Double pendulum

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Double pendulum

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Abstract The dierentiation of the double pendulum result in four rst order equations mapping the movement of the system.

Introduction

A double pendulum is two masses attached to rigid, massless, rod with the base at a stationary location. The pivot, when considering a double pendulum is frictionless. This allows a conservation of energy, Energyin = Energyout , making the system a conservative system. The variables that are present in a double pendulum are the two lengths of the rigid, massless, rods, l1 and l2 , the two masses m1 and m2 , the two angles between the vertical and the massless rods, 1 and 2 , and gravity, g. The double pendulum is a complex system. Due to the complexity of the system and the use of every variable, Newtons Law in not feasible. Instead of Newtons Law we use the Lagrangian Equation. The Lagrangian converts the work done to the pendulum to potential energy. Once converted to potential energy it becomes a system of generalized coordinated independent of time, t.

2

2.1

Parameters

Compound Pendulums

A compound pendulum consist of masses, m1 and m2 , attached to rigid massless rods of length, l1 and l2 , with the base stationary. The angles created by rods to the vertical are symbolized as 1 and 2 . The gravity is dened as g at 9.8m/sec2 . x1 = l1 sin1 y1 = l1 cos1 x2 = l2 sin2 + l1 sin1 y2 = l2 cos2 + l1 cos1 1 (1) (2) (3) (4)

Lagrangian Equation

The Lagrangian, L, of a system is the representation of a system of motion. The Lagrangian can only be used when a system is conservative. Derived from Newtons Laws, the Lagrangian says that if you can nd the kinetic equation, K, and the potential equation, P, of our complex system in terms of general coordinates and their time derivatives then you can nd the equations of the motion of the system in terms of generalized coordinates using the Lagrangian. L=K P (5)

3.1

Potential Energy

The potential energy equations is the equation for all potential energy of an equation. P = mga Using the Potential equation, nd the potential energies for the rst and second pendulums simplifying them to get the equations below 6 and 7. P1 = m1 gy1 P1 = m1 gl1 cos1 P2 = m2 gy2 P2 = m2 g (l2 cos2 + l1 cos1 ) (7) (6)

3.2

Kinetic Energy

mv 2 2

The v 2 can be converted to the coordinates x and y through the substitution of v 2 = x 2 + y 2. To nd v rst derive the x and y coordinates.

2 x 1 = l1 1 cos2 1 2 y1 = l1 1 sin2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 x 2 = l2 2 cos2 2 + 2l1 l2 1 2 cos1 cos2 + l1 1 cos2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 y2 = l2 2 sin2 2 + 2l1 l2 1 2 sin1 sin2 + l1 1 sin2 1 2 2

Using the xs and ys acquired substitute those into the v 2 in the Kinetic equation and nd the K for both pendulum 1 and pendulum 2. The simplication of those are equations 8 and 9. K1 = K2 = m1 2 2 l 1 2 1 (8) (9)

3.3

Lagrangian Equation

Using the Lagrangian equation, equation 5, nd the kinetic and potential equations for the whole system, by adding equations 6 and 7 and equations 8 an 9. L = (K1 + K2 ) (P1 + P2 )

2 2 m1 2 2 m2 2 2 2 2 l1 1 + (l1 2 +l1 1 +2l1 l2 1 2 cos(1 2 ))+m1 gl1 cos1 +m2 gl2 cos2 +m2 gl1 cos1 2 2 (10)

L=

4

4.1

Euler-Lagrange

Noethers Theorem

Noethers Theorem says that any conservation in a system is due to the unchanging actions in the system with respect to a continuous change given by some symmetry principle. Symmetry being the independence of a system with

respect to a variable, such as time. That is any symmetry of the double pendu lum corresponds with a conserved quantity. 1 and 2 . Using this theorem place the derived lagrangian equation equal to zero, getting the corresponding 1 and 2 . L d L ) ( =0 dt (11)

To nd the 1 derive the Lagrangian, equation 10 with respect to 1 , and place it into equation 11. L d L ) ( =0 dt 1 1 L = m2 l1 l2 1 2 sin(1 2 ) m1 gl1 sin1 m2 gl1 sin1 1 d L 2 2 ( ) = m1 l1 1 + m2 l1 1 + m 2 l1 l2 2 cos(1 2 ) (1 2 )m2 l1 l2 2 sin(1 2 ) dt 1 m2 l2 ( 2 cos(1 2 ) + 2 sin(1 2 )) (m1 + m2 )gsin1 1 = l1 (m1 + m2 )

2

(12)

To nd the 2 derive the Lagrangian, equation 10 with respect to 2 , and place it into equation 11. d L L ( ) =0 dt 2 2

2 2 L = m2 l1 l2 1 2 sin(1 2 ) + m2 gl2 sin2 2

2 l1 (1 sin(1 2 ) 1 cos(1 2 )) gsin(2 ) = 2 l2 With two unknowns substitute equation 13 into equation 12.

(13)

2 2 m2 cos(1 2 )l1 1 sin(1 2 ) + m2 cos(1 2 )gsin2 m2 l2 2 sin(1 2 ) (m1 + m2 )gsin1 = 1 l1 (m1 + m2 ) m2 cos2 (1 2 ) (14) To nd the last unknown substitute equation 12 into equation 13.

2 =

4.2

Euler-Lagrange

To nd the equations of motion now that the time derivative is known, place equation 14 and 15 into the Euler-Lagrange equation because the solutions are the functions. 1 = 3 2 = 4 m2 l2 ( 2 cos(1 2 ) + 2 sin(1 2 )) (m1 + m2 )gsin1 3 = l1 (m1 + m2 ) 4 = (m1 + m2 )(l1 1 sin(1 2 ) +

2

2 2 sin(1 2 )cos(1 2 )m2 l2 m1 +m2 l2 (m1 + m2 sin2 (1 2 ))

(19) Once equations 16, 17, 18, and 19 are known plug the Euler-Lagrange equation into the equations 1, 2, 3, and 4. This grants the ability to now graph the motion of the double pendulum.

0.5

1.5 2

1.5

0.5

0.5

1.5

Other dierentiations

Another way to show the double pendulum is with the Hamiltonian equation. The Hamiltonian which can be derived from the Lagrangian and makes the system a model of generalized coordinates generalized and momenta. H = i i L Where L is the Lagrangian equation, equation 10 and solving for the generalized coordinates (1 and 2 ) and generalized momenta (1 and 2 ). l2 1 l1 2 cos1 2 H = 2 1 = 1 l1 l2 (m1 + m2 sin2 (1 2 )) H l1 (m1 + m2 )2 l2 m2 1 cos(1 2 ) 2 = = 2 (m + m sin2 ( )) 2 l1 l2 1 2 1 2 1 = H = (m1 + m2 )gl1 sin1 C 1 + C 2 1 H = m2 gl2 sin2 + C 1 C 2 2 1 2 sin(1 2 ) l1 l2 (m1 + m2 sin2 (1 2 ))

2 =

C1 = C2 =

Conclusion

The Double pendulum is a very complex system. Due to the complexity of the system there are many assumptions, such as there being no friction around the pivot, that allows this system to be conservative. If there was friction, and the system was non-conservative, the system would be chaotic. Chaos is a state of apparent disorder and irregularity. Chaos over time is highly sensitive to starting conditions and can only occur in non conservative systems. If the system was non-conservative we would have to follow Lorenzs system which would adjust the parameters to be chaotic and then use another method to drive the function..

References

[1] Nonconservative Noethers theorem in http://nd.galegroup.com/ips/start.do?prodId=IPS optimal control

halo

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