You are on page 1of 3

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

Precipitating Factors: Hypertension Hyperlipidemia Diabetes Mellitus Heart Diseases Atherosclerosis Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis Severe dehydration

VASOCONSTRICTION

Blockage of the blood vessel Embolism Lack of oxygen & nutrients supply

Predisposing Factors: Life style (sedentary) Vices (Alcohol, smoke) Age Diet Sex Heredity Self-medication

Ischemic Stroke

High blood pressure, smoking, heart diseases, diabetes, narrowing of arteries supplying the brain, high cholesterol and an unhealthy lifestyle.

Cerebral Ischemia

Hypoxia Altered cerebral metabolism

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

High blood pressure, smoking, and a family history of burst aneurysms. Severe dehydration, severe infection in the sinuses of the head and medical or genetic conditions that increase a persons tendency to form blood clots.

- Cell death - Decreased Oxygen level Intracerebral hemorrhage

Venous Stroke Decreased cerebral perfusion Large Artery Strokes

Hypertension, diabetes, smoking and high cholesterol levels.

P A R A L Y S I S

Local Acidosis Transient Ischemic Attack Same with Ischemic stroke

Cytotoxic Edema

Aneurysm Rupture

Small Artery Stroke

Hypertension, diabetes and smoking.

Embolic strokes

Irregular heart beat (atrial fibrillation), a heart attack (myocardial infarction), heart failure or a small hole in the heart called a PFO (Patent Foramen Ovale).

Brain tissue Necrosis

DEATH

Severe Cases

A stroke is caused by a blocked or bleeding artery in the brain. Most strokes are due to blocked arteries that supply blood to the brain and are called ischemic strokes. Strokes due to bursting of brain blood vessels are called hemorrhagic strokes. Intracerebral hemorrhage is caused by bleeding into the brain itself, while subarachnoid hemorrhage is due to bleeding around the base of the brain. A TIA (transient ischemic attack) is caused by a temporary blockage of blood flow to a blood vessel to the brain lasting less than 24 hours. Another, rarer, form of stroke can occur when a vein (that drains blood out of the brain) is blocked. This is called a venous stroke. Ischemic Stroke This type of stroke is caused by blockage of a blood vessel (artery) supplying the brain. Brain tissue that no longer receives its blood supply can die within a few hours unless something is done to stop the damage. The blockage of arteries can occur in large arteries in the neck or the base of the brain, or in small arteries inside the brain itself. A blood clot can form in the brain or it can form elsewhere and be carried to the brain by an artery and after having an ischemic stroke and the majority of survivors have some long term disability. There are many conditions that increase a person's risk of ischemic stroke. These include high blood pressure, smoking, heart diseases, diabetes, narrowing of arteries supplying the brain, high cholesterol and an unhealthy lifestyle. Treating these conditions can decrease stroke risk. Intracerebral Hemorrhage This type of stroke is caused by the bleeding of a blood vessel within the brain. As a result of the bleeding a blood clot forms in the brain, which puts pressure on the brain and damages it. Although intracerebral hemorrhage is less common than ischemic stroke and it is more serious. The most common cause of intracerebral hemorrhage is high blood pressure. Another cause, especially in younger people with intracerebral hemorrhages, is abnormally formed blood vessels in the brain (vascular malformations or aneurysms).

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Subarachnoid hemorrhage results from the bleeding of an artery around the base of the brain. It is the least common stroke type, accounting for about 5% of all strokes. The most frequent cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage is bleeding from an aneurysm. An aneurysm is a weakening and ballooning of a short portion of an artery (similar to a bubble on the side of an old hose). The factors that can increase a persons risk of this type of stroke include high blood pressure, smoking, and a family history of burst aneurysms. TIA (Transient Ischemic Attack) A TIA is like a temporary ischemic stroke. An artery is temporarily blocked, preventing blood from reaching a part of the brain. This lack of blood flow causes that part of the brain to stop functioning. The symptoms of a TIA are the same as symptoms of an ischemic stroke. In a TIA, the blood vessel opens up again, before any permanent injury to the brain occurs and the patient recovers completely. Most TIA symptoms last less than 30 minutes. People who suffer TIAs are at HIGH RISK OF STROKE soon thereafter. A TIA should lead to immediate medical evaluation to determine its cause and a treatment plan to prevent a stroke from following soon after. Venous Stroke Venous stroke is caused by a blood clot blocking the veins that allow blood to drain out of the brain. (All other strokes are caused by abnormalities of arteries carrying blood to the brain). Venous stroke causes a back pressure effect that leads to the stroke. These strokes can be either ischemic or hemorrhagic. Some causes of venous stroke include severe dehydration, severe infection in the sinuses of the head and medical or genetic conditions that increase a persons tendency to form blood clots.