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**4.1 Analysing electronic circuits
**

1 From the graph, at 10°C the resistance of the thermistor is 800 Ω, and this should correspond to potential difference of 4 V across the thermistor. Vsupply = Vthermistor + Vresistor Therefore, Vresistor = Vsupply – Vthermistor = 12 – 4 = 8 V. Using a ratio approach: 4 V 8 00 Ω , therefore 8 V 1600 Ω a Lamp A gets brighter since more current flows through it. b Lamp C turns off as no current flows through it. c Current increases since total resistance decreases. d Potential difference (PD) across lamp B increases since total PD is now shared equally between two resistors rather than three. e PD across lamp C decreases as there is now zero PD across resistor C. f Total power increases as the current drawn from the battery increases, but its PD remains the same.

2

a b c a b

R1, R4 and R5 all have the same highest current (I = EMF/R). R2 and R3 both have the same lowest current (I = EMF/2R). R1, R4 and R5 all have the same highest power dissipation (P = EMF2/R). C is the correct answer because the same current flows into and out of the 10 k resistor (i.e. current is not used up). C is the correct answer because both voltmeters are measuring the terminal potential of the ideal battery. Although the voltage across the two resistors is the same, the current is not. Through 5 k Through 2 k Through 5 k Through 2 k resistor: I = (5 – 0)/(5 × 103) = 1 mA in direction P resistor: I = (0 – –3)/(2 × 103) = 1.5 mA in direction P resistor: I = (5 – 3)/(7 × 103) = 1.14 mA in direction P resistor: I = 1.14 mA in direction P

3

4

a b

Copyright © Pearson Education Australia 2008 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 1

Heinemann Physics 12(3e) Teacher’s Resource and Assessment Disk I S B N 9781442501263

5 W is R = V2/ P = 144/0. 0.205 × 40 = 8.5 = 288 . therefore 8 V 1600 Ω 0.2 V.82 kΩ in series with 40 kΩ = 48. D because the 30 Ω resistor plays no part in the circuit F D A 10 kΩ in parallel with 30 kΩ = 7. Vresistor = Vsupply – Vthermistor = 12 – 4 = 8 V Using a ratio approach: 4 V 8 00 Ω . hence 0 R Open 10 Open 5 Open 15 Open 19 Closed 0 From the graph.5 W globe since power dissipated varies as I2R.8 kΩ = 0.80/30 = 0.05 Switch closed.5 kΩ in series with 5 kΩ = 12. 0. Vsupply = Vthermistor + Vresistor Therefore.Worked solutions Chapter 4 Electronics 5 R1 ( ) R2 ( ) Vout (V) 1000 1000 10 3000 1000 5 400 100 4 900 100 2 2 3 12 The above table is derived using the voltage divider equation: Vout = 20 ! [R2/(R1 + R2)]. at 10°C the resistance of the thermistor is 800 Ω.8 k Itotal = V/ Rtotal = 10/48.5 kΩ 12.205 mA V40 kΩ = Itotal × 40 kΩ = 0.5 kΩ 7. a b c a b c a b c d a 1 W is R = 144/1 = 144 8 9 Same (for parallel Rs) 1 W globe: I = V/ R = 12/144 = 83 mA 1 W globe since power dissipated varies as VI.82 kΩ 8.06 mA I5 kΩ = 0.5 W globe since it has greatest resistance and hence greatest PD. 6 R1 ( ) R2 ( ) R3 ( ) S 200 300 50 100 200 7 200 100 50 100 100 100 25 75 1000 100 Vout (V) 20 ! [100/(100 + 100)] = 10 20 ! [25/(75 + 25)] = 5 20 ! [75/(25 + 75)] = 15 20 ! [1000/(1000 + 50)] =19.145 mA 10 11 12 b c Copyright © Pearson Education Australia 2008 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2 Heinemann Physics 12(3e) Teacher’s Resource and Assessment Disk I S B N 9781442501263 .2 V V40 kΩ = 8. Same in a series circuit.5 kΩ in parallel with 30 kΩ = 8.205 – 0. and this should correspond to a potential difference of 4 V across the thermistor.2 = 1. therefore Vrest = 10 – 8.06 = 0.80 V I30 kΩ = V/ R = 1.

its resistance is very large. i ii B. I = 0 A Vsupply = Vdiode + Vresistor. the current measured by the ammeter is accurate. But because virtually no voltage is dropped across the ammeter (since the resistance of the ammeter is much smaller than that of the diode). so Vbat = 50 V Thus current through X = 3. therefore Vresistor = Vsupply – Vdiode = 6.Worked solutions Chapter 4 Electronics 4. C A b 5 a b 6 a i b Forward-bias voltage that gives a normal operating current through the diode. its resistance is small and the voltmeter must be connected directly across it to avoid the significant voltage drop across the ammeter.5 – 0. Circuit 1: For the reverse-biased diode. thus PR = 0 Copyright © Pearson Education Australia 2008 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 3 Heinemann Physics 12(3e) Teacher’s Resource and Assessment Disk I S B N 9781442501263 . where Rdiode is very small.65 = 5. B is the correct answer since on constant part of the curve and doubling the voltage has not noticeable effect on the leakage current flowing. Circuit 2: For a forward-biased diode. this is an accurate measurement of the voltage across the diode.6 = 0.5 mW Circuit 2: IR ~ 0. Virtually all the current flows through to the diode and very little through the voltmeter.3 iii germanium iv VY >VX v From X to Y Circuit 1: VR = 1.3 mA i ii Y and Z X 2 80 = 16 k 5 " 10!3 Iz = 2 mA. ii 0.9/60 = 15 mA PR = I2 R = (15 × 10–3)2 ! 60 = 13. The ammeter measures the current flowing directly through the diode.2 Diodes 1 a b a b c 3 a b 4 a Since the diode is placed in reverse bias. The voltmeter measures the voltage across the diode and the ammeter.35/4000 = 1.e.9 V Hence IR = VR/ R = 0. Since the internal resistance of the voltmeter is very large.35 V Iresistor = V/ R = 5.0 mA R = Δ V/ΔI = A is the correct answer since on highly exponential part of the curve and halving the voltage reduces the current by a much greater amount.0 – 0. it will not conduct a significant current. current through Y = 4.2 mA. which also has a small resistance. i.

0.4 V. R2 = VR2/I = 5.2 × 103 Ω !3 4. therefore 4 V 2000 Ω or 2 kΩ The diode is in reverse bias.6 = 5. The graph shows that almost no current flows when a reverse voltage is applied.5 " 10 Copyright © Pearson Education Australia 2008 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 4 Heinemann Physics 12(3e) Teacher’s Resource and Assessment Disk I S B N 9781442501263 .6 V since the graph indicates that this is the switch on voltage of the diode. a b c The polarity of the battery has been reversed.4 = 1.0 – 0.Worked solutions Chapter 4 Electronics 7 a b 8 9 10 V1kΩ = Vsupply – VR1 = 6 – 4 = 2 V Using a ratio approach: 2 V 1 000 Ω . Vsupply = Vdiode + VR2 therefore VR2 = Vsupply – Vdiode = 6.

0 V –5. The output signal will be clipped.40 V to 0.5 V 20 to –20 mV 0.80 to –0. and hence has reached the upper or lower limit of its linear amplification range). because the positive and negative extremes of the output have been ‘clipped’ or distorted. Heinemann Physics 12(3e) Teacher’s Resource and Assessment Disk I S B N 9781442501263 5 Copyright © Pearson Education Australia 2008 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) .5 V or above 0. However.3 Amplification 1 a b c d e 2 a Output voltage directly proportional to input voltage (Vout = kVin where k is constant) Ratio of change in output voltage to change in input voltage (AV = Vout/Vin or AV = Δvout/Δvin) Signal distortion when gain is in non-linear region (usually occurs when the output signal approaches the power supply limits of the amplifier) Ratio of output current over input current (Ai = Iout/Iin or Ai = Δiout/Δiin) Output voltage is 180° out of phase (i. opposite sign) with respect to input voltage (Vout = kVin where k is constant but negative) The peak-to-peak variation in the collector current is determined by the peak-to-peak variation of the output voltage AND the size of RC.50 V Av = Δ vout/Δvin = –20/1 = –20 5 Range of input voltage Range of output voltage 100 to 200 mV 0.e.0 V to –4. transistor is either in saturated or cut-off mode.25 to 0.Worked solutions Chapter 4 Electronics 4. an increase in the size of the variation of the input voltage vin should produce a proportional increase in vout. the output voltage has reached its minimum and maximum possible values and will not go any lower or higher. the amplifier is in a non-linear region of operation (i. Av = vout/ vin Rearranging: vout = Av × vin = 200 × 40 × 10–3 =8V If the amplifier was operating within its limits. Note that we are working with the AC (varying) current and voltage values as indicated via the use of lower-case letters. 0.80 V 6 a –2. Recall: Voltage gain. since the transistor has reached the limit of its input range.0 V to –10 V –10 V to –10 V –0.5 V. b 3 4 Biasing transistor in the middle of its linear range a b c For Vin below –0.40 V –10 V to 10 V b No.e.0 to 1.50 V 1.

B is the correct answer because the line is straight over the entire input range. The sound output would contain appreciable distortion. A is the correct answer because its output is linear from +6 V to –6 V. D is the correct answer because the line has a linear. D is the correct answer because the slope is steepest. non-zero slope over the small input range of –100 mV to +100 mV. Copyright © Pearson Education Australia 2008 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 6 Heinemann Physics 12(3e) Teacher’s Resource and Assessment Disk I S B N 9781442501263 .Worked solutions Chapter 4 Electronics c d 7 8 9 10 The output waveform has been clipped and inverted.

and this combination in series with the other two resistors Four resistors in parallel Three resistors in parallel.5 2/3 4/5 – RB 1 4/3 1 0 (RB/[RA+RB]) 1/1. The amplifier can no longer multiply the size of the signal by a consistent gain factor.e.5 ! 100 = 50 V. R2 and 1 kΩ.5 A Vx = IRx = 0. R2 R4 E2 All four resistors in series Two resistors in parallel. Vy = Ry × (I/2) = 100 × 0.e.5 = 37. hence (R + Rt)Vo = RV Thus (1 kΩ + Rt) = 6 kΩ and Rt = 5 kΩ From the graph. this corresponds to T = 20ºC.25 a b 4 3 = 15 Ω 200 " 10!3 RB = 3 RA = 45 Ω PB = I2 R = (200 × 10–3)2 × 45 = 1. RA) VA/ V = R/4R = 0. 25 = Ix2 Rx. RB is effective resistance of parallel combination of switch. and this combination in series with the other resistor 2 3 V = I(R + 3 R) (i. RA + RB) VA = I(R) (i.5 (4/3)/(6/3) 1/(9/5) 0 Vout (V) 60 60 50 0 RA is effective resistance of parallel combination of R1 and 1 kΩ. 8 a b At saturation clipping occurs. a P = VI = I2 R = V2/ R. Ix2 = 25/100 = 25 ×10–2.25 = 25 V Vtotal = Vx + Vy = 75 V P = VI = 75 × 0.5 W 6 b 7 R1 ( ) 1000 2000 4000 8000 R2 ( ) 2000 4000 2000 5000 Switch RA Open Open Open Closed 0. The output of the amplifier should be set to the middle of its possible output range so that optimal input-signal variation can occur without clipping.Worked solutions Chapter 4 Electronics Chapter review 1 a b c d a b c d R4 R3.8 W RA = VA/I = 5 Vo/V = R/(R + Rt). Ix = 5 ×10–1 = 0. Copyright © Pearson Education Australia 2008 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 7 Heinemann Physics 12(3e) Teacher’s Resource and Assessment Disk I S B N 9781442501263 .

It must have the same period as the input. VR = RId ~ 0.7 V Y is a non-ohmic device. 2 ms. hence Rd is very large: RT = 500 + 100 = 600 Ω.9 k 40 " 10!3 There is 60 V across Y. RX can be calculated from gradient of X line. Rtotal = Req + 10 = 12. so the peak-to-peak variation is 20 mV.23 A VXY = Itotal × Req = 1. hence Vd = Vs = 0. I500 Ω = (0.94 Ω.94 = 5.Worked solutions Chapter 4 Electronics 9 Circuit redrawn in linear form: a b 10 a b Req is equivalent resistance of the parallel combination (20 Ω + 5 Ω).0 V.4 = 21.94 Ω.7 V. 14 15 The graph shows that the signal varies between +10 mV and –10 mV.1 V. Copyright © Pearson Education Australia 2008 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 8 Heinemann Physics 12(3e) Teacher’s Resource and Assessment Disk I S B N 9781442501263 .93 A VXY = Itotal × Req = 1. 75 RX = Δ VX/ΔIX = = 1.93 ! 2. I = 40 mA. hence total voltage VT = 1.9 kΩ = 38 V Total voltage VT = VX + VY = 38 + 60 = 98 V P = VTI = 98 × 40 mA = 3. hence I100 Ω = (3 – 0. I100 Ω = IT = 3/600 = 5 mA I500 Ω ~ IT = 5 mA (since there is virtually no current through the diode) Id = 1 nA c d e 11 12 a b a b 13 a b From the graph: if I = 52 mA. Itotal = V/Rtotal = 25/12.0 = 2. 5 Ω and 10 Ω .9 mA Reverse biased.1 V Current through either of the diodes in series = I/2 = 26 mA From the graph.94 = 1. this means that voltage across either of these diodes ≈ 1. then V ≈ 1.7)/500 = 1. I20 Ω = VXY/(20 + 5) = 5. It should show a variation between ±1 V since it has been amplified by a factor of 100 (10 mV × 100 = 1000 mV = 1 V).7)/100 = 23 mA. Id = VR/ R = (6 – 0. The graph is inverted when compared to the input signal.1 + 1.4 mA Id = 23 – 1. IX = 20 mA Thus VX = IX × RX = 20 mA ×1.6 mA Diode is reverse biased.93 ! 2.9 W Forward biased. hence from the graph.5 × I.68/25 = 0.7 V. i.94 = 5.7)/280 = 18. thus Vd = V = –6 V i ii iii i ii iii Diode is forward biased. hence Id = –100 nA. Since IX = 0.e. Req = 2.

0 V (peak-topeak).0 V = 5.Worked solutions Chapter 4 Electronics 16 17 a b c 18 a This amplifier is called a linear non-inverting amplifier. we can see that it has a perfect sine wave shape and the sinusoidal signal has not been distorted or clipped. Therefore. b 19 a b By looking at the display shown on the CRO screen. AV = Vo/Vi = 20/2 = +10 (for input voltages between +2 V and –2 V) Linear amplification for input voltages between +2 V and –2 V means 4.0 V. The peak-to-peak variation shown on the CRO screen is 5 × 1. since it must be the same as the input signal frequency. f = 1/ T = Copyright © Pearson Education Australia 2008 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 9 Heinemann Physics 12(3e) Teacher’s Resource and Assessment Disk I S B N 9781442501263 . 5. the amplifier is producing linear gain and is operating within its limits.0 Voltage gain. Av = vout/ vin = = 100 50 " 10!3 20 a b 1 = 500 Hz 2 " 10!3 500 Hz.

Electronics

Electronics

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