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TRNG I HC CNG NGHIP THNH PH H CH MINH

VIN CNG NGH SINH HC V THC PHM

T U U N

Tm hiu v ung khng gas


Mn hc: ung GVHD: Th.S Nguyn Ngc Thun.

Danh sch nhm: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Tn Trng Hoi Phong Nguyn Cnh Trnh Nguyn Hoi L i L M nh T ng L Qu Di u i n Nguyn Dng Bo Ngc Nguyn Nhn Tn C o n Bo Trit Mssv 10059631 10078581 10048981 10049271 10045841 10050191 10067621 10049151

Thnh Ph H Ch Minh, Ngy 3, Thng 3, Nm 2013

Mc lc
M u ............................................................................................................................................4 Ni dung ..........................................................................................................................................5 1. Tng quan chung v nc gii kht khng gas. .......................................................................5 1.1. 1.2. 1.3. nh ngh .............................................................................................................................5 Phn lo i ................................................................................................................................5 Ngun gc .............................................................................................................................6 Chun b si r trng. ..............................................................................................................8 Pha ch dung dch .................................................................................................................9 Thnh phm. .......................................................................................................................10 Cc yu cu i vi nguyn li u s dng ...........................................................................11 Quy trnh cng ngh sn xut nc yn ngn nh. .............................................................11 S cng ngh . .............................................................................................................11 Thuyt minh quy trnh cng ngh sn xut nc yn ngn nh ......................................12 Ch tiu. ...........................................................................................................................17 Quy trnh cng ngh sn xut nc to ng hp giy. .....................................................17 S quy trnh cng ngh sn xut nc p to ng hp giy . ...................................17 Thuyt minh quy trnh cng ngh . ..................................................................................18 Ch tiu. ...........................................................................................................................27 Quy trnh sn xut tr xanh hoa cc ...................................................................................28 Quy trnh sn xut............................................................................................................28 Thuyt minh quy trnh. ....................................................................................................28 Tr b o ............................................................................................................................29 Quy trnh sn xut............................................................................................................29 Thuyt minh qu trnh. ....................................................................................................30 Ch tiu. ...........................................................................................................................31 Nc tng l c. .....................................................................................................................32

2. Quy trnh sn xut nc gii kht khng ga. ...........................................................................6 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4.

3. Mt vi sn phm tiu biu. ...................................................................................................11 3.1. 3.1.1. 3.1.2. 3.1.3. 3.2. 3.2.1. 3.2.2. 3.2.3. 3.3. 3.3.1. 3.3.2. 3.4. 3.4.1. 3.4.2. 3.4.3. 3.5.

3.5.1. 3.5.2. 3.5.3.

S quy trnh sn xut. .................................................................................................32 Thuyt minh quy trnh. ....................................................................................................33 Ch tiu. ...........................................................................................................................33

4. Hi n tr ng v tim nng Vi t Nam. ....................................................................................34 4.1. 4.2. Hi n tr ng ............................................................................................................................34 Tim nng pht trin. ..........................................................................................................35

Ti li u tham kho .........................................................................................................................36

M u
Ngnh cng nghi p nc gii kht l mt ngnh cng nghi p ln, em l i nhiu li nhun vi th tr ng rng, sn phm phong ph d ng t nc khong, s ng hp, nc tri cy, nc l n men, ung c g s... Trc y, vi s xut hi n c mnh, nc gii kht c gas chim th phn rt ln trong ngnh ny do s ti n li, hng v v t bi t l em l i s sng khoi thch th do g s (CO2). Tuy nhi n, do i sng ngy cng c nng cao, ng i tiu dng ngy cng ch trng n sc khe v hng v t nhi n n n xu hng nc gii kht khng g s (nc gi kht l n men, nc p tri cy, s ) s l l a chn. tm hiu r hn v nc khng gas, v ngun gc, c nhng lo i no v quy trnh sn xut ca chng n n nhm chn ti tm hiu v nc ung khng g s. Do th i gi n h n ch, nhm khng th tm hiu k v nh gi th c t hon chnh, cc s li u v ni dung ch yu c th m kho qu bo ch, sch v qu m ng internet n n khng trnh khi thiu st trong ti tiu lun. Nhm mong nhn l i nhn xt c c v nhm gi l i cm n chn thnh n c hng dn tn tnh trong qu trnh lm ti.

Nhm th c hi n.

Ni dung
1. Tng quan chung v c gii kht khng gas. 1.1. a Nc gii kht l lo i nc c sn xut nhm tho mn cn kht h y l ngun thc ung cho ng i ti u dng. Nc gii kht th ng c ng gi trong ch i thu tinh, hp nh a, hp giy hay hp thic Tu vo thnh phn v tnh cht m n c bo qun trong cc bao b khc nhau Nc gii kht c chia lm 2 lo i chnh: nc gii kht c gas (carbonated drinks) v nc gii kht khng gas ( non-carbonated drinks). Cng thc cho ung khng g th ng bao gm mt hoc nhiu lo i hng v tp trung hoc trn vi nc kh kh v ng. Nc gii kht khng gas (hay non-carbonated bevarages) l lo i nc ung khng c b sung c rbon dioxide t o n n g s nh nc gii kht c gas. Qui trnh chun sn xut ung khng ga bao gm trn cc thnh phn, th ng l vi h thng pha trn lin tc m s u c theo sau bi mt qu trnh lm mt. V n khng cha carbon, hu ht cc ung khng ga phi c ti t trng nh mt l a chn thay th lo i b vi sinh vt. 1.2. Phn loi Nc gii kht khng g s c phn thnh 3 nhm: Nc gii kht pha long (dilutable drinks). Nc gii kht dng ng y ng gi sn (ready-to-drink pre-packaged beverages). Nc p tri cy v nectars (fruit juices and nectars).

Nc gii kht pha long (dilutable drinks) vi thnh phn chnh l mt hay nhiu lo i syrup c pha vi nc theo mt t l nht nh tu theo tng lo i sn phm. Nc gii kht dng ng y ng gi sn (ready-to-drink pre-packaged beverages): l lo i thc ung c sn xut di hnh thc chun b sn ( c th ung ngay m ko phi pha ch g th m). ung RTD c nhiu lo i:

Alcopop Vegan (tho dc) Sa: gm 3 lo i c b sung protein (dng ch yu cho ng i tp th hnh), tr h y c ph , sa chua.

Nc p tri cy v nect rs (fruit juices nd nect rs): y l lo i nc gii kht c khi lng chim lnh th tr ng nc gii kht khng gas. Thnh phn chnh l nc p ca cc lo i tri cy c hoc ko c tht qu. 1.3. Ngun gc Nc gii kht thng m i u ti n l nc gi kht khng gas, xut hi n vo th k 17 vi cng thc pha ch gm nc lc, chanh v mt ong. n nm 1767, tin s Joseph Priestley - mt nh ha hc ng i Anh - ph ch thnh cng lo i nc gii kht c g . B nm s u, nh ha hc Thy in Torbern Bergman pht minh lo i my c th ch t o nc c ga t vi bng cch s dng acid sulfuric. My ca Bergman cho php sn xut lo i nc khong nhn t o vi s lng ln. Nm 1810, bng sng ch M u tin cho cc lo i my sn xut nc khong nhn t o c trao cho Simons v Rundell Charleston thuc Nam Carolina (M). Tuy nhin, mi n nm 1832 lo i nc khong c gas mi tr nn ph bin nh s r i hng lo t ca lo i my sn xut nc c gas trn th tr ng. Ngy nay do yu cu c ng i tiu dng mun nhng sn phm tt cho sc khe v xut pht t t nhin nn th phn nc gii kht khng g s ngy cng c m rng. 2. Quy trnh sn xut c gii kht khng ga. C th chi quy trnh r lm 3 gi i o n chnh : Gi i o n 1: chun b siro trng. Gi i o n 2: pha ch dung dch. Gi i o n 3: thnh phm .

ng

Ha tan

Nc

Acid citrit

Chuyn ha

L c

Lm ngui

Nc tinh lc

Pha ch

Mu hng liu,ph gia

Chai sch

Chit rt

Ghp m

Th x

Lm kh

Dn nhn

V trng

Thnh phm

2.1. Chun b si r trng. Mc c . Dng t o 1 dung dch pha ch siro mi, nhm chuyn mt lng ng saccarozo thnh cc d ng ng kh c c dung dch c ngt c o hn, tng n ch ca sn phm, tiu di t 1 s lo i vi sinh vt nhm tng th m th i gian bo qun ng th h t n ng trong dch sch . Qu trnh chun b.
ng

Ha tan Acid citrit

Nc

Chuyn ha

L c

Lm ngui

Gii thch qu trnh. u tin ta chun b nc ( c x l ), s u cho nhi t l n n khong 65 -75C ri cho ng vo th c hi n qu trnh h t n ng, ty theo tng dng sn phm gii kht khc nhau m t l % ng saccarozo trong siro l khc nhau. Thng th ng t l c quy nh l 700kg ng/1000lt siro. Trong gi i o n ny th t cho th m 1 lng dung dch acid citrit nht nh (1-2 kg cid citrit/1 kg ng ) v tip tc gi tng nhi t ln 90-95C t o iu ki n cho ng saccarozo thy phn thnh cc d ng ng kh ( lm tng ngt cho siro ). y t c th cho th m 1 lng nh cc cht ph gia chng vi sinh vt cn tr s ln men ca nm men v nm mc hay cc ho t ng ca vi khun bo qun siro lu hn (do trong siro thnh phm ch 1 lng ng kh v vi sinh vt d dng chuyn h lng ng kh ny sinh ra cc cht gy h hng siro) sau khi cho cc thnh phn cn thit vo th ta th c hi n khuy trn siro v tin hnh lm ngui siro xung khong 80 -85C gim nht ca dung

dch siro t o iu ki n thun li cho qu trnh lng,lc lo i b cc t p cht (do b ln vo trong ng saccarozo trong qu trnh bo qun v vn chuyn) lm s ch siro trc khi chuyn qua cc thit b truyn nhi t lm ngui nhanh chng siro trc khi i phi ch phi t c khong 30-40C. Yu cu ca siro thnh phm C mu vng nh,trong sut ko ln t p cht. Khng c mi l ,c mi hi nh ca natri benzoate. C v ngt thanh,chua nh. Khng cha vi sinh vt gy b nh . C hm lng cht kh 67 Br.

2.2. Pha ch dung dch Mc c : Siro s u khi t c nhng yu cu nh tr n th s c vo thit b phi ch ha trn ng nht cc thnh phn t o nn cc gi tr c trng cho sn phm v mu sc, mi v.trc khi i chit rt, ng ch i. Quy trnh.

Siro thnh phm Mu hng liu,ph gia

Nc tinh lc

Pha ch

Gii thch quy trnh . Siro s u khi c x l (siro thnh phm) s c chuyn vo thit b khuy trn th c hi n qu trnh phi trn, b n u t cho 1 lng nc ( qu s l) vo pha long dung dch siro, ty vo lo i sn phm m t iu chnh t l cho ph hp, sau khi sir c pha long th bt u cho cc thnh phn cn thit vo, theo nguyn tc l cho tng thnh phn vo, nhng thnh phn no cn nhiu nht th cho vo trc tin, sau mi ln cho 1 thnh phn th th c hi n qu trnh khuy trn, n khi no c s ng nht cc cu t trong dung dch, c cho nh th

n thnh phn nguyn li u cui cng l hng li u v t o nn d ng sn phm bn thnh phn ri d vo thit b tch chit d t o nn cc sn phm r th th ng. Yu cu ca cc thnh phi ch: Cc thnh phn mu sc, mi v th phi c ph long trc khi i ph ch. Cc cht ph gia,bo qun cng phi d ng lng. Hng li u th nguyn.

2.3. Thnh phm. Mc c : T o nn sn phm thnh phm ( c ng ch i h y hp) r th th ng v phn phi cho ng i tiu dng, d dng s dng v bo qun . Quy trnh :
Dung dch bn thnh phm

Chai sch

Chit rt

Ghp m

Th x

Lm kh

Dn nhn

V trng

Thnh phm

Gii thch quy trnh. Dung dch sau khi pha ch th d ng bn thnh phm, s u t chuyn dung dch ny n thit b tinh chit chit rt vo cc thit b cha c th tch nh hn (chai, hp), sau khi ng ch i th se c chuyn tr n bng chuyn n cc thit b ghp m, ng np, kim tra

xem c t yu cu hay khng th cc chai ny s c n cc dng c th, s u khi m bo c yu cu cn thit th cc chai (hp) ny s c i lm kh th c hi n bc tip theo l gn nhn v i ti t trng lo i b hon ton cc vi sinh vt cn cha trong dung dch m ch c lo i b hon ton giai o n chun b sir. Cc ch i s u khi c v trng l thnh phm s c tung ra th tr ng phc v ng i tiu dng . Yu cu sn phm. t c cc gi tr cm quan (mu, mi, v) cn thit. Sn phm c v trng hon ton. Np ng v m gn phi chc chn m bo cch ly hon ton sn phm v mi tr ng. Bao b sn phm phm ng y u cu, khng gy c h i.

2.4. Cc yu cu i vi nguyn liu s dng Thnh phn ng tinh luy n Sinh t c Cht (211) Mu tng hp Hng tng hp bo qun Ch tiu 70g/l

2g/l

0.6g/l

3. Mt vi sn phm tiu biu. 3.1. Quy trnh cng ngh sn xut c yn 3.1.1. S cng ngh. .

Nm tuyt Ngm nc X l Ra s ch Xay th Ry vi nc ro nh lng KCS Lon s ch V lon KCS

Siro, ph gia khc

Phi trn kh N u Siro mi Lm ngui 1 Phi trn 2 Chit trt Ghp np Ti t trng Lm ngui 2 Lm kh Mng co ng thng Bo n Np s ch Hng Pectin d ng dung dch

Thnh phm

Quy trnh cng ngh sn xut nc yn ngn nh 3.1.2. Thuyt minh quy trnh cng ngh sn xut c y Chun b nm tuyt Dng nc m 40C ngm nm tuyt hoc dung dch N HSO3 n khi nm tuyt trng n c c i khong 30 - 40 pht, lc ny cc tp cht trn nm tuyt mm ng th i ta c th d dng tch chng ra khi nm tuyt. Phn t p cht cn st l i s c lo i b nh l c c hc v cc phn khng s dng c ca nm tuyt cng c lo i b nh t i nm b vng, nhng ni

h hng Tip theo ta pha long dung dch st trng nng khong 100mg/l c phun vi p l c khong 2-3 at. Qu trnh ra nm tuyt c chia lm 3 gi i o n: + Ra th: lo i b nhng phn bn c hc. + Ra s ch: lo i b cc t p cht mn, ha cht. + Ra tinh: ra trong kh c sc kh ozon, lo i vi sinh vt. Th i gian ra cng nhanh cng tt khong 15 30 pht. Nm tuyt sau khi ra trng, mm v tng i gin, ta tin hnh xay nhm chia nh nm tuyt thnh nhng cu t ng u c kch thc 1-2mm. Ry vi nc: ha nm tuyt va xay nh vo nc s ch v trng, dung ry c kch thc > 2mm thu l i cc cu t ln hn 2mm tip t c xay nh. Sau cng dung ry c kch thc < 1mm, ly ton b nm tuyt mn ra khi nc v ro. Chun b dung dch siro mi dng gel. Cho siro v ph gia vo thit b bt cnh khuy nng nhi t ln 90C, cho pectin vo khuy t n u (trc pectin c ngm nc). Gi nhi t ny khong 10 pht th kt thc, ta chuyn dung dch sang thit b ng ha d ng p sut, t c dung dch gel c nhi t khong 75-80C ta phi trn hng yn vo thit b c cnh khuy kn v v trng. Lc ny ta li dung s chnh l ch p sut chuyn ton b ho c mt phn dung dch gel vo b iu ha. Ta lm vy t o iu ki n thun li cho pectin hydr te h hon ton, ng ha tan t o ra dung dch snh c kh nng treo l lng cc mnh ngn nh, gip phn b u v n nh trong dung dch ca sn phm sau ny. Ngoi ra nhi t nu ny cn c tc dng thanh trng sn phm. Lm ngui 1. Dung dch gel sau khi nu s c lm ngui qu 2 gi i o n: Gi i o n 1: lm ngui ngay trong ni hp bng vi nc. Gi i o n 2: lm ngui bn ngoi bng vi nc. Lm ngui gip qu trnh phi hng tng mi v cm quan cho sn phm thun li v trnh s tn tht c hng li u. Dung dch gel sau khi nu c nhi t 90-92C, lm ngui xung 75C thun li cho vi c thao tc cc cng o n hon thi n sn phm v lm ngui bo qun.

Phi trn 2 (phi

Phi hng thm vo sn phm nhm lm tng gi tr cm quan, t o hng v c trng cho sn phm nc gii kht. Th ng phi hng s c th c hi n trc khi chuyn dung dch gel sang bn ch chit rt. Cn h nhi t xung ng hn 10C khi phi hng h n ch tn tht hng. Chit rt. Chit rt nhm hon thi n sn phm chun b cho qu trnh ghp np m ng i ti t trng. u ti n lon c kim tra an ton v m bo v sinh, khng mp mo, lon phi c in y thng tin v sn phm nh thnh phn, hng dn s dng. tip theo cng nhn cho vo lon mt lng ngn nh thch hp, s u bng ti s chuyn lon n thit b rt lon. Dung dch gel s c bm lin tc vo thit b chit rt, bng ti lon n v tr vi rt, dung dch gel c rt gn y lon th vi chuyn ng i l n, dung dch rt lon theo phng php rt nng. Bng ti tip tc chuyn lon qua thit b ghp np nhi t 70C. Phi chit rt nng h n ch nhim vi sinh vt v trnh oxi ha mt s thnh phn. Trong qu trnh chit rt s xy ra mt s s c khng mong mun nh: lon b cn tr tr n ng i lm cho cc lon s u bi kt l i khng n c v tr vi rt n n ng i cng nhn phi th ng xuy n qu n st khc phc ki p th i. Hoc lon rt qu y hoc khng dung tch th phi iu chnh van vi rt.

Thit b rt lon Ghp np. Trc khi lon qu thit b ghp np, vt ti s gi cho cc lon c khong cch u nhau. Thit b ghp gm 3 b phn song song v chuyn ng tnh tin ln xung. Mi b phn c 5 ng hnh tr khc nhau, ng gia c tc dng gi y dp vo lon, xung quanh c 4 trc

xoay trn c tc dng len m. S u qu b phn kim tra mi ghp Nu nh lon t yu cu s chuyn qua b phn indate y lon. Thit b th c hi n qu trnh:

Dy chuyn sn xut nc yn Tit trng. Qu trnh ti t trng c th c hi n bng phng php gi nhi t vi nhi t 120C trong th i gian 12 pht. Sn phm s u khi c ghp np s c xp vo xe y vo ni hp ti t trng hai v. Hi nng c sc tr c tip vo trong ni hp vi p sut 1.2 2kg/cm2 bng hi nc, ri nng nhi t ln 120C v gi nhi t ny trong 12 pht. S u ngng cp nhi t v m v n bm nc vo gim p sut bn trong ni cho n khi cn bng p sut vi mi tr ng th ngng cp nc v m np ni hp ly sn phm ra ngoi. Sau khi tiu di t ton b vi sinh vt v c bo t trong sn phm hoc c ch n mc ti ho t ng ca vi sinh vt trong th i gian bo qun, nh vy sn phm s c lu hn, khng b h hng. Thit b th c hi n qu trnh

Ni hp ti t trng d ng nm ngang

Lm ngui. Sn phm sau khi ti trng c qu h thng lm ngui (h nhi t sn phm xung nhi t phng). Nc yn sau khi hp xong c lm ngui qu 2 gi i o n: Gi i o n 1: Lm ngui ngay trong ni hp bng vi nc. Gi i o n 2: Lm ngui bn ngoi bng vi nc.

Mc ch: Khi ti t trng nhi t c tng l n c o mt s sinh vt thch nghi vi nhi t thp s b tiu di t, cn l i nhng vi sinh vt chu c nhi t cao hoc d ng tim sinh. Mc ch h nhi t xung nh nh gy cho vi sinh vt b sc nhi t. Tuy nhin khng h nhi t xung qu nhanh v khi nhi t tng s lm cho cc mi ghp np gin n, khi h nhi t qu nhanh s t o cho cc mi ghp c mt khong khng nht nh gia t o iu ki n cho vi sinh vt xm nhp. Lm ngui xung nhi t xung 35-40C thun li cho cng o n hon thi n sn phm v lm ngui bo qun. Bo n. Mc ch: nhm lo i b nhng sn phm khng t tiu chun nh: phng, mo m, h. Yu cu v c im sn phm: + Sn phm trc khi bo n phi c ti t trng + Nhi t lng cn l i trong sn phm sau khi lm ngui c tc dng tip tc lm b y hi nc trn b mt bao b. Bao b phi kh s trnh r r hoc np bao b. m k , bao m co, t . Mc ch: hon thi n sn phm Cha kho t m-o thng lc u: Nc yn trong qu trnh hp nhi t c o lm nht ca dung dch gel gim do khng c kh nng gel l lng, cc mnh nm tuyt b sa lng xung y lon. S u khi cha kho t m 24h, nhi t ca sn phm n nh, lc ny dung dch c kh nng gel tt do t o thng lc u cho cc mnh nm tuyt lng phn y lon ln phn tr n v c gel l lng. Sn phm c ng gi vi cc hnh thc: ng trong lon thic 240ml, ng thnh phm 30 lon/thng, 06 lon/hp , 06 lon/lc.

3.1.3. Ch tiu.

3.2. Quy trnh cng ngh sn xut c to

p giy. p giy .

3.2.1. S quy trnh cng ngh sn xut c p to

3.2.2. Thuyt minh quy trnh cng ngh. Phn loi, la chn nguyn liu. Tin hnh l a chn nguyn li u bng phng php th cng. Nguyn li u c dn mng tr n cc bng chuyn cao su c b rng t 60-80cm. Cng nhn y ng h i b n bng chuyn v th c hi n l a chn, phn lo i nguyn li u. Mc ch cng ngh : chun b cho cc qu trnh gia cng tip theo. Qu trnh l a chn, phn lo i nguyn li u nhm lo i b i nhng tri h dp, nh hng n cht lng cm quan ca sn phm, chn nguyn li u c chn ph hp, kch thc ng u. Ra. To t xe ch s u khi c kim tra phn lo i s c cho vo bung ra nh bng ti. Dng thit b ra xi ti d ng bng ti ra, to s tri qu 2 gi i o n ngm v ra xi. Ngm lm cho nc thm t nguyn li u, lm cht bn mm v bong ra. Th i gian ngm ph thuc vo mc bm bn ca nguyn li u v tc dng ca dung dch ra, c th t vi pht n vi chc pht. Ra xi l dng tc dng chy c dng nc ko cht bn cn l i trn mt nguyn li u s u khi ngm. Nc ra phi l nc s ch. nc ra t b nhim bn ng i t dng nc chy lin tc trn cc b. Mc ch cng ngh l chun b cho qu trunh gia cng tip theo, lo i b t ct, t p cht, vi sinh vt.

Nguyn l hot ng my ra xi di dng bng ti

Chn. Phng php th c hi n: Nguyn li u l to n n khi ngm trong nc chn, to s ni nn thit b chn c thit k bao gm mt b nc c gia nhi t n nhi t chn v bn trong b c hai bng ti. Mt bng ti ngp trong nc dng nguy n li u ra khi b n vng lm ngui trnh hi n tng to b mm nhng, mt bng ti cn l i nm pha trn m c nc v c tay g c. Trong qu trnh chn, to s ngp trong nc nng v c tay g c c bng ti trn di chuyn t tri sang phi (th i gian di chuyn to t tri sang phi khong 3 pht) v i r ngoi nh bng ti di. Vi tc dng h tr cho qu trnh nghin d dng hn v n s lm mm sn phm. Mt s protopectin thy phn thnh pectin ha tan lm cho qu trnh nghin d dng hn. ng th i nhng to vo trong nc nng nhm tiu di t mt phn vi sinh vt trn b mt v to, v ho t cc enzyme trong nguyn li u v nh ch cc qu trnh sinh ha trong nguyn li u.

1 - Bng ti; 2 - Thit b phun nc l nh lm ngui; 3 - B hng nc Hnh 2.5 S nguyn l ho t ng thit b chn Nghin.

Phng php th c hi n: Do cu trc nguyn li u to khi chu tc dng ca l c vn ch v m tr n chng xut hi n nhiu vt nt nn l c nghin ch yu l do l c ma st. V vy, tr ng hp ny chn thit b nghin h i . Thit b nghin h i b o gm h i qu y ngc chiu nh u. H i ny qu y gn vi rotor, b mt c cc rnh. Khe hp gi h i quyt nh kch thc sn phm. Khi thit b vn hnh, nguyn li u s i qu khe hp ny, chu tc dng ca l c ma st v l c nn, nguyn li u b v ra. V dch bo c pH trong vng acid v cha nhiu vitamin nn b phn tip xc vi nguyn li u phi c ch t o bng inox hay nh a cng, trnh b n mn. Mc ch cng ngh : Chun b cho qu trnh p v lm gi m kch thc ca to, ph v t bo lm cho dch chit tit ra nhiu hn, tng hi u sut p. Cng nhiu t bo b tc ng thu hi u qu qu trnh nghin cng cao.

Thit b nghin hai a X l enzyme. Phng php th c hi n: Cho nguyn li u sau khi nghin vo bn . Bn l mt bnh hnh tr ng, c v o, bn trong c cnh khy, do sn phm sau khi nghin thu rt nht, do

mun gia nhi t ta cn s dng hi nc sc kh vo bnh kt hp vi lng nc i b n ngoi v o iu chnh nhi t t 40 - 500C. Qu trnh ny lm gim bn c hc ca mng t bo, dch qu s c gii phng ra khi t bo d dng hn v hi u sut nc p thu c tng ln trung bnh khong 15 -30%, c khi ti 49% (ty tng lo i qu) p. Phng php th c hi n: S dng thit b p trc vis: Nguyn li u theo mng hng c vo trong lng p t i y trc vis v y nguyn li u i ti ng th i cng t o ra mt l c p lm dch bo thot ra. Nh tm thp c l m b c gi l i, dch bo thot ra c km theo tht qu. n cui trc vis thu b c y ra ngoi. Thit b p trc vis bao gm bung p hnh tr di, bn trong c trc vis bng thp khng g. cao ca gen trn trc vis th ng gim dn t u vo n u ra ca thit b. ng th i, ng knh ca bung p v trc vis cng gim theo hng trn sao cho phn khng gi n nguyn li u chim ch trong bung p (gia trc v bung p) cng nh dn khi gn u ra ca thit b. Khi p l c tc dng lrn nguyn li u cng tng. Tr n bung p c cc l nh dch p thot ra. B p s thot ra cui thit b thng qua l thot li u v c th hi u chnh p l c thng qua vi c th y i kch thc l tho li u ny. L c p cng c th th y i bng tc trc vis. Mc ch cng ngh : Thu dch p t qu to.

Thit b p trc vis

Lm trong. Phng php th c hi n: Cho nguyn li u sau khi p vo bn enzyme. n nh trong nc p cn gip ko di th i gian bo qun ca sn phm v tng tc qu trnh lc v s dng enzyme pectinase 3XL gip k t lng nhng cu t nh l lng k c nhng cu t khng th nhun thy bng mt th ng. Lc. Phng php th c hi n: - S dng thit b lc l thit b lc p s dng d lc - thit b lm vi c gin o n. Vi c n p huyn ph vo thit b v tho dch lc ra khi thit b th c hi n lin tc trong mt khong th i gian. Tuy nhirn, vi c tho b lc s th c hi n theo chu k. - Thit b c hnh tr ng hoc nm ngang. B phn chnh ca thit b l cc d lc (3) c tit di n hnh trn. Mi d lc c mt h thng gi bng li. Ph b n ngoi gi c ph mt lp vch ngn. Ph b n trong l k nh dn dch lc. Qu trnh lc gip ci thi n ch tiu trong ca sn phm. Sau qu trnh x l enzyme,

m ch pectin b ct nh lm gim nht, cc cu t l lng trong dung dch b kt lng xung v t o thnh mt lp cn. Qu trnh lc gip lo i b lp cn ny, gip nc to khng b c tr l i khi bo qun. Chun b cho qu trnh phi. - Nguyn tc ho t ng ca thit b: u ti n bm huyn ph vo thit b. Cc cu t pha rn s gi l i trn b mt vch ngn c cc d lc. Ring pha lng s chui qua vch ngn i vo knh dn b n trong d lc ri chy tp trung vo ng thu hi (4) v cc d lc c th xoay c nh ng c (5). Theo th i gian s dng, cc cu t pha rn s bm y ln b mt vch ngn tr n d lc. v sinh d lc, ng i ta ln lt tho thn tr (2), s u tho cc d r khi ng hnh tr (4).

Thit b lc p s dng da lc 1- Ca quan st; 2- Thn thit b; 3- D lc; 4- ng trung tkm thu hi dch lc; 5- ng c Phi ch Nu syrup. Phng php th c hi n: H t n ng trong nc: Cho nc vo gia nhi t n 40 - 50oC. T l gi nc v ng l 1:2. S u cho ng vo khuy trn n khi ng ha tan hon ton. Gia nhi t n si (si tim) khong 20 - 30 pht. Lm ngui ti 80 - 90oC: Cho acid citric vo hm lng 0.01% v gi trong 1gi . o Brix ca dung dch syrup. Bx thnh phm 700Bx. Lc nng: tch ht cc t p cht c hc nh rc, t, ct ln trong qu trnh vn chuyn v bo qun. Dng thit b lc khung bn lc. Khi kt thc qu trnh nu syrup s b sung bt tr lc diatomite vo thit b v khuy u chun b cho qu trnh lc. Phn bt tr lc bm trn b mt ca mng lc s gip chng ta lo i b t p cht mn b ln trong syrup. Lm ngui nhanh bng cch tr o i nhi t vi nc bng thit b tr o i nhi t bn mng. Syrup s c lm ngui nhanh v nhi t khngvt qu 20 -25C. Cn lu l qu trnh lm ngui phi c th c hi n trong iu ki n kn h n ch s xm nhp ca vi sinh vt t mi tr ng. Mc ch cng ngh :

Ch bin: qu trunh nu syrup s lm th y i thnh phn ha hc ca syrup, lm tng hm lng cht kh, tng ngt v ci thi n trong. Bo qun: Cc vi sinh vt s b c ch hoc tiu di t, nh m th i gian bo qun syrup s tng l n.

- Dng thit b nu syrup l ni hai v c cnh khuy d ng mi cho.

Ni nu syrup hai v Phi ch Phng php th c hi n: - S dng thit b khuy trn c cnh khuy mi cho. Cu t o thit b bao gm mt thng khuy, bn trong c mt cnh khuy d ng bn mng c gn vo trc khuy. Tc quay cnh khuy tng i thp 20 - 150 rpm. Vi thit b lo i ny, cc phn t cht lng th ng c chuyn ng vng trn quanh trc v chuyn ng ly tm l chnh, cn chuyn ng theo phng thng ng l rt t. Thit b lun lun cn lp thm cc thanh chn trn thnh thit b.

Thit b khuy trn c cnh khuy mi cho. Cng thc phi trn Dch to sau khi lc c 0Bx l 120 Syrup c c 0Bx l 700 T l phi trn nc - dch to (1 :1) Mong mun sn phm c Bx l 140 Vy cng thc phi trn l: 1kg dch to - 1kg nc - 0,285 kg syrup Lc membrane. Phng php th c hi n S dng thit b m hnh cun xon, vi lc - microfiltration MF, vt li u ca membrane Thit b gm hai hnh tr ng trc nhng c kch thc khc nh u v c t lng vo

cellulose acetate. nhau. Ch t o bng thp khng r. ng hnh tr ng knh nh c c l tr n thn v l ni tp trung dng permeate. Khong khng gi n c gii h n bi mt ngoi thn tr ng knh nh v mt trong thn tr ng knh ln l mt tm m xp c cun l i theo hnh xon c. Tm m ny c lm bng vt li u polypropylene. Hai bn tm m l hai tm membrane vi b mt ho t ng u quay ra pha ngoi. Dung dch nc to c bm vo mt u thn tr v di chuyn dc theo thn tr bi mt knh dn c tit di n hnh xon c. Dng retentate s tp trung thot ra u kia ca thit b hnh tr theo knh dn ni trn. Cc cu t trong dng permeate s chui qua mao dn c h i membr ne i vo b n trong cu trc tm m. Phn

ny cng c tit di n hnh xon c v lin thng vi ng hnh tr ng knh nh. Dng permeate - nc to s tp trung t i ng hnh tr ng knh nh t i vng trc ca thit b ri thot ra bn ngoi. Nhm tch bt cc t bo vi sinh vt nh vi khun, nm men, nm si ra khi dng permeate. Nh , th i gian bo qun sn phm permeate s ko di. Rt sn phm. Phng php th c hi n - Thit b s dng l t rt v trng. Thit b ny th c hi n nhiu chc nng nh t o hnh bao b giy, v trng bao bu giy, chit rt. - u tin, cc tm cac - tng s c tip nhn v m hp, t o hnh y trong khngkh ti t trng nng, hn kn y hp. Tip n, hp s c n vng phun H2O2 ti t trng, ng i ta s phun dung dch H2O2 ln b mt bao b, phn di n tch tip xc vi H2O2 chim khong 30 - 40% tng di n tch b mt b o b, s u ng i ta phun khng kh nng v trng (1800C) ui H2O2 bm trn b mt bao b. Hp sau khi ti t c n c cu rt dch v c rt theo th tch quy nh. Sau cng, hp c hn kn mi ng v r ngoi.2

Thit b chit rt v trng nc qu 1. Ngn cha hp cac - tng ; 2. B phn tip nhn v m hp; 3. C cu hnh thnh y trong khng kh ti t trng nng; 4. C cu hn kn y hp; 5. Thng ng H2O2; 6. Vi phun H2O2 ti t trng bao b ; 7. Vng lm kh khng kh ti t trng nng lm bay hi

H2O2; 8. Thng ng nguyn li u v c cu rt; 9. B phn hn mi ng hp bng siru km; 10. T o hnh mi ng hp; 11. Bnh sao ly hp ra; 12. Vng khng kh ti t trng Mc ch cng ngh : - Hon thi n sn phm Bo qun: sau khi rt sn phm v ng gi thu sn phm c cch ly vi iu ki n mi tr ng bn ngoi Hon thin. - Phng php th c hi n: Thit b in ngy sn xut trn bao bu, gn ng ht v ng block hi n n y u c th c hi n theo phng php li n tc v t ng ha. 3.2.3. Ch tiu. Ch tiu v cm quan: Yu cu c trng cho nc to Thm c trng ca nguyn li u, khng c mi l C hoc khng c v ngt, khng c v l Trong, khng vn c Tn ch tiu 1. Mu sc 2. Mi 3. V 4. Tr ng thi Ch tiu v ha l:

- Brix: 10-14; pH: 4-5

- Ch ti u hm lng kim lo i nng 1. Asen (As) 2. Ch (Pb) 3. Thy ngn (Hg) 4. Cadimi (Cd) 0,1 0,2 0,05 1,0

3.3. Quy trnh sn xut tr xanh hoa cc 3.3.1. Quy trnh sn xut. Thnh phn chnh: nc, ho cc kh, tr x nh, ng sacharose, fructose,acide citric, vit min C, hng ch nh, hng mt ong.

3.3.2. Thuyt minh quy trnh. Trch ly: tr x nh v ho cc c cho vo tank trch ly nhi t 90C-95C trong th i Lc: dung dch sau trch ly s c lc lo i b bt b v t p cht c trong tr v

gian 3-5 pht thun ti n cho qu trnh lm l nh

Lm l nh: sau khi lc xong dung dch s c lm l nh xung nhi t 8C-10C. giai

o n ny khng c nhi t ln cao qu v nhi t cao s lm tr b ng v cng khng nhi t xung thp qu s lm tr b ng l i dn n tc ng ng dn Ly tm: sau khi lm l nh dung dch s c bm vo my ly tm tch b v cc t p Phi trn: sau khi ly tm xong dung dich s c bm vo t nk ch phi trn vi cc cht thun ti n cho qu trnh phi trn ph gi nh vit min C, cide citric, ng, hng mt ong, hng tr,mu tr. Qu trnh ny c mc ch ch bin. Cc bin i ch yu trong qu trnh ny l bin i vt l v ha l. Kt qu l lm th y i thnh phn ha hc v mt s ch tiu vt l nh t trng, nht, mu ca syrup thnh phm. Lc: dung dch sau phi trn s c lc l i ln cui lo i cc cn,t p cht Thanh trng: dung dch sau khi lc xong s c bm vo thit b thanh trng nhi t Chit rt: sau khi thanh trng xong dung dch tr s c bm l n my chit rt rt

85C-90C trong th i gian 10s chai nhi t 85C-90C, tr phi c rt nng nhi t khong 86C gi nguy n hng v ca tr. y chit rt c th c hi n theo nguyn tc ng p. Sau khi chit rt sn phm s c vo h thng p mng co, dn nhn s u c chuyn vo kho lu gi v bo qun. Qu trnh rt sn phm vo ch i, ng np chai v in ngy sn xut l n b o b th ng c th c hi n lin tc trn mt dy chuyn t ng vi cc bng ti vn chuyn sn phm i qu b thit b: rt, ng np v in ngy sn xut ln bao b. Nhi t sn phm trong qu trnh rt khng c vt qu 4oC. 3.4. Tr b ao 3.4.1. Quy trnh sn xut.

3.4.2. Thuyt minh qu trnh. u tr u u ti n nh cc nguy n li u: c r mel, ng,ct b o, cid citric. S u cc nguy n li u ny vo ni nu. Mc ch: chuyn cc cht h t n v d ng dung dch chun b cho qu trnh chit rt. Phng php: hn hp nguy n li u c h t n nhi t 80oC trong th i gi n 5 -10 pht. Khi dung dch t y u cu th chuyn l n bn trung gi n qu b phn chit rt. u tr c it rt Mc ch: Ngn chn s xm nhp c vi sinh vt vo sn phm. D vn chuyn, phn phi v ti n s dng. + Ko di th i gi n bo qun c sn phm.

Phng php: Chit rt nng 75C nhm mc ch: ngn chn oxy khng kh, vi khun xm nhp vo sn phm v bi kh. + Trong qu trnh chit rt c s dng Nit lng. Nit lng c phun tr c tip vo lon ng y s u khi chit rt v trc khi ng np, nhm mc ch: lm cng lon v lon bng nhm rt d b bin d ng trong qu trnh chit rt. Nhi t Nit lng l 200C, p sut 5kg/cm2. Khi phun Nit lng vo sn phm th kh nng h t n vo sn phm rt t. Trong th i gi n bo qun, Nit tch ph v nm tr n b mt sn phm. Do , khi ng i ti u dng s dng, np lon c m r th Nit b y r ht n n khng nh hng ti sc khe ng i ti u dng. Thit b chit rt: s dng my chit rt c sn phm nc ngt c g s d ng lon. Hp Mc ch: H nhi t t 75C xung 30C t o iu ki n cho qu trnh vn chuyn s ng cng o n ti t trng c d dng hn. Thit b: S dng thit b hp c sn phm nc ngt c g s d ng lon. S u khi hp, lon c q my qu t thi kh v ind te. Tit trng: Mc ch: ti u di t hon ton vi sinh vt cn l i s u qu trnh chit rt. Nhi t ti t trng l 120C trong 10 pht. Thit b: S dng my ti t trng c sn phm nc yn ngn nh. m ui: Mc ch: h nhi t s u ti t trng xung nhi t phng. Phng php: s dng nc th ng phun tr c tip l n sn phm n khi nhi t t y u cu th ngng qu trnh lm ngui. S u khi sn phm c lm ngui s c l u kh v xp thng, mi thng 6 lon. 3.4.3. Ch tiu.

3.5. Nc t

c.

3.5.1. S quy trnh sn xut.

3.5.2. Thuyt minh quy trnh. N u iu: Nguy n li u sn xut nc tng l c gm: ng glucose, ng s cch rose, nc tinh khit,cht bo qun,t urin, inositol, hn hp vit min, hng li u hng li u. Cc nguy n li u trc khi vo sn xut c KCS kim tr . Qu tr u : Nc tinh khit c gi nhi t l n 85oC s u cho ng, cht bo qun,tip tc un l n 91-95oC, trong qu trnh ny b sung them cid citric chuyn h ng khong 10 pht. Kim tr Brix th em i phi trn. i tr : Siro trng c phi trn vi cc nguy n li u cn l i t o thnh sir mi c mu sc v hng v c trng vi nc tinh khit. T a tr : Mc ch: ti u di t vi sinh vt, ko di th i gi n bo qun. Th nh trng nhi t 90C trong 10 pht. m ui: Dung dch c lm ngui xung 60C qu trnh chit rt c d dng. it rt: th tch 110ml v lon nh 250ml. Ch i Chit rt nng 60C qu trnh chit rt c d dng. Bistrico nc tng l c c chit rt trong ch i nh nh o t i p m trc khi vo chit rt c r s ch v KCS kim tr . S u khi chit rt xong ch i,lon c ghp np v i l u kh, dn nhn, v mng co ri ng thng. 3.5.3. Ch tiu.

4. Hin trng v tim 4.1. Hin trng

Vit Nam.

Th tr ng nc gii kht Vi t Nam hi n nay l mt th tr ng m vi rt nhiu cng ty t trong nc cho n ngoi nc tham gia, mt th tr ng to ln vi hn 87 tri u ng i (s li u nm 2011). Hu ht cc cng ty u phi c nh tranh gay gt chim lnh th tr ng bng cht lng sn phm, s phong ph v chng lo i d ng v mu m v gi c c nh tranh. Ngy nay, do yu cu v sc kho ngy cng cao c ng i tiu dng v sc khe nn thm 1 yu t mi p ng th hiu l nhng sn phm thin nhin v c li cho sc khe chnh v vy th tr ng tiu th nc gii kht khng gas ngy cng pht trin m nh. Mt s sn phm nc gii kht khng g s nh: cc lo i tr, cc lo i nc tri cy, cc lo i nc c s phi hp gia tri cy v sa, tr tho mc. n n y, c hn 100 lo i nc gii kht khng g s (khng k nc ung ng ch i, nc khong), c kh i thc t nhi n li u thi n nhi n nh c, qu, cc lo i tr tho mc Mt s cng ty tham gia vo th tr ng ny nh:

Pepsico vi cc sn phm nh: Lipton Te s, nc p tri cy Tropicana, Twister. Coca cola : Minute M id Nutriboost Tn Hi p Pht: Tr x nh Khng , Tr tho mc Dr.Th nh, nc tng l c Number 1, s u nnh Number 1 Soy Tribeco: tr 100, s u nnh tribeco, nc yn ngn nh, tr b o Vinamilk: dng sn phm V-fresh URC (Cng ty Universal Robina Corporation),Tr xanh C2 ,tr tho mc YinY ng Wonderfarm: cc dng sn phm Ice , L tte, tr b o, nc yn ngn nh. Ngoi ra cn rt nhiu nhng thng hi u khc v cc sn phm nhp khu cng ng gp cho s phong ph ca th tr ng nc gii kht khng gas.

4.2. Tim

p t trin.

Th tr ng nc gii kht Vi t Nam l th tr ng tim nng v rng ln, theo nghin cu, trung bnh mi nm 1 ng i Vi t Nam tiu th 3 lt nc gii kht ng ch i khng cn so vi mc bnh qun Philippin l 50 lt/nm. Theo d bo, n nm 2012, tng lng ung bn l Vi t Nam s tng gn 50% so vi nm 2007. Theo kt qu iu tra th tr ng nm 2004 do Cng ty c phn nc gii kht Tribeco t hng mt cng ty nghin cu th tr ng th c hi n, th tr ng nc gii kht khng g s tng 10%/nm trong khi sn lng nc ngt c gas tip tc st gim 5%. Chnh v vy th tr ng nc gii kht ng tr n pht trin rt m nh v khng c du hi u chm l i mc cho suy gim kinh t, v xu hng r rng l nhng sn phm thin nhin tt cho sc khe nc gii kht khng gas.

Ti liu thm kho


1. http://luanvan.co/luan-van/quy-trinh-san-xuat-tai-cong-ty-tnhh-tan-quang-minh-2860/ 2. http://tailieu.vn/xem-tai-lieu/khao-sat-quy-trinh-cong-nghe-san-xuat-nuoc-yen-ngannhi.1027081.html 3. http://tailieu.vn/xem-tai-lieu/cong-nghe-san-xuat-nuoc-tao-dong-hop-giay.1283088.html 4. http://www.123foodscience.com/food_processing/Non-carbonated_beverages.pdf 5. http://www.thuongmai.vn/nuoc-giai-khat-viet-nam/35283-thi-truong-nuoc-giai-khat-connhieu-tiem-nang.html ]. 6. http://www.thuongmai.vn/nuoc-giai-khat-viet-nam/78737-nuoc-giai-khat-khong-gaschiem-linh-thi-truong.html