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Worked solutions Chapter 4 Electronics

4.1 Analysing electronic circuits


1 From the graph, at 10C the resistance of the thermistor is 800 , and this should correspond to potential difference of 4 V across the thermistor. Vsupply = Vthermistor + Vresistor Therefore, Vresistor = Vsupply Vthermistor = 12 4 = 8 V. Using a ratio approach: 4 V 8 00 , therefore 8 V 1600 a Lamp A gets brighter since more current flows through it. b Lamp C turns off as no current flows through it. c Current increases since total resistance decreases. d Potential difference (PD) across lamp B increases since total PD is now shared equally between two resistors rather than three. e PD across lamp C decreases as there is now zero PD across resistor C. f Total power increases as the current drawn from the battery increases, but its PD remains the same.

a b c a b

R1, R4 and R5 all have the same highest current (I = EMF/R). R2 and R3 both have the same lowest current (I = EMF/2R). R1, R4 and R5 all have the same highest power dissipation (P = EMF2/R). C is the correct answer because the same current flows into and out of the 10 k resistor (i.e. current is not used up). C is the correct answer because both voltmeters are measuring the terminal potential of the ideal battery. Although the voltage across the two resistors is the same, the current is not. Through 5 k Through 2 k Through 5 k Through 2 k resistor: I = (5 0)/(5 103) = 1 mA in direction P resistor: I = (0 3)/(2 103) = 1.5 mA in direction P resistor: I = (5 3)/(7 103) = 1.14 mA in direction P resistor: I = 1.14 mA in direction P

a b

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Chapter 4 Electronics

R1 ( ) R2 ( ) Vout (V)
1000 1000 10 3000 1000 5 400 100 4 900 100 2 2 3 12 The above table is derived using the voltage divider equation: Vout = 20 ! [R2/(R1 + R2)]. 6

R1 ( ) R2 ( ) R3 ( ) S
200 300 50 100 200 7 200 100 50 100 100 100 25 75 1000 100

Vout (V)
20 ! [100/(100 + 100)] = 10 20 ! [25/(75 + 25)] = 5 20 ! [75/(25 + 75)] = 15 20 ! [1000/(1000 + 50)] =19.05 Switch closed; hence 0 R

Open 10 Open 5 Open 15 Open 19 Closed 0

From the graph, at 10C the resistance of the thermistor is 800 , and this should correspond to a potential difference of 4 V across the thermistor. Vsupply = Vthermistor + Vresistor Therefore, Vresistor = Vsupply Vthermistor = 12 4 = 8 V Using a ratio approach: 4 V 8 00 , therefore 8 V 1600 0.5 W is R = V2/ P = 144/0.5 = 288 ; a b c a b c a b c d a 1 W is R = 144/1 = 144

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Same (for parallel Rs) 1 W globe: I = V/ R = 12/144 = 83 mA 1 W globe since power dissipated varies as VI. 0.5 W globe since it has greatest resistance and hence greatest PD. Same in a series circuit. 0.5 W globe since power dissipated varies as I2R. D because the 30 resistor plays no part in the circuit F D A 10 k in parallel with 30 k = 7.5 k 7.5 k in series with 5 k = 12.5 k 12.5 k in parallel with 30 k = 8.82 k 8.82 k in series with 40 k = 48.8 k Itotal = V/ Rtotal = 10/48.8 k = 0.205 mA V40 k = Itotal 40 k = 0.205 40 = 8.2 V V40 k = 8.2 V; therefore Vrest = 10 8.2 = 1.80 V I30 k = V/ R = 1.80/30 = 0.06 mA I5 k = 0.205 0.06 = 0.145 mA

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b c

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Worked solutions

Chapter 4 Electronics

4.2 Diodes
1 a b a b c 3 a b 4 a Since the diode is placed in reverse bias, it will not conduct a significant current, I = 0 A Vsupply = Vdiode + Vresistor; therefore Vresistor = Vsupply Vdiode = 6.0 0.65 = 5.35 V Iresistor = V/ R = 5.35/4000 = 1.3 mA i ii Y and Z X

80 = 16 k 5 " 10!3 Iz = 2 mA, so Vbat = 50 V Thus current through X = 3.2 mA; current through Y = 4.0 mA
R = V/I = A is the correct answer since on highly exponential part of the curve and halving the voltage reduces the current by a much greater amount. B is the correct answer since on constant part of the curve and doubling the voltage has not noticeable effect on the leakage current flowing. Circuit 2: For a forward-biased diode, its resistance is small and the voltmeter must be connected directly across it to avoid the significant voltage drop across the ammeter, which also has a small resistance. Since the internal resistance of the voltmeter is very large, the current measured by the ammeter is accurate. Virtually all the current flows through to the diode and very little through the voltmeter. Circuit 1: For the reverse-biased diode, its resistance is very large. The ammeter measures the current flowing directly through the diode. The voltmeter measures the voltage across the diode and the ammeter. But because virtually no voltage is dropped across the ammeter (since the resistance of the ammeter is much smaller than that of the diode), this is an accurate measurement of the voltage across the diode. i ii B, C A

a b

Forward-bias voltage that gives a normal operating current through the diode, i.e. where Rdiode is very small. ii 0.3 iii germanium iv VY >VX v From X to Y Circuit 1: VR = 1.5 0.6 = 0.9 V Hence IR = VR/ R = 0.9/60 = 15 mA PR = I2 R = (15 103)2 ! 60 = 13.5 mW Circuit 2: IR ~ 0, thus PR = 0

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Chapter 4 Electronics

8 9 10

V1k = Vsupply VR1 = 6 4 = 2 V Using a ratio approach: 2 V 1 000 , therefore 4 V

2000 or 2 k

The diode is in reverse bias. The graph shows that almost no current flows when a reverse voltage is applied. a b c The polarity of the battery has been reversed. 0.6 V since the graph indicates that this is the switch on voltage of the diode. Vsupply = Vdiode + VR2 therefore VR2 = Vsupply Vdiode = 6.0 0.6 = 5.4 V. R2 = VR2/I =

5.4 = 1.2 103 !3 4.5 " 10

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Worked solutions

Chapter 4 Electronics

4.3 Amplification
1 a b c d e 2 a Output voltage directly proportional to input voltage (Vout = kVin where k is constant) Ratio of change in output voltage to change in input voltage (AV = Vout/Vin or AV = vout/vin) Signal distortion when gain is in non-linear region (usually occurs when the output signal approaches the power supply limits of the amplifier) Ratio of output current over input current (Ai = Iout/Iin or Ai = iout/iin) Output voltage is 180 out of phase (i.e. opposite sign) with respect to input voltage (Vout = kVin where k is constant but negative) The peak-to-peak variation in the collector current is determined by the peak-to-peak variation of the output voltage AND the size of RC. Note that we are working with the AC (varying) current and voltage values as indicated via the use of lower-case letters. Recall: Voltage gain, Av = vout/ vin Rearranging: vout = Av vin = 200 40 103 =8V If the amplifier was operating within its limits, an increase in the size of the variation of the input voltage vin should produce a proportional increase in vout. However, since the transistor has reached the limit of its input range, the output voltage has reached its minimum and maximum possible values and will not go any lower or higher. The output signal will be clipped.

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Biasing transistor in the middle of its linear range a b c For Vin below 0.5 V or above 0.5 V, the amplifier is in a non-linear region of operation (i.e. transistor is either in saturated or cut-off mode, and hence has reached the upper or lower limit of its linear amplification range). 0.50 V Av = vout/vin = 20/1 = 20

Range of input voltage Range of output voltage


100 to 200 mV 0.25 to 0.50 V 1.0 to 1.5 V 20 to 20 mV 0.80 to 0.80 V 6 a 2.0 V to 4.0 V 5.0 V to 10 V 10 V to 10 V 0.40 V to 0.40 V 10 V to 10 V

No, because the positive and negative extremes of the output have been clipped or distorted.
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Chapter 4 Electronics

c d 7 8 9 10

The output waveform has been clipped and inverted. The sound output would contain appreciable distortion.

D is the correct answer because the slope is steepest. A is the correct answer because its output is linear from +6 V to 6 V. B is the correct answer because the line is straight over the entire input range. D is the correct answer because the line has a linear, non-zero slope over the small input range of 100 mV to +100 mV.

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Chapter 4 Electronics

Chapter review
1 a b c d a b c d R4 R3, R2 R4 E2 All four resistors in series Two resistors in parallel, and this combination in series with the other two resistors Four resistors in parallel Three resistors in parallel, and this combination in series with the other resistor

V = I(R + 3 R) (i.e. RA + RB) VA = I(R) (i.e. RA) VA/ V = R/4R = 0.25 a b

3 = 15 200 " 10!3 RB = 3 RA = 45 PB = I2 R = (200 103)2 45 = 1.8 W


RA = VA/I =

Vo/V = R/(R + Rt), hence (R + Rt)Vo = RV Thus (1 k + Rt) = 6 k and Rt = 5 k From the graph, this corresponds to T = 20C. a P = VI = I2 R = V2/ R; 25 = Ix2 Rx; Ix2 = 25/100 = 25 102, Ix = 5 101 = 0.5 A Vx = IRx = 0.5 ! 100 = 50 V; Vy = Ry (I/2) = 100 0.25 = 25 V Vtotal = Vx + Vy = 75 V P = VI = 75 0.5 = 37.5 W

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R1 ( )
1000 2000 4000 8000

R2 ( )
2000 4000 2000 5000

Switch RA
Open Open Open Closed 0.5 2/3 4/5

RB
1 4/3 1 0

(RB/[RA+RB])
1/1.5 (4/3)/(6/3) 1/(9/5) 0

Vout (V)
60 60 50 0

RA is effective resistance of parallel combination of R1 and 1 k. RB is effective resistance of parallel combination of switch, R2 and 1 k.

a b

At saturation clipping occurs. The amplifier can no longer multiply the size of the signal by a consistent gain factor. The output of the amplifier should be set to the middle of its possible output range so that optimal input-signal variation can occur without clipping.

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Worked solutions

Chapter 4 Electronics

Circuit redrawn in linear form:

b 10 a b

Req is equivalent resistance of the parallel combination (20 + 5 ), 5 and 10 . Req = 2.94 ; Rtotal = Req + 10 = 12.94 ; Itotal = V/Rtotal = 25/12.94 = 1.93 A VXY = Itotal Req = 1.93 ! 2.94 = 5.7 V; I20 = VXY/(20 + 5) = 5.68/25 = 0.23 A VXY = Itotal Req = 1.93 ! 2.94 = 5.7 V Y is a non-ohmic device. RX can be calculated from gradient of X line. 75 RX = VX/IX = = 1.9 k 40 " 10!3 There is 60 V across Y; hence from the graph, I = 40 mA. Since IX = 0.5 I, IX = 20 mA Thus VX = IX RX = 20 mA 1.9 k = 38 V Total voltage VT = VX + VY = 38 + 60 = 98 V P = VTI = 98 40 mA = 3.9 W Forward biased, hence Vd = Vs = 0.7 V, Id = VR/ R = (6 0.7)/280 = 18.9 mA Reverse biased, hence Id = 100 nA, VR = RId ~ 0, thus Vd = V = 6 V i ii iii i ii iii Diode is forward biased, hence I100 = (3 0.7)/100 = 23 mA. I500 = (0.7)/500 = 1.4 mA Id = 23 1.4 = 21.6 mA Diode is reverse biased, hence Rd is very large: RT = 500 + 100 = 600 . I100 = IT = 3/600 = 5 mA I500 ~ IT = 5 mA (since there is virtually no current through the diode) Id = 1 nA

c d

e 11 12 a b a

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a b

From the graph: if I = 52 mA, then V 1.1 V Current through either of the diodes in series = I/2 = 26 mA From the graph, this means that voltage across either of these diodes 1.0 V; hence total voltage VT = 1.1 + 1.0 = 2.1 V.

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The graph shows that the signal varies between +10 mV and 10 mV, so the peak-to-peak variation is 20 mV. The graph is inverted when compared to the input signal. It should show a variation between 1 V since it has been amplified by a factor of 100 (10 mV 100 = 1000 mV = 1 V). It must have the same period as the input, i.e. 2 ms.

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Chapter 4 Electronics

16

17 a b c 18 a This amplifier is called a linear non-inverting amplifier. AV = Vo/Vi = 20/2 = +10 (for input voltages between +2 V and 2 V) Linear amplification for input voltages between +2 V and 2 V means 4.0 V (peak-topeak).

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a b

By looking at the display shown on the CRO screen, we can see that it has a perfect sine wave shape and the sinusoidal signal has not been distorted or clipped. Therefore, the amplifier is producing linear gain and is operating within its limits. The peak-to-peak variation shown on the CRO screen is 5 1.0 V = 5.0 V. 5.0 Voltage gain, Av = vout/ vin = = 100 50 " 10!3

20

a b

1 = 500 Hz 2 " 10!3 500 Hz, since it must be the same as the input signal frequency.
f = 1/ T =

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