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Knitwear Production Planning & Control

Apparel Production Systems


Apparel Production Systems an integration of materials handling, production processes, personnel, and equipment that directs work flow and generates finished products. Apparel Production Systems an integration of materials handling, production processes, personnel, and equipment that directs work flow and generates finished products. Most of the production systems employed in garment factory are derived from Manual systems Making Through (Manual system) Section or Processes System Progressive Bundle System (PBS) Straight-line or Synchro- system Mechanical systems Selective Conveyor Belt System Unit Production System (UPS) Quick Response Sewing System Modular Production Systems (MPS)

( Each production system has its own specific operational characteristics ) 1. Manual system (Making Through) This is essentially traditional method of production the entire garment is assembled by one operator. This type of system is effective when a very large variety of garment have to be produced in extremely small quantities. Example - sewing room of a boutique. Major features of the system are; Supervision :- The requirement are minimal because the operators deside on their own working methods. Labour:- As highly skilled labours are used for the simplest of operations, cost are relatively high when compared with other systems. Quality:- high quality is required.

Sept 2010

Intro to Indian Apparel Sector

Knitwear Production Planning & Control Productivity:- due to lack of specialization, this system is not effective for high volume production. Throughput Time:- it is not necessary. Layout:- Any convenient arrangement of machinery. 2. Section or Processes System Operators specialize in one major component and sew it from beginning to end. The sewing room would have a number of sections, each containing versatile operators capable of performing all the operations required for a specific components. The sections are built according to the average garment produced, and includes; Pre-assembling (preparation of small parts) Front making Back making main-assembly (closing, setting collar and sleeves,..) Lining making Setting linings Finishing operation

Making back Making Small component Making Front Closing Backs & Front Set Collars And sleeves

Finish

specific operational characteristics are:Sept 2010 Intro to Indian Apparel Sector 2

Knitwear Production Planning & Control

Supervision :- this has to ensure the correct movement of work from section to section. Labour:- As labour with varing skills can be used , the system is cheaper. Quality:- due to the various levels of operator skill, in-process quality contro has to be very thorough. Productivity:- higher than the manual making through system. Throughput Time:- this is longer due to the large quantities of work in process. Layout:- this would be planned according to the processs folw of the average garment produced. This is a very efficient system for producing a variety of styles in reasonable quantities. 3. Progressive Bundle System (PBS) A traditionally employed in apparel production where the task of assembling the garment is broken down into small operations, and bundles of work are progressed down the production line through each operation in sequence until the assembly process is compete. It requires large quantities of work in progress Most stable system- as it absorbs all imbalance because of the amount of work in progress Major features of the system are; Supervision :- This system is not just involved in ensuring the correct movement of work between sections, but is concerned with the movement and balance of work with in the section. Labour:- This can be of various skill and cost levels because, the more complex the operations are broken down into a series of small and relatively simple operations. Quality:- In-process quality control is now involved in inspecting individual component rather than complete product Productivity:- productivity is higher than most of the other system, due to the breakdown of operations and possible introduction of specialized machines. Throughput Time:- This is considerably increased due to the amount of work stored at the beginning and at the end of each section. Sept 2010 Intro to Indian Apparel Sector 3

Knitwear Production Planning & Control

Layout:- This is important because the end o one section must be positioned adjusent to the start of the section which perform the following series of operations. 4. Straight-line or Synchro- system Based on synchronized flow of work through each stages of producing a garment. Time synchronization is the most important factor of this system because of the flow of work cannot be synchronized if work flow varies considerably wide. The manipulation required to balance the standard time may lead to illogical combination of operation. It is a very rigid system and particularly vulnerable to absenteeism and machine breakdown. Types:Chute System Bench System To be effective , the system requires Volume production Accurate line balancing Skilled supervisor Reserve operators Reserve machinery and equipment Major features of the system are; Supervision :- Due to the rigidity of the system, supervisor are very mush concerned with the line balance at the times. Every minor delay could have serious repercussions. Labour:- The operators require relatively high skill levels, in order to maintain a time balance between the operations in the line. Quality:- In-process quality control must be more alert and intensive, because hold-up caused through quality problem can stop the line in a matter of seconds. Productivity:- Productive levels can be very high due to the regular pace of the successive operations. Throughput Time:- This is very short as a result of the quantity of work I process. Layout:- the simplest layout system, as on eoperator is seated next to, opposite to the next one. Sept 2010 Intro to Indian Apparel Sector 4

Knitwear Production Planning & Control

5. Selective Conveyor Belt System The system reduces the handling of work to a minimum and maintains the work in progress at very low levels. Automatic feeding of work containers to an operator and eliminating time consuming fetch and carry methods. A typical conveyor system consists of; Main conveyor Top belt Lower belt Major features of the system are; Supervision :- the supervisor is relieved of the task of work feeding and ia able to spent more time working with the operators. Labour:- All grades and rates Quality:- In-proces system are operated. Productivity:- Reasonable high because in an efficient run unit there is continual flow of work. Throughput Time:- still measure in days because of the amount of work in progress. Layout:- a very compact straight line. 6. Unit Production System (UPS) An advanced apparel manufacturing system in which a single garment is progressed through a sequence of operations. Using a unit production system, a garment is automatically transported via a computer-controlled overhead hanging system. Which has been ergonomically designed to reduce the amount of handling of the garment. It is a single garment and not bundle is handled at a time The garment component are automatically transported on a pre determined sequence.

Sept 2010

Intro to Indian Apparel Sector

Knitwear Production Planning & Control The work stations are constructed as close as possible so the components are sewn without removing from system in most sequence Major features of the system are; Supervision :- freed to work with the operators. Labour:- All grades and all rates Quality:- In-process inspection ststions are built into the line. Productivity:- High bacuse the operators are working in a paced environment. Throughput Time:- thi is measures in hours instead of days. Layout:- Can be of any form suitable to the availability area. 7. Quick Response Sewing System For orders are small lot Each station equipped with 4 / 5 machines Many operations are completed in that work station before it is transported to other. Major features of the system are; Supervision :- freed to work with the operator Labour:- high skilled . different operations re at one work station. Quality:- In process inspections are built into the line. Productivity:- very igh. Throughput Time:- is extremely short as few garments are in the line Layout:- A typical unit will have eight work stations arranged around the transport system. 8. Modular Production Systems (MPS) It is a contained, manageable work units (modules) that includes an empowered work team, equipment, and work to be executed. Sept 2010 Intro to Indian Apparel Sector 6

Knitwear Production Planning & Control Modular system frequently operates as mini-factories with teams, usually five to fifteen people, responsible for group goals and self-management. Team members are interchangeable among tasks within the group to the extend practical. Modular units may be used to perform all the operations for a garment or a certain portion of the assembly operations depending on the organization of the module and assembly processes. A module may be divided into several work zones based on the balance of work needed in the module. A work zone consists of a group of sequential operations. Operators are trained to perform the operations in their work zones and adjacent work zones. Work flow with in a module may be with a single piece-hands-off, a Kanban, or a bumb-back system. If a single piece-hands-off is used, machines are arranged in a very tight configuration with an operator at every machine. As soon as an operation is completed the part is handed over to the next operator for processing. A kanban uses a designated work space to balance supply with demand. If the designated space is full, there is no need to produce more until it is needed or the space is empty. Many different name are currently used to identify modular apparel production systems, includes cellular manufacturing units, compact work teams, flexible work groups, selfdirected work teams, and Toyota Sewing System(TSS). The basic s is similar among these systems, although the organizations and implementation may vary. A bumb-back system approach, developed by Toyota sewn products management system, is a stand up module of flexible work zones and cross-trained operators. Operators may be cross trained o up to four different successive operations

Sept 2010

Intro to Indian Apparel Sector