studies A description of good practices in guidance will be provided. This refers to documentation and analysis of selected projects which are considered to correspond to the scope and objectives of the present baseline study.
OCT 2010

19

A copy of the questionnaire that was devised and distributed in the current

study is provided in Appendix II.

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2

7.

OCT 2010

COMPILATION

OF INDICATORS

7.1. ISSUES IN YOUTH EMPLOYMENT IN EUROPE


Todays young people (in EU and internationally) face a number of serious obstacles in their attempts to enter the labor market. In Europe, the youth unemployment rate is more than double of the overall working-age population. Statistics provide a clear, though disappointing picture. It is stressed by Eurostat20 that Youth unemployment rates are generally much higher compared to the total population unemployment rates. Notwithstanding that many young people are studying full-time, thus not being part of the labor force (which is used as the denominator for calculating the unemployment rate), the fact remains that high youth unemployment rates reflect the difficulties faced by young people in finding jobs. The youth unemployment rate in EU-27 was around twice as high as the rate for the total population throughout the last decade. EU-27 youth unemployment rate was systematically higher than in the euro area between 2000 and early 2008; since this date, the rates were almost identical. In 2005, the youth unemployment rate was 18.5% in the EU-25, compared with the overall unemployment rate of 8.7%. According to data provided by Eurostat, in December 2009 the youth unemployment rate (individuals under 25 year of age) was 21.40% in the 27 countries members21. It is evident that despite the fact that young people today stay in education and training longer than they did in the past, the qualifications they acquire do not ensure a smooth and successful entrance into the labor market.

20

http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/statistics_explained/index.php/Unemployment_ statistics#Youth_unemployment_trends_in_Europe. 21 Eurostat, Newsrelease euro indicators, 29 January 2010.

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 Indeed, todays young people constitute the most educated generation ever22. Having obtained a high level of education, most have formed aspirations about their professional life and seek opportunities for active citizenship and personal autonomy, and seek decent work23. Yet young people nowadays face a growing deficit of full and productive work and high levels of economic uncertainty. The following graph shows the obvious change that has taken place between the youth unemployment rates among the first 16 European Countries and the EU27, especially during the last two years.
OCT 2010

Youth unemployment rates in Europe, October 1st 2010 (Source: Eurostat)

22 23

ILO: Facts on Youth Employment, October 2006. Decent work refers to work that is productive and delivers a fair income, security in the workplace and social protection for families, better prospects for personal development and social integration, freedom to express concerns, opportunity to organize and participate in decision-making, and equal opportunity and treatment for all women and men (Source: ILO).

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 The high youth unemployment rate constitutes only one facet of the general picture of problems of young Europeans. Research shows that a significant number of those young individuals who succeeded in finding and securing a job work poor, meaning that their working conditions tend to be below what is considered a decent and productive standard 24. Young workers are more likely to work long hours, on short-term and/or informal contracts with low pay, little or no social protection and no voice at work. According to the ILO, about one third of the 1.1 billion youth in the world suffer from a deficit of decent work opportunities 25. The impact tremendous. of the aforementioned situation on young people is
OCT 2010

The inability to find employment creates a sense of

vulnerability, uselessness and idleness among young people; indeed, unemployment constitutes one of the most damaging experiences an individual may go through with implications extending to the whole wellbeing of each person26. To this effect, a significant number of young people (around 20 million) have given up completely the search for a job. Moreover, the inability to secure a job as well as the fact that the jobs they do posses do not, in most cases, fulfill the requirements of Decent Work (as defined by ILO) lead to the development of a sense of uselessness, vulnerability, weakness and inability to react in the face of overwhelming powers. Over time, these feelings contribute and become part of a negative self image which in turn leads to further immobilization of the young people. To add to this fact, given that young people have limited work experiences; long unemployment periods lead to the devaluation of the competencies they have acquired through education/training. The aforementioned situation has also serious effects on the local as well as the European economy and labor market; namely the loss of revenue and the decrease of the human manpower in the countries members.
24 25

Facts on Youth Employment, ILO, http://www.ilo.org/youth Source: www.eurostat. 26 For an analytical discussion see Namkee Ahn, Juan Ramn Garca and Juan Francisco Jimeno: The Impact of Unemployment on Individual Well-Being in the EU, European Network of Economic Policy Research Institutes, Working Paper No. 29/ July 2004.

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 Taking into consideration that the population in Europe continues to be in a downward trajectory as far as age is concerned 27, in combination with the current economic crisis, it becomes evident that effectively planned measures are a means of dealing with this grave situation. What should also be stressed is that economic crisis and structural factors like globalization, technological changes, ageing populations and the shift to a low-carbon economy are all contributing to rapid change in European labor markets. As a result of this fast moving evolution, shortages of adequate skills in some sectors or occupations already co-exist with unemployment across the EU while it remains a fact that new and higher levels of skills will be needed for the jobs of tomorrow. Indeed, with the world population projected to grow by 110 million during this decade and with technological advances leading to further rationalizations of labor demand, some 500 million new jobs have to be created within the next 10 years merely to maintain the status quo 28.3 Current trends in job creation offer little hope that growth on this scale can be achieved. The situation is particularly grave for young people, as demographic trends suggest a huge imbalance between the supply of young workers and the demand for their labor 29. The problem of youth unemployment, and more broadly of the inclusion of young people in all aspects of society, has become more pressing at a global level. At a meeting held in the ILO headquarters in Geneva in July 2001, Secretary-General, the President of the World Bank and the Director-General of the ILO, met with the 12-member High-Level Panel of the Youth Employment Network. employment established within It was a meeting where immediate the framework of the Millennium action and a long-term commitment to achieve the target for youth Development Goals was emphasized. Following this meeting, the Panels
27

OCT 2010

See http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/KS-SF-10-026/EN/KSSF-10-026-EN.PDF (source: Eurostat). 28 ILO, Meeting the Youth Employment Challenge: A Guide for Employers, Geneva, 2001. 29 For analytical discussion see ch. 2, Youth Employment in Unesco World Youth Report, 2003.

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 recommendations encouraged world leaders to develop national action plans aiming to reduce unemployment rates and create more jobs, while integrating critical and self-critical reviews of past national policies into these plans. It is important to note that the recommendations presented youth as an asset rather than a problem; noting that during the course of the next 10 years 1.2 billion young people would be part of the workingage population, and that this would involve the best educated and trained generation of young people ever, with tremendous potential for economic and social development. Youth therefore was clearly depicted as the creative force of the future, one that should become actively involved in the shaping of policies: Young people want to be accepted as partners for development, helping to chart a common course and shaping the future for everyone.30 The role of young people in Europe and youth employment and qualifications are high on the European agenda and the agendas of national governments. At European level, the importance of taking young people into consideration has been greatly emphasized. In March 2005, the Commission published a communication (COM (2005) 206 final) on European policies concerning youth, stating that the destiny of Europe increasingly depends on its ability to foster societies that are child and youth-friendly31. EU places high emphasis in its policy frameworks in Currently, there are 2 important order to overcome youth problems.
OCT 2010

documents guiding youth policy: The White book approved by European Commission in 2001 and The European Youth Pact approved in 2005 as part of the updated Lisbon strategy (Vieojo sektoriaus inovacijos). Youth participation in labor market is mentioned as an issue of concern in these documents. The policies developed by the national governments may vary depending on the national laws and legislations. They may include 32:
30

Improving youth career counseling;

See a summary of the Panels main recommendations at http://www.ilo.org/public/ english/employment/strat/cerp/yen.htm. 31 See http://ec.europa.eu/youth/whitepaper/post-launch/com_206_en.pdf 32 For analytical overview, see European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions: Youth and Work, 2007.

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2


OCT 2010

Provision of guidance and information to ensure that knowledge matches the needs of a knowledge-based economy; Improving the apprenticeship system and increasing access of youth to training; Upgrading the role of the Public Employment Services; Wage subsidies for employers; Special programs for improving the situation of the most vulnerable young people; Measures encouraging employers and businesses to display social responsibility for the vocational integration of young people; Measures promoting the emergence of young entrepreneurs; Measures addressing the problem of drop-outs from the school system.

Career guidance is a core component in all these policies and measures. It constitutes the major mediator between the individual, their employment and training opportunities. The challenge that vocational and education guidance has to respond to is to provide young people with the necessary information, guidance and skills to manage effectively their career and cope effectively with the changing labor market. Europe, in order to provide job opportunities for all and create a more competitive and sustainable economy, needs a highly skilled workforce able to meet current and future challenges. To ensure this, efforts are targeted towards investing in the right skills and improving matching of jobs with these skills in the EU, by effectively anticipating future trends. As Juan Somavia, ILO Director-General stated: Creating jobs for youth is not enough. Across the planet, youth are not only finding it difficult if not impossible to find jobs, but are finding it even more difficult to find decent jobs. What young people need today is not only a job, but a job that enables them to make contributions as workers, citizens and agents of change. This is the challenge we face.

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 In recognition of the potential positive effect of guidance, the European Ministers of Education, signed a resolution in 2008, which highlighted the positive impact of career guidance on the functioning and efficiency of the educational system, the labor market and on active citizenship and social inclusion. Furthermore, the crucial role of Guidance Counselors has been highlighted in a recent Report of the Expert Group on New Skills for New Jobs33, stating that a key action in the European Commission is to: Prioritize guidance and counseling services and motivational support for individuals improve the quality of these services and ensure that they tackle stereotypes. Publicize in a visible and comparable format on the web the opportunities and offers, as well as the prices and returns, of public and private education and training courses, so that individuals can make informed choices. Further develop in Public Employment Services profiling systems including internet and skill-based matching tools such as the EU tool Match and Map. Policy-making on guidance issues has received a great deal of attention during the past years34. The current trend in most European countries revolves around trying to improve coordination and coherence in policies and systems for guidance provision; the aim is to provide a guideline so the various services responsible for guidance delivery can present themselves to individual citizens over their lifetimes as a seamless and coherent system, rather than a series of fragmented entities 35. Such development stems from recognition by governments and the European Commission that lifelong learning is a key factor for employability, and that lifelong guidance provision is a key component of national lifelong learning strategies. Formation of national forums and similar policy coordination mechanisms is an important feature of these efforts, bringing together actors and stakeholders in guidance on shared platforms.
33

OCT 2010

New Skills for New Jobs: Action Now A report by the Expert Group on New Skills for New Jobs prepared for the European Commission, February 2010, http://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?catId=568&langId=en 34 For a review of the relevant information, please refer to section 8.1. 35 Cedefop Panorama series; 153: Establishing and developing national lifelong guidance policy forums: A manual for policy-makers and stakeholders , Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2008.

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 CEDEFOP has recently published a report describing the current situation in Member States and the prospects for implementing a real system change in local, regional, national and European guidance policy coordination mechanisms. This is an attempt to capitalize on the experience of existing structures to offer inspiration and practical advice for new or emerging structures and provide common learning material for these structures; It is addressed to all policy-makers and stakeholders already involved in such structures, or interested in developing new ones36.
OCT 2010

36

See http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/etv/Upload/Information_resources/Bookshop/508/5 188_en.pdf

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2

7.2. CRITERIA USED FOR THE SELECTION OF GOOD PRACTICES


OCT 2010
37 38

One of the central aims of the present study is to identify effective practices, with regard to career guidance addressed to young people. Such effective/ good practices refer to all aspects of career guidance, such as provision of career information, of information on training/learning opportunities, promotion of self awareness, transmission of employment and life skills, acquisition of work experience, i.e. any practice that facilitates the access of young people to education/ training, lifelong learning and employment. In the review Career Guidance and Public Policy- Bridging the Gap37, one of the central guidelines put forward by the European Commission refers to the development of quality standards; the importance of quality standards refers to both the processes applied in the delivery of career guidance services, as well as to the outcomes that are expected of them. Quality standards are particularly important in decentralized systems, but also have a key place in centralized systems where governments are the dominant provider; quality standards used to steer career guidance are general industrial standards such as ISO 9000, or part of broader quality standards applying to the sectors (of education, or of employment services) that career guidance services are part of. However, examples exist of quality standards that have been developed specifically for career guidance services. Career guidance quality standards seem more likely to be effective if they are developed in co-operation with key stakeholders, and are used for continual quality improvement38. A large number of projects have been funded by the ESF during the recent years. Within these projects, novel guidance practices aiming at empowering young people and increasing their employability have been tested. The effectiveness of these projects lies on the experience gained from their

OECD, 2004. OECD: Career Guidance and Public Policy- Bridging the Gap, 2004.

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 implementation and the good projects demonstrated successful practices that should influence relevant policies. As was stressed earlier39, an important obstacle in identifying good practices revolves around the methodology and the acquisition of evidence on the basis of which a given practice will be assessed and considered successful.
OCT 2010

The present study drew on three sources on setting the criteria for selecting good practices: I. A paper suggested by the Steering Committee of the European Network on Youth Employment to the members of the Network for the purposes of selecting criteria for good practices. Entitled Common Methodologies Improving the Evidence Base: Better quality of evidence stories, for and policy development and change of through sound the identification, testing and validation of good practice and winning convincing presentation these (2006), aforementioned paper is published by the European Social Fund (ESF) and refers to ESF learning Networks; II. III. Principles of Guidance Provision as stated by OECD (2004); Quality standards pertaining to particular forms of guidance, which were considered significant according to the scope and objectives of the current baseline study, i.e. distance guidance and developing entrepreneurship skills There follows a description of the aforementioned categories of criteria that were taken into account in selecting the good practices that are suggested at the present baseline study (see Appendix I).

39

See section3.

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2

Criteria selected from the paper Common Methodologies Improving the Evidence Base Criteria Rationale Career guidance is a comprehensive institution including a variety of services, addressed to a variety of target groups. It is important to ensure that we refer to a career guidance practice addressed to the predetermined target group Evidence needed

OCT 2010

1. Relevance

The practice proposed should meet the needs of the prearranged target groups (high quality services of career guidance, updated information, guidance tools adequate for specific needs etc.)

2. Innovation

It is important not to demonstrate conventional practices of guidance but innovative, ICT-based, user-centered, interest-oriented ones It is of major significance that psycho-social services, as counseling and guidance, promote the autonomy of young people therefore it should enable them to manage their life.

A practice should contain novel and distinctive features that add significant value to existing, conventional practices

3. Empowerme nt

The practice proposed should aim towards increasing young peoples autonomy; also, it should stress that young people become actively involved in the implementation of the practice.

4. Equality

Career choices are affected by socioeconomic factors The practice promotes and gender. A good equal opportunities and practice should gender equality therefore combat prevailing discriminations.

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2

5. Effectivenes s

It is important that the practice is designed taking into consideration the expected results (preferably quantitative results) Conditions change over time and from country to country; it is important that the practice can be easily transferred to different conditions. According to the Council Resolution on Lifelong Guidance European citizens should have access to guidance services at all life stages, with particular attention being paid to individuals and groups at risk. It is important to ensure the existence of sufficient possibilities that the practice suggested will be adopted by appropriate organizations

The practice has clear outcomes or results and fulfills the criteria and objectives that are clearly defined at its rationale

OCT 2010

6. Transferabil ity

The practice can be easily transferred to different target groups, countries, organizations, contexts, professionals, etc.

7. Accessibility

The practice proposed increases the proximity and familiarity of career guidance services to the end-users

8. Sustainabilit y

There are increased chances that the practice will be adopted and used by stakeholders or competent organizations

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2

Criteria selected from Principles of Guidance Provision as stated by OECD

OCT 2010

In the process of reviewing good practices and setting the criteria upon which to base our selections, the following principles, suggested in OECDs (2004) Career Guidance: A Handbook for Policy Makers (pp.68-69) were taken into account40: Centrality of the beneficiary Independence the guidance provided respects the freedom of the career choice and personal development of the citizen /user; Impartiality the guidance provided is in accordance with the citizens interests only, is not influenced by provider, institutional and funding interests, and does not discriminate on the basis of gender, age, ethnicity, social class, qualifications, ability etc; Confidentiality citizens have a right to the privacy of personal information they provide in the guidance process; Equal opportunities the guidance provided promotes equal opportunities in learning and work for all citizens; Holistic approach the personal, social, cultural and economic context of a citizens decision-making is valued in the guidance provided. Enabling citizens Active involvement guidance is a collaborative activity between the citizen and the provider and other significant actors (e.g. learning providers, enterprises, family members, community interests) and builds on the active involvement of the citizen; Empowerment the guidance provided assists citizens to become competent at planning and managing their learning and career paths and the transitions therein.
40

Some overlapping in the terminology with the previous table has purposely been maintained in order to stress the importance of the particular criteria.

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2

OCT 2010

Improving access Transparency the nature of the guidance service(s) provided is immediately apparent to the citizen; Friendliness and empathy guidance staff provide a welcoming atmosphere for the citizens; Continuity the guidance provided supports citizens through the range of learning, work, societal and personal transitions they undertake and/or encounter; Availability all citizens have a right to access guidance services4at any point in their lives; Accessibility the guidance provided is accessible in a flexible and user friendly way such as face to face, telephone, e-mail, outreach, and is available at times and in places that suit citizens needs; Responsiveness guidance is provided through a wide range of methods to meet the diverse needs of citizens. Assuring quality Appropriateness of guidance methods the guidance methods used have a theoretical and/or scientific basis, relevant to the purpose for which they are used; Continuous improvement guidance services have a culture of continuous improvement involving regular citizen feedback and provide opportunities for staff for continuous training; Right of redress citizens have an entitlement to complain through a formal procedure if they deem the guidance they have received to be unsatisfactory; Competent staff staff providing guidance have nationally accredited competencies to identify and address the citizens needs, and where appropriate, to refer the citizen to more suitable provision/service. | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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OCT 2010

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2

Criteria selected referring to Quality Standards for Distance Guidance

OCT 2010

The ever increasing use of distance services and resources can be both a necessity and a convenience. Web sites are a convenience for individuals who want to access resources and receive services outside normal business hours, or at their place of residence or work 41. may42: (a) have motor disabilities; (b) live in remote geographic areas without reasonable access to career resources and services; (c) require the assistance of guidance practitioners in other geographic locations with specialized expertise, and (d) may be reluctant to seek assistance and consider the anonymity of the internet a safe place to start obtaining resources and services. E-Guidance includes client use of Internet Web sites with support from a career guidance practitioner or practitioner interaction without use of a Web site43. Practitioners can interact with clients via e-mail, chat, telephone, or videoconferencing. A variety of service-delivery levels can be facilitated at a distance, including supported self-help, brief assistance, or intensive assistance. Brief assistance can be provided to clients who need help in locating and using resources on the Web site. Intensive assistance can be provided by scheduled individual guidance appointments (Sampson, 2008).
41

Moreover,

distance delivery becomes a necessity for people (young or not) who

D. C. Locke, J. Myers, & E. L. Herr (Eds.), The handbook of counseling (pp. 613627). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. 42 Sampson, J. P., Jr. (2008). Designing and implementing career programs: A handbook for effective practice. Broken Arrow, OK: National Career Development Association. 43 Watts, A. G., & Dent, G. (2007). The use of telephone helplines in career information and guidance. In J. F. Malone, R. M. Miller, & G. R. Walz, (Eds.). Distance counseling: Expanding the counselors reach and impact (pp. 159-179). Ann Arbor, MI: Counseling Outfitters.

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eGOS eGovernment and eGuidance Services delivered a study on the Ethical guidelines for e-guidance delivery and usage 44. The goal of establishing ethical principles for the design and use of ICT in career guidance is to promote the effective provision of career resources and the effective delivery of career services. Moreover, the intention of ethics is to protect the welfare of clients by identifying potentially harmful computer applications as well as identifying services making inappropriate use of ICT. Guidance practitioner competences are essential to the effectiveness of ICT-based career resources and services. Achieving an appropriate level of practitioner competency with ICT also helps to avoid potential ethical problems resulting from guidance practitioners actions or failure to act. Prince, Chartrand, and Silver (1999) noted that there is an ethical responsibility for developers of Web sites to indicate when there is a potential need for individuals to seek assistance from a counselor and how to secure help45. In the aforementioned review of eGos, the problems of distance guidance are stressed and the following recommendations on how to avoid potential ethical issues that can result in serious problems are made 46: Web sites that provide career assessments and information should indicate the circumstances when self-help is inappropriate and when assistance is likely needed from a guidance practitioner; Guidance professionals use informed consent to indicate to clients what persons are collecting and have access to the clients
44

OCT 2010

See Raimo Vuorinen & James P. Sampson. E-gos.(2009) Ethical guidelines for eguidance delivery and usage. Project WEB site address www.egos-cip.eu
45

See Prince, J. P., Chartrand, J. M., & Silver, D. G. (2000). Constructing a quality career assessment site. Journal of Career Assessment, 8, 55-67 46 See Pages:6 1, in Prince, J. P., Chartrand, J. M., & Silver, D. G. (2000). Constructing a quality career assessment site. Journal of Career Assessment, 8, 55-67

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 personal information, what security issues exist with an online format, and for how long records will be stored; Guidance professionals educate their clients concerning the challenges and problematic situations that may occur during distant guidance. Guidance professionals help the clients to anticipate preventive measures as well as strategies to deal with emerging problems; Guidance professionals familiarize themselves with available local resources for support in emergency situations in working with clients with possibilities of harm to self or of harm to others. These include, highly anxious, severely depressed or disturbed 47. Some clients may not have the computer skills required to successfully access distance services. Guidance practitioners should assist their clients in locating facilities with low cost or with free public access to the Internet; Guidance professionals provide clients with information about their credentials and qualifications they, as well as any other professional who has access to client information; Assessments must be validated for self-help use if no guidance support is provided; or that appropriate guidance intervention is provided before and after completion of the assessment resource if the resource has not been validated for self-help use. Evidence of the quality of the assessment, including reliability and validity, need to be included in the professional manual and training materials for the measure. Assessments originally developed in paper-and-pencil format must have been tested in computer delivery mode to assure that their properties are the same in this mode of delivery as in print form.; alternatively, clients must be
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47

Ravis, H. B. (2007). Challenges and special problems in distance counseling: How to respond to them. In J. In J. F. Malone, R. M. Miller, & G. R. Walz, (Eds.). Distance counseling: Expanding the counselors reach and impact (pp. 133-148). Ann Arbor, MI: Counseling Outfitters.

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 informed that they have not yet been tested in this same mode of delivery; The intended purpose, the target audience, and the potential use of the information should be clearly identified in the introduction to the material. The date of publication of the career information should be clearly indicated as well as how the validity and impartiality of the information is guaranteed; Evidence that the information provided is accurate and free from distortion caused by self-serving bias, sex stereotyping, or dated resources must be included; The vocabulary of the information should be appropriate to the target group of users
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Criteria selected referring to Quality Standards for Developing Entrepreneurship Skills

In Youth and Work (2007), a publication by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, it is underlined that a less common way to promote youth employment is through action favoring entrepreneurship. Stimulating entrepreneurial mindsets among young people, encouraging innovative business start-ups, and fostering a culture friendlier to entrepreneurship and the growth of small and medium-sized businesses, is directly linked with the Lisbon Strategy for growth and employment. To this effect, the Spring European Council of March 2006 underlined the need for a positive entrepreneurial climate overall and for framework conditions that facilitate and encourage entrepreneurship, and invited Member States to introduce greater measures, including entrepreneurship education48.
European Commission, Enterprise and Industry Directorate-General Promotion of SME Competitiveness, Entrepreneurship (Final Version November 2009) Best Procedure Project: Entrepreneurship in Vocational Education and Training Final

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2

In selecting good practices, the present thematic group places focus on projects designed to encourage young people towards the development of entrepreneurship specifically targeted to young people, particularly risk groups such as those who have dropped out of school without qualifications or those who have graduated from high school aged over 16 years old and remain unemployed for more than three months. Furthermore, we will refer to projects targeted to secure the transition from education to employment, giving young people knowledge and experience about starting their own business, including VET programs that aim to enhance young peoples skills and abilities.

OCT 2010

Report of the Expert Group.

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2

8. NATIONAL
OCT 2010

MEASURES AND POLICIES


AND

8.1. CAREER GUIDANCE

PUBLIC POLICY
Internationally, career

Public policy is crucial to career guidance work.

guidance is now higher on the public policy agenda than ever before. Career guidance has become a focal point in such policy development: it is viewed as a key element of lifelong learning policies, of active employment policies, of social equity policies, and of strategies to attain the Lisbon goals. According to European Social Charter (1996 Revision) Article 9 The right to vocational guidance: With a view to ensuring the effective exercise of the right to vocational guidance, the Parties undertake to provide or promote, as necessary, a service which will assist all persons, including the handicapped, to solve problems related to occupational choice and progress, with due regard to the individuals characteristics and their relation to occupational opportunity: this assistance should be available free of charge, both to young persons, including schoolchildren, and to adults.

In most countries, policy makers clearly regard career guidance services as being of value not only to the individuals who engage with them but to society as a whole. Career guidance services represent not only a private good but also a public good. It is because they are also perceived as a public good that governments become interested in them and are prepared to support them financially and in other ways 49. at the national, regional, or local level. Indeed, career guidance services in most countries are paid for by governments, whether

49

Organisation for Economic Co-Operation And Development The European Commission (OECD), Career Guidance and Public Policy Bridging the Gap, 2004

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 The public policy goals that policy makers expect career guidance services to address fall into three main categories 50: The first are learning goals. These relate to the general target aiming to increase participation and completion of education rates and training through improved matching of individuals interests and abilities with learning opportunities. Furthermore, guidance is expected to facilitate personal development and employability of all citizens through continuous engagement with education and training, to assist them in finding their way through increasingly diversified but linked learning pathways, to identify their transferable skills, and to validate their non-formal and informal learning. These goals include: supporting lifelong learning (for both youth and adults) and the development of human resources to support national and individual economic growth; supporting a more flexible education and training system; supporting a stronger but more flexible vocational orientation within the school system; improving the efficiency of education and training systems by reducing dropout rates and increasing graduation rates; strengthening linkages between education/training systems and the labor market. The second are labor market goals. Guidance is expected to improve work performance and motivation, rates of job retention; to reduce time spent in job search and time spent unemployed through improved matching of individuals competencies and interests with work and career development opportunities, through raising awareness of current and
50

OCT 2010

For an analytical discussion, see Organisation for Economic Co-Operation And Development The European Commission (OECD), Career Guidance A Handbook For Policy Makers, 2004

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 future employment and learning opportunities; to include self employment and entrepreneurship, through geographical and occupational mobility. An issue that has attracted significant attention is co-operation between education and employment portfolios: for example, to ensure that educational and occupational information are integrated; and to ensure that a strong labor market perspective is included in schools career guidance programs. These goals include: improving labor market efficiency; reducing mismatch between supply and demand; addressing skill shortages; improving labor adaptability in response to market conditions, in terms of both geographical and occupational mobility; reducing the extent and duration of unemployment; minimizing individual dependency on income-support systems, as these are introduced.
OCT 2010

The third are social equity goals. These include: supporting equal employment; opportunities in relation to education and

addressing the needs of disadvantaged and marginalized groups; supporting the social integration of ethnic minorities; supporting female labor market participation; addressing gender segmentation in the labor market.

The precise nature of these three sets of goals-and the balance between and within these categories-varies across countries. In addition, these goals are being radically reframed in light of policies relating to lifelong learning, which are linked to active labor market policies and the concept of sustained employability. To this extent, the Council of the European Union (2008) recently published a Council Resolution on Better

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 integrating lifelong guidance into lifelong learning strategies. According to this resolution, member countries were invited to 51: (1) Strengthen the role of lifelong guidance within national lifelong learning strategies in line; (2) Carry out reviews of guidance policies and practices at national level; (3) Make use of the guiding principles (detailed under 'Priority Areas'), in accordance with national contexts and legislation and with a view to supporting the lifelong career transitions of citizens: (a) Encourage the lifelong acquisition of career management skills; (b) Facilitate access by all citizens to guidance services; (c) Develop the quality assurance of guidance provision; (d) Encourage coordination and cooperation among the various national, regional and local stakeholders; (4) Use the opportunities provided under the Lifelong Learning Program and the European Structural Funds, in accordance with Member States' priorities.
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For the detailed Resolution, see http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_Data/docs/pressdata/en/educ/10423 6.pdf

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2

8.2. POLICIES AND NATIONAL SYSTEMS OF GUIDANCE : LEGAL AND POLICY FRAMEWORK , DESCRIPTION OF SERVICES DELIVERED , AND DELIVERY
METHODS

OCT 2010

The purpose of the present chapter is to provide a representative picture of the guidance policies and systems of European countries. For this reason an attempt was made to select countries from each representative part of Europe; South, North, East and West. Furthermore, countries selection varied with regard to their size as well as to when they became members of the EU. Moreover, in selecting the guidance systems of the countries presented in the current, attention was directed towards representing the native countries of the members of the working group; the groups experts would be able to present reliable information about the systems of guidance of their native country. In addition, experience of the group members on policies and national systems of guidance partner countries was taken into account, in order to ensure the accuracy of data presented.

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8.2.1.

OCT 2010

GREECE
Legal and Policy Framework

Legislation plays a defining role in the administration and management of career information, guidance and counseling services in Greece. The structure, goals and workings of the VG departments or directorates of the two responsible bodies, i.e. the Pedagogical Institute and the OAED, are provided for by legislation52. EKEP, the National Centre for Vocational Orientation, was established by Law 2525/97 and is answerable to both the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs. Its main objectives are described by decree 232/29-7-98. The establishment and operation of the Career Services Offices at universities and other tertiary education institutions is defined by Law 1268/82. By Ministerial Decision C2/455/7-2-00, which supplemented the basic Ministerial Decision C2/4867/28-8-92, Career Education is considered a discrete category of school activity. Presidential Decree 35/Gov. Gazette 11/ vol./4-2-1991, which defines the organization, administration and operation of departments for the teaching of elective lessons, also covers lessons in: Local Government, Cooperatives, Labor Relations and Individual-Group Relations. These lessons, especially Labor Relations, are directly associated with vocational guidance and counseling and are taught at the countrys gymnasia (junior high schools). In accordance with Law 2002/1992, the Vocational Training Institutes (IEK), offering post-secondary vocational education, are intended to provide information, guidance and counseling services. To date the IEK have not organized such services.
Specifically, the role of the SEP sector of the Pedagogical Institute is described in Law 1566/1985, articles 6/par.8c 37, 38 and 39. The organisation and workings of the KESYP and GRACEP are defined by Law 2525/97, article 10 and by Law 2986/2002, article 8/3b. Finally, the constitution and operations of the Directorate for Vocational Guidance and Counselling and Educational Activities are governed by Law 2986/2002, article 8/3b.
52

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 OAED with the status of a legal person governed by public law, responsible for the VG of the labor force (legislative decree 212/1969, art.1). The key objectives of vocational guidance for the labor force are described in the Royal Decree 405/1971, article 28 and are to support young people and adults in making decisions regarding their vocational options, to place them in employment, to provide information on vocational training possibilities, and to select candidates for schools of apprenticeship and continuous vocational training. Since 1998, counseling and VG services have been brought within the remit of the Employment Promotion Centers (KPA) of OAED under Law 6/2001 and made part of the career counseling services offered to the labor force. Presidential Decree 274/1989 provides the basis for the organization of the services offered by the General Secretariat for Youth, envisaging that VG will be provided by the Directorate of Employment Development Initiatives and the Directorate of Information, Events and International Cooperation. It should be noted, however, that the Career Services Offices, the KETHI centers, INEs information and guidance services for the unemployed, and the career information, guidance and counseling services offered by other bodies are not subject to legislative provisions. All these services are funded by the EU and are thus regulated by the rules and provisions of the programs under which they are being implemented.
OCT 2010

Services Provided In Greece, responsibility for policymaking and implementation related to Vocational Guidance (VG) rests primarily with the following public bodies:

1. the Ministry of National Education and Life Long Learning supervises: a. the Pedagogical Institute (PI). The PI manages and supervises the services provided while their actual implementation is the | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 responsibility of the individual schools and Career Counselling Centres (KESYP) as well as of school-based Offices for Vocational Guidance (GRASEP) at the General Lyceums; and Labour Market Liaison Offices for Vocational Guidance (GRASYYs) Lyceums. which are located in the Technical/Vocational The Vocational Guidance (SEP) programme is
OCT 2010

implemented with services incorporated in school activities as well as additional extracurricular services; b. General Secretariat for Life Long Learning incorporates counselling in its programmes (Counselling for Parents, Counselling Programmes for unemployed, Vocational Guidance Programmes for prisoners etc.) combating social exclusion while also developing independent guidance activities in association with other organisations, such as local councils; c. The General Secretariat for Youth, which finances and coorganises programmes within its remit, such as Youth Information Centres, guidance programmes for prisoners, etc; d. a Guidance and Counselling Office for disabled people and for socially excluded people an initiative of the SEP Sector of the Pedagogical Institute has been operating since 1999. The office provides information on aspects of vocational education and integration for these individuals while its work is backed up by appropriate psychotechnical and information material, specially designed to meet the needs of these groups; e. Universities (AEI) and Institutes of Technological Education (ATEI) operate Career Services Offices with the purpose of helping students and graduates, through the provision of counselling services and specialist information, to make a smooth transition to their future career and to seek work appropriate to the knowledge they have acquired during their time as students. The Offices aim to help tackle the problem of unemployment among university and Technological Education Institute graduates and to bridge tertiary education with the | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 labour market, the productive sector and the economy in general; f. The Vocational Development and Career Offices at the Vocational Training Institutes (IEK) of the Vocational Training and Education Organisation (OEEEK). 2. the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, supervises: a. The Greek Manpower Employment Organisation (OAED)which is responsible for a) individual VG of the labour force and b) active vocational guidance which targets early school leavers; b. The Labour Institute (part of the Greek General Confederation of Labour GSEE) offers such services to young unemployed people with poor qualifications, and unemployed women, funded by EU programmes53. vocational employment. The National Center for Vocational Guidance (EKEP) is the intermediate body that unites the Ministry of Education and Ministry of Labor and Public Affairs. Its central aim is to provide scientific and technical support to both Ministries for the planning and implementation of a national policy in the area of vocational guidance. EKEP is also being appointed to shape the national quality framework for the structure, implementation and human recourses which provide guidance services. Moreover, there are a number of other organizations that offer counselling services The guidance and part of the form
OCT 2010
53

comprehensive actions to promote employment and self-

information, career and guidance services:

Besides that GSEE has a very indirect regulatory role in career information, guidance and counselling services, with a representative of the Confederation sitting on the Board of Directors of the EKEP.

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 - the Institutes of Vocational Training of the private sector, which provide post-secondary vocational education, offer information, guidance and counseling services to their students and graduates. exclusively by the administration of these Institutes; - the Information and Counseling Centers for Womens Employment and Social Integration, set up by the Research Centre for Gender Equality (KETHI) addressing the needs of women. Moreover, KETHI created the Andromeda Network of Support Structures for Womens Employment and Entrepreneurship with the aim to provide women with timely and reliable information on employment and vocational training, to make an inventory of their specific needs and to develop tools and training for counselors; -Local authority organizations offer a variety of services including VG programs for young people, parents, the unemployed and women as well as the operation of counseling and public information centers; -Non profit Organizations which work with special groups in the population which are under the supervision of Public Sector as Ministry of Health (e.g. therapeutic programs for drug addicts, psychiatric patients, victims of abuse, reception centers for returning ethnic Greeks); -A considerable number of private schools mainly located in the large cities, offer information, counseling and VG services to help their pupils in their subsequent studies. The participation of pupils in these programs is sometimes obligatory, sometimes optional. Some schools also hold Career Days, when professional people visit the school to talk to the students; -The Armed Forces implement -as part of their social responsibility schemes- a program of vocational guidance and specialization assignment for all troops; -The Orthodox Church is also active in this area, implementing Programs of Vocational Guidance and counseling which are not generalized but are initiatives of priests all around the country; -The ever-increasing demand for information and VG, combined with the inability of the public sector to provide integrated services on a broader scale, has favored the growth of private Vocational Guidance and | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study However, the organization and operating methods of these services is determined
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65

Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 Counseling Centers that provide VG and counseling services and, to a lesser extent, information. Employer organizations do not yet play any role in the provision and funding of information, guidance and counseling services for the labor force. Indirectly, the participation of a representative of the Federation of Greek Industries (FGI) on the Board of Directors of the EKEP allows for employer organizations to take part in the administration and management of these services.
OCT 2010

Delivery Methods

Law 1566/85 confers upon the SEP Sector of the Pedagogical Institute full responsibility for the collection, production and improvement of education and information material produced nationally. The procedure followed for the approval and final distribution of the material is as follows: the SEP sector collects and processes the material in compliance with the rules of the Office for Standardisation. It then submits the material to the Technical Vocational Education Department of the PI, which approves or rejects the material or requests changes or improvements. The material is then forwarded to the Ministry of Education, where final approval is granted in the form of a ministerial decision. Finally it is sent to the Textbook Publishing Organisation (OEDB) for printing. The SEP Sector of the Pedagogical Institute has developed so far vocational guidance material for all educational levels (from kindergarten to 12th grade), which teachers can incorporate into their own lesson plans. More specifically, they have compiled a guide entitled Dissemination of guidance-counselling operations to kindergartens and primary schools, which cover activities for use at every different level and for each different class and lesson. An Information Guide for teachers dealing with aspects of guidance and counselling and instruction leaflets on developing extra | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 VG activities through the subjects taught at high school level has also been compiled.54 For the Technological Education TEEs, a SEP handbook has been printed targeting specific categories of TEE pupil and allowing the SEP teacher to touch on issues related to vocational guidance and counselling. Furthermore, the Pedagogical Institute (PI) has created a modern information network with a coordinating link at the PI, through which interested parties can obtain information on educational options after secondary education (Gymnasium, Lyceum, and TEE) on a large number of professions, on the activities of the KESYP and on the local labour market (database). They can also place orders for the books on implementation of SEP in electronic form and gain access to other related web sites. The creation of the SEP website by the Pedagogical Institute on the NESTOR electronic communication network (the SEP national computer network, consisting of the KESYP and SEP Offices across the country) helps convey information to students and all interested parties rapidly and reliably. In addition, distance learning is provided via Internet for teachersSEP staff responsible for the operation of KESYP and Grasep. The SEP Sector of the PI has implemented three pilot multimedia applications to support vocational guidance and counselling within Schools Implementing Experimental Education Programmes (SEPPE), in association with the Piraeus Technological Education Institute. The Career Services Offices also use the Internet, developing web sites with
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OCT 2010

mainly

educational

information.

The

Guide

to

job-seeking

The ministries responsible for the production of information material are the Ministry of Education, through the Pedagogical Institute, and the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, through OAED. Owing to the revamping of its services, OAED no longer produces information material. On completion of this process, the OAED will assume full responsibility, on the national level, for the production of information material targeting the countrys labour force.

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 techniques the Offices developed is also available on the Internet. The Career Services Offices also produce information material, mainly
OCT 2010

containing educational information (postgraduate studies) as well as material to assist in job-seeking. This material is produced on the national level and is the responsibility of Horizontal Action, the coordinating body of the Career Services Offices, staffed by representatives of the individual Offices The Information and Counselling Centres for Womens Employment and Social Integration provide information on their guidance services through the KETHI website, plus printed material which they collect and adapt to their target groups. The majority of the career information material is produced in printed form, such as SEP textbooks, guides (High School Studies, Post High School Studies, Postgraduate Studies, Professions, Job-Seeking Techniques, etc.) as well as leaflets. It is also produced in electronic form (CD-ROMs). Finally, as has already been mentioned databases have been developed, which are available on the Internet.

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2

8.2.2.
OCT 2010

CYPRUS

Legal and Policy Framework There is no specific relevant legal and policy framework for the provision of information, guidance and counseling services in Cyprus. However, the organization and management of these services are governed by the general Operational Regulations which are modified from time to time by the Council of Ministers on the recommendation of the respective Ministries and which are ratified by the House of Representatives. An important part of these Regulations are the Schemes of Service for each post which influence a number of substantial issues concerning the Services for Counseling and Occupational/Career Education and require the approval by the House of Representatives. Especially for the ME&C the legal framework emanates from the respective Operational Regulations approved by the House of Representatives, as provided by the various Educations Acts, No 10 of 1969 to No 12 (1) OF 1999.

Services Provided The main providers of career information, guidance and counseling services in Cyprus are: the Ministry of Education and Culture (ME&C) whose services are directed to the students of secondary school. These are mainly of a counseling nature yet they may also include information about study and career opportunity. They are offered inside the schools and at their central office. the primary policy objective is the person and his/her further development; a. Tertiary Education Institutions and more specifically the Student Affairs Services offer information, guidance and counseling services to their students on the campus as part of a more wide agenda of student services which also include job | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 placements and graduate recruitment services. The careers offices of the University of Cyprus offers free individual counseling to all students in terms of their studies and help them identify the best way to forward, whether this means further study or professional employment. In addition, the Careers Office helps students and graduates make career decisions, develop skills through work experience, and understand the graduate recruitment market and make effective applications for work or further study; b. The Adult Education Centers are run by the Ministry of Education and Culture. The aims of the centers are on the one hand to provide opportunities of Life Long Learning to all individuals, and on the other to assist in the personality development of each individual and the social, economic and cultural progress of society in general. Every year more than 70 different subjects are offered by the centers (e.g. Greek language for foreigners, Computers, Dancing, Byzantine music, and Literature, Painting, Arts and crafts etc). than 20,000 participate in the programs. The Ministry of Labor and Social Insurance (ML&SI) which through the Public Employment Services (PES) offers information services about job vacancies and training opportunities (and less guidance and counseling services) mainly to unemployed individuals. Its key objectives and goals relate to vacancies as well as to available training courses for unemployed individuals, individuals who seek better employment and other particular groups such as young drop-outs. The Human Resource Development Authority (HRDA) is the national agency responsible for human resource training and development and encompass the following major areas: The continuous assessment of the economy's needs for training, the | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study Each year more
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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 modernization of the training system with the creation of the necessary infrastructure, the systematization and certification of training, the distribution of information to enterprises and the public in general, so as to raise their awareness to the need for continuing training and the provision of advisory services, and finally the analysis of the acquis communautaire in the training field and the promotion of actions for facilitating its adjustment and convergence to European systems and practices.
OCT 2010

The Cyprus Youth Organization is a semi-governmental organization .The Minister of Education and Culture acts as the liaison between the Youth Board of Cyprus and the Council of Ministers. The Youth Board of Cyprus aims at promoting progress and prosperity for all to the young people of Cyprus, regardless of religion, ethnic and racial origin. It also promotes young peoples active participation in the social, economic and cultural development of our country.

Other organizations that offer such services are some aptitude and psychological tests.

private

agencies which provide Library, CD-ROM, personal interviews,

Finally, trade unions offer (though not in a systematic way) such services to their members on future job prospects and direct them to appropriate training courses.

Delivery methods 1. The Ministry of Education and Culture: | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 The goal of the CCES is to provide specialized help to students and other young people through counseling in order to deal effectively with the personal, educational, vocational and social problems they face.
OCT 2010

In tertiary education special sessions are organized for the students by the large companies in cooperation with the Student Affairs Services. In some of the institutions and especially those that offer industrial programs (technology, engineering, hotel, etc.) there is usually a mandatory period of work placements both during the semester and during summer. Psychometric tests are used as well as Career fairs and exhibitions. Importantly, the Careers and Social Education course is included in the formal curriculum of the 3rd year of lower secondary school (gymnasium). The course is offered by the school counselors once a week during the first term of the academic year. Group guidance and counseling sessions is included at the curriculum of third grade gymnasium students, who do not want to continue their formal education in order to inform them about the Apprenticeship Scheme, Internet-based self-exploration and job-search packages through a nationwide Computerized Candidate System (CPS) and Individual face-to-face interviews during they register to the CPS, presenting their qualifications and the relevant evidence. During the 2nd year of upper secondary school (lyceum) students have a one-week traineeship in a job of their interest, skills and abilities. This is implemented during the Week for Familiarization with the World of Work when the students participate in organized info tours and are allowed to be partially involved in the work performed. In such cases, there are also reports/ comments by the respective Supervisors/Managers. This activity is organized and supervised by the schools in collaboration with the world of work. Additionally, students in technical education (students can choose to follow technical education after they complete lower secondary school, | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 or


OCT 2010

gymnasium,

ages

12-15)

have

traineeships

according

to

the

specialization of their choice within the framework of their curriculum. The Counseling and Careers Education Service (CCES) of the Ministry of Education and Culture (MOEC) organizes different activities specifically for pupils in the 3rd year of lower secondary school (gymnasium) and the 2nd and 3rd years of upper secondary school (lyceum) with the goal of helping students get acquainted with the professional world become familiar with the nature of different professions and university studies, as well as with the skills and interests needed to enter different professions, labor market demands in relation to different professions, etc. There are also available CD-ROM based self-exploration packages, Career information library, Paper-and-pencil self assessment techniques, Visits to education and career fairs and exhibitions, Workplace experience postings and Involvement in Community services. The services of the Cyprus University for psychometric testing/aptitude test and career guidance tools (FHL) are available to all youth 16-24 years old, including the students of Secondary schools. The Counseling Services of the ME&C publishes the Study Guide which contains information about study options after the Gymnasium and in the Comprehensive Lyceums, study options and requirements for tertiary institutions (in Cyprus and Greece) and scholarships. In addition, they publish job profiles which include the requirements for the respective education and training pathways As a result of the multiple socioeconomic and cultural demanding changes, counselors place special emphasis on helping students equip themselves with the necessary skills so as to make effective personal, educational and vocational choices through a) personal, group and family counseling; b) Administration of specialized tests offered during counseling sessions with an aim to help those interested to make an indepth exploration of their personality, interests, abilities, work values, etc. c) Teaching of the Careers Education and Social Education course (offered in the 3rd year of lower secondary school); d)Organization of seminars and | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 conferences on vocational, educational and other related subjects; e)Production of careers education films; f) Publication of instructional and informative books. Additionally, based on the principle of providing equal opportunities to students with special needs to be educated along with other students of the same age in the the public secondary schools of their and community/neighborhood, counselors provide personal
OCT 2010

educational counseling to students with special needs and contribute towards the development of individual educational programs for these students. 2. The Ministry of Labor and Social Insurance Since 2006 Public Employment Services offer individualized counseling at their District and Local Labor Offices. are not ready to enter the labor market. Individualized counseling was originally used for the hard to place job seekers and for those falling within certain categories considered as vulnerable groups (e.g. disable, single parents, long term unemployed). Due to the financial crisis and the increasing numbers of unemployed, individualized counseling is now available to all job seekers who wish to benefit from the service. The main phases of the individualized counseling are: a) Profiling b) Action Plan and c) Follow Up. The MLSI through the PES releases regularly information about vacancies as well as the number of unemployed by sector of economic activity. A Department of the Ministry of Labor and Social Insurance is the Cyprus Productivity Centre (CPC). Its long-term objective is to assist private and public organizations to utilize their human and capital resources in the best possible manner, with a view to increasing their productivity". Training is one of the major activities of this component. All people | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study The aim of the Individualized Counseling is to facilitate the early placement of those job seekers who

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 employed in technical trades have the opportunity to attend upgrading programs and adapt their skills to the business demand for development and modernization. Another important role of the CPC is the management of the Apprenticeship System. The aim of the Apprenticeship System is to provide a learning pathway for young persons who withdraw from the education system early, so that they are able to learn how to learn, acquire and/or upgrade their skills, and become more employable and more able to progress in their career. In addition, CPC offers technical advice to organizations. These services aim to offer direct and practical assistance to industry for the enhancement of its competitiveness through the effective utilization of new technology, the modernization of the production processes and installations, the improvement of product quality, the reduction of costs, the exploration of the potential to develop new products, the rational use of energy in the working environment. 3. The National Organization for Youth The National Organization of Youth has the Youth Information Centers (KEPPLI). The Youth Information Centers operate based on European standards and provide young people with general information and counseling services on issues that interest youngsters. The information is provided in both printed and electronic form by the personnel of these Centers, through activities and by offering free access to the internet. At the same time, in some Centers the Proposition program is housed which consists of counselors who provide support and advice to young people, couples and families on different issues. Other counseling services are offered in accordance with other agencies. The Human Resource Development Authority (HRDA) publishes annually a Human Resources Balance which provides forecasts for one year ahead. Additionally, with the collaboration of the Cyprus Productivity Center, they publish semi-annually information about the training courses sponsored/run by them | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study
OCT 2010

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8.2.3.
OCT 2010

LITHUANIA

Legal and Policy framework Currently in Lithuania career counseling services provision establishment is stimulated and governed by two principles: bottom-up and topdown. Universities (colleges) career centers, private companies functions on bottom-up initiative when primary establishment action arises from institution itself in universities (colleges) cases or from individuals who are willing to open private career counseling companies for profit making. Even though in 2009 the law of Science and Studies defined that one of requirements for all universities (colleges) is to provide career counseling services, career centers are relatively scarce. In topdown model 2 main actors can be distinguished: the Ministry of Education and Science (MES) and the Ministry of Social Security and Labour ( MSSL): a policy framework is created as a base point for career guidance and related services provision. The Ministry of Education and Science initiated establishment of Career Information Points (CIP) based on Career Guidance Strategy approved in 2003 by Ministers of MES and MSSL. Thus, CIP are subordinated to Ministry of Education and Science. All new CIP are allowed perform their functions only under accreditation of Career Planning Center (CPC) under Lithuanian Youth Technical Creativity Palace which is one of responsible institutions to implement Career Guidance Strategys Implementation Plan firstly approved in 2004 and modified in 2005. The Ministry of Social Security and Labour has more subordinates though. Lithuanian Labor Market Training Authority operates in a principle to execute procedures defined by Ministry of Social Security and Labour for implementing career guidance in the labour market system based on requirements of Career Guidance Strategys Implementation Plan.

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 Youth employment centers as a specific branch of Lithuanian Labor Exchange are mostly responsible for implementation of Lithuanian Republic employment program, but also are obliged to take into consideration guidelines of Career Guidance Strategys Implementation Plan.
OCT 2010

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 As labor market is changing rapidly importance of personal career planning, management and life-long learning concept is essential, especially to youth. In this way Lithuania is not an exception of EU members in a sense of need to provide career counseling, education and information services. Services provided Generally it can be distinguished these career guidance related services providers in Lithuania: 1. Ministry of Education establishes the order of guidance services in educational system Career information points (CIP) whose target group is mostly pupils attending general education schools, their parents and teachers. The services of CIP generally include only information without specific counseling such as: information about career choices, training and employment in the country and abroad, situation within labor markets. CIP network is developed in all 10 counties in Lithuania. These points are usually established at general education schools, youth centers, and education centers and so on. However vocational training institutions lack services of CIP, as well as career counseling, guidance services in general. University (college) career centers provide services not only to their current students, graduates, but also to prospective students and some companies. Prospective students are getting information directly related to profession choice. Meanwhile services to current students and graduates are not so consistent and depend on universitys (college) policy framework chosen and staffs competences. Services vary from career management trainings, counseling, career (including further studies) related information provision to employment mediation. Currently, 9 universities and colleges are running their own career centers.
OCT 2010

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Career Planning Centers (CPC) under Lithuanian Youth Technical Creativity Palace one of few target groups is pupils in general education schools. Thus it ensures provision of training, profession related information, career planning assistance. CPC also organizes career skills and needs assessment for junior school learners. However their working area is limited there is one office located in Vilnius. 2. Ministry of Social Security and Labor establishes the order of guidance services in the labor market system:

Lithuanian

Labor

Market

Training

Authority

(LLMTA) .

Since

establishment in 1992 this institution implements human resources development and employment policy, coordinates these issues related programs, services and it can be considered as one of those experienced national information and counseling services provider in Lithuania oriented towards youth and students. Although LLMTAs activities involves not only consulting senior-grade learners on career choice issues or youth on career planning issues, but also great emphasis is put on market training and counseling for vulnerable groups including unemployed, drop-outs, disabled, soldiers, immigrants and convicts. LLMTA services are provided in all biggest Lithuanian cities and several smaller cities within Territorial Labour Market Training and Counselling Offices. It can be noted that LLMTA has established employment consulting. Lithuanian Labor Exchange (LLE) operates on the national level and has the highest coverage of target groups (unemployed or seeking information on employment related issues). However 11 offices Youth employment centers located in various cities are directly oriented to youth. These centers provide youth with training, job vacancies and career related information, employment counseling and mediation. As strong centers partnership in the field and of cooperation psychological with Youth and testing

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 it was mentioned before LLE cooperates with LLMTA regarding psychological consulting related issues. 3. The Lithuanian Vocational Guidance Council was established in 2006 and act as the supervisory body which assists the aforementioned Ministries, responsible for the development of the guidance system. 4. Private companies also provide career counseling, although in some cases this service is not the primary companys objective and is the secondary, additional activity after personnel selection and/ or job search services usually without direct aim at youth. 5. Pedagogical-psychological services mainly targets to children and pupils experiencing communication, behavior, learning difficulties or having special needs. In this way psychological and pedagogical assessment tools and counseling in 9 out of 52 pedagogicalpsychological offices, which are subordinated to municipalities administration, is offered together with vocational information and counseling for school learners.
OCT 2010

Delivery methods Career guidance, information, counseling services providers distinguished in one of chapters above are using these delivery methods in order to reach targeted groups and satisfy their needs: 1. Career information points (CIP) as information providers give access to national education and labour market databases through internet. Publications, CDs with relevant career information can be found there too. Services provision is ensured by career advisers (trained teachers, social pedagogues, librarians, school psychologists etc). | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 2. Lithuanian Labor Market Training Authority (LLMTA) puts emphasis on such guidance delivery methods in Territorial Labour Market Training and Counselling Offices as individual and group consulting on career, social-psychological integration issues, faculties and vocations evaluation provided by counselors with background in psychology. There is a possibility to get online counseling, run tests in a specialized website. 3. Youth employment centers use wide variety of methods for their services delivery. These include self-information terminals, free access internet, articles, books and videos to get information and to evaluate abilities with specific tests autonomously. On the other hand, professional individual or group consulting is being used as another delivery channel together with group discussions, career days or trainings. 4. Career planning center delivers services via group seminars or individual consulting for school pupils. 5. University (college) career centers as was already mentioned are not identical and consistent in operating procedures or methods. Thus delivery also varies: books, articles, career fairs, practical job search or career planning classes. 6. Others deliver their services through internet, individual meetings or evaluation with help of psychologists or other specialists in this field.
OCT 2010

In order to ensure delivery methods succession to further independent search of career opportunities and management several career (learning) information providers exists. For career information provision an Internet portal of Open Information, Guidance and Counseling System (AIKOS) was created by the Ministry of Education and Science initiative financed from the European Union Structural Funds. AIKOS spreads information about learning opportunities, admission conditions in Lithuania together with professions descriptions | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 and information for individuals seeking update, upgrade or change qualification gained. A Guide to the World of Occupations an internet website a part of Leonardo da Vinci project was established on basis of PHARE project experience in Czech Republic. A Guide to the World of Occupations includes mostly information about professions their descriptions with advices to (re)integration in labor market. However no information about learning opportunities is offered. Where to apply for studies (Kur stoti?) is a nongovernmental magazine initiated by private initiative for profit reasons. School pupils, universities graduates are offered information about learning possibilities in Lithuania and abroad to acquire bachelor or master diploma, funding and studying conditions. Thus it must be noted that career-education information provision within Lithuanian education and labor market above is not extremely dominated by one sector nor governmental, nor private. Here it can be distinguished two biggest information sources on internet. PLOTEUS (Portal on Learning Opportunities throughout the European Space) is established under initiative of European Commission. It ensures information provision about studies, education systems, and exchange opportunities within European countries. A Career Guidebook funded by Euroguidance project and administered by the Education Exchanges Support Foundation includes not only descriptions of professions or qualities required but also education possibilities, admissions to universities, colleges in Europe. An electronic version of Career Guidebook is available via internet. Currently Lithuania does not have integrated legal approach to work experience provision in secondary (or vocational training) education field which is useful not only on gaining experience but for choosing potential career pathway. Some excursions, events or activities related to labor | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study
OCT 2010

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OCT 2010

might

be

organized

depending

on

initiative

of

schools

administration; however these are more of information based nature. Students of universities and colleges can get work experience during traineeships with universities (colleges) partners or in scientific traineeships. If professional work practice is required in BA or MA program to complete curricula (the length of practice is defined) and university does not have enough partners for cooperation in this field students have to put individual efforts to find a place for practice. Scientific traineeships project was firstly organized in 2005 by Ministry of Education and Science. It is being continued till now. Usually scientific traineeship is for 2 months during summer period. Work experience can be acquired abroad too (Erasmus, other organizations promoted traineeships).

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8.2.4.

SWEDEN
Legal and Policy Framework

In Sweden there is a strong tradition of independence amongst the different social service departments, including that of school and education which form their own goals and are unique in the sense that the government itself has no legislative power over their activity. The social service departments are restricted by certain guidelines from their superior ministries but their main work is basically independent. leading to a more extended decentralization of the services. This independence has been growing stronger and stronger over the years This is reflected on the fact that former detailed documents providing a more extensive description of the services of guidance has been replaced by a more goal-oriented approach providing general guidelines and objectives. However, the organization of guidance and information services of the non-compulsory school is not based on such detailed guidelines as that of the compulsory school since it is the responsibility of the local authorities. The services provided by the Swedish labor Market Administration are based on the axiom that helping people to find out what they really want to do and how to realize this is not the only key goal of the guidance officer. This process must always be adjusted and take into consideration the needs of the labor market so that the individual would be a resource to the labor market. Another important initiative is the Adult Education Initiative that aims at offering adults with shorter educational backgrounds the possibility to get higher education, thus increasing their value and chances in the labor market.

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 The provision of guidance and information services at universities and higher education in general is based on really short and abstract goals and guidelines Services Provided In Sweden, the departments involved in information, guidance and counseling are the National Agency for Education and the Swedish National Market Administrator. However, the local authorities form their own services according to special guidelines and goals set by the department of education, which in turns answers to the government. Local authorities are responsible for comprehensive and upper secondary schools as well as for adult education providing schools with career counselors and other necessities to achieve the national goal. However, the guidance provided at university level and other higher education is the responsibility of each university. More specifically:
OCT 2010

The Educational Ministries are responsible for Youth Education that includes comprehensive and upper secondary school as well as Adult Education that includes adult education offered by local authorities, adult education initiative, higher education and folk high school. There are no compulsory lessons in career education in the school system. However, counselors will occasionally have lessons/information sessions and teachers include career related themes in their teaching. Counsellors

normally have lessons in both comprehensive and upper secondary school, usually when students have to make educational choices (higher year course, or change to a different type of school) during which they inform students of the different possibilities. To a lesser extent some counsellors talk about changes in working life, factors influencing the individual during his/her decision making phases and train students in decision making. Social sciences teachers occasionally provide information on the education system and the way employment market works as well as about trade union organisations, salary conditions and | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 the development and change of different professions.
OCT 2010

Together with

works experience and study visits, it is the social sciences where pre and post careers work takes place. The Labormarket Board is responsible for the Employment offices addressing the labour force and has invested heavily in the self-service as well as in the internet. municipalities. technology, There are employment offices in nearly all Many of the larger towns and cities have specialised caring services, economics and the arts.

employment offices catering specified occupational categories, e.g. industry, Employment Service amenities are not only for the unemployed. Persons who are employed but want a change of occupation can also turn to the Employment Service, which offers recruitment and placement services for employers as well. A great change has taken place in Swedens public Employment Service, namely the development of a variety of on-line placement services whose main purpose is to improve and modernise the infrastructure provided by the Employment Service by creating a comprehensive Web site for placement, vocational guidance and information on education and the labour market.

Delivery Methods Most students in year nine have personal interviews with their counsellor. The counsellor invites them or they come voluntarily to discuss their future plans and especially the choice of upper secondary education. In earlier grades the pupils can ask questions and discuss with the counsellor but the majority come in ninth grade. Some counsellors organise work experiences and they have interviews with most of the pupils before they go there.

The increasing freedom of choice developed in the students of Sweden resulted in the setting up of a large number of new schools in small | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

87

Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 communities all over the country.
OCT 2010

This new organization of the school

system resulted to a shortage of guidance counselors which in turn led to alternative solutions such as the increased number of infotheques or guidance centers, a co-operation between the labor market office and local authority with counselors from both working together there. Usually, these centers have computers and a self-searching area but clients can also talk to a counselor. In the universities there are two types of guidance specialists, central counsellors and institutional counsellors. Central counselling often, but not always, has guidance specialists with counsellor training who, within this system, provide an overall service to students inside the university and also an external service to students interested in entering the university. Institutional counsellors, who are often teachers or researchers with no counsellor training, specialise more in helping students through or beyond their programme or course. The idea behind the two systems is that students need both specialised information and guidance and sometimes more common or broader information or guidance. The central counsellors often work at a centre with career libraries and some selfservice. These centres are often combined with personal and study Some universities also have a lot of different counselling services.

activities before the choice of higher education including visits by students -sometimes former school pupils- or special buses with brochures, computers and one or two counsellors. Except for universities, theyre some programmes of further education, not at a university level, that have no regulations for information, guidance and counselling services and there is no data available for the services they offer. Counseling for adults is provided partly by the different adult education institution and partly by the employment offices which give a wide range of information and counseling to adults mainly aiming groups who find it harder to enter the labour market. As adult education is increasing, the | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

88

Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 number of adult counselors has increased as well and new forms of organization have started through initiatives as the Adult Education Initiative. The organization of counseling depends upon the size of the local authority. The employers organization has traditionally had a great interest in participating guidance. and supporting the development of information and There is an established co-operation between the National The group
OCT 2010

Agency for Education and the trade unions on a rather informal level and they have created an advisory group for the labor market. takes some initiatives at the governmental level, produces materials and acts as a pressure group connected to vocational educational and guidance. At the local level the employers organization are represented in different groups together with school representatives. In addition, they organize in co-operation with the local school system career fairs annually and more specifically a few months before the choice of upper secondary education targeting mainly pupils in year nine but also students from earlier grades. Moreover, they organize a national contest showing the best example of co-operation between school and working life. Finally, they have developed a whole program where students experience different types of role-plays and games gaining this way a better understanding of the conditions in working life especially from the employers side. As a result of this cooperation, the organization has started a website for students containing material such as diaries from work experiences, projects of international co-operation and information about young enterprise. The employers organization is also active in higher education where they organize working-life days during which students meet representatives from different companies There is not a big tradition in Sweden for non-profit organisations because the social welfare system is considered a good solution. Yet, there are a growing number of organisations that provide some indirect guidance service. In some areas local immigrant associations have started projects to activate immigrants who are not so well integrated in the Swedish | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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OCT 2010

Sometimes these projects are in co-operation with the local

authorities or with housing firms, usually owned by the local authorities. There is also a combination of measures from social departments and guidance specialists from labour market offices or from the local authority. Team-working, with employees from these different sectors, is used in trying to create comprehensive solutions for people with more complex problems. There has been an enormous development of different Internet-based tools in information and guidance where central authorities have developed the biggest of them. However, a lot of private companies have developed information on Internet. Syo-guiden is the biggest Website in the Nordic countries and has a very large number of links related to education, work and employment. Another example is the Career guide, which consists of a lot of different tests and also materials to help the user to better prepare for job searching. The employers organisations and trade unions have also made some Internet applications Private companies have developed some CD-ROM packages which are on a self-service basis but are mainly directed to the guidance specialists. Another Two of them, Struktur and Horisont, are made for self (Merit) provides information on formal exploration and are connected to the construction of action plans. programme qualifications to higher education as well as recommendations about which courses are needed to complement clients current skills. Yet, they are expensive for the guidance specialists while the information they provide can be found on the Internet and partly Psychological tests are not so common in the work of guidance specialists since usually this is a task of the psychologists in the employment service. The tests are directed towards a limited group of people. Some guidance officers in the labour market offices are

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 trained for using test like Hollands Self-Directed Search, but overall the use of these is rather infrequent Telephone is an old and very much used instrument in guidance which is now, together with e-mail, an important tool for distance adult education Careers fairs are more and more common in Sweden. One of the trade unions (Saco) has a big fair in large cities every year presenting especially information about academic training and vocations AMV has developed group counselling methods a lot time ago. Some private companies have published books and training materials for use in group guidance and/or in personal counselling. The use of career information libraries has developed in both the educational and labour market sectors. Its often organised as selfservice corners or a combination of waiting rooms with an exhibition of written and digitalized information. Libraries in the municipalities, in some cases in co-operation with guidance specialists, have also made special department for career information The use of organised workplace experience is an old tradition in Sweden. Except for the comprehensive school there are a lot of different activities in upper secondary school. Usually these experiences are on a week-basis but in some cases last for several weeks. In higher education there is also some examples of work place experiences but usually directed towards the type of training the students have. A very strong tendency is the emphasis on self-service in guidance, connected with the rapid development of Internet tools especially in the labor market offices where there are often so called self-service corners or departments where clients themselves can search for information. important tool. The Infotheques also constitute a rather new but growing in numbers delivery method | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study However, in schools interviews are still the most
OCT 2010

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OCT 2010

As early as the 1950s Sweden introduced the system of work experiences in state school which normally encompassed 2-4 weeks during the last 3 years in comprehensive school. Students attend a workplace and, as far as law allows, active partake in works experience. Employers offer special mentors and are not recompensed for this as they see it as a future investment while both employers organizations and trade unions support this activity. Even in lower school years, up to 6th class, it is also common for students to visit their parents places of work or to go on study visit to companies or institutions where a parents works. Other projects refer to organizations such as the Rotary or Lions that send professionals to schools to talk about their work in a more personal way.

Specific investments have also been made for special groups such as young people who did not continue after compulsory school, did not receive a complete certificate or dropped out of upper secondary school. More specifically, local authorities are responsible for these groups and offer them some form of work-related activity, practice or education. This lasts until the individual reaches 20

On the central level the most visible initiatives are information especially on the Internet. The VHS, AMV and Skolverket have developed big databases searchable on the Internet. At a regional or local level there is co-operation with the aim of producing written materials about different choices of education. A few regions have also developed Websites containing information mainly about education.

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8.2.5.

GERMANY

OCT 2010

Legal and Policy Framework School career counselling and vocational services are regulated by an agreement between the Federal Employment Service and the Standing Conference of the Ministries of Education and Cultural Affairs of the Lander in made on February 12, 1971. They form part of school instruction although within vocational orientation, counselling and information on occupations is the responsibility of the Federal Employment Service. The public career counselling services are regulated by Social Code III (SGB III) and are under the responsibility of the Federal Employment Service (BA) and its regional employment offices. The BA is a corporation under public law with self-administration in which the Federal Government, the Lnder and the municipalities participate and not a subordinate authority of the Federal Government. The role of the Federal Ministry of Labour is limited to legal supervision. The BA has concluded a binding framework agreement with the Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of the Lnder (KMK) and agreements at Lnder level with individual Ministries of Education and Cultural Affairs on cooperation between schools and career counselling services in helping to prepare pupils for their career choice. agreements are constantly updated. A reform of SGB III planned for 2002 ("Job-Aqtiv Act") will make it a binding rule for all individuals registering as unemployed to immediately undergo a profiling procedure so that the placement officer can identify those persons who are likely to have problems with job integration and placement. The services at higher education institutions are regulated in the Framework Act for Higher Education and in the Higher Education Acts of | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study These

93

Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 the Lnder; under the responsibility of the Ministries of Education and Cultural Affairs of the Lnder and the individual higher education institutions Private career guidance and counselling services are subject to no legal regulations or limitations, with the exception of Section 288a SGB III. Therefore, there is no reliable data on the number of providers outside the Federal Employment Service which provide exclusively career guidance and counselling services. The prerequisite is a permit by the Federal Employment Service (Section 291 ff. SGB III), which is linked to certain conditions (personal aptitude, reliability, orderly financial circumstances and adequate business premises) and can be withdrawn.
OCT 2010

Services provided In Germany, there is a statutory mandate for education and career information, guidance and counselling in the following areas: Education information, guidance and counselling is provided by school psychologists, school counsellors and teachers (in the stricter sense), who counsel on school career and vocational orientation In higher education, study counselling is offered by higher education institutions (Central Academic Advisory Service and Academic Advisory Service for Guidance on Courses) to students and those interested in taking up studies. In addition, within the framework of their statutory mandate, the employment offices provide career counselling for students at higher education institutions and for higher education graduates as well as assistance for taking up a job (placement, support, training to learn how to apply for a job, assessment centre, additional qualifications, etc.). Special "higher education teams at the employment offices" are established at major higher education institutions, cooperating | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

94

Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 closely with the internal higher education counselling services or if present with the career services at higher education institutions. In the area of the Federal Employment Service (BA), career counseling for young people and adults is offered by the More employment offices, a nationwide service to all persons either participating or wanting to participate in the labour force. specifically, career counseling for adults is a responsibility of the employment offices, and more precisely after the "Employment Office 2000" re-organization, of the teams for the client group "labour market partners". However, the "normal" counseling and placement of people looking for work or of unemployed people is done by a work placement officer who has not been trained in career counselling. Only more difficult cases are sent to a trained career counsellor By active work with parents (in cooperation with schools), the career counselling services of the employment offices try to involve parents in the career choice preparation of their children. etc. They organize parents information evenings, parents information days, Parents are also invited to accompany their children to the counselling services of the employment offices Social and youth welfare offices of the municipalities, offer their services to recipients of social assistance according to the Federal Social Assistance Act and to recipients of (vocational) assistance for children and young people according to the Child and Youth Services Act. There are recommendations for cooperation between the employment offices and the municipalities with regard to vocational integration of benefit recipients (particularly on the integration of the long-term unemployed and disadvantaged young people) At municipal level, there are training and continuing education counselling programmes financed by or on behalf of the
OCT 2010

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OCT 2010

providing

information

and

advice

on

local

(continuing) education and training opportunities (e.g. at the adult education centres or regional training centres) According to SGB III unemployed individuals who benefit from labour promotion are obliged to participate in a counselling session or group information session. Otherwise, financial support can be reduced or suspended. A young person receiving social assistance or unemployment benefits or participating in a training programme financed by the employment office may be asked to participate in a counselling session and will then have to do so

Although not mandatory by law, the following organizations offer information, guidance and counselling services: Employer organizations, chambers and individual companies

participate in activities of career counselling by the employment offices, such as: careers fairs, exhibitions, exchanges for training places, exchanges for jobs, continuing training fairs, they give talks on occupation-related topics at vocational orientation events of career counselling in the job information centres of the employment offices, they participate in specific school projects, establish sponsorships with schools, organize projects and placements in companies, excursions and more. The purposes of these activities are to interest young people in specific occupations, to increase economics education at general schools and to anchor entrepreneurial thinking in young peoples minds. Within the

framework of training under the dual system, it is a legal obligation of the chambers to offer counselling for training companies and apprentices although they address mainly the companies training and its adequacy. Moreover, the German Trade Union Federation participates in the programme "School-Industry/Working Life" of the Federal Ministry of Education while some trade unions run attractive | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 Internet programmes for young people who have to take a career choice. Trade unions frequently run and co-finance unemployed
OCT 2010

associations or unemployed initiatives, which offer e.g. career counselling to young people or the unemployed, but also debtor counselling or counselling of returnees to the labour force, etc. Beyond this, employer organizations or chambers as a rule do not have their own education and career counselling services The educational organizations of industry as private education providers often offer training and career counselling services mainly to their own adult employees or unemployed persons as well as to external participants in addition to their training and continuing education programmes In order to address target groups which are difficult to reach (e.g. marginalized young people, school drop-outs), youth and community workers are charged with reaching out to these young people in order to motivate them to take advantage of career counselling or participate in education programmes Alumni associations are a relatively recent institution in Germany developed by higher education institutions themselves and are engaged in orientation and counselling of students and graduates, e.g. within the framework of the newly established Career Services at higher education institutions Providers of public and free youth welfare services, welfare organizations, municipalities (social welfare offices) provide free career counselling and work/ training placement services for their clients (social welfare recipients, clients of youth welfare services). They usually cooperate closely with the employment offices and some of them work on behalf of the BA. They usually serve difficultto-place long-term unemployed clients and other groups that are difficult to place

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OCT 2010

From time to time, associations and other groups which actually pursue other purposes (e.g. sports clubs, Rotary clubs) are also active in the vocational orientation, career counselling or vocational integration of young people

Furthermore,

numerous

private

and

public

institutions

offer

counselling services, e.g. private education providers, some private career counselling firms, personnel and management consultants, etc. In individual cases, these institutions are also commissioned by the employment offices or the municipalities.

Delivery Methods In order to guarantee all-time access for all young people, the following are used: compulsory presentation of the services in all schools in the last grade regular office hours at schools regular office hours at the employment office, drop-in service accessibility by phone of career counsellors nationwide telephone help-line for career counselling information on material for preparing career choice is available free of charge in schools information through the Internet accessibility of career counselling services via email advertisements in the regional press

Special services of career counselling for young women (information events, career choice seminars, etc.) are used to broaden the range of careers considered by young women and to interest them in futureoriented technical occupations (e.g. in the IT sector), pursuing the aim of eliminating gender-specific discrimination on the labour market by means of changes in the career choice behaviour of young women. | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 For pupils who do not find a training place after general school, the Lnder have as a rule established one year prevocational programmes with the goal of introducing them to different occupation areas and to offer pupils without a leaving certificate from a general school the opportunity to still earn such a certificate. Young people and unemployed adults are specifically invited to participate in group information and training measures where they are provided with specific information or where a differentiated aptitude test is carried out. The methods used in career counselling by the employment offices include programmes and services as individual counselling with or without previous appointment at the employment office in order to establish contact and explain the needs, to determine further strategies or, in urgent cases, to provide support or crisis intervention, individual counselling is usually provided in direct "face-to-face" counselling. Counselling by phone is also offered, but usually only as follow-up to quickly clarify specific questions. Distance counselling may also be used, online counselling via the Internet, group information or group counselling too. In particularly severe cases, request of a medical or psychological examination to assess aptitude or other relevant questions is made to the psychological or medical service of the employment office or medical service of the employment office may be recommended. Prior to individual counselling or even after counselling, there are a number of self-exploration programmes and test programmes, which people seeking advice can use at the job information centres on the socalled BIZ computer, at school or at home. People seeking advice and wanting to test their aptitude for a specific occupation or a study course can take certain objective psychological tests at the psychological service of the employment office on the recommendation of the career counsellor. The tests are conducted on the computer-based testing place system DELTA.
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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 A service concept was developed for career counselling and placement of unemployed adults, fostering initiative and personal responsibility in job seekers and providing them with comprehensive self-information services on occupations, qualification possibilities, vacant positions, benefit entitlements, possibilities of funding etc. as well as group information, assisted placement, intensive counselling and intensive placement for those who need personal assistance. For young people with learning difficulties or who are socially
OCT 2010

disadvantaged or not yet mature enough for the labour market, one-year prevocational education programmes are offered and funded, in order to increase their maturity for choosing a career and improve their prospects of vocational integration. Company visits and practical placements Exploratory company visits are an integral part of vocational orientation in all Lnder with a focus on aspect-oriented company visits and not on mere company visits. In a number of Lnder, company or workplace visits with a vocational education focus are mandatory before a practical placement. Since companies seem to increasingly realize how important contacts are between schools and industry, there is a growing number of partnerships between Gymnasien and companies. Exploratory company visits are mainly planned in pivot subjects of vocational orientation but increasingly also in other subjects, such as chemistry, physics, German or geography. In individual cases, practical placements can also be spent in other European countries, a special form of which is "work experience" possible in schools in Great Britain, implemented within the framework of international pupils exchanges. Practical placements are offered in nearly all Lnder. As a rule, there are extensive provisions for legal and insurance-related reasons, usually including tips on organization and preparation in class. Practical placements last between one and three weeks, depending on Lnder provisions. Often, minimum and maximum periods are indicated. Several | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 Lnder have published comprehensive teaching guides and didactic support material on practical placements. Career Information Career information is published in the form of target-group specific media as print media (leaflets preparing for career choice, encyclopaedias with information on a large number of occupations, study courses and continuing education goals, detailed occupation descriptions, teaching guides and didactic support material), CD ROM, films, slides, information on Europe, Target-group specific selfThey also include a number of print media on information media are available, free of charge, in all BA job information centres. career awareness and vocational orientation with nationwide, regional and local information and self-exploration tools to explore vocational interests and abilities, Internet-based services for training place and job search, databases on vocational and school programmes for training and continuing education The public sector plays an important role in career information production. The Federal Employment Service is the largest single producer/publisher of occupational and career information in Germany. The compilation/publication of such information is the result of the statutory mandate of the BA (SGB III Section 33) and the provision of self-information facilities to support counselling and placement (SGB III Section 41) according to which most of the information is gathered and published centrally. offices. Finally, the Lnder and federal ministries, mainly of education, labour and economic affairs publish additional but not nation-wide job and career information. The ministries for youth and women also publish information with relevance to their target groups. Information is usually gathered by commissioning private companies (publishing houses, agencies, etc.), which develop and collect the necessary | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study Moreover, regionally important information is published by the Lnder employment offices and the employment
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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 material, prepare it from a didactic aspect and develop the media in editing and technical terms. Legislated control of information
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production and administration takes place only in as far as the training courses and occupations which are regulated by law must be published in the official legal gazettes. The Federal Employment Service has developed a "self-information platform" for the Internet, bringing together on one platform all education, occupation and labour market-related information as well as assistance with vocational orientation, self-exploration, job searches and counselling. There are a large number of individual modules of this platform on the Internet while in addition to the info modules provided centrally by the BA, the Lnder employment offices provide regionally important information and orientation support for career choices on the Internet, some on their own homepage. For the area of career counselling at the BA: a) Career counselling for young people: Target groups: pupils of secondary level I and II in their last two grades before their school leaving examination young people up to the age of 25 with no formal qualifications people looking for training and people interested in taking up study courses young people with disabilities who need special assistance in taking up training or for their integration into the labour market young people of foreign origin/migrants parents of all the above-mentioned groups teachers and other multipliers in the process of career choice pupils are reached everywhere through the services of career counselling at schools, which are offered by the employment offices.

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 The compulsory minimum service of career counsellors at schools includes a two-hour vocational orientation class per grade in the last grade but one (information on services is provided, personal counselling is offered, offer to participate in events on vocational orientation, talks, career choice seminars and seminars to teach pupils how to apply to a company, etc., fairs and exhibitions at the job information centre), another classroom lecture at the job information centre (BIZ) of the employment office regular, demand-oriented office hours of the career counsellor at schools for personal counselling (active counselling offer) pupils are given leave for comprehensive counselling at the employment office (counselling by appointment) the counselling services of the employment offices are geared to all members of the target group and include open office hours at the employment office (no appointment needed) as well as counselling by appointment with a clearly set timeframe (there are often waiting periods for this service) for certain similar questions, the career counselling services offer group counselling (8-10 people) topic-oriented vocational orientation events usually address specific target groups (pupils of specific types of schools, students in higher education, people interested in specific occupations or types of training), which are specifically invited to these events.
OCT 2010

b) Counselling and placement of adults Target groups: students at higher education institutions and university graduates employees who are looking for a change of occupation, want to take part in continuing education or retraining and are seeking financial support by the employment office | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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unemployed persons or persons threatened by unemployment who are looking for a new job or want to take part in continuing training or retraining

returnees to the labour force who want to be re-integrated into the labour market (including qualification measures) severely disabled people and people in rehabilitation who need special assistance for their integration into the labour market the first contact at the employment office for people looking for work and for unemployed people is the placement officer, who does a socalled profiling for the placement and concludes an integration agreement with the unemployed person or person looking for work. According to the clients concerns and the difficulty of the case, the placement officer decides on transferring the client to a career counsellor

Detailed career counselling is provided at a personal appointment with a career counsellor, who also advises on possibilities of financial support for continuing education according to the SGB III

For similar needs, group counselling is sometimes offered

For the area of schools: pupils If possible, clients are assigned to just one contact person offering all services as a one-stop-shop. In special cases, particularly in the case of successful retraining or rehabilitation, the medical and psychological service of the employment office can be asked to give an expert opinion. A special client team at the employment office is responsible for persons undergoing rehabilitation. The "normal" counselling and placement of people looking for work or of unemployed people is done by a work placement officer who has not been trained in career counselling. In more difficult cases or when financial support for continuing training or for any other integration programme is

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 considered, the client is sent to a career counsellor who has received training in counselling. Depending on the goals of the school types secondary general school, intermediate school, academic secondary school a minimum of 2 up to 5 hours per grade of separate career education lessons are a normal part of the school curriculum or integrated within the whole range of subjects. However, as regulations vary between the 16 Lnder, the number of hours can vary greatly. In secondary level I, the focus is usually on the last two grades of the different types of schools. At the academic secondary school, the focus is usually on grades 9 and 10 as well as the last three years of secondary education. However, first approaches to vocational orientation are made in lower grades already.
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8.2.6.

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HUNGARY

Legal and Policy Framework The institutional network designed to assist career choice, choice of school and counselling within the framework of country career choice institutes (i.e. out of school) was set up in the 1960s. In the eighties, the issue of career choice was transferred to the authority of the Ministry of Education while the task of supervision and co-ordination was assigned to the National Pedagogical Institute and the actual work became the responsibility of the pedagogical institutes of the counties. In the nineties, new conditions made it necessary to re-evaluate employment policy instruments and enact up-to-date laws based on the principles of a market economy. During the last fifteen years, along with the established county pedagogical institutes network, a multipolar, modern career guidance institutions network has been set up, able to meet the differentiated needs of young and adults. The Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Labour and Employment are in charge of the development of information, guidance and counselling services. The main requirements of career choice and guidance activity fitting European standards are expressed in Human Resource Developing Pact (no. 142) and its enclosure, issued in 1975 by the International Labour Organization (ILO), and ratified by Hungary in 1996. A country report reflecting the legal conditions and achieved results of these activities was written in 1998, by the Ministry of Education and Ministry of Social and Family Affairs for the ILO. This report has significantly helped professional leadership to get a systematic overview of aims and results on the field of career choice counselling and vocational training. Recognising the new demands the Parliament passed more laws, which have helped the realisation of the new needs: | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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The 1991. IV. Employment Law (Flt), after being amended several times, covers employment assistance and benefits. The scope of the law in regards to the labour market instruments is wide even by international standards and it contains almost all the important support mechanisms that are used in different developed-market economies

The amendment of the Flt, in 2000, clearly states the task of the labour centres, that is, the provision of career information, guidance and counselling while its enforcement was supplemented by a departmental order that makes explicit the method, scope and recipients of the career guidance and counselling services of the labour centres. This amendment also opened the possibility of including nonprofit organisations in the development and offering of those services

The 1993. LXXIII. Public Education Act, through which the governments education policy provides various forms of support including legislative frameworks for these efforts. Under this Act, as of September 2000 the vocational schools may teach vocational preparation and foundation subjects in Forms 9 and 10, while the vocational secondary schools may introduce vocational orientation, preparation and trade group training in Forms 9-12. This is part of the framework curriculum and supports ongoing career development while these measures are better able to prepare the pupils for their career decisions. The range of services has expanded: labour market organisations have been established for assisting employees and meeting employers needs.

The Adult Education Law (Ft) in 2001 which regulates the tasks of adult education institutes obliged them to introduce different employment services e.g. career information, guidance and counselling, and training for the job searching. The practical adaptation of these services is one of the bases for the success accreditation of adult education institutions.

Among the Ministry of Education key goals is decreasing the number of school dropouts and failures. The Ministry of Labor key goal is the

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 realisation of full employment through employment policy instruments, tools of social interaction and the wide-scale promotion of lifetime education. centres. The implementation of the above is the task of the labour
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Services Provided Career development services are mainly the responsibility of the governments and public institutions. policymaking and implementation At present, responsibility for to the development of related

information, guidance and counselling services rests primarily with two public bodies. More specifically:

1. The Ministry of Education is responsible for career choice counselling in primary and secondary schools and in tertiary education within the school system, and in adult education within the school system. In details, the new career guidance system that has been set for young people under the supervision of the Ministry of Education includes: a. Country vocational school b. Information services for students provided within universities and high schools (supported both by the state and by private sector). Unfortunately, the information, guidance and counselling services provided within tertiary education are not strong enough, a gap that has been recognized and is being dealt with. Some universities have Career Bureaus for | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study pedagogical high institutes The for main students target although group for separate career education lessons are only required in schools. education-related services are those graduating from primary

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 students and graduates, with a wide range of services such as individual guidance (individual interviews with students of the 4th and 5th year) and the organization of annually career fairs, with the attendance of private sector companies (organized at 2 universities: University of Economics and University of Technology). Besides the immediate intention of recruitment, these career fairs give opportunity for students in: self-assessment, decision making, collection of relevant career information, self-presentation exercises in different situations such as job interviews, communication exercises, stress management, acquiring different methods for writing the curriculum vitae, active search for work, assisting at grafological assessment by graphology experts, meetings and training sessions in various faculties and information on studies abroad, vocational courses, seasonal jobs for students c. The National Career Information Centre (NPK) which also aims at the assistance of mobility amongst countries since EU and other countries higher education systems offer numerous possibilities for continuing education to young Hungarians
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2. The Ministry of Labour is responsible for career choice counselling in adult education out of school system, with special regard to disadvantaged groups and women re-entering the labour market. In more details: a. The State Employment Service, operating with 20 county labour centres and 173 local branches nation-wide, providing career guidance and counselling for unemployed and jobseekers as well as career guidance and career modification efforts of adults in general. Through work allocation, the goal is finding the most suitable job to the individuals talents, | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 qualifications, and abilities. Usually, it has turned out that the individuals lack of qualifications or their education level makes it impossible for them to carry out their previous work and a new profession must be chosen. These services are free and available to every citizen, yet they mainly target youth and adults who are in need of community and social support. However, there are no cases where these services is obligatory b. The Employment Counselling Departments (FIT), an institutional network formed with German assistance and part of the State Employment Service, provide services to unemployed workers and students currently enrolled in school. Presently, 17 provinces offer FIT services, including information provision on careers, training, as well as free career guidance and counselling, on a group and individual basis d. The National Research Centre for Labour Market Methodologies, also part of this network, is assisted by all the labour centres
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During the last 15 years a multipolar career guidance system has been set up for young people and adults. following: Employer organisations may play local roles from time to time since their financial support is included within the framework of training contributions. The Trade Unions provide these services in their centres and at the workplaces Steps have been taken so as a greater number of non-governmental organisations are involved in offering career information services alongside government programs. demand in the province | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study These services, however, are currently available mostly in the capital because there is no great The new system also includes the

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Nine regional training centres, built up with World Banks aid, that provide career guidance, career developing, information and counselling services organised through adults training and re-training

A wide network of institutions for adult education through employer (enterprise) forming institutions, privately owned forming institutions, and non-profit forming organisations which operate within the education program, or outside of it

Information, guidance and counselling services offered in the private sector are provided mostly by job brokerage and some counselling agencies. These agencies main objective is to find immediately the most suitable workplace for job seekers through the use of the individual interviews method. The lack of available career information databases, methods and tools limits the development of the services offered in the private sector.

There are no activities on the part of the community sector in Hungary. There were only some sporadic attempts such as interesting study works. Except the fact that these appeared in some career magazines and rarely on internet sites - regretfully- they never reached the whole population. It must be noted that in general career guidance and counselling services in Hungary are primarily available in county centres. Consequently, those living outside county centres may seek out these services, but with greater difficulty. The State Employment Service has made enormous efforts to provide these services in a greater number of local branches. However, partly due to financial difficulties and partly because the number of experts is limited, the human resources needed for these services could not be provided. A further condition for providing these services is that the services should be provided in the most efficient manner. service. This condition can only be ensured if there is a continuous demand for the Currently, the demand for the service is not great enough to The solution can be justify the presence of an expert at every branch.

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 found by providing local branches with expert service based on accumulated needs at specified times. Delivery Methods Services are offered using different methods which are: computer-based career choice services for students of primary and secondary schools, through which the most suitable profession can be defined according to their own personal characteristics (knowledge and interests). Internet access is available at every secondary school. The National Career Information Centre collects career information, particularly for young people facing important career decisions. They use traditional forms as occupation profiles, leaflets, occupational guides, databases of educational institutions (both private and public) and modern forms as internet, audio, video and interactive multimedia and work descriptions. It is the counsellors task to provide the client with advice on how to use the resources of the National Career Information Centre. More specifically, the National Career Information Centre (NPK) has developed national databases for higher education, secondary education, adult education, vocational training, and career information, all of which is available to any school or individual with Internet access. The service also includes information about education outside Hungarys borders. More specifically, pupils receive such services for the first time in primary school, within the subject technique, for approximately 20 hours per year. In addition, students get career counselling and guidance services from their form-master, within the subject called form-master hour, in primary school. This subject is done for 2 hours/week (72 hours/year) during which his/her main task is to provide large scale of information related to labour market. This activity is more important in the final year of primary school, when students have to make decision about their future.
OCT 2010

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The State Employment Service through the Employment Counselling Departments (FITs) issues tenders annually for financing the organization and realization of career information exhibitions and events by local labour centres.

The county labour centres organise a career information forum as well as career information exhibitions and events to assist with career selection in every county for the promotion of career selection activities. forums. County educational institutions, the chambers, and representatives of civic organisations have all been included in these

personal counselling for adults. In the course of a personal interview the previous career-life can be highlighted and personal problems can be explored, thus impacting the choice of a new vocation or workplace

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8.2.7.

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ROMANIA

Legal and Policy Framework The information, guidance and counselling activities operated by

institutions subordinated to the Ministry of Education is regulated by the Education Law no. 84/1995, modified by Emergency Governmental Ordinance no. 36/1997 and by Law no. 15/1999. More specifically, Article 49 of the Law states that: In each county and in the municipality of Bucharest there are Psycho-Pedagogical Assistance Centres or Offices. In addition, it ensures educational and vocational guidance activities. Orders of the MoE regulate aspects related to the Statute of the PsychoPedagogical Assistance Centres for educational staff, students and parents, the Job description for the teacher (counsellor) and the Regulations regarding the organization and functioning of the PsychoPedagogical Assistance Centres and the Inter-School Psycho-Pedagogical Assistance Offices. The methodology of in-service teacher training in preuniversity education and order regarding guidance activities in preuniversity education, which clarifies school activities included in the Counselling and Guidance Curricular area The information, guidance and counselling activities operated by

institutions subordinated to the Ministry of Labour and Social Solidarity (MoLSS) is also regulated by Law (no. 145/9.07.1998) regarding the establishment, organizing and functioning of the National Employment and Vocational Training Agency (now the National Agency for Employment). The Agency administers Information and Career Counselling Centres network, with direct attributions regarding information, guidance and counselling, established by Common Order of the MoLSS, MoE (Order no. 3102/15.01.1998) and MoY (Order no. 59/22.01. 1998). Orders and Laws regulate approval of jobs classifications, professions and specialisations destined post high school that offer vocational training as well as approval | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 of scholar period, approval of the Criteria for accreditation the specialized services providers for employment stimulation, the unemployment
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insurance system and employment stimulation and the operation of ICC. The information, guidance and counselling activities operated in the INFOTIN Centres, subordinated to NASYI, Ministry of Youth is regulated by Orders of this ministry. It must be noted that the evaluation made in 1992 and 1993 by the World Bank experts on Romanian situation pointed out the necessity of creating a national coherent system for information and career counselling capable to answer the requirements enforced by the labour market dynamics. After this evaluation, the Information and Career Counselling Project was created in 1995 as a sub-component of the MoLSS RO-3849 Employment and Social Protection Project co financed by the World Bank. It is a governmental action specifically targeted towards increasing access to information, guidance and counselling and at insuring the equity to access on the labour market of all categories of clients. Two collaboration protocols have been established between the three involved ministries: the first protocol, on July 2001, proposed to continue the Information and Career Counselling project and it defined the tasks and responsibilities of the involved institutions aiming at the continuation of the information and vocational counselling activity after the World Bank financing ends. The second protocol on December 2002 concerned implementation of From school to professional life, toward career program aiming at youth unemployment prevention.

Services Provided In Romania, responsibility for policymaking and implementation related to Counseling and Vocational Guidance (VG) rests primarily with the following bodies: 1. The Ministry of Education network (MoE) which supervises: | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 a. Psycho-Pedagogical Assistance Centers (PPAC), operating in all counties of the country as well as in the capital and the Inter-School Psycho-Pedagogical Assistance Offices (ISPPAC) organized in schools with more than 800 students or by groups of schools (in schools with less than 800 students). Their targeted population consists of pupils on all levels of pre-university education and their parents while they are subordinated to the county School Inspectorates. They provide psycho-pedagogical counseling, educational guidance and psychological expertise in: educational and career guidance, behavior problems, school dropout prevention, difficulty in adapting to school requirements. b. Information and Guidance Centers (IGC) for higher education students and graduates, organized in big university centers which are connected to the high school and vocational schools network and organize information visits, debates, meetings, open-doors days for the youth interested in an academic route. Their aim is to In order to attract candidates to university entrance exams. own informative and/or promotional materials.
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support such initiatives, the respective offices are producing their

c. Complex Expertise Commissions for the psycho-diagnosis and guidance for students with disabilities.

Counsellors are responsible for the design and scheduling a semestrial/ annual management plan according to the institutions strategy they are working for (information, guidance and counselling services, staff development, PR, community relations, fund raising). 2. The Ministry of Labour and Social Solidarity network

(MoLSS): The Information and Career Counselling Centres (ICC) in the framework of the National Agency for Employment (NAE) are located in all counties of | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 the country as well as in the capital. They are regulated as follows: 227 centres in County Agencies for Employment, 500 centres in school units, MoER network and 47 information centres for youth within County Direction for Youth and Sports, MoY. Their targeted populations are young graduates, people with an unemployed status, adults searching for employment etc. The goals of these centres are to provide counselling services as well as information regarding labour market, educational route (training/ forming), personality evaluation and self-evaluation and develop the abilities and self-confidence of students and adults in making career decisions in the context of economic and social changes of Romanian society Moreover, there are a number of other organizations that offer
OCT 2010

information, career and guidance services: The Ministry of Youth network (MoY):

The Information and Consultancy Centres for Youth (INFOTIN) are established in the framework of the National Agency for Supporting Youth Initiatives (NASYI). The targeted population is youngsters aged 16-26. The Ministry of Health network (MoH) under which the following bodies provide counselling services: -Educational and Vocational Guidance Medical Commissions and Prophylactic, -Medicine Centres that deal with the medical validation of educational and vocational guidance of students at all preuniversity levels, -Information and Consultancy Pilot Centres for Families dealing with offering information and consultancy in various domains to families. Some employers organizations, banks, services or commercial companies have their own Human Resources services that deal with the information, guidance, counselling and selection of their

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 own staff or the newly employed.
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However, their activities are

strictly focused on their domains of interest. Trade unions occasionally supported information, guidance and counselling services, mainly in the case of restructured or privatised companies (which entailed massive personnel discharge). Some students associations offer information, guidance and counselling services, focused on supporting university graduates in finding jobs. Such services do not necessary involve counsellors, but teachers or the students. Traditional social partners are involved only sporadically and in a non-consistent manner in information, guidance and counselling activities. There are some private initiatives focused on selection and placement of the workforce, mainly qualified workforce. Information, guidance and counselling programs developed through projects funded by Phare, Tempus, Leonardo da Vinci, RICOP. Delivery Methods The MoE and its subordinated institutions (particularly the PsychoPedagogical Assistance Centres and the Inter-School Psycho-Pedagogical Assistance Offices, the Institute for Educational Sciences, Houses of Educational Staff, County School Inspectorates etc.) are responsible for producing and disseminating, on a national and local level, information regarding the offer in education and training at all levels of the education system. Each counsellor is responsible for producing and distributing his/her own advertising materials (leaflets, posters, guides etc.) in his/her area. However, there are an increasing number of information sources on the Internet, some of them designed by governmental institutions. Pre-university students work on debates, exercises, role plays, and simulation on educational and vocational guidance themes included in the school curriculum, group or individual counseling, use of ICT, educational fairs. | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 Within the framework of the Information and Career Guidance project the various activities have been implemented as the newspaper "A Future for Everyone, which contains basic information on guidance, counseling and self-awareness, career development and job seeking techniques (nine issues have been published in several million copies and distributed free of charge). Guidance A great contribution to the delivery method of Vocational was the drawing up of 450 occupational profiles, the
OCT 2010

dissemination of 16 advertising posters regarding career counseling; plus the production of 12 videos on topics relevant for career guidance; the tapes have been distributed to the Information and Vocational Guidance Centers. The Romanian education system does not include in the curriculum special classes in order the students to gain work experience and assist their career decision-making and understand the work environment. However, school counsellors and the teaching staff involved in meeting the provisions of the "Counselling and Guidance" Curricular area can organise (and they are strongly recommended to do so) various types of activities aimed at acquainting children with the activities which include visits to various work places (trade or production units, banks, media outlets etc.), meetings in class with successful professionals from various fields of activity, simulations of work situations etc. wanted" or vanishing occupations. University students work on mentoring and/or tutoring system, We can also mention here students mobility projects, study visits, watching videotapes on "most

educational fairs, job fairs, group or individual psychological counselling, career information and counselling Graduates at all levels of education and training seeking a job: labour market information, job seeking techniques, using ICT. The information provided by the Psycho-Pedagogical Assistance Centres and the Inter-School Psycho-Pedagogical Offices can be found on the Internet (on personalised sites), in their own professional bulletins for | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 counsellors and in the educational fairs they organise. In particular, the Psycho-Pedagogical Assistance Centres and the Inter-School PsychoPedagogical Offices use the following delivery methods: a)individual or group counselling sessions, b) test and questionnaires packages to identify skills and abilities c) investigation of certain occupations based on occupational profiles and video materials (12 videos on topics relevant for career guidance) d) speeches by successful people from various fields on success strategies e) assistance in drawing up job seeking documents (CV, letter of intention) and interview presentation f)Internet-based sources of information on integration in the labour market g) a software on self-assessing career interests, presentation of preuniversity educational offer, data management on the beneficiaries of counselling services etc. h) the Canadian test of vocational interests, after being translated and adapted i) a software for psychological evaluation of vocational abilities and interests is currently being developed It must be noted that through its Educational and Vocational Guidance Department, the Institute for Educational Sciences undertakes research in the field, designs working tools that meet the counsellor professional needs, organizes short term information/training programs for the counsellors working in the information, guidance and counselling network. The researchers working in the Educational and Vocational Department initiated many relevant projects and participated as partners in European projects targeted at: distance counselling, use of ITC in counselling activity, drawing up occupational profiles, designing open models of counselling, entrepreneurial and adult education, creating information tools for disseminating information on education and training opportunities etc. The methods used for the services offered to adults are different: The MoL and its subordinated institutions (particularly the
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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 and disseminating information on placement, adult continuous education, re-training etc. on a national, regional and local level. Furthermore, information in provided regarding vacancies offered by various employers, in various fields, including education requirements, practical experience, other special requirements, attributions, contact person, address, phone etc. The information is mainly produced on a printed form such as: leaflets, guides, newspapers, job profiles, matching tests, evaluation forms, catalogues, CD-ROMs etc. The providing institution is responsible for the reliability and accuracy of information. Job seeking techniques: editing a CV and a Letter of intent, presentation in interviews, editing a personal ad to be published in a specialized newspaper Information regarding the training courses supply Clients assistance in self-evaluation of skills, interests, self-image
OCT 2010

improvement, positive thinking Entrepreneurial information / training / education. Employed adults seeking a better job: re-qualification and vocational training, labour market information, individual assistance for finding a job Unemployed: individual assistance for social and vocational (re)insertion, self evaluation techniques, questionnaires, tests, labour market information, career counselling, follow-up Any other minority religious, ethnic etc. (e.g., Roma), people in danger of social/labour market exclusion: theme oriented programs, information, mentoring or / and tutoring system.

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8.2.8.

SPAIN

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Legal and Policy framework Information, guidance and counseling services in Spain are regulated, with respect to the central government, by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport (for the educational context) and Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs (for the labor market context according to RD 735/1995 of 5 May; MO of 10 October 1995 and MO of 20 January 1998). However, they do it independently with scant mechanisms for co-ordination between the two. Moreover, these services are mainly structured around the various areas of competence reserved to regional and municipal governments while their administration is largely in the hands of Autonomous Communities, through the regional training council. Even those that have not yet assumed these responsibilities also generally conduct their own guidance programs. As far as local governments are concerned, the main provider of information, guidance and counseling services is the municipal network of public libraries and the various sectoral information services, such as the tourist trade, youth and employment promotion. The central government is essentially responsible for co-ordination, to ensure that the public career information and guidance services deliver the respective information to students in the education system and their families, employed and unemployed workers and society at large. A later initiative was the Act of Vocational Qualifications and Training which governs the organization, administration, financing, staffing and provision of information, guidance and counseling services, integrates the various training offers and lays down the rules for nation-wide recognition and certification of vocational certifications as a mechanism for furthering Europe-wide standardization of training or certification levels on the EU marketplace.

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 The various social partners that participate in the provision of information, guidance and counseling services are coordinated by the General Council on Vocational Guidance. As far as particular laws are concerned, the following apply: General Act guidance General Act on Education (2006), reorganized the model of guidance provision and provided for it as one of the principles which underlie the Spanish educational system, considering that it is necessary for the achievement of a personalized training, which promotes comprehensive education on knowledge, skills and values. It is an organizational model that holds that Guidance is the responsibility of all education professionals. It structured guidance into three levels of action and organization, working in coordination with each other: Teacher-Tutor: each group of primary or secondary education is assigned a teacher-tutor. Guidance Teams: itinerant teams of experts for Primary Schools (external model) In Primary Schools the teacher-tutor is responsible for guidance, but there are also teams of educational psychologists that diagnose some problems and disabilities that can be detected at this early stage and provide the parents with initial information and guidance on the most appropriate psycho-educational intervention to be carried out. In addition, these teams are responsible for monitoring the evolution of the student. Those teams are made up mostly of psychologists, pedagogues and social workers. The functions of these professionals are as follows: | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study of the Education System (1990) for the first time, the
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education law recognized the right to receive educational and vocational

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- The educational psychologists, pedagogues and psychologists are part of the Educational Coordination Commission of the schools allocated to them and provide the centre, the students and their families with assessment and psycho-educational counseling; - Social workers are concerned with ensuring that schools meet the needs of the area in which they are located and that the students receive the social aids related to the education system.

OCT 2010

Guidance Departments: Every Secondary & VET School, and sometimes the Schools for Adults have a Guidance Department which coordinates tutors and organizes educational guidance, as well as vocational guidance.

The 5/2002 ACT on Qualifications and VET Todays Spanish VET & Guidance systems belong to an Integrated System, subdivided in two subsystems. It is the turning point for both Guidance and VET Systems. Prior to the Act there was no relationship between the World of Education and the World of Labor. After the Act first steps are being taken towards co-ordination & co-operation. A Working Group on Guidance Issues was established within the General Council for VET, a national specialized advisory body, which advises the Government on the field of VET. The launching of the new process of valorization of prior learning and working experience (2009 - Act on Recognition of professional competences acquired by work experience) This process will be carried out jointly by both administrations (Education and Labor),

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 Career Guidance is an optional measure of support in the whole of the process, (not a compulsory requirement). At present, a number of courses are been implemented (face-to-face and on-line) by the Ministry of Education for counselors and tutors that have to advise and guide the workers in the whole process. Sustainable Economy Draft Bill. This future law will dedicate an entire Chapter to VET. In its article 91 it mentions Career Counseling and Information Services. It also states: The Government will promote the development of a network of career counseling services that integrates the mechanisms depending on the Education and Labor Administrations, and all other stakeholders that provide guidance services as a public service. Quality Assurance of the Guidance System Provision Proper initial and continuing training for guidance practitioners. Widening access to guidance services. Special guidance services for SMEs. Coordination between guidance services and policies (education, employment and social integration policies
OCT 2010

Vocational Guidance at non-university levels VG is done in the different stages through the following procedures: Compulsory Secondary Education (ESO) Students receive basic training of a professional nature. This basic training consists of a set of knowledge, attitudes and skills common to a number of | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 technical or professional profiles, which are a guarantee of a multipurpose training. That way, it is intended to promote effectively the relationship between training and employment across the entire stage. This includes: a) A general technology education for all students as a specific area, which must include not only training in various techniques, but also the knowledge of social and productive environment; b) The introduction of diversified educational content and electives that allow for experiences or professional activities; c) Providing practical and half-professionalizing orientation to traditional subjects; d) Establishing objectives that promote the transition to working life. At this stage, guidance counselors have a very important role in detecting and diagnosing the problems that may lead to early school leaving. Two important tools have been developed in order to provide attention to diversity and drop-out rates: Strengthening, Guidance and Support Programs (PROA),
OCT 2010

encompasses a range of actions aimed at primary schools and secondary education. The common goal of all of them is to improve educational outcomes, both providing support and individualized measures for the students in order to avoid personal, social, economic or family problems can bring them to school failure and allocating resources in the school in order to facilitate that global change occurs. Thus, the aim is to provide quality education for all, promoting the enrichment of the educational environment, involving all the local community; Initial Professional Qualification Programs are aimed at young people, aged 16, who have not obtained a degree from ESO, in order to help them achieve proper skills qualifications at level 1 of | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 the current structure of the National Catalogue of Professional Qualifications so that they have the possibility of a successful labor integration, as well as enhance their skills and expand their core competencies for further study. High School (Bachillerato, non-compulsory Secondary
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Education): In addition to the presence of counselors in all schools at this level, the curriculum of this non compulsory secondary education also contains a basic training in order to: a) Providing practical and half-professionalizing orientation to traditional subjects. b) Establishing objectives that promote the transition to working life. c) the Providing with a diversified choice that enables students to move transition to professional life.

towards different fields of knowledge and productive activity, facilitating

Initial

Vocational

Training

(Intermediate

and

advanced

VET

courses) In addition to the presence of counsellors in all schools at this level, there are some specific characteristics in VET: Training and Guidance for Work Module. (FOL) in all training courses. Besides, the teacher who teaches this module usually joins the Guidance Department and performs functions relating to information and guidance of students, facilitating the understanding of employability pathways and notions necessary for the labor market, self-employment, etc. Currently, the educational legislation provides for the participation of social partners in the planning and management of VET. This | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 translates into a set of initiatives that are intended to ensure that vocational training and the working world coordinate among themselves:

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Inclusion of a

On-the-job Training

module in the

curriculum of all the training courses. Learning takes place in a real productive environment. Two professionals are in charge of advising pupils in the training process: a tutorteacher from the school and a supervisor on the job. This module is compulsory for all the students: the respective diploma is subjected to completion of this module;

Education authorities and experts from the world of work jointly develop a catalogue of professional qualifications that determine the training that the education system should provide;

Teacher training in companies; Participation of experts from the productive sector, in teaching in vocational training schools.

Guidance at University In most Universities there are counseling centers and employment information as a result of agreements between the university and PES (see below) Objectives: - Providing guidance in the job search to graduates and students in their final years - Informing about the educational and professional options available. - Facilitating the realization of internships, training courses and professional insertion | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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- Offering a free screening to companies to cover certain jobs. Guidance in the Labor Sector Guidance for Employment Guidance in the working world is provided by the Public Employment Offices. They provide vocational guidance activities for youth and adults unemployed Its primary objective is to get people into immediate employment, especially now, in this time of economic crisis. Even though a big effort is going into putting career counsellors on staff at all public employment offices, career Guidance is not provided on a continuous basis. Due to the decentralization of the Spanish administration things can be slightly different between different regions, but, in most of them, guidance is carried out as follows: Career Guidance Programs for Employment and Self Employment Assistance There are programs that aim to facilitate the employability of those who are seeking work, through the diagnosis, awareness and search for alternatives in your itinerary professional life. These provide different types of actions depending on the objectives and needs of each individual.

OCT 2010

Individualized tutoring:

Design, by mutual agreement between the user and the counselor, the work schedule to be followed by the person concerned. That way, even though they are not special actions for young people, this program becomes quite specific for them. Search Groups

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 Collective action dealt to provide the unemployed with the skills and knowledge required to perform a job search in an active, organized and planned way and to successfully pass a selection process in an enterprise. Personal development issues for employment
OCT 2010

Collective action that allows the unemployed to develop the skills and resources to overcome personal barriers that may hinder their employability Information and motivation for self-employment

Collective actions to introduce self-employment as a valid alternative to paid employment to enter the labor market

Advice for business project

Collective action to guide the jobseeker in preparing its business plan. It is aimed at entrepreneurs who have a specific business idea, advising them on the conduct of market research, marketing plan, production plan, financial planning and financial and legal form. Some of the regions also develop specific programs for immigrant people O.P.E.A. Action Program In general, the first work is carried out in the PES through personal interview that takes place at the time of enrolment in the employment services. After this initial intervention, and given the high volume of unemployed people, PES are sometimes unable to pay these services by themselves. Every PES has a number of centers that collaborate in the implementation of the various activities of vocational guidance for employment. They are generally non-profit institutions that are given a grant according to the calls held in each region or province. Some Universities also establish their | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 one collaborating centers through agreements with PES (see above, paragraph 1.3). The O.P.E.A. Action Program is a project financed by the European Union (European Social Fund). O.P.E.A. is an acronym of Orientacin Profesional para el Empleo y el Autoempleo (Vocational Guidance for Employment and Self Employment Assistance). It is a set of individual actions and / group actions, taught by professional counselors which aims to provide: 1. Information on the labor market; 2. Definition of career goals; 3. Identification of labor resources; 4. Guidance on professional interests; 5. Training in social communication skills; 6. Training in job search techniques. The professionals that work in the OPEAs are Technicians in Vocational Guidance for Employment and Self Employment Assistance. Most of them are initially psychologists, pedagogues and social workers, but there are some specific training to became a technician that is usually done in some private schools and universities (face-to-face and on-line specific masters and courses) Other initiatives European Networks and Projects
OCT 2010

Spain is an active member of: ELGPN: European Lifelong Guidance Policy Network EUROGUIDANCE: a network of centers linking together the Careers Guidance systems in Europe. ACADEMIA: transnational mobility project of Leonardo da Vinci Other cross border or transnational projects | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 Tools Resources for Guidance on the web
OCT 2010

Besides the European tools (Ploteus, Eures et al.) it is possible to find a lot of web pages web pages created by national, regional or private entities from which we can mention a few: Educational Guidance: www.orientared.com Guidance at the Labor sector : www.redtrabaja.es Every regional administration for education and labor, and every OPEA have developed their own on-line tools A new platform is been created at present by the Ministry of Education that will be operational in the coming months (www.todofp...) Associations of professional counselors

Every autonomous Region (Spain has 17 autonomous regions and 2 autonomous practitioners. Some of them gathered in national confederations. These associations or confederations hold meetings, workshops and courses that keep practitioners up to date. The Ministry of Education also organize from time to time meetings at local level or national level. cities) has one or several associations of guidance

Services Provided In the educational context: 1. The guidance and counselling activities provided as a part of school form mastering are compulsory, as they are delivered during class hours. | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 2. Families of pupils included in disadvantaged groups must be counselled by community service specialists working out of secondary schools guidance departments to be able to receive certain social benefits, to help school-age children attend school and follow certain procedural rules; while it is not compulsory to resort to the schools guidance department, use of this service is standard procedure. 3. Guidance advice on pupils academic and occupational prospects must be delivered to each student upon graduation from compulsory secondary education or social guarantee programmes.
OCT 2010

These services are addressed to compulsory secondary, education, baccalaureate and specific/initial vocational training students (school population between the ages of 12 and 21), pupils at risk of social exclusion, pupils with special educational needs associated with physical, mental or sensoral disabilities, pupils experiencing integration-related problems (ethnic minorities, immigrants etc) workers taking night or distance courses, families, teachers, education and business professionals, anyone requesting individualized information and counseling on educational subjects, internet users, university students and adults (over 18 lacking an elementary education certificate Spanish universities run employment guidance and information centres whose basic aims are to inform and guide students and enhance their employability. More specifically, besides the provision of information on training and employment issues, they manage in-plant training schemes, run a placement agency service, organize occupational career training in cooperation with different university institutions and public and private bodies. In the labour context: The guidance services provided in the Integrated Employment Services Plan require job applicants to attend guidance and counselling sessions, especially if they receive unemployment benefits or subsidies. | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 In trade unions, if unemployed people registered as job seekers refuse to attend information and guidance sessions, they may be penalised with loss of their benefits and seniority. The Chamber of Commerce run information, guidance and counselling services for their members with the aims of providing support for the transition process from school-tobusiness as well as collaborating in selection processes. However, chambers of commerce, trade unions and employer organizations, as well as other institutions such as, NGOs or not-for-profit foundations although not under the aegis of any Ministry need to be awarded a license by them and they are in fact being funded by them. In addition, they lend effective collaboration in information, guidance and counseling tasks. Private placement agencies can process job requests but with a more limited filed of action and as a result they constitute a supplementary tool for labour market information and guidance. Non-governmental organizations obtain funding from agreements with the Ministry of education, Culture and Sports or the Autonomous Community authorities and run labour information, guidance, training and mediation schemes with the purpose of promoting the employment of young adults, women, the elderly, refugees, immigrants, drug addicts etc. Finally, provincial and municipal governments often sponsor organizations that engage in employment guidance, support and promotion such as local development agencies, trade development agencies, municipal information offices etc. Delivery Methods A number of different methods are used depended on the resources available to the organization and user type. However, the most prominent are: Personalised support: Methods geared to self-knowledge, motivation, personal skills and formulation of an action plan | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study
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Methods geared to job-hunting: interviewing, resumes... Methods involving counselling and decision-making towards the end of each stage of education and in job-hunting processes

Group guidance and information: Informative sessions on the labour market Activities in connection with careers Group-wide information for specific user communities

General dissemination: Computerised information: CD-ROMs, websites, e-mail Information campaigns in the various media Collaboration with private initiatives

Moreover, in schools one hour of guidance class per week is a prerequisite throughout compulsory education and baccalaureate which include academic and career counseling. That amounts to 36 hours per school year. In addition, there is an elective subject titled Transition to adult and working life which includes career guidance although this is not specifically a career guidance course. A module titled Vocational training and guidance is included in all courses of specific/initial vocational training, for a total of 65 class hours per school year. Its aim is to qualify students for entry in the labor market by showing them how to take personal initiatives geared to actively seeking employment or self employment. Work Experience As far as work experience is concerned, only the baccalaureate curriculum includes basic vocational training in what is known as vocational formula subjects. Career Information

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 The Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport and the Autonomous Community Governments are involved in compiling career information to be circulated nation-wide as part of the material made available to students and/or guidance professionals. In addition, the qualification institutes and observatories established by the labor authorities conduct periodic surveys of the labor market and run career information studies.
OCT 2010

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9.

QUALITATIVE

ANALYSIS

QUESTIONNAIRE DATA
Before going on to present the data obtained through the questionnaires that were distributed, there is one point that should be made quite clear. This refers to the fact that the data presented in this section should only be viewed as a very general and probably not very representative estimate of the views of experts employed in the field of career guidance. The reason for the aforementioned statement lies in the undersized sample that was utilized for the qualitative analysis. The initial purpose of this questionnaire was to assess the views of experts in order to draw some conclusions on policies that are being met through career guidance services and also to gather information on the nature and effectiveness of the actual tools and methodology applied in various guidance settings. Unfortunately we received very little feedback on the latter in the questionnaires we distributed. Moreover, we received very low response rates from the guidance centers that the questionnaire was distributed to. Added to this, were the unforeseen changes in the working groups structure, whereby members from particular countries had to leave the working group and be replaced by other members coming from countries that were already represented in the working group. As such, the sample is not only undersized but also certain countries (Greece mainly) are overrepresented55.
55

The questionnaires were sent electronically, along with an introductory note explaining the purposes of the present baseline study and the use of the questionnaires, to all Euroguidance centers (available at http://www.euroguidance.net/), from which only Slovenia responded, with 2

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 Drawing conclusions was thus very problematic. As such, in the current section follows a presentation of the questions that were more significant and relevant to the aims of the baseline study. Also, selection of data presented in this section reflects those questions that received enough feedback so as to allow for a relatively valid statistical analysis.
OCT 2010

1. VG services are successful in promoting National and/ or European Policies

questionnaires. The rest of the sample came from Greek, Lithuanian and Cypriot guidance professionals employed both in the Education and the Employment national sectors of the aforementioned countries. Altogether, the questionnaires we received back were 15. The Working Group would particularly like to thank the Slovenian counselors for responding, as well as the rest of the counselors who took the time to complete the questionnaire.

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 Results in this section indicate that on a scale of 1 to 7 56, most professionals working in organizations that are involved in the delivery of guidance services agree that the services offered are quite successful in promoting national or European policies defining guidance provision. policies. It should be noted that the current question did not specify on the types of
OCT 2010

2. Types of policies for Educational and Vocational Counseling Services

When asked to specify the kinds of policies that are being met by the vocational guidance services employed at the organizations the respondents of the questionnaire were working for, the responses varied. As such, it was almost impossible to make any statistical inferences about the policies that, according to guidance professionals, are successfully being met. (results were calculated according to a 1 - 7 Likert scale 57).
56 57

Where 1 stands for strongly disagree and 7 stands for strongly agree. Where 1 stands for strongly disagree and 7 stands for strongly agree.

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3. How effective do you consider the vocational counseling tools in detecting learning gaps of young people in relation to their vocational choices

Results were calculated according to the responses of the respondents on a 1 7 Likert scale 58. In this section of the questionnaire, it would seem
58

Where 1 stands for strongly disagree and 7 stands for strongly agree.

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 that professionals working in vocational guidance organizations/ structures do not have a unanimous opinion on the effectiveness of methods applied in their work settings in detecting possible learning gaps of young people.
OCT 2010

4. Satisfactory training is provided to vocational counselors employed in the education and employment sectors

Results were calculated according to the responses of the respondents on a 1 7 Likert scale59.
59

As most studies point out, most guidance

Where 1 stands for strongly disagree and 7 stands for strongly agree.

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 professionals are not entirely satisfied by the level and quality of training that is provided to them.
OCT 2010

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10. GOOD PRACTICES (APPENDIX I)


Apart from Projects that have ended their workings and have disseminated final products, projects that are still ongoing have been included in the good practices section. The reason for this was the working groups desire to highlight some remarkable efforts around Europe that have the potential to produce valuable outcomes and prove useful for the target groups they are designed. The working group is aware of the fact that a project not yet completed may not produce all the planned outcomes, or may even fail altogether for a multitude of factors one cannot account for. Nevertheless, as these constitute innovative projects which have been approved and sponsored by EU funds, it would seem that the ongoing projects included in the present section are more than capable to deal with issues concerning the target group of this baseline study.

OCT 2010

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10.1

COMPLETED PROJECTS

OCT 2010

10.1.1. MEVOC QUALITY MANUAL FOR EDUCATIONAL AND VOCATIONAL

GUIDANCE
Field concerned: The assurance of quality of services provided by career counselors. (Meets the need for enhanced professional and qualitative career guidance services in the frame of the European dimension through the development of an internationally quality assurance programme for vocational and career development counselors) Kind of problems the Good Practice is capable to deal with: The project products include international quality standards for vocational and career counselors. The aim of the project is to develop a practice-oriented, interactive online tool that helps educational and vocational counsellors to identify high-quality counselling. In addition, it aims to facilitate self assessment counselling services and an improvement of required competences.

Beneficiaries: Career Counselors A dissemination of all results are available on the project website www.mevoc.net. Institutions involved Primary role

IBW - Institute for Research on Qualification and 19 institutions from Training of the Austrian Economy 9 countries (Austria, Germany, The IBW, the Institute for Research on Qualification and Netherlands, Italy, Training of the Austrian Economy was founded as an Poland, Romania, association by the Austrian Federal Economic Chamber United Kingdom; and the Federation of Austrian Industrialists in 1975. Sweden and Since this time the IBW has completed more than 1000 projects. The core of the IBWs staff is well experienced Hungary acting as scientists in the field of vocational research, including silent partners). engineers, graduates of sociology, educational sciences, The project process social and commercial sciences and psychologists.

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 and the products Other partners60 are regularly evaluated 1. The Austrian employment market service (AMS) internally and 2. The Vocational Training Institute Vienna externally. 3. BiWi, the professional information center of the vienna chamber of economy 4. Dr. Pendl & Dr. Management Partners Piswanger GmbH (P&P) Personal and

OCT 2010

5. The Jobservice is the career service of the University of Klagenfurt 6. The "Verein Schul-und Ausbildungsberatung-SAB", a non-profit association for educational councelling and career guidance in Graz 7. A corporate University of Applied Sciences the "Fachhochschule der Bundesanstalt fr Arbeit", Mannheim/Germany 8. ASTER S. Cons. p.a. - no profit organisation - a Consortium among 4 Universities of the Emilia Romagna Region (Bologna, Modena and Reggio Emilia, Parma and Ferrara), Centro Nazionale di Ricerca - CNR (National Research Centre), Ente per le Nuove Tecnologie, l'Energia e l'Ambiente - ENEA (Organisation for New Technologies, Energy and Environment), the Emilia Romagna Region through Ervet, Unioncamere and the main entrepreneurial associations. 9. CINOP, the national Centre for the Innovation of Education and Training in the Netherlands 10. The Academy of Humanities and Economics (AHE) in Lodz 11. The Institute of Educational Sciences is the national research authority in education, with status of autonomous body within the Ministry of Education. 12. Careers Europe which was created in 1992 as a joint initiative of the Careers Service Branch and the careers service in Bradford, to act as a national resource centre for UK careers services

60

For further information on the coordinator and the cooperating partners (active and silent) please visit the following link: http://www.mevoc.net/EN/htm/fs.htm

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13. Gesellschaft fr angewandte personalforschung Gap mbh


OCT 2010

Period of action MEVOC was a three year Leonardo da Vinci project launched on 1 related to the October 2003 and lasted until 2006. MEVOC was initiated and Good Practices coordinated by the Institute for Research on Qualification and Training of the Austrian Economy (ibw). Project aims and final products:

Quality standards for educational and vocational counsellors building on existing national and international guidelines Self Assessment-Tool for checking counsellor competences and skills and identifying deficits (available on www.mevoc.net) MEVOC-Database that provides a wide range of information on how to acquire / improve counsellor skills and competences (available on www.mevoc.net) Client checklist to facilitate a critical assessment of counselling offers

Client feedback questionnaire Abstract (description of the action):

The MEVOC competence standards were developed by the MEVOC expert team building on the results of an extensive ex-ante analysis that was conducted during the first project phase61. They are available in English, German, Italian, Dutch, Romanian and Polish. The originally developed MEVOC standards (full version as shown below) include seven competence categories, which are Education and Career, Methodology and Tools, Counselling Skills, Organisational Skills, Placement, Personality, and Information Management. After developing the MEVOC quality standards the partnership conducted an international Delphi expert survey in all project partner countries ( Austria, Germany, UK, Netherlands, Romania, Poland) in order to empirically evaluate the standards. The study included 127 experts of the vocational and career guidance sector who replied to a quantitative and qualitative questionnaire in written form. They were asked to indicate whether each individual quality standard was highly required in practice, medium required in practice or not required in practice according to their experience. Furthermore they were asked to add missing standards. The results of the Delphi survey led to the decision that a reduced version of the
61

For further details on the phases of the project please visit the webpage: http://www.mevoc.net/EN/htm/fs.htm

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 standards should be developed including only the most important standards. The partners identified those standards that were regarded as highly required by at least 75% of all respondents and added several other standards that had not reached the 75% benchmark but were still regarded as highly important in practice by the MEVOC expert team. The reduced MEVOC standards consist of four competence categories, i.e. Education and Career, Counselling Practice, Personality and ICT Skills. The MEVOC finally developed and provide freely online: A MEVOC self assessment tool on the basis of the MEVOC standards, i.e. the required skills and competences. It can be used for the self-evaluation of vocational and career counsellors skills and competences and for identifying potential deficits. The counselor can log in and assess his skills online A MEVOC database has been developed on the basis of the MEVOC selfassessment tool by the international project expert team. While the selfassessment tool is used for the self-evaluation of vocational counselling skills and competences, the MEVOC database offers concrete tips on how vocational and career counsellors can acquire and/or brush up their skills and competences. The MEVOC database offers information such as relevant formal education offers further education offers publications organisations and websites networks

OCT 2010

A MEVOC client feedback questionnaire has been developed as a paper and pencil questionnaire that can be applied in group and individual counselling at schools, at universities and at vocational and career counselling institutions. It should be handed to clients either in the middle (if more than one counselling sessions are the case) or at the end of the counselling process or even at several times during counseling. The target group is adults, school pupils and students. The questionnaire contains questions about the counseling process and demographic questions for your statistics (age, gender, job/education status).

A MEVOC client checklist has the aim to help counselors identify high quality | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 vocational and career counselling. It offers a list of tips concerning: - what information should ideally be offered on a counselling institutions website/in a catalogue which additional questions a counselor could ask at the institution on the phone/via email

OCT 2010

Client checklist is also available in Bosnian, Turkish, Slovenian, Serbian, Croatian, and Hungarian Documentation/S Web site: ources related to the Good http://www.mevoc.net practices Reports In the website of MEVOC project http://www.mevoc.net (under the link Publications) there is a number of publications by the coordinators and partners of the project, describing their methodology and outcomes. The available online MEVOC products fulfill the validation criteria62 as described in the Handbook of the European Social Fund- Learning Networks Common Methodologies, Issue 5. They are user friendly, developed after the implementation of scientific methodology; they are innovative for they can be freely used by counselors around Europe with the use of ICT. In general MEVOC is a very useful database for career development counselors in order to be self assessed on a common basis with colleagues from other countries of Europe and take feedback for their work and collect data about Guidance and relevant issues on valid and reliable websites. Additional Additional useful websites that MEVOC gives link to: sources for Association of Graduate Recruiters documentation available on line Association of Graduate Careers Advisory Services Careers Education Support Programme Careers Europe Careers Research an Advisory Centre (CRAC)

62

AEIDL, Learning Networks- Common Methodologies/PO_CM_5_Promoting Results_en_v06.doc

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Careers Scotland
OCT 2010

Careers Wales Connexions Department for Education and Skills Euroguidance European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training Federation of Professional Associations in Guidance Guidenet IAG Partnerships Institute of Careers Guidance International Association of Career Management Professionals International Association for Educational and Vocational Guidance Learning and Skills Council Learning and Skills Development Agency Life-long learning National Association of Careers and Guidance Teachers National Association for Managers of Student Services National Association for Careers Education and Counselling Office for Standards in Education Organisation for Economic Co operation and Development Qualifications and Curriculum Authority | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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The Guidance Council


OCT 2010

Third Age Network Coordinating Institution IBW - Institute for Research on Qualification and Training of the Austrian Economy Rainergasse 38 A-1050 Wien Austria Tel.: ++43 1 545 16 71 0 Fax: ++43 1 545 16 71 22 e-mail: Monika Thum-Kraft e-mail: Julia Zdrahal-Urbanek e-mail: Roswitha Hinterstein (finances) Internet: www.ibw.at

Contact details

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10.1.2. INTERNET SITE OF CAREERS EUROPE , EUROGUIDANCE CENTER,

OCT 2010

U.K.
Field concerned: -Provide valid and reliable information on job placements, working and studying opportunities for citizens of UK, EU and other countries around the world -Improve Employability and Mobility throughout Europe -Contains information for refugees, asylum seekers, EU Migrants and for those working with these groups in an advisory capacity -Provide quality of services provided by career counselors -Act as a networking organization between career counselors around Europe: Careers Europe is a joint initiative of the Careers Service Branch and the careers service in Bradford and acts as a UK National Resource Centre for International Careers Information providing resources to Careers services, Connexions services and other information and advisory services throughout the UK and EU. Kind of problems the Good Practice is capable to deal with: Careers Europe carries out a number of different activities, it is a resource centre that work in a number of different European projects, produces curriculum support materials and offers training and organises placements for guidance professionals in other countries. The web page, escecially the link EXODUS, is an excellent resource for UK, producing information on opportunities in other countries, particularly in the EU and EEA but also in other countries worldwide. The link EISODUS provides information for refugees, asylum seekers, EU Migrants and for those working with these groups in an advisory capacity Careers Europe acts as a publisher of careers information, producing material in printed and electronic formats. Furthermore, they carry out a number of transnational projects concerning careers guidance, mobility and the promotion of language learning. They also offer training and information sessions about European opportunities and transnational guidance. Coupled with this they also organise study visits to the UK for professionals from other countries and placements for UK guidance professionals in other countries in Europe through our guidance exchange programme. | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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At the same time it is the UK Euroguidance centre. Euroguidance is the network of resource centers linking the guidance communities across 32 countries in Europe. In this capacity they produce information about the UK and deal with enquiries from European partner centers. They also answer enquiries from around the world about studying in the UK, which are directed to Careers Europe through the PLOTEUS website. Beneficiaries: Careers advisers, careers teachers and their clients (pupils, students, unemployed etc). It also contains information of use to teachers of other subjects. It is intended for use in careers and connexions centres, schools, universities, colleges, public libraries and other public information points. They also provide information and useful resources to Migrant communities through their online database EISODOS. Institutions involved Due to the fact that Careers Europe collaborate with many institutions through the transnational projects, a small reference to their network can be mentioned: Sweden: University of Gavle, Helsinge Education, Stiftelsen Kursverksamheten Vid Lund Universitetet/Folkuniversitetet Slovenia: KADIS HR and Education Engineering d.o.o UK: Careers Wales Gwent, Austria: BEST Institut fur berufsbezogene Weiterbildung and Personaltraining GmbH, IBW Institute for Research on Qualification and Training of the Austrian Economy, FHWien University of Applied Sciences of WKW, Danube University Krems Primary role Careers Europe was created in 1992. It was recognized that with the creation of the Single European Market in that year, and the freedom of movement this granted UK citizens, that there was a need for a centre of expertise, able to research and interpret careers information on the member states of the European Union and to present that information in a clear and accessible way for guidance counsellors in the UK. The role of the Careers Europe rapidly developed as other organisations began to make use of Careers Europe, as the centre became recognized as the UK centre for information on other countries, whether in the EU or not, and with the creation of the Euroguidance network by the European Commission. They also provide detailed or personal advice through their user network of information and advisory services. Other partners Careers Europe works in a number of different European projects, produces curriculum support materials and offers training and organise placements for guidance professionals in other countries. This proves that they are operating in an excellent way and can be viewed as a

OCT 2010

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 model Euroguidance Center. Careers Europe collaborates with many institutions around Europe and co-organises transnational European projects as:

Portugal: Planeamento e Cooperao, Instituto de Orientao Profissional, Universidade de Lisboa

OCT 2010

European Certificate for Guidance Counsellors, Italy: Province of Cagliary, Ergo in Net, EuroGuideVal, Gateway to Guidance, Province of Firenze, Province of Gendernet, GIRC, Guidance Merger, Guidelife, Guidenet, IntComp, Love Language, MEVOC, Spezia QUTE, REIM, Retain, Searched and Found, TAG, Greece: IEKEP, The Institute of TalkIT, Total Counselling, Transit, Young Training & Vocational Guidance, And currently in the ongoing projects: Asset Technology Slovakia: Centrum pre rozvoj zamestnanosti (CRZ) Germany: GAP, Gesellschaft fr angewandte Personalforschung Norway: College Akershus University CCW - Career Counselling Web, C-Xtra-EU, Envogue, Guidance Exchange, Interregion, QUIGUS, Seker, YELL

Latvia: Centre for Quality of Studies is a department at Vytutas Magnus University And many more Period of action related to the Good Practices 1992 still updated Their user friendly web page which is such a reliable source of information that is visited by citizens around Europe (and not only by UK citizens) is a great proof of their success. Furthermore the fact that they are continuously invited as collaborative partners to the implementation of transnational European Projects by European Universities and other institutions proves their advanced networking actions and high level of management Careers Europe was created in 1992 and from this year they have expanded their functions and actions and enhanced their network with | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 partners around Europe and they are still functioning actively in diversified fields concerning Vocational Guidance and Counselling Abstract (description of the action): 1. The most comprehensive range of European and International Careers Materials is available through their web page. 2. Careers Europe offers a range of products and services supporting careers guidance and careers education. These include information materials, curriculum support materials, help & advice and training and presentations. 3. Information materials 4. Information is available in a variety of media, printed, on CD ROM and via the net. They produce careers information on opportunities in Europe & beyond, as well as information for incomers to the UK. For careers and connexions service users, they back up these published materials with an advisers helpline, giving a complete information service. 5. Electronic materials 6. EXODUS: Their international careers information database available on CD-ROM or online 7. EISODOS: Their Migrant Communities Information Resource available online. 8. Enquiry Service: In order to provide a comprehensive service to their user network, Careers Europe operates as a helpline. If a member of our user network is faced with an enquiry that our published materials do not cover then they can use our helpline. We will research and undertake such enquiries put to us by our users by telephone, fax or e-mail 9. Curriculum Support Materials: They produce a variety of materials to support careers education and learning about Europe in the curriculum. 10. Newsletters: They also produce a newsletter, EuroExpress, in both printed and electronic formats for their user network Documentation/Sources Web site related to the Good practices http://www.careerseurope.co.uk Reports In their web page there are links to every transnational European project they participate in; plus there are links to their online information | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

OCT 2010

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 recourses and services, where every interested party can have access and download material
OCT 2010

Is the available documentation sufficient to document the results achieved and the impacts produced by the Good Practice? Careers Europe is an organization reliable and valid and can be considered as a good example of function to every European Center that is dealing with Vocational Guidance and Counseling. They can be considered as a model of functioning in manifold actions and levels as well as one of the best good practices around Europe. Contact details Careers Europe Onward House 2 Baptist Place Bradford West Yorkshire BD1 2PS Tel: +44 (0) 1274 829500 Fax: +44 (0) 1274 829505 Email: info@careerseurope.co.uk

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10.1.3. CAREER GUIDANCE SERVICES FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP

OCT 2010

Field concerned: Development of entrepreneurial skills and awareness within secondary school children segment. Provide guidance to students and trainers Kind of problems the Good Practice is capable to deal with: As a transnational pilot project supported by the Leonardo da Vinci programme of the European Commission it aims to highlight the awareness of entrepreneurship as a dynamic and social process where students, alone or in cooperation, identify possibilities and develop ideas which they use to create practical activities either in social, cultural or economic contexts. A second aim is to facilitate entrepreneurship and close contact with local companies as a means for guidance and counseling, and to help to develop entrepreneurial skills in secondary school students. Thus three different Guidelines for cooperation between schools, students/trainers and mentors in order to give better guidance to students/trainers through their own practice and in cooperation with business companies will be created. Beneficiaries: Secondary school students, trainers and mentors. Institutions involved Primary role Sr-Trndelag fylkeskommune is the promoter and responsible for the coordination, administration and finances of the project partnership

Upper secondary schools, Universities, Other Partners organisations, and mentor companies 1. Sor-Trondelag county council (Norway) from 5 European 2. Sr-Trndelag University College. Faculty of teacher and countries: Norway, Interpret Education (Norway) Poland, Slovakia, Sweden and UK. 3. Melhus Upper Secondary School (Norway) 4. Rros Upper Secondary School (Norway) 5. The Complex of Upper Secondary Schools of Mechanics, Electrics and Electronics in Toru (Poland)

6. ZSAKiHU - Zesp Szk Architektury Krajobrazu i HandlowoUsugowych im. W.Szafera (Poland)

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 7. Nicolaus Copernicus University (Poland) 8. The Secondary Vocational School in Prievidza (Slovakia) 9. GLC - the Global Learning Centre (Sweden) 10. Hjalmar Strmer School of Upper Secondary Education (Sweden) 11. Mid Sweden University (Sweden) 12. Wargentinsskolan upper secondary school (Sweden) Period of action So far, the Norwegian and Polish partners of the Project have related to the cooperated within the Norwegian LinkingUp programme. This was a mobility project for counsellors and now they intend to go Good Practices further with counselling and Entrepreneurship. The Norwegian and Swedish partners have also cooperated in a Interreg IIA programme in developing Young Enterprise. The partners all contributed to the work of develop, create and test a model for Career Guidance Services to the aim of developing an entrepreneurial spirit in young people. The contribution was from the partners different roles, experiences, perspectives and skills. The partners all used their different networks- old one as well as new networks- to develop the project as well as to spread the results. The project was developed from local Norwegian project introducing Career Guidance as a new approach to Guidance and Counseling in secondary schools in Sr-Trndelag county in 2000. The Project was spread and implemented to all the participant partners from the European countries. Abstract (description of the action): The project idea has been developed in cooperation between the Swedish and Norwegian educating partners. The network is broad locally, nationally and internationally regarding to types of organization such as: Upper secondary schools, enterprises, universities, voluntarily organizations, employer and trade union organizations, public authorities etc. We distinguish between three types of partners: The project focused in achievement of entrepreneurship through cooperation between schools and enterprises. The partnership is built on regional cooperation in a European context. All basic partners in secondary schools were supposed to find cooperating partners in their regional environment and the main activities were developed from there. While partners contributed to the project by mentoring the students and cooperating with schools and by giving presentations at meetings and eventually conferences during the lifetime of the project. Partners cooperated in developing and trying out Guidelines for career guidance and entrepreneurship for schools, students | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study
OCT 2010

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 and mentor companies. The methods of cooperating were through partner meetings and on Web and ICT.
OCT 2010

The Guidelines were evaluated and valuated by supervising partners both through the project and in the end of the project. Finally the results are disseminated locally, nationally and internationally, through the webpage of the project.
The main objectives of the project were the following: Through

the project the students will experience the building of networks in real life.

This is an important element in career guidance. They will achieve insight in and knowledge of the opportunities for employment, and also inspiration to start their own enterprises, which will strengthen the local business life. In addition they will also get insight in education systems and in business cultures in different European countries. They emphasize on good attitudes to correct and legal way of running businesses. This can be attitudes to taxes, employer -employees relations and social security. The cooperation with mentor companies will give knowledge and insight through practice, which again will give the students higher motivation and understanding for the need of further education. A major impact of this cooperation will also be the improved access to individual Career Guidance for the students. In the collaboration between students and mentor companies we will emphasise environmental issues and the equal opportunities for both sexes. An additional impact will be that students from different countries will learn to know each others cultures, and thereby increase their understanding and tolerance, which is of importance for the future of Europe . Documentation/S Web site ources related to the Good http://www.cgse.eu practices There are 3 guidelines, final products of the Project that can be downloaded: Guidelines for Students, Guidelines for Schools and Guidelines for Mentors at http://www.cgse.eu/Eng/Results.htm. Additional Careers Learning: www.hihohiho.com/ national/ local sources for Junior Achievement Europe: www.ja-ye.org documentation Young Enterprise Norway: www.ue.no/ available on line Yong Enterprise Sweden: www.ungforetagsamhet.se/ | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 Enterprise Europe: http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/entrepreneurship/smes/awards/ind ex_en.htm *there are also web-links with useful web-pages under the link of each collaborative partner of the Project Coordinating institution: Sr-Trndelag fylkeskommune Address: Sr-Trndelag County Department for education, Erling Skakkes gt 14, 7004 Trondheim, Norway Contact person: yvind Ingstad Tel: +4774826000 Fax: +4774826161 Email: oyvind.ingstad@stfk.no

OCT 2010

Contact details

10.1.4. ON THE MOVE : NEXT STOP LABOUR MARKET Field concerned: The project aims at empowering and integrating, occupationally and socially, young people who drop out of secondary education, through the active involvement of NGOs and social organizations and their networking with the competent public organizations. Kind of problems the Good Practice is capable to deal with: This project was co-funded by Equal initiative, from the European Social Fund and the Greek Ministry of Employment and Social Protection and generally aimed at young people who drop out of compulsory education and have to cope with a variety of occupational and social problems. The aims of the project were: Provision of high quality Career Guidance services Equipment of young people with social and vocational qualifications while promoting gender equality Pilot implementation of new practices for the empowerment and motivation of vulnerable young people as well as the production of suitable educational material Placement of young people in jobs that have quality and prospects Improving the infra structure of guidance services of the organizations that | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 participate in the project as well as reinforcing their cooperation with Public Counseling, Training and Employment Services for young people
OCT 2010

Sensitization of Greek society on the issue of dropping out

Beneficiaries: The target group is young people, of different cultural background, who drop out of secondary education, mostly unemployed, but also employed in jobs of low quality, especially through the establishment of Mobile Counseling Units, which would reach the youngsters instead of waiting for them to seek for counseling. Institutions involved The bodies involved in the project: training organizations (1 public, 1 private), the Greek General Secretariat of Youth, two public pedagogical institutes, private companies, a NGO, a social organization, a university, a third degree local authorities) Primary role IEKEP (Institute of Training and Vocational Guidance) Other partners Pedagogical Institute, (under the supervision of Ministry of Education) Lifelong Learning Institute, General Secretary of Lifelong Learning, Ministry of Education KEDKE (Central Union of the Municipalities of Greece) Vocational Training S.A. University of Thrace, Schools for Teachers Athens Urban Traffic Organisation (OASA) TREK Consulting A.E Panhellenic Organisation I Nea Estia A.Liagkas D. Giannakli & & CO - nteract Education Period of action Project is finished. Execution period: 2005-2008 related to the Good Practices Abstract (description of the action): In order to meet the needs of this target group the following actions were implemented: Conduction of two field researches: one exploring the career needs of young people and the other analyzing the needs of the enterprises | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 Operation of a Mobile Guidance and Information Unit, visiting communities in the Prefecture of Attica, offering information and guidance services to young people of the target group supporting them in acquiring social skills and improving their self-confidence Subsidized Vocational Training Programmes Placement of young people in Work Experience Acquisition Programmes, that is, trial employment with the aim of providing active career guidance through the acquisition of work experience Job Placement of young people
OCT 2010

Implementation of Empowerment Workshops for young people aiming at

What was achieved by the project Centers of Information and Career Guidance for Young People Four Information and Guidance Centers of Young People, three operating in the wider area of Athens and one in Thrace (Northern Greece) were established. Youth Counselors, that is, trained and qualified staff received young people who have dropped out of education and offered them Counseling and Career Guidance services. The Youth Counselors are supported in their work by a group of young volunteers. Mobile Guidance and Information Unit for Young People It is a suitably converted bus where Youth Counselors offer information and guidance services to young people. In cooperation with the Local Authorities and the local social organizations, the Mobile Guidance and Information for Young People Unit visits the municipalities of Attica that do not have permanent Information and Guidance Centers. Youth Empowerment Workshops The Youth Empowerment Workshops aimed at the development of the: core and social skills of young people their self-awareness their mobilization

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 The equipment of young people with vocational skills constitutes one of the core aims of the Project. Five training programmes were implemented, two in Thrace: Waiters/tresses and Cooks and three in the region of Attica: Warehouse staff, Cooks and Office Support Clerks with the use of P/C Programme for Work Experience Acquisition As the greater difficulty that these young people face in their attempt to enter the labor market is the lack of work experience, the trial employment programme in enterprises is considered extremely valuable. Career Guidance tools & material In order for the Youth Counselors to be able to successfully provide guidance services the following guidance and information tools were developed in the framework of the Project: * * * * 165 occupational profiles, Computer assisted vocational guidance programme (Compass), Career Guidance Handbook for the Youth Counselor, Personal Development Notebook for the Young
OCT 2010

Innovative points The major innovative points are the following:


The development of know-how in coping with the problems of drop-outs. The involvement of NGOs and social organizations in providing focused guidance and employment services. The open and flexible character of empowerment workshops. The design and function of mobile guidance and information services. The involvement of young volunteers and the organization of a Youth Consulting Committee for ensuring the active participation of young people.

All actions contain provisions for gender mainstreaming. Transnationality | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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The expectations from the European D.P. are:


OCT 2010

Exchange of experience and know-how in dealing with the specific target group. Development of common innovative approaches in empowering and training young people. Development of common tools and products (educational, guidance etc).

Emergence of good practices in cooperating with companies and placing young people. Documentation/Sourc Web site es related to the http://www.onthemove.gr/ProjectDescription.aspx? Good practices si=2&SSI=1 Detailed reports provided online about the transnational agreement EASE (which is referred to: Employability and Adjustment in Social Economy) that was signed after the initiative of this Project, between three developmental consortiums: Italy, Greece and Slovakia: ID Code of the transnational co-operation agreement: www.terzosettore.integrazioni.it N.O.T.: New Opportunities in the Territories Secretary (automatic generation): FO.R.R.E.S.T., Forum Reti e Risorse per lEconomia Sociale e il Territorio, IT-G2-EMI-008 (Italy) - Forum for Networks and Resources for the Social Economy and for the Territory. PSs involved: OZ Inklzia, SK-10 (Slovakia); On the Move: Next Stop Labor Market, GR-232245 (Greece). There is also information in Greek language available online on the Greek site: http://www.onthemove.gr/Documentation.aspx?si=7&SSI=1 Additional national/ In the Greek version of the web page there are useful links local sources for for Universities, Institutions, Organizations, European web documentation pages where additional information can be provided available on line Contact details Coordinating institution of the Developmental Partnership: On the Move | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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IEKEP - Averof 34A, ea Ionia Tel.:0030 210 2586970 Fax:0030 210 2586972 e-mail: info@iekep.gr

OCT 2010

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OCT 2010

10.1.5. CAREER DIRECTIONS Field concerned: Career options information available online. Kind of problems the Good Practice is capable to deal with: The project mainly is designed and aims to provide detailed careers options information on each career and to match to suitable careers based on interests and qualifications, online. Beneficiaries: Individuals seeking for career information, especially pupils of the secondary education Institutions involved Irish national training employment authority. Primary role and FAS Irish national training and employment authority Other partners: FS and CASCAiD Ltd, Loughborough University collaborated in order to develop this software available online Period of action related to the Good Practices The web page was established in 2003. It is in use and the fact of continuous website improvement and updating should be highlighted.

Abstract (description of the action): The website is already developed, can be used freely by pupils and their counselors, and it offers 2 ways of getting career information: 1. Career directions database which allows viewing all careers in A to Z order, together with detailed information about each career (aspects of work, work activities, personal qualities and skills, pay and opportunities, training etc). The Career Directions Database is ideal if a youngster already has some career ideas in mind, or simply wants to browse all careers in the A to Z list. They also have the option of viewing the careers ordered by any one of 14 different Types of Work. The careers database is a valuable resource for detailed career information and someone can spend as little or as much time as you want exploring it. 2. Career directions matching program which can match to suitable careers | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 based on individual interests and qualifications. The Career Directions Matching program is ideal if a youngster wants some help in knowing which careers may suit him/her, or wants to check or expand upon any of existing career ideas. They have to be prepared to spend some time answering a series of questions before they can view initial matched suggestions; this may take up to an hour to do. They will then need to answer more questions to produce a more accurate list of career suggestions which can be used to explore career choices. To use Career Directions Matching to its full potential may take up to 2 hours or more, depending on the pupils situation. However, they can always exit the program and retrieve saved data later to carry on with their session.

OCT 2010

Documentation/Sources Web site related to the Good http://www.careerdirections.ie practices

A wide variety of valid information concerning career options and all fields of employment is provided through this web site, that can be used from pupils trying to schedule their careers in Ireland and more widely from all around Europe; on the condition that pupils can read English. Additional national/ local Due to the specific design of the databases, there sources for documentation is no additional documentation provided apart available on line from the detailed information within the databases. Contact details Contacts for feedback concerning the website is provided: essunit@fas.ie

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10.1.6. CAREER GUIDE FOR SCHOOLS NETWORK

OCT 2010

Field concerned: The CareerGUIDE for Schools networks main aim is to promote career education and awareness in
European schools, bridging the gap between school and the world of work

Kind of problems the Good Practice is capable to deal with: Project was financed by Socrates / Comenius III and aimed to promote career education and awareness in European schools, bridge the gap between school and the world of work. To resolve it the tool CareerGUIDE web portal which acts as a forum for information, communication and promotion of career guidance in schools was developed. Beneficiaries: Pupils up to 12 years old, counselors and teachers specialized in career guidance and policy makers. Institutions involved Primary role

The institutions involved in the Ellinogermaniki Agogi, Greece (Hellenic- German project were from 9 EU Schooling) countries: Greece, UK, France, Other partners Germany, Lithuania, Bulgaria, Austria, Romania, and Estonia. 1. Orientum, Greece Partners profiles are: education 2. Newman College of Higher Education, institutions, institutes, public United Kingdom relations agency, and career counseling company. 3. INSEAD, France 4. Technical University of Dresden, Germany 5. University of Louis Pasteur, France 6. ALBA Graduate Business School, Greece 7. Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania 8. Technical University of Sofia, Bulgaria 9. Institute for Future Studies, Austria 10.IPA S.A., Romania

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 11.Kaunas Maironis Gymnasium, Lithuania 12.Alfa-Omega Communications, Estonia The Project is finished. Execution period was: 2005 to 2008. The web page is active and though the available statistics has a big number of visitors
OCT 2010

Period of action related to the Good Practices

Abstract (description of the action) Project was mostly concerned and aimed to: bring career guidance to the education policy front and contribute to the upgrading of teaching and learning career development ; explore the best practices on the implementation of career guidance education in Europe ; gather and evaluate ICT-based methodologies and practices addressed to career guidance; offer specialized support and training opportunities to educators of career guidance in schools throughout Europe; develop new curriculum guidelines; develop generic skills profiles relevant to key jobs.

To achieve these goals working groups for research were created. The working-groups include different-subject scientific experts, sharing the same interest in researching a specific aspect of career guidance. They focus on different sub thematic areas and work independently in a particular topic of career guidance. The teams were working independently but were meeting and reflecting to each other periodically in a face-toface or virtual manner. Conferences were organized too. Working groups were organized around 3 topics (in the initial project stage 4 groups were created, but then they were adjusted to 3: Working Group 1: Know about yourself. In this framework, practices concerning personal recognition and development were investigated. Other parts of the research activities of this working group were the unities of selfconcept, self-esteem, self-assessment, childrens interests and values. An activity concerning personal development was implemented in Ellinogermaniki Agogi School in the third class of High School. Working Group 2: Know about the labour market. In this working group, topics concerning labour market were worked on. Main topics were industry constraints, researches on marketable and non marketable professions. Apart | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 from the labour market information, an attempt also was made in order to provide a methodology for organizing career panels and career days in high schools or educational institutes. Working Group 3: Develop your career path. In this working group, practices concerning career design skills especially, problem solving and decision making were studied. The development of competencies and skills or role playing games, theoretical models on decision making skills, CV writing, developing presentation skills, social skills, communication skills, personal effectiveness, cultural adaptation skills and learning how to search job vacancies were the chapters that were investigated.

OCT 2010

The main tool of the networks function is the CareerGUIDE for Schools Web Portal which accumulates information on the issue of career guidance from various European countries. The platform has been developed as an integrated communication tool providing direct access to communication, information and professional support. As the final result of project CareerGUIDE web portal which acts as a forum for information, communication and promotion of career guidance in schools http://www.career-guide.eu was developed. Documentation/Sources Web site related to the Good http://www.career-guide.eu practices Reports available through their website concerning their initiative, tools for each of the thematic areas they are occupied with, Comenius Actions and information about European Dimension on Career Guidance and Counseling. There is also a final report about Effective Career Guidance: Nora Gikopoulou, Guidance, 2008, Report on Effective Career

http://www.careerguide.eu/uploads/cg_handbook_low.pdf Additional national/ local Links and information is provided on the following sources for documentation subjects and Organizations: available on line -Vocational Training Programme -Joint Actions | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 -Leonardo da Vinci Valorisation activities -European Employment Strategy -European Social Fund -Equal Initiative -Dynamic Online tool for Guidance -Intercultural and Linguistic Barriers in Continuously Accessible Vocational Guidance and Counseling -Parents as facilitator in choosing vocational education for their children .Training for school career counselors focused on co-operation with parents Bulgaria: link to National Recourse Center for Vocational Guidance Estonia: link to National Resource Centre for Guidance Education, Labor Market and Career Guidance in Estonia France: link to Integrating Guidance Information Systems in France & to: ONISEP Greece: links to -The first steps in Career Guidance -Career Guidance Today -Sector of Career Guidance -National Center for Vocational Orientation Ireland: link to National Centre for Guidance in Education Lithuania: links to -Education and Career Guidance in Lithuania -The Information, Guidance and Counseling System In Lithuania | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study
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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 -Open Information, Counseling and Guidance System (AIKOS)
OCT 2010

-Career Guidance in Lithuania -Lithuanian Labor Market Training Authority -Summary of Main EU Policy Messages on Guidance Romania: link to National Resource Center for Vocational Guidance United Kingdom: link to Connexions

Contact details

Coordinating institution: Ellinogeramniki Agogi Address: Ellinogermaniki Agogi, D. Panagea str., GR 153 51 Pallini Tel: +30 210 8176790 Fax: +30 210 6032554 Contact person: Eleni Lampou Email: lampou@ea.gr Contact person: Nora Gikopoulou Email: gikopoulou@ea.gr

10.1.7. BORDERLESS GUIDANCE Field concerned: Better access to cross Europe Vocational guidance and counseling services for Vocational guidance and counseling professionals, trainers. Kind of problems the Good Practice is capable to deal with: The aim of the project co-financed by the EU Leonardo da Vinci programme was to enhance multilingual and multicultural communication between Vocational guidance and counselling professionals, trainers and beneficiaries in the training and working environment in order to contribute to better access to cross Europe Vocational guidance and counselling services. Beneficiaries: Vocational guidance and counseling professionals, trainers. Indirect | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 beneficiaries: young people, adults seeking career guidance and using counselling services, social partners and politicians.
OCT 2010

Institutions involved 5 Institutions from 5 countries involved. Universitat Catalunya. Politcnica de

Primary role Vytauto Didziojo Universitetas (Lithuania)

Other partners 1. Unitat de Formaci de Formadors de la Universitat Politcnica de Catalunya (Spain) 2. Institut de Formation et de Promotion des Adultes (France) 3. Europische Bildungswerke fr Beruf und Gesellschaft e.V. (Germany)

4. Careers Europe (UK) Period of action related to Project is finished. Execution period: 2003-2005 the Good Practices Abstract (description of the action): To enhance multilingual and multicultural communication in career guidance and counseling the main objectives were set as follows: 1. To carry out systematic analyses of Vocational guidance and counseling systems in partners countries in order to possess cultural and linguistic particularities of the issue as well as up-to-date actualities/ development tendencies; 2. To develop a mutual framework of the main concepts of Vocational guidance and counseling important for all partner counties; 3. To develop an on-line glossary, interpreting intercultural meanings of main vocational guidance and counseling concepts in 5 European languages (LT, EN, FR, GE, ES) as well as cultures; 4. To pilot the developed glossary among the representatives of the project direct target group in all partner countries; 5. To amend the on-line glossary according the comments of the users; 6. To disseminate the on-line Vocational guidance and counseling multilingual and multicultural glossary and handbook to the beneficiaries. The results of this project were several reports and on-line glossary: | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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1. Report on actualities and development tendencies of career guidance and counselling systems in the partner countries, reflecting cultural and linguistic differences. 2. Report on the main career guidance and counselling concepts significant for all the partner countries. 3. On-line glossary for career guidance and counseling: The Career Guidance and Counselling Glossary is in five languages: Lithuanian, English, German, French and Spanish. The glossary has been compiled out of 148 terms. 4. The Multilingual handbook on the theories and schools of career guidance and counseling which is composed of 3 parts. Documentation/Sources Web site related to the Good practices http://glossary.ambernet.lt (for The Career Guidance and Counseling Glossary)

OCT 2010

List of reports is provided: 1. Report on actualities and development tendencies of career guidance and counselling systems in the partner countries, reflecting cultural and linguistic differences. 2. On-line glossary for career guidance and counseling. 3. Multilingual handbook on the theories and schools of career guidance and counseling. 4. Report on the main career guidance and counselling concepts significant for all the partner countries. Additional national/ local No additional information provided. sources for documentation available on line

Contact details

Coordinating institution: Vytauto Didziojo Universitetas, Kaunas, Lithuania.ontact person: Izabela Savickiene i.savickiene@smf.vdu.lt

10.1.8. DEVELOPMENT AND ELABORATION OF THE OPEN

INFORMATION , COUNSELLING

AND

GUIDANCE SYSTEM (AIKOS)

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 Field concerned: Career information


OCT 2010

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 Kind of problems the Good Practice is capable to deal with: Provision of good quality information on learning opportunities relevant for the personal career planning. Beneficiaries: Direct beneficiaries students of general education, vocational education and higher education schools, career advisors, teachers. Indirect beneficiaries all citizens interested in learning opportunities (parents, policy makers, employers) Institutions involved Primary role Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Lithuania Other partners: Centre of Information Technologies in Education of Lithuania Period of action related to the Good Practices Project is finished. Execution period: 200506-01 till 2008-09-01
OCT 2010

Abstract (description of the action): The project had two main objectives: 1. Development of the AIKOS portal program equipment (new functional components, new contents produced according to the Standard descriptions of occupations, qualifications, study programs) The Open Information, Counselling and Guidance System (AIKOS) (www.aikos.smm.lt) launched in 2008 is the main portal on learning opportunities in Lithuania for the pupils of general education schools, students and individuals entering vocational and higher education schools, people developing qualification, career information counsellors, employers, and anyone seeking information about educational programmes and institutions in Lithuania, qualifications, licences, etc. AIKOS also contains information on occupations, admission rules of vocational and higher education schools, the situation in the labour market, classifications, Europass certificate supplements, education and labour market statistics (number of students and job openings; current situation in education sector - number of programmes, qualifications, institutions, licenses, other; trends in education sector - new programmes, qualifications, institutions, licenses, other), etc. One of the modules of the AIKOS provides opportunity to submit questions to the career advisors working in the central Career information point, managed by the Career Planning Unit (placed at the Lithuanian Youth | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 Information and Technical Creativity Centre). Information to the portal is provided by the official registers of the Ministry of Education and Science, Department of Statistics of the Republic of Lithuania, Lithuanian Labour Exchange and Labour Market Training Authority. Development of the AIKOS in 20052008 was financed by the Ministry of Education and Science (state budget) and the EU structural funds. Technical support of the system is provided by the Centre of Information Technologies of Education. 2. Development of the model of establishing the network of Career Information Points throughout the country. As a result of the project a network of 640 Career information points (CIP) was established in secondary schools, vocational schools, libraries, labour exchanges, etc. CIPs were equipped with computers and other office facilities. Documentation/Sources Web site(s) related to the Good www.aikos.smm.lt practices (available only in Lithuanian) http://www.esparama.lt/lt/bpd/zemelapis/? id=2026 Additional national/ local (available only in Lithuanian) sources for documentation http://www.esparama.lt/lt/bpd/zemelapis/? id=2026 available on line Contact details Coordinating institution: Ms. Aleksandra Sokolova, Chief specialist of the Vocational Education and Guidance Division Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Lithuania, Department of General Education and Vocational Training A. Volano str. 2/7, LT-01516 Vilnius, Lithuania Tel. +370 5 219 1165 Fax +370 5 261 2077 E-mail: aleksandra.sokolova@smm.lt

OCT 2010

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OCT 2010

10.1.9. EUROPEAN GUIDANCE & COUNSELING RESEARCH FORUM


Field concerned: The aim of this project is to support innovative counseling and guidance by building dialogue between research and practice. Kind of problems the Good Practice is capable to deal with: The project has established a network of scholars and guidance counselors and a research Forum EGCRF. The project has created a website comprising a comprehensive platform designed for interactive and focused knowledge sharing and transformation. Expert groups, selected from the target groups in each of the five participating countries, initially met to discuss issues of policy and practice related to equal opportunities. These discussions have continued online with summaries of discussions provided in English. The website further contains subsections from the five partner countries and a library section as a reference resource for discussions. The project intends to ensure the evolution and transfer of innovative ideas, training and professional development to a wider community in the fields of guidance and counselling, beyond those initially involved in the project as expert groups. Beneficiaries: Target groups for the European Guidance & Counselling Research Forum: Practitioners, managers, researchers, trainers, students and policy makers, together with others in related fields interested in guidance & counselling research. Institutions involved Partners in the project comprise five universities and two SME Partnerships from UK, Denmark, Finland, Greece & Slovenia. The partners have a tradition and expectation of workshop and conference presentations and publications. Additionally, six of the partners are qualified and experienced in guidance and counselling training and/or Primary role University of Warwick, Institute for Employment Research, UK

Partners Danmarks Pdagogiske Universitet, DK The Institute for Educational Research (IER), Jyvaskyla, FI

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 research so that accessing appropriate networks will not be problematic. One partner is an SME that specialises in the development of websites that support communities in processes of knowledge creation, combination and transformation. National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, GR Kadis d.o.o., Slovenia International Centre for Guidance Studies, University of Derby KnowNet Ltd, UK

OCT 2010

Period of action related to the Good Practices

2003 2006 Constantly updated and broadly used

Abstract (description of the action): The objective was to develop a research and practice network supported by an on-line tool (the European Guidance & Counselling Research Forum website). This network for guidance and counselling, supported by ICT, has been designed to strengthen the evidence base for practice by integrating relevant research with practice in the area of Equal Opportunities. In each of the partner countries (UK, Denmark, Finland, Greece & Slovenia) expert groups were formed, selected from the target groups for the website. These groups met face-to-face to discuss issues of policy and practice related to equal opportunities. The various expert groups decided which materials they considered to be particularly relevant to the overarching objective for the project. Where appropriate, these were translated into the common language of English, and located on this website together with other materials that you can access here. This process of knowledge sharing and dissemination is part of a continuing process of new knowledge creation. This in an important contribution to the development and transfer of innovation in training and continuing professional development to the wider community of guidance and counselling through the use of ICT.

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 Documentation/Sources Web site related to the Good http://www.guidance-europe.org practices Additional national/ local sources for documentation Available are links to participating countries: Slovenia; Greece; Denmark; available on line UK and Finland, together with an area which reflects transnational themes. Also, the English-Language Materials area of this siteprovides key materials translated into English by each partner Trans-national comparisons and themes UK National Guidance Research Forum UK National Guidance Library Resource for

OCT 2010

Weblogs & Discussions EGCRF social bookmarks The EGCRF uses del.icio.us - the social bookmarking service - to host our shared links. We have collected hundreds of resources, categorised with over 100 "tags". You can browse them by clicking the tags below, or at the del.icio.us site. See also CeGS's bibliographic and link resources tag cloud, the NGRF's social bookmarks, and our live browser for guidance-related RSS feeds

Contact details

Coordinating institution: University of Warwick, Institute for Employment Research, UK Contact: Jenny j.bimrose@warwick.ac.uk Bimrose,

Website: www.guidance-europe.org | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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OCT 2010

10.2.

ONGOING PROJECTS

10.2.1. C-E XTRA EU PROJECT Field concerned: Student retention rates in vocational education and training. Kind of problems the Good Practice is capable to deal with: The C-Xtra EU is a Leonardo da Vinci funded transfer of innovation project which aims to transfer an innovative, award-winning web-based questionnaire and toolkit , developed in the UK, to Sweden, Portugal and Austria to improve student retention rates in vocational education and training. It will offer a series of questions followed by advice and guidance based on key retention issues specific to these countries. Beneficiaries: Teachers, guidance professionals and students Institutions involved There are five partner organizations in the C-Xtra EU project across Austria, Portugal, Sweden, UK. Primary role CXL Ltd (UK) and Careers Europe (UK) Other partners 1. BEST Institut fur berufsbezogene Weiterbildung and Personaltraining GmbH (Austria) 2. Planeamento e Cooperao, Instituto de Orientao Profissional, Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal) 3. Stiftelsen Kursverksamheten Vid Lund Universitetet/Folkuniversitetet (Sweden)

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 Period of action related to the Good Practices
OCT 2010

Project is ongoing. Duration: November 2008 October 2010. The awarded c-xtra U.K, is the first and foremost student retention and tutorial support website. This awarded project that they were based on in order to develop this particular transnational one is a factor of future success; thus it can be considered as a good practice, (due to the fact that it is tested and awarded) but further details need to be published at the end of the project.

Abstract (description of the action): The project is based on C-xtra UK experience. The C-xtra UK project is a national career award winning online retention toolkit (Institute of Careers Guidance: National Career awards/research 2007) offering teachers and students questions, advice and guidance on a range of key retention issues. In that manner it has a strong focus on students, tutors and institutions and offers tools for them . Tools were developed from research findings on student retention: For students instant advice and guidance through a personal report is offered. Tools supports tutors by giving an indication of which students may need support; providing group information about topics that may need to be covered in tutorials and provides tutors with advice and guidance. Support for Institutions is provided by showing that they are; listening to student voices; monitoring student retention and through use of the reports measuring distance travelled

However the rationale of C-Xtra EU is to create an intercultural dialogue to share best practices per country. Thus the C-Xtra EU project will transfer and adapt the C-xtra concept to Austria, Portugal and Sweden. This will involve translating, adapting and testing the content and then producing a new web interface in the appropriate languages. In 2010 May a meeting was held but there is no specific information provided about outcomes or goals set or achieved during that meeting. Information about its use can be found at the UK web page of the project where a demo section allows trying out sample student questions in order to get a feel for the type of questions and answers that C-xtra is able to give. Having answered the questions, the questionnaire can be submitted and the advice that the student | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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receives can be seen.


OCT 2010

What cannot be seen in the demo are examples of the tutors report or the class averaging report which makes C-xtra such an innovative and useful tool. UK C-xtra tool is supported by full/half day training for institutions and individuals on both public and private training days. Training is delivered by experienced chartered occupational psychologists and guidance professionals. CXL (UK) is a company under the control of Blackburn with Darwen Borough Council, Blackpool Council and Lancashire County Council within the meaning of Part V of the Local Government and Housing Act 1989. In order to have access to the use of this system, someone has to register and follow the terms and conditions of the company. The EU project is still ongoing and has not finalize the use, terms and conditions. Documentation/Sources related Web site(s): to the Good practices http://www.c-xtra.eu http://www.c-xtra.co.uk/ Additional national/ local C-XTRA UK sources for documentation BEST Institut fur berufsbezogene Weiterbildung available on line and Personaltraining GmbH Planeamento e Cooperao, Instituto de Orientao Profissional, Universidade de Lisboa Stiftelsen Kursverksamheten Vid Lund Universitetet/Folkuniversitetet CXL Ltd Careers Europe Coordinating institution: CXL Ltd Address: Chorley House, Centurion Way, Leyland, Lancashire, PR26 6TT, UK Phone: 01772 642400 Fax: 01772 642401 Web page: http://www.cxl-uk.com Contact person: Janice Clarke (janice.clarke@cxl-uk.com) Coordinating institution: Careers Europe Address: Careers Europe, Onward House, 2 Baptist Place, Bradford, West Yorkshire, BD1 | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

Contact details

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 2PS Phone: 01274 829500 Fax: 0 1274 829505 Web page: http://www.careerseurope.co.uk Contact person: Mick Carey, mick.carey@careerseurope.co.uk
OCT 2010

10.2.2. KEY COMPETENCES FOR ALL KC4 ALL Field concerned: Support enhancement of basic Key Competences of Low Qualified Adults in order to improve their Employability, by means of an alternative learning approach (ICTbased, user-centered and interest-oriented) offered at telecentres. Kind of problems the Good Practice is capable to deal with: The project Key Competencies for All (KC4All) aims to identify the specific needs of end users and to collect already proven learning resources for employability. After that based on the results it will develop a new solution for the delivery of employability-related contents and guidance to those at a risk of exclusion. The means of delivery are through national Telecentre networks and beyond (civic centres, adult education centres, worker unions, etc.) with strong international collaboration. Beneficiaries: Telecentre/PIAP facilitators, social and educational organizations Institutions involved Primary role The project coordinator: Dynamic Organization Thinking SL which unites professionals engaged in the development of

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 The Project is supported by EU programme Lifelong Learning. The partners involved are from Latvia, Germany, Romania, Belgium, United Kingdom and Spain an inclusive Knowledge Society through action research initiatives focused on ICT and Social Innovation, the Digital Divide, Lifelong Learning, Collaborative and SociallyResponsible Businesses, and International Cooperation for Development. Other partners 1. ESPLAI foundation aiming at reduction of social exclusion and digital divide (Spain). 2. Lasa charity providing support services (UK). 3. Educating for an Open Society Romania (EOS) is a private, non-profit organization in Romania. 4. The Latvian Information and Communications Technology Association LIKTA is a non-governmental, professional organization. 5. Interface3, oriented towards women qualifications improvements in Belgium. 6. Sozialforschungsstelle (sfs) Central Scientific Institute of the Technische Universitt Dortmund in Germany. Period of action Project is supported through the EU programme Lifelong related to the Learning and was launched at the beginning of 2010. It Good Practices involves partners from Spain, UK, Belgium, Latvia, Romania, and Germany and is still ongoing. Project aims and final products: Toolkit for End users Handbook for Facilitators Guidelines for New Actor Exchange of good practice in the field of adult non-formal training on Key Competencies required for Employability Start-up of a European Community of Practice on the subject The key competencies as digital skills, learning to learn, social and civic competencies, sense of initiative and entrepreneurship adressed

OCT 2010

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185

Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 Abstract (description of the action): The project is born from two interlinked processes. On one side, the increasing demand of users of telecentre and other public internet access points to develop their digital competences for job seeking and job performing (digital literacy focused on employability). On the other, the political recognition of the role that ICT is increasingly playing in the job market across Europe. To ensure a smooth project process the consortium of entities involved in the Grundtvig project Key Competences for all (Employment Toolkit) met in Barcelona to celebrate the kick off meeting at Esplais headquarters. As a result of meeting a common picture of the whole development process was set and a unified and detailed calendar was agreed to start all the tasks under the same understanding and criteria, the communicational strategy has also been established. During the first quarter of 2010 the context analysis was run by projects partners in their countries. This analysis displays common and different aspects concerning target groups and addressed skill gaps and training resources in the different countries. Additionally, a research to identify specific needs of telecentre users in their countries has been conducted. Matching the analysis with the European Framework on Key Competences for Lifelong Learning, the competences that should be enhanced by an ideal telecentre employability-oriented content during the 2nd project coordination meeting of KC4all partners in Riga were identified: digital competence, learning to learn, interpersonal and civic competences, entrepreneurship. For the next step, the project members will collect additional learning TC resources for employability that match the analysed needs, and fuse them into an exemplary toolkit. It should be noted that KC4All involved in 2 events: The World Congress on Information Technology held in Amsterdam, the Netherlands and European Foundation Week in Brussels, Belgium where presentations were made and project brochures were distributed. Documentation/S Website: ources related to the Good http://www.keycompetences.eu practices Materials can be downloaded from http://www.keycompetences.eu website: a) a summary of Multicountry comparative context analysis (Comparative context analysis -Identifying common and divergence aspects across participating regions/countries), b) | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study
OCT 2010

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 one presentation (Key Competences for All an Employability Toolkit based on Internet resources) and c) a brochure sample. As the Project is ongoing, it will provide more material in future, especially on the Employment Toolkit, which is currently

OCT 2010

under development
Additional Additional websites that KC4All gives link to all the co operant sources for partners: documentation available on line The Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency (EACEA) Lifelong learning programme at EACEA Dynamic Organization Thinking SL Fundacin ESPLAI Lasa Educating for an Open Society Romania The Latvian Information and Communications Technology Association Interface3 SFS Technical University Dortmund Contact details Coordinating Institution: Dynamic Organization Thinking SL Address: c/Est 15 1-2, Barcelona, 08001, Spain Office phone: +34933020004 Fax: +34933020004 E-mail: info@d-o-t.eu Web page: www.d-o-t.eu

10.2.3. EUROPLACEMENT Field concerned: | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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The lack of job placement opportunities for young people in transition from education to work. Kind of problems the Good Practice is capable to deal with: The main project aim is to promote the transfer of a kit of products, enabling people to enter the labour market through job orientation placement. Project focuses on the development of graduates transferable skills, and provides them with procedures for quality work experience, adapted to improve their own existing competence sets. Special attention will be paid on the lifelong guiding practices to recognize how well vocational guidance supports graduates in their transition to the labour market. Beneficiaries: Youngsters interested in university studies, university students, and graduates not continuing their education and in the transition (process) to the labour market at all degree or post grad levels in any discipline. Institutions involved Partners from different European countries who previously were involved in Tempus, Comenius, Leonardo and Joint Action programmes. The partners are from countries such as UK, Spain, Italy, Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Poland and Bulgaria. Primary role University of Parma is the applicant and the coordinator of this project. Ceres will provide organizational support to the coordinator, for implementing the research at each phase, especially for the econometric and quantitative analysis of project indicators Other partners 1. The Ceres research centre (Italy) 2. ASAEL - Asociacin Aragonesa de Entidades Locales (Italy) 3. Badegruber & Partner GmbHb (Austria) 4. Budapest University of Technology and Economics (Hungary) 5. Hafelekar Unternehmensberatung Schober GmbH (Austria) 6. Jagiellonian University (Poland) 7. ONECO Organizacin de Educacin Comunitaria S.L. (Spain) 8. Slovak Academic Association for International Cooperation (Slovakia)

OCT 2010

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 9. Tellus Group Limited (UK) 10. University of Bologna (Italy) 11. University of Catania (Italy) 12. St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Turnovo (Bulgaria) Period of action The Project is ongoing and the products will be published related to the through the web site Good Practices Abstract (description of the action): Europlacement is a Life Long Learning project co-financed by the European Commission. Europlacement will incorporate a kit of products and results in the design of an integrated system of good practices focusing on Lifelong Guidance and the validation of non-formal and informal learning, useful to help job seekers enter the labour market. This system will be assessed by means of a pilot test in Italy, Bulgaria and Hungary. The main project targets defined are: To support participants in training and further training activities in the acquisition and the use of knowledge, skills, and qualifications to facilitate personal development To support improvements in quality and innovation in vocational education and training systems To improve the quality and to increase the volume of co-operation between institutions or organizations providing learning opportunities, enterprises, social partners and other relevant bodies throughout Europe To facilitate the development of innovative practices in the field of vocational education and training other that at tertiary level, and their transfer, including from one participating country to others To improve the transparency and recognition of qualifications and competences, including those acquired through non formal and informal learning
OCT 2010

Project will create a methodology based on the experiences in order to increase graduates employability. The employment possibilities will be improved based on experience and knowledge gained at previous partners projects: Et-Net project, Fair | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 project and Leo-sustain project. Jagiellonian University provides the guidelines for the present project.
OCT 2010

The pilot experiment for selected female and disadvantaged (immigrants and ethnic minorities) groups will be held to test the methodology of non-formal and informal learning validation. Finally, the overall results will be presented for evaluation and validation to practitioners, stakeholders, social partners, and HR managers through round table and workshop activities. Finally, the overall results will be presented for evaluation and validation to practitioners, stakeholders, social partners, and HR managers through round table and workshop activities. Documentation/So Web site(s) urces related to the Good practices http://www.europlacement-llp.eu/ Projects website provides with several truly rich and useful documents. The first group of documents is related to the context indicators and swot analysis of the participating countries in the project. Downloadable analysis for each participating country and Europe in general is provided: http://www.europlacement-llp.eu/index.php? option=com_content&task=view&id=314&Itemid=465. The material concerning methodic and tools is also available to download. This includes context indicators instructions, glossary, companies and universities questionnaires and tool description grid: http://www.europlacement-llp.eu/index.php? option=com_content&task=view&id=315&Itemid=466. Full PPT presentations conference: are provided from the Krakow

http://www.europlacement-llp.eu/index.php? option=com_content&task=view&id=318&Itemid=469. And two reports are published with the possibility to download too: Hefelekar, Validation of informal and non-formal learning, (http://www.europlacement-llp.eu/index.php? option=com_content&task=view&id=317&Itemid=468) and Slovak Academic Association for International Cooperation, Lifelong Guidance Related to Mobility | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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OCT 2010

Additional Contact details and link to the WebPages of all partners are national/ local provided in the web page of Europlacement. sources for documentation available on line Contact details Contact Details Coordinator: CERES CENTRO DI RICERCHE ECONOMICHE E SOCIALIi VIA PO 102 00198 Rome ITALY
Contact Person: Ms Gabriella Pappad

Tel:+39 6 8541016 Fax: +39 6 85355360 e-mail: europlacement@live.it 11.

CONCLUSIONS

The conclusions discussed in the present section are derived from: - evidence gathered from the questionnaires that were distributed; - desk work conducted concerning national guidance systems; - research conducted in order to suggest good practices.

Drawing from the aforementioned, there are some recurrent issues in Career Guidance (CG) services; the fact that most of these themes have also been highlighted in multiple other studies and papers conducted by Organizations authorized by the European Commission emphasis on the pressing nature of these issues. One area involves the provision of CG in education. Career Guidance is considered an ongoing process which should be provided to individuals off
63

63

only adds extra

OECD: Education Policy Analysis, 2004

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 all ages in order to help them make career choices.
OCT 2010

Insofar as the

provision of CG in the context of education is concerned, a thorough examination of the delivery of Guidance Services around European Countries indicates an obvious call for occupational orientation and career management skills to be embedded in the school curriculum. It is urgent that external actors (especially practitioners representing job management, business and universities) are to collaborate as well as to be more involved in occupational orientation at school in order to convey contents related to practice and relevant to the labor market. In many countries guidance services provided at school do not include networking of schools with enterprises and in general with the world of work. As a consequence, students are not well informed on the market needs and future skills and occupations in order to broaden their horizons and preferences. Personal interviews seem to be the dominant tool applied in CG services in schools across most EU countries although a whole range of other tools exists. The role of the counselor, pointed out in myriads of papers, holds fundamental importance; in most reviewed countries, the centrality occupied by the personal interview school counselor tool may even overshadow a whole range of other tools/ initiatives, aimed towards providing occupational orientation and career management learning which exist.

Since one of the aims of career guidance is to develop important skills for life and work and assist with immediate decisions, there are significant implications for delivery guidance in schools that should be considered. Guidance in the LLL context points towards the adoption of a learningcentered approach, over and above an information and advice approach, whereby career education and education on career management constitutes part of the curriculum. To this extent, such an approach should be applied across schools, at least at national levels, whereby a holistic and learning centered approach is a part of the education of all students, not just those in particular types of schools or programs (such as drop-outs). Although a legal framework safeguards the | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 provision of guidance across schools in most EU countries, no sort of unanimous specification as to what kind of CG should be included in the schools exists; this is one of the reasons that can account for the great variation observed in this area64. Following this train of thought, top priority should be given to the involvement of all stakeholders parents, teachers, schools, companies, trade unions, nongovernmental and non-profit organizations, local authorities and private providers- in the development of CG services in the education sectors of EU countries; this involvement refers to forming an actual part of CG services in schools both by submitting individual/ cooperative offers and by financing offers 65.
OCT 2010

The subject of involvement of stakeholders extends to the area of CG services in tertiary education as well as in the employment sectors. As bibliography on this area suggests 66, CG services are often underdeveloped in tertiary education. Some OECD countries have strongly developed systems in tertiary education (mainly the U.S. and the U.K.) and even though services are developing in some EU countries, it seems that there is a lot of room for improvement of services in most EU countries. According to the review conducted in the present study, in CG
64

For an analytical review of EU countries see: National Center for Guidance Education (2001): Audit of Guidance in Post-Primary Schools 1999-2000, mimeo, Dublin. 65 A good example of this kind of CG in schools can be found in the so called Guidance- Oriented Schools, in Canada; personal and career planning constitutes one of the five broad areas of learning throughout schooling: CG in primary school is directed towards identity development while CG in secondary school is aimed at career planning, whereby students learn and understand the usefulness of their studies (in mathematics, sciences, etc.). Qualified guidance specialists are employed while the active involvement of stakeholders is an inherent part of this system of school CG services (for analytical description see Ministre de l Education Quebc (2001), Prendre le virage du succs. Lcole orientante loeuvre : Un premier bilan de lexprience montralaise , Direction de la recherche et de lvaluation) The closest example of a similar practice in EU can be found in Luxemburg (For a review see EACEA, Eurydice: Vocational Guidance Education in Full-Time Compulsory Education in Europe , 2006, EU) 66 For a selection of relevant papers refer to http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/education/eurydice/index_en.php

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 applied in the Context of Tertiary Education Germany, Spain, Greece & Cyprus provide comprehensive guidance services aiming at linking education with the labor market (enterprises), while in the other countries University counselors function mostly as education advisors (Sweden) or services provided aim at attracting students (Romania). To this extent, a review of the relevant bibliography suggests than where CG services exist in tertiary education, the main provision of these services centers around personal counseling interviews and job placement fairs; in most cases the counselor tool occupies yet again a central thesis. Moreover, in the desk work conducted by this working group, detecting a good practice relating to CG in tertiary education was a particularly difficult task. The need for quality provision of CG in tertiary education is inextricably linked both with the expansion in tertiary participation and with the expansion and change which occurs at the job market level. As career choices are no longer as clearly defined as they were some years ago, it is imperative that CG services in tertiary education directed towards developing students employability skills. The point made earlier about the importance of the active involvement of stakeholders in tertiary education CG services and a clear framework of cooperation therein, should only be stressed yet again. Yet another recurring issue in bibliography that has also been raised at the present study relates to the level of cooperation that exists between the Education and the Employment sectors, or, to be more specific the labor market. Insofar as the education sector is concerned, of the countries examined in the present study, Sweden & Germany provide work experience programs integrated in the school curriculum and have relevant legal provisions to this effect; the case is the same inasmuch as the involvement of social partners in CG, that is trade unions and employers associations is concerned, i.e. this is highlighted only in Sweden & Germany. The implications of this issue however, extend to CG services offered at both the education level as well as to CG services offered to young people who seek employment. The findings of this study are in
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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 total agreement with the general urgency highlighted in other studies that offers of internships, work trials and work shadowing should be increased in order to enable youngsters to try out and develop their own abilities and competences. The necessity of a cleared and better defined (at the legal and implementation level) networking between education and the Labor Market is indeed a fundamental issue. Insofar as the provision of CG services in the employment sector is concerned, our study confirms the otherwise popular finding that there are fewer offers for persons employed, migrants, those who want to re-enter working life and marginalized groups 67, and the corresponding conclusion that access to educational and vocational guidance services has to be widened and improved. Although national PES generally claim that access to CG services is offered and available for all adults, not only the unemployed, the truth is that very few adults who are not unemployed seem to make use of these services not to mention the fact that even for the unemployed, access to career guidance can be limited or uneven. Unfortunately, in most peoples minds PES are thought of as services for the jobless. On a similar vein, due to the clientele they have, most PES inevitably concentrate upon short-term employment options. Although CG services in the employment sector should (policy-wise) be directed towards longer-term career development and career planning, in reality all countries identify gaps in services for young people who wish to find out more about their career options, change their career direction, improve their employment prospects, and in services for those who are not in the labor force. Before going on to discuss our conclusions on the tools that are applied in CG services in the employment sector, there is one conclusion that should be mentioned because it seems to lie in the middle of all the discussion in this section, of all the findings of the present baseline study; as such, it is
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For an analytical review see Section 5 in Sultana, R.G. (2004). Guidance policies in the knowledge society trends, challenges and responses across Europe. Luxembourg: Office for official publications of the European Communities.

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 inextricably linked to the discussion that will follow on the subject of CG tools. All the aforementioned issues point one central emerging conclusion: namely that when it comes to provision of CG services, policies occupy a salient but altogether silent presence . Policies have been suggested in order to provide people with lifelong approaches to learning, personal development and employability; improve their chances of getting employed, their work performance and motivation; provide them with equal opportunities in work and education. However, it is clear that there is a gap between the conceptual and the implementing aspects of these policies. To this extent, one of the most important conclusions that can be drawn from the small sample of questionnaires that was distributed to guidance counselors, particularly in the case of counselors employed in the education sector, is that they had a difficulty differentiating among policies. It was rather impossible for us to draw any conclusions because each counselor shared different views on the kinds of policies that are and are not being met; this is a within and across-sample finding. Our explanation for this finding is that counselors have not received appropriate training on the policy framework within which the services they provide to young people should be taking place. Although this explanation is hypothetical and does not constitute a valid statement, future research into the extent to which counselor training programs incorporate policy doctrines and rationales could prove fruitful. The issue of the training of counselors in the provision of CG services is yet another point which has received plenty of attention during the last decades68. Findings from the questionnaires suggest that counselors are
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For reviews see: Report on Effective Career Guidance, CareerGuide Network, 2008, EU.; Review of Career Guidance policies in 11 Acceding and Candidate Countries, Synthesis Report (2003); Synthesis Report; Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.; McCarthy, J (2004).: The Skills, Training and Qualifications of Guidance Workers , International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance: Springer.

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 not entirely satisfied with the quality or level of training they receive. Moreover, based on the review of the national CG systems conducted in the present baseline study, suffice to say that this study confirmed that career counselors often lack specialized training and that school career counselors do not have expert knowledge concerning vocational choices in terms of actual employment or labor market needs. Returning to the aforementioned argument on the gap that seems to occupy the space between aspirations on career guidance and the reality of how it works across Europe, there is yet another emerging conclusion from the reviews and desk work conducted in the present study. The development of career guidance services is mostly funded by the ESF, which promotes every initiative concerning the implementation of European Measures and Policies. Researching good practices in CG services and tools/ methodologies, this working group came across many effective national and transnational Guidance projects. To this extent, our desk work indicated an overlap between ongoing and completed Guidance projects. Quite a few projects have been developed during the same period of time, thus sharing many similarities; the likelihood the working groups are not aware that colleagues around Europe are working on the same field is quite high69. In almost all the countries we reviewed, financing and implementation of educational and vocational guidance is fragmented between different departments (especially between the departments of education and the departments of employment) and institutions (insufficiently coordinated, although they are as a rule publicly financed). This may positively influence competition, diversification of supply and development of innovative strategies, however, it also involves the risk of duplication of work and financing, thus it and could affect the necessary transparency as well as the development of common strategies and required quality standards.
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With respect to the proceedings of the current working group, working on a project whereby similar scope and objectives are shared (see http://www.careereu-shop.eu/)

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 It would seem that European budgets are spent in projects that end up at similar outcomes whereas intelligent, innovative and low-cost, yet effective measures could be developed were there a well coordinating Supervising Committee overseeing all these similar projects. To this extent, such a Committee could act as a network facilitator whereby thematic groups around Europe would be able to work on different dimensions and advance on various activities and aspects of the institution of Guidance. The EU promotes European networking for the creation of National Forums70 on Career Guidance in order to support the implementation of the recommendations mentioned before 71. Such forums offer the means to improve the ways that CG services are planned and co-ordinated: between government and non- government services; between education, labor and other portfolios within government; and between the various education sectors. Within this framework, there are some areas of action regarded as priority areas: - the development of an overall, detailed guidance map, i.e. a survey of all guidance offers and guidance providers in each EU Country; - the completion of the development of quality standards for guidance and for basic and advanced training of counselors that can be regarded by guidance providers as a common basis for their work, as well as suggestions for quality assurance and an evaluation of quality standards; - the development of a central portal wherein each EU country Forum would have access to.
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Yet another conclusion has been deducted from the findings of the current study is that the gap that exists between policy makers and policy implementers can and should be bridged both ways. To this effect, it seems imperative that the information on emerging issues in CG services
70 71

In the current study it was our aim to highlight efforts towards this goal. See Council Resolution on better integrating lifelong guidance into lifelong learning strategies, Council of the European Union, November 2008 (http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_Data/docs/pressdata/en/educ/10423 6.pdf).

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 be communicated to the policy makers. The needs of each target group need to be clarified, the views of guidance practitioners about their own needs, the costs and the benefits of specific CG services, the areas of overlapping projects; a platform for constructive dialogue would provide a fruitful basis upon which to start bringing theory and practice closer. Last, but certainly not least, the issue of CG tools. The inherent difficulty in evaluating CG tools, as well as the significance this bears on the funding that is invested in the development of such tools, has been discussed elsewhere; it does however constitute one of the conclusions of this study, as it has been very difficult to identify a good practice or tool while lacking a clear cut framework that could be applicable to such instances. That being said, our research seems to suggest that there exist a multitude of tools which can be more than useful in helping young people define their career paths, move within a constantly changing labor market, identify their own needs and aspirations, receive support on sensitive issues (relating to equal opportunities, or to dropping out of school for example), improve their career management skills, realize the gains they could obtain by pursuing life-long learning opportunities; much more than simply obtaining employment or proper after-school education can be/ is offered by CG services. At the same time, a multitude of tools is at the hands of professionals employed at CG services, which allow them to explore labor market needs, their own skills, opportunities to suggest to their prospective clients, ongoing developments and trends in CG, possible collaborations with other organizations and much more. What seems to be lacking, both at national and local levels, is a system to support, organize and classify all this flow of information according to the needs and aspirations of each target group. Our study indicates that great advancements have been made in systematizing all the available information insofar as guidance practitioners are concerned; however, there seems to be much room for improvement in sorting out a basis of | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study
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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 the available (and effective) tools and methodologies that can be applied to young people.
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Dear Sir/ Madam, We are conducting a study in the thematic area of Educational and Vocational Counseling across EU Member States. This study takes place within the context of the EUROPEAN NETWORK ON YOUTH EMPLOYMENT, coordinated by the Ministry of Labour & Social Insurance of Cyprus. Your views on this area are greatly valued. We would deeply appreciate it if you would take some time to answer this questionnaire. We thank you in advance

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12.

RESOURCES USED (APPENDIX II)

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Dear Sir/ Madam, We are conducting a study in the thematic area of Educational and Vocational Counseling across EU Member States. This study takes place within the context of the EUROPEAN NETWORK ON YOUTH EMPLOYMENT, coordinated by the Ministry of Labour & Social Insurance of Cyprus. Your views on this area are greatly valued. We would deeply appreciate it if you would take some time to answer this questionnaire. We thank you in advance Name:
It is not obligatory to fill in your name, please note that we will not be making use of the names of the people who have completed this questionnaire in the results section of our study and all names will be kept confidential.

Institution: Position:

(Instructions: Where a 1 to7 scale is applied, please bear in mind that 1 stands for strongly disagree and 7 stands for strongly agree)

1. A. The organization you are professionally involved in applies Educational and Vocational Counseling services which promote National or European policies.

B. Please specify the type of policies Economic development | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 Youth employment Lifelong learning Effective education and VET systems Occupational and geographical mobility Social inclusion Social equity (equal opportunities) Gender equality Active citizenship
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C. Please expand --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. A. Educational and Vocational Counseling Services applied by the organization you are professionally employed in are successful in promoting National or European policies. 3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

B. Please specify the type of policies Economic development | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 Youth employment Lifelong learning Effective education and VET systems Occupational and geographical mobility Social inclusion Social equity (equal opportunities) Gender equality Active citizenship
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C. Please expand --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

4. A. Certain policies are not currently being promoted by the Education and Vocational Counseling services of the organization / country you are a member of, but should be promoted in order to combat youth education and youth employment issues in a more successful manner.

B. Please specify the type of policies | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 Economic development Youth employment Lifelong learning Effective education and VET systems Occupational and geographical mobility Social inclusion Social equity (equal opportunities) Gender equality Active citizenship
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C. Please expand --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

5. A. A mechanism that ensures continuous improvement in the Educational and/ or Vocational Counseling services offered by the organism you are employed in is applied effectively.

B. Please supply any further comments you may have on this issue

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6. Please provide a short description of the criteria applied in choosing to adopt the specific vocational counseling tools. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

7. Please provide a short description of the specific vocational counseling tools that are applied by the organization you are employed in relating to: A. Information concerning the available educational, training and labor market options ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------| Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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B. Information concerning personal resources, i.e. aspirations, ambitions, interests, abilities and aptitudes

ones

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

8. A. How effective do you consider the aforementioned vocational counseling tools in detecting learning gaps of young people in relation to their vocational choices 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

B. Please expand --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

9. A. How effective do you consider the vocational counseling tools in identifying the most appropriate learning pathways for bridging these gaps, according to youth needs | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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B. Please expand --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

10.Please provide a short description of the criteria applied in choosing to adopt the specific vocational counseling tools. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

11.A. You consider the vocational counseling tools applied effective in helping the youth define their career paths

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B. Please expand --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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12.A. The organization you are involved in applies an effective procedure to assess continuous improvement insofar as the form and contents of the vocational counseling tools are concerned. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

B. Please expand ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 13.According to your opinion, in what way/ways could Vocational Guidance promote youth employment?
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14.A. Satisfactory training is provided to vocational counselors employed in the education and employment sectors.

B. Please expand --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

15.Please include any further comments --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------| Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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13.

SOURCES

OF INFORMATION

A report by the Expert Group on New Skills for New Jobs prepared for the European Commission:New Skills for New Jobs: Action Now , February 2010. Ahn N., Garca JR. and Jimeno JF. (2004): The Impact of Unemployment on Individual Well-Being in the EU , European Network of Economic Policy Research Institutes, Working Paper No. 29/ July 2004. Athanasou R., James A.; Esbroeck, R. van (Eds.)(2008): International Handbook of Career Guidance, Springer. Brown, D., Brooks,L. (Eds)(1990): Career Choice and Development. San Fransisco: Jossey Bass. Cedefop Panorama series; 153: Establishing and developing national lifelong guidance policy forums: A manual for policy-makers and stakeholders, Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2008. Clayton P.: Third-age Guidance: research into guidance needs and methodologies. IAEVG International Conference: Careers in Context: new challenges and tasks for guidance and counseling, September 2005. Commission of European Communities (1987) Social Europe: Educational and Vocational Guidance Services for the 14-25 age group in the European Community; Luxembourg: Office for Official Publication on the E.C. Commission of the European Communities: A Memorandum of Life Long Learning, Brussels, 2000. Council of Europe: Educational Research Colloquy on Research into Guidance in Secondary Education . Ghent, 7-10, September, 1993. Council Resolution on better integrating lifelong guidance into lifelong learning strategies, Council of the European Union, November 2008. (http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_Data/docs/pressdata/en/edu c/104236.pdf) D. C. Locke, J. Myers, & E. L. Herr (Eds.), The handbook of counseling. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 Debono M., Camilleri S., Galea J., Gravina D.(2007): A Career Guidance Policy and Strategy for Compulsory Schooling in Malta , Ministry of Education, Youth and Employment 2007 EACEA, Eurydice: Vocational Guidance Education in Full-Time Compulsory Education in Europe, 2006, EU EU Strategy for Youth Investing and Empowering: A renewed open method of coordination to address youth challenges and opportunities, Brussels 2009 European Commission (2008) The European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning EQF, Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities European Commission, Enterprise and Industry Directorate-General Promotion of SME Competitiveness, Entrepreneurship (Final Version November 2009) Best Procedure Project: Entrepreneurship in Vocational Education and Training Final Report of the Expert Group. European Commission: Press Release "A new era of EU youth policies", IP/09/644 European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions: Youth and Work, 2007. Ford, G. (2001): Guidance for Adults: Harnessing Partnership Potential, NICEC Briefing, Careers. Research and Advisory Centre, Cambridge Herr, L.E., The costs/benefits of career development interventions: A practitioners perspective, Synthesis paper, Second International Symposium on Career Development and Public Policy, Vancouver, Canada, March 2001. Hughes, D., Bosley, S., Bowes, L. and Bysshe, S. (2002 ): The Economic Benefits of Guidance. Research Report No 3. Derby: Centre for Guidance Studies, University of Derby. ILO, Meeting the Youth Employment Challenge: A Guide for Employers, Geneva, 2001. ILO: Facts on Youth Employment, October 2006. Jones, R. (1993): Theory and Practice of Counseling, NY: Cassel. Kileen, J., White, M. & Watts, A. (1992): The economic value of Careers Guidance. London: Police Studies Institute. | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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Educational & Vocational Counseling, W.G. 2 Killeen, J. and White M. (2000) The Impact of Careers Guidance on Adult Employed People, DfEE, Research Report RR226: Sheffield.
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Krumblotz, J.D &Thoresen,C.E. (1976): Counseling Methods. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Wilson. Maguire, M. and Killeen, J. (2003): Outcomes from career information and guidance services; Paper prepared for the OECD Career Guidance Policy Review and the European Commission , www.oecd.org/edu/careerguidance. Malone JF., Miller RM., & Walz GR., (Eds.)(2007): Distance counseling: Expanding the counselors reach and impact. Ann Arbor, MI: Counseling Outfitters. McCarthy, J (2004).: The Skills, Training and Qualifications of Guidance Workers, International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance: Springer. Ministre de l Education Quebc (2001), Prendre le virage du succs. Lcole orientante loeuvre : Un premier bilan de lexprience montralaise, Direction de la recherche et de lvaluation. National Center for Guidance Education (2001): Audit of Guidance in PostPrimaty Schools 1999-2000, mimeo, Dublin. New Skills for New Jobs: Action Now A report by the Expert Group on New Skills for New Jobs prepared for the European Commission, February 2010. OECD: Education Policy Analysis, 2004 OECD (2004), Career Guidance and Public Policy: Bridging the Gap , OECD, Paris. Organisation for Economic Co-Operation And Development The European Commission (OECD), Career Guidance A Handbook For Policy Makers , 2004. Plant P. (2001): Quality in Careers Guidance. A paper prepared for an OECD review of policies for information, guidance and counselling services Commissioned jointly by the European Commission and the OECD. Policies in the Knowledge Society, CEDEFOP 2003. Prince, J. P., Chartrand, J. M., & Silver, D. G. (2000). Constructing a quality career assessment site; Journal of Career Assessment, 2004. | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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Report on Effective Career Guidance , CareerGuide Network, 2008, EU. Review of Career Guidance policies in 11 Acceding and Candidate Countries, Synthesis Report (2003); Synthesis Report; Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. Sampson, J. P., Jr. (2008). Designing and implementing career programs: A handbook for effective practice . Broken Arrow, OK: National Career Development Association. Sultana, R.G. (2003) Policies for Career Guidance in 11 Candidate Countries: A Synthesis Report. Turin: European Training Foundation. Sultana, R.G. (2004). Guidance policies in the knowledge society trends, challenges and responses acrossEurope. Luxembourg: Office for official publications of the European Communities. Sultana, R.G. (2004). Guidance policies in the knowledge society trends, challenges and responses across Europe. Luxembourg: Office for official publications of the European Communities. Super, D. (1953): A theory of Vocational Development. The American Psychologist, 8, 1953. Unesco World Youth Report, 2003. Vuorinen R. & Sampson JP. E-gos.(2009) Ethical guidelines for e-guidance delivery and usage.Research Report RR226, Sheffield: Department for Education and Employment. Watts A. G. (2005): Career guidance policy: an international review . Career Development Quarterly, September 2005. Watts A.G, Law B., Killeen J., Kidd J.M., Hawthorn R. (1996): Rethinking Careers Education Guidance: Theory, Policy and Practice London: Rutledge. Watts, A. (1992): Career Guidance Services in a changing Europe ; International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling, 15. Watts, A.G. & Dent, G. (2002). Let your fingers do the walking: the use of telephone helplines in career information and guidance . British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 30(1). Watts, A.G. & Fretwell, D.H. (2003) "Public policies and career development: a policy framework for the design of career information and | Thematic Area: Educational and Vocational Counseling Baseline Study

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