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TARIFF ADVISORY COMMITTEE (GENERAL INSURANCE) BUILDING REGULATIONS 1. 01 Sub-section-01.doc BUILDING REGULATIONS 2. 02 Sub-section-02.

doc RECOMMENDATIONS RULINGS/MANDATORY REQUIREMENTS &

3. 03 Sub-section-03.doc RULES FOR SEGREGATION 4. 04 Sub-section-04.doc RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF WALL OPENINGS BY WIRED GLASS 5. 05 Sub-section-05.doc RULES FOR THE CONSTRUCTION AND INSTLLATION OF FIRE PROOF (FIRE BREAK) DOORS & SHUTTERS

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TARIFF ADVISORY COMMITTEE (GENERAL INSURANCE) BUILDING REGULATIONS SUB-SECTION 1 BUILDING CLASSIFICATION
1. GENERAL CLASSIFICATION OF BUILDINGS:

Buildings shall be classified into 3 classes as given below for the purpose of fire Insurance Rating Except for a) Dwellings, Offices, Hotels and Shops etc. and b) Earthquake purposes A) CLASS OF CONSTRUCTION SUPERIOR CONSTRUCTION a) Walls Framed Structure of i) RCC or ii) Rolled steel encased in 50mm thick concrete or 100mm thick masonry with panel walls of RCC, burnt bricks stone or concrete blocks bonded in cement and/or lime mortar. NB- Door, window and ventilator in external walls* must not exceed in the aggregate, 75% of the total area of the walls and each opening must not be larger than 10 sq. m and there must be atleast 1.0 m of wall construction on all four sides of the opening except the doors in which case 1 m wall construction should be there on at least three sides. Conversely, at least one opening measuring one square metre must be provided for every 150 sq. m of the total external wall surface of each storey to facilitate fire fighting. * For this purpose, columns and beams should be considered as part of external walls. b) Roof & Intermediate floors RCC or jack arch construction supported on columns and beams of a) RCC or b) Rolled steel encased 50mm thick concrete. NB- In case of storeyed structures, access staircases must be either of RCC or masonry throughout. NOTE 1: Wood work permitted only for: i) Doors, Windows and sunshades;

ii) Internal partitions & framework of false ceiling for office iii) Wooden floor laid on a structure as in (a) or (b) above without intervening space. NOTE 2: No combustible materials should be used in construction even in wall linings, artificial ceilings or air conditioning duct linings.

CLASS 1 CONSTRUCTION a) Walls i) RCC, bricks, stone or concrete blocks with or without frame work of un-encased steel.

ii) Brickwork with an outside bracing of timber filled in brick (for earthquake protection). iii) Wall openings running from floor to roof shall not be permitted. iv) RCC jali in external walls should be taken at par with window openings. b) Roof i) Any type of hard roof consisting of tiles, cement, Ceramic fuses, AC/CGI/AL sheeting.

ii) Wooden shingles or wooden boarding superimposed with any of the above. iii) Soorkey, Chunnam or concrete laid on tiles or stone slabs. iv) North light roofs with the sloping portion constructed as in (a) or (b) above. v) Roof as in superior construction superimposed with thin layer of grass, hay or reeds. NB 1: Use of fibre glass reinforced Plastic (FRP or similar sheets is permitted provided the superficial area for such sheets does not exceed 2% of the superficial area of the roof and superficial area of one sheet does not exceed 3.7 sq. m. NB 2: Use of Poly carbonate sheets is permitted provided the superficial area for such sheet does not exceed 5% of superficial area of the roof. CLASS II CONSTRUCTION a) Walls Any other construction

b) Roof Any other construction. NOTE: CLASSIFICATION OF MIXED CONSTRUCTION Buildings which have walls of one type of construction and roof of another type of construction or, are partly of one construction and partly of another must in all cases be classified as inferior of the two classes of construction. SUB-SECTION 1 BUILDING CLASSIFICATION
2. DWELLINGS, OFFICES, HOTELS AND SHOPS ETC.:

Buildings shall be classified into following classes of construction for the purpose of rating under this section of Tariff: Class - A construction a) Walls Stone/brick/concrete blocks/Asbestos Sheets Cladding and/or Metal Sheets Cladding/Glass Panel/Partly or fully open sided Putcha bondi, i.e. timber framework the space in which is filled with ekra or split bamboo and covered over both sides with mud and plaster of cement or lime. Brick work with an outside bracing of timber filled in with brick (For Earthquake Protection). b) Roofs RCC/Masonry/Asbestos Concrete sheets/Metal sheets/Tiles/Wooden shingles or Boarding on RCC/Steel wooden Framework. NB -1 thin layer of grass, hay or reeds on incombustible roofing is permitted. NB -2 Use of Thermosetting resin fibreglass reinforced sheets is permitted for skylights. Class - B construction a) Walls Any other construction. b) Roof Any other construction.

BUILDING REGULATION SUB-SECTION 1 BUILDING CLASSIFICATION


3. EARTHQUAKE

Buildings shall be classified into 4 classes as given below for the purpose of Earthquake Insurance Rating: Class 'A' Buildings with walls constructed of reinforced concrete or having a reinforced concrete frame structure with brick panel walls, also buildings with walls of brick and/or stone having structural steel frame throughout and buildings having walls of hollow concrete blocks with steel framework (See also definition of Class C below). Buildings with walls constructed entirely of burnt bricks not less than 230mm (9) in thickness and with an outside bracing of timber filled in with brick (earthquake protection), buildings with walls of dudjie, brick noggin, wood and/or metal and/or open sheds, buildings of steel framework with corrugated asbestos cement sheeting walls and buildings of `Ekra and Putcha Bondi construction.

Class 'B'

Class 'C' Buildings with walls of fireproof and/or pucca construction having no structural steel framework and buildings having walls of hollow concrete blocks without steel framework. Class 'D' Buildings with walls of un-burnt bricks and/or mud, and buildings other than as provided for above, underground steel tanks used for storage of petrol and diesel oil. Note Earthquake and storm, Cyclone, Typhoon, Hurricane, Tornado, Flood and Inundation cover. Tempest,

For above covers, buildings/sheds adjoining and communicating with each other shall be rateable per se, i.e. individually according to their respective classification. MATERIALS IN THE OPEN Goods and/or materials stored or lying in the open to be rated under Class `A. NB - The following buildings may be considered as of Class A construction: a) Buildings, which are wholly or partly, open sided but which are otherwise constructed as per requirements of class `A. b) Outdoor plants (with or without roof)

c) Structures having panels of masonry or concrete, or claddings of asbestos sheeting or corrugated iron sheeting or similar non-combustible material within metal or RCC frame.

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TARIFF ADVISORY COMMITTEE (GENERAL INSURANCE) BUILDING REGULATIONS SUB-SECTION II RULINGS/MANDATORY REQUIREMENTS & RECOMMENDATIONS A) RULINGS/MANDATORY REQUIREMENTS:1. Standards of Material and Constructions All building materials used shall preferably conform to relevant Bureau of Indian Standards Specifications currently in force. 2. Verandah etc. Permitted A verandah either open or closed, porch, bathroom or other external structure of a lower class of construction not used for storage or manufacture or sale, attached to a building of class I Construction or on the terrace of a building of superior or Class I Construction may be allowed without affecting the classification. 3. Monsoon Protection Sheds Temporary sheds erected during monsoon for monsoon protection attached to buildings of Superior or Class I Construction are permitted provided the same are not used for storage, manufacture or sale. 4. Communicating Risks Two or more buildings or compartments will be charged the highest rate applicable to any of them unless the following conditions are fulfilled: a) When adjoining are segregated by Perfect party Wall OR b) When successive storeys of a multi-storeyed building are segregated by separating floors. OR c) When connected by a passage or gangway, the ratio of the distance between the buildings (which shall in no case be * Sides covered by expanded metal, metallic grill or parapet walls will be treated as open-sided. OR

d) When spaced more than 6m apart, but connected by a conveyor i) the conveyor is of open type or where it is of the closed type, the enclosure is not more than 1 sq. m in cross-section. ii) Where the cross-section of the conveyor enclosure is more than 1 sq. m the openings at either end are protected by an automatic water spray curtain and there is arrangement for automatic tripping of the conveyor motor with the operation of the water spray system. NB- In case the material conveyed is non-hazardous and the buildings are atleast 15 m apart, then the provision of water spray and tripping arrangement will not be necessary. 5. Perfect party Wall (Fire Break Wall) Perfect Party Wall (Fire break Wall) is a wall, which complies with the specifications laid down in the Rules for segregation. 6. Fire Proof (Fire Break) Doors and Shutters Fire proof (Fire Break) Doors and Shutters must comply with the specifications laid down in the Rules for Construction and Installation of Fire Proof (Fire Break) Doors and Shutters (See Sub-section III). 7. Separating Floor Separating floor is a floor, which complies with the specifications laid down in the Rules for Segregation (See Sub-section V). 8. High Rise Buildings Compliance with the following shall entitle the buildings to appropriate benefit in Insurance Premium: a) Each Storey shall be provided with a refuge for people who, in case of evacuation under fire condition, are unable to reach the staircase in time. Internal openings to these shelters shall be protected by fire proof (fire break) doors and the room adequately ventilated to the outside so as to prevent smoke logging or asphyxiation. b) The main staircase and lift wells inside the core of the building shall be separated at all floor levels including basements by 230mm thick masonry or 100mm thick RCC enclosures with doors of one hours fire rating (Resistance) at each floor and basement landing. c) Service shafts and cable ducts which are invariably built of masonry partition shall be provided with incombustible baffles consisting of glass wool sandwiched between rolled steel sheets at every

alternate floor to prevent the chimney effect in case of fire. Further trap doors leading to the shafts shall be fitted with fire resisting shutters of one hour fire rating (Resistance). d) Permanent vent shall be provided at the top of service and similar shafts. The cross sectional area of vent shall be not less than 500 sq. cm for each 1.00 sq. m of the area of the shaft. e) To prevent fire from traveling from one storey to another along the external face of the building, the external windows shall be staggered from storey to storey and provided with projecting ledges. Drencher sprinkler at every three floors shall be provided in addition to the requirement specified above where the building is fully sprinklered. f) The boiler and/or firing place and fuel storage shall be separated from the remainder of the building by perfect party (fire break) walls, complying with the rules for segregation. g) Central air-conditioning of the building shall be avoided and wherever central air-conditioning is employed, the air-conditioning ducts shall not pas from storey to storey. 9. Reference in matters of Doubt All cases of doubt regarding the material used or nature of construction shall be referred to the Committee for a ruling. In this context, a list of proprietary building materials is maintained by the Regional Committees to whom reference should be made when such materials are to be used. B) RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Provision for expansion during fire Space should preferably be left at the ends of girders and joists to permit expansion during fire. 2. Ventilation and Air-conditioning Ducts All ducts should, as far as possible, be built of brickwork or reinforced concrete not less than 100 mm thick and should have openings in one department or storey only. 3. Minimum Height of Door Sill In the case of buildings used for storage purposes, the doorsills should preferably be atleast 150 mm above the surrounding ground level and the floor must be made slopping towards the doorsills.

4. Provision of Scuppers It is recommended that scuppers in external walls on each storey should be provided to facilitate the removal of water during fire fighting operations. 5. High Rise Buildings RECOMMENDED GOOD PRACTICES ARE AS FOLLOWS a) Structural Recommendations i) All high-risk buildings should be of superior construction with sufficient number of well-ventilated and unobstructed external staircases in aesthetically satisfying forms, leading directly to the ground in the open. All such exits should be protected against fire and smoke during the length of time they are used and alternate means of travel thereto should be arranged through short corridors in case one exit is blocked by fire. All load bearing elements of the building should be able to withstand a total burnout of individual floors, i.e. a total burnout of the Ground Floor should not result in the complete collapse of the building. ii) All emergency exists or escape doors leading to outside staircases should be protected by approved fire check doors of one hour fire resistance, which open outward and are fitted with anti-panic stop locks which can be opened by one single push. Exit should be adequately lighted through emergency circuits and paths of travel to reach them must be clearly indicated at heights of about 2 m from floor level. iii) Each storey should have safe accesses to atleast two stairwells (two escape routes independent of each other) and on no storey should the escape route to the nearest exit be longer than 30 M. iv) All internal staircases lift wells; escape routes and refuge areas should be pressurized. v) In order to reduce the water damage, it is necessary to provide scuppers on each floor in the ratio of one 100 mm diameter scupper for every 22.5 sq. m of the floor area or part thereof. vi) Liquid Fuel tanks, Fire pump (s) Room and Electric Sub-station should be located in compartment of fire resisting construction, segregated from the rest of the premises as per rules for segregation. When located in the basement these should be sited on the periphery with the accesses leading to the ground in the open. Fresh air inlets and smoke exhausts should lead directly to the atmosphere. b) Improvement in Air-conditioning Units

i)

All types of duct systems for the movement of air (either conditioning of ventilating) involve potential hazard of being the means of spreading fire and smoke through the building or area, which they serve and spreading smoke through a building can result in panic amongst the occupants. Therefore, in order to avoid such circumstances, it is strongly recommended that each storey be provided with its own conditioning unit, but where this is not practicable, a central water chilling system may be installed with independent air handling unit on each storey. In case where central conditioning units are installed it is absolutely necessary that all supply and return air ducts are of substantial sheet metal or RCC construction. Duct lining materials, if used, should have a flame spread rating of not over 25 without evidence of continuous progressive combustion and with a smoke developing rate not higher than 50. In the installation of ducts it is important to avoid the possibility of a duct being the means of fire spread from one storey to another or from one fire area to another. The best and most practical method of overcoming this hazard is the installation of dampers in the ducts where they penetrate firewalls or floors between storeys and at the point the duct(s) emerge from the air conditioning plant room(s). These dampers must have one hour fire rating (resistance) and may be of the single blade, multiblade or inter locking blade type actuated by fusible links or smoke detector units. In the case of sprinkler-protected areas, fire-resisting dampers may be replaced by multi jet sprinklers or drencher sprinklers to serve as water curtain against the passage of fire.

ii) With operation of the automatic detector within the air duct at any floor, the supply air duct on that floor must be cut-off and the air conditioning plant tripped. This could be achieved by electrical inter locking the detector(s) with the duct damper and air conditioning plant system.

TARIFF ADVISORY COMMITTEE (GENERAL INSURANCE) BUILDING REGULATIONS SUB-SECTION III RULES FOR SEGREGATION Buildings and/or compartments and/or storeys can be considered as segregated from adjoining buildings and/or compartments and/or storeys, if separating wall and/or separating floors are constructed as per specifications hereunder: 1. Perfect Party Walls (Fire Break Walls) 1.1 Material and Thickness Perfect party Walls (Fire Break Walls) must be constructed of silica or sand lime bricks (Solid or hollow) set in cement or lime mortar or must be of reinforced concrete construction. NB - A Cavity wall is not accepted as a separating wall.

MINIMUM WALL THICKNESS DESCRIPTION


Burnt bricks, Stone, concrete blocks set in cement and/or lime mortar

RCC

1. PPW IN FRAMED STRUCTURE If the PPW is constructed as panels of not more than 30 m2 of superficial area and such panels supported by framework of RCC or rolled steel encased in 50 mm thick concrete. 2. Otherwise (plane walls)

300 mm

200 mm

400 mm

300 mm

Note- Wall thickness noted above are exclusive of plaster

1.2. Other Requirements

1.2.1

The Separating wall must be carried through the roof. This portion of the wall extending above the roof which is known as `screen wall must be of such a height (in no case less than 600 mm that the horizontal distance at the level of the top of the screen wall between the roofs of the buildings/compartments being segregated is at least 6 m. (See Figure 1, 2) The Screen wall must be of not less than 230 mm in thickness if it is an extension of a masonry wall and not less than 150 mm in thickness if it is an extension of a reinforced concrete wall. NB - The separating wall need not be extended as a screen wall if the roof of one or both of the buildings/compartments being segregated is of jack arch or reinforced concrete construction.

1.2.2

In the case of buildings/compartments having north-light roofs when a separating wall runs parallel to the axis of the north-light opening, the screen wall must be carried through and 600 mm above the ridge of the north light. If, however, the separating wall is at right angles to the axis of the north-light opening, the saw tooth gaps must be bricked up and the screen wall extended 600 mm above, the ridge of the north light as well as beyond the extreme north-light opening. (See figure 3). All door openings in perfect party walls (Fire Break Walls) must be protected by approved type double fire proof (Fire Break doors of atleast 2 hors. Fire resistance each. Openings to rope races or motor alleyways may be deemed sufficiently protected if provided with single fireproof doors (fire break doors). (See figure 4, 5, 6). Openings for shafts, straps (belts) and/or ropes must be protected as shown in Figure. Openings for steam, gas or water pipes must be only slightly larger than the actual pipes themselves to allow for expansion and any lateral movement, but in no case should such openings exceed 0.35 sq. m.

1.2.3

1.2.4

1.2.5 Electrical Services Individual holes for the passage of electrical cables and for electrical conductors contained in conduits, ducts and trunking provided that a) b) proprietary packing block assemblies not exceeding 0.1 m2 are used for the passage of electrical cables and conduits. the cross sectional area of ducts and trunking does not exceed 0.1 m2 and either the free space within the duct or trunking is packed with glass fibre or mineral wool to the full

thickness of the wall, or the individual electrical conductors pass through a proprietary packing block assembly within the duct or trunking. c) 1.2.6 Any remaining space is fire stopped with concrete to the full thickness of the wall.

Air Conditioning and Ventilation Holes for the passage of steel ducts and trunkling used for air conditioning and ventilation provided that a) the cross-sectional area of the duct or trunking does not exceed 0.4 m2 b) Two iron or steel fire dampers, each at least 3mm thick are fitted within the thickness of the wall, any framework being securely fixed in a steel damper sleeve unit at least 3 mm thick which is securely built into the wall. Where a fire damper cannot be fitted within the thickness of the wall it may be fitted into a damper box at least 3 mm thick sited immediately adjacent to and adequately mounted on the wall. c) dampers are held in the open position by devices sensitive to heat or smoke situated within the duct or trunkling. d) any remaining space is fire stopped with concrete to the full thickness of the wall.

1.2.6

Material Handling Openings for the following types of conveyors 1.2.7.1 Slow moving chains fitted with metal rings or loops provided that a) the opening does not exceed 0.1 m2 in crosssectional area. b) the conveyors are enclosed in steel not less than 3 mm thick where they pass through the wall and for a distance of atleast 1 m on each side. c) any space between the conveyor enclosure and the wall is fire stopped with concrete to the full thickness of the wall. 1.2.7.2 Metal screws or worms, provided that where the enclosure passes through the wall, and for a distance of atleast 1 m on each side, the enclosures are constructed

of steel not less than 3 mm thick and any space between the enclosures and the wall is fire stopped with concrete to the full thickness of the wall. 1.2.7.3 Pneumatic systems (except aero chute feed systems carrying materials in Textile mills) provided that all pipes greater than 125 mm in diameter are protected by an automatic closing steel slide not less than 3 mm thick mounted on one side of each opening as close to the wall as is practicable. Pipes 125 mm or less in diameter need not be protected provided the total cross-sectional area of such pipes does not exceed 0.06 m2. Where pneumatic pipes pas through a wall they must be steel for a distance of 450 mm on each side and any space between the pipes and the wall should be fire stopped with concrete to the full thickness of the wall.

1.2.7.4 Flexible conveyor belting, provided that each of the openings through which the conveyor passes does not exceed 0.4 m2 in cross-sectional area, and a steel shutter not less than 3 mm thick, is fitted over each opening on each side, arranged to drop automatically in the event of fire to trap the conveyor belting a trough or bed of non-combustible material located beneath the conveyor belt and as close to the wall as is practicable. In such cases the return conveyor belt should pass through a slot in the wall the dimension of which should be no larger than those necessary to accommodate the belt. Operation of either of the steel shutters should cause the conveyor mechanism to stop. Any space between enclosures and the wall must be fire stopped with concrete to the full thickness of the wall. 1.2.8 When building/compartments adjoin but do not communicate i.e., are separated by separating walls and there is a verandah on one or more sides of such buildings/compartments, it is necessary that the separating wall should be built across the verandah and be carried through the roof of the same and the open side of the verandah must be walled up for distance of 6 m as per the provisions of Rule 1.2.13 hereunder, otherwise the building/compartments must be considered as communicating. (See Figure 7). A separating wall must be supported in a vertical line by a similar separating wall through all storeys below, unless it is supported by an RCC or encased steel beam, which is certified by an RCC specialist/structural engineer, as capable of taking twice the normal load it is subjected to.

1.2.9

1.2.10 Wooden roof members (trusses, joints and purlins) must not pass through the separating walls but may be embedded therein provided they do not extend more than 100 mm into the wall and are separated from similar roof members in the adjoining building/compartment by atleast 100 mm of solid wall material. 1.2.11 All separating walls must be built out to extend 150 mm beyond the eaves of the roof and 450 mm below them so as to effectively cut-off roofs (see figure 8). The eves must not pass through this extension of the separating wall but may be embedded therein. 1.2.12 1.2.13 When the buildings/compartments being segregated have external walls of corrugated galvanized iron and/or asbestos cement sheet or are open-sided, such side claddings or open or open sides must be replaced by masonry or reinforced concrete wall(s) for a distance of 6 M on one side of the separating wall any door or window opening in the wall(s) being protected as per requirement of 1.2.12. 1.2.14 In the case of buildings of unequal height, windows or other openings in the wall of the higher building overlooking the roof of the lower building and within 6 m, thereof, must be protected by 6 mm thick approved wired glasses in steel framework or by approved type fire proof (fire break) doors unless the roof of the lower building is of reinforced concrete or jack arch masonry construction (see figure 9). NB - In case the eaves of the higher building fall within 6 m of the roof of the lower building such eaves should be cut off and the screen wall raised as a parapet, 600 mm high over the roof of the higher building, unless the roof of the lower building is of RCC or jack arch construction. 2. Separating Floors Separating floors are provided for the segregation of successive storeys of a building of a standard of construction not lower than Class I and must conform to the following: 2.1 They must be constructed of brickwork, concrete or reinforced concrete atleast 100 mm thick.

2.2. Any supporting walls of pillars must be brickwork, concrete or reinforced concrete. 2.3 Joists, girders, columns of stanchion supporting the floor must either be of reinforced concrete construction or of metal solidly encased in brick

work atleast 100 mm thick or concrete atleast 50 mm thick, the whole being efficiently bonded or secured together. 2.4 There must be no openings through the floor except for stairs and lifts of which the enclosure must be constructed of walls of brick work atleast 230 mm thick or reinforced concrete atleast 100 mm thick, every opening to any part of the building or to a roof used as a floor being fitted with an approved fireproof (fire break) door. All staircases to have steps and landings of incombustible material. The staircase or hoist enclosing walls must be carried through and atleast 450 mm above the roof of the building, unless the roof is of jack arch or reinforced concrete construction. All steam, gas and/or water pipes and also earthenware tubes for electric conductors passing through the floor must be cemented round the full thickness of the floor. A surface covering of incombustible material, with or without tar or asphalt as the binding agent, may be laid directly on the incombustible floor. Wood flooring may be laid directly on such surface covering or on the incombustible floor provided that in either case there is no intervening space and that any wood fillets for affixing such floor be embedded not more than 25 mm in the floor.

2.5

2.6

2.7

TARIFF ADVISORY COMMITTEE (GENERAL INSURANCE) BUILDING REGULATIONS SUB-SECTION IV RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF WALL OPENINGS BY WIRED GLASS
1. Thickness of glass 2. Embedded Wired Netting 3. Size of Squares of Glass 4. Sashes and/or Frames not less than 6 mm Not larger than 25 mm Not to exceed 2500 cm2 The Sashes and/or frames must be entirely of iron or other hard metal securely bolted or keyed into the wall except in the case of panels in internal doors. The Squares of glass must be set in rebates or grooves not less than 6 mm in width or depth with due allowance for expansion and must be secured by hard metal fastenings to the sashes or frames independently of any lead, cement or putty used for weather-proof purposes.

5. Setting of Glass

Note 1 No wall opening exceeding 5 M2 will be deemed capable of efficient protection by Wired Glasses. RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF SKYLIGHTS BY WIRED GLASS
1. Thickness of Glass Not less than 6 mm Not larger than 25 mm mesh The frame must be continuous and divided by bars spaced at not more than 700 mm centers. The frame and bars must be of iron or other hard metal/and supported on a curb either of metal or of wood covered with sheet metal. The glass must be secured by hard metal fastenings to the frame and bars independently of any lead, cement, or putty used for weatherproof purposes.

2. Embedded wire netting 3. Frames and glazing

Note: No skylight opening exceeding 10 m2 will be deemed capable of efficient protection by wired glass.

TARIFF ADVISORY COMMITTEE (GENERAL INSURANCE) BUILDING REGULATIONS SUB-SECTION - V RULES FOR THE CONSTRUCTION AND INSTLLATION OF FIRE PROOF (FIRE BREAK) DOORS & SHUTTERS 1. INTRODUCTION The doors and shutters covered by these rules are intended primarily for use in perfect party walls (Fire Break walls). These rules comprise four specifications for various types of fireproof (Fire Break) doors and shutters. Rules 3 to 5 are general constructional specifications for doors/shutters stipulated by the Committee, while Rule 6 is essentially a performance specification for proprietary fire doors/dampers. Manufacturers may apply to the Committee for approval of fireproof (Fire Break) doors and shutters in accordance with the specifications. Application for approval should be accompanied by full Engineering drawings of the doors/shutter and its components. The drawing should be illustrative of the largest size of doors/shutters for which approval is being sought. To obtain approval manufacturers will be required to demonstrate that the proposed design and installation is in accordance with these rules (also see rule 6.3.1 under specification 6). Manufacturers will be required to give written undertaking that the construction and installation of approved doors/shutters will be in conformity with the agreed specifications. It should be noted that any approval is limited to the dimensions denoted in the list of approved fireproof (Fire Break) doors. 2. GENERAL INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS The sill and jambs of the opening shall be constructed of brick, reinforced concrete or concrete blocks having dense or lightweight aggregate. Aerated concrete is not allowed. The sill, which may be covered by a steel plate, shall be not less than 100 mm thick and shall extend through out the opening to not less than 75 mm past each edge of the opening and from each face of the wall. It is recommended that the sill be raised atleast 50 mm to check the flow of extinguishing water and, in such cases, the sill should be ramped. No combustible floor or wall covering shall extend through the opening. The head of the opening shall be of reinforced concrete at least 125 mm deep having dense or light weight aggregate and atleast 50 mm cover to

the reinforcement. Lintels may be of steel provided that they are protected by brickwork or concrete not less than 50 mm thick. In the case of rolling shutters, the barrel enclosure shall be supported on the jambs with a minimum bearing of 100 mm at each end. Expansion clearances of atleast 12.5 mm per width shall be provided between the barrel enclosure and the enclosing jambs. Chases measuring nominally 115 mm x 115 mm shall be provided in the jambs to house the channel guides. The chases shall be set back atleast 100 mm from the front of the jamb. The barrel enclosure shall be housed completely within the wall opening. In the case of other doors and shutters, no part of leaf, frame or hanging assembly shall project more than 100 mm from the face of the jambs and lintel when the door/shutter is in the closed position. The wall opening shall be such as to provide flush contact with the doorframe and a clearance between sill and door/shutter, when closed, not in access of 6 mm. Where necessary the opening may be rendered with cement mortar. Where double Approved fire Break doors/shutter (i.e., two Approved fire break doors/shutters, of any type, one on each side of the wall) are to be installed, there shall be gap between the inner faces of the doors/shutters, when closed, of not less than 225 mm in the case of double rolling shutters or 150 mm in other cases. In the case of double rolling shutters the barrels shall be installed at the same level and if housed in the same enclosure shall be separated by a dividing plate. When the wall is not thick enough to enable the wall opening requirements to be met, the wall shall be built out at the sill, jambs and head, and all such projections shall be bonded with, or tied into the wall and adequately supported. The projecting jambs shall be constructed as above, devoid of cavity and not less than 325 mm in width (not less than 100 mm in width where they enclose). The projecting head shall be constructed of reinforced concrete not less than 125 mm thick and shall rest on, and extend the full width and projection of, the projecting jambs. Firebreak doors and shutters shall only be installed by trained personnel in accordance with the Manufactures instructions. Expanding anchor bolt fixings into the wall opening shall be tighte3nded to the manufacturers recommended torques and shall not be trough mortar joints. Where wall openings are to be used for the passage of powered vehicles, such as fork lift trucks, adequate protection shall be provided shall be provided to prevent mechanical damage to the door/shutter assembly, frame and wall opening. Where there is a likelihood of waste accumulation, provision shall be made to prevent the fouling of any drop bolt keep or bottom track. Waste deposits should be regularly cleared.

The fitting of devices to automatically close the door/shutter in the event of fire is recommended but such automatic fire closing devices, or other selfclosing devices, shall not interfere with the manual opening and closing of the door/shutter. Where such devices are fitted, it shall be ensured that double leaf doors can close only in the correct order and that all bolts/latches engaged in the frame on automatic closing. 3. STEEL PLATE DOORS 3.1 APPROVAL 3.1.1 Any door approved for listing to this specification shall be constructed and installed in accordance with the details lodged with the Committee by the manufacturer showing compliance with these Rules. All approved doors shall bear a metal plate fixed in a permanent manner which states that the door is TAC Approved and quote the makers name, serial number, the month and year of manufacture.

3.1.2

3.2

WALL OPENING 3.2.1 The wall opening shall be in accordance with the General Installation Requirements. In the case of hinged doors, the maximum dimensions of the wall opening for which approval will be granted are 5.2 m2 in area, 2.13 m in width (1.07 m for single leaf doors) and 2.74 m in height. NB-In the case of oversized sliding doors, the maximum dimensions of the wall opening for which approval will be granted are 11.5 m2 in area, 3.40 m in width and 3.40 m in height subject to following conditions being complied with a) The fireproof doors/shutters should otherwise conform to committees Regulations. b) Fireproof doors should be of automatic sliding type only. c) In case of steel plate type fireproof doors, unsupported panel area should be reduced to 6 sq. ft. instead of the usual 9 sq. ft. for doors of standard size. Oversized openings conforming to above requirements upto 80 sq. ft. (8 sq. mtrs) may be permitted without any loading when it is essential to have such opening/s. A loading of 10% would however be charged in the blocks on either side of the perfect party wall in cases where the opening size exceed 80 sq. ft. (8 sq. mtr.) unless one of the block is protected by automatic sprinkler installations complying with

the Committees regulations in which case no loading shall be chargeable. 3.3 CONSTRUCTION OF DOOR LEAF 3.3.1 The door leaf shall be constructed of steel plate not less than 6 mm thick with stiles and rails (and muntins where necessary) of flat steel not less than 100mm x 6 mm in section arranged on each face of the leaf so that they divide it into panels not exceeding 1 m2 except as specified in Rule 3.3.2, the stiles, rails and muntins shall be positioned symmetrically on both sides of the leaf such that the stiles and top and bottom rails about the edges of the leaf. The leaf shall be riveted together with steel peened rivets of not less than 8 mm diameter spaced not more than 150 mm centers welded with continuous or staggered intermittent edge and/or 6 mm fillet welds atleast 50 mm in length spaced not more than 150 mm apart on each edge of the stiles, rails or munitins. In the case of double leaf doors the stiles on the meeting edges of both leaves shall be displaced to form cover strips opposite faces of the door leaves. On each leaf, one stile shall overlap the meeting edge of the center plate by not less than 35 mm but not more than 50 mm. The stile on the opposite face shall be set back an equal distance from the edge. The cover strips so formed shall overlap each center plate an equal distance. The door leaves shall otherwise be constructed in accordance with Rule a3.3.1. When installed each cover strip shall overlap the center plate of the other leaf by not less than 15 mm and not more than 30 mm. An expansion clearance shall be provided between the two leaves in accordance with Rule 3.4.4.2. 3.4 HINGED DOORS 3.4.1 Frame 3.4.1.1 The frame shall be constructed from steel flat, at least 75 mm x 6 mm in section, along the sill and steel angle, atleast 100 x 65 x 6 mm in section, alongwith jambs and head. The frame members shall be fixed together at the corners by steel bolts or steel peened rivets not less than 8 mm in diameter or by continuous butt-welding such that the shorter angle legs are flush with the edge of the flat. 3.4.1.2 The door stop shall be made from atleast 25 x 25 x 5 mm steel angle along the door posts and at least 40 x 40 x 6 mm steel angle along with the door head. The door stop shall be positioned such that the closed door leaf is set back atleast 12 mm behind the face of the frame. The

3.3.2

door stop shall extend completely around the door head and posts but shall terminate nominally 25 mm above the sill. 3.4.1.3 The door stop shall be fixed to the longer leg of the frame angle by steel peened rivets or steel bolts not less than 8 mm diameter spaced at centers of not more than 150 mm or by continuous or staggered intermittent 6 mm fillet welds at least 50 mm in length spaced not more than 150 mm apart on each edge of the stop.

3.4.2

Hinges 3.4.2.1 Each door leaf shall be hung on three steel, lift-off, butt hinges positioned nominally 230 mm from the top and bottom and at mid-height of the door leaf. Each hinge shall have a pin of atleast 19 mm diameter and atleast 150 mm in length. The hinge knuckle shall be of atleast 6 mm wall tube welded to flaps of length. The hinge knuckle shall be atleast 6 mm diameter and atleast 150 mm in length. The hinge knuckle shall be of atleast 6 mm wall tube welded to flaps of atleast 65 x 40 x 12 mm section. The hinges shall all provide for vertical expansion in accordance with Rule 3.4.4.1. 3.4.2.2 The hinges shall be positioned so that the door leaf fits tightly against the doorstop when closed. The clearance between the doorframe and door leaf at the hinge edge shall not exceed 5 mm.

3.4.3

Bolting 3.4.3.1 Each door leaf shall have bolts which engage the frame at the head and sill by not less than 13 mm Single leaf doors and the second closing leaf of double leaf doors shall additionally have central bolt which engages, respectively, the frame or first closing leaf by not less than 13 mm and which is operated, simultaneously, with the top and bottom bolts on the same leaf by means of steel handle linkage. The Handle linkage shall enable the door to be opened from either side. Means shall be provided to prevent disengagement of the bolting arrangements. 3.4.3.2 inadvertent

The bolts and connecting rods, which may be fitted on either face of the door, shall be of solid steel not less than 15 mm thick nor less than 285 mm2 in cross-sectional area. Bolt guides and bolt keeps shall be of steel not less than 25 x 25 mm in section. Subject to the provision of Rule 3.4.4

3.4.3.3

bolt guides shall be provided for each handle-operated bolt within 150 mm of the handle and for all vertical bolts within 50 mm of the top/bottom and closing edges of the door leaf. 3.4.4 Expansion Clearances 3.4.4.1 To allow for vertical thermal expansion a clearance of 25.2 mm shall be provided between the door leaf and frame at the head of the opening. The top bolt keep and top bolt guide shall be arranged to permit atleast 25 mm vertical expansion of the bolt and door leaf. The centre bolt keep for single leaf doors shall permit at least 10 mm upward movement of the bolt. The hinges shall provide for atleast 25 mm vertical expansion of the leaf relative to the frame without disengagement. To allow for lateral thermal expansion, a clearance of not less than 10 mm but not more than 15 mm shall be provided between the door leaf and frame at the opening edge of single leaf doors. The meeting edges of double leaf doors shall have an expansion clearance of atleast 20 mm both between the centre plates and between the cover strip and off-set stile on both faces. The top and bottom bolt keeps shall be arranged to permit atleast a 10 mm lateral movement of the centre bolt atleast 10 mm in case of single leaf doors and of atleast 20 mm in the case of double leaf doors. The centre bolt guide of single leaf doors shall be positioned to permit atleast 10 mm expansion of the leaf relative to the frame.

3.4.4.2

3.4.5

Installation 3.4.5.1 3.4.5.2 The door shall be installed in accordance with the General Installation Requirements. The frame, which shall be fitted to the arises of the wall opening, shall be directly fixed to the reveals, soffit and sill by steel expanding anchor bolts of not less than 10 mm diameter (having steel shields of not more than 18 mm diameter), fitted with steel washers. The fixing along the reveals and soffit shall be at centers not greater than 600 mm and arranged such that there are fixing to both reveals at the level of each hinge and fixing to the soffit within 300 mm of the reveals. The fixing along the sill be counter-sunk and at centers not greater than 750 mm. The fixing centres shall not be less than 75 mm from the arrises of the wall opening nor less than 15 mm from the edges of the frame members. Additional staggered face fixing of the frame is recommended.

3.4.5.3

3.5

SLIDING DOORS Sliding doors shall be in one leaf and shall be provided with handles on both faces. 3.5.1 Frame 3.5.1.1 The frame shall include head, leading edge and trailing edge receiving assemblies. These, together with the associated interlocking door channels, shall be fabricated of steel atleast 6 mm thick using steel peened rivets or steel bolts of not less than 8 mm diameter spaced at centres of not more than 150 mm or continuous or staggered intermittent edge and/or 6 mm fillet welds atleast 50 mm in length spaced not more than 150 mm apart on each edge. The leading edge receiving assembly shall form a continuous receiving channel for the door not exceeding 40 mm in width nor less than 32 mm in depth with a bellmounted lead-in to ensure engagement. The head assembly shall form a continuous channel not exceeding 40 mm in width at the mouth in which the door shall run, or which interlocks with a continuous channel assembly on the door, itself not exceeding 40 mm in width. All the channels shall be of sufficient depth to form an overlap, when the door is closed, of atleast 25 mm and shall permit unrestricted vertical expansion of the door, without disengagement, in accordance with Rule 3.5.3. The trailing edge receiving assembly shall form a continuous channel, which interlocks with a continuous channel assembly on the door. The channels shall not exceed 40 mm in width and shall be of sufficient depth to ensure an overlap when the door is closed of not less than 32 mm for doors not exceeding 2.13 m in width and not less than 50 mm for doors exceeding this width. The frame assemblies shall incorporate continuous members, which, on installation, shall abut the doorposts and head over atleast 140 mm width. The leading and trailing edge receiving assemblies shall terminate nominally 25 mm above the sill. The frame shall be fixed together at the corners by steel bolts or steel peened rivets not less than 8 mm in diameter, or by continuous butt welding, such that the

3.5.1.2

3.5.1.3

3.5.1.4

3.5.1.5

3.5.1.6

door, when closed overlaps the wall opening by atleast 32mm at the top and sides. 3.5.1.7 Where a bottom track is not provided, a guide or roller shall be securely mounted into the sill or wall to retain the door vertically when it slides.

3.5.2 Hanging Assembly The door hanging assembly, which may be integral with the frame head assembly, shall be constructed in accordance with one of the methods specified in Rules 3.5.2.1, 3.5.2.2 and 3.5.2.3. Subject to the door being capable of manual opening and closing, the track may be either horizontal or inclined. 3.5.2.1 Lipped steel wheels, running on open steel rail atleast 12 mm wide. The wheels shall be fitted into substantial steel hangers extending atleast 380 mm down the leaf (300 mm in case of double hangers) and shall be attached by at least three steel bolts or steel peened rivets of not less than 8 mm diameter. The rail shall be supported by angle or hangers atleast 6 mm thick fixed to the wall at centre not exceeding 765 mm. Steel hangers shall be at centres not exceeding 1.1 mm width atleast three wheel-hangers on the door exceeding 1.53 m in width and atleast four wheel-hangers on doors exceeding 2.74 m in width : Concave steel wheels, running in an enclosed box track assembly on rounded steel rails atleast 12 mm wide at thee base. The track assembly, which shall be not less than 3 mm thick at the sides, 5 mm thick at the top and 12 mm at the bottom, shall be assembled by means of steel screws and steel peened rivets atleast 8 mm in diameter spaced at not more than 230 mm centres on each joint. The wheels shall be fixed through their bore by steel axles atleast 12 mm in diameter securely bolted to the door at no more than 460 mm centres. The assembly, which shall be flush to the wall, shall be bolted, using atleast 12 mm diameter steel bolts which lead and steel washers in slotted holes, to continuous steel angle atleast 6 mm thick fixed to the wall at centres not exceeding 615 mm. Expansion clearance shall be made in accordance with Rule 3.5.3. 3.5.2.3 Steel wheeled trolleys, running in enclosed tubular steel track atleast 3 mm thick. The trolleys shall be at centres not exceeding 1.1 m with atleast three trolleys per door (four trolleys when the door exceeds 2.74 m in width). Each trolley shall incorporate four wheels and shall be

3.5.2.2

attached by means of a substantial bracket fixed to the top rail of the door leaf by atleast three steel bolts or steel peened rivets of not less than 12 mm diameter (not less than 8 mm diameter, if four bolts/rivets are used). The track shall be supported by hanging brackets atleast 75 mm wide and 6 mm thick at not more than 600 mm centre. The hanging brackets shall be bolted to a continuous angle atleast 8 mm thick fixed to the wall at not more than 765 mm centres. Expansion clearance shall be made in accordance with Rule 3.5.3. 3.5.3 Expansion Clearance Whichever method is used, clearances shall be provided between the frame head assembly and the door, including any interlocking channels, to permit unrestricted vertical expansion of not less than 35 mm (45 mm where the wall opening exceeds 2.74 m in height) of the door relative to the frame without disengagement. Where the door is hung from enclosed track a 35 mm minimum vertical expansion clearance (45 mm where the wall opening exceeds 2.74 m in height) shall be provided either within the enclosed track, or in the case of tubular track, between the track and the track hanging brackets. 3.5.4 Installation 3.5.4.1 3.5.4.2 The door shall be installed in accordance with the General Installation Requirements. The frame assemblies, which shall be fitted flush to the wall around the opening, shall be directly fixed either to the face of the wall, or to the reveals and soffit, by steel expanding anchor bolts of not less than 10 mm diameter (having steel shields of not more than 18 mm diameter), fitted with steel washers. The fixing shall be at centres not greater than 765 mm arranged such that there are fixings of the leading and trailing edge receiving assemblies within 300 mm of the level of soffit and floor, and fixings of the head assembly within 300 mm of the level of both reveals. The hanging assembly shall be directly fixed flush to the face of the wall above the opening by steel expanding anchor bolts of not less than 12 mm diameter (having steel shields of not more than 18 mm diameter), fitted with steel washers. There shall be fixings within 300 mm of the level of the reveals and at the centres specified in Rule 3.5.2. Where the hanging assembly is integral with the frame head assembly the smaller fixing centres apply.

3.5.4.3

3.5.4.4

Where a bottom track is provided it shall be set into the sill and fixed at centres not exceeding 750 mm. Means shall be provided to enable the track to be kept free of refuse. Fixing centers shall not be less than 75 mm from arrises of the wall opening, nor less than 15 mm from the edges of the fixing members.

3.5.4.5

4. METAL COVERED DOORS 4.1 Approval 4.1.1 Any door approved to this specification shall be constructed and installed in accordance with the details lodged with the Committee by the manufacturers showing compliance with these Rules. All approved doors shall bear a metal plate fixed in a permanent manner which states that the door is TAC approved and quotes the makers name, month and year of manufacture.

4.1.2

4.2 WALL OPENING 4.2.1 The wall opening shall be in accordance with the General Installation Requirements. In the case of hinged doors, the maximum dimensions of the wall opening for which approval will be granted are 5.2 m2 in area (3.3 m2 for single leaf doors), 2.13 m in width (1.37 m for single leaf doors) and 2.74 m in height. NB - In the case of oversized sliding doors, the maximum dimensions of the wall opening for which approval will be granted are 11.5 m2 in area, 3.40 m in width and 3.40 m in height subject to the following conditions being complied with a) b) c) The fireproof doors/shutters should otherwise conform to Committees Regulations. Fireproof doors/shutters should be of automatic sliding type only. In case of armoured door, doorstops to receive the door when closed should not be more than 3 ft. (1.0 m.) apart and there should be atleast 3 stops instead of the usual two for doors of standard size.

Oversized openings conforming to above requirements upto 80 sq. ft. (8sq.mtrs) may be permitted without any loading when it is essential to have such opening/s.

A loading of 10% would however be charged on the blocks on either side of the perfect party wall in cases where the opening size exceeds 80 sq. ft. (8 sq. mtr.) unless one of the blocks is protected by automatic sprinkler installation complying with the Committees regulations in which case no loading shall be chargeable. 4.3 CONSTRUCTION OF DOOR LEAF 4.3.1 The core shall be constructed (without panels), of Pinus strobes (Yellow pine), Pinus sylvestris (redwood, scots pine, red deal or yellow deal) or Thuja plicata (western red cedar) or other approved timber, which is dimensionally stable, of low resin content and able to stand nailing and screwing without splitting. The timber shall be free from bark, decay, knot or other holes, unsound knots, or knots exceeding 50 mm in any dimension. The door shall be constructed from one type of timber only in layers of planed, tongued and grooved boards not less than 22 mm in thickness. All timber shall be seasoned to moisture content, which is compatible to the method of preservation. The timber shall be pre-treated with preservation to have a desired life of 50 years in accordance with Table 5 of B:S. 5589:1978 `Code of practice for Preservation of Timber. The boards composing the outer layer of the door shall be in single lengths, the inner layer or layers may be made up of not more than two pieces in any one length provided that such composite lengths are alternated with a full length board. The boards shall be crossed at right angles and fastened together by clench nailing with steel nails.

4.3.2

4.3.3

1.3.4. Where the door opening does not exceed 3.2 M2 in area, the core shall be made up of not less than three layers of boards. Where the opening exceeds this area, the core shall be made up of not less than four layers of boards. The thickness of the core may, however, be reduced by one thickness of board provided that it is completely covered with rigid boards of non-combustible material not less than 3 mm in thickness. 4.3.4 The core shall be completely encased in terne, tinned or galvanised (IS/4759 1979) Specification for Hot dipped Zinc Coating on structural steel and other allied products) Steel sheets not exceeding 360 mm x 510 mm and not less than 0.50 mm (26 B.G.) in thickness. The preservative manufacturers guidelines shall be observed before the sheets are fixed to the core. The sheets shall be lockjointed, not soldered. The lock-joints shall not be less than 10 mm wide and, except for vertical joints, shall be formed facing downwards. The sheet covering the

4.3.5

edges of the core shall be turned round atleast 50 mm on each face. 4.3.6 The sheets shall be fixed closely to the core with screws or barbed nails penetrating at least three quarters of the thickness of the core and spaced not more than 150 mm apart. The heads of all screws and nails shall be inside the lock-joints. A strip of steel plate not less than 75 mm x 3 mm in section shall be fixed by steel counter-sunk screws to each side of the door completely along the bottom edges such as to project 3 mm below it. Similar strips shall be fixed by counter-sunk steel screws flush with each closing edge and shall extend from the bottom plates to atleast one-third the height of the door. The door leaf shall be primed with red oxide or red lead paint immediately after fabrication.

4.3.7

4.3.8 4.4

HINGED DOORS The door, which may be single or double leaf, shall not be sub-divided into parts hinged together. If the door is in two leaves they shall be separately hung and be so constructed that a rebated joint of not less than 25 mm in width is formed at the meeting edges when the door is closed. 4.4.1 Frame 4.4.1.1 Where the door is to close into the thickness of the wall opening a continuous four-sided frame shall be provided. The frame shall be fabricated from steel at least 6 mm thick, where necessary, using steel peened-rivets or steel bolts of not less than 8 mm diameter spaced at centres of not more than 150 mm or continuous or staggered intermittent edge and/or 6 mm fillet welds atleast 50 mm in length spaced not more than 150 mm apart on each joint. 4.4.1.2 The frame shall be positioned such that it forms a flush fitting rebate of atleast 50 mm at the topsides with the door when closed. The hinged face of the closed door shall be flush with the wall, with clearances between the door and the frame not exceeding 6 mm. The frame shall be fixed flush to the jambs, head and sill by steel expanding anchor bolts of not less than 10 mm diameter (having steel shields of not more than 18 mm diameter), fitted with steel washers. The fixings shall be spaced at centres not exceeding 600 mm, with fixings on the posts within 150 mm of the sill and head. Fixing shall not be located within 75 mm of any arris.

4.4.1.3

4.4.1.4

Where the door overlaps the wall opening no frame is required. The overlap shall however be of atleast 75 mm at the top and sides, the wall being rendered with cement mortar, where necessary, to ensure flush contract with the closed door.

4.4.2 Hinges 4.4.2.1 Each door leaf shall be hung on atleast two steel strap hinges extending atleast two-thirds the width of the leaf and bolted to it by atleast three steel bolts of atleast 12 mm diameter. Where the door exceeds 2.13 m in height atleast three hinges shall be used. The hinges shall be of steel atleast 65 x 10 mm in section with pins of atleast 12 mm diameter. Where the door has a frame the hinges may be attached to the frame by 6 mm continuous filled welds. Except as specified in Rule 4.4.2.2 each hinge shall be attached to the wall by atleast two 12 mm diameter steel expanding anchor bolts (having 18 mm diameter steel shields), fitted with steel washers and spaced atleast 150 mm apart. Each door leaf shall have bolts which shall engaged the frame, or bolt keeps, at the head and sill by not less than 13 mm. Single leaf doors and the second closing leaf of double leaf doors shall additionally have a central bolt which engages, respectively, the frame/bolt keep or first closing leaf by not less than 13 mm, and which is operated, simultaneously, with the top and bottom bolts on the same leaf by means of a steel handle linkage. The handle linkage shall enable the door to be opened from either side and shall ensure that the bolts cannot be disengaged by other means. Means shall be provided to prevent inadvertent disengagement of the shoot bolt on the first closing leaf of double leaf doors. The bolts, which may be fitted on either face of the door shall be of steel not less than 12 mm thick nor less than 240 mm2 in cross-sectional area. Bolt guides and bolt keeps shall be of steel not less than 6 mm thick.

4.4.2.2 4.4.2.3

4.4.3 Bolting 4.4.3.1

4.4.3.2

4.4.3.3 4.5

SLIDING DOORS

Sliding doors shall be in one leaf and shall overlap the wall opening by atleast 75 mm at the top and sides, with the wall being rendered with cement mortar, where necessary, to ensure flush contact with the closed door. Handles shall be provided on both faces. 4.5.1 Frame 4.5.1.1 Although a frame is not required per se the leading edge of the door shall close against stops to hold the door flush to the wall when the door is closed. There shall be atleast two stops evenly spaced at centres not exceeding 900 mm. The stops shall be of steel not less than 75 mm x 12 mm in section and not less than 230 mm in length fixed to the wall by atleast two steel expanding anchor bolts of atleast 10mm diameter (having steel shields of not more than 18 mm diameter), fitted with steel washers and spaced atleast 150 mm apart. An elastomeric block shall be fitted to be stop to reduce the impact stresses induced on closed. To protect the door leaf, channel shaped steel striking plates not less than 100 mm x 3 mm in section shall be fixed to the leaf to protect those parts which close into the stops. These shall be carried back on each face of the door atleast 150 mm from the edge. A guide comprising a metal roller atleast 12 mm thick mounted on a pindle atleast 19 mm in diameter, shall be fixed to the sill or wall at the bottom corner of the opening. This shall engaged with an iron or steel wedge bolted to the bottom trailing corner of the door leaf, to hold the door flush to the wall when the door is closed.

4.5.1.2

4.5.1.3

4.5.2 Hanging Assembly The hanging assembly shall be constructed in accordance with one of the methods specified in Rules 4.5.2.1 and 4.5.2.2. Subject to the door being capable of manual opening and closing, the track may be either horizontal or inclined. 4.5.2.1 Lipped steel wheels, running on open steel rail atleast 12 mm wide: The wheels shall be fitted into substantial steel hangers extending at least 380 mm down the leaf (300 mm in the case of double hangers) and shall be attached by atleast three steel bolts of not less than 8 mm diameter. The rail shall be directly fixed to the wall, or shall be supported by angle or hangers atleast 6 mm thick fixed to the wall, by 12 mm diameter steel expanding anchor bolts, (having 18 mm diameter steel shields) and fitted with steel washers at centres not exceeding 765 mm. Wheel hangers shall be at centres

not exceeding 1.1 m, with atleast three wheel-hangers on doors exceeding 1.53 m in width and atleast four wheelhangers on doors exceeding 2.74 m in width. Two steel or ductile iron angle brackets shall be fitted to the top of the door leaf such as to prevent the lipped steel wheels mounting the rail. The tops of the brackets shall extend atleast 6 mm above the rear lower edge of the rail. 4.5.2.2 Steel wheel trolleys running in enclosed tubular steel track atleast 3 mm thick: The Trolleys shall be at centres not exceeding 1.1 m with atleast three trolleys per door (four trolleys when the door exceeds 2.74 m in width). Each trolley shall incorporate four wheels and shall be attached by mans of substantial bracket fixed to the door leaf by atleast three steel bolts of not less than 12 mm diameter (not less than 8 mm diameter if four bolts are used). The track shall be supported by steel or ductile iron hanging brackets atleast 75 mm wide and 6 mm thick at not more than 600 mm centers. The hanging brackets shall be bolted to continuous angle atleast 8 mm thick fixed to the wall by 12 mm diameter steel expanding anchor bolts (having 18 mm diameter steel shields) and fitted with steel washers at centres not exceeding 765 mm.

4.6 INSTALLATION 4.6.1 The door shall be installed in accordance with the General Installation Requirements with fixing as described in this specification.

2. STEEL ROLLING SHUTTERS 5.1 Approval 5.1.1 Any shutter approved to this Specification shall be constructed and installed in accordance with the details lodged with the Committee by the manufacturer showing compliance with these Rules. All approved shutters shall bear a metal plate fixed in a permanent manner which states that the shutter is TAC approved and quotes the makers name, the month and year of manufacture.

5.1.2

5.2 Wall Opening 5.2.1 The wall opening shall be in accordance with the General Installation Requirements. The maximum dimensions of the

doorway for which approval will be granted are 5.2 m2 in area, 2.74 m in width and 2.13 m in height. Oversized openings conforming to above requirements upto 80 sq. ft. (8 sq. m) may be permitted without any loading when it is essential to have such opening/s. A loading of 10 % would however be charged in the blocks on either side of the perfect party wall in cases where the opening size exceeds 80 sq. ft. (8 sq. m) unless one of the blocks is protected by automatic sprinkler installations complying with the Committees regulations in which case no loading shall be chargeable. 5.3 CONSTRUCTION OF CURTAIN 5.3.1 The curtain shall be formed from rolled steel laths 1.2 mm (18 SWG) thick. The steel used for the laths shall be bright mild steel strip, cold or hot rolled and cold annealed, with sheared parallel edges. Each lath shall be curled on both edges to form quirks of not more than 10 mm outside the diameter. The profile of each quirk shall be such as to form a continuous, fully interlocking hinge with that on the adjacent lath with a minimum engagement of 2 mm. The centres of the interlocks shall not be less than 45 mm nor more than 75 mm apart. The bridge depth of the lath shall not be less tan 10 mm. The curtain shall be of sufficient width to extend atleast 6 mm (75 mm when the wall opening exceeds 2.44 m in width) into the channel guides and of such length as to extend from the sill to the top of the barrel and hence round atleast a quarter of the barrel circumference before fixing. The ends of each lath shall be fitted with end locks of steel or malleable cast iron. The end locks shall be atleast 3 mm thick and be riveted to the lath by two mild steel rivets of not less than 3 mm diameter. The end locks shall be designed to fit the contour of the curtain laths and fill the channel guides as closely as possible consistent with the movement of the curtain. 5.3.4 The bottom lath of the curtain shall be fitted with a bottom arail made from either a stel Tee section of atleast 75 mm x 75 mm x 3 mm section and backing strip of atleast 64 mm x 3 mm or two steel flats of atleast 38 mm x 6 mm or two steel angles of atleast 38 mm x 38 mm x 3 mm section. The curtain shall extend atleast 32 mm between the flats, angles or Tee section which shall be welded, bolted or riveted to the lath by atleast 8 mm diameter steel bolts or steel peened rivets, spaced not more than 300 mm apart. The bottom rail shall extend the full width of the curtain

5.3.2

5.3.3

except for the portion housed within the channel guides and expansion clearances in accordance the Rule 5.8 and shall make flush contact with the sill when the shutter is closed. When the width of the wall opening exceeds 2.44 m, the Tee or angle sections forming the bottom rail shall be at least 5 mm thick. 5.3.5 Except when mechanical gearing is provided, two steel lifting handles not more than 750 mm apart shall be bolted riveted or welded to the bottom rail on each side of the curtain. The handles shall not interfere with the correct opening or closing of the shutter. Chain link handles are not allowed. When the doorway dimension exceeds those specified in Rule 5.7.1 mechanical gearing shall be provided for operating the shutter. The curtain shall be secured to the barrel by steel screws or steel bolts atleast 6 mm in diameter passing through laterally elongated horizontal holes (nominally 50 mm in length) in the top lath, into drilled and tapped holes in the barrel. The screws/bolt not more than 125 mm from each end of the top lath. To permit lateral expansion, the screws/bolts shall be located at the centre of the elongated holes and shall be fitted with fusible metal and steel washers. 5.4 CHANNEL GUIDES 5.4.1 The curtain shall move in channel guides extending continuously from within the barrel enclosure to the sill. The top of the channel guides should be located such as to permit upward expansion in accordance with rule 5.8. The guides shall be fabricated from steel at least 3 mm thick using steel peened rivets or steel bolts not less than 6 mm in diameter spaced at centres of not more than 150 mm or continuous or staggered intermittent edge and/or 3 mm fillet welds atleast 50 mm in length spaced not more than 150 mm apart. The guides shall form a channel of sufficient depth to accommodate atleast 64 mm (75 mm when the wall opening exceeds 2.44 m in width) of the curtain together with sufficient clearance to permit unrestricted expansion of the curtain in accordance with rule 5.8. A means for fixing the guides to the jambs shall be provided in accordance with rule 5.4.2. When the door way exceeds 3 m in width or 3 m in height-fabricated channel guides shall be constructed of sections at least 5 mm thick. Each guide shall be set back as far as possible within the chase provided in the jamb, fitted as close as possible to the front side of the chase, and wholly contained within the chase so as not to project beyond the face of the jamb. Each guide shall be fixed to the jamb by steel expanding anchor bolts of at least 6 mm diameter (having steel shields of not more than 18 mm diameter), positioned as follows: One within 150 mm of the barrel enclosure,

5.3.6

5.4.2

one within 150 mm of the sill and others intermediately at not more than 600 mm centres. With the exception of the lowest fixing, the boltholes in the guides shall be vertically elongated (nominally 50 mm in length) and the bolts, fitted with fusible metal and steel washers, shall be positioned in the highest portion of the slots to allow for expansion of the guides in an upward direction. 5.5 BARREL 5.5.1 The barrel shall be of mild steel tube not less than 114 mm outside diameter and not less than 5.4 mm thick mounted on a mild steel axle of not less than 25 mm diameter. The axle, which shall extend to the full length of the barrel, shall be sufficient length to provide a minimum bearing of 25 mm in each axle support bracket but shall not project more than 100 mm beyond each end of the barrel. An expansion cl3earance in accordance with rule 5.8 shall be provided between the axle and the ends of the barrel enclosure. The barrel shall enclose helical steel springs to be adjusted after the curtain is in position. 5.5.2 The axle support brackets shall be of steel or malleable cast iron and shall support and enclose the axle at each end. The brackets shall be fixed to the ends of the barrel enclosure by atleast two steep peeend rivets or steel bolts atleast 8 mm in diameter or continuous 6 mm fillet welding. The brackets shall be of sufficient size to accommodate the bearing of the axle specified in rule 5.5.1 together with fusible metal packing to permit expansion of the axle relative to the enclosure in accordance with rule 5.8.

5.6

BARREL ENCLOSURE 5.6.1 The barrel and axle shall be completely enclosed at the top, bottom, back and ends by an enclosure pressed or fabricated from steel atleast 6 mm thick using steel peened rivets or steel bolts not less than 8 mm in diameter spaced at centres of not more than 150 mm or continuous or staggered intermittent edge and/or 6 mm apart. Such fabrication shall extend completely along each edge of the enclosure. 5.6.2 The front edge of the bottom enclosure plate shall form a 40 mm wide flange, which shall not be more than 15 mm from the face of the curtain. Where an automatic closing device in the form of a fusible link actuated drop bar is used, the distance between the flange and the face of the curtain may be increased to not more than 50 mm. The barrel enclosure shall be bolted to each enclosing jamb by two steel expanding anchor bolts of not less than 10 mm diameter (having steel shields of not more than 18 mm diameter). If fixed vertically the holes shall be laterally elongated (nominally 50 mm

5.6.3

long) and the fixing bolts, with fusible metal and steel washers, positioned to permit lateral expansion. In any case, there shall be sufficient clearance between the ends of the enclosure and the enclosing jambs to permit lateral expansion in accordance with rule 5.8. 5.6.4 Where double shutters are fitted and the barrels are accommodated in the same enclosure, the barrels shall be completely separated from each other by dividing plate pressed or fabricated from steel at least 6 mm thick and fixed to the barrel enclosure in accordance with rule 5.6.1. In such circumstances the bottom enclosure plate may be reduced in thickness to not less than 0.9 m (20 SWG) and may be detachable, provided it is fixed to the remainder of the enclosure including the dividing plate, by steel screws or steel bolts atleast 8 mm in diameter spaced not more than 150 mm centres. A front or fascia plate of 6 mm steel shall be provided to form the front of the barrel enclosure, and shall overlap the opening in which the barrel is housed by not less than 100 mm at the top and at each end. The bottom edge of the fascia plate shall be pressed or fabricated in accordance with rule 5.6.1 to form a channel of a depth not less than 100 mm which shall extend to within 15 mm of the face of the curtain, the flange not less than 40 mm wide next to the face of the curtain. The fascia plate shall be fixed independently of the barrel enclosure by bolting to the head and jambs by steel expanding anchor bolts of not less than 10 mm diameter (having steel shields of not more than 18 mm diameter). The bolts shall be located 25 mm from the top edge, spaced at not more than 600 mm centres and 50 mm from the ends, positioned 50 mm from the bottom edge and at the mid height of the fasica. To permit lateral expansion, all boltholes provided in the fascia shall be laterally elongated (nominally 50 mm in length) and all bolts shall be located centrally and shall be fitted with fusible metal and steel washers. An opening in the fascia plate is allowed to permit access for the adjustments of the barrel springs, provided that the opening does not exceed 250 mm x 150 mm, and is covered by a 6 mm steel plate atleast 50 mm longer and wider than the opening. The cover plate shall be attached by not less than six steel screws or steel bolts atleast 8 mm in diameter (or four screw/bolts if the opening does not exceed 200 mm x 75 mm). A small hole of the minimum size necessary for the passage of wire or chain in connection with a fusible link arrangement is permitted in the barrel enclosure.

5.6.5

5.6.6

5.6.7

5.6.8

5.7

MECHANICAL GEARING

5.71

Mechanical gearing shall be provided when the door way exceeds 5.2 M2 in area or when the height of the bottom of the barrel enclosure above floor level exceeds 2.2 m. Gearing may be provided for shutter of similar area. The gearing system shall be arranged such that the shutter can be manually opened and closed from either side of the wall opening. Double shutters shall operate simultaneously. The gearing system shall be of steel mounted on selflubricating bushes and/or rigid self-aligning ball or roller bearings. The gears shall be machine cut from a suitable grade of steel and shall be connected by shafts not less than 19 mm in diameter. Chain gears shall not be used. Except as specified in rule 5.7.4 the gearing mechanism shall be housed in a chase cut into either the face of the wall or the reveal of the wall opening. The chase shall be at least 114 mm X 114 mm with side walls each atleast 114 mm thick and the rear wall atleast 150 mm thick. The chase shall be covered by steel plate at least 6 mm thick fixed at centres not exceeding 600 mm by steel expanding anchor bolts of not less than 6 mm diameter (having steel shields of not more than 18 mm diameter), fitted with steel washers. Chases may be enclosed by brickwork/block work atleast 100 mm thick keyed into the wall provided that steel maintenance covers are installed adjacent to gearing arrangements in accordance with the preceding requirements.

5.7.2

5.7.3

5.7.4 Where rule 5.7.3 cannot be complied with, the gearing mechanism shall be enclosed in a casing fabricated from steel atleast 6 mm thick using steel peened rivets or steel bolts not less than 8 mm in diameter spaced at centres not more than 150 mm or continuous or staggered intermittent edge and/or 6 mm fillet welds atleast 50 mm in length spaced not more than 150 mm apart. The casing shall be fixed to the face of the wall by steel expanding anchor bolts of not less than 8 mm diameter (having steel shields of not more than 18 mm diameter), fitted with steel washers and spaced at centres not exceeding 600 mm. The casing shall incorporate access openings for maintenance purpose which shall themselves be covered by atleast 6 mm thick steel plate atleast 50 mm longer and wider than the openings. The cover plate shall be attached to the casing by steel screws or steel bolts atleast 8 mm in diameter spaced not more than 150 mm centres. 5.7.5 The barrel enclosure, the fascia plate and any dividing blake may be perforated to permit passage of the gearing

system provided the size and number of the perforations are kept to a minimum consistent with the satisfactory operation of the gearing. Such perforations shall be arranged such that there is no exposed opening into the barrel enclosure and that lateral expansion of the barrel enclosure and fascia plate is not restricted. 5.7.6 The operating wheels, which shall be spokeless and nondetachable, shall be located adjacent to the opening not less than 750 mm, nor more than 1200 mm above the floor. Any handles on operating wheels shall be so arranged as to close within the wheel when not in use.

5.8

EXPANSION CLEARANCES Expansion clearance of atleast 12.5 mm per meter shall be provided for the bottom rail relative to the channel guides; the curtain relative to the channel guides; the channel guides relative to the barrel enclosure; the axle relative to the barrel enclosure; and the barrel enclosure relative to the enclosing jambs. Other expansion clearances and expansion fixings shall be as specified in the Rules.

5.9

INSTALLATION The shutter shall be installed in accordance with the General Installation Requirements with fixing as described in this Specification.

6. PROPRIETORY FIRE DOORS/DAMPERS 6.1 APPROVAL 6.1.1 Any door approved to this Specification shall be constructed and installed in accordance with the details lodged with the Committee by the manufacturer showing compliance with these rules. All approved doors shall bear a metal plate fixed in a permanent manner which states that the door is TAC approved and quotes the makers name, the month and year of manufacture and the serial number.

6.1.2

6.2

WALL OPENING 6.2.1 The wall opening shall be in accordance with the General installation Requirements. For any specific approved door the dimension of the wall opening or the door way (as measured between the reveals) shall not exceed the following dimensions

1. Single leaf hinged doors

2.6 m2 in area, 1.22 m in width and 2.74 m in height

2. Double leaf hinged doors lid5.2 m2 in area, 2.44 m in width and2.74 m in height

6.3 FIRE RESISTANCE 6.3.1 The door shall be tested in accordance with BS476: Part 8:1972, `Fire Test on Building Materials and Structures . Fire Resistance and shall be shown to be capable of achieving atleast one hour or two hours fire resistance with respect to integrity and stability. The test shall be carried out by a recognized test house in the presence of representatives of the Committee. The orientation of the door being tested shall be that which, in the opinion of the committee, will give rise to the most onerous test situation. Where such a situation cannot be identified the Committee may require more than one test to be undertaken. The design, installation and condition of the tested door shall be representative of that likely to occur in practice. Where design alternative exist within the proposed specification, the test shall be undertaken on a specimen incorporating those features, which, in the opinion of the Committee, will give rise to the most onerous test situation. Where such a situation cannot be identified the Committee may require more than one test to be undertaken. Intumescent seals shall not be incorporated in the door being tested. Such seals may be used in approved doors in practice provided the door designs are otherwise in accordance with those tested.

6.3.2

6.3.3

6.3.4

6.4 ROBUSTNESS 6.4.1 The door shall have sufficient resistance to damage and distortion to withstand normal use in an industrial environment. Where necessary the Committee may require impact tests to be undertaken.

6.5 MATERIALS 6.5.1 6.5.2 There shall not be any glazing incorporated in the door. Combustible and low melting materials shall not be used in the construction unless these have been included in the specimen door subject to the fire resistance test.

6.5.3

Susceptible materials in the door construction shall be adequately protected against corrosion.

6.6 HIINGED DOORS 6.6.1 Except as specified in Rule 6.6.2 single leaf doors and the second closing leaf of double leaf doors shall incorporate a centrally operated triple latching/ bolting arrangement. 6.6.2 Notwithstanding the requirement of rule 6.6.1, such doors may incorporate a single latching/bolting arrangement provided it can be shown to the Committees satisfaction that the door has been designed to operate successfully in the fire resistance test with such latching/bolting; that the leaf frame tolerance used in the fire resistance test will be reproduced in practice; and that the reliability of the latching/bolting arrangement has been demonstrated by means of cycling tests. 6.6.3 The operation of the latching/bolting arrangements specified in rule 6.61 and 6.6.2 shall be by means of a push bar or lever handled system interlocked with the latches/bolts such that on closing, the push bar/handle will return to its rest position only if all latches/ bolts are fully engaged. The handle linkage shall enable the door to be opened from either side. The first closing leaf of horizontally latched/bolted double leaf doors shall be provided with drop and shoor bolts to engage, respectively, the sill and head of the frame. Means shall be provided to prevent inadvertent disengagement of the bolts. The bolts may be centrally operated.

6.6.4

6.7

SLIDING DOORS 6.7.1 6,7.2 Sliding doors shall be in one leaf with handles provided on both faces. Subject to the door being capable of manual opening and closing the track may be either horizontal or inclined.

6.8

INSTALLATION 6.8.1 The door shall be installed in accordance with the General installation Requirements with fixings as specified in the approved manufacturing details. +++++ ++ +

ELECTRICAL REGULATIONS INDEX


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. SCOPE, DEFINITION AND APPLICATION 01 Scope.doc GENERAL RULES OF ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION (POWER EQUIPMENT) 02 General Rules.doc SWITCHBOARDS 04 SB Light.doc POWER DISTRIBUTION AND MOTOR CONTROL GEAR05 Power.doc TRANSFORMER SUB-STATION, EXCLUDING BELL AND DRAWING-FRAME TRANSFORMERS AND TRANSFORMERS OF SMALL CAPACITY 06 Transformers.doc EARTH CONNECTIONS 07 Earth.doc WIRINGo8 Wiring.doc LIGHTING FITTINGS AND ACCESSORIES 09 Lighting.doc ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENTS AND APPARATUS 10 Equipments.doc REQUIREMENTS OF SPECIFIC OCCUPANCIES 11 Specific Occupancies.doc APPENDICES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. APPENDIX I Typical Single Line Schematic Diagrams 12 Appendix I.doc APPENDIX II FUNDAMENTAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SAFETY 13 Appendix II.doc APPENDIX A RECOMMENDED SYSTEMS OF WIRING FOR CIRCUITS BELOW 250 VOLTS.14 Appendix A.doc APPENDIX B RECOMMENDED SYSTEMS OF CABLING FOR CIRCUITS OVER 250 VOLTS15 Appendix B.doc APPENDIX C USE OF ALUMINIUM CONDUCTORS IN ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS16 Appendix C.doc APPENDIX D FLUORESCENT LAMP FITTINGS17 Appendix D.doc APPENDIX E ROUNDABOUT TRUCKS AND ELECTRICAL STACKERS18 Appendix E.doc APPENDIX F BIS CODES19 Appendix F.doc APPENDIX G FIGURES TYPICAL LAYOUT OF SUBSTATION 20 Appendix G.doc

7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

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ELECTRICAL REGULATIONS 1. SCOPE, DEFINITION AND APPLICATION 1.1 SCOPE AND APPLICATION 1.1.1 These regulations apply to the entire electrical system from the point of supply to its use and covers all power equipment, switch board, power distribution and motor control gear, transformer substation, earth connections wiring, lighting fittings and accessories, etc. Special requirements have also been incorporated in these regulations for specific use and testing. Efforts have been made to ensure that these regulations are as comprehensive as possible. However, in respect to special type of Electrical Installations, or in case of doubt, reference shall be made to the Regional Office of Tariff Advisory Committee. These regulations have been framed for the purpose of ensuring maximum safety to the insured property from the risk of fire and explosion due to the use of electricity. To that extent, these regulations shall be supplementary to the Indian Electricity Rules, 956 framed under Indian Electricity Act, 1910 and/or statutory requirements. In addition to these Regulations, reference shall be made to the relevant I.S. Specifications published by the Bureau of Indian Standards, some of which have been enumerated in Appendix F. Licensed Contractors and electricians must be employed to carry out all electrical work and competent engineers should be engaged to prepare specifications and to superintend the work. Attention is drawn to rule 45 of the Indian Electricity Rules of 1956.

1.1.2

1.1.3

1.1.4

1.1.5 For all new electrical installations/alterations and additions, duly filled in Application in the format appended with the Regulations (refer to Page No.33) along with the circuit diagram/layout drawing is required to be furnished to the Regional Office of Tariff Advisory Committee/ Insurance Company, as the case may be. 1.1.6 The Engineers of Tariff Advisory Committee/Insurance Company/ persons authorised by the Insurance Company shall be given free access to all electrical equipment at all times for inspection and testing purpose. Where the use of new materials or invention leads to departure from the Regulations, the resulting degree of safety of the installation is to be not less than that obtained by compliance with the Regulations. However, such cases will be considered on their own merits. HAZARDOUS AREAS: 1.1.8 In hazardous Areas where the atmosphere may contain flammable gases or vapours, the classification of areas and selection of Electrical Equipment permitted to be installed therein shall be governed by the following specifications

1.1.7

IS:5572 (Part-1) - 1978

Classification of Hazardous Electrical Installation.

Areas

for

IS:5571-1979

Guide for Selection of electrical Equipment for Hazardous Areas.

These requirements may, however, be modified in particular situations as per the special Rules for hazardous locations laid down elsewhere in these regulations. 1.1.9 In situations where the atmosphere is likely to contain explosive gases or vapours, all the electrical equipment, fittings, accessories etc. shall be of flameproof type or any other approved type conforming to 1.8. Alternatively, the flameproof and non- flameproof areas shall be separated by a blank wall carried upto and bonded with the roof. In case of viewing glasses in such separating walls, the same shall be provided with 3 mm thick double wall glasses with proper sealing. Any door opening on the separating walls between flameproof and nonflameproof areas shall lead to pressurised enclosure with minimum over pressure of 25 Pa (0.25 bar) with respect to the outer atmosphere with an air lock arrangement, with doors electrically interlocked in such way that only one door can be opened at a time. In case of failure of pressurisation in the air lock enclosure, an alarm followed by tripping of the electric supply to both the areas shall occur. In respect of requirements for hazardous areas, reference shall also be made to Rule 1.1.8. 1.2 DEFINITIONS ACCESSORY: A device, other than current-using equipment, associated with such equipment or with the wiring of an installation. MBIENT TEMPERATURE: The temperature of the air or other medium where the equipment is to be used. APPLIANCE: An item of current-using equipment other than a luminaire or an independent motor. BASIC INSULATION: Insulation applied to live parts to provide basic protection against electric shock and which does not necessarily include insulation used exclusively for functional purposes. BUNCHED: Cables are said to be bunched when two or more are contained within a single conduit, duct, ducting or trunking or, if not enclosed, are not separated from each other by a specified distance. CABLE DUCTING: A manufactured enclosure of metal or insulating material, other than conduit or cable trunking, intended for the protection of cables which are drawn-in after erection of the ducting.

CABLE TRAY: A cable support consisting of a continuous base with raised edges and no covering. A cable tray is considered to be nonperforated, where less than 30 % of the material is removed from the base. CARTRIDGE FUSE LINK: A device comprising a fuse element or several fuse elements connected in parallel enclosed in a cartridge usually filled with arc-extinguishing medium and connected to terminations. See fuse link. CIRCUIT: An assembly of electrical equipment supplied from the same origin and protected against over current by the same protective device(s). CIRCUIT BREAKER: A device capable of making, carrying and breaking normal load currents and also making and automatically breaking, under pre-determined conditions, abnormal currents such as short-circuit currents. It is usually required to operate infrequently although some types are suitable for frequent operation. CONDUIT: A part of a closed wiring system for cables in electrical installations, allowing them to be drawn in and/or replaced, but not inserted laterally. ANGER: RISK of injury to persons (and livestock where expected to be present) from: i) fire, electric shock, and burns arising from the use of electrical energy, and

ii) mechanical movement of electrically controlled equipment, in so far as such danger is intended to be prevented by electrical emergency switching or by electrical switching for mechanical maintenance of non-electrical parts of such equipment. DESIGN CURRENT (OF A CIRCUIT): The magnitude of the current (RMS value for AC) to be carried by the circuit in normal service. DISTRIBUTION PANEL BOARD: A single panel or group of panel units designed for assembling in the form of single panel including buses, with or without switches and/or automatic over-current protective devices for the control of light or power circuits of small individual as well as aggregate capacity designed to be placed in a cabinet or cut-out box placed in or against a wall or partition and accessible only from the front. DISTRIBUTION SWITCH BOARD (POWER SWITCH GEAR): A power switchboard used for the distribution of electrical energy at the voltages common for such distribution within a building. DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM: That portion of electrical system, which delivers electrical energy from generating points on the transmission, or bulk power system to the consumer(s).

EARTH ELECTRODE: A conductor or group of conductors in intimate contact with, and providing an electrical connection to, Earth. EARTH ELECTRODE RESISTANCE: The resistance of an earth electrode to Earth. EARTH FAULT CURRENT: A fault current, which flows to Earth. EARTHING: The act of connecting the exposed-conductive- parts of an installation to the main earthing terminal of an installation. EARTHING CONDUCTOR: A protective conductor connecting the main earthing terminal of an installation to an earth electrode or to other means of earthing. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT: Any item for such purposes as generation, conversion, transmission, distribution or utilisation of electrical energy such as machines, transformers, apparatus, measuring instruments, protective devices, wiring materials, accessories, appliances and luminaires. ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION: An assembly of associated electrical equipment supplied from a common origin to fulfill a specific purpose and having certain coordinated characteristics. ENCLOSURE: A part providing an appropriate degree of protection of equipment against certain external influences and a defined degree of protection against contact with live parts from any direction. EXTRA HIGH VOLTAGE: Where the voltage exceeds 33,000 volts under normal conditions. FLAMEPROOF ENCLOSURE: An enclosure which will withstand without injury any explosion of inflammable gas that may occur within it under practical conditions of operation within the rating of the apparatus (and recognized over loads, if any, associated therewith) and will prevent the transmission of flame which may ignite any inflammable gas that may be present in the surrounding atmosphere. NOTE 1: An electrical apparatus is not considered as flameproof unless it complies with the appropriate statutory regulations. NOTE 2: Other types of fittings are also in vogue in wiring installations, for example, `increased safety'. FAULT: A circuit condition in which current flows through an abnormal or unintended path. This may result from an insulation failure or the bridging of insulation. Conventionally the impedance between live conductors or between live conductors and exposed or extraneousconductive-parts at the fault position is considered negligible.

FINAL CIRCUIT: A circuit connected directly to current- using equipment, or to a socket-outlet or other outlet points for the connection of such equipment. FIXED EQUIPMENT: Equipment fastened to a support or otherwise secured in a specific location. FLEXIBLE WIRING SYSTEM: A wiring system designed to provide mechanical flexibility in use without degradation of the electrical components. FUSE: A device that by the fusing of one or more of its specially designed and proportioned components, opens the circuit in which it is inserted by breaking the current when this exceeds a given value for a sufficient time. The fuse comprises all the parts that form the complete device. FUSE ELEMENT: A part of a fuse designed to melt when the fuse operates. FUSE LINK: A part of a fuse, including the fuse element(s), which requires replacement by a new or renewable fuse link after the fuse has operated and before the fuse, is put back into service. HIGH VOLTAGE: Where the voltage does not exceed 33,000 volts under normal conditions. INSULATION: Suitable non-conductive material enclosing, surrounding or supporting a conductor. ISOLATION: A function intended to cut off for reasons of safety the supply from all, or a discrete section; of the installation by separating the installation or section from every source of electrical energy. ISOLATOR: A mechanical switching device, which provides the function of isolation. LOW VOLTAGE: Where the voltage does not exceed 250 volts under normal conditions. MEDIUM VOLTAGE: Where the voltage does not exceed 650 volts under normal conditions. NEUTRAL CONDUCTOR: A conductor connected to the neutral point of a system and contributing to the transmission of electrical energy. The term also means the equivalent conductor of an IT or DC system unless otherwise specified in the Regulations. Note: I.T. System - a system having no direct connection between live parts and earth, the exposed conductive parts of the electrical installation being earthed. ORIGIN OF AN INSTALLATION: The position at which electrical energy is delivered to an electrical installation. OVERCURRENT: A current exceeding the rated value. the rated value is the current-carrying capacity. For conductors

OVERLOAD CURRENT: An over current occurring in a circuit, which is electrically sound. PLUG: A device, provided with contact pins, which is intended to be attached to a flexible cable; and which can be engaged with a socketoutlet or with a connector. POINT (in wiring): A termination of the fixed wiring intended for the connection of current-using equipment. SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENT: An over current resulting from a fault of negligible impedance between live conductors having a difference in potential under normal operating conditions. SOCKET-OUTLET: A device provided with female contacts, which is intended to be installed with the fixed wiring, and intended to receive a plug. STATIONARY EQUIPMENT: Electrical equipment which is either fixed, or equipment having a mass exceeding 18 Kg. and not provided with a carrying handle. SUPPLIER: A person who supplies electrical energy and, where electric lines and apparatus used for that purpose are owned otherwise than by that person shall include the owner of those electric lines and apparatus. SUBSTATION: An area or group of equipment containing switches, circuit breakers, buses and transformers for switching power circuits and to transform power from one voltage to another or from one system to another. SWITCH: A mechanical device capable of making, carrying and breaking current under normal circuit conditions, which may include specified operating overload conditions, and also of carrying for a specified time, currents under specified abnormal circuit conditions such as those of short-circuit. It may also be capable of making, but not breaking, short-circuit currents. SWITCHBOARD: An assembly of switchgear with or without instruments, but the term does not apply to groups of local switches in final circuits. SWITCHGEAR: An assembly of main and auxiliary switching apparatus for operation, regulation, protection or other control of an electrical installation. TRANSFORMER: A transformer with isolated primary and secondary windings and suitable stabilising, regulating and indicating devices required for transforming the alternating current from normal supply voltage to an alternating current output suitable for arc welding. WIRING SYSTEM: An assembly made up of cable or busbars and parts, which secure and, if necessary, enclose the cable or bus bars.

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ELECTRICAL REGULATIONS 3. GENERAL RULES OF ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION POWER EQUIPMENT 3.1 All electrical equipment shall be securely mounted on the surface on which they are installed. 3.2 Equipment terminals shall be rigidly designed and placed according to the size and type of machine. Industrial motors shall have robust iron clad terminal box of liberal size arranged, to receive vulcanised rubber insulated conductors in conduit or PVC sheathed armoured cables without unnecessary bends in the cables. All terminal boxes shall be entirely reptile, rodent and insect-proof. 3.3 In locations where dust, fluff, fumes, oil coolant spray, moisture and the like is present, the selection of electrical equipments, fittings, accessories, wiring, etc shall be governed by relevant Indian Standard Specification such as, IS: 2972-1979 IS: 4013-1967 - Textile Motors - Dust Tight Electrical Lighting Fitting.

Totally enclosed motors installed in humid situations shall have a breather and drainer to avoid internal condensation. 3.4 Where an arc or high temperature particles may be emitted by fixed equipment, one or more of the following installation method shall be adopted i) total enclosure in arc-resistant material.

ii) screening by arc-resistant material, from materials upon which the emissions could have harmful effects. iii) mounting so as to allow safe extinction of the emissions at a sufficient distance, from material upon which the emissions could have harmful effects. 3.5 Fixed electrical equipment shall be selected and installed so that heat generated thereby does not cause danger or harmful effects to adjacent fixed material or to material, which may foreseeably be in proximity to such equipment. In addition, any relevant installation instruction of the equipment manufacturer shall be observed. 3.6 Where fixed electrical equipment is installed having, in normal operation, a surface temperature sufficient to cause a risk of fire or harmful effects to adjacent materials, one or more of the following installation methods shall be adopted:

i)

mounting on a support or within an enclosure which will withstand, without risk of fire or harmful effect, such temperatures as may be generated. The support shall have a low thermal conductance, or

ii) screening by material which can withstand without risk of fire or harmful effect the heat emitted by the electrical equipment, or iii) mounting so as to allow safe dissipation of heat and at a sufficient distance from adjacent material. 3.7 All equipments located in damp or wet locations or where exposed to gases, vapours, fumes, liquids or other agents having deleterious effect on conductors and equipment or in high temperature areas shall be of a type approved for this purpose. This will include occupancies like dairies, food processing, breweries, paper mills, dyeing and bleaching in Textile, cold storages, etc. where splash proof/weather proof equipment, fittings, accessories, wiring, etc conforming to relevant Indian Standards Specification shall be used.

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ELECTRICAL REGULATIONS 4. WITCH BOARDS (For lighting switch boards, reference may be made to Section 9.4) 4.1 Switchboards shall be erected in easily accessible location away from combustible materials. 4.2 No article of clothing or any stores shall be kept at the back of the switchboard. 4.3 Where switchboards or distribution boards or group of distribution boards are erected in a room of a building isolated from the source of supply or at a distance from it, adequate means of control and isolation shall be provided both near the board and at the origin of supply. 4.4 HRC Fuses in Electric Circuit 4.4.1 Each out-going circuit from switchboard (excepting fuse distribution boards) shall be separately controlled by a suitable automatic circuit breaker or linked switch and cutouts. 4.4.2 In power circuits fuses shall be throughout of H.R.C type irrespective of current rating of the circuit. NB The above rule is however not applicable to installation with transformer having a capacity of 150 KVA and less. 4.5 All switches and circuit breakers shall preferably be operated from the front of the switchboard. Where circuit breaker handles, on switchboards or in panel boards are operated vertically rather than rotationally or horizontally, the `up' position of the handle shall be the `on' position. 4.6 Equipment intended to protect current at fault level, shall have an interrupting rating sufficient for system voltage and the current, which is available on the line terminal of the equipment. Equipment intended to protect current at levels other than fault levels shall have an interrupting rate at system voltage sufficient for the current that must be interrupted. 4.7 All wires and cables shall be provided with soldered or approved lugs or crimped joints. 4.8 Woodwork shall not be used in the construction of a switchboard. 4.9 Every switchboard shall comply with the following provisions, viz. a) Clear space of not less than 1 m in width shall be provided in front of the switchboard. b) If there are any attachments or bare connections at the back of the switch board, the distance shall be either less than 200 mm or more

than 750mm in width measured from the farthest outstanding part of any attachment or conductor. c) If the space behind the switch board exceeds 750 mm in width, there shall be a passage way from either end of the switchboard clear to a height of 1.8 m 4.10 All circuits shall be clearly and indelibly labelled for identification in English and vernacular. 4.11 Where circuits of different voltages and/or AC and DC circuits are installed on the same supports, they shall be so arranged and protected that they shall not come into contact with each other when live. 4.12 The neutral of each main and branch main circuit shall be provided with a suitable removable link placed in an easily accessible position, preferably on the front, for the purpose of testing. The neutral shall not be bunched in inconvenient and inaccessible positions at the back of the board.

ELECTRICAL REGULATIONS 5. POWER DISTRIBUTION AND MOTOR CONTROL GEAR 5.1 All equipment shall be of ironclad or steel construction throughout, dust-tight, liberally proportioned and of adequate capacity. In situations where the atmosphere is likely to contain explosive gases or vapours, power distribution and control gear shall be of flameproof type. In respect of requirement for hazardous areas, reference shall also be made to rule 1.1.8 5.2 Equipment shall be accessible at all times. Stacks of goods and like shall not impede access to any part of the equipment. the

5.3 Wiring to and from the gear shall be of the armoured cable, mineral insulated or conduit type and provision shall be made to secure the same by approved and efficient mechanical methods. Flexible tubing shall not be accepted for general wiring. It may be, however, used for connections between the terminal boxes of motors and starters, switches and motors, but the length shall be restricted to maximum of 1200 mm. Rigid non-metallic (PVC) conduits may however, also be used for low or medium voltage equipment subject to the following conditions: i) Conduits shall be adequately supported every 750 mm apart.

ii) For earthing, separate earthing conductors shall be run inside the conduit from end to end. iii) Expansion joints shall be provided, where required, to for thermal expansion and contraction. iv) Conduits shall have ISI certification and marking. Such non-metallic conduit shall not, however, be allowed in the following locations: i) In locations less than 2.5 m above working floor level unless protected against physical damage. compensate

ii) Where ambient temperature is likely to be above 55o C at some time or other during the year. iii) In concealed spaces of combustible construction. iv) In locations where the atmosphere is likely to contain flammable gases or vapours. v) No conduit shall be of size less than 12.5 mm dia. In respect of requirements for hazardous areas, reference shall also be made to Rule 1.1.8 5.4 Ends of all conduits shall be bushed and glands shall be provided for armoured cables. 5.5 All unused cable holes shall be efficiently closed.

5.6 All current carrying parts viz bus bars, terminals, washers and clips shall be of copper, aluminium, brass or equally non-rusting materials, properly tinned at joints. 5.7 All cables shall be provided with soldered or approved lugs or crimped joints or any other approved means for connection. 5.8 Outgoing circuits shall be clearly marked in English and vernacular indicating the department or place or item controlled. 5.9 All circuits shall preferably be arranged in symmetry. 5.10 Where a distribution board or group of distribution boards are erected in a room of a building isolated from the source of supply, or at a distance from it, adequate means of control and isolation shall be provided both near the board and at the origin of supply. 5.11 Each outgoing circuit from a switchboard (excepting fuse distribution boards) shall be separately controlled by a suitable automatic circuit breaker or linked switch and cutouts. NOTE: Fuses shall be throughout of HRC type irrespective of current rating of the circuit. 5.12 Detachable inspection covers shall preferably be provided to examine connections. 5.13 Woodwork shall not be permitted for mounting of, or construction of, framework of any ironclad switch, control or distribution gear. 5.14 Motors shall not be connected to lighting distribution boards. 5.15 A maximum of Four exhaust fans and similar appliances, may be installed on a circuit; provided, the rated output of each motor does not exceed 600 watts. 5.16 Temporary power wiring shall not be permitted. 5.17 Looping of conductors and T-joints in power wiring shall not be permitted. 5.18 Overhead bus bar trunking system shall comply with the following: i) steel clad and dust tight

ii) a control switch for the feeder circuit at ground level iii) separate plug-in box with fuses for each out-going circuit. The unused plug-in boxes shall be sealed properly. +++++++ +++

ELECTRICAL REGULATIONS
6. TRANSFORMER SUB-STATION, EXCLUDING BELL AND TRANSFORMERS AND TRANSFORMERS OF SMALL CAPACITY 6.1 6.1.1 INDOOR TYPES The Supply Companys High Tension switch and metering equipment shall be housed in a separate locked enclosure, to which the Supply Company shall have access at all times. Every apparatus, such as transformer, static condenser, switchgear or oil circuit breaker having an individual (or a cluster of such apparatus having an aggregate) oil capacity of 2,300 litres or more shall be housed in a locked, well-ventilated Substation building of noncombustible construction separated by a distance of not less than 6 m from all other buildings (including DG Houses) and storage in open. NOTES 1. The above provisions will not be applicable to testing or furnace or rectifier transformer(s) or other transformers, which are in integral part of specific equipment, even if oil capacity of such transformer(s) exceeds 2300 litres. 2. If the Substation/DG House (Supplying power to fire pump) is within 6 m of buildings/storage in open, all door and window openings of such buildings falling within 6 m of the Substation/DG House (supplying power to fire pump) shall be protected by single fireproof doors and 6 mm thick wired glass in steel frame work respectively. Likewise, roof eaves, if any, of such buildings falling within 6 m of the Substation/DG House (supplying power to fire pump) shall be cut and the wall raised as a parapet. The above provisions shall also apply when a DG House is within 6 m of the Substation/DG House (supplying power to fire pump) 3. The requirements indicated in the rule and in Note 2, however, do not apply to dry type transformers and transformers having nonflammable coolants like pyrochlor, askeryl, sovetol and pyronal sulphur hexafluoride and having primary voltage not more than 33 KV, unless the Substation supplies power to fire pumps, in which case compliance of the requirements is essential. 4. Where the Substation/DG House (supplying power to fire pump) is attached to another building, the common walls shall not be less than 350 mm thick brick work or 200 mm thick RCC carried upto the roof level with door openings therein protected by single fire proof doors, unless the transformers are of dry type or are having non-flammable coolants listed in Note 3 and their primary voltage is not more than 33 KV. Notwithstanding the above, if the Substation/DG House supplies power to fire pumps the same shall be segregated from the DRAWING-FRAME

6.1.2

adjoining building by perfect party walls complying with the Committee's regulations and where the attached building is a storeyed structure, the roof of the Substation/ DG House (supplying power to fire pump) shall be of RCC construction of at least 100 mm thickness. 5. In case of high hazard (B) occupancies, Substation(s)/DG House(s) supplying power to fire pumps shall, in addition to complying with the above provisions, be located 30 m clear of all equipment wherein flammable fluids having flash point below 65o C are handled and/or stored. 6.1.3 Apparatus, such as transformers, bank of static condensers, incoming high tension circuit breakers, switch and main distribution boards located within a Substation shall also be separated from all other apparatus by walls of not less than 350 mm thick brick work or 200 mm thick RCC carried at least 600 mm above the highest point of the equipment to be separated, if their individual or aggregate oil capacity is 2300 litres or more, Note 1 The requirements given under this rule, however, do not apply to dry type transformers, transformers having non-flammable coolants like pyrochlor, askeryl, sovetol and pyronal, sulphur hexafluoride and having primary voltage not more than 33 kV. Note 2 If the Substation supplies power to fire pumps, separating walls as described above will be necessary between the various items listed in the rule, irrespective of the oil contents. The H.T. and L.T. switchgear could, however, be located in the same room. 6.1.4 Each building or compartment housing oil-filled apparatus containing 2300 litres or more of oil shall be provided with stoneware oil drains at least 150 mm diameter and soak pits, the latter being not less than 2.5 M. away from the Substation. Floors shall be sloped not less than 1 in 96 towards the oil drains. The soak pits shall be of sufficient capacity to take the whole of the oil of the equipment. Note The requirements given under this Rule, however, do not apply to transformers having non-flammable coolants like Pinochle, Askeryl, Sovetol and Pyronal, Sulphur Hexafluoride and having primary voltage not more than 33 KV. 6.1.5 A minimum clearance of 750 mm shall preferably be provided between the transformer or other apparatus and enclosing or separating walls. Substations shall only be used to house the intended equipment. Storages of any kind and/or any repair work shall not be permitted therein. 4.4.2 Suitable apparatus shall be provided in approved positions for the control and protection of the windings of transformers.

6.1.6

4.4.3

Cable trenches inside Substations shall be filled with pebbles or similar non-combustible materials and/or covered with noncombustible slabs. All transformers shall have suitable isolating equipment on both high and low tension sides.

4.4.4

6.1.10 All control gears shall be protected against rodents, reptiles and insects. 6.1.11 It is essential that in all transformer houses and similar applications an efficient and distinctive indicating device be provided to show clearly whether the supply in the main incoming cables is `ON' or `OFF' for the safety of fire fighting personnel in the event of an outbreak of fire. 6.1.12 A Sub-station or a switch station with apparatus having more than 2300 litres of oil shall not be located in the basement where proper oil draining arrangement cannot be provided. 6.1.13 Oil filled transformers installed indoors shall not be on any floor above the ground or below the first basement. 6.2 6.2.1 OUTDOOR TYPES Transformers and equipment installed outdoor and having an individual or aggregate oil content of 2300 litres or more shall be located in a suitably fenced and locked enclosure separated on all sides by at least 6 m from any building including the Substation with an oil soak pit. Separating walls are necessary between the various items given in Rule 6.1.3 Note 1 If the transformers are within 6 m of surrounding buildings, door and window openings of the surrounding building (including Substation) within 6 m of the transformers shall be protected by single fireproof doors and 6 mm thick-wired glasses in steel frames respectively. Note 2 Separating walls will not be necessary in the case of transformers having an aggregate oil capacity in excess of 2300 litres but individual oil capacity of less than 5000 litres, If the distance between transformers and between transformers and other apparatus is more than 6 m or the transformers are protected by an approved automatic high velocity water spray system. Note 3 Where, however, the oil capacity of the individual transformers is larger than 5000 litres separating walls must be provided in all such cases unless all other equipment/ building/plant are located at a clear distance of not less than the following from such transformers

OIL CAPACITY OF INDIVIDUAL TRANSFORMERS 5,000 to 10,000 litres Above 10,000 upto 20,000 litres Above 20,000 upto 30,000 litres Over 30,000 litres

CLEAR SEPARATING DISTANCE 8m 10 m 12.5 m 15 m

Also provision shall be made for the draining away or removal of any oil, which may leak, from the transformer tanks, receptacles or chambers containing the same. Note 4 For Substation feeding power to motorised fire pumps, see Note 3, 4 and 5 under rule 6.1.2 and Note 2 under rule 6.1.3. 6.2.2 6.2.3 The requirements of 6.1.9, 6.1.10 and 6.1.11 shall apply to outdoor type transformer Substations also. Typical layouts and circuits of transformer Substation are indicated in Figures 1 and 2.

+ + + + + + +

+ + +

ELECTRICAL REGULATIONS
7 EARTH CONNECTIONS 7.1 The following provisions shall apply to the connection with earth of systems at low voltage in cases where the voltage normally exceeds 125 volts and of systems at medium voltage Neutral conductor of a 3 phase, 4-wire system and the middle conductor of a 2 phase, 3-wire system shall be earthed by not less than two separate and distinct connections with a minimum of two different earth electrodes of such large number as may be necessary to bring the earth resistance to a satisfactory value both at the generating station and at the sub-station. The earth electrodes so provided may be interconnected to reduce earth resistance. It may also be earthed at one or more points along the distribution system or service line in addition to any connection with earth, which may be at the consumer's premises. In the case of a system comprising electric supply lines having concentric cables, the external conductor of such cables shall be earthed by two separate and distinct connections with earth. The connection with earth may include a link by means of which the connection may be temporarily interrupted for the purpose of testing or for locating a fault.

7.1.1

7.1.2

7.1.3

7.1.4 i) In a direct current three wire system, the middle conductor shall be earthed at the generating station only, and the current from the middle conductor to earth shall be continuously recorded by means of a recording ammeter, and if any time the current exceeds onethousandth part of the maximum supply-current, immediate steps shall be taken to improve the insulation of the system. ii) Where the middle conductor is earthed by means of a circuit breaker with a resistance connected in parallel, the resistance shall not exceed 10 ohms and on the opening of the circuit breaker, immediate steps shall be taken to improve the insulation of the system, and the circuit breaker shall be reclosed as soon as possible. iii) The resistance shall be used only as a protection for the ammeter in case of earths on the system and until such earths are removed. Immediate steps shall be taken to locate and remove the earth. 7.1.5 In the case of an alternating current system, there shall not be inserted in the connection with earth any impedance (other than that required solely for the operation of switch-gear or instruments), cut-out or circuit breaker, and the result of any test made to ascertain whether the current (if any) passing through the connection with earth is normal, shall be duly recorded by the supplier. In the event of an appreciable harmonic current flowing in the neutral connection so as to cause interference with communication circuits,

7.1.6

the generator or transformer neutral shall be earthed through suitable impedance. 7.1.7 Where the earthing lead and the earth connection are used only in connection with earthing guards erected under high or extra-high voltage over head lines where they cross a telecommunication line or a railway line, and where such lines are equipped with earth leakage relays of a type and setting approved by the Tariff Advisory Committee the resistance shall not exceed 25 ohms. The frames of all generators, stationary motors and so far practicable, portable motors, metallic parts (not intended as conductors) of all transformers, metal casings or metallic coverings of switches, fuses and control gear and all other apparatus used for regulating or controlling energy at low, medium or high voltage shall be earthed by two separate and distinct connections with earth and the capacity of the earthing leads shall be in accordance with IS: 3043-1987. All metal casings or metallic coverings containing or protecting any electric supply line of apparatus shall be connected with earth and shall be so joined and connected across all junction boxes and other openings as to make good mechanical and electrical connections throughout their length. This rule shall, however, not apply to isolated wall tubes or brackets, electrolisers, switch or fans regulator covers or other fittings (other than portable hand lamps and portable and transportable apparatus) where the supply is at low voltage. Note (Applicable to Rule 7.1.8 and 7.1.9): However, Rule 7.1.8 and 7.1.9 will not be applicable to alternating current systems of 50 V to 1000 V in the following cases Exception No.1: Electric systems used exclusively to supply industrial electric furnaces for melting, refining, tempering and the like. Exception No. 2: Separately derived systems used exclusively for rectifiers supplying only adjustable speed industrial drives. 7.1.10 All earthing systems shall a) consist of equipotential bonding conductors capable of carrying the prospective earth fault current and a group of pipe/rod/plate electrodes for dissipating the current to the general mass of earth without exceeding the allowable temperature limits as per IS:3043-1987 in order to maintain all non-current carrying metal works reasonably at earth potential and to avoid dangerous contact potentials being developed on such metal works. b) limit earth resistance sufficiently low to permit adequate fault current for the operation of protective devices in time and to reduce neutral shifting.

7.1.8

7.1.9

c) be mechanically strong, withstand corrosion electrical continuity during the life of the installation.

and

retain

7.1.11 All earthing leads and earth connections shall be tested for electrical resistance to ensure efficient earthing before electric supply line or apparatus are energised and in addition be tested for resistance on a dry day during the dry season not less than once every twelve months. A record of every earth test made and the result thereof shall be kept for a period of not less than two years after the day of testing which shall be available for inspection when required. (See also IS: 3043-1987). 7.1.12 For small installations where an earth plate is not a practical proposition, earthing may be done by connecting the earthing conductors to water pipe, with prior consent of the Tariff Advisory Committee, the connection being made at the point where the water main enters the building from the ground, care being taken to see that all the joints in the water main between the ground and the point where the earth connection is made are screwed and not flanged. To ensure good contact between the earthing clamp and equipment, protective paints, enamel, etc. shall be completely removed. 7.1.13 In no case, shall gas, steam, sprinkler or humidifier used for an earth connection. pipes, be

7.1.14 All earthing conductors shall be run in sight as far as possible. The same care shall be exercised in the erection of earthing conductors as for those which carry current for consuming and other devices. 7.1.15 All bonding and earthing shall be of brass, copper or nonrusting material. In damp situations, the bolts shall be of non-rusting material. 7.1.16 Earthing conductors shall ordinarily be fixed to the walls and ceilings by means of wall plugs (gutties of equivalent approved type). 7.1.17 Lightning arrestor earthing medium shall not be used for earthing any electrical gears.

+ + + + + + +

+ + +

ELECTRICAL REGULATIONS
8. WIRING 8.1 8.1.1 8.1.2 General Conductors shall be insulated excepting where bare conductors are specifically permitted. (See Rule 8.1.15) Conductors exposed to oils, greases, vapours, gases, fumes, liquids or other substances having a deleterious effect upon the conductor or its insulation shall be of a type approved for the purpose. Note 1 Cable armour, boxes, cable sheathing, cabinets, elbows, couplings, fittings, supports, and support hardware shall be of materials suitable for the environment in which they are to be installed. In general, areas where acids and alkali chemicals are handled and stored may present such corrosive conditions, particularly when wet or damp. Severe corrosive conditions may also be present in portions of meat-packing plants, tanneries, glue houses, and some stables; installations immediately adjacent to a seashore and swimming pool areas; and storage cellars or rooms for hides, casings, fertilizer, salt and bulk chemicals. Note 2 In portions of dairies, laundries, canneries and other indoor wet locations, and in locations where walls are frequently washed or where there are surfaces of absorbent materials, such as damp paper or wood, the entire wiring system, including all boxes, fittings, conduits, and cable used therewith, shall be mounted so that there is at least air space between it and the wall or supporting surface. 8.1.3 Conductors may be permitted to be connected in parallel (electrically joined at the two ends to form a single conductor) only if all such conductors are of same length, same material, same cross sectional area, have same type of insulation and are terminated in the same manner. Cables of AC circuits installed in steel conduit shall always be so bunched that the cables of all phases and the neutral conductor (if any) are contained in the same conduit. Ducts and trunking shall be constructed of metal or non-combustible insulating material and shall be securely fixed. Where they are liable to mechanical damage, they shall be adequately protected. All removable covers of ducts or trunkings shall be securely fixed after wiring is completed.

8.1.4

8.1.5

8.1.6

8.1.7

Every outlet for cables from a duct system, every joint in such a system, and every joint between such a system and another type of duct or conduit, shall be so formed that the joints are mechanically sound and that the cables drawn in are not liable to suffer abrasion. Where cables, conduits, ducts or trunkings pass through floors, walls, partitions or ceilings, the surrounding hole shall be made good with cement or similar fire-resisting material to the full thickness of the floor, wall etc and space through which fire or smoke might spread shall not be left around the cable, conduit, duct or trunking. In addition, where cables, conduits or conductors are installed in channels, ducts, trunkings or shafts which pass through floors, walls, partitions of ceilings suitable internal fire-resisting barriers shall be provided to prevent the spread of fire. Cables, metallic cable ductings or trunkings and conduits may be buried underground provided they meet the following minimum earth cover requirement WIRING METHOD MINIMUM THICKNESS OF EARTH COVER 150 mm 450 mm 450 mm (with concrete envelope trunkings of not less than 5 cm around the ducting or trunkings) 600 mm

8.1.8

8.1.9

Rigid metal conduits Other type of conduits Metallic ductings or

Directly buried cables

8.1.10 Electrical services shall not be installed in the same conduit or trunking as pipes or tubes of non-electrical services e.g air, gas, oil, water etc. 8.1.11 Only PVC sheathed armoured cables or rigid metallic conduit wiring shall be allowed in ducts or plenums used for movement of environmental air. 8.1.12 Where aluminium conductors are used in an electrical installation special precautionary measures detailed in Appendix `C' of these Regulations shall be followed. 8.1.13 It is recommended that in every vertical channel or duct or trunking containing conductors and exceeding 3 meters in length internal barriers be provided so as to prevent the air at the top of the channel, duct or trunking from attaining excessively high temperature. 8.1.14 Flexible cables and cords -

8.1.14.1 Uses Permitted: Flexible cords and cables shall be used only for a) Pendants

b) c) d) e) f)

Wiring of fixtures Connection of portable lamps or appliances Lift cables Wiring of cranes and hoists Connection of stationary equipment to facilitate their frequent interchange g) Prevention of the transmission of noise or vibration. h) Appliances where the fastening means and mechanical connections are specifically designed to permit removal for maintenance and repair and the appliances intended are identified for flexible cord connection. i) Data processing cables. j) Connection of moving parts. Uses not permitted: Unless specifically permitted as above, flexible cords and cables shall not be used a) As a substitute for the fixed wiring of a structure. b) Where run through holes in walls, ceilings, or floors. c) Where run through doorways, windows, or similar openings d) Where attached to building surfaces e) Where concealed behind building walls, ceilings, or floors.

8.1.14.2 Flexible conductors for pendants and fittings in industrial buildings shall be composed of wires on a short lay, no wire being smaller than 0.193 mm in diameter, with a minimum of 23 strands namely 23/0.193 mm. Each conductor shall be insulated with rubber, and each core separately taped, braided and applied with waterproof compound. Alternatively, each core shall be separately sheathed with PVC. 8.1.14.3 Flexible cables and flexible cords shall not be used as fixed wiring unless contained in earthed metal or other incombustible and mechanically strong enclosure; provided that these requirements shall not apply to short lengths of sheathed flexible cable or flexible cord used for final connections to fixed apparatus or for connection of control gear of fluorescent lamps or discharge lamps. Nonsheathed flexible cables and flexible cords shall not be drawn into conduits or ducts. They shall also not be run through holes in walls, ceilings or floors or through doors, windows or other similar openings; nor shall they be permitted to be concealed behind wall panelings, ceilings or floors. 8.1.15 Bare Conductors Bare conductors are permitted for LT (Low Tension) side or drawing frame transformer circuits where the potential difference does not exceed 12 volts. Bare or lightly insulated conductors of extra low voltage systems shall have adequate insulators, and further protection where necessary, to ensure that they do not cause risk of fire. Bare conductors are also allowed for cranes and hoists subject to conditions laid down elsewhere under Rule 10.6.

8.1.16

Overhead Lines and Protection from Lightning -

8.1.16.1 All overhead transmission lines, including compound lines, shall not be run above any process/storage blocks or storage in the open. 8.1.16.2 Lightning arrestors shall be provided for lines at both ends and at supports where exposed to and liable to damage or injury from lightning. The arrestors shall preferably be of the `Non-horn' type for low and medium tension because of possibility of damage by birds and distortion. 8.1.16.3 Lightning protection shall otherwise comply with IS: 2309-1989. 8.1.17 Change-over Switch Where an AC installation derives its supply from two sources, such as pilot main generator or two separate generators of private and public supply, it is recommended that a four pole (three phase and a neutral) change-over switch be installed with arrangement for making and breaking the contact of the neutral, first when making and last when breaking the circuit. Note The rule shall not apply where electrical/or mechanical interlocking system are provided. 8.1.18 Wires and Cables -

8.1.18.1 Marking - All cables and wires shall bear the `Makers' name and grade of cable. 8.1.18.2 The grade of cables used shall be as follows 250-volt grade 650-volt grade Where the voltage between phase and neutral is always earthed Where the neutral on medium tension supplies is not earthed. For high tension, cables shall comply with the relevant Indian standards.

8.1.19

The paper-insulated conductors of lead covered cables shall not be brought right through the sealing box without a break. The conductors of such cables shall be terminated in the trifurcating box and the tails of Vulcanised India Rubber (VIR) or PVC conductors sweated by ferrules to the conductors of paper insulated cables shall be brought through the trifurcating box. Conduit wiring Conduits shall be of solid-drawn and welded steel of heavy gauge screwed type. Note Rigid non-metallic conduits conforming to IS: 2509-1963 may, however, be used for low and medium voltage installation

8.2 8.2.1

excepting the locations mentioned in rule 8.2.5, subject to the following conditions i) Conduits shall be adequately supported every 750 mm apart. ii) For earthing, separate earthing conductors shall be run inside the conduit from end to end. iii) Expansion joints shall be provided, where required, to compensate for thermal expansion and contraction. iv) Conduits shall have ISI certification and marking. 8.2.2 Solid-drawn welded steel conduit shall be permitted under all atmospheric conditions and all occupancies subject to stipulations laid down in rule 8.2.3. In damp situations and occupancies where strong corrosive vapours are present, occupancies like chemical factories, bleach and dye houses and the like, conduits hot dip galvanised or treated with special rust proof paint or conduits with an additional coating of bitumen paint or with glass wool lagging with a protective covering be used. Flexible conduits shall not be used for general wiring. It may be, however, used for connections between terminal boxes of motors and starters, switches and motors, but the length shall be restricted to a maximum of 1200 mm. Non-metallic conduits, rigid or otherwise, shall not be permitted in the following locations i) Where wiring height is less than 2.5 m above working floor level, unless protected against physical damage. ii) Where ambient temperature is likely to be above 55o C at some time or other during the year. iii) In concealed spaces of combustible construction. iv) Where the atmosphere is likely to contain flammable gases or vapours. 8.3 8.3.1 Cable Tray, Duct or Bus Duct Systems All cable trays, ducts or bus ducts shall be constructed of earthed sheet metal enclosed or open troughs with hinged or removable covers housing and protecting either electric wires or un-armoured cables or bus-bars of aluminium or copper. Such systems shall be permitted under all atmospheric conditions and in all occupancies except in following locations i) Where exposed to severe physical damage ii) Where exposed to corrosive vapours iii) Where atmosphere is likely to contain flammable and/or explosive vapours. iv) Where wet processes are carried out v) In concealed spaces.

8.2.3

8.2.4

8.2.5

8.3.2

8.3.3

These systems shall be securely supported at intervals not exceeding 1.5 meters. Dead ends of all cable troughs or trunkings, bus ducts and cable ducts shall be closed. Extensions and branches of such systems shall be of similar construction. Cable Trays (Through partitions and walls) Cable trays shall be permitted to extend transversely through partitions and walls or vertically through platforms and floors in wet or dry locations where the installations, complete with installed cables, are made in accordance with the following requirement While installing in hollow spaces, vertical shafts and ventilation or airhandling ducts, it shall be so made that the possible spread of fire or products of combustion will not be substantially increased. Openings around electrical penetrations through fire resistance rated walls, partitions, floors, or ceilings shall be fire stopped using approved methods to maintain the fire-resistance rating.

8.3.4

8.3.5 8.3.6

8.3.7 8.3.8

Non-metallic cable tray shall be permitted in corrosive areas and in areas requiring voltage isolation. Construction Specifications a) Strength and Rigidity: Cable trays shall have suitable strength and rigidity to provide adequate support for all contained wiring. b) Smooth Edges: Cable trays shall not have sharp edges, burrs, or projections that may damage the insulation or jackets of the wiring. c) Corrosion Protection: Cable trays shall be made of corrosionresistant material or, if made of metal, shall be adequately protected against corrosion. d) Side Rails: Cable trays shall have side rails or equivalent structural members. e) Fittings: Cable trays shall include fittings or other suitable means for changes in direction and elevation of runs. f) Non-metallic Cable Trays: Non-metallic cable trays shall be made of flame-retardant material.

8.4 8.4.1

Cable Trenches Such systems may be permitted under all atmospheric conditions and in all occupancies except where exposed to corrosive,

flammable or explosive vapours or gases unless the cables or conductors are specially approved for such use. 8.4.2 Cables inside the trenches shall preferably be so mounted on insulated racks or other supports, as to be at least 75 mm above the trench bottom. The top of the trenches shall be covered with removable concrete slabs or chequered plates. It is recommended that trenches of more than 1000 cm cross sectional area be divided by incombustible barriers at intervals not exceeding 45 m. The barriers shall be at least 50 mm in thickness and of the same height as of the cable trench. The cables shall be carried through holes in the barriers, which shall be made good thereafter to prevent passage of fire beyond the barriers. The combined cross-sectional area of all conductors or cables shall not exceed 40 % of the internal cross sectional area of the trench. The trench shall be kept free from accumulation of water, dusts and waste materials. PVC Sheathed Armoured Cables PVC sheathed armoured cables shall be permitted under atmospheric conditions and in all occupancies. all

8.4.3 8.4.4

8.4.5 8.4.6 8.5

+ + + + + + +

+ + +

ELECTRICAL REGULATIONS
9. LIGHTING FITTINGS AND ACCESSORIES 9.1 9.1.1 General Wiring shall be on the distribution board system with main, branch main and final sub-circuit boards fixed at convenient positions. A typical single line schematic diagram, which is shown on Page No.46, shall be taken as reference. The system of wiring and its components shall be suitable to the conditions prevailing and subject to approval of the Committee. It is recommended that diagrams indicating the circuits be made available at site. Temporary wiring shall not be permissible. Wiring shall be run, as far as possible, along the walls and ceilings so as to be accessible and capable of inspection. Conductors which pass through window and doorframes, wood beams, walls, ceilings and floors shall be protected by porcelain tube or conduit according to conditions. The tube or conduit shall extend at least 13 mm on both sides of the wall and 25 mm above the floor and below the ceiling. All conduits end shall be bushed. Un-armoured cable wiring shall be mechanically protected for a height of 2.5 m above floor level. Flexible metallic tubing shall not be used as an earthing continuity conductor. Branch main and distribution boards shall be mounted in suitable accessible positions not higher than 2 m above floor level. Adequate working space and freedom from danger are essential. Incoming mains shall be protected by an ironclad switch and fuses. Linked tumbler switches shall not be used for the control of circuits. Ceiling roses shall be securely fixed and shall be complete with caps. Pendants and ceiling fans shall be connected to a ceiling rose to which only one twin flexible shall be connected. Flexibles shall not be used where they are likely to swing due to ventilation or humidifier apparatus; fixed rod or conduit protection shall be used in such cases.

9.1.2 9.1.3 9.1.4 9.1.5 9.1.6

9.1.7 9.1.8 9.1.9 9.1.10

9.1.11 9.1.12 9.1.13 9.1.14 9.1.15

9.1.16 9.1.17

Flexibles and fittings shall not be allowed to vibrate. Rod pendants shall be used in industrial buildings where considerable dust and/or fluff are present, such as textile, flour, woolen, sawmills and ginning and pressing factories. Lighting fittings, fans etc shall be fixed at a distance not exceeding 250 mm from ceiling rose. Fittings for lamps in places where considerable dust or fluff is present (such as willowing, lap breaking, waste opening, mixing, blow and raising rooms in Textile Mills and in gin and press factories, flour mills, saw mills, starch mills, etc.) shall be of dust tight type, and conductors enclosed in heavy gauge screwed conduit with a suitable flange for attachment to runner or ceiling. Note Lighting fitting with glass cover of dust tight construction intended for use in atmosphere laden with dust shall be in accordance with IS: 4013-1967 Dust Tight Electrical Lighting Fitting with glass covers.

9.1.18 9.1.19

9.1.20

In situations where the atmosphere is likely to contain explosive gases or vapours, the fittings shall comply with special rules for Hazardous Locations laid down elsewhere in these regulations. Note Classification of hazardous areas and type of electrical apparatus in hazardous areas shall be in accordance with the relevant Specifications/Code of Practice of IS such as IS: 2148-1981 IS: 2206 (Part-I)-1984 IS: 5572 (Part-I)-1978 Specification for Flameproof enclosures of Electrical Apparatus Flameproof electrical lighting fittings Classification of Hazardous Areas for Electrical Installations areas, reference

In respect of requirements for hazardous shall also be made to Rule 1.1.8. 9.1.21

All filament lamps shall be so placed or so guarded as to prevent ignition of any combustible materials. Any shade or guard used for this purpose shall be suitable to withstand the heat from the lamp. The base of accessories shall be vitreous material. Note 1 Ceiling roses of moulded materials are allowed in all occupancies other than areas where the atmosphere is likely to contain explosive gases or vapours, wherein connection through ceiling rose, vitreous or otherwise, is prohibited. Note 2 Moulded materials (including Piano Type) switches are allowed in industrial buildings except in the following cases -

9.1.22

i)

Situations where considerable dust or fluff is present (e.g. willowing, lap breakers, waste opening, mixing, blow and raising rooms and carding and spinning processes in Textile Mills, in Ginning and Pressing Factories, Flour Mills, Saw Mills, Starch Mills etc.)

ii) Places used for hazardous trade or process (e.g. Oil Mills, Paint and Varnish Factories etc.) and iii) Situations where the atmosphere is likely to contain explosive gases or vapours, wherein flameproof switches are essential. 9.2 9.2.1 Wall Plugs and Sockets All wall plugs and sockets in industrial buildings, except offices shall be of metal clad 3-pin pattern, separately controlled by a switch adjacent to the wall socket. Note This rule shall not apply in case of wall plugs and sockets where the capacity of the portable equipment to be connected does not exceed 250 watts. 9.2.2 Where it is necessary to earth the metal case of a wall plug and or portable appliances, the connection shall be done by approved means. Fluorescent Lamp Fittings These fittings shall be of one of the following three types a) General purpose type - for use in offices and similar positions. b) Industrial type - for use in all industrial applications except in places where explosive gases or vapours are present. c) Flameproof type - for use in places where explosive gases or vapours are present. (See Appendix-D for description of fluorescent lamp fittings) Note 1 Where fumes or gases due to chemical action are present, the reflectors shall be of vitreous enamel. Rayon spinning sections should have lead coated metal reflectors or equivalent. Note 2 Where explosive vapours are present, the fittings shall comply with relevant Bureau of Indian Standard Specifications for flameproof enclosure of electrical apparatus. Attention is also invited to special rules for hazardous locations laid down elsewhere in these regulations.

9.3

Classification of Hazardous Areas and type of electrical apparatus in hazardous areas should be in accordance with the relevant specifications/Code of Practice of IS such as IS: 2148-1981 IS: 2206(Part-1)-1984 IS:5572(Part-1)-1978 Specification for flameproof Enclosures of Electrical Apparatus. Flameproof electric lighting fittings. Classification of Hazardous Electrical Installations. Areas of

In respect of requirements for hazardous areas, reference shall also be made to Rule 1.1.8. 9.4 9.4.1 9.4.2 9.4.3 Lighting Switchboard Main switches and fuses shall be iron clad. Branch main board shall be iron clad when used on medium tension circuits. Each final sub-circuit on the distribution board shall be controlled by a single pole switch connected to the phase conductor. Each circuit from a main distributing centre except fuse distribution board shall be provided with a circuit breaker or the linked switches and cutouts. Adequate means of control in approved positions shall be provided for a distribution or group of distribution boards which is fed from a switchboard or distributing centre and within a reasonable distance therefrom, such as one or more boards erected in a room or building isolated from the source of supply. Woodwork shall not be used for the mounting of or construction of the framework for iron clad switch and distribution boards and control gear. In respect of requirements for hazardous areas, reference shall also be made to Rule 1.1.8.

9.4.4

9.4.5

9.4.6

+ + + + + + +

+ + +

ELECTRICAL REGULATIONS
10. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENTS AND APPARATUS 10.1 10.1.1 10.1.2 X-Ray Apparatus The equipment and installation shall conform to Rule 73 of Indian Electricity Rules, 1956. All such apparatus shall be located either in independent detached building or in compartments segregated by 350 mm. thick brick walls with each opening protected by a fire resisting door/shutter. Electrolyser Apparatus Motor generator sets and/or separate generators and rectifiers together with necessary switch and control gear shall be separated by blank walls or located sufficiently away from the electrolyser. The position of this equipment shall be subject to the approval of the Committee. The room housing Electrolyser and all attendant equipment shall be well ventilated. Circulating pumps and electrical equipment thereof, where mounted in close proximity to electrolyser, shall be specially treated with anti-corrosive paint at frequent intervals. The electrical apparatus shall be of the totally enclosed type or of a type approved as equivalent. Windings and insulation generally shall be specially treated the corrosive effects of the electrolytic fumes. Static Discharges Electrostatic charge eliminating devices shall be provided for all high-speed machines and equipment of similar types such as paper, printing, dipping and film coating machines where static electricity may build up specially during dry seasons of the year. Belt driven equipment in hazardous areas, shall be provided with anti-static belts. Refrigeration Plant The lighting wiring shall be in heavy gauge screwed conduits or PVC sheathed armoured cabling with watertight fittings. Machinery and control gear shall be mounted external to the cooled chambers and shall comply with relevant sections of this code. Drawing Frame Transformers in Textile Mills to resist

10.2 10.2.1

10.2.2 10.2.3

10.2.4 10.3 10.3.1

10.3.2 10.4 10.4.1 10.4.2 10.5

The size and particulars of transformers for actuating the electrical device on drawing frames shall be as follows a) Capacity not to exceed 75 VA b) Primary voltage not to exceed 250 V c) Secondary voltage not to exceed 12 V d) Shall be marked with their maximum output and voltage of primary and secondary circuit. e) Shall be totally enclosed and iron clad. An ordinary bell transformer enclosed in a separate case shall not be permissible. f) Shall be double wound. g) The circuit shall under ordinary conditions be run direct to the switchboard and controlled by a linked switch and cutouts as its origin and in the department in which the transformers are erected, within a reasonable distance from them. The transformer shall be fixed at a convenient and easily accessible position near the drawing frame and not where liable to injury. h) The cabling shall be of the vulcanised rubber insulated or PVC insulated conductors for the secondary circuits and shall not be less than 7/0.914 mm. i) j) The terminals on the transformers shall be suitably enclosed. The secondary circuit of the transformer shall be protected by cutouts of approved pattern placed in an accessible position.

k) Bare overhead conductors shall be rigidly supported so as not to be liable to injury or deterioration by belting. l) 10.6 10.6.1 10.6.2 VIR/PVC insulated cable connections to the drawing frame shall have cable completely enclosed with metallic flexible tubings.

Overhead Travelling Cranes, Hoists and Runways The controllers must be of the totally enclosed reversing drum type. All switchgear and fuses must be completely enclosed in iron cases and an emergency switch provided at an accessible height from ground level to isolate the crane during inspection, cleaning and repairs. All wiring in connection with these machines, other than the bars, copper collector or trolley wires, must be enclosed in screwed steel conduits in accordance with the Rules and Regulations referred to above and bare collector or trolley wires must also be installed in conformity with these rules and regulations. All the electrical apparatus must be kept clean and free from dust. No joints shall be permitted in trailing cables

10.6.3

10.6.4 10.6.5

10.7

Fans on Warping Frames in Textile Mills All fans shall be of the totally enclosed type.

10.8

Electrically driven Fire Pumps Reference shall be made to (a) Fire Protection Manual, (b) Rules for Automatic Sprinkler Installations and (c) Rules for water spray systems of the Committee. ++++++++++++

ELECTRICAL REGULATIONS
11. REQUIREMENTS OF SPECIFIC OCCUPANCIES 11.1 11.1.1 11.1.2 Godowns Lighting and/or power wiring shall be either rigid screwed metal conduit or armoured cable. The circuit(s) inside the godown shall be controlled by a switch fuse/or MCB located outside the godown in a convenient position. For incandescent lamps wall brackets shall be eliminated and rod pendants and batten holder fittings shall be erected which shall be of a type protected against mechanical damage. For fluorescent lamps, industrial type fittings shall be used. These fittings shall be fixed at sufficient height above the highest level of bulk or other goods, which are stored in the godowns. For godowns storing combustible switches or MCBs shall be used. Lifts The installation of lifts and care of electrical installation comply with relevant provisions of IS: 60 - 80. 11.3 Yarn Conditioning Rooms PVC armoured cabling may be used. Watertight fittings shall only be used. Wiring shall be protected against damage where necessary. 11.4 11.4.1 11.4.2 11.4.3 11.4.4 Petrol Stations Electrically operated valves shall be so designed that they can also be operated by hand. The valve or valves shall close automatically when the electric supply ceases. All fusible links in the circuit supplying the valve or valves shall be in series and on the `live' head. The circuit in which the fusible links from a path for the current to the fire valve shall be a separate final sub-circuit controlled by a switch and by a fuse of not exceeding 5A capacity, both on the `live' lead. Equipment shall be of certified `flameproof type unless it is separately mounted and is away from any possible fumes. Hazardous Locations shall fully materials, only industrial type

11.1.3

11.1.4 11.2

11.4.5 11.5

11.5.1

For the purpose of these Regulations, hazardous locations shall be the locations where processes or operations involving use of flammable liquids and/or gases (e.g. spray painting, baking or drying, enamelling or coating, hydrogenation in vegetable ghee factories etc.) are carried out in a block where majority of other operations do not call for flameproof equipment. Note In case of process or operations involving combustible liquid(s), the presence of flammable vapour in the atmosphere may be deemed probable only if the flash point of the liquid(s) is below 93.3o C.

Notwithstanding the above, locations where combustible/ flammable liquids having flash points above 32.2o C but not above 93.3o C are handled, shall be regarded as hazardous if (a) sprayed or (b) present in the form of mist or (c) heated to or above its flash point. 11.5.2 Wherever possible, the hazardous locations where installation of flameproof electrical equipment and fittings is required, shall be located either in a detached building or in a compartment separated from the remainder of the premises atleast by blank masonry wall. Alternately, such locations shall be demarcated by fencing, railing or boundary lines painted on floor and all electrical equipment, fittings, and accessories shall be of flameproof type within the demarcated area as also within 6 m. all round the demarcated areas. Notwithstanding what is stated above, where the processes or operations involving use of flammable liquids and/or gases are carried out in enclosed space (e.g. paint spray booths, baking or drying ovens, enamelling or coating equipment etc.) Flameproof equipment would be essential only in the space within 6 m horizontally of open space or door opening of such equipment and 3 m. vertically above the roof of such equipment. 11.5.3 Illumination of spray painting booths or similar coating or finishing equipment through glass panels is permitted provided a) The lighting fittings are of fixed type. b) Panels shall be so arranged that normal accumulation of residue on the exposed surface of the panel will not be raised to a dangerous temperature by the lighting unit. c) Panels shall be so installed that they may be easily cleaned. d) Glass used for panel is either wired glass or of specially toughened type. 11.6 Cinematograph and other similar Machine Rooms (Films Projecting and Rewinding)

11.6.1

Where general lighting of the auditorium and exits can be controlled from within the enclosure, separate and independent means of control shall also be provided outside the enclosure and well away from it. All switches, fuses and connections thereof shall be totally enclosed and iron-clad and all electric lamps and resistances so protected as to avoid their possibility of coming into contact with or in close proximity of films or other combustible materials. Resistance connected with auditorium or stage lighting shall not be located in the projection or rewinding rooms. The insulating material of all electric cables including leads to lamps shall be covered with fire resisting material. There shall be no unnecessary and loose electric taken as separate circuits from the source of supply and from the supply side of main fuses in general lighting circuit. Efficient switches and fuses shall be inserted at the point where the supply is taken, and in addition; an efficient double pole switch shall be fitted in the cinematograph lamp circuit inside the enclosure. When the cinematograph lamp is working the voltage across the terminals of the double pole switch inside the enclosure shall not exceed 110 volts. Resistances shall be made entirely of incombustible material and shall be so constructed and maintained that no coil or other part shall at any time become unduly heated. All resistances, with the exception of a resistance for regulating purposes shall be placed outside the enclosure and, if reasonably practicable, outside the auditorium. If inside the auditorium, they shall be protected by a wire guard or other efficient means of preventing accidental contact. The operator shall satisfy himself before the commencement of each performance that all cables, lead connections and resistances are in proper working order. The resistance shall be inspected atleast once during each performance. If any fault is detected, current shall be immediately switched off and shall remain switched off until the fault has been remedied. Charging of Accumulators in Battery Service Stations Charging must only be carried on in well-ventilated situations and no sacking or naked lights shall be allowed. All wiring from the general source of supply i.e. mains, motor generated or rectifier to the charging board or panel shall comply with the Wiring Rules of the Committee. Accumulators shall stand directly on durable non-ignitable, nonabsorbent, non-conducting material such as glass, porcelain or glazed earthenware. These materials shall rest on a bench which shall be kept dry and be insulated from earth; if constructed of

11.6.2

11.6.3 11.6.4

11.6.5

11.6.6

11.7 11.7.1 11.7.2

11.7.3

wood, it shall be of slab formation and treated sulphuric enamel. 11.7.4

with anti-

The accumulators shall be so arranged on the bench that a potential difference exceeding 12 volts shall not exist between adjacent cells. The bunching of accumulators or arranging them in circular formation is not permitted. All combustible material within a distance of 600 mm measured horizontally from, or within 2 m measured vertically above, any accumulators; shall be protected by hard asbestos sheets. The charging circuit shall be provided with double-pole switches and fuses, and where a motor generator is employed the motor shall be provided with double-pole switches and fuses, and an automatic battery cutout shall be placed in the generator circuit. Any subcircuit shall be provided with a fuse rated at not more than 7 amps, in each live conductor. Charging control panels shall be of durable non-ignitable, nonabsorbent, non-conducting material, and together with the rectifiers, transformers, and supports for resistances of lamps, should preferably be fixed to a brick or similar wall. If, however, they are fixed to woodwork, such woodwork shall be covered with hard asbestos sheets or similar fire resisting material. If accumulators are charged through resistance coils or lamps, such resistance coils or lamps shall be at least 600 mm from the nearest accumulator. All permanent wiring shall be securely run and protected against mechanical injury and efficient terminals or connections shall be supplied from which the connections to the accumulators can be made. Rubber and PVC insulated wiring, if on insulators, shall not be run in such a position that a fire arising at any accumulator could reach it. All conductors connecting the supply terminals to the accumulators shall have either rubber or PVC or tough compound insulation without tape or braid.

11.7.5

11.7.6

11.7.7

11.7.8

11.7.9

11.7.10 If the electric supply is taken from mains having one conductor earthed, the lamps or other resistances shall be connected on the non-earthed lead and the accumulators connected direct to the earthed conductor. Precautions shall be taken to prevent the attendants receiving a shock. 11.7.11 Celluloid cased accumulators shall not be kept on charge at any time without an attendant. 11.7.12 Spring jacks shall be used for the final connection to the accumulator terminals. 11.7.13 All china or other insulators shall be kept clean and free from dust.

11.8 11.8.1

High Rise Buildings The common practice of the Fire Brigade on arrival at a fire is to first switch off the electric supply to the premises hence, it is absolutely essential that supply to the fire pumping set(s) is entirely independent of all other electrical equipment in the premises, that is even when the power throughout the entire premises is switched off, supply to the pump(s) and essential services shall continue to be available uninterrupted. An emergency diesel generator with automatic mains failure panel shall be installed to supply power to emergency lighting, fire lifts and fire pumps and smoke/heat detector units; if any. Cables and Cable Shafts: Fire resistant separation of electrical wiring, for mains current and auxiliary current is indispensable. The cables must be laid in a separate, fire resistant shaft. PVC cables shall have an additional sheathing or protection provided by compounds spread on after installation, because of the notorious secondary damage in case of fire. Doors to cable shafts shall also be of fire-resistive material and ducts shall be provided with incombustible baffles, at every alternate floor.

11.8.2

11.8.3

11.8.4

Staircase and Corridor Lighting Staircase and corridor lights shall be supplied by `protected circuits i.e. sub-main circuits exclusive to the staircase and corridor lighting and restricted to routes of negligible fire risk. Staircases shall be illuminated by a circuit direct from the switchboard, with no switches on landings. Where a staircase has no natural lighting, its lighting circuit shall be independent of the corridor lighting.

11.8.5

Lighting fixture in car parks and basements shall be of the protected type i.e. with well glasses; and the wiring shall be either drawn in heavy gauge screwed conduits or armoured cabling used. If more than 200 litres of oil are contained in any oil immersed electric gear, a retaining sill shall be provided around the gear or at the door threshold. ++++++++++++

11.8.6

ELECTRICAL REGULATIONS
ANNEXURE I Typical Single Line Schematic Diagram

++++++++++++

ELECTRICAL REGULATIONS ANNEXURE II FUNDAMENTAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SAFETY 1. WORKMANSHIP AND MATERIALS Good workmanship and proper materials shall be used. 2. GENERAL i) Equipments, switch boards and other accessories shall have easy accessibility and clear approach

ii) All equipment shall be constructed, installed and protected and shall be capable of being maintained, inspected and tested, so as to prevent danger so far as is reasonably practicable. iii) All equipment shall be suitable for the maximum power demanded by the current-using equipment when it is functioning in its intended manner. iv) All electrical conductors shall be of sufficient size and current-carrying capacity for the purposes for which they are intended. v) All conductors shall either be a) so insulated and where necessary further effectively protected, or b) so placed and safeguarded reasonably practicable. as to prevent danger, so far as is

vi) Every electrical joint and connection shall be of proper construction as regards conductance, insulation, mechanical strength and protection. 3. OVERCURRENT PROTECTIVE DEVICES Where necessary to prevent danger, every installation and every circuit thereof shall be protected against over current by devices which: a) will operate automatically at values of current which are suitably related to the safe current rating of the circuit, and b) are of adequate breaking capacity and where appropriate, making capacity, and c) are suitably located and are constructed so as to prevent danger from overheating, arcing or the scattering of hot particles when they come into operation and to permit ready restoration of the supply without danger. 4. PRECAUTIONS AGAINST EARTH LEAKAGE AND EARTH FAULT CURRENTS

i)

Where metalwork of electrical equipment, other than current-carrying conductors, may become charged with electricity in such a manner as to cause danger: a) the metalwork shall be connected with earth in such a manner as will cause discharge of electrical energy without danger, or b) other equally effective precautions shall be taken to prevent danger.

ii) Every circuit shall be arranged so as to prevent the persistence of dangerous earth leakage currents. iii) Where metalwork is connected with earth in accordance with Regulation 4 (i) (a), the circuits concerned shall be protected against the persistence of an earth fault current by: a) the over current protective devices required by Regulation 3 (i), or b) a residual current device or equally effective device. The method described in item (b) above shall be used whenever the prospective earth fault current is insufficient to cause prompt operation of the over current protective devices. iv) Where metalwork of electrical equipment is connected with earth in accordance with Regulation 4 (i) (a) and is accessible simultaneously with substantial exposed metal parts of other services, the latter shall be effectively connected to the main earthing terminal of the installation. 5. PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND SWITCHES i) A single-pole fuse, switch or circuit breaker shall be inserted in the phase conductor only.

ii) No switch or circuit breaker, excepting where linked, or fuse, shall be inserted in an earthed neutral conductor and any linked switch or linked circuit breaker inserted in an earthed neutral conductor shall be arranged to break all the related phase conductors. 6. ISOLATION AND SWITCHING i) Effective means, suitably placed for ready operation, shall be provided so that all voltage may be cut off from every installation, from every circuit thereof and from all equipment, as may be necessary to prevent or remove danger.

ii) Every fixed electric motor shall be provided with an efficient means of switching off, readily accessible, easily operated and so placed as to prevent danger. 7. ACCESSIBILITY OF EQUIPMENT Every piece of equipment, which requires operation or attention by a person, shall be so installed that adequate and safe means of access and working space are afforded for such operation or attention.

8. PRECAUTIONS IN ADVERSE CONDITIONS i) All equipment likely to be exposed to weather, corrosive atmospheres or other adverse conditions, shall be so constructed or protected as may be necessary to prevent danger arising from such exposure.

ii) Where flammable atmosphere is present, all equipments in surroundings shall be so constructed or protected and such other special precautions shall be taken as may be necessary to prevent danger. 9. ADDITIONS AND ALTERATIONS TO AN INSTALLATION No addition or alteration, temporary or permanent, shall be made to an existing installation, unless it has been ascertained that the rating and the condition of any existing equipment, including that of the supplier, which will have to carry any additional load is adequate for the altered circumstances and the earthing arrangement is also adequate. 10. INSPECTION AND TESTING On completion of an installation, appropriate requirements as per the inspection or a person appropriate authority. installation or an extension or alteration of an tests and inspection shall be made to verify the Regulations. The person carrying out the test and acting on his behalf shall be authorised by the

11. PROTECTION AGAINST OVERLOAD CURRENT A protective device shall be provided in a circuit to break any fault current flowing in conductors of that same circuit before such current causes danger due to thermal or mechanical effects produced in those conductors or the associated connections. The nominal current of such a protective device may be greater than the current-carrying capacity of the conductor being protected. 12. ISOLATION AND SWITCHING i) GENERAL Every circuit and final circuit shall be provided with a means of switching for interrupting the supply on load. A group of circuits may be switched by a common device. Additionally, such means shall be provided for every circuit or other part of the installation which it may be necessary for safety reasons to switch independently of other circuits or other parts of the installation. ii) ISOLATION Every motor circuit shall be provided with an isolating device or devices which shall disconnect the motor and all equipment, including any automatic circuit-breaker used therewith.

iii) EMERGENCY SWITCHING a) For every emergency switching device, account shall be taken of the intended use of the premises so that access to the device is not likely to be impeded in the conditions of emergency foreseen. b) A means of emergency stopping shall be provided in every place where an electrically driven machine may give rise to danger. This means shall be readily accessible and easily operated. Where more than one means of starting the machine is provided and danger might be caused by unexpected restarting, means shall be provided to prevent such restarting. 13. SELECTION AND ERECTION OF WIRING SYSTEM SEALING OF THE WIRING SYSTEM PENETRATIONS a) Where a wiring system passes through elements of building construction such as floors, walls, roofs, ceilings, partitions or cavity barriers, the openings remaining after passage of the wiring system shall be effectively sealed to avoid spread of fire. b) Where a wiring system such as conduit, cable ducting, cable trunking, busbar or busbar trunking penetrates elements of building construction having specified fire resistance, it shall be internally sealed so as to maintain the degree of fire resistance of the respective element as well as being externally sealed to maintain the required fire resistance. A non-flame propagating wiring system having a maximum internal cross section of 710 mm need not be internally sealed. c) Each sealing arrangement used in accordance with the above shall comply with the following requirements: i) it shall be compatible with the material of the wiring system with which it is in contact. of the wiring system without

ii) it shall permit thermal movement reduction of the sealing quality.

iii) it shall be removable without damage to existing cable where space permits future extension to be made. 14. PROXIMITY TO OTHER SERVICES I) PROXIMITY TO ELECTRICAL SERVICES Fire alarm system and emergency lighting shall be separated from each other. II) PROXIMITY TO NON-ELECTRICAL SERVICES a) Where wiring system is located in close proximity to a non-electrical service, both the following condition shall be met -

i)

The wiring system shall be suitably protected against the hazards likely to arise from the presence of the other service in normal use, and

ii) Where a wiring system is routed near a service liable to cause condensation (such as water, steam or gas services), precautions shall be taken to protect the wiring system from deleterious effects. b) Any metal sheath or armour of a cable operating at low voltage or metal conduit, duct, ducting and trunking or bare protective conductor associated with the cable which might make contact with fixed metalwork of other services shall be either segregated from it or bonded to it. c) No cable shall run in a lift (or hoist) shaft unless it forms part of the lift installation. 15. ISOLATING DEVICES A semiconductor device shall not be used as an isolator (disconnector).

16. EARTHING ARRANGEMENTS I) The following types of earth electrode are recognised for the purposes of the Regulations a) earth rods or pipes b) earth tapes or wires c) earth plates d) underground structural metalwork embedded in foundations. II) The use, as an earth electrode, of the lead sheath or other metal covering of cable shall be subject to all of the following conditions a) the sheath or covering shall be in, effective contact with earth

b) the consent of the owner of the cable shall be obtained. III) Earthing Conductors Neither aluminium nor a copper clad aluminium conductor shall be used for underground connection to an earth electrode. IV) In every installation a main earthing terminal shall be provided to connect the following to the earthing conductor a) the circuit protective conductors, and b) the main bonding conductors, and c) functional earthing conductors (if required), and d) (d) lightning protection system bonding conductor (if any).

V) Provision shall be made, in an accessible position, for disconnecting the earthing conductor, to permit measurement of the resistance of the means of earthing when it is part of the installation. This joint shall be such that it can be disconnected only by means of a tool, is mechanically strong and will reliably maintain electrical continuity. 17. ACCESSORIES A socket outlet on a wall or similar structure shall be mounted at a height above the floor or any working surface to minimise the risk of mechanical damage to the socket outlet or to an associated plug and its flexible cord which might be caused during insertion, use or withdrawal of the plug.

++++++++++++

ELECTRICAL REGULATIONS ANNEXURE A RECOMMENDED SYSTEMS OF WIRING FOR CIRCUITS BELOW 250 VOLTS A-1 CONDUIT WIRING A-1.1 This system is extremely robust and durable and is recommended for all applications of power and lighting circuits. A-1.2 In certain cases, such as chemical factories, bleach and dye house and the like, where strong corrosive vapours are present, special conduits or conduits with additional coatings of bitumen paint or with glass wool lagging with a protective serving shall be used. A-1.3 In moist situation, a breather drainer shall be fitted at the lowest point of the run of the conduit. A-2 WIRING FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE AND HUMID CONDITIONS A-2.1 In hot and moist situation, such as loom sheds, bleaching, dyeing, sizing, boiler, engine and turbine room, hot stenters, drying ovens and the like, specially treated asbestos covered or similar classes of wiring shall be used. A-2.2 Joints used in this system shall be of approved type. A-2.3 Exposed conductor ends shall be tinned at all points of connection. A-3 WOOD CASING This system is recommended for dry situation and shall be confined to lighting and similar circuits in voltages not exceeding 250 Volts. Prior approval shall be obtained for installation of this type. A-4 METAL-SHEATHED WIRING This system shall be installed with the approval of the Tariff Advisory Committee. A-5 TOUGH RUBBER SHEATHED WIRING This system shall be used for offices and residences normally, but it may be used for industrial buildings with the approval of the Tariff Advisory Committee. A-6 CLEATED WIRING SYSTEM A special application of this system shall be for bleaching and dyeing sections of textile mills where the wiring shall be held by porcelain bobbins secured to teak wood battens by brass screws and the whole run be inverted (upside down) to allow the rising vapour to collect and Condense

on the wiring and drop off; otherwise this system shall not be used for any type of risk which is of a permanent nature. Nevertheless, it may be used as temporary measure with approval from the Tariff Advisory Committee. A-7 SPECIAL SYSTEMS For certain forms of modern structures, such as RCC shell type, the following methods shall be used: a) Catenary suspended conduit and fittings. b) Catenary suspended special armoured wires and fittings, and c) The enfield grid system, with internally stressed suspension wire forming part of the cabling and anchored at both ends of the run and to each special light fitting.

++++++++++++

ELECTRICAL REGULATIONS ANNEXURE B RECOMMENDED SYSTEM OF CABLING FOR CIRCUITS OVER 250 VOLTS B-1 CABLES B-1.1 Conduit armoured or aluminium sheathed or any approved types of cables carefully selected for the particular application shall be used. The conduit runs shall be done as set out in Appendix A. B-1.2 The sizes of cables shall be selected so as to comply with approved rules, recurrent regulations and operation temperature factors. B-1.3 Paper insulated lead cables, having vertical drops, shall be of the dry core type non-bleeding type of the normal type with ends effectively sealed to prevent bleeding at joints. For avoiding induction effects and consequent heating, wiring shall be done as per approved regulations. B-1.4 Cables run in concrete work shall be accepted if approved standard of cement and sand are employed in the concrete. Note The system employs special rubber tubing, which is inflated to give the requisite size of cable hole in the concrete in process; thereafter the concrete is poured round the tube. When the concrete is set, the rubber tubes are deflated and withdrawn to make room for the cable, which is put through the whole. This system is a provisional one and stands for reconsideration from time to time.

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ELECTRICAL REGULATIONS ANNEXURE C USE OF ALUMINIUM CONDUCTORS IN ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS C-1 Characteristic of Aluminium Copper is normally used as an electrical conductor but in view of the import restrictions aluminium is substituted for the manufacture of electric cables and accessories. The characteristics of aluminium as a conductor call for special precautions and the following should be taken into consideration while designing, erecting and using such electrical equipment. C-1.1 Due to the lower conductivity of aluminium, larger size of conductors and cables and consequently conduits and fittings are necessary than for copper for the same current carrying capacity. Reference must be made to the appropriate standard tables for current rating etc. Aluminium surfaces, when exposed to air, forms immediately a thin film of oxide covering the whole surface and this film must be removed from the contact area of the joint to minimise voltage drop. Aluminium conductors or cables shall not as far as possible, be joined to copper conductors or cables or to terminals of copper, brass or other metal having high copper content. Where this type of jointing is unavoidable precautions must be taken against corrosion and mechanical damage to the aluminium conductors. Aluminium is subject to creep in tension or to flow in compression at stresses much lower than those with copper and due care must be taken in the design of pressure connectors such as grab screws and spring washers. General Precautions

C-1.2

C-1.3

C-1.4

C-1.5

C-1.5.1 Due care must be taken whilst "skinning" insulation from the conductors to avoid scratches and nicks which easily cause breakage. C-1.5.2 Liberal application of suitable inhibiting grease is necessary. C-1.5.3 Hot dip tin coating of contact surface is preferable in order to improve current transfer properties.

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ELECTRICAL REGULATIONS ANNEXURE D FLUORESCENT LAMP FITTINGS D-1 General Purpose Type Fittings D-1.1 The general design of reflectors shall be of suitable type and material. The material shall be of any suitable metal or plastic. If plastic of a combustible nature is used, it shall not be in contact with any electrical conducting part. The auxiliary equipment, i.e. choke coil, power factor condenser and starting unit (comprising thermal switch, radio suppressor condenser), shall comply with relevant Indian Standard Specifications and shall preferably be mounted on the lamp fitting itself, in a dust-tight enclosure; but if any item is mounted separately it shall be mounted on parts made of non-combustible material. The wiring connections between the equipment, i.e. chokes and condensers, shall be in vulcanised rubber insulated flexible cabling or approved PVC insulated wiring properly clamped as necessary. The suspension shall be made by two conduits or rods or robust chains, spaced to share equally the weight of the fitting. The lamp or tube holders may be of plastic material provided these are of efficient and approved design, and that each tube is securely held by suitable metal spring clips at each end. Earthing of the fixture shall be made with an unbroken conductor, the suspension chains (where employed) shall not be regarded as an approved means of earthing. Fluorescent fixtures may be suspended from conduit wiring junction boxes as a means to prevent exposure of conductors from the fitting to the wiring in the conduit. The connection inside the circular box shall be made to a porcelain junction base. Plain porcelain connectors shall not be permitted in the box.

D-1.2

D-1.3

D-1.4 D-1.5

D-1.6

D-1.7

D-2 Bombay Mill or Industrial Type Fittings D-2.1 D-2.2 Mild steel trough enamelled or painted or other robust reflectors shall be used which may have, if necessary; upward lighting slots. The auxiliary equipment i.e. choke coil, power factor condenser and starting unit (comprising thermal switch, radio-suppressor condenser) shall comply with relevant Indian Standards and shall be mounted on suitable frame work in a separate detachable dust proof non-ventilated box with tight fitting covers securely fixed by machine screws and bolts to the main trough.

D-2.3

The wiring connections between the equipment housed in the choke and condenser box shall be vulcanized rubber insulated flexible cabling or approved PVC insulated conductors in heavy gauge, welded or solid drawn steel conduit, or run internally and properly clamped. Suspension shall be made by two conduits spaced to share equally the weight of the fitting. Each conduit rod shall be provided with a spring loaded ball and socket joint ceiling plate at the top and the other end bolted to the trough. Lamp or tube holders shall be made of plastic, provided an efficient and approved design is employed and each tube is held with suitable metal spring clips at each end. Earthing of fixture shall be made with an unbroken conductor. Fluorescent fixture may be suspended from conduit wiring junction boxes as a means to prevent exposure of conductors from the fitting to the wiring in the conduit. The connection inside the circular box shall be made to a porcelain junction base. Plain porcelain connectors shall not be permitted in the box. The chokes of all fluorescent fittings shall be mounted on incombustible material. Incoming twin twisted flexible conductor shall enter the side of the box through a dust-tight bushed hole.

D-2.4

D-2.5

D-2.6 D-2.7

D-2.8

D-2.9

D-2.10 The lighting tubes and reflectors shall be kept clean to obtain maximum efficient lighting. Cleaning shall be carried out by competent personnel.

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ELECTRICAL REGULATIONS ANNEXURE E ROUNDABOUT TRUCKS AND ELECTRICAL STACKERS E-1 Runabout Trucks E-1.1 E-1.2 All conductors shall be mechanically protected such as by conduit, where liable to injury from any cause. All switches, cutouts, control gear and other apparatus shall be waterproof iron clad. The motor shall be totally enclosed and weatherproof. The battery shall be protected by a circuit breaker, so arranged that the current can be cut-off from all apparatus, including the motor, when not in use. The case of each cell shall be of hard rubber or similar material. The battery shall be protected by a wooden or other approved case. Suitable provision shall be made to contain the acid of the cells in the event of leakage. The motor shall be provided with a drum controller, which shall return to the "neutral" position automatically when released or foot pedal shall be depressed to close the circuit and interlocked with the controller so that the latter shall have to be brought to neutral position before the truck can be started. Controller shall be interlocked with circuit breaker and brake. The truck, complete with battery, shall be housed in a place where no hazardous goods are stored or where hazardous processes are not being carried out, where the truck is to be stored under such conditions the batteries shall be removed from the truck.

E-1.3

E-1.4

E-1.5

E-1.6 E-1.7

E-2

Electrical Stackers E-2.1 The fixed wiring throughout the buildings and on the stackers must be enclosed in screwed steel conduits. Each wall socket must be separately switch controlled and both switch and socket must be enclosed in a watertight iron case or cases. The plug and socket must be of the metal clad 3-pin type, the third pin being for earthing purposes. Inter-locked plugs and switches may be used provided that they comply with Rule (b) above. The whole of the screwed steel conduit together with the cases of all switches, fuses and sockets must be electrically continuous and

E-2.2

E-2.3

E-2.4

efficiently earthed. All conduits must be screwed into the cases of switches, fuse, sockets and all other fittings and appliances. E-2.5 The flexible cable connection to the stacker must be made with approved type tough rubber compound or PVC sheathed trailing cable. The sheathing must have some additional mechanical protection such as hard cord braiding. The trailing cable must contain an earthing core to which all iron cased apparatus on the stacked and its frame are to be connected and earthed through the plug.

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ELECTRICAL REGULATIONS ANNEXURE E BIS CODES F-1 GENERAL APPLICATIONS For guidance of good practice of electrical installations the latest edition of the following specifications of Bureau of Indian Standards may be referred

1. IS: 732 - 1989 2. IS: 900 - 1972 3. IS: 1777 - 1978 4. IS: 1860 -1980 5. IS: 1866 - 1983

Code of Practice for Electrical Wiring Installation Code of practice for Installation and Maintenance of Induction Motors Industrial Luminaire with metal reflectors.

Code of Practice for Installation and Maintenance of Electric Passenger and Goods Lifts. Code of Practice for Maintenance of Insulating Oil. and

6. IS: 10028 1985 Code of Practice for Selection, Installation (Part 1. 2 & 3) Maintenance of Transformers. 7. IS: 2309 - 1989 8. IS: 2675 - 1983 9. IS: 3043 - 1987 10. IS: 4013 - 1967 11. IS: 4591 - 1980 12. IS: 6665 - 1972 13. IS: 7689 - 1989

Code of Practice for Protection of Building and Allied Structures against lightning. Enclosed distribution fuses boards and cut outs for voltage not exceeding (1000V). Code of Practice for Earthing. Dust tight Electrical Fitting. Code of Practice for installation, operation and maintenance of electric passenger and goods lifts. Code of Practice for Industrial Lightning. Guide for control for undesirable static electricity.

14. IS: 8623 - 1993 Factory Built Assemblies of Switchgear and Control (Part I & II) Gear for Voltages upto and including 1000 V AC and 1200 V DC. 15. IS: 9537 - 1980 Conduits for Electrical Installations (Part 1,2,3 &4) 16. IS: 10118 - 1982 Code of Practice for Selection, Installation and (Part 1,2,3 &4) Maintenance of Switch Gear and Control Gear

17. IS: 10028 - 1985 Code of Practice for Selection, Installation and (Part 1,2 & 3) Maintenance of Transformers. 18. IS: 12729 - 1988 19. IS: 13032 - 1991 20. IS: 13118 - 1991 21. SP: 30 - 1984 General requirements for switch gear and control gear for voltages exceeding1000 V. Miniature circuit breaker boards for voltage 1000 volt AC General requirements voltages above 1000V. National Electric Code for circuit breakers for

F-2

ELECTRICAL APPARATUS FOR EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERE

22. IS: 2148 - 1981 23. IS: 2206 - 1984

Flame proof enclosures apparatus.(Flame proof Ex. d)

for

electrical

Flame proof electric lighting fittings -

Part 1 Well glass and bulk head types Part 2 Fittings using glass tubes Part 3 Portable flame proof hand lamps 24. IS: 5571 - 1979 25. IS: 5572 (Part 1)1978 26. IS: 5780 - 1980 27. IS: 6539 - 1972 28. IS: 7389 - 1976 (Part I) 29. IS: 7693 - 1975 30. IS: 7724 - 1975 31. IS: 8240 - 1976 Guide for selection of electrical equipment for hazardous areas (First Revision). Classification of hazardous areas (other than mines) for Electrical Installation Part 1. Areas having flammable gases and vapours. Intrinsically safe electrical apparatus and circuits. (Intrinsic Safety Ex. i). Intrinsically safe magneto telephones for use in hazardous atmosphere. Pressurised enclosures of electrical equipment for use in hazardous areas (Ex. p) (Reaffirmed in 1982). Oil immersed electrical apparatus explosive atmospheres. (Ex. o). for use in for

Sand filled protection of electrical equipment use in explosive atmospheres. (Ex. q) Guide for electrical equipment atmosphere.

for explosive

32. IS: 8289 - 1976 33. IS: 9570 - 1980

Electrical equipment with type (Non-incendive Ex. n).

of protection `n'.

Classification of flammable gases or vapours with air according to their maximum experimental safe gaps and minimum igniting currents. Dust tight ignition proof enclosures for electrical equipment. Guide for construction and use of rooms or buildings protected by pressurisation for installation of electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmosphere General requirements for electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres. Code of practice for selection, installation & maintenance of electrical apparatus for use in potentially explosive atmospheres (other than mining application or explosive processing & manufacture) General recommendations.

34. IS: 11005 - 1984 35. IS: 11064 - 1984

36. IS: 13346 - 1992 37. IS: 13408 - 1992 (Part I)

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ELECTRICAL REGULATIONS ANNEXURE E FIGURES

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RULES FOR FIRE ALARM SYSTEM

INDEX
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. SCOPE01 Scope.doc TERMINOLOGY AND GLOSSARY OF TERMS02 Terminology.doc GENERAL REQUIREMENTS03 General.doc ZONING OF FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS04 Zones.doc TYPES OF FIRE DETETORS, THEIR CHOICE AND MANUAL CALL POINTS05 Type.doc SPACING AND SITING OF DETECTORS AND MANUAL CALL POINTS06 Spacing.doc CONTROL AND INDICATING EQUIPMENT;07 Control.doc POWER SUPPLY CABLING AND WIRING AND CONTROL CENTRE:08 Power.doc INSPECTION, INITIAL TESTING AND COMMISSIONING09 Inspn.doc SERVICING AND MAINTENANCE 10 Servicing.doc

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RULES FOR FIRE ALARM SYSTEM

1. SCOPE: 1.1 These rules cover the planning, design, selection and installation of fire detection and alarm systems. They are applicable to simple systems with a few manual call points as well as to complex installations comprising detectors; manual call points; control and indicating equipment etc. They covers systems capable of providing signals to initiate, in the event of fire, the operation of ancillary services such as fire extinguishing systems and other necessary precautions, but it does not cover the ancillary services. It covers the fire detection and alarm systems installed in buildings of different types including those installed in industries. Where the use of new materials or inventions lead to departure from these Regulations, the resulting degree of safety provided by such installation has to be not less than that obtained by compliance with these regulations. However, such cases will be considered on their own merits.

1.2

++++++++

RULES FOR FIRE ALARM SYSTEM 2 TERMINOLOGY AND GLOSSARY OF TERMS:

For the regulations on the Fire alarm systems, the following definitions shall apply: 2.1 ACTIVATION DEVICE: Device capable of being operated automatically or manually to initiate an alarm of fire, that is, detector, a manual call point or a pressure switch. 2.2 ADDRESSABLE SYSTEM: A system in which signals from each detectors and/or call point are individually identified at the control panel. 2.3 AUTOMATIC FIRE ALARM SYSTEM: Fire alarm system comprising components and sub-systems required for detecting a fire, initiating an automatic alarm for fire and initiating other action as required. 2.4 AUTOMATIC FIRE SIGNAL: An alarm of fire originated from an automatic device given audibly or visibly or both. 2.5 CONTROL CENTER: Permanently manned room with qualified staff preferably on ground floor within the premises at risk for the receipt of emergency calls and equipped with communications needed for the transmission of calls for assistance to services such as fire brigade and police. 2.6 CONTROL AND INDICATING EQUIPMENT: Unit(s) containing the controls, relays, switches, and associated circuits that are necessary to a) provide power, b) receive signals from alarm initiating devices and transmit them to the fire alarm services and control for fire protection equipment and c) electrically supervise the system circuitry.

2.7

DETECTOR: A part of an automatic detection system that contains at least one sensor which constantly or at frequent intervals monitors at least one suitable physical and/or chemical phenomenon associated with fire, and that provides at least one corresponding signal to the control and indicating equipment. Detectors can initiate alarm through anyone of the outputs of combustion i.e. conductive or convective or radiant.

2.8

FAULT SIGNAL: A distinctive audible and visible signal indicating the occurrence of a fault within the system. (for example break in circuit, short circuit, fault in power supply etc.)

2.9

LINE TYPE DETECTOR:

2.10 Spot Type Detector: 2.11 Air Sampling Type Detector: 2.12 FLOOR: Area contained on each storey of the building. 2.13 MANUAL CALL POINT: Manually operated device used to initiate an alarm signal. 2.14 MANUAL SYSTEM: A system containing no automatic detectors and in which an alarm of fire can only be initiated manually. 2.15 MIMIC PANEL A panel in which the floor/area plans of the premises are projected to reduced scale to enable easy identification of the sector/zone within the system. 2.16 SEARCH DISTANCE: The distance, which has to be traveled by searcher within a zone in order to determine visually the position of fire. 2.17 SECTOR:

A Sub-division of the protected premises larger than zone. A larger floor may be demarcated into sectors (i.e. addressed part of the floor). A sector will normally contain many zones. 2.18 SMOKE: Particulate and aerosol products of combustion generated by a fire, whether this be of the smoldering or open flame type. 2.19 SOUNDER: An electronic hooter or horn or electric bell associated with the fire alarm system. 2.20 HOOTER OR HORN OR SIREN: An electronic hooter or horn or electric bell associated with fire alarm system. 2.21 ZONE: A Sub-division of a sector of protected premises such that the occurrence of a fire within it will be indicated on control and indicating equipment separately and independently and indication of fire in another sub-division (zone).

++++

RULES FOR FIRE ALARM SYSTEM 3. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS: 3.1 Plans for submission to the Committee shall be drawn up in accordance with the following requirements: 3.1.1 Plans shall be clear, contain all requirement details including scale and point of Compass and shall be dated. 3.1.2 Plans of new installation shall show the entire compound; all buildings therein, their door and window openings, and the boundary walls. Buildings under construction and future extension envisaged, shall be indicated by the dotted lines. Plans of extensions to approved existing installations need not show the rest of the compound but sufficient details shall be given of the existing installations in correlation to the extension, to enable the Committees Inspection staff to check the plans and offer comments. In case of storeyed buildings, drawings submitted shall include plans of each storey together with sectional elevations. 3.1.3 MATERIAL Plans shall be on White paper or ammonia paper or Ferro Prussiate paper. 3.1.4 Plans shall generally be prepared in accordance with IS: 696, shall not exceed 850x1200mm in size and shall be drawn to a scale of 1:500 or 1: 1000. In case of very large compounds having more than one risk, it is advisable to submit separate plans for each risk with a key plan showing the relative situations of the various risks in the compound. 3.2 SIGNS: 3.2.1 Pucca walls to be shown by double lines, doors and windows being clearly marked. 3.2.2 Perfect party walls to be indicated by the sign T at each end of the wall, or have the letters P.P.W along side of across them at regular intervals and marked in distinctive colour. 3.2.3 Fire proof doors and/or shutters to be marked as follows: Single Fire Proof Door and/or Shutter S.F.D Double Fire Proof Door and/or shutter D.F.D

3.3.2 Sky lights to be marked Sky Lights or S.L 3.3 INSTALLATION LAYOUT DRAWINGS: 3.3.1 GENERAL The scale shall be not less than 1:100. Layout drawing (dated) shall include the following information: a) north point indication; b) Constructional details of floors, ceiling, roofs, partition walls and exterior walls. c) Sectional elevations of each floor of each building showing the distance of detectors from ceiling, structural features, humidification ducts, exhaust ducts etc., which affect the detector layout. d) the location and size of false ceiling/false floors, voids, offices and other enclosures situated at a level lower than the roof or ceiling proper; e) Indication of trunking, platforms, machinery, fluorescent light fittings, heaters, etc. which may adversely affect layout of detectors; f) a key to the symbols used. g) type of detectors used. 3.3.2 Various components associated with the system protection such as detectors, alarm panels, cables etc., shall be of a type and make, acceptable to the Tariff Advisory Committee and the drawings submitted shall be accompanied by full technical specifications for the same. 3.4 No discounts will be considered for an alarm system unless the proposal for the same has been approved in advance by Committee and the system is fully inspected and tested by the Committees engineers and found in order. The prior submission of proposal to the Committee before the work is commenced, is essential, to ensure that the installation conforms to the Committees requirements. It does not however dispense with the

3.5

procedure laid down hereafter re-application for the sanction of discounts. 3.6 3.7 Application for discounts shall be submitted upon completion of the system, alongwith as erected drawings of the installation. No application for discount can be entertained until the relative appliances are complete, in position, ready for use and fully operative. An appropriate discount or allowance shall be sanctioned by the Committee from the date of receipt of the completed application, subject to the appliances being found in order on inspection by the Committees Inspectorate. In the event of the installation being found incomplete or defective, the discount will be withheld until the defects have been rectified to the satisfaction of the Committee. No allowance shall be granted for Fire Alarm System until notified by the Committee either by letter or circular. It can be granted with effect only from the date specified in such notification. Insured are advised not to change block numbers as this affects the Committees records and causes confusion. If block numbers are changed, the Committee shall be notified at once.

3.8

3.9

3.10 COMMITTEES INSPECTION STAFF: 3.10.1 The Committee undertakes, as far as possible a periodical inspection of all premises in which fire alarm appliances, entitling the risk to discounts for such appliances, are installed. 3.10.2 For this purpose, the Committees inspecting engineers shall have the right of access to the premises of the Insured at any time with or without any prior notice. 3.10.3 The primary duty of the engineers is to report to the Committee on the condition and efficiency of the appliances installed as well as to ensure that the regulations are being observed. They will, however, give help and advice in the maintenance of the appliances and on matters pertaining to fire protection and prevention. 3.10.4 The attention of the engineers shall be drawn during their visits, to any change effected since earlier inspection or to any contemplated extension and alteration to the existing services. This procedure does not, however, dispense with the necessity of advising the Insurance Company of any changes, which affect the plan of the risk or the details of the appliances recorded with the Committee. ________________________________

RULES FOR FIRE ALARM SYSTEM 4. ZONING OF FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS: 4.1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS: 4.1.1 In most of the buildings an alarm of fire may initiate a number of different activities, e.g. provision of assistance, commencement of fire fighting operations and emergency evacuation procedures, summoning of fire brigade etc., It is essential that these activities are well co-ordinate. In the pre-planning of emergency procedures for a building it is therefore important, for ease of communication and synchronization of effort, to fix a convenient number of easily identifiable sectors/zones, which the building can be divided. The detectors and manual call points within sectors/zones shall be wired to the Control and indicating equipment. The entire electrical installation pertaining to the entire fire alarm system as described above shall be independent of other systems. 4.1.2 When a signal of fire is given it is necessary that there should be no Confusion about the zone from which it is received. To facilitate response by persons providing assistance, the zone should be small enough for a fire located quickly. It is advisable to provide adequate fire separation between the zones. 4.1.3 In larger premises, the fire alarm system shall be so designed and arranged that it is fully compatible with the emergency procedures and provides at some central or convenient point, or points, an indication of the zone from which an alarm has originated. In the case of two stage alarms, clear and unambiguous signals should indicate the emergency procedure to be adopted throughout each zone. 4.1.4 If the requirement of detectors or call points is less than 20 in any area, division of the area into zones is not necessary. Similarly, sectorization is not necessary if the number of zones is not very large. 4.1.5 For larger systems covering more than one building it may be necessary to create sectors in addition to zones in order to restrict the number of zones from which alarms originate simultaneously or in succession.

4.1.6 It is not always possible to provide definite guidelines regarding the requirements for the division of sectors etc., as stated above due to the fact that the configurations are not same for all risks. The division into zones and/or sectors should be decided based o careful consideration on the type of risk and accessibility of zones in respect of main circulation routes and the main control and indicating equipment. 4.1.7 In general, the signals used in different zones in the same premises should be the same unless the background noise in one or more zones is such as to require different sounders. 4.1.8 The zoning arrangement for systems in multiple occupations shall take into account the fact that the premises may not all be occupied at the same time. No zone shall include areas in more than one occupancy. 4.2 SIZE AND NUMBER OF ZONES (PROTECTED WITH DETECTORS) 4.2.1 The floor area of a single zone shall not exceed 2000 m2. 4.2.2 The search distance i.e. the distance that has to be travelled by a searcher inside the zone to determine visually the position of the fire, shall not exceed 30M. Remote indicator lamps outside doors of rooms, cabins etc., within a zone may be useful, if doors are likely to be locked. Making an area easier to search, the use of remote indicator lamps reduce the need for a large number of smaller zones. 4.2.3 If the total floor area of a building is 300 m2 or less, it may be considered as a single zone even though there may be more than one storey. 4.2.4 Where the total floor area of a building is greater than 300 m2, all zones shall be restricted to a single storey. Note 1 If the total floor area of a fire compartment is 300 m2 or less, and if any communication with other fire compartments is only at the lowest level of the building, such fire compartment may be considered as a single 00.zone even though there may be more than one stories within it; Note 2 If detectors and call points are fitted in stairwells, light wells, lift wells and other flue like structures extending beyond a floor but within one fire compartment, the volume of the well or shall may be considered as one separate zone. Note 3 The total floor area is the combined total of the floor areas of all the storeys, not just the plan area of building.

4.2.5 Where a special risk is present within a large protected area, e.g. a spray painting both in engineering workshop, and it is considered important to obtain rapid identification of fire in that risk, such special risk shall be deemed as a separate zone. 4.2.6 Where a zone extends beyond a single compartment, the zone boundaries shall be the boundaries of the fire compartments. Note 1 It is permissible to have two complete fire compartments in one zone, or two complete zones in one fire compartment. Note 2 It is not permissible to have a zone, which extends into parts of two compartments, or a compartment, which extends into parts of two zones. 4.2.7 If the arrangement of an area is complex and time is likely to be wested in search for the fire, not withstanding any limits shown above, the area shall be further sub-divided into zones that are easier to search. 4.3 SIZE AND NUMBER OF ZONES (PROTECTED WITH MANUAL CALL POINTS) 4.3.1 In systems containing only manual call points, location of a fire is usually known to the person operating the call point. As it is often difficult to get information in time to the safety personnel, the restriction on the size and number of zones (rules under section 4.2 above) shall also apply to the systems protected with manual call points only. Note: In case of outdoor plants, open storages and tank farms, size of zones shall be decided in consultation with the Committee. 4.3.2 To prevent misleading indication of the position of the fire, it is advisable that manual call points be indicated in the control equipment separately from the detectors in zones, which are protected, by both detectors and manual call points. Circuits for the detectors and the call points should be different. 4.4 SOUND LEVEL: Sounders for the alarm panels shall be suitably distributed throughout the protected risk to ensure that the alarm is heard anywhere in the protected installation. A minimum sound level of either 65 dB (A) or 5dB(A) above any other noise likely to persist (even for a short time) shall be required for the sounders. ++++ +++++ ++

RULES FOR FIRE ALARM SYSTEM 5. TYPES OF FIRE DETETORS, THEIR CHOICE AND MANUAL CALL POINTS: 5.1 GENERAL INFORMATION: 5.1.1 Fire detectors are designed to detect one or more of three characteristics of a fire i.e. smoke, heat or radiation (flame). No one type of detector is the most suitable for all applications and final choice is dependent on the individual circumstances. It is often useful to employ a combination of different types of detectors. 5.1.2 Most fire detectors, are affected not only by the level of the detected phenomena but also by the behaviour of the phenomena with time. In some cases it is the rate of change of phenomena; in others it is the effect, e.g. delays in smoke entry or thermal lags. 5.1.3 All fire detectors respond to some extent to phenomena other than fire leading to false alarm situations, which is discussed elsewhere in these rules. 5.2 TYPES OF DETECTORS: 5.2.1 HEAT DETECTORS: There are two types of heat sensitive detectors. One is the `point type of detector responding to the temperature of the gases in the immediate vicinity of a single point. The other is the `line type detector, which responds to the temperature of the gases in the vicinity of a line (not necessarily straight line). Line type detectors can be integrating or non-integrating. In the integrating type the response to the temperature at one point on the line is modified by the temperature of the remainder of the line while in the non-integrating type the response to temperature at one point is independent of the temperatures at other points on the line. In both types (point and line), there are two main subdivisions as stated below: a) Fixed temperature (static) elements: These are designed to Operate when they reach a pre-selected threshold temperature.

b) Rate of rise temperature elements: These are designed to operate when their temperature rises abnormally quickly. The heat detectors must comply with IS: 2175. A combination of these two types of detectors is most ideal. 5.2.2 SMOKE DETECTORS: There are two commonly used detectors for detecting smoke: a) IONIZATION CHAMBER SMOKE DETECTORS: These are based on the principle that the electric current flowing between electrodes in an ionization chamber is reduced when smoke particles enter the chamber. b) OPTICAL TYPE SMOKE DETECTORS: These operate by detecting the scattering or absorption of light by smoke particles. There are point type smoke detectors, which detect smoke at one position. These may be used on optical or ionization principles. There are `aspirating smoke detectors I which air is taken from a number of positions to a central detector and there are `Beam type smoke detectors working on the principle of optical obscuration principle. Beam detectors are effectively line detectors since they can detect presence of smoke in only a small part of the beam. There are some optical beam smoke detectors, which can sense thermal turbulence from a fire by detecting the refraction of the beam at the turbulent interfaces between hot and cold air. The smoke detectors must comply with IS: 11360. It is ideal to use a combinations of smoke detectors with diddc3ferent operating principles for efficient detection and elimination of false alarms. 5.2.3 FLAM DETECTORS: Flame detectors detect ultra-violet and/or infrared radiation. Both types use radiation sensitive cells that `see the fire either directly or through built-in lenses or reflectors. Infra red detectors are intended to respond to the flickering radiation emitted by the diffusion type of flame normally found in fires. Because of the presence of other infra red sources,

such as the sun, if red flame detectors usually have some method of discriminating between fire and non-fire radiation; flicker sensing or the use of one or more infra red emission bands. Ultra violet flame detectors detect the ultra violet radiation emitted by the flames and normally operate in a range of way lengths from 200nm to 260nm. Solar radiation in this range is absorbed by the high attitude ozone layer, and hence ultra violet detectors do not normally respond to sunlight. Combination of infrared and ultra violet detectors operating on single or dual wavelengths are used for special applications. Ember detectors operating in the infrared region are used to detect moving fires. Spark detectors operating in infra red region are useful in ducts and similar concealed area applications. 5.2.4 LINEAR HEAT SENSING CABLES: Linear heat sensing can be broadly divided into two categories: Digital or Analogue, depending upon the principle by which the sensing cable registers a change in temperature. Digital sensor consists of a two-core cable in which the conductors are separated by a heat sensitive insolent. When a specified temperature is reached, the cable insulation breaks down and an alarm is indicated. In the case of analogue sensor, cores are separated by a negative temperature coefficient polymer whose resistance will reduce in proportion to the temperature increase. These cable are used for detecting fire and overheating in certain specific occupancies-(a) Cable tunnels, trays and vaults, (b) Material conveyors, (c) Bulk storage multi-racked areas, (d) Rim seals of floating roof tanks storing hazardous chemicals and (e) a few other special occupancies. 5.3 CHOICE OF FIRE DETECTORS: 5.3.1 GENERAL Every fire alarm system is a compromise. It is possible to increase the sensitivity of detectors but that would probably increase the frequency of false alarms.

It is possible to reduce the losses by reducing the spacing between the detectors or using several types of detectors in the same area but these would increase the cost of the system It is possible to increase the frequency of testing but this might lead to increased disturbances on the premises. Since each type of detector has its own advantages and disadvantages, and no one type of detector is most suitable for all applications, the choice of a detector to be used for a particular application is always a compromise. In any automatic detection system a detector has to discriminate between a fire and the normal environment existing within the building. The system chosen shall have detectors that are suited to the conditions and that provide the earliest reliable warning. Each type of detector responds at a different rate to different kinds of fire. With a slowly smoldering fire such as the initial stages of a fire involving cardboard, a smoke detector would probably operate first. A fire that evolves heat rapidly and with very little smoke could operate a heat detector before a smoke detector could operate first. In general, smoke detectors would give appreciably faster responses than heat detectors but may be liable o give false alarms. A combination of various detectors is necessary. The likely fire behaviour of the contents of each part of the buildings, the processes taking place or planned and the design of the building shall be considered. The susceptibility of the contents to heat, smoke and water damage shall also be considered. Heat and smoke detectors rely on transport or the products of combustion from the fire to detector by process of convection. These detectors therefore require presence of a structure like ceiling to get the combustion products directed on to them. In vie of this, heat and smoke detectors are most suitable for indoor applications. These detectors are unsuitable for outdoor applications. Flame detectors are suited for outdoor application. They are especially suited to risks in which smoldering is unlikely e.f. liquid fuels.

Flames detectors within buildings/building are used to supplement heat and smoke detectors, particularly in high ceiling structures provided an unobstructed view is available for the detectors from the height. The choice of the detectors may also be affected by the environmental conditions within the premises. In general, heat detectors have a greater resistance to adverse environmental conditions than other types. Again the location of detectors e.g. those nearer to blowers, air conditioning ducts etc. make them insensitive for sometime resulting in belated or no detection. 5.3.2 HEAT DETECTORS: Heat detectors, in general, are less sensitive than smoke detectors. They are unlikely to respond to smouldering fires. They are not suitable for the protection of places where small fires can cause high losses e.g. computer rooms. These are suitable for use in situations where sufficient heat is likely to be generated and damage caused by heat generated by fire contributed main hazards. Heat detectors with rate of rise elements are more suitable where ambient temperatures are low or vary only slowly, while fixed temperature detectors are more suitable where the ambient temperature is likely to fluctuate rapidly over short periods. 5.3.3 SMOKE DETECTORS: Ionization type detectors are particularly sensitive to smoke containing small particles such as that produced in rapidly burning flaming fires, but may be less sensitive to the larger particles found in optically dense smoke which may be produced by smoldering materials. Certain materials like PVC when over heated produce mainly larger particles to which ionization type detectors are less sensitive. Optical detectors are sensitive to larger, optically active particles, found in optically dense smoke but are less sensitive to the small particles found in clean burning fires.

Smoke detectors cannot detect the products of combustion from clean burning liquids (such as alcohol), which do not produce smoke particles. Optical detectors incorporating thermal turbulence detection are suitable for clean burning liquids. 5.3.4 FLAME DETECTORS: These are not suitable for detecting smouldering fires. These detectors, being dependent on the straight-line transmission of flame radiation, are the fastest detectors in comparison with conventional detectors. These are most suited to surveillance of open large areas, warehouses, yards, flammable liquid processing areas etc. These detectors require a clear and uninterrupted line of sight. 5.4 MANUAL CALL POINTS: Manual call points must be clearly identifiable and simple to use without the need for instructions as to their method of operation. The method of operation of all the call points shall be identical unless there is a special need for differentiation. If necessary a strike shall be provided adjacent to the call point to facilitate breaking of the frangible cover. The delay between operation of a call point and the giving of general alarm shall not exceed 3 seconds. The manual call points shall comply with IS: 2189, in all respects. 5.5 OTHER TYPE OF DETECTORS: Detection systems not covered specifically under these rules may be used subject to submission of all details with full particulars in advance to the Committee and their approval thereafter. ++++++++++

RULES FOR FIRE ALARM SYSTEM

6.

SPACING AND SITING OF DETECTORS AND MANUAL CALL POINTS: 6.1 GENERAL A well laid out detection system can perhaps do nothing to reduce the incidence of fire but can certainly help to lessen the resultant loss by reducing the delay between ignition and the start of effective fire fighting. Heat and smoke sensitive detectors depend on the convective movement of the combustion products from the fire to the detector. The spacing and siting requirements for these detectors are based on the needs to restrict the time taken for movement of combustion products to ensure that these combustion products reach the detectors fitted in the ceiling in adequate concentration within a reasonable time lag. 6.2 SPACING OF DETECTORS: 6.2.1 For the open areas under flat horizontal ceilings, the horizontal distance from any point in the area to the detector (point type) shall not exceed 5.3M for heat detectors or 7.5 m for smoke detectors. Incase of line type detectors, spacing of not more than 18 M between two projected beams and not more than half that spacing from an external wall parallel to the beam may be used. Beam length shall not exceed maximum permitted by approving authority. Incase of air sampling detectors, distance between detector and farthest fan shall not exceed 10Mtrs. 6.2.2 The maximum allowable height of the compartment is 7M for the Purpose of rule 6.2.1 above. In case the height of the compartment exceeds 7M, the following restrictions shall apply. 6.2.2.1 SMOKE DETECTORS: a) UPTO 7 M HEIGHT - either ionization or optical detector or a combination of both depending on occupancy.

b) ABOVE 7M BUT LESS THAN 10M HEIGHT- combination of ionization and optical detectors in a ratio of 1:1 with spacing reduced to 5M. c) ABOVE 10M UPTO 25M HEIGHT- optical beam detectors or air sampling detectors. 6.2.2.2 HEAT DETECTORS: a) UPTO 5M HEIGHT: Fixed temperature (static) element type detectors or combination detector having fixed and ROR elements, Grade 2or 3; preferably in the ratio 1:1 b) ABOVE 5M UPTO 9M HEIGHT: Rate of rise cum fixed temperature (static) element type detectors with spacing reduced to 3.5M (Grade 1 only): c) MORE THAN 9M HEIGHT: Heat detectors at these heights are not acceptable. Note: Grade 1,2 & 3 mentioned above are as perIS: 21891996. 6.2.3 Where high air movement prevails in the protected blocks, the following additional provisions shall apply (excluding those for protection of false ceiling, false floor plenums and shafts) over the restrictions stated in rules 6.2.1 and 6.2.2 above.

Air changes Per hour inside block less than 7.5 8.5 10.0 12.0 15.0 20.0 30.0 60.0

Multiplying factor for modified Spacing (area coverage) 1.00 0.95 0.91 0.83 0.74 0.64 0.50 0.38 (1.00) (0.91) (0.83) (0.70) (0.55) (0.40) (0.25) (0.15)

Note: Air changes per hour is defined as: 60X volume per minute of air supply to the protected space/(Volume of protected space)

6.2.3.1 Detectors shall not be located in the vicinity of supply air diffusers. Minimum distance between the detector and the air inlets/diffusers shall be at least 1.5 m. 6.2.3.2 Detectors shall be so mounted as to favour the air flow towards return air openings. 6.2.3.3 The above provisions shall not disturb the normal population (count) of detectors, which is provided assuming that air-handling systems are off. After designing the detector spacing, it shall be crosschecked to ensure that there is at least one smoke detector for every 100 m2 or one heat detector for every 50m2 of the compartment area. 6.2.4 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS: 6.2.4.1 Ceilings and Roofs: Protection of ceiling and roofs shall conform to BS: 5839, Part-1. 6.2.4.2 Corridors: If the corridors are less than 5M wide, the distance between the detectors (see rule 6.2.3) may be increased by half the difference between the actual width and 5M. If the corridor is more than 5M in width, the same shall be treated as a normal compartment. 6.2.4.3 Walls and Partitions: a) Detectors shall not be mounted within 500 mm of any walls or partitions. b) If a compartment is divided into sections by walls, partitions or storage racks, their height shall be such that the distance between the top of the latter ad the ceiling shall be greater than 450 mm. If the height difference is less than 300 mm, each section shall be deemed as separate room for provision of detectors. 6.2.4.4 Obstructions:

a) Any ceiling obstruction (such as beam, duct etc.,), the depth of which is more than 150mm the distance between the detectors (see rule 6.2.3) in the vicinity of such obstruction shall be decreased by twice the depth of obstruction. However if the depth of obstruction is more than 10% of the ceiling height, such obstruction shall be treated as a wall and provision of detectors shall be governed by rule 6.2.4.3 above. b) Detectors shall not be mounted within 500mm of obstructions. However, in case of minor obstructions like light fittings etc., the distance may be reduced to 250mm. 6.2.4.5 Voids and False-Floors: All voids and false-floors having height of more than 800mm shall be provided with detectors and such detectors shall be installed within 150mm of the ceiling of such voids or false floors. 6.2.4.6 Enclosed Staircases, Penetrations: Vertical Shafts and Ceiling

Where stairways, enclosed chutes or shafts or lifts, hoists or escalators penetrate ceiling/floors, detectors shall be sited at each level within 1.5M of the penetrations. In case of stairways not penetrating through the ceiling, detectors shall be provided at each of the landings. 6.2.4.7 The Committee reserves its rights to insist on additional detectors wherever considered necessary depending upon the site of the detector installation to take care of adverse effects of stratification, surrounding environment, construction features etc. 6.2.4.8 Where there are more enclosures or cabins per floors, false floors, false Ceilings, plenums and shafts, response indicators should be provided at permanent places. 6.2.5 SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS: a) Where the atmosphere inside a block is subject to sudden or rapid changes in temperatures e.g. kitchen, boiler house etc., ROR type of heat detectors should be avoided to minimise false alarms.

b)

Where ambient temperatures are likely to be high, the operating temperatures of the heat detector should be at least 30 degrees C above the maximum anticipated ambient temperature. Toilets, WC blocks Bathrooms etc. need not be provided with detectors even when they from a part of the protected areas unless they are of more 2 M2 in area. A detector shall be placed within 1.5Mfrom any door, window or other openings in the wall partitions between protected and non-protected premises. Every enclosure like a cabin, however small it is, within the protected compartment shall be provided with detector(s). Reference shall be made to the Committee in advance with full Particulars in following cases: i) ii) Installation of smoke detectors within ventilation ducts; Siting of optical beam type smoke detectors having transmitter and receiver components;

c)

d)

e) f)

iii) Layout of detectors in compartments where heating arrangements are provided (stratification of smoke). iv) For areas which are subject to adverse environmental Conditions like vibration, pollution, shock etc. 6.3 SITING OF MANUAL CALL POINTS: 6.3.1 Manual call points shall be so located that, to give an alarm, no person in the premises has to travel distance of more than 30 m to reach them. Where necessary, the travel distance may require to be reduced to less than 30M e.g. where there is difficulty in free access within the risk or in potentially dangerous risks. 6.3.2 Call points shall be fixed at a height of 1.4M above the surrounding Floor level, at easily accessible, well-illuminated and conspicuous positions, which are free of obstructions. 6.3.3 Where the call points are not visible from the front as in the case of a Long corridor, they shall be surface mounted or semi-recessed in order to present a side profile area of not less than 750 mm.

Manual call points shall be housed in dust proof and moisture proof enclosure properly sealed with rubber lining. The glass surface should be minimum 30 cm2 in area and glass thickness should not exceed 12mm. 6.3.4 Approval of the Committee must be obtained before commencing the Installation for their specific requirements if any. 6.3.4 Manual call point shall be located preferably near entry to staircases at various levels. 6.5 SITING OF FLAME DETECTORS: 6.4.1 GENERAL a) The location and spacing of the detectors shall be based on sound engineering evaluations taking into account the following: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) size of the fire requiring detection, fuel involved, sensitivity of detectors, distance between the fire and detector, radiant energy absorption of the atmosphere, presence of other sources of emission and purpose of detection system.

b) Certain flame detectors respond to the instantaneous level of radiation received while others depend upon the level received over a period. In either case the response will depend on the distance between the flame detector and the fire, since the radiation level received is inversely proportional to the square of this distance. Increased distance from the fire will, therefore, lead to an increase in the size of the fire at detection. c) A clear line of sight to the area being protected is of great importance but at the same time care must be exercised to avoid a direct line of sight to likely sources of non-fire radiation to prevent false alarms. 6.4.2 SPACING GUIDE-LINE: a) Sufficient no. of detectors shall be used and they shall be

Positioned such that no point requiring detection in the hazard area is obstructed or outside the field of view of at least one detector. b) In applications where, the fire to be detected could occur in an area not on the optical axis of the detector, the distance shall be reduced or alternatively more detectors added to compensate for the anguladis placement of the fire. The spacing of the detectors shall vary from fuel to fuel. It is therefore necessary to fix the distances as per the recommendations of the manufacturers. The location of the detectors shall also be such that structural members or any other opaque objects or materials do not impede their line of sight. When installed outdoors, detectors shall be shielded to prevent diminishing sensitivity due to rain, snow, ice etc., and allow a clear vision of the hazard area. Approval of the Committee must be obtained before commencing the installation for their specific requirements.

c)

d)

e)

f) 6.5

SITING OF MISCELLANEOUS DETECTORS: 6.5.1 SPECIAL SPRINKLERS: For the spacing of sprinklers particularly those of types like thermo electric, pre-action etc. reference shall be made to the Committees rules for Sprinkler Installation 6.5.2 CABLE GALLERIES: 6.5.2.1 Each cable tray shall be protected by LSHS cable unless the vertical distance between the trays is uniformly less than 500 mm in which case alternate trays (in addition to the top and bottom trays) shall be protected. 6.5.2.2 The LSHS cable shall be laid on the cables at the centre Line of the cable-runs either straight along the cables or zigzag and back and forth across the ladder and trays. 6.5.2.3 It is also possible to suspend the LSHS cables below the trays so as to be within 200 mm of the cable-runs at a pitch of 1.2 M like a catenary.

6.5.2.4 Where the width of the tray exceeds 1M, two LSHS cables shall be laid on the trays as above. Alternatively, cables maybe laid in an zigzag fashion in which case pitch of the zigzag profile shall not exceed 1.2 mtrs. 6.5.2.5 It is always necessary to install two LSHS cables below the lower most tray because accumulation of filth, rubbish and waste in such areas is a distinct possibility rendering them fire-prone. 6.5.2.6 Approval of the Committee must be obtained before commencing the installation for their specific requirements. 6.5.3 BELT CONVEYORS: a) The following fire situations are considered for the protection of the conveyors with LSHS cables. a) Stationery conveyor, b) Moving conveyor, c) Belt Roller friction, d) Belt friction with adjoining portions of the structures, e) Spill of fuel, lubricants and the like on the return belt). The LSHS cables can be considered for detection of any one combination of two or more of the situations described above. b) The method of mounting the LSHS cables under the above circumstances depends upon convenience of mounting as well as the vulnerability of the LSHS cables. The LSHS cables shall be mounted as close to the Risks mentioned above as possible i.e. on both sides of the belt rollers, or above the material carrying belt on separate supports or combination of both depending on the circumstances. c) Approval of the Committee shall be obtained before commencing the installation for their specific requirements if any. 6.5.4 For other types of risks to be detected by the installation Of LSHS cables, Committee shall be approached in advance with full particulars. 6.6 Every fire detector should be allotted an identification number Preceded by alphabetical initials showing the type of detector from the time of inspection prior to commissioning. ++++ ++ +++

RULES FOR FIRE ALARM SYSTEM 7. CONTROL AND INDICATING EQUIPMENT; 7.1 GENERAL: Control and indicating equipment comprise components for the reception, indication, control and relay signals originating from detectors or calls points connected to it., for the activation of alarm sounders and alarm sign alling devices. The equipment shall be available for zones, sectors and the main control area as the case may be. 7.2 LOCATION: The control equipment has two important functions. It is the point from which the systems are controlled and the point at which the system indications are given. Various considerations are therefore associated in respect of location of the equipment as below: 7.2.1 ACCESSIBILITY TO THE STAFF: The members of staff on duty will be the first to require information given by equipment, indicating the zone affected. Location of the equipment shall therefore be such that many people are likely to be around at any given time. 7.2.2 AVAILABILITY TO THE FIRE FIGHTING STAFF: The equipment shall preferably be located in ground floor or near the entrance points which are used by fire fighting staff or fire brigade. If multiple entries are likely to be used repeater panels are necessary near such entrances. 7.2.3 LIGHTING LEVEL: The ambient light level in the vicinity of the equipment shall be such that the indications from the panels are clearly visible. Wherever necessary additional lighting should be provided, the supply for which must be taken from the alarm circuits. 7.2.4 SOUND LEVEL: The sound level in the vicinity shall be such that the audible indications from the panel are distinctly heard.

A minimum sound level of either 65 DB (A) or 5 DB (A) above any other noise likely to persist (even for a short time) shall be required for the sounders. 7.2.5 FIRE PRONE AREAS: The equipment shall be so situated that they are unlikely to be involved in a fire before adequate warning is given. If the system uses automatic detectors then the area in which C&I equipment is cited should also be covered by detection system. 7.2.6 MULTIPLE OCCUPANCY RISKS: The location of the equipment shall be in a mutually agreed common area so that all the occupants have access to the indicating equipment. 7.2.7 ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: Where the equipment is situated outdoors or in severe environments (within or outside a building) care shall be taken to protect the equipment from the adverse surroundings. 7.3 INDICATION OF ORIGIN OF ALARMS: 7.3.1 PURPOSE: Except in buildings where a fire can be located without delay, the fire alarm system shall indicate the origin of alarm. The indications shall be such that they can be easily, quickly and unambiguously related to the position in the building from which the alarm has originated. The indications shall be clear both to staff who may have to assist in evacuation or fire fighting and to the external fire brigade. 7.3.2 INDICATIONS The primary indication of the origin of alarm shall be an indication of the zone of origin. In very large installations, a graded series of displays maybe required, with a central indicator panel specifying the sector of origin, and a further panel within the sector to show the zone origin. Except in small premises, the display giving only the identification of individual detectors may be difficult to interpret; and could lead to difficulties in assessing the spread of fire or the occurrence of secondary fires. Such a display, if provided, shall be subsidiary to the main zonal display.

7.3.3 METHOD OF INDICATION Many variations are possible in the method of indication depending upon different situations and the size of the installation. Rapid location of the fire within the premises must be possible. Where one compartment split into several zones, the indication should preferably show the absence of fire separation between the zones. The indications in the panel can be through display of letter and/or numbers or permanent mimic diagram and/or Video Display Units or a combination of the above. 7.3.4 POWER SUPPLY: The power required for the display shall be derived from the fire alarm panel itself and power requirements for all sector and zonal panels shall be derived from the main control panel. All these loads shall be considered at the time of design with a view to arrive at the power requirement for the alarm system at the initial stages. 7.4 SECTOR AND ZONAL PANELS AND C & I EQUIPMENT: The requirements for the sector/zonal panels and also the control and indicating equipment shall be governed by relevant provisions under IS2189. The provisions shall include requirements of audio-visual alarm signals, fault signals, DC voltmeter, alarm sounders, MCPs etc. The main panel as well as sector/zonal panels shall have certification of specified authorities as per the testing Clauses of IS-2189. +++++++++

RULES FOR FIRE ALARM SYSTEM

8. POWER SUPPLY CABLING AND WIRING AND CONTROL CENTRE: 8.1 POWER SUPPLY: 8.1.1 The System Shall Derive Its Power From Eithera) b) the main electricity supply (normal supply) or the stand by power supply that shall be immediately available in the event of failure of normal supply which shall be automatically connected so as to maintain the equipment in ready condition of taking the maximum load.

The stand by supply shall be derived normally from exclusive storage batteries OR UPS of adequate capacity. Alternatively captive power generation with a provision of AMF (Automatic Mains Failure) control panel or continuous power generation can be accepted as stand by power supply. 8.1.2 The C & I equipment shall be connected to the mains through an exclusive circuit with protective gears, e.g. switch fuse MCB etc. reserved solely for the purpose, its cover being painted red and labelled `FIRE ALARM-DONOT SWITCH OFF. 8.1.3 The minimum capacity of the normal mains supply shall be calculated so as to meet the total power consumption of the entire system in quiescent condition plus that of all the sounders with at least 25 percent zones in alarm condition. 8.1.4 Main connection to the system shall be arranged such that the mains supply to the system (which should be through exclusive protecting gear) is not interrupted as a result of switching off mains power to premises (other services). 8.1.5 The stand by power supply shall be capable of maintaining the system in normal operation for a period of not less than 48 hours after the failure of mains supply. Simultaneously it should guarantee operation of detectors in at least 25 percent of zones (with a minimum of two zones) and the operation of the fault indicator. The operation of trigger devices in further zones must not result in cancellation of fire alarms existing at that time. Note: Where failure of normal mains supply is not likely to be made good within 24 hours due to long unattended/unoccupied periods, the system inspection frequency need to be

arranged at such intervals that in the event of normal mains supply failure, at least 24 hours stand by capacity remains at the time of next inspection. 8.1.6 Stand by power supply derived from exclusive back-up batteries shall have provision of automatic load switch-over (whenever normal mains supply fails) and automatic charging. It shall be insured that charging conditions are matched to the system. The rate of battery charging shall be such that, having discharged to its final voltage, the battery can comply with the requirements of rule 8.1.5 after a charging period 24 hours. 8.1.7 The voltage of the batteries shall be monitored Voltage must be indicated on C & I equipment. 8.2 CABLING, WIRING OF FIRE ALARM PANELS: 8.2.1 The cables shall conform to the following: a) PVC insulated copper conductor cables con forming to IS:6941977 having minimum 1 mm2 cross-sectional area, (If stranded cables with at least 0.5 mm2 cross section shall be used). b) Rubber insulated braided cables conforming to IS:9968 (Part I)-1981. c) Armoured PVC/rubber insulated cables conforming to IS:1554(Part I)-1976. 8.2.2 The cables shall be used exclusively for the detection system. The multicore cable shall not be shared for other low voltage or high voltage circuits. Cables/ wiring must be completely encased in rigid metallic PVC conduits. 8.2.3 Cables connected to detectors shall be given `S loop on both sides of the detectors which shall be properly clamped to the ceiling. `S Loop shall also be left where cables connect dampers, etc. sounders, panels, and low

Appropriated glands shall be provided for the armored cable near terminals of junction box. Unused cable holes if any should be plugged. 8.2.4 All the cables and wires shall be tagged for proper identification.

Wires shall be identified by ferrules at junction and cables by colour bands at every 3 m distance. 8.2.5 Over hear lines for fire alarm system shall not be used when connecting different building. They shall be laid under ground according to IS: 1255-1983. 8.2.6 The cables and wiring for fire alarm circuit shall not be clubbed with other cables and wiring which must be laid well away from them. 8.2.7 The panel should have additional capacity to operate auxiliary equipment like fire dampers, ventilation and/or pressurizing fans, emergency light, smoke vents etc., if required. 8.3 CONTROL CENTER: 8.3.1 In high rise buildings and special buildings like mercantile, Hotels, Educational, assembly etc., a control center of an area of 16m2 to 20m2 shall be provided where the control and indicating equipment power supply units and other fire protection ancillary panels could be installed. This shall preferably be o ground floor. 8.3.2 The control center room shall have. Emergency lighting system. 8.3.3 The control centre room shall have intercom and direct telephone facilities. Where possible, a direct hot line to local fire brigade shall be provided. 8.3.4 The control center room shall have mimic panel of the premises protected showing details of all the fire protection systems. Fire orders shall be prominently displayed. 8.3.5 Control center in air-conditioned premises shall be segregated from the rest of the building, preferably with an independent airconditioning system. 8.3.6 In industries or buildings where fire and security functions are combined, the fire control centre room shall be separated from the security office area by a wall having glass panel. +++++++

RULES FOR FIRE ALARM SYSTEM 9. INSPECTION, INITIAL TESTING AND COMMISSIONING: 9.1 GENERAL: Even a well designed and properly installed automatic fire alarm system will not be able to render reliable and trouble-free service unless high standards of maintenance and supervision are ensured during the entire service period of the system. Regular inspections and scheduled preventive maintenance are critical and shall include all the components of the system. 9.2 INITIAL INSTALLATION INSPECTION TESTS: 9.2.1 After installation, a visual inspection of all the detectors shall be made to make sure that they are properly sited. Each detector shall be inspected to ensure that it is properly mounted and connected. 9.2.2 Restorable heat detectors and restorable elements of combination detectors must be tested by a heat source, such as a hair dryer, or a shielded heat lamp until it responds, making sure that the sensing element is not damaged. After each heat test, the detector shall be reset. Precautions shall be taken to avoid damage of the non-restorable element of a fixed temperature or a combination rate of rise/fixed temperature detector. 9.2.3 Non- reset table fixed temperature heat detectors, which are not to be heat-tested, shall be tested mechanically or electrically for fire alarm function. 9.2.4 Heat detectors with replaceable fusible alloy element shall be tested first by removing the element to see whether contacts operate properly and then by re-inserting them in proper position. 9.2.5 In periodic testing, heat detectors shall be visually examined for damage or other conditions such as heavy coats of paints, etc. likely to interfere with their correct operation. 9.2.6 Each smoke detector shall be tested to initiate an alarm at its installed location with smoke or other approved aerosol, which demonstrates that the smoke can enter the chamber and initiate an alarm.

9.2.7 In order to ensure that each smoke detector is within its sensitivity range, it shall be tested using either. a) b) c) d) instrument, or a calibrated test method, or a manufacturers/suppliers approved calibrated sensitivity test approved control equipment arranged forth purpose, or other approved calibrated sensitivity test method.

Note: Detectors sensitivity cannot be tested or measured using any spray/smoke-producing device that administers an unmeasured concentration of aerosol/smoke into the detector. 9.2.7.1 Detectors found to have sensitivity outside the approved range shall be replaced. +++ ++++ ++

RULES FOR FIRE ALARM SYSTEM 10. SERVICING AND MAINTENANCE: 10.1 To ensure that regular and reliable servicing/maintenance of the systems and its components is carried out, any of the following methods shall be adopted: a) An agreement/contract with competent contractor who shall attend to the maintenance/repair, when necessary, promptly. Servicing arrangement must be made immediately on completion of the installation irrespective of whether the premises are occupied or not. If the premises are not occupied, special precautions shall be taken, if necessary, to protect the system against damage by dampness of other causes. b) Where no such service contract is entered into at least one qualified employee of the user with suitable experience of electrical equipment must under go special training to deal with all aspects of basic servicing and maintenance, including routine sensitivity tests/checks of the detectors, as and when required. 10.2 For institutional occupancies, such as hospitals, hotels etc. an engineer shall be on call at all times and that request over the telephone for emergency service shall be executed promptly I any case, within 24 hours. 10.3 MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE: 10.3.1 It is the responsibility of the user of the equipment to ensure that proper instructions are obtained from the manufacturer/supplier or installer regarding the routine attention and test procedures. 10.3.2 The routine to be adopted in individual premises may vary with the type of occupancy of the premises. Equipment installed in corrosive or dirty environmental conditions will need to be checked more thoroughly and at more frequent intervals than that in clear and dry situations. Care shall be taken that all equipment are properly reinstated after testing. The occupants of the premises shall be notified of any test of the system that may result in the sounders being operated. 10.3.3 Daily attention by the User:-A check shall be made every day to ascertain that: a) The panel indicated normal operation.

b) If not, any fault indicated is recorded in the log book and is receiving urgent attention, and c) Any fault warning recorded the previous day has received attention. 10.3.4 WEEKLY ATTENTION BY THE USER: The following tests shall be made every week to ensure that the system is capable of operating under alarm conditions: a) Once a week, at least one trigger device on one zone circuit shall be operated to test the ability of the control and indicating equipment to receive a signal and to sound the alarm and operate other warning devices. If there is more than one zone on a system having unmonitored wiring each unmonitored zone shall be tested each week, but without sounding the alarm more than once. For systems having monitored wiring and up to 13 zones, each zone shall be tested in turn but if there are more than 13 zones, more than one zone may need to be tested in a week such that the interval between tests one zone does not exceed 13 weeks. It is preferable that each time a particular zone is tested, a different trigger device is used. An entry shall be made in the log book quoting the particular trigger device that has been used to initiate the test. If the operation of the alarm sounders and/or the transmission of the alarm signal has been prevented by disconnection, then a further test shall be carried out to prove the final reinstatement of the sounders, and if permissible, the alarm transmission circuits. b) A visual examination of the battery and connections shall be made to ensure that they are in good conditions. Action shall be taken to remedy any defect, including low electrolyte level. Any defect shall be recorded in the logbook, reported to the responsible person, and action taken to correct it. 10.3.5 QUARTER INSPECTION AND TEST BY THE USER: The following checklist and test sequence is recommended. a) Entries in the log book since the previous inspection shall be checked for actions taken.

b) Batteries and their connections shall be examined and tested to ensure that they are in good serviceable condition. c) Where provided, secondary batteries shall be examined to ensure that the specific gravity of electrolyte in each cell is correct. Necessary remedial action must be taken and an appropriate entry made in the logbook. Contamination of electrolyte can ruin a cell. Care shall be taken to ensure that hydrometers, vessels, etc. used in the servicing of alkaline secondary cells are not contaminated by acid and vice-versa. d) Primary batteries, including reserves, shall be tested to varify that they are satisfactory for a further period. e) The alarm functions of control and indicating equipment shall be checked by the operation of a trigger device in each zone as described. The operation of alarm sounders and any manned centre shall be tested. link to a remote

All ancillary functions of the control panel shall also be tested where practicable. All fault indicators and their circuits shall be checked preferably by simulation of fault conditions. The control and indicating equipment shall be visually inspected for signs of moisture ingress and other deterioration. f) A visual inspection shall be made to ensure that structural or occupancy changes have not affected the requirements for resiting of trigger devices, manual call points, smoke detectors and heat detectors. The visual inspection must also confirm that a clear space of at least 750mm radius is preserved in all directions below every detector, the detectors are properly sited and that all manual call points remain unobstructed and conspicuous. Any defect shall be recorded in the logbook reported to the responsible person, and action taken to correct it. 10.3.6 Annual Inspection Tests: The following checks and test sequence shall be carried out:

a) The instruction and test routines details in 10.4.5 (a),(b),(c),(d),(e) and (f) must be followed. b) Operation of at least 20 percent of the detectors in an installation shall be checked each year, and the selection shall be done in such a way that all the detectors I an installation shall have been checked once in every 5 years for replacement by new ones. c) Each detector shall be checked for correct operation using specified test equipment and method, except non- reset-able detectors. The checks to be carried out are specified in 9.2.2 to 9.2.6 in respect of heat detectors and, 9.2.7 in respect of smoke detectors. d) Visual inspection shall be made to confirm that all cable fittings and equipment are secure, undamaged and adequately protected. e) At least once every three years, at the annual inspection, the electrical installation shall be tested. Any defect shall be recorded in logbook and suitable remedial action taken. f) On completion of the annual inspection entry shall be made in register in respect of defects found. After the defects are rectified, the entries shall again be made. 10.4 GENERAL POINTS ABOUT DETECTORS: It is essential to ensure specified range of sensitivity of the detectors being installed. Sensitivity range shall be checked on equipment as specified. It is essential to apply frequent sensitivity checks and routine tests as prescribed in the rules so that the correct sensitivity levels/degree is maintained during the entire service span of the installation.(see rule 9.2.7). 10.5 CLEANING AND MAINTENANCE: Detectors require periodic cleaning to remove dust or dirt accumulated. The frequency of cleaning depends on the type of detector and the local ambient conditions. In any case, the interval shall not exceed a period of 3 months, for each detector.

The cleaning, checking, operating and sensitivity adjustment shall be attempted only after referring manufacturers instructions. These instructions shall details methods such as creating vacuum to remove loose dust and insects or washing heavy greasy and grimy deposits, following partial disassembly or the washing of detectors to remove contamination. 10.6 TESTS FOLLOWING AN ALARM OR FIRE: All detectors suspected of exposure to a fire condition shall be tested in accordance with the provisions contained in these rules pertaining to annual inspection tests. In addition, a visual check of the battery charger shall be carried out to ensure perfect serviceability. A check shall be made of the extent of damage, if any, to the cables and other components and also the operation thereof. 10.7 SYSTEM DISCONNECTION DURING TESTING: Care shall be taken to minimize the disruption of the normal use of the building by alarm sounding during detector testing. If detectors are removed for testing or servicing, replacement detectors shall be provided. 10.8 SPARES: It is necessary to keep spares in premises like covers for manual call points, fuses, spare detectors and other essential spares based on the size of the installation. ********************

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0. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

PREFACE SUBMISSION OF PLANS APPLICATION FOR DISCOUNTS INSPECTION STAFF INTERNAL APPLIANCES FIRE ENGINES AND TRAILER PUMPS HIGH RISE BUILDINGS FIRE HYDRANT SERVICE HYDRANT PROTECTION OF COTTON GIN & PRESS FACTORIES MUTUAL AID SCHEME APPENDIX I APPENDIX II APPENDIX III APPENDIX IV APPENDIX V APPENDIX VI INTERNAL GUIDELINES

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FIRE PROTECTION MANUAL PREFACE The First Edition of this Manual was issued by the Calcutta Fire Insurance Association in 1906 and was brought upto-date and re-issued in 1930. The third, fourth and fifth Editions were published jointly by the Insurance Associations of India and Pakistan in 1948, 1950 and 1953 respectively to provide for the needs of the whole of the areas controlled by these Associations. The subsequent sixth, seventh and eighth Editions were published by the Fire Sectional Committees of Calcutta, Bombay, Delhi and Madras Regional Councils of the Insurance Associations of India. In the ninth Edition published in 1982, amendments and additions were effected to bring the provisions in line with current thinking on fire protection techniques and to encourage installation of fixed fire extinguishing appliances/alarm systems in relatively low hazard risks on the one hand and tighten requirements for design of systems suitable for high hazard risks such as Petroleum Refineries, Petrochemical and Fertiliser Plants on the other hand, which, world-wide experience has indicated, need copious quantities of water and other extinguishing media. In this tenth Edition an effort has been made to further update and streamline the regulations. The Manual should prove of value to factory owners and their technical personnel when dealing with matters relating to fire extinguishing appliances and also constitute a handy book of reference to Insurance officials. The maintenance of fire extinguishing appliances in an efficient state and familiarisation with all details of operations is essential if the maximum benefit is to be derived in the emergency of an outbreak of a fire. The Manual incorporates long experience of fire protection engineering both in India and elsewhere in the world. Compliance of the rules will not only obtain appropriate discount in the fire insurance premium but will also instil feeling of security that the presence of an efficient fire-fighting equipment should engender. Direct loss from fire and the resultant wastage is always serious but the indirect loss and the resultant dislocation of business is often much more serious. The Regional Offices of Tariff Adv. Committee maintain an inspection staff of qualified engineers, specialists in fire protection and prevention engineering and practice in all its aspects. The services of this staff are available to make recommendations and carry out inspections in keeping with the nature of work. (All references to Committee or staff thereof in this preface and in the body of the Manual apply to the Committee controlling the territory within which the risk is situated). The Manual initially deals with portable appliances and small bore hose reels, which are considered as first-aid appliances. The regulations regarding trailer pumps are covered next. The last part is devoted to fixed external protection in the form of a hydrant system which is considered the backbone of the entire fire-fighting operations as it fights fires of serious proportions in all classes of risks and continues to do so even in the event of a collapse of the buildings/structures protected. High-rise buildings which have become a common feature of modern society present inherent fire hazard as fire brigades are often helpless in the face of fires in such structures and are unable to save human lives and fight fires effectively with traditional methods. A separate section has, therefore, been devoted for prescribing the specialised type of protection required by these structures. In case it is desired to install any appliances, which are not covered by this manual, assistance and advice may be obtained from the inspection staff maintained by the Regional Offices. Wherever reference to any Indian Standard appears in this Manual, it should be taken as a reference to its latest version.

****************** FIRE PROTECTION MANUAL REQUIREMENTS REGARDING SUBMISSION OF PLANS: Plans for submission to the Committee shall be drawn up in accordance with the following requirements: 1.1. Plans shall be clear, contain all required details including scale and point of Compass and shall be dated. 1.2. Plans of new installations shall show the entire Compound; all buildings therein, with their door and window openings, and the boundary walls. Buildings under construction and future extension envisaged shall be indicated by dotted lines. Plans of extensions to approved existing installations need not show the rest of the compound but sufficient details shall be given of the existing installations in correlation to the extension, to enable the Committees Inspection Staff to check the plans and offer comments. In case of storeyed buildings, drawings submitted shall include plans of each storey together with sectional elevations. The locations and details of fire access staircases together with the arrangements of hydrants on their landings shall also be shown. Further, a Table showing List of Blocks protected as per Committees rules should be given. 1.3. Material: Plans shall be on White paper or Ammonia paper or Ferro Prussiate paper. 1.4. Plans shall generally be prepared in accordance with IS: 696, shall not exceed 850 x 1200 mm in size and shall be drawn to a scale not exceeding 1:500 or 1:1000. In the case of very large compounds with more than one risk, it is advisable to submit separate plans for each risk with a key showing the relative situation of the various risk etc. in the compounds. 1.5. Signs 1.5.1 Pucca walls to be shown by double lines, doors and windows being clearly marked. W D

1.5.2

Iron or other non-masonry walls to be shown by a thin line and nature of Construction indicated.

1.5.3

Perfect Party Walls (PPW) to be indicated by the sign T at each end of the wall, or have the letters PPW alongside or across them at regular intervals and marked in distinctive colour.

1.5.4

Fireproof doors and/or Shutters to be marked as follows Single Fireproof Door and/or Shutter SFD Double Fireproof Doors and/or Shutters DFD

1.5.5

Elevated fire service tanks to be shown hatched and their capacity and height of base above the highest roof to be stated.

N.B. In case of multipurpose elevated tanks, the capacity reserved for sprinkler installation to be indicated instead of the total capacity. 1.5.6 1.5.7 1.5.8 Sky lights to be marked Sky Lights or " SL". Boiler to be shown by a rectangular figure marked Boiler. BOILER Hydrant Mains to be shown by a red line; the diameter, length and number of pipes being marked alongside and specials and reducers to be clearly indicated. . . . . . mm LENGTH OF ___ M EACH 1.5.9 Hydrant Heads to be shown by red circles not less than 3 mm in diameter and marked SH. Double Hydrant to be indicated by double circles and marked DH.

1.5.10

Water Monitors to be shown by a circle with an oblique arrow through it and marked, WM

WM 1.5.11 Cut-off valves to be marked/drawn across the mains.

1.5.12 1.5.13

Sprinkler and Hydrant pumps to be clearly marked and the capacity and head to be indicated in each case. Pump(s) suction piping to be shown dotted and diameter indicated.

1.5.14 1.5.15

Surface fire service Water tanks and reservoirs to be shown to scale and average depth indicated. Sprinkler trunk mains to be shown by a blue line, the sizes being marked alongside. . . . . . . mm SPK MAIN

1.5.16

Fire alarm bells to be shown by blue circles and marked FAB.

F.A.B 1.5.17 1.5.18 1.5.19 Sprinklered blocks to be marked S S

Oil, solvent, acid and other chemical tanks to be drawn to scale and suitably marked. Open storage areas to be clearly shown by hatched outlines and marked Open Storage Site for.

1.5.20

Electric cable(s) for the fire pump(s) to be shown in green line(s)_________________

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2. PROCEDURE TO BE FOLLOWED IN THE CASE OF APPLICATION FOR DISCOUNTS: 2.0 The sanction of discounts off insurance premiums shall necessarily follow consideration by the Regional Office (TAC) all details of the risk including manufacturing processes involved and the protective appliances to be installed in order to ensure that the Standards laid down have been fully observed. To prevent confusion or disappointment, definite rules for procedure have been laid down as follows: 2.1 Proposals for the installation of appliances shall be submitted to the Regional Office (TAC) by the Leading Office on the risk and shall comprise2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 Material specifications of equipment and components of the installation, indicating the name of manufacturers, Standards/Specifications and name of approving authority, if any. In the case of internal appliances, details of the areas of the various compartments, their occupation and the quantities and types of appliances proposed. In the case of sprinkler and hydrant installation, fully dimensioned plans in duplicate as called for in Item 1. In addition to the above, the following details would be necessary in the case of hydrant installation a) (I) Drawings showing layout of the entire hydrant system, incorporating type of joints, details of pump and its prime mover. Another table giving the details of single headed and double headed hydrants, internal hydrants, fire escape hydrants, no. of hose pipes (15 m and 7.5 m length) and branch pipe with nozzles including 10 % spares, mode of distribution of those pipes and total equivalent no. of hydrants should be included. There should be a table showing the percentage of various pipe diameters used in the systems. II) Typical sectional elevation drawing showing the height, dimensions etc. of the stand post for single headed hydrant, double headed hydrants, monitors specifying diameter of nozzle, riser mains and landing valve of riser mains of FEH, Cut-Off valve chambers in plan and elevation should be incorporated. III) In case of blocks having upper floors, separate upper floors plans showing the locations, fire escape hydrants (FEH) and staircases, sectional elevational drawings of the escape staircase; Riser main and location of landing valve of FEH should be submitted, preferably along with, civil construction (architects) drawings of individual blocks N.B. In the case of storeyed blocks, floor area of each floor, with particulars of fire proof shutters of fireproof door and nearest machinery, wired glass windows etc. to be marked. b) Layout of pump house showing clearly the suction, delivery and priming (if any) arrangements along with full scale drawing of pump, motor, diesel engine, DG Control panel, MCC for electric driven pumps, Valves etc. c) Details of water storage tanks giving particular of compartmentation and jack-well, details of inflow and particulars of tapings for other purposes, if any with water reservoir capacity RCC or steel lined or un-lined, combined process water or exclusive fire water reservoir should be given.

a)

a)

d) Sub-station location in relation to other blocks if the pump is electrically driven. If the substation is attached to any other building, the details of segregation from adjoining buildings, indicating transformer room, LT, HT, location of change-over-switch, DG Room etc. e) Plans of Sub-Station showing thickness of internal walls and equipment layout along with single line schematic diagram of the pump from the main substation to the Fire Pump room along with tapping, circuit breaker and switch fuse units. Route of cable from Sub-Station to fire pump house.

f)

g) Schematic circuit line diagram showing power supply inside the fire pump room. h) Legend explaining the various symbols used shown should be given. 2.2 Discounts will be considered only if all hand appliances and their accessories as well as all components of hydrant, sprinkler and other fire protection systems are of a type and make, approved by the Tariff Advisory Committee. 2.3 No discounts will be considered for a sprinkler or hydrant system unless the same has been hydraulically tested with trenches open atleast once during the course of installation by the Committee's Inspectorate, and found in order. Further, site engineer of the Installing Contractor should maintain progress record with protocol duly signed by representative of the client and him. 2.4 The prior submission of proposals to the Committee before the work is commenced, is essential, to ensure that the installation will conform to the Committees requirements but does not dispense with the procedure laid down hereafter for application for the sanction of discounts. 2.5 Application for discounts shall be submitted on special forms provided for the purpose by the Committee and shall comprise: 2.5.1 2.5.2 2.5.3 Application by the Leading Office (Appendix I) Guarantee by the Insured (Appendix II) Schedule of Appliances (Signed by Insured) (Appendix III)

2.6 In every case, a plan of the premises prepared in accordance with the requirements indicated in 1.1 to 1.5 shall accompany any application for a discount for fire extinguishing appliances and, in the case of sprinkler and/or hydrant installations, Installing Engineers detailed 'As Erected working drawings are essential. N.B. A Certificate of Completion from the installing Engineers stating the pressure to which the installation(s) has been subjected and giving the date(s) from which it was in complete working order should also be submitted. Further, progress record with protocol duly signed by client, installing contractor and/or project consultants should be submitted. 2.7 Even in the case of extensions to an existing service, a complete set of forms and plants detailed in 2.5 and 2.6 above shall be submitted. 2.8 Applications, which relate to discounts for appliances other than hydrants, shall also be accompanied by a plan of the premises showing the layout and distribution of appliances.

2.9 No application for discount can be entertained until the relative appliances are complete, in position, ready for use and fully operative. An appropriate discount or allowance will be sanctioned by the Committee from the date of the completed application, (in accordance with 2.5 and 2.6 above) subject to the appliances being found in order on inspection by the Committees Inspectorate. In the event of the installation being found incomplete or defective, the discount will be with held (or withdrawn if already notified) until the detects have been rectified to the satisfaction of the Committee. 2.10 No allowance shall be made for Fire Extinguishing Appliances until notified by the Committee either by letter or circular, and then, with effect only from the date specified in such notification. 2.11 Discounts sanctioned solely on account of installation of internal appliances will be valid for a period of four years only; hence fresh applications, accompanied by the report of the Engineers of the Insurance Company (as per Appendix IV) shall be submitted every four years. 2.12 Proposals for the installation of appliances not specifically covered by these rules shall first be submitted to the Committee for approval. 2.13 Offices and the insured are requested not to change block numbers as this naturally affects the Committees records and causes confusion. If block numbers have to be changed, the Committee shall be notified at once. 2.14 Discounts sanctioned for installation of appliances shall normally stand withdrawn in the event of a strike or lockout in the premises for duration of seven days or more. For this reason, it is imperative that the Committee be apprised as soon as a strike or lockout is declared.

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3.

COMMITTEE'S INSPECTION STAFF: 3.1 The Committee undertakes, as far as possible, the periodical inspection of all premises in which fire extinguishing appliances, entitling the risk to special discounts or ratings for such appliances, are installed. For this purpose, the Committees Inspection Engineers shall have the right of access to the premises of the Insured at any time with or without giving any prior notice. 3.2 The Primary duty of the Inspectors is to report to the Committee on the condition and efficiency of the appliances installed as well as to ensure the regulations are being observed. They will, however, give help and advice in the maintenance of the appliances and on matters pertaining to fire protection and prevention. 3.3 The attention of the Inspecting Engineers shall be drawn, during their visits, to any changes effected since the previous inspection or to any contemplated extensions and alterations to the existing services. This procedure does not, however, dispense with the necessity of advising the Insurance Company or Companies interested on the risk of any changes, which affect the plan of the risk or the details of the appliances, recorded with Committee.

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4.

INTERNAL APPLIANCES -

4.

Internal appliances generally consist of hand appliances (first aid appliances) and hose reels. 4.1 HAND APPLIANCES 4.1.1 GENERAL 4.1.1.1 Hand appliances comprise buckets and extinguishers. 4.1.1.2 ALL APPLIANCES INCLUDING EXTINGUISHER REFILLS AND FOAM COMPOUND SHALL BE IN CAPACITIES INDICATED IN THE RELEVANT INDIAN STANDARDS SPECIFICATION AND SHALL BEAR ISI CERTIFICATION MARK. (Accessories including extinguisher refills shall also be ISI marked) BUCKETS SHALL BE OF ROUND BOTTOM TYPE. 4.1.1.3 The usefulness of these appliances is limited, as it is entirely dependent upon the presence of persons having knowledge to operate them. Everything depends, however, on the speed with which they are brought into use as they are essentially First-Aid equipment, only meant for attacking small fires in their incipient stages and are not intended to deal with large outbreaks of fires. 4.1.1.4 Since a variety of shapes and/or methods of operation of fire extinguishers can at times lead to confusion and as failure to operate the extinguishers properly in the first instance results in failure to quench the fire, it is recommended that extinguishers installed in any one building or single occupancy be similar in shape and appearance and have the same method of operation as far as possible. 4.1.1.5 It is recommended that an indicator board showing the number of buckets and extinguishers installed in each department be provided over or near the main entrance to the department. This will enable the person in charge of the appliances to ascertain at a glance if any appliances are missing. 4.1.1.6 It is advisable to provide conspicuous location indicators of a suitable type for all extinguishers, particularly those located in large compartments. 4.1.2 SELECTION OF HAND APPLIANCES:

4.1.2.1 Various types of hand appliances are available but all are not equally effective on all kinds of fires. For this reason, the nature of contents of a building, the processes carried out therein and the types of fires, which may occur, shall be taken into consideration while selecting fire appliances. 4.1.2.2 The different types of fires and appliances suitable for use on them are as under Class A Combustibles Fires in Ordinary combustibles (Wood, Vegetable fibres, rubber, plastics, Paper and the likes). Fires in flammable liquids, paints, grease, solvents and the likes. Hand Appliances Gas expelled Water and Antifreeze type extinguishers and Water Buckets. Chemical Extinguishers of Carbon dioxide type and Dry Powder type and Sand

Buckets. C Fires in Gaseous substances under pressure and liquefied gases. Fires in reactive chemicals, Active metals and the likes. Chemical Extinguishers of Carbon di oxide and Dry Powder type. Special type of Dry Powder, Extinguishers and sand buckets

N.B - WHERE THE ENERGISED ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENTS ARE INVOLVED IN A FIRE, THE NON-CONDUCTIVITY OF THE EXTINGUISING MEDIA IS OF UTMOST IMPORTANCE AND ONLY EXTINGUISHERS EXPELLING DRY POWDER OR CARBON-DI-OXIDE (WITHOUT METAL HORN) SHOULD BE USED. ONCE THE ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT IS DE-ENERGISED EXTINGUISHERS SUITABLE FOR CLASS A, B AND C, MAY BE USED SAFELY. 4.1.3 REQUIREMENTS OF HAND APPLIANCES -

4.1.3.1 Procedure The minimum number of fire extinguishers needed to protect a property shall be determined as outlined below a) For any property, basic protection shall be appliances suitable for Class A fires, Since Class A fires are of universal character. The number of extinguishers shall be determined according to rule 4.1.3.2.

b) For occupancies where Class B fires are anticipated, a suitable number of appliances determined by rule 4.1.3.2 shall be replaced by appliances as per table under rule 4.1.3.4. c) For occupancies where fires of C & D types are anticipated, the Committee may recommend appropriate extinguishers.

4.1.3.2 One 9-litre water/sand bucket shall be provided for every 100 sq. m of the floor area or part thereof and one 9-litre water type extinguisher shall be provided to six buckets or part thereof with a minimum of one extinguisher and two buckets per compartment of the building. N.B. In the case of Cotton Gin and Press factories, the supply of hand appliances shall be doubled that indicated above. 4.1.3.3 Buckets may be dispensed with for occupancies other than Cotton Gin and Press factories, provided the supply of extinguishers is one- and-a-half times that indicated above in case of Light Hazard Occupancies and double that indicated above in case of other occupancies. Note: For categorisation of occupancies refer rule 7.2 4.1.3.4 Acceptable replacements for water buckets and water type extinguishers in occupancies where Class B fires are anticipated. WATER BUCKETS

Water type Extinguishers

Acceptable replacement Dry Sand Carbon-di-Oxide Extinguishers


(IS: 2878)

For one bucket 1 bucket 03 Kg.

For two buckets 3 bucket 09 Kg

For each 9 litre Extinguisher

--09 Kg

Dry Powder Extinguisher


(IS: 2171)

02 Kg

05 Kg

05 Kg

(In one or more extinguishers)

Note- Any combination of the various appliances referred to above may be employed. 4.1.3.5 For electrical equipments, it would be necessary to provide extinguishers as under 4.1.3.5.1 For rooms containing electrical transformers, switchgears, motors and/or electrical apparatus only, not less than two 2 Kg dry powder or carbon dioxide type of extinguishers shall be provided within 15 m of the apparatus. 4.1.3.5.2 Where motors and/or other electrical equipments are installed in rooms other than those containing such equipments only, one 5 Kg dry powder or carbon di oxide extinguisher shall be installed within 15 m of such equipments in addition to the requirement of rules 4.1.3.2 and 4.1.3.4 for this purpose, the same extinguisher may be deemed to afford protection to all apparatus within 15 m thereof. 4.1.3.5.3 Where electrical motors are installed on platforms, one 2 Kg dry powder or carbon di oxide extinguisher shall be provided on or below each platform. In the case of long platform with a number of motors, one extinguisher shall be accepted as adequate for every three motors on the common platform. NB- the above requirement will be in addition to the requirements of rules 4.1.3.2 and 4.1.3.4 4.1.3.6 If in the premises, fires of class C and D are also likely to occur, the appropriate extinguishers and the number of such extinguisher will be decided by the Committee, in view of the special nature of occupancies. 4.1.3.7 Under special conditions, wheeled type of extinguishers may be installed with the prior approval of the Committee. 4.1.3.8 The appliances shall be so distributed over the entire floor area, that a person has to travel not more than 15 m to reach the nearest appliance. Example - The following example will illustrate the method of determining the number of fire extinguishers required to give adequate protection for a given property. Risk: Area: Light Engineering Workshop (Light Hazard). 315 m x 112 m. i.e. 35,300 sq. m.

Types of Fires:

i)
ii)

Class `A' fire due to normal combustibles. Class `B' fire due to existence of Spray Painting process and storage of flammable liquids.

Number of appliances: i) Basic Protection 353 Buckets and 59 Water type Extinguishers OR 90 Water types Extinguishers, if buckets are dispensed with. ii) iii) For Class B fires 2 Water type Extinguishers are replaced by 2 Dry Powder Extinguishers. For electrical equipments 6 Dry Powder Extinguisher are provided. Thus the final number of Extinguishers is: Water type Dry Powder type Total 4.1.4 88 08 96

Selection of Sites for the Installation of Hand Appliances:

4.1.4.1 When selecting sites for hand appliances due consideration shall be given to the nature of the risk to be covered. Appliances shall be placed in conspicuous position and shall be readily accessible for immediate use in all parts of the occupancy. It should always be borne in mind while selecting sites that hand appliances are intended only for use on incipient fires and their value may be negligible if the fire is not extinguished or brought under control in the early stages. 4.1.4.2 Generally, hand appliances shall be placed as near as possible to exits or staircase landings. Wherever possible, advantage shall be taken of normal routes of escape by placing appliances in positions where they can readily be seen by persons following the natural impulse to get out of danger. It is not advisable to place appliances at the end of rooms remote from exits unless they are necessary to cover a particular hazard there. 4.1.4.3 Buckets shall be placed at convenient and easily accessible locations either on hangers or on stands. In the case of textile mills, it is strongly advised that a bucket be slung at the end of each spinning and roving frame. 4.1.5 Maintenance of Hand Appliances:

4.1.5.1 General 4.1.5.1.1 It is important that hand appliances are always kept in their proper positions and if temporarily removed for repairs, are immediately replaced. In order to ensure this, all concerns shall arrange to provide at least one man, preferably a pump man, whose duty is to see that the fire buckets are filled with water and the extinguishers are in efficient working order and that all appliances are in their correct positions. 4.1.5.1.2 It is recommended that in case the paint of any hand appliance gets chipped off or gets faded; it shall be repainted to prevent it from rust and corrosion.

4.1.5.2 Buckets: 4.1.5.2.1 Fire buckets shall not be used for any purpose other than that for which they are intended, and shall always be kept full of water/sand. 4.1.5.2.2 To prevent breeding of mosquitoes and to comply with rules of local bodies, the water in fire buckets shall be refilled every week and treated with sapon creosote or phenyl in suitable quantities to just discolour the water. 4.1.5.2.3 All buckets shall be refilled with clean water or sand, as the case may be, immediately after use. 4.1.5.2.4 Spare buckets to the extent of 10 % of the total number installed on the premises, subject to a maximum of 50, shall always be kept in store. 4.1.5.3 Extinguishers: 4.1.5.3.1 Spare charges to the extent of 10 % of the total number of extinguishers installed, with a minimum of two shall always be kept in stock for each type of extinguisher and be readily available. 4.1.5.3.2 Once a week, the extinguisher shall be checked to ensure that all movable parts are working properly, that the plunger is in fully extended position, that the nozzle is not obstructed in any way and that there is no leakage of the extinguishing medium from the glands and nozzles. The extinguishers shall be cleaned superficially and the brass parts polished. The nozzle outlet and vent holes in the threaded portion of the cap shall be checked for clogging. 4.1.5.3.3 Once a month, extinguishers of the Carbon Dioxide type shall be weighed. If the weight recorded for any extinguisher is less than 90 % of the weight of the fully charged extinguisher as marked on the body, the extinguisher shall be sent for recharging. 4.1.5.3.4 Half the total number of water type of extinguishers and one-fifth of the total number of Dry Powder Extinguishers installed in the premises shall be subjected to an operation test annually. Advantage shall be taken of this test to impart training in the use of extinguishers, to the staff employed on the premises where the extinguishers are located. N.B. Extinguishers, which have been used in a fire during a period of six months preceding the tests, need not be taken for testing. 4.1.5.3.5 Extinguishers installed in the premises shall be subjected to a hydraulic test as specified in IS: 2190 and at such intervals as laid down therein. Extinguishers found leaking or distorted shall be rejected. Under no circumstances shall such extinguishers be welded and reused. N.B. The hydraulic test shall be certified by the manufacturer(s) of the appliance(s) or the factory Chief Engineer or the Factory Fire OR SAFETY OFFICER or the service contractors. 4.1.5.3.6 A record of the operation and hydraulic tests shall be maintained, which shall be open to examination by the Committees inspection staff. 4.1.5.3.7 The operating instructions of the extinguishers shall not be defaced or obliterated. In case the operating instructions are obliterated or have become illegible due to passage of time, fresh transfers of the same shall be obtained from the manufacturers of the appliances and affixed to the extinguishers.

4.2 Small Bore Hose Reels: (This sort of protection is not deemed suitable for buildings/compartments containing electrical apparatus only or in respect of buildings/ compartments in which flammable liquids are stored and/or used) 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 HOSE REELS SHALL NORMALLY BE CONNECTED TO THE GENERAL WATER SUPPLY PIPELINES OF THE PLANT/PREMISES. The number and distribution of hose reels shall be such that the whole of each floor is protected and that no part of the floor is more than 6 m. distant from a hose nozzle when the hose is fully extended. The hose reel shall be such as will enable not less than 22.5 litres of water to be discharged per minute through a nozzle of not more than 6.35 mm. internal diameter. Hose shall be of reinforced rubber not less than 19 mm. and not more than 32 mm. internal diameter. Hose lengths shall not exceed 36.50 m. ************

5.

MECHANICALLY DRIVEN FIRE ENGINES AND TRAILER PUMPS

5.1 Application: 5.1.1 This method of protection will be accepted on its own merits for the protection of blocks/facilities (other than open storage) in light and ordinary hazard occupancies. Even in these occupancies buildings, which have the highest point of the roof not exceeding 20 meters, shall only be deemed to be protected. 5.1.2 For effective application, mobile engines and/or trailer pumps shall be sited at convenient locations from where they can be speedily moved to any portion of the compound in the event of a fire and for this purpose adequate vehicular arrangements shall be available for towing trailer pumps. 5.2 Personnel: In order to qualify for recognition, a fire fighting squad in accordance with rules 7.9.1 to 7.9.10 shall be maintained on the premises round the clock. 5.3 Equipment: 5.3.1 Trailer pumps and motor fire engines shall comply with the relevant Indian Standards Specification or equivalent foreign specification and carry the requisite number and type of fittings and accessories specified in such standards. Besides, each trailer pump shall be provided with 12 lengths of 15 m long hosepipes of 63 mm diameter and six branch pipes with nozzles of 18 mm diameter. For each motor fire engine, eighteen hosepipes each 15 m long and 63 mm diameter and nozzles of 18 mm shall be provided along with nine branch piupes. 5.3.2 The capacities of individual trailer pumps and motor fire engine shall not be less than Trailer Pump Motor Fire Engines 30 litres per second at 5.6 kg./sq. cm. 30 litres per second at 7.0 kg./sq. cm.

5.3.3 The number of appliances required shall not be less than that laid down hereunder a) Light Hazard Occupancies 1trailer pump for every 7,000 m2 of total built up area of protected process and storage blocks subject to a maximum of 3 1trailer pump for every 5,000 Sq. m. of total built up area of protected process and storage blocks subject to a max. 4

b) Ordinary Hazard Occupancies

N.B. - One motor fire engine could be provided as substitute for two trailer pumps. Portable fire pump sets (1,100-1,600 l/min.) Can also be accepted treating such units as equivalent to one trailer pump of 1,800 l/min provided these sets conform to IS: 12717-1989. 5.3.4 For storeyed structures, in addition to the trailer pumps and/or motor fire engines, dry risers of size conforming to N.B. 4 under rule 7.5.10 shall be installed with hydrant outlets at each floor level and double male instantaneous inlets at ground level to serve as connections for the trailer pumps in the event

of a fire. The hydrants for the upper floors shall be installed on landings of access staircases complying with rule 7.6.15 and a hose box containing two lengths of hose of 7.5 m (or 25 ft.) each and one nozzle shall be provided alongside each of the upper floor hydrants. The number of risers per building and correspondingly the number of access staircases shall depend on the floor area of upper storeys and for this purpose the requirement of rule 7.6.15 shall apply. N.B. Where it is not possible to fully comply with the provisions of rule 7.6.15, reference shall be made to the Committee. 5.4 Water Supply: 5.4.1 The water supply to be drawn upon by trailer pumps or motor fire engines shall be available in static tanks of at least 45,000 litres capacity so located that no part of a protected building lies beyond 100 m. of the tank(s). N.B. 1. In the case of storeyed buildings, the tank shall not be more than 50 m. from any part of the building. N.B. 2. Provision shall be made for indicating the capacity of the tanks for various depths. 5.4.2 One static tank shall be provided for buildings with light hazard occupancy and two for buildings with ordinary hazard occupancy. (Tank shall be so located as to give easy access to the fire brigade). N.B. The same tank(s) shall be considered as the source of water supply for all detached buildings where no part of the building(s) lies beyond 100 m. of the tank. The above distance shall be reduced to 50 m. in the case of storeyed buildings. 5.4.3 Double-headed hydrants or water plugs of 100 mm diameter fitted to the pressurised general water service main of the premises may be considered as an alternative to static tank provided that: a) c) The water-pressure constantly maintained in the main is not less than 0.7 kg./cm2. For light hazard occupancy, one double- headed hydrant or one 100 mm water plug is so located that no part of the building is beyond 100 m thereof. For ordinary hazard occupancy, two doubleheaded hydrants or two 100 mm water plugs are located as above.

b) The size of the main is at least 100 mm.

N.B. In the case of storeyed buildings, the above distance shall be reduced to 50 m. d) The pumping capacity of the general water supply is not less than the aggregate pumping capacity of the trailer pumps and/or motor fire engines. e) The storage of general water supply is in excess of 1,00,000 litres.

6.

HYDRANT PROTECTION OF HIGH RISE BUILDINGS (NON-INDUSTRIAL)

6.1 Introduction 6.1.1 A building, the highest floor of which is more than 22 M above the surrounding pavement level, shall be considered as a high-rise building. 6.1.2 The rules are applicable to all types of buildings with non-industrial occupancies such as Residential Hotels, Mercantile/ Business/Office buildings, apartments etc. 6.1.3 In case of Buildings situated in slopping terrain, reference shall be made to the Committee in advance with full particulars. 6.2 Hydrant Protection (at ground or yard levels) 6.2.1 The ground level protection with hydrants on terminal mains will be acceptable, provided the plinth area of the building to be protected is less than 750 m2. The location of the hydrants at ground level as well as the layout of the hydrants system shall, otherwise, comply with various provisions under Section 7 of this manual. 6.2.2 In case of buildings having a plinth area in excess of 750 m2, the location of the hydrants at ground level as well as the layout of the hydrant system shall be governed by the appropriate provisions under Section 7.6 of this manual. The Committee reserves its right of insisting on water monitors in place of few hydrants if deemed necessary. 6.2.3 Orifice plates of suitable design shall be provided in the landing valves, where necessary, to limit the operating pressures within 7 kg/cm2. 6.2.4 Except where impracticable, all hydrant outlets shall be situated 1.0 m above ground level. 6.3 Hydrant Protection - at various upper/lower (basement) levels 6.3.1 Access staircase 6.3.1.1 Design for a new building shall include provisions for adequate access staircases and lifts to provide efficient means of escape and facilities for fire fighting. 6.3.1.2 One lobby approach staircase along with fire lift shall be provided for every 1,000 m2 of floor area of each storey/level (including basements). Normally a minimum of two such staircases shall be required but in case the area of each storey is less than 500 m2, one staircase is acceptable. 6.3.1.3 The lobby approach staircase shall be of non-combustible construction. At least 50 % of total numbers of staircases required (with a minimum of one) shall be so located that one of their enclosing walls be an external wall of the building. 6.3.1.4 Doors at the entrances of both the lobby approach access staircases and fire lifts shall be provided with self-closing, smoke-tight doors having one-hour fire resistance. This arrangement will enable escape and fire fighting to be effected more efficiently.
NOTE: If the staircases and the fire lifts are located in the core of the building, a positive pressure of 50 Pa or 20 Pa in excess of pressure in the lobby whichever is higher, shall be maintained within the former as an alternative to the above provision.

6.3.1.5 The fire lifts shall be controlled by the fire brigade recall from the concourse level and shall not respond to other calls after the fire brigade key has been activated. The cable supplying power to the lift motor shall pass through routes of negligible fire risk. 6.3.2 Wet Risers 6.3.2.1 Wet riser(s) is/are a pipe or a number of pipes, permanently charged with water under pressure, rising through the full height of the building. 6.3.2.2 The wet risers shall be located within the lobby approach staircases. 6.3.2.3 The diameter of the riser pipes shall not be less than 150 mm anywhere. One or two landing valves shall be connected to the riser pipe at each storey/level. In case of excessive pressures in hydrant outlets at lower levels, orifice plates of suitable design shall be provided in the landing valves, where necessary, to limit the operating pressure to 7 kg/cm2. 6.4 Hose Pipes and Nozzles 6.4.1 Sufficient length of hose, subject to a minimum of two lengths of 15 M each with couplings attached, shall be provided for use in case of each hydrant point on risers. In addition, one nozzle of 20 mm size fitted to a branch pipe shall also be provided. To avoid water damage, it is advisable to have reinforced rubber-lined hoses for use with internal hydrants. (IS-636) 6.4.2 The number of hose pipes provided near external yard hydrants shall be such that no part of the floor is more than 15 M from a hose nozzle when the hose is fully extended and connected to hydrant landing valve. 6.4.3 Hoses, nozzles and branch pipes shall be kept adjacent to the hydrant outlet, in wall boxes or recesses in the walls specially designed to blend architecturally with the buildings, if so desired. All other requirements relating to the appurtenances shall be as per the provisions under Section 7.7 of this Manual. 6.5 Pumping Arrangements 6.5.1 Each wet hydrant installation shall be supplied with water by an auto-start pumping set. A stand-by pump set of identical pumping capacity having a different prime mover shall also be provided. 6.5.2 Pumps shall have capacities of 38 Litres. per seconds (137 m3 per hour) or 47 Litres. per second (171 m3 per hour) and the head generated at the rated discharge shall be such that a minimum pressure of 3.5 Kg/cm2 will be available at the highest landing valve in the premises. 6.5.3 The suction, delivery and priming arrangements for the pump shall comply with provision under Section 7.4.1 of this Manual. 6.5.4 Jockey pump(s) shall be installed in addition to the main pump set(s). The pressure setting for the pump(s) shall be such that it cuts in approximately at 0.35 Kg/cm2 below the normal system pressure and cut out at normal system pressure. The main fire pump(s) shall be arranged to cut in approximately at 1 Kg/cm2 below the normal system pressure and shall be capable only of manual shut down at churn pressure.

6.5.5 The power supply to the fire pump(s) shall be independent of all other supplies within the premises. In other words even when the power supply to the entire premises is switched off, the supply to the fire pump(s) and other essential equipment shall remain uninterrupted. 6.5.6 Pump room shall be normally located detached in the compound of the building and shall preferably be 6 m away from the building. Where it is not feasible the pump room can be located inside the building provided it is segregated from the remainder of the building in accordance with Committees regulations and access to the pump room from the out side of the building shall be either direct or through a passage which has no openings other than to the pump room. 6.5.7 The pumping installation for the high rise installations shall conform to anyone of the following methods to avoid undesirably high pressures in the riser mains a) Two pumps, one having a low head connected to the riser feeding the lower storeys and the other having a higher head connected to the risers feeding the upper storeys, shall be installed.

b) A multistage multi-outlet pump shall be installed, separate outlets being connected to the riser feeding the lower storeys and those feeding the upper floors. (See figure 1 and 2) N.B. - For buildings over 60 M in height, hydrant system may either be designed as above or may be divided into pressure zones. For each zone the water supply for the fire protection would be designed to have pressure within the normal operating ranges and zones of eight to ten storeys would be adequate with a check valve in each zone to prevent the transmission of pressure to the zone below (each zone shall
have a height of 20 m to 25 m)

In each zone of fire protection piping, there shall be a gravity or pressure tank supply. This shall be supplemented by a fire pump to provide required flow in the zone. The fire pump shall not be used to fill gravity or pressure tank. This should be filled from domestic water lines. In this arrangement, the pump in the lowest zone takes suction from suction tank located at ground floor whereas pumps in other zones take suction from the gravity/pressure tanks in the respective zone (See. Fig. 3) N.B.1: - In addition to the above system, a gravity tank of 25,000 litres capacity shall be provided on the top of the building and it shall be connected to the pump delivery through a non-return valve. N.B.2 - The pump controls can be located with the pump in each zone. It can also be provided at the ground floor depending upon the suitability and practicability of the particular building in question. 6.6 Water Source 6.6.1 Effective capacity of fire fighting tank (See rule No. 7.3) shall not be less than 2 hrs. aggregate pumping capacity for buildings less than 60 m in height. The tank capacity shall, however, be increased to 3 hrs. pumping capacity for buildings having height 60 m and above. The tanks shall be constructed in two independent but interconnected compartments as per rule 7.3 of this Manual. The fire tank must be in two compartments with a baffle wall in between not going right down to the base of the tank. This arrangement will ensure proper circulation of the firewater and prevent stagnation. (See figure below).

6.6.2 The storage tank shall be provided with a 150 mm fire brigade pumping connection to discharge at least 2,275 Litres per minute into the tank. This connection shall not be taken directly into the side of the storage tank, but arranged to discharge not less than 150 mm above the overflow level of the tank. The connection shall be fitted with stop valve in a position approved by the committee in advance. An overflow connection discharging to a visible drain point shall be provided from the storage tank.

6.6.3 The fire brigade connection shall be fitted with four numbers of 63 mm instantaneous inlets in a glass fronted wall box at a suitable position at street level, so located as to make the inlets accessible from outside of the building. The size of the wall box shall be adequate to allow hose to be connected to the inlets, even if the door cannot be opened and the glass has to be broken. Each box shall have fall of 25 mm towards the front at its base and shall be glazed with wired glass with "FIRE BRIGADE INLET" painted on the inner face of the glass in 50 mm size block letters. 6.6.4 In addition to the emergency fire brigade connection to the storage tank, a 150 mm connection shall be taken from the four 63 mm instantaneous inlets direct to each hydrant riser so that the fire brigade may pump to the hydrants in the event of hydrant pumps being out of the commission. The connection direct to each riser shall be fitted with a sluice and reflux valve each. 6.7 Fire Fighting Staff 6.7.1 A fire fighting squad consisting of security and maintenance personnel under the command of a trained fire chief, conversant with the fire control system of the premises, shall be available. Further, the public fire brigade shall also be acquainted with what is being installed in the premises and how the protection systems operate. For this purpose, details of the arrangements for fire fighting systems and the layout plan incorporating the position of the existing fire protection system shall be forwarded to the local fire brigade for their information and necessary action. 6.7.2 As the efficiency of the wet riser system depends on the manner and speed at which they are brought into use, a squad consisting of trained personnel and fire pimp man shall be maintained on the premises round the clock. The number of personnel for the squad shall necessarily depend upon the size of the building but in no case shall be less than four trained persons (excluding officer in charge on duty and pump man) be available at anytime during the day or night. 6.7.3 A public address system shall be provided on each floor including the control room in order to enable security and fire fighting staff to give evacuation instructions to the occupants in case of fire. Evacuation drills shall be arranged periodically. 6.7.4 A metal strip of 25 mm x 3 mm section shall be provided in the staircase enclosure running throughout the height of the building to facilitate transmission and reception of fire messages through walkie-talkie sets used by brigade personnel. The strip shall be electrically insulated from the ground.

6.7.5 A plan of the risk giving floor-wise details of all fire extinguishing appliances and water supplied shall be displayed in the pump house as well as in the room of the security/fire officer who is in charge of the appliances.

*************

7.

HYDRANT SERVICE Installation of Hand Appliances as per the Committees Regulations is a prerequisite for any occupancy, other than storage occupancy, to be entitled to allowance for this system. 7.1 GENERAL 7.1.0 The following Regulations are not applicable to High-Rise Buildings, the highest floor of which is more than 22 m above the surrounding ground level or to Cotton Gin and Press Factories, for which reference may be made to Sections 6 and 8 respectively. 7.1.1 A well designed and well laid hydrant service is the backbone of the entire fire fighting equipment as it fights fires of serious proportions in all classes of risks and continues to be in full operation even if part(s) of affected buildings and/or structures have collapsed, and also keeps cool all adjoining properties, thereby minimising the exposure hazards. 7.1.2 The advantages of providing for possible future extensions in any scheme of hydrant protection is often overlooked. A comparatively small extension with its attendant friction losses may overload a main so seriously as to necessitate replacement by one of larger size and the small additional initial cost of mains of somewhat larger capacity than immediate requirements may call for, often leads to ultimate economy. 7.1.3 All components of the hydrant system shall be of a type and make approved by the Tariff Advisory Committee. 7.1.4 The standards laid down in this Manual represent the accumulated experience of many years but even when a hydrant service is designed and laid in accordance with these standards, its efficiency in fire fighting will ultimately depend upon the rapidity with which it is brought into action and the ability with which its effort is directed. 7.1.5 The maintenance of an installation is equally vital and the importance of organised wet drills at regular intervals, which ensure that each man carries out his allotted duties in the shortest possible time cannot be too strongly emphasised. (Please see rule 7.10 in this connection). 7.2 CLASSIFICATIONS OF OCCUPANCIES 7.2.0 As the water supply, pumping capacity and other features of the hydrant system depend not only on the size of the risk but also on its fire growth and spread potentialities, the risks are to be categorised under the following classes for the purpose of hydrant system design: N.B. For categorisation of occupancies not listed hereunder reference shall be made to the Regional Offices. 7.2.1 LIGHT HAZARD OCCUPANCIES: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Abrasive Manufacturing Premises Aerated Water Factories Agarbatti Manufacturing Aluminium/Zinc and Copper Factories Analytical and/or Quality Control Laboratories Asbestos Steam Packing & Lagging Manufacturers. Battery Charging/Service Station Battery Manufacturing

9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59.

Breweries Brick Works Canning Factories Cardamom Factories Cement Factories and/or Asbestos Products Manufacturing. Ceramic Factories and Crockery and Stoneware Pipe Manufacturing. Cinema Theatres (including Preview Theatres) Clay Works Clock and Watch Manufacturing Clubs Coffee Curing & Roasting Premise Computer installations (Main Frame) Condensed Milk Factories, Milk Pasteurising Plant and Dairies. Confectionery Manufacturing Dwellings Educational and Research Institutes Electric Generating Houses (Hydel) Electric Lamps (Incandescent & Fluorescent) and TV Picture Tube Manufacturing. Electric Sub-Station/Distribution Station. Electro Plating Works. Electronic and/or Computer Equipments Assemble and Manufactures Empty Containers Storage Yard Engineering Workshops. Fruits and Vegetables Dehydrating/Drying Factories. Fruit Products and Condiment Factories. Glass & Glass Fibre Manufacturing. Godowns and Warehouses Storing non-combustible Goods. Green houses Gold Thread Factories/Gilding Factories. Gum and/or Glue and Gelatine Manufacturing. Hospitals including X-ray and other Diagnostic Clinics. Ice Candy and Ice-cream Manufacturing. Ice Factories. Ink (excluding Printing Ink) Factories Laundries. Libraries. Mica Products Manufacturing. Office Premises. Places of worship Pottery Works. Poultry Farms. Residential Hotels, Cafes & Restaurants. Salt Crushing Factories and Refineries. Stables. Steel Plants (other than Gas based) Sugar Candy Manufacturing. Sugar Factories and Refineries. Tea Blending and Tea Packing Factories Umbrella Assembling Factories Vermicelli Factories. Water Treatment/Water Filtration Plants and Water Pump House.

7.2.2 ORDINARY HAZARD OCCUPANCIES: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. Airport and other Transportation Terminal Building. Areca nut slicing and/or Betel nut Factories. Atta and Cereal Grinding. Bakeries. Beedi Factories. Biscuit Factories. Bobbin Factories. Bookbinders, Envelopes & Paper bag Manufacturers. Bulk Storage Cable manufacturing Camphor Boiling Candle Works. Carbon Paper/Typewriter Ribbon Manufacturers. Cardboard Box Manufacturing. Carpenters, Wood wool & Furniture Manufacturers. Carpet and Drugget Factories. Cashew nut Factories. Chemical Manufacturing. Cigar and Cigarette Factories. Coffee grinding premises Coir, Factories, Coir Carpets, Rugs and Tobacco, Hides and Skin Presses Cold storage premises. Cork products manufacturing Dry Cleaning, Dyeing, Laundries. Electric Generating stations (other than Hydel) Enamelware Factories. Filter & Wax paper Manufacturing. Flour Mills. Garages. Garment Makers Ghee Factories (other than vegetable) Godowns & Warehouses (others). Grain and/or Seeds Disintegrating and/or Crushing Factories. Grease Manufacturing. Hat and Topee Factories. Hosiery, Lace, Embroidery & Thread Factories. Incandescent Gas Mantle Manufacturers, Industrial Gas Mfg. Including halogenated hydrocarbon gases Linoleum Factories. Man-made Yarn/Fibre Manufacturing (Except Acrylic) Manure and Fertiliser Works. (Blending, Mixing and granulating only) Mercantile Occupancies (Dept. Stores, Shopping Complexes / Malls) Mineral Oil Blending and Processing. Museums. Oil & Leather Cloth Factories. Oil Terminals/Depots other than those categorised under High hazard A

48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75.

Oxygen Plants. Plywood Manufacturing/Wood Veneering Factories. Paper & Cardboard Mills. Piers, wharves, dockyards. Plastic Goods Manufacturing. Printing Press Premises. Pulverising and Crushing Mills. Rice Mills. Rope Works. Rubber Goods Manufacturing. Rubber Tyres & Tubes Manufacturing Shellac Factories. Shopping Complexes (underground) Silk Filatures and cocoon stores. Spray painting Soaps and Glycerine Factories. Starch Factories Steel Plants (Gas Based) Tanneries/Leather Goods Manufacturers. Tank farms other than those categorised under high Textile Mills. Tea Factories. Telephone Exchanges. Theatres and Auditoriums Tobacco (Chewing) and Pan-masalla Making. Tobacco Grinding and Crushing. Tobacco Redrying Factories. Woollen Mills.

hazard 'A'.

7.2.3 HIGH HAZARD OCCUPANCIES: SUB-CATEGORY (A) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Aircraft Hangers Aluminium/Magnesium Powder Plants Bituminised Paper and/or Hessian Cloth Manufacturing including Tar Felt Manufacturing. Cotton Waste Factories Coal and/or Coke and/or Charcoal Ball Briquettes Manufacturing. Celluloid Goods Manufacturing. Cigarette Filter Manufacturing. Cinema Films & T.V. Production Studios Collieries. Cotton Seed Cleaning or De-linting Factories. Distilleries. Duplicating and Stencil Paper Manufacturing. Fire-works Manufacturing. Foamed Plastics Manufacturing and/or Converting Plants. Grass, Hay, Fodder & Bhoosa (chaff) Pressing Factories. Jute mills & jute presses LPG Bottling Plants (Mini)*

* Bottling plants having total inventory not exceeding 100 MT of LPG and also bottling a total quantity of not exceeding 20 MT of LPG per shift of 8 hrs. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. Match Factories. Man Made Fibres (Acrylic fibres/yarn making) Mattress and Pillow Making. Metal or Tin Printers (where more than 50 % of floor area is occupied as Engineering Workshop; this may be taken as Ordinary Hazard Risk) Oil Mills Oil Extraction Plants (other than those forming part of ghee factories & oil refining factories.) Oil Terminals/Depots handling flammable liquids having flash point of 32o C and below. Paints & Varnish Factories. Printing Ink Manufacturing. Saw Mills. Sponge Iron Plants. Surgical Cotton Manufacturers Tank Farms storing flammable liquids having flash point of 32o C and below. Tarpaulin & Canvas Proofing Factories. Turpentine & Rosin Distilleries. Tyre Retreading and Resoling Factories.

SUB-CATEGORY (B) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Ammonia and Urea Synthesis Plants. CNG Compressing and Bottling Plants Explosive Factories. LPG Bottling Plants (Other than Mini) Petrochemical Plants. Petroleum Refineries.

7.3 WATER SUPPLY 7.3.1 Water for the hydrant services shall be stored in an easily accessible surface/underground lined reservoir or above ground tanks of steel concrete or masonry. The effective capacity of the reservoir above the low water level (defined hereunder), or above the top of the pump casing (in case of flooded suction) if the same is higher than the low water level, for the various classes of occupancies and size of hydrant installations shall be as indicated in the table 1. NOTES 1. 2. The low water level is a point atleast three times the diameter of the suction pipe above the draw-off point. (See figs.4, 5 and 6) Large natural reservoirs with water capacity exceeding 10 times the aggregate water requirements of all Fire Pumps therefrorm may be left un-lined.

7.3.2 Reservoirs of and over 2,25,000 litres capacity shall be in two interconnected equal compartments to facilitates cleaning and repairs. 7.3.3 The size of the firewater sump shall be such that the smaller side is at least equivalent to six times the diameter of the largest suction pipe. The suction pipe (s) shall be located along the central longitudinal

axis of the sump and the positioning of the pipes shall be such that no pipe is within a distance of twice its own diameter from another suction pipe or from the wall of the sump. 7.3.4 Where the Fire pump(s) draw water from the reservoir under suction lift conditions the two compartments shall be connected to a common sump through sluice or gate valves. The suction arrangement of the Fire pump (s) shall be as indicated in rule 7.4.1.8, 7.4.1.9, 7.4.1.10 and 7.4.1.12 hereunder. 7.3.5 In case of dual purpose reservoirs catering to fire water and general water requirements the general water pumps shall draw their supply from a separate sump which shall be connected only to the fire water sump, the interconnection being so located that the effective quantity (as defined above) of water available in the reservoir for fire water requirements below the level of the interconnection is atleast equivalent to the quantities indicated in Table 1. Incoming mains shall be connected to Fire water Compartments and only overflow of fire water compartments should go to process.

7.3.6 Where the reservoir provides positive suction for the fire pump(s) in terms of the note under rules 7.4.1.11, tapping shall be taken from both the compartments and shall be connected through sluice valves to a common suction header. The pumps, in turn, shall draw their suction from the common header through sluice valves. In case of dual purpose reservoirs catering to fire water and general water requirements, the tapping for the general water pumps shall be taken at a higher level such that the capacity of the reservoir between the low water level as defined heretofore (or the top of the fire pump casing in case it is higher than the low water level) and the general water tapping is at least equivalent to the requirements indicated in Table 1.

TABLE - 1 CAPACITY OF STATIC STORAGE EXCLUSIVELY RESERVED FOR HYDRANT SERVICE. Not less than 01 hours aggregate pumping capacity with a minimum of 1,35,000 litres. Not less than 2 hours aggregate pumping capacity. Not less than pumping capacity 3 hours aggregate

NATURE OF RISK

1. 2. 3. 4.

Light Hazard Ordinary Hazard High Hazard (A) High Hazard (B)

Not less than 4 hour's aggregate pumping capacity

NOTES 1. The capacity of the reservoir for ordinary and high hazard class occupancies may be reduced by the quantum of inflow [of one hour in case of ordinary hazard, 90 minutes in case of high hazard (A) and two hours in case of high hazard (B) occupancies), from a reliable sources (other than town's main) having prior approval of the committee, but in no case shall the reservoir capacity be less than 70 % of that mentioned above. In case of light hazard class occupancies the minimum capacity of the reservoir shall be increased to 2,25,000 litres if the highest floor of the building is more than 15 m above the surrounding ground level. A higher capacity of reservoir than that required as per Table 1 may be stipulated by the Committee where considered necessary.

2. 3.

7.4 PUMPS: 7.4.1 GENERAL 7.4.1.1 Pumps shall be exclusively used for fire fighting purposes, be of a type approved by the Committee, and shall be a) b) c) d) Quadruple acting reciprocating steam pumps Or Electric Motor or Steam Turbine driven centrifugal pumps Or Compression Ignition Engine driven centrifugal pumps Or Vertical Turbine Submersible pumps.

7.4.1.2 Pumps shall be direct-coupled, except in the case of engine-driven Vertical Turbine Pumps wherein gear drives conforming to approval standard of Factory Mutual system or right angled gear drive class no. 1338 hall be used. Belt-driven pumps shall not be accepted.

7.4.1.3 Parts of pumps like impeller, shaft sleeve, wearing ring etc. shall be of non-corrosive metal preferably of brass or bronze or stainless steel. Where seawater is used or where the quality of water necessitates the use of special metals/alloys, the use of such metals or alloys shall be insisted. 7.4.1.4 The capacity of the pump(s) would depend on whether or not tapping(s) for water spray and/or foam protection for tanks/spheres/bullets/plants/other facilities is (are) taken from the hydrant service. In case there is no tapping from the hydrant service, the capacity of the pump shall be as per rule 7.4.1.4.1 hereunder. However, where the water demand for water spray and/or foam protection as per rules 7.4.1.4.2, 7.4.1.4.3, 7.4.1.4.4, 7.4.1.4.5 and 7.4.1.4.6 is in excess of that required for the hydrant system, the pumping capacity shall be based on the higher water demand. 7.4.1.4.1 The capacity for hydrant service shall be determined by the class of occupancy and size of installation as per Table 2 hereunder: TABLE - 2
DELIVERY PRESSURE AT PUMP DISCHARGE AT RATED CAPACITY (KG/CM2) PUMP CAPACITY LPS/(M3/HR)

NATURE OF RISK

NUMBER OF HYDRANTS

1.

Light Hazard

i)
20

Not exceeding Exceeding 20 but not exceeding 55 Exceeding 55 but not exceeding 100 Exceeding 100 **

27 (96) 38 (137) 47 (171)

5.6* 7 7

ii) iii)

iv)

47 (171) plus 47 (171) for every additional 125 hydrants or part thereof.

7/8.8

NOTES *1. The pump delivery pressure will need to be 7 kg/cm2 if the highest floor of the risk is at a height exceeding 15 m above the surrounding ground level.

**2. Where the systems are hydraulically designed as per NB 2 & NB 3 below rule 7.5.10. The total pumping capacity need not be greater than 190 (683) irrespective of the number of hydrant points.

DELIVERY PRESSURE AT PUMP DISCHARGE AT RATED CAPACITY (KG/CM2)

PUMP CAPACITY LPS/(M3/HR)

NATURE OF RISK

NUMBER OF HYDRANTS

2.

Ordinar y Hazard

i) ii)

Not exceeding 20 Exceeding 20 but not exceeding 55 Exceeding 55 but not exceeding 100 Exceeding 100 **

38 (137) 47 (171)

7 7

iii)

76 (273)

iv)

76 (273) plus 76 (273) for every additional 125 hydrants or part thereof.

7/8.8

**N.B: Where the systems are hydraulically designed as per NB 2 & NB 3 of rule 7.5.10, the total pumping capacity need not be greater than 302 (1092) irrespective of the number of hydrant points.
DELIVERY PRESSURE AT PUMP DISCHARGE AT RATED CAPACITY (KG/CM2) PUMP CAPACITY LPS/(M3/HR)

NATURE OF RISK

NUMBER OF HYDRANTS

3.

High Hazard (A)

i) ii)

Not exceeding 20 Exceeding 20 but not exceeding 55 Exceeding 55 but not exceeding 100 Exceeding 100

47 (171) 76 (273)

7 7/8.8

iii)

114 (410)

7/8.8

iv)

114 (410) plus 114 (410) for every add-

7/8.8/10.5

itional 125 hydrants or part thereof.

4.

High Hazard (B)

i) ii)

Not exceeding 20 Exceeding 20 but not exceeding 55 Exceeding 55 but not exceeding 100 **Exceedin g 100

Two of 47 (171) TWO of 76 (273) TWO of 114 (410)

7 7/8.8

iii)

7/8.8

iv)

TWO of 114 (410) plus ONE of 114 (410) for every additional 200 hydrants or part thereof.

** This provision will apply only in cases where the hydrant service has been hydraulically designed as per NB3 (b) under rule 7.5.10. NOTES 1. In case of High Hazard (B) risks where the aggregate pumping capacity required in terms of the above Table or of rules 7.4.1.4.2, 7.4.1.4.4, 7.4.1.4.5 and 7.4.1.4.6 hereunder exceeds 1,640 m3/hr., larger capacity pumps are acceptable provided the capacity of the largest pump does not exceed 25 % of the aggregate installed pumping capacity is disrupted when any pump is in-operative. In case of High Hazard occupancies, the pump delivery pressure shall be 7 Kg/cm2 if the highest floor of the risk is at a height exceeding 15 m above the surrounding ground level. In case of Oil Refineries, Petrochemical complexes or other risks where double headed hydrants are used throughout the risk so that the total number of hydrants (counting a double headed hydrant as two hydrants) is about double the number of hydrants required as per the general requirements of this Manual, a double headed hydrant may be regarded as a single hydrant only. Where storage tanks containing flammable liquids are protected by a medium velocity water spray system tapped from the hydrant service, the water requirements of the spray system shall be calculated for tanks located in a common dyke which have the largest aggregate shell surface area at a rate of 10 litres /minute/m2 of tank shell surface area except where the system has been designed to comply with the provisions contained in N.B 4 under rule 7.6.19 (mandatory protection) in which case the rate of flow can be reduced to 3 lpm/m2). Even in the case of tanks located in separate dykes, the shell surface area of all tanks located within a distance of 15 m (or the diameter of the larger tank if the same is more than 15m) shall be aggregated and the water demand of such cluster of tanks shall be calculated at the rate of flow indicated in the foregoing paragraph.

2. 3.

7.4.1.4.2

The water requirement of the spray system worked out as above shall then be loaded for supplementary hose stream protection as under Where the largest tank in, in a dyke, has a diameter i) ii) iii) Upto 10 m More than 10 m and upto 20 m Over 20 m 1,150 LPM 2,250 LPM 3,400 LPM

If the total water requirement for spray protection and hose stream protection for storage tanks worked out as above exceeds the requirements of the hydrant service as per Table 2, the pumping capacity shall be equivalent to the former. 7.4.1.4.3 Where storage tanks are protected by a fixed foam system connected to the hydrant service, water requirement for the foam system shall be equivalent to that required by the largest protected tank at a rate of 5 litres/minute/m2 of liquid surface area for fixed roof tanks and 12.2 lpm/m2 of rim seal in case of floating roof tanks. Other conditions regarding supplementary hose stream protection, pumping capacity etc., would remain the same as for water spray protection. 7.4.1.4.4 Where spheres/bullets are protected by a medium velocity water spray system tapped from pressurised hydrant service, water requirements of the spray system shall be determined as under Taking into consideration the configuration of bullets/sphere, the one which has the largest number of other bullets/spheres within R +15 M of the centre thereof shall be selected. The water demand shall then be worked out at the rate of 10 L/min/M2 of the aggregate shell surface area of the bullet/spheres concerned and all bullets/spheres within R + 15 M of the centre thereof. Water application may be reduced to 5 LPM/M2 where the bullets/Spheres coated with approved passive materials providing fire resistance of at least 2 hours. The water requirement of the spray system worked out as above shall then be loaded for supplementary hose stream protection as under Water capacity of Bullets/ Spheres (m3) Upto and including 50 Above 50 m3 and upto Above 150 m3 Supplementary hose stream protection (LPM) 1,750 2,250 4,500

m3 150 m
3

If the total water requirement for spray protection and hose steam protection for spheres/bullets worked out as above exceeds the requirements of the hydrant service as per Table 2, the pumping capacity shall be equivalent to the former. Note: For design criteria of medium velocity water spray system reference shall be made to committee's rules for water spray system. 7.4.1.4.5 Where the plants and other facilities are protected by medium velocity water spray systems, tapped from hydrant service, water requirement of the spray system shall be determined as per Committee's rules for water spray systems. Water requirements of the spray systems worked out as above shall then be loaded by 4,500 LPM for supplementary hose stream protection. If the total water requirement for spray protection and hose stream protection worked out as above exceeds the requirements of the hydrant service as per Table 2, the pumping capacity shall be equivalent to the former. 7.4.1.4.6 Where transformers are protected by high velocity water spray system tapped from hydrant system, water requirements of the spray system shall be determined as per Committee's rules for water spray system. Water requirement of the spray system worked out as above shall then be loaded by 1,750 LPM for supplementary hose stream protection. If the total water requirement for spray protection and hose stream protection worked out as above exceeds the requirements of the hydrant service as per Table 2, the pumping capacity shall be equivalent to the former. 7.4.1.4.7 Where plants and other facilities are protected by sprinkler system tapped from the pressurised hydrant service, water requirement of the sprinkler system shall be determined as per the Committees rules for sprinkler system. If the total water requirement for sprinkler system exceeds the requirement of the hydrant service as per Table 2, the pumping capacity shall be equivalent to the former. 7.4.1.5 Pumps shall be capable of furnishing not less than 150 % of rated capacity at a head of not less than 65 % of the rated head. The shut-off head shall not exceed 120 % of rated head in the case of horizontal pumps and 140 % in the case of vertical turbine type pumps. Each pump shall be provided with a plate giving, in the case of centrifugal pumps, the delivery head, capacity and the number of revolutions per minute and in the case of reciprocating pumps, the diameter of the steam cylinders and water plungers and the length of stroke as also the ratios of the effective aggregate areas of the suction and the delivery valves to the area of the water plungers. In case of electrically driven pumps it is recommended that compression ignition engine driven stationary pump of similar capacity be installed as a standby and vice versa. However, where the hydrant service consists of more than one pump, not more than half the total number (total number + 1 in case of odd number) of pumps shall have prime movers of one type. (The above provision is not applicable to systems commissioned before 1982). Notwithstanding the above, if power to motorised fire pumps is obtained from two sources, one of which is a captive generating plant located in a block either 6 m away from all surrounding buildings, where this is not feasible, segregated from adjoining building in a manner indicated in rule 7.4.3.1 more than half the total number of pumps may be of the electrically driven type.

7.4.1.6

7.4.1.7

7.4.1.8

Each fire service pump shall be provided with an independent suction pipe without any sluice or cutoff valves therein, unless the pump is situated below the level of the water supply in which case sluice or cut-off valves would be essential. Where the water supply has fibrous or equally objectionable matter in suspension or mud and/or sand liable to cause accumulation in the installation, suction pipe(s) shall be installed in a jack well fed through a culvert from the main water supply. At the supply end of the culvert, a sluice or gate valve shall be provided.
NOTE - The suction pipe shall be connected to the pump inlet through an eccentric reducer to avoid

air pockets. 7.4.1.9 The diameter of the suction pipe shall be such that the rate of flow of water through it does not exceed 90 m. per minute when the pump is delivering at its rated discharge. If, however, the pump is situated below the level of its water supply, the diameter of the suction pipe/header shall be based upon a rate of flow not exceeding 120 m. per minute.

7.4.1.10 Where the pump is to operate under suction lift conditions, the Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) available at site shall be 0.50 m in excess of the actual value required at 150 % of the duty point as per the manufacturers curve of the pump.
NOTE For the purpose of the above, NPSH available at site shall be computed by deducting the sum

of the static lift (measured from the low water level, defined in rule 7.3, upto the centre line of the pump) and friction loss in the suction pipe and fittings from atmospheric pressure. 7.4.1.11 Fire Pumps in High Hazard (B) category occupancies shall be provided with positive suction and automatic starting devices capable of sequential starting of the pumps. The pumps shall be connected to audible alarm such as hooter or a siren located in a prominent place outside the pump house. Where there is a central fire station in the premises, additional alarm point shall also be provided in the fire station. The pumping arrangement shall also incorporate Jockey Pumps to take care of system losses. The capacity of the Jockey Pumps shall neither be more than 5 % of the installed pumping capacity nor less than 3 % thereof (with a minimum of 10.8 m3/hr.) unless the aggregate installed pumping capacity is in excess of 820 m3/hr, in which case the capacity of the Jockey Pump (s) shall be not less than 25 m3/hr plus 1 % of the installed pumping capacity in excess of 820 m3/hr. Installation of Jockey Pumps also helps to prevent hydraulic surges. 7.4.1.12 In the case of Light, Ordinary and High Hazard (A) category occupancies, when the pump is above the level of its water supply, there shall be a foot valve and a `priming' arrangement, the latter consisting of a tank (having a capacity at least three times that of the suction pipe from the pump to the foot valve subject to a minimum of 1000 litres) connected to the delivery side of the pump by a metal pipe having a minimum internal diameter of 100 mm with a stop valve and a non return valve therein of the same size. A reliable independent filling arrangement and a level indicator shall be provided for the priming tank and, wherever feasible, a continuous overflow arrangement shall be provided in order to ensure that the tank is always full. It is recommended that for pumps taking suction from a stored water supply, a vortex plate shall be installed at entrance to the suction pipe.

Wherever circumstances permit, the pumps shall preferably be fixed below the level of the water supply (positive suction). If the pumps are automatic in action, they shall necessarily be so fixed. However, if the priming arrangements are such as to ensure that the suction pipe shall be automatically maintained full of water notwithstanding a serious leakage therefrom (the pump being automatically brought into action to replenish the priming tank should the latter be drawn upon at a greater rate than the rate at which it is fed from any other source), positive suction may not be insisted. In such cases, the capacity of the priming tank need not exceed 450 litres and the diameter of the priming pipe need not exceed 50 mm. Jockey Pump(s) of capacity indicated in rule 7.4.1.11 shall, nevertheless, be provided in systems where the main pumps are automatic in action. Where pump(s) are automatic in action they shall be connected to audible alarm such as hooter or siren located in a prominent place outside the pump house. Where there is a central fire station in the premises, additional alarm point shall also be provided in the fire station.
NOTE - For the purpose of rules 7.4.1.8, 7.4.1.9, 7.4.1.11 and 7.4.1.12 a pump shall be considered as

having positive suction only if the quantity of water in the reservoir above the low water level (see
N.B. under rule 7.3) or the top of the pump casing, whichever is higher is equivalent to the

requirements of Table 1. 7.4.1.13 Each pump shall be provided with a non-return valve and a sluice valve on the delivery side, the sluice valve being installed on the upstream side of the non-return valve. A pressure gauge shall also be provided between the pump and the non-return valve. The size of the non-return valve and cut off (sluice) valve shall not be less than the size of the initial delivery pipe and, in no case, less than the delivery outlet of the pump. Further, as Butterfly Valves can create turbulence adversely affecting the pump performance no Butterfly valve shall be installed on the suction side. 7.4.1.14 When the premises are also protected by sprinkler installation having elevated tank(s) as one of the main sources of water supply, and where the arrangement for filling the tank(s) is taken from the hydrant service, the connection shall be taken directly from the pump to the top of the tank (through a stop valve) and not through the hydrant mains. (See fig. below)

7.4.1.15 Pumps shall not be installed in open. The pump rooms shall normally have brick/concrete walls and non-combustible roof, with adequate lighting, ventilation and drainage arrangements. The pump room shall be so located as to be both easily accessible and where any falling masonry and the like from other buildings occasioned by fire or other cause, cannot damage the pump room.

Normally, pump rooms shall be located 6 m away from all surrounding buildings and overhead structures. Where this is not feasible the sides of the pump room falling within 6 m of the surrounding buildings shall be blank masonry walls of 355 mm thickness and the roof of the pump room shall be of RCC. Likewise, when the pump room is attached to a building a perfect party wall complying with the committee's regulations shall be constructed between the pump room and the attached building, the roof of the pump room shall be of RCC construction at least 100 mm thick and access to the pump room shall be from the outside. In no case shall the pump from be sited within a building occupied for any other purpose. N.B. for High Hazard (B) occupancies, in addition to the above provisions, the pump room shall be located 30 m clear of all equipment where flammable fluids having flash point below 65o C are handled and/or stored and 15 m clear of pipes/pipe racks (of other than water.). This provision shall, however, not apply to systems commissioned before 1982. 7.4.2 7.4.2.1 STEAM DRIVEN PUMPS The capacity of steam driven pumps shall be based on the economical speed recommended by the makers, and the pumps shall be provided with a suitable air vessel, steam and water pressure gauges. The working parts of the water ends shall be of non-corrosive metal. Pumps shall not be used for boiler feeding or any other purpose, except for filling the elevated sprinkler tank(s). There shall be at least two boilers connected to the pump, out of whom one shall be under pressure at all times. Steam at a pressure of 4.2 kg/cm2 or more if specified by the makers shall be available at the pump at all times. The ratio of the area of the steam cylinders to water cylinders shall not be less than 2.5 to 1. A relief valve of adequate size shall be fitted on the delivery side of the pump and set at a pressure of not more than 1 kg/cm2 above the delivery pressure of the pump, and if of weight and lever type, the weight, when set, shall be secured and locked in that position. The diameter of the suction pipe shall in no case be less than that of the pump plungers. The steam pipe to the pump shall not traverse ground not under the control of the owner of the installation, nor a public roadway. ELECTRICALLY DRIVEN PUMPS The sub-station(s) and/or D.G. house(s)-supplying power to the fire pump(s) shall be of incombustible construction and shall be located at least 6 m away from all surrounding buildings. Where this is not feasible, all door and window openings of the surrounding buildings within 6 m of the sub-station(s) and/or D.G. house(s) shall be protected by single fireproof doors and 6 mm thick wired glasses in steel framework respectively. Like-wise, roof eaves, if any, of the surrounding buildings falling within 6 m of the sub-station(s) and/or D.G. house(s) shall be cut and wall raised as a parapet. The above provisions shall also apply when the sub-station(s) and D.G. house(s) are within 6 m of each other.

7.4.2.2 7.4.2.3 7.4.2.4 7.4.2.5 7.4.2.6

7.4.2.7 7.4.2.8

7.4.3 7.4.3.1

Where the sub-station(s) and/or D.G. house(s) are attached to buildings, perfect party walls complying with the Committee's regulations shall be constructed to segregate the sub-station(s) and/or D.G. house(s) from the attached buildings and where the attached building is storeyed, the roof of the sub-station(s) and/or D.G. house(s) shall be of R.C.C. construction of at least 100 mm thickness. Transformer cubicles inside these sub-stations shall be separated from H.T. and L.T. cubicles and from each other by blank walls of bricks/stone/concrete blocks of 355 mm thickness or of R.C.C of 200 mm with door openings, if any therein, protected by single fireproof doors complying with the Committee's regulations. The sub-station(s) and D.G. house(s) shall also be separated from each other as above.

Transformers installed outdoors, which are supplying power to fire Pump(s), shall also be located atleast 6 m away from all surrounding buildings (including sub-station(s) and/or D.G. house(s). Where this is not feasible all door and window openings of the building(s) [including sub-station(s) and/or D.G. house(s).] within 6 m of the transformer shall be protected by single fireproof doors and 6mm thick wired glasses in steel framework respectively. Likewise, roof eaves of the building(s) falling within 6 m of the transformer shall be cut and wall raised as a parapet. Baffle walls of bricks/stone/concrete blocks of 355 mm thickness or of R.C.C. of 200 mm thickness shall be constructed between two transformers and these walls shall be extended horizontally 600 mm beyond the extremities of the transformers and vertically 600 mm above the highest point of the transformers.
NOTES

1.

Where oil capacity of the individual transformer is larger than 5,000 litres separating walls must be provided in between the transformers and a clear distance as per the following table shall be maintained between the transformers and the substation
CLEAR SEPARATING DISTANCE (m)

OIL CAPACITY OF INDIVIDUAL TRANSFORMER

5,000 to 10,000 litres Above 10,000 upto 20,000 litres Above 20,000 upto 30,000 litres Over 30,000 litres

8.0 10.0 12.5 15

2.

For High Hazard (B) occupancies, substation(s) supplying power to the fire pump(s) shall, in addition to complying with the above provisions, be located 30 m clear of all equipment where flammable fluids having flash point below 65o C are handled and/or stored.

7.4.3.2

Electric supply feeder (s) to sub-station(s) supplying power to fire pump shall as far as possible, consist of armoured cables buried underground which shall not pass under any building or permanent structures. If the feeders are laid inside an underground cable duct/ gallery, they shall be placed in a corner of the duct/gallery and shall be isolated from other cables in the duct/gallery by means of fire bricks/sand packing/other suitable passive protection of at least an hour fire rating. Under extenuating circumstances, where it is not feasible to lay the feeders underground, the Committee may permit overhead feeders provided they do not fall within a horizontal distance of A) B) 15 m of any process buildings/plant or tanks containing flammable liquids. Or 6 m of any other building or tanks containing nonflammable liquids or of storage in open.

7.4.3.3

NOTE: in case of high hazard (B) occupancies, all substations (except main receiving station in the route of the electrical supply to the fire pump (s) which receive power by overhead feeders shall be provided with two sets of feeders which, apart from conforming with the above distance provisions, shall be run along two different routes in such a way that failure of more than one route due to a single mishap would be only a remote possibility. A direct feeder without any tappings shall be laid from the sub-station to the pump house. The feeder shall consist of an armoured cable buried underground and shall not pass under any building or permanent structure. The cable run inside the substation from the breaker upto its point of burial or entry into cable duct/gallery shall be provided with suitable passive protection of at least an hour fire rating. If the feeder is laid inside an underground cable duct/gallery, it shall be placed in a corner of the duct/gallery and shall be isolated from other cables in the duct/gallery by means of fire bricks/sand packing/other suitable passive protection of at least an hour fire rating. Under extenuating circumstances, where it is not feasible to lay the feeders underground, the committee may permit overhead feeders provided they do not fall within a horizontal distance of A) B) 15 m of any process buildings/plant or tanks containing flammable liquids. Or 6 m of any other building or tanks containing nonflammable liquids or of storage in open.

NOTE - In case of High Hazard `B' occupancies if the feeder to the fire pump (s) is not buried underground, two sets of feeder shall be provided which shall A) conform to the above distance provisions

B)

be run along two different routes in such a way that failure of more than one route due to a single mishap would be only a remote possibility.

7.4.3.4 7.4.3.5

Sufficient spare power shall always be available to drive pumping set(s) at all times throughout the year. The electric supply to the pumping set(s) shall be entirely independent of all other equipment in the premises i.e. even when the power throughout the entire premises is switched off, the supply to the pump shall continue to be available un-interrupted. This can be achieved by taking the connection for the pump(s) from the incoming side of the main L.T breaker. However, in cases where two or more transformers and/or sources of supply are connected to a common bus bar the connection may be taken through the bus bars. (See figures below)

7.4.3.6

The fire pump circuit shall be protected at the origin by an automatic circuit breaker so set as to permit the motor to be overloaded during an emergency to the maximum limit permissible by the manufacturers. Further, the under voltage release/`no volt coil of the circuit breaker shall be removed. N.B - Where cable lengths are long enough to warrant back-up protection, the Committee may insist on provision of such a protection.

7.4.3.7

It is recommended that telltale lamps, which would continuously glow when power is available to the fire pump(s) circuit, be provided and fixed in a prominent position, both in the substation and in the pump room. Where there is more than one source of power for the operation of pumping set(s) every electrical circuit shall preferably be so designed as to ensure that when necessary, the set(s) will continue to operate without the manual operation of an emergency switch. The pumping set(s) shall be securely mounted on a robust bedplate, if of the horizontal type, and shall be free from vibration at all variations of load.

7.4.3.8

7.4.3.9

7.4.3.10 The rating and design of motors and switchgears shall conform to the relevant Indian Standards Specification. The motor shall be of continuous rating type and its rating shall be at least equivalent to the horsepower required to drive the pump at 150 % of its rated discharge. (See rule 7.4.1.5) 7.4.3.11 The motor shall be of totally enclosed type or drip proof type, the latter having their air inlets and outlets protected with meshed wire panels to exclude rodents, reptiles and insects.

7.4.3.12 The motors shall be wound for Class B insulation preferably for Class E and the windings shall be vacuum impregnated with heat and moisture resisting varnish and preferably glass fibre insulated to withstand tropical conditions. 7.4.3.13 Motors wound for high tension supplies shall have a suitable fixed warming resistance to maintain the motor windings in a dry condition at all times and particularly under monsoon conditions. The resistance shall be connected to the lighting or other equivalent circuit. 7.4.3.14 Heating apparatus shall also be provided, when necessary, for medium tension motors where they are located below ground level, in order to maintain the motor windings in a dry condition. Adequate drainage arrangements shall also be provided in the pump house in such cases. 7.4.3.15 The incoming cable to the fire pump room shall terminate in an isolating switch fuse unit incorporating HRC fuses and where necessary provided with a distribution system. 7.4.3.16 The starting switchgear for the fire pumps shall be suitable for direct on line starting but other alternative arrangements are subject to prior approval. It shall also incorporate an ammeter with a clear indication of the motor full load current. N.B. Remote controlled starting arrangements are subject to prior approval of the Committee. 7.4.3.17 Cables for motors and switchgear shall be armoured or be enclosed in heavy gauge screwed steel conduit according to conditions. 7.4.3.18 It is recommended that equipment throughout be painted fire red (Shade No. 536 as per IS: 5) and suitably marked for identification. 7.4.3.19 Necessary spare parts including a set of fuses (in a glass-fronted box) shall be kept in readiness at all times in the pump house. 7.4.3.20 The wiring in all installations shall be done in accordance with the rules for Electrical Installations 1998 issued by the Tariff Advisory Committee. 7.4.4 7.4.4.1 PETROL OR MOTOR SPIRIT ENGINE DRIVEN PUMPS: (ACCEPTED ONLY WHERE INSTALLED PRIOR TO 1976): The pump room shall be artificially heated, if necessary, so as to prevent its temperature from falling below 4.5 C at any time.
NOTES -

1. 2. 3.

Low-pressure hot water, steam or hot air apparatus or electric radiators only shall be used. If electric radiators are used, the Tariff Advisory Committee shall approve the same. Vapour-proof incandescent electric lighting shall be used for the pump house. Naked lights are not permitted. Switches in connection with electric lighting or heating shall be located outside the pump room, but if this is not practicable, they shall be of flame-proof type conforming to the relevant Indian Standards Specification (IS : 5571)

7.4.4.2

The engine shall be fitted with dual ignition (magneto and accumulator with coil with separate sparking plugs to each), which shall be so arranged that the engine may be worked on either ignition independently. The magneto shall be of the high-tension type. A voltmeter shall be provided and so arranged that the voltage of the accumulator or battery can be ascertained at will. Except in cases where an independent electric supply is readily available the engine shall be fitted with and shall work a small low voltage dynamo, from which the accumulator can be recharged when necessary while the engine is running on the magneto. The conductors from the magneto and accumulator to the sparking plugs shall be run in metal tubes to protect them against injury. The opening to the atmosphere from the induction pipe shall be fitted with a flame trap. The engine shall be governor controlled. The following spare parts shall be kept readily to hand a) b) c) d) e) f)
One complete set of piston rings for each cylinder, Two high tension sparking plugs for each cylinder. Two valves suitable for inlet or exhaust complete with springs, cotters and washers, One complete filter for petrol pump feed with cork gasket Two springs for each spring used in the engine, One complete set of cylinder head and other gaskets.

7.4.4.3 7.4.4.4 7.4.4.5

7.4.4.6 7.4.4.7 7.4.4.8 7.4.4.9

7.4.4.10 The engine shall be so arranged that, if necessary, it may be readily and immediately started by one person. 7.4.4.11 The petrol or motor spirit tank from which the engine is fed shall be fitted with a gauge glass or suitable indicator (which shall be protected against mechanical injury) showing the quantity of petrol or motor spirit contained therein. The tank shall have a holding capacity sufficient to run the engine at full load for about 24 hours. All joints in the petrol piping shall be brazed. 7.4.4.12 There shall be kept on hand at all times sufficient petrol or motor spirit to run the engine at full load for about 24 hours. 7.4.4.13 The reserve supply of petrol or motor spirit shall be stored in a safe position, away from the pump house. 7.4.4.14 Petrol or motor spirit only shall be used. The use of other substance, such as paraffin, shall not be allowed. 7.4.4.15 A written declaration shall be given by the insured that the following conditions will be strictly complied with -

a) The engine shall be tested twice a week for atleast 10 minutes each time. b) The temperature of the pump room shall be maintained not less than 4.5oC (or 40o F) at all times. c) The minimum quantity of petrol or motor spirit required as stated in 7.4.4.12 shall be maintained in a
safe position away from the pump house.

d) Motor spirit only shall be used for driving the engine. e) Spare parts as required in 7.4.4.9 shall be kept readily to hand. 7.4.5 7.4.5.1 COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE DRIVEN PUMPS PUMP ROOM: The Pump Room shall be artificially heated, if necessary, to maintain the temperature of the room above 10o C. Adequate ventilation shall be provided for the air required for aspiration and to limit the temperature rise in the room to 10o C above the ambient temperature when the engine is on full load. 7.4.5.2 ENGINE:

7.4.5.2.1 The Engine shall be a) of the compression ignition mechanical direct injection type, capable of being started without the use of wicks, cartridges, heater plugs or ether, at an engine room temperature of 7oC and shall accept full load within 15 seconds from the receipt of the signal to start.

b) Naturally aspirated, supercharged or turbo-charged and either air or water-cooled. In the case of charge air cooling by means of a belt-driven fan or of a belt driven auxiliary water pump there shall be multiple belts such that should half the belts break, the remaining belts would be capable of driving the fan or pump. c) Capable of operating continuously on full load at the site elevation for a period of six hours.

d) provided with an adjustable governor to control the engine speed within 10% of its rated speed under any condition of load upto the full load rating. The governor shall be set to maintain rated pump speed at maximum pump load. e) provided with an in-built tachometer to indicate R.P.M. of the engine.

7.4.5.2.2 Any manual device fitted to the Engine that could prevent the engine starting shall return automatically to the normal position. 7.4.5.2.3 Engines, after correction for altitude and ambient temperature, shall have bare engine horsepower rating equivalent to the higher of the following two values a) 20 % in excess of the maximum brake horsepower required to drive the pump at its duty point.

b) The brake horsepower required driving the pump at 150 % of its rated discharge.
NOTE: In the case of engines guaranteed by the manufacturers as capable of being overloaded by 10% at the rated speed for one hour in any period of 12 hours consecutive running, the value under (b) above may be considered as 10% lower than the horse power required to drive the pump at 150 % of its rated discharge.

7.4.5.2.4 The coupling between the engine and the pump shall allow each unit to be removed without disturbing the other. 7.4.5.3 COOLING SYSTEM: The following systems are acceptable a) Cooling by water from the discharge of fire pump (taken off prior to the pump discharge valve) direct into the engine cylinder jackets via a pressure reducing device to limit the applied pressure to a safe value as pacified by the engine manufacturer. The outlet connection from this system shall terminate atleast 150 mm above the engine water outlet pipe and be directed into an open tundish so that the discharge water is visible.

b) a heat exchanger, the raw water being supplied from the fire pump discharge (taken off prior to the pump discharge valve) via a pressure-reducing device, if necessary, to limit the applied pressure to a safe value as specified by the engine manufacturer. The raw water outlet connection shall be so designed that the discharged water can be readily observed. The water in the closed circuit shall be circulated by means of an auxiliary pump driven from the engine and the capacity of the closed circuit shall not be less than that recommended by the engine manufacturer. If the auxiliary pump is belt driven there shall be a multiple belt so that should half the belts break, the remaining belts shall be capable of driving the pump. c) a frame or engine mounted air cooled radiator with a multiple fan belt driven from the engine. When half the belts are broken the remaining belts shall be capable of driving the fan. The water in the closed circuit shall be circulated by means of an auxiliary pump driven by the engine and the capacity of the closed circuit shall be not less than that recommended by the engine manufacturer.

d) direct air cooling of the engine by means of multiple belt driven fans. When half the belts are broken the remaining belts shall be capable of driving the fan.
NOTE: In case of systems described in (b) (c) & (d) above a failure actuated audio-visual alarm shall be incorporated.

7.4.5.4

AIR FILTRATION: The air intake shall be fitted with a filter of adequate size to prevent foreign matter entering the engine.

7.4.5.5

EXHAUST SYSTEM: The exhaust shall be fitted with a suitable silencer and the total backpressure shall not exceed the engine maker's recommendation. When the exhaust system rises above the engine, means shall be provided to prevent any condensate flowing into the engine.

7.4.5.6

ENGINE SHUT-DOWN MECHANISM: This shall be manually operated and return automatically to the starting position after use.

7.4.5.7

FUEL SYSTEM:

7.4.5.7.1 FUEL: The engine fuel oil shall be of quality and grade specified by engine makers. There shall be kept on hand at all times sufficient fuel to run the engine on full load for six hours, in addition to that in the engine fuel tank. 7.4.5.7.2 FUEL TANK: The fuel tank shall be of welded steel constructed to relevant Indian or Foreign Standard for Mild Steel Drums. The tank shall be mounted above the engine fuel pump to give gravity feed unless otherwise recommended by the manufacturer. The tank shall be fitted with an indicator showing the level of the fuel in the tank. The capacity of the tank shall be sufficient to allow the engine to run on full load for CLASS OF HAZARD Light Hazard Ordinary Hazard High Hazard (A) High Hazard (B) CAPACITY 2 Hours 4 Hours 6 Hours 8 Hours

NOTE: where there is more than one compression ignition engine driven pump set there shall be a separate fuel tank and fuel feed pipe for each engine. 7.4.5.7.3 FUEL FEED PIPES: Any valve in the fuel feed pipe between the fuel tank and the engine shall be placed adjacent to the tank and it shall be locked in the open position. Pipe joints shall not be soldered and plastic tubing shall not be used. 7.4.5.7.4 AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT The following shall be provided a) b) c) d) e) A sludge and sediment trap A fuel level gauge An inspection and cleaning hole. A filter between the fuel tank and fuel pump mounted in an accessible position for cleaning. Means to enable the entire fuel system to be bled of air. Air relief cocks are not allowed; screwed plugs are permitted.

7.4.5.8

STARTING MECHANISM: Provision shall be made for two separate methods of engine starting viz.a) Automatic starting by means of a battery powered electric starter motor incorporating the axial displacement type of pinion, having automatic repeat start facilities initiated by a fall in pressure in the water supply pipe to the sprinkler and/or hydrant installation. The battery capacity shall be adequate for ten consecutive starts without recharging with a cold engine under full compression.

b) Manual starting by -

i) ii)

Crank handle, if engine size permits Or Electric starter motor.

NOTE: The starter motor used for automatic starting may also be used for manual starting provided there are separate batteries for manual starting. 7.4.5.9 BATTERY CHARGING: The means of charging the batteries shall be by a 2-rate trickle charger with manual selection of boost charge and the batteries shall be charged in position. Where separate batteries are provided for automatic and manual starting the charging equipment shall be capable of trickle charging both the batteries simultaneously. Equipment shall be provided to enable the state of charge of the batteries to be determined. 7.4.5.10 TOOLS: A standard kit of tools shall be provided with the engine and kept on hand at all times. 7.4.5.11 SPARE PARTS: The following spare parts shall be supplied with the engine and kept on hand a) b) c) d) e) f) g) Two sets of fuel filters, elements and seals. Two sets of lubricating oil filters, elements and seals. Two sets of belts (where used) One complete set of engine-joints, gaskets and hoses, Two injector nozzles, One complete set of piston rings for each cylinder, One inlet valve and one exhaust valve

7.4.5.12 ENGINE EXERCISING: The test shall be for a period of at least five minutes each day. Where closed circuit cooling systems are used the water level in the primary system shall be checked at the time of carrying out each test and, if necessary, water shall be added during the course of the test procedure. 7.4.5.13 A written declaration shall be given that the following conditions will be strictly complied with a) b) c) d) e) 7.5 7.5.1 To test the engine at least once a week. To maintain the temperature of the engine room at not less than 4.5 deg. C at all times. To maintain the minimum quantity of fuel oil required as desired in these clauses. To use a good grade of fuel oil equivalent in quality to that specified by the engine maker. To keep on hand the spare parts required as specified in 7.4.5.11.

MAINS: The hydrants mains shall normally be laid underground or in masonry culverts with removable covers of incombustible construction and shall be of any one of the following types a) Cast Iron double flanged pipes conforming to the following standards -

TYPE OF PIPES Horizontally Cast Iron Pipes Vertically Cast Iron Pipes Centrifugally Cast (Spun) Iron Pipes

CLASS OF PIPES B A A

IS CODE IS: 7181 IS: 1537 IS: 1536

N.B. In case of vertically cast pipes, where the nominal diameter of the pipes exceeds 300 mm or where the pump delivery pressure exceeds 7-kg/sq. cm2, Class `B' pipes would be necessary. b) Centrifugally Cast (Spun) Iron Class `A Pipes with Tyton Joints (Rubber gasketed) c) Wrought or mild steel pipes (galvanised or un-galvanised) of Medium grade conforming to IS: 1239 or IS: 3589 having welded joints and coated and wrapped as per IS: 10221. (MS pipes may be allowed for extension of existing systems which are laid with CI pipes with prior approval of the Committee.) Haliday Testing for Wrapping and Coating is essential. At least 10 % of all the welded joints shall be rediographically tested and half of the joints radiographed shall be the field joints. d) Un-plasticized PVC Class 4 pipes conforming to IS 4985 and HDPE pipes conforming to IS: 4984. N.B. These pipes are permitted for use in Light Hazard Occupancies for underground mains only. 7.5.2 Underground CI Mains shall be laid such that the top of the pipe is not less than one metre below the ground level and masonry or equivalent supports shall be provided at regular intervals. As far as possible MS Steel pipes shall also be laid 1m below ground level. NOTES 1) Where applicable, Radiography Test Certificate and films for welded joints of mild steel pipes and Haliday Test Certificate for coating and wrapping of underground mild steel pipes shall be submitted before the final inspection. Haliday Testing may preferably be carried by flexible and detachable ring probe, which will enable the entire 360o of the surface of the pipe to be scanned. 2) In case of poor soil conditions, it may be necessary to provide continuous masonry or equivalent supports. 7.5.3 Mains above ground shall be medium grade wrought or mild steel (galvanised or un-galvanised) conforming to IS: 1239 or IS: 3589 with welded, threaded or flanged joints, adequately supported at regular intervals on masonry or RCC stools or pedestals and not on pipe racks. The spacing of supports shall be 3.5 m for 80, 100 and 125 mm dia. pipes, 5m for 150, 200 and 250 mm dia pipes and 7 m for above 250 mm dia pipes. Pipes shall be run at least 6 m away from the face of the buildings and open storage areas in case of Light and Ordinary Hazard Occupancies and 15 m. in case of High Hazard Occupancies.

7.5.4

Mains shall not be laid under buildings. Where, however, circumstances necessitate laying of mains under buildings, prior permission of the Committee shall be obtained and the portion of mains falling under the buildings shall be laid in masonry trenches with removable covers and cut-off valves shall be provided at points of entry and exit. As far as possible, mains shall not be laid under large open storages, railroads and roads carrying heavy traffic. The mains shall not traverse ground that is not under the control of the owner of the installation nor under a public roadway. The Tariff Advisory Committee may, at their discretion, relax this requirement in extenuating circumstances. The system shall be capable of withstanding for two hours a pressure equivalent to 150 % of the maximum working pressure. While hydro-testing inclusion of cut-off valves in the mains to be tested should be avoided. All boltholes in flanges shall be drilled. The drilling of each flange shall be in accordance with the relevant Indian Standards. Flanges shall be faced and have jointing of rubber insertion or asbestos compound. Fittings installed underground shall be of cast iron `heavy' grade conforming to IS: 1538 or BS: 1641 whereas those installed above ground shall normally be of `Medium' grade wrought steel or mild steel conforming to IS: 1239 Part II or malleable iron fittings conforming to IS: 1879, parts I to X. Mains shall be laid in rings (excepting as specified to N.B 4 below) and their sizes shall be as per Tables 3 & 3A but the size of the initial pipe shall not, in any case, be less than the internal diameter of the delivery outlet of the pump. TABLE 3 (FOR LIGHT HAZARD OCCUPANCIES)
NO. OF HYDRANTS IN THE WHOLE SYSTEM SIZE OF MAINS (MM)

7.5.5

7.5.6

7.5.7 7.5.8 7.5.9

7.5.10

% AGE OF ALL MAINS INCLUDING TERMINAL MAINS AND RISERS *

1 to 20 21 to 55 56 to 100

100 125 110 125 100

100 % 45 % 55 % 60 % 40 %

TABLE - 3 A (FOR ORDINARY HAZARD OCCUPANCIES)

Exceeding 100

* 80 mm diameter terminal and/or riser mains shall be taken as 100 mm diameter mains for this purpose.
NOTES -

1) In calculating the number of hydrants in the system, a double headed hydrant shall be counted as two, a fixed monitor of 63 mm size having nozzle bore of 32 mm shall be counted as three, a fixed monitor of 75 mm size having nozzle bore of 38 mm shall be counted as four and a fixed monitor of 100 mm size having nozzle bore of 45 mm as six hydrant points. In case of Oil Refineries, Petrochemical complexes or other risks, where double headed hydrants are used throughout the system so that the total number of hydrants (counting a double headed hydrant as two hydrants) is about double the number of hydrants required as per the general requirements of this Manual, a double headed hydrant may be regarded as a single hydrant only. 2) For High Hazard occupancies, the hydrant system shall be hydraulically so designed that when half the aggregate pumping capacity is being discharged at the farthest/hydraulically most remote point and the other half in the most vulnerable area enroute, a minimum running pressure of 5.25 kg/sq. cm is available at the former point and the rate of flow of water does not exceed 5 m/second anywhere in the system. In case the hydraulically most remote point is the area determining the fire pump capacity, the entire aggregate pumping capacity shall be considered as being discharged at this point at a minimum running pressure of 5.25 kg/cm2 and the hydrant system shall be so designed that the rate of flow of water does not exceed 5 m/second anywhere in the system. In case the hydraulically most remote point happens to be, pressure requirement at this point can be restricted to 3.5 kg/cm2. However pressure available at the high hazard area immediately preceding the ordinary/light hazard area must be 5.25 kg/sq. cm.

NO. OF HYDRANTS IN THE WHOLE SYSTEM

SIZE OF MAINS (MM)

% AGE OF ALL MAINS INCLUDING TERMINAL MAINS AND RISERS *

01 to 05 06 to 20 21 to 55

100 125 100 150 125 100 150 125 100

100 % 40 % 60 % 20 % 35 % 45 % 25 % 40 % 35 %

56 to 100

See NB 3 (a) and 3 (b) hereunder

3) For Light and Ordinary Hazard Occupancies having more than 55 points, either of the following methods may be followed a) The hydrant service be constituted of single or more than one inter-connected hydrant systems, each with its individual pump set according to Table 2 and water supplies equivalent to the aggregate requirements of the number of pump sets installed.

b) A single hydrant system may be installed provided, it is hydraulically designed (where the highest hydrant is located more than 20 m above ground level, pre calculated systems shall not be accepted) as per the parameters indicated in N.B. 2 above, except that minimum running pressure shall be 3.5 kg/sq. cm. Instead of 5.25 kg/sq. cm (minimum diameter of the pipe used in the ring mains shall however not be less than 100 mm). 4) In the case of riser mains in storeyed buildings and in locations where it is not feasible to lay a ring main, a terminal main may be provided, but in no case shall the number of hydrants on such terminal mains exceed 5. A terminal main of 80 mm diameter shall not feed more than one hydrant, that having a diameter of 100 mm shall not feed more than two hydrants, that having a diameter of 125 mm shall not feed more than three hydrants and a main of 150 mm shall not feed more than five hydrants. The Committee may, at their discretion, permit more than five hydrants on riser mains of storeyed structures. 5) In case of systems designed on the basis of pressure loss calculations, the piping routes selected along with nodal point commemorating with the pressure loss calculation sheets should be distinctly marked in the drawing. 7.5.11 Cut-off (Isolating) valves are necessary to obtain the best possible pressure at the seat of fire as they enable a damaged portion of the installation to be isolated whilst full pressure is available throughout the remainder. These valves are distributed according to the general layout of the installation and not according to fixed rules. For this reason, the proposed position of these valves shall have the prior approval of the Committee. Cut-off valves shall conform to IS: 780, PN 1.0/IS: 2906, Class 2 or AP9600 in case of Cast Steel Valves of class 150. NOTES 1. In case of system having working pressure in excess of 7 kg/cm2 PN- 1.6 rating would be necessary for valves conforming to IS: 780 and Class 3 for those conforming to IS: 2906. Cast Steel valves of class 150 are, however, acceptable irrespective of the working pressure of the system. 2. 3. 7.5.12 Other types of valves like rising spindle valves may be used, subject to prior approval of the Committee. Butterfly valves also can be accepted subject to the condition that the valves of diameter exceeding 150 mm shall necessary be of gear operated.

All cut-off valves shall be of the right-hand type and enclosed in properly constructed surface box, at least 1 m2 so as to allow for broken joints being easily remade. The top of the surface box shall be 80

mm above ground level, except where it is locate on a road. Valve wheels shall have an arrowhead engraved or cast thereon showing direction for turning `open' and `close'. 7.5.13 It is recommended that the position of the surface box be indicated by an iron plate painted `fire red' with distinct lettering. Such plates shall also show the `open' and `close' direction as cast or indicated on the valves and the serial no. of the sluice valve also should be indicated. In case of installations in earthquake prone zones, some form of flexible couplings approved by the Committee shall be used for jointing purposes. HYDRANTS/FIXED MONITORS: Water shall be available immediately to all hydrants/fixed monitors at all times, with all cut-off valves being kept open. Before final inspection the hydrant system shall be flushed thoroughly. Connections for any purpose other than fire fighting are not permitted from the hydrant/fixed monitor/stand post or from any portion of the hydrant service. Except where impracticable, all hydrant outlets shall be situated 1 m. above ground level. The stand posts shall be 80 mm in diameter for single headed hydrants. 100 mm for double-headed hydrants and monitors of 63 mm or 75 mm size and 150 mm for monitor of 100 mm size. It is recommended that stand posts be painted `fire red' (shade No.536 as per IS:5) and numbered for easy identification. Permission to install hydrants below ground level will be given in very special cases only. Where such permission has been given, the hydrants shall be properly enclosed in a surface box of cast iron or masonry 750 mm square and 80 mm above ground level, the top of he hydrant outlet being not more than 80 mm below the top of the box. Only oblique hydrants conforming to IS: 5290 of Type A with outlets angled towards ground shall be used. The hydrant couplings shall be of gun metal/stainless steel of the instantaneous spring-lock (female) type of 63 mm diameter and valves shall be of the screw down type. Branch pipe/nozzle of monitor shall be of gun metal/ stainless steel.
N.B - Orifice plates of suitable design may be provided for hydrants where the pressure exceeds 7 kg.

7.5.14

7.6 7.6.1 7.6.2 7.6.3 7.6.4

7.6.5

7.6.6

/cm2.

7.6.7 7.6.8

Double-headed hydrant shall consist of two separate landing valves. A single control valve will not be permitted. Hydrants shall be easily accessible, storage of any kind on or around the hydrant being prohibited. Where hydrants are situated in remote locations, they shall be approachable by means of paved pathways. Hydrants located in situations where they are likely to be damaged by vehicular traffic shall be suitably protected on all sides against possible damage. Hydrants shall be located bearing in mind the attendant fire hazards at the different sections of the premises to be protected and so as to give most effective service. They shall be so distributed as to

7.6.9 7.6.10

provide protection for the buildings on all sides and need not necessarily be equidistant from each other. Advantage shall be taken of convenient door and/or window openings to place hydrants so that only a minimum length of hose is required to reach the openings through which fire may be attacked. In case of continuous blank walls, suitable provision shall be made on the walls near hydrant posts for easy access inside the premises. 7.6.11 At least one hydrant post shall be provided for every 60 m of external wall measurement in case of Light Hazard Occupancy, for every 45 m in case of Ordinary Hazard Occupancy and every 30 m of external wall measurement or perimeter of unit battery limit in case of High Hazard Occupancy. Measurements shall be calculated on the total length of walls of all buildings/perimeter of all battery limits to be protected except in the case of opposite buildings (other than those of High Hazard category) within 22.5 m of each other, where the measurement of the shorter opposing wall may be omitted. Further, all hydrants and monitors should be serially numbered.
NOTE: Notwithstanding the above, hydrants protecting utilities and miscellaneous buildings in High

hazard risks may be spaced at 45 m. 7.6.12 No building shall be deemed to be protected by a hydrant unless such hydrant is within 15 m of the building. Where any part of a building is normally used for storage purpose or where hazardous processes are carried out, there shall be two single or one double headed hydrant within 15 m of the building, the layout being such that two jets of water can be played simultaneously on the highest point of the roof. In case of Buildings/Plants occupied for High Hazard process or storages, the above-specified distance may be increased to 22.5 m. In case of buildings having roofs other than RCC, it is advisable to provide hydrants at the roof level along with access staircases in order to fight the fire by breaking open the roofs, if necessary. 7.6.13 Hydrant heads shall be positioned at distances not less than 2 m from the face of the building or edge of the storage plot to be protected except in the case of high hazard occupancies wherein the hydrant heads shall be located not less than 7.5 m from the face of the building, edge of the storage plot or from the plant battery limits. In case where, owing to the size or layout of the building, or building being divided by internal walls, any point within the building is at a distance of more than 45 m from an external fire hydrant, an internal hydrant system shall be provided so that no portion of the floor is more than 45 m from an external hydrant or 30 m from an internal hydrant. In case of large switchyards, where it is not feasible to lay internal hydrants, alternate hydrants may be replaced by monitors of suitable size. N.B: Distance of 45 m indicated above shall be increased to 60 m for light hazard occupancies and reduced to 30 m for high hazard occupancies. 7.6.15 In case of storeyed buildings, satisfactory access shall be provided to all parts of each floor by means of incombustible internal or external staircases. Normally, a minimum of two such staircases will be

7.6.14

needed per compartment, but in case the area of the compartment exceeds 2,000 sq. m., an additional staircase shall be provided for every additional 1,500 sq. m. or part thereof. On the other hand, if a compartment has a floor area of less than 500 sq. m., one access staircase shall be acceptable. The access staircases shall be so located that, as far as possible, no part of each floor is more than 30 m from the nearest staircase. Where it is not possible to locate the staircase in the aforesaid manner, the Committee may suggest alternative methods for protection of such large upper floors. External access staircases shall be open to sky. The staircases shall conform to the following 7.6.15.1 Internal staircases shall be so located that atleast one of its enclosing walls is an external wall of the building. A door opening shall be provided in this external wall at ground floor level. The enclosing walls shall be of brick work atleast 230 mm thick or reinforced concrete atleast 100 mm thick carried through and atleast 450 mm above the roof of the building, unless the roof is of jack arch or reinforced concrete construction in which case the walls need be carried upto the roof only. Every opening from the staircase to any portion of the building or to a roof used as a floor shall be fitted with a single fireproof door. N.B: The above rule will not apply to buildings, the upper floors of which are occupied by offices, air washer plants, rest rooms, cloak rooms, canteen and the like. 7.6.15.2 External staircases without side covering need not have openings at each floor level protected by single fireproof doors. However, if external staircases are enclosed, they shall be considered equivalent to internal staircases.
NOTE: There shall be no equipment within 2 m of the staircases and/or its landings.

7.6.15.3 Staircases shall be not less than 750 mm clear width with treads not less than and risers not more than 200 mm and under not circumstances shall the staircase have an inclination of more than 60 degrees to the horizontal. NOTE: Iron rung ladders or spiral staircases shall not be acceptable. 7.6.15.4 In the case of enclosed staircases, all windows therein falling within 3 m of any other openings in the building shall normally be protected by wired glass in steel framework in accordance with the Committee's regulations. Conversely, in the case of open-sided staircases, window and door openings of the building falling within 3 m of the staircase shall normally be protected by wired glass in steel framework and single fireproof door respectively in accordance with the Committee's regulations. NOTE: The latter part of this rule shall not apply to buildings, which are essentially open sided. 7.6.15.5 Exits to the access staircases shall always be kept open during working hours. During non-working hours, the exits may be locked from the staircase side only. Locks of all exits shall have one master key, which shall be available either at the main gate, or any other prominent and easily accessible location known to the fire fighting personnel. Alternatively, the key shall be kept in a glass-fronted box or in the hose box on the staircase landing. 7.6.15.6 A hydrant shall be provided on every floor landing which shall not be less than 1.5 m x 1 m. The mains feeding the landing hydrants shall be provided with a cut-off valve at ground level (also see N.B.4 under rule 7.5.10 and rule 7.7.3.3) 7.6.16 Specific requirements for provisions of monitors in plant areas -

7.6.16.1 Tall columns, structure, towers and equipment where it may not be possible to provide access staircases with hydrants on landing thereof as per rule 7.6.15, will be considered as protected by hydrants at ground level, provided they are less than 15 m in height. When the height exceeds 15 m, the concerned hydrants shall be replaced by monitors. 7.6.16.2 Alternate hydrants for protection of loading unloading bays, rail/truck gantries shall be replaced by water/foam monitors. 7.6.17 PROTECTION OF BASEMENTS:

7.6.17.1 Staircases/ramps shall provide access to all parts of the basement directly from the outside of the building at ground level. The number and location of the staircases/ramps shall be such that no part of the basement is more than 45 metres from the nearest staircase/ramp. 7.6.17.2 It is recommended that the staircase/ramp be provided with emergency lighting facilities. Where maintenance of illumination depends upon changing from one energy source to another, there shall be no appreciable interruption of illumination during changeover. Where emergency lighting is provided by means of electric generator, a delay of not more than 10 seconds shall be permitted for changeover. Emergency lighting facilities shall be arranged to maintain proper illumination for a period of oneand-a-half hours in the event of lighting failures. The Emergency lighting system shall be so arranged as to provide sufficient illumination automatically in the event of any interruption of normal lighting. 7.6.17.3 One landing valve shall be provided for each staircase/ramp at each basement level in addition to the provision of a hydrant at the ground level. 7.6.17.4 Proper drainage facility shall be provided to drain the fire-fighting water out of the basement. 7.6.18 Storage of material in the open shall be protected as under Metals, Metallic goods, Machinery and other nonhazardous storage Coal or Coke One single hydrant for every 60 m of storage periphery located beyond 2 m but within 15 m of storage area. One single hydrant for every 45 m of storage periphery located beyond 2 m but within 15 m of storage area. One double hydrant for every 45 m of the storage periphery located beyond 2 m, but within 22.5 m of storage area.

Other storages

NOTES -

1.

In the case of open storage areas of following materials, at least 50 % of hydrant shall be replaced by fixed monitors having nozzle bore of 38 mm diameter if the individual stack height is more than 6 m and total storage exceeds 5,000 tonnes BAMBOO, BAGASSE, GRASS/HAY AND TIMBER

2. 7.6.19

Where hydrants/monitors located along one longer side of a storage area are more than 90 m from those along the other longer side, reference shall be made to the committee.

Hydrants for the protection of combustible/flammable liquid storage tanks shall be located beyond 15 m, but within 35 m of tank shell as specified below DIAMETER OF TANK NO. OF HYDRANTS

Tanks upto 10 m dia. Tanks above 10 m but upto 20 m dia. Tanks above 20 m dia.

One double headed or two single headed hydrants. Two double headed or four single headed hydrants. Three double headed or six single headed hydrants.

NOTES 1. In case tanks are located more than 22.5 m from the dyke walls, one double hydrant or two single hydrants shall be replaced by a 38 mm monitor. (Every alternate monitor should be a foam monitor and a minimum of one such foam monitor should be provided) For the tanks located more than 45 m from the dyke walls, in addition to the monitor(s), the tanks shall be protected by Fixed Foam/Medium Velocity Water Spray System (Manual/Automatic) complying with the Committee's rules. Hydrants/Monitors shall not be installed within dyked enclosures nor can the hydrant main pass through it. Floating roof storage tanks and floating-cum-fixed storage tanks exceeding 30m in diameter and fixed roof storage tanks containing products having flash point below 32o C shall be considered as hydrant protected only if, supplementary medium velocity water spray system or fixed/semi fixed foam system (either automatic or manually operated) conforming to regulations is also provided. In case of foam system, there shall be additional protection by water spray system in the form of a ring along the top edge of the vertical face of the tank. Other than dispensing with additional rings, the supplementary water spray protection shall comply with Committees regulations. 5. 6. Insulated tanks shall also be provided with M.V. Water Spray Protection. No water spray protection is required for ammonia spheres/tanks.

2.

3. 4.

7.

Cryogenic storage tanks and double walled tanks shall be treated on par with the insulated tanks. However, metallic roof of the double walled tanks (RCC or otherwise) will need to be protected with M.V. Water Spray System (mandatory) at a rate of 3 lpm/m2 for the roof portion only. Adequate provision shall be made to promptly and effectively dispose off all liquids from the fire areas during operation of fire protection systems in such areas.

8. 7.6.20

For protection of spheres/bullets, hydrants/monitors shall be located beyond 15 m but within 35 m of the shell of the spheres/bullets. The number of hydrants/monitors shall be governed by the water capacity of the bullets/spheres as specified hereunder WATER CAPACITY NO. OF HYDRANTS

Upto 50 m3

Three single hydrants (or one single + Two double headed hydrants) One monitor + two single (or one double headed hydrants) Two monitors + four single hydrants (or two double headed hydrants)

Above 50 m3 but upto 150 m3 Above 150 m3

NOTES

1. 2.

Supplementary protection of bullets/spheres by medium velocity water spray system (either automatic or manually operated) conforming to regulations is mandatory. Hydrant/monitor shall not be installed within dyked/-fenced enclosures nor can hydrant mains pass through such enclosures.

7.7 7.7.1

HOSE PIPES AND NOZZLES -

In the case of yard hydrants, hose pipes and nozzles shall be installed either in central hose stations which shall be of the type illustrated in figure no. 12 (which enables the condition and quantity of hose, nozzles, etc. to be checked over at a glance and ensures that other useful equipment is ready at hand in the event of a fire) or near each hydrant in glass fronted hose boxes of suitable design. N.B. Locations and number of hose stations will depend upon several factors such as fire loads, accessibility and positions of watch posts. Prior approval of the Committee shall, therefore, be obtained regarding locations of the hose stations before they are constructed.

7.7.2

In case of hydrants on upper floors or internal hydrants, hosepipes and nozzles shall necessarily be installed near each hydrant in glass fronted hose boxes of suitable design. REQUIREMENTS OF HOSE PIPES: If hose is kept in central hose stations, for each of the first ten hydrants in the compound of the premises (a double headed hydrant counting as two except where they are provided as a standard

7.7.3 7.7.3.1

practice throughout the system), two lengths of hose 15 m each and an additional 15 m length for each hydrant in excess of ten, shall be provided.
NOTE: In case of system having more than 55 hydrant outlets, the total number of hose lengths required may be limited to 55 plus 20 percent of the number of hydrant outlets in excess of 55. Where a fire engine is maintained on the premises manned by a whole time fire brigade, the number of hose, pipes required (including those on the engine) would be 55 plus 10 percent of the number of outlets in excess of 55.

7.7.3.2 7.7.3.3 7.7.3.4

If hose is kept in hose boxes alongside hydrants, each box shall contain two lengths of 15 m each. For use with each hydrant on staircase landing or with each internal hydrant, two lengths of hose 7.5 m shall be provided. In case of basement hydrants, two lengths of hose 15 m shall be provided. All hoses shall be of 63 mm diameter of either of the following types i) ii) iii) Unlined flax canvas complying with Indian Standard IS: 4927. Rubber lined woven-jacketed complying with Type A (Reinforced Rubber lined) of Indian Standards IS: 636. Controlled Percolation type complying with Indian Standards IS: 8423.

7.7.3.5

Ordinary rubber lined woven-jacketed hose complying with the specification of Type B of Indian Standards IS: 636 may be permitted to be used in lieu of the above upto a maximum of 50 % of the total hose requirements of the hydrant system. All couplings shall be of the instantaneous spring-lock type and the nozzles shall be of not less than 16 mm in diameter, nor more than 25 mm in diameter except in case of high hazard occupancies where the maximum nozzle diameter may be 32 mm subject to the approval of the Committee. All couplings, branch pipes and nozzles shall be of gunmetal or stainless steel and shall otherwise comply with IS: 903, 1984. Hose shall be attached to the coupling (other than of ferrule type) in the following manner Each half of the coupling shall have two 5 mm diameter holes drilled in the tail. The hose shall be first fixed to the tail of the coupling with copper rivets then served or bound with 1.5 mm galvanised mild steel or copper wire for a length of 50 mm which will extend to the outer ends of the grooving on the coupling tail over the galvanised mild steel or copper wire a leather or equally protective band shall be bound with four strands of 1.12 mm galvanised mild steel or copper wire at each end of the band. The protective band shall be carried beyond the tail of the coupling to prevent leaking. Copper wire, if used, shall be softened before being used. Couplings attached to the hose otherwise than by copper rivets shall not be accepted, as they are apt to become dislodged under pressure.

7.7.3.6

7.7.3.7

7.7.3.8

Spare hose to the extent of 10 percent of the above requirements, with a minimum quantity of 30 m shall be always kept readily available. Such spare hose shall also be in 15-m lengths, readily attached to couplings.

NOTE: In calculating the number of lengths of hose required under the above scale, any fraction of a

number shall be counted as one. 7.7.3.9 It is recommended that a system of marking and numbering hose be arranged so that the various lengths are easily recognisable.

7.7.3.10 In central hose stations and hose boxes a tin containing a set of spare rubber rings packed in french chalk shall be kept. 7.7.3.11 Central hose stations and hose boxes shall be so arranged that hose is not exposed to the sunrays. 7.7.3.12 All central hose stations or hose boxes, when provided with locks shall have one master key which shall be available either at the main gate or any other prominent and easily accessible location known to the fire fighting personnel. 7.7.4 7.7.4.1 7.7.4.2
REQUIREMENTS OF NOZZLES:

The number of nozzles to be provided shall be equivalent to half the number of hose pipes installed on the premises. In locations where a jet of water directed from a normal type nozzle is likely to cause more harm than good or where a gentle spray of water is essential for the extinguishment of a fire, a fog type or a spray type of nozzle complying with IS: 2871 shall be used. Spare nozzles to the extent of 10 % of the above requirements, with a minimum of two, shall always be kept readily available. FOAM COMPOUND: Foam systems shall conform to NFPA 11 and 11A, 16A and/or relevant BIS specifications-IS: 12835 or LPC rules for Foam Systems. The stock of foam compound to be maintained shall be equivalent to at least two times the requirement of the tank needing maximum quantity of foam. Foam Compound shall be chemically neutral (PH 6.5 to 7.5)
FIRE FIGHTING PERSONNEL:

7.7.4.3 7.8

7.9 7.9.1

As the efficiency of a hydrant service and/or of internal appliances depends upon the manner and speed with which they are brought into use and the ability with which the effort is directed, a squad consisting of watch and ward personnel, fire pump men and departmental supervisors and/or operatives trained in the operation of the fire service shall be maintained on the premises round the clock. The number of personnel constituting the squad shall necessarily depend upon the size of the risk, but in no case shall be less than eight trained persons be available at any time during the day or night. Minimum number of trained persons required may be further reduced to six in case of automatic pressurised hydrant systems. Squad leaders shall preferably be recognised government institution trained and their usefulness would be considerably enhanced if they reside on the premises. Squad personnel shall be provided with clothing and equipment including helmets, belts and boots, preferably gumboots.

7.9.2 7.9.3

7.9.4

A muster roll showing the duties allocated to each member of the brigade shall be prepared and copies supplied to each squad leader as well as pasted in convenient places throughout the premises, so as to be quickly available for reference in case of emergency. Practice drills shall take place weekly and it is a condition of the approval by the Committee to the discount for hydrant service that wet drills shall be carried out at intervals of not more than a fortnight and that the entire squad on duty shall turn out during the visits of the committees Inspectors. During wet drills, hydrants (including those of upper floors), hose pipes and nozzles, shall be taken into use in rotation so that the efficacy of these appliances would be automatically checked and any defects observed, set right. A register shall be kept as per Appendix V showing details of all practices and defects, if any, reported in the installation. This register shall be open to examination by the Committees Inspectorate. The services of the pump man (see 7.10.1.1.1) could be profitably utilised for the maintenance of all fire fighting appliances (including hand appliances - See 4.1.5.1.1). He shall also be thoroughly conversant with the locations of all appliances, particularly of hydrant cut-off valves so that in an eventuality he would be of assistance to the factorys fire brigade or the Towns fire brigade. Keys of all doors in the factory premises shall always be available at the main gate. It is recommended that fire pump room(s) and the main gate(s) of all factory premises be connected to all manufacturing sections through the internal telephone system. Telephones interlinked to this system may also be put up in proper cubicles at convenient locations near godown ranges and other strategic points. This would effect saving of valuable time in an emergency to alert the fire fighting personnel and the pump man. MAINTENANCE: PUMPS:

7.9.5 7.9.6

7.9.7

7.9.8

7.9.9 7.9.10

7.10 7.10.1

7.10.1.1 GENERAL: 7.10.1.1.1 A trained pump man (see 7.9.8) shall be available on all shifts and at all hours of the day and night to operate the pumps as and when required. 7.10.1.1.2 Pump sets shall be run for atleast five minutes every day. 7.10.1.1.3 The level of water in the priming tank shall be checked daily to ensure that the foot valve of the pump is not leaking. 7.10.1.1.4 All pump glands shall be maintained in efficient working condition and the packing renewed as required to maintain efficiency. 7.10.1.1.5 Suction and delivery valves shall be examined once every six months, particularly where sand or other objectionable matter is liable to be drawn through the pump suction. 7.10.1.1.6 All working parts shall be kept clean and lightly oiled as cleanliness greatly adds to efficiency. Any necessary repairs shall be put in hand and carried out immediately.

7.10.1.2

STEAM PUMPS:

7.10.1.2.1 The steam cylinders of pumps shall always be kept warm and efficient draining arrangements provided. 7.10.1.2.2 A minimum of two sets of piston and bucket rings shall be provided. 7.10.1.2.3 Small parts such as snifting valves, cushioning valves and petcocks shall have special attention because faults in these valves cause the pump to knock badly and lose efficiency. 7.10.1.3 ELECTRICALLY DRIVEN PUMPS:

7.10.1.3.1 The bearing grease cup shall be checked once every week and refilled with fresh grease, if necessary. 7.10.1.3.2 Starter contacts shall be cleaned once every week. 7.10.1.3.3 Insulation resistance of pump motor circuit shall be examined once every six months and record of results shall be maintained. 7.10.2 MAINS: 7.10.2.1 Hydrant mains shall be tested once a fortnight with a pump delivering at its maximum pressure, with all hydrant valves closed and, thereafter, a running test with two or more hose lines each 30 m long operating shall be carried out. This checks the efficiency of the pump as well as the tightness of the hydrant mains (See Rule 7.9 also). All cut-off valves shall be operated and oiled, if necessary, once a month. Cut-off valves shall be thoroughly overhauled annually to remove sludge and other foreign matter collected in the valve seating.
HYDRANTS:

7.10.2.2 7.10.2.3

7.10.3 7.10.3.1 7.10.3.2 7.10.3.3 7.10.4 7.10.4.1

All hydrants shall be examined systematically once a week to ensure that valves and spring catches are maintained in good condition and all brass parts polished. Spare washers shall be kept for hydrant valve seats. It is recommended that the painting of standpoints be carried out annually.
HOSE PIPES AND NOZZLES:

All hose boxes/hose stations shall be inspected externally once every week to ensure that the equipment installed therein is intact. Further, the hose boxes/hose stations shall be cleaned internally and externally once a month. When the hose gets worn out at the tail end of the coupling(s), it is permissible to cut the end(s) of the hose. However should the lengths of the hose after cutting(s) fall below 90 percent of its original, i.e. 15 m or 7.5 m the hose shall be discarded.

7.10.4.2

7.10.4.3

A Hose Register shall be kept showing the history of each length. Information such as date purchased, date brought into use, date cut (if reduced in length), is useful and a column shall be provided for remarks by the Committees Inspectors to whose inspection the Hose Register shall be open. Any hose becoming inefficient through use, neglect or from any other cause, shall be discarded. Fire protection hose shall not be used for purposes other than fire protection and drill. All concerns are advised to keep a supply of cheap hose for watering paths, washing out or filling boilers, etc. Such hose shall not be mixed with fire protection hose but kept in an entirely separate place. It is recommended that hose couplings and branch pipes be polished once a fortnight. Considerable diversity of practice has been noticed in the attention paid to the drying and storing of hose and the following suggestions in this connection shall be carried out: After use, hose to be thoroughly washed in clean water and then thoroughly dried. A rack or some similar contrivance atleast 10 m high to be provided so that, after cleaning, hose may be suspended to drain and dry evenly. This is to be done in the shade and not in the sunshine so that the hose is evenly dried inside and out. Care to be exercised that it is not removed until it is thoroughly dry in all places. The hose to be then thoroughly brushed with a hard bristle or wire brush, and re-rolled, care being taken to choose a dry and clean place whereon to roll it; and replace in the boxes or hose stations. Care to be taken after washing that the hose does not touch the ground, where it might be soiled. Hose to be rolled up evenly and carefully, the female or spring coupling end being in the centre. In this manner the spring clips, when grasped one in each hand, form a `reel and the hose can be quickly run out in the event of fire. OR ALTERNATIVELY The hose to be doubled in the centre of its length and rolled up evenly from the fold. Both the Male and Female couplings will then be on the outside of the roll. This permits the nozzle being attached to the hose while being stored in readiness for use, and the hose runs out without twisting.

7.10.4.4 7.10.4.5

7.10.4.6 7.11

7.11 7.11.1 7.11.2

MEASURES TO BE TAKEN WHERE THE INSTALLATION IS FOR ANY REASON TEMPORARILY INOPERATIVE:

Where the installation is expected to remain inoperative for a period exceeding 24 hours, prior sanction shall be obtained from the Committee. If any component of the hydrant system is to be replaced for any reason whatsoever, the entire system shall not be rendered inoperative but the particular section only shall be isolated by closing the necessary cut-off valves. If, however, it is not possible to complete the replacement before nightfall, the cut-off valves shall not be left closed overnight. Instead, blank flanges shall be provided at the point where the component has been removed so that the entire system, other than the component, which has been removed, would remain operative through the night. Only one compartment of the reservoir shall be emptied out at a time of cleaning or repair work. If the foot valve of the suction line is removed for cleaning/repairs, it shall, as far as practicable, be replaced before nightfall.

7.11.3 7.11.4

7.11.5 7.11.6

If the pump is expected to be inoperative for more than 72 hours, every effort shall be made to connect the service water supply to the hydrant system for the duration the pump is inoperative. If the hydrant service is to be extended, the extended portion shall be first laid and, thereafter, the connection between the existing system and the extension shall be carried out expeditiously, so that the entire system is not left inoperative overnight.
SPECIAL DISPENSATIONS FOR ELECTRICAL GENERATING STATIONS, THERMAL/GAS BASED POWER PANTS. WATER SUPPLY:

7.12 7.12.1

i)

The fore bay supplying water to the thermal power station fed by canals from perennial water sources like rivers, rivulets, dams etc. may be accepted as firewater reservoir provided the availability of 2 hours pumping capacity is ensured. The cooling water pond (s) may also be accepted as firewater reservoir provided the availability of 2 hours pumping capacity is ensured.
NOTE: Cooling water basins shall not be acceptable as equivalent to cooling water ponds.

ii)

7.12.2

PUMPS: The pump duties shall be generally selected as per Table 2 under Rule No.7.4.1.4.1 of FP Manual. However, where situation warrants, higher capacity pumps not exceeding 410 m3/hr and 88 m head may be acceptable. In order to achieve the minimum pressure of 3.5 Kg./cm2 at higher elevation, booster pump(s) with a capacity of 137 m3/Hr., having requisite rated head may be acceptable. NOTES 1. 2. 3. The booster pump shall be regarded as a pressure-compensating device only. A higher capacity booster pump may be stipulated by the Committee where considered necessary. Booster pump shall be located at ground level only. Electrically driven booster pump(s) shall in addition to the normal supply be connected to the emergency power supply also.

7.12.3

ABOVE GROUND HYDRANT MAINS:

In case of practical difficulties in maintaining the stipulated distance from the face of the building in case of above ground over head mains, warranted under demanding circumstances in specific areas, for example between Boiler House and TG Building and between Transformer and T.G. Building, the same may be permitted provided the mains installed in such areas form part of sub-ring only. 7.12.4
STAIRCASES FOR STOREVED TG HALL/BOILER HOUSE/MILL BAY:

The staircase shall be distributed as far as possible along four sides of the building. The number of staircases shall be such that no part of such floor is more than 45 m from the nearest staircase.

At least 50 % of the number of staircases thus arrived at shall conform to Rules 7.6.15.1, 7.6.15.2 and 7.6.15.3. The remaining staircases shall be preferably located along the periphery of the building, but need not necessarily be separated as per regulations. 7.12.5
RULE 7.7.3.3 REQUIREMENT OF HOSE PIPES IN T.G.HALL/BOILLER HOUSE/MILL BAY:

For use with each hydrant on staircase landing two lengths of hoses 15 m each and a nozzle with attached branch pipe shall be provided in hose box alongside each landing valve.

+++++++++

8.

HYDRANT PROTECTION OF COTTON GIN & PRESS FACTORIES

8.1

RESERVOIR:

The construction and location of the reservoir shall be as indicated in rule 7.3. The effective capacity (above the level of the foot valve seat) shall be equivalent to 2 hours installed pumping capacity. 8.2 8.2.1 8.2.2
PUMPS:

Pumps shall be direct-coupled. However, existing belt-driven pumps may be accepted at the discretion of the Committee. The Pumps shall be capable of delivering not less than 19 LPS at a head of 70 m. Where, however, the number of hydrants in the system exceeds 55; the pump capacity shall be not less than 38 litres/second. The pump shall be so located as to be both easily accessible and where any falling masonry and the like from other buildings, occasioned by fire or other cause, cannot damage the pump room. The pump room shall be located 6 m away from all surrounding buildings, overhead structures and storages in the open. Rules 7.4.1.6, 7.4.18, 7.4.1.9 and 7.4.1.12 shall be complied with. Electric supply to the fire pump shall comply with rule 7.4.3.
NOTE: In case of steam-driven pump, adequate steam supply to drive the pump at its duty shall be constantly maintained during the whole of the working season.

8.2.3

8.2.4 8.2.5

8.3 8.3.1 8.3.2 8.3.3

MAINS: Mains shall be of Cast Iron, galvanised iron or mild steel and be laid underground. The mains shall be laid in loops around the Gin & Press houses. All loops and feeder mains shall be of 100 mm bore but branch mains may be of 80 mm bore. - The Committee may insist on larger sized mains where deemed necessary.

8.4 8.4.1 8.4.2 8.4.2.1 8.4.2.2 8.4.2.3

HYDRANTS: Rules 7.6.3, 7.6.4, 7.6.6, 7.6.7, and 7.6.8 shall be complied with. Location of the hydrants shall be as under There shall be a minimum of three hydrants within 3 m of Gin house and of Press house. There shall be minimum of two hydrants within 15 m of Godown or sheds used for storing cotton or Kappas. For open storage, hydrants shall be distributed in such a way that any portion of the storage is protected by atleast two hydrants at a distance not exceeding 35 m. N.B. If the compounds are only partially used for storage of cotton and/or kappas, the owner shall declare the area he proposes for storage for determining the fire protection thereof. In this case, the portion reserved for storage shall be demarcated by a wired fencing and a plan thereof shall be lodged with the Committee.

8.5

HOSE PIPES AND NOZZLES:

One 63 mm diameter hosepipe of 15 m length and one nozzle of 20 mm diameter with its attached branch pipe shall be provided in a suitable hose box alongside each hydrant. 8.6 FIRE-FIGHTING STAFF: A minimum of six trained personnel shall be available at all times. night watchmen shall also be available on the premises. ++++++++++ Apart from the above, three

9.

MUTUAL AID SCHEME

SCOPE: (Meant for plants other than petrochemical plants, petroleum Refineries and LPG Bottling Plants). 9.1
MEMBERSHIP

Membership should be of two or more industrial plants, warehouses and public utilities. 9.2 GEOGRAPHICAL COVERAGE: The coverage shall be as follows a) Not exceeding 16 kM. for Light Hazard risks b) Not exceeding 12 kM for Ordinary hazard risks c) Not exceeding 10 kM for High hazard (A) risks If the concerned risks are of different categories, least of the distances must be considered. N.B. Add 4 km to actual distances for each of the Railway Crossing encountered. 9.3 9.3.1 9.3.2 9.3.3 SECRETARIAT AND COMMUNICATION. There shall be a full time permanent Secretary having a back ground in fire fighting relevant to the types of industries included in the scheme with a permanent office and necessary staff. The member industries should mutually evolve an effective liaison and communication system. Direct Telephone/Radio Communication/wired alarm/siren system be provided subject to prior approval of the Committee. Call procedures be laid down and frequent trials with such systems would be necessary.
INDIVIDUAL MEMBERS FIRE FIGHTING REQUIREMENTS

9.4 9.4.1 9.4.2 9.4.3 9.4.4

A hydrant system supplemented by First Aid Appliances Manual.

installed in conformity with the FP

Stock of foam compound as per the provisions of Rule 7.8 of F P Manual if the occupancy of the risk warrants use of foam and will comply with the requirements of NFPA-11, 1998. Not less than 8 trained persons must be available in any shift out of which 4 shall be full-time fire fighting personnel. Fire Explosion accidents must be fully investigated by the member units and their findings which might be fruitful and effective in preventing a recurrence should be made available to other members, which would benefit all plants without interfering with anyone plants autonomy. ADDITIONAL CAPACITY FOR MUTUAL USE: In the event of outbreak of fire, the members of mutual laid scheme should be able to supplement in the shortest possible time, the resources of the affected plant, to the extent given below -

9.5

9.5.1 9.5.2

Mobile fire fighting capacity by a motor fire engine of 400 gpm capacity at 7 kg/cm2. In case the occupancy of any one of the signatories to the scheme warrants the application of foam compound shall be provided to the extent of 25 % of the requirements of such plant. N.B. In case, the occupancy of more than one risk warrants, the use of foam, the stock to be maintained shall be 25 % of the requirement of the risk needing larger stock of foam.

9.6 9.6.1 9.6.2

OTHER REQUIREMENTS: Fire explosion safety of the plant and extensions should preferably be checked every six months, but at least annually using an audit system and utilising check lists where appropriate. Practice drills should be arranged once in three months (each time in different units) to familiarise those concerned with the actions expected of them, and at the same time testing the equipment available in each unit. Deployment of personnel to an affected plant from other members of the scheme should not be subject to any constraints arising out of staff problems.
INTERCHANGEABILITY OF EQUIPMENT

9.6.3

9.7 9.7.1

To the extent possible, individual plants should follow such standard in the purchase of equipment to have free Interchangeability. Where this is not practical, suitable adapter pieces must be kept in readiness for hooking of un-interchangeable equipment. Each risk should maintain a sensible policy and not strip itself of equipment, which it might need in the case of trouble in its own property which may be simultaneous with a disaster elsewhere. +++++++++++ +

9.7.2

APPENDIX I The Secretary, Tariff Adv. Committee New Delhi Dear Sir,
APPLICATION FOR FIRE EXTINGUISHING APPLIANCES (S) DISCOUNT

(Risk) Please sanction, as from date of receipt by you of this application, a Discount of.% Extinguishing Appliances :Applying to Buildings (The occupation floor wise and block Nos. of each building must be clearly stated). I/We enclose plan of the risk with all details marked thereon. I/We certify that to the best of my/our knowledge and belief the appliances referred to have been installed in strict accordance with the rules of the Committee and I/We also certify that the Plan submitted is drawn up in accordance with the Committee's Rules and is correct and up-to-date. I/We also certify that a copy of the Plan exact in every detail, is available for the Committee's Inspector's use at the Mill (or premises above referred to). I/We enclose full particulars of the appliances available together with letter of Guarantee signed by the Assured. I am (We are), Yours faithfully _____________________________________________________________ For use of the Committee only. Date received: Date inspected: Inspector's comments: Discount sanctioned: Date of Minutes Reference Number: for the following

Inspector

APPENDIX II The Secretary, Regional office Dear Sir,


GUARANTEE REGARDING FIRE EXTINGUISHING APPLIANCES

In consideration of your Committee granting a Discount for the Fire Extinguishing Appliances detailed on attached/signed form which we have installed in the.............................. situated at . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . I/We hereby engage ourselves --

1. To maintain and upkeep the said appliances in efficient working order and where such appliances and Committees Rules
require the upkeep of a trained Fire Brigade, to maintain such Brigade to its full numbers in an efficient state. any way render the appliances out of operation for repairs, overhaul, etc.

2. To advise the Committee and first obtain permission should at any time it be necessary to close down supply to pumps or in 3. Not to extend, alter or demolish protected Buildings or to erect new Buildings in the compound of the premises without
supplying the Committee with a revised plan or revising the plan filed with the Committee. available to the Committee's Inspector during his visits of inspection.

4. To keep at the above-described premises a copy, exact in every detail, of the plan supplied to your Committee, same to be 5. Not
to re-number (or re-letter) Buildings, Compartments, etc., as recorded on the plan filed with the Committee without advising the Committee of such revision.

I am (We are), Yours faithfully, Note: All communications to the Committee must be through the Leading Office on the risk. The Space for the use of the Committee only, Date from which sanctioned Reference Number Remarks Minutes of

APPENDIX III DETAILS OF FIRE EXTINGUISHERS APPLIANCES AVAILABLE AT _____________________________ (Name of Risk)

DETAILS OF BUCKETS, EXTINGUISEHRS AND HAND APPLIANCES Extinguishers/Hand Pumps Deptt. Area (sq.m) Number of Buckets Number Type Cap. Manufacturer's Name

SMALL BORE HOSE REELS -

1. 2. 3. 4.

Name of manufacturer Material Diameter and Length Diameter of Nozzle Source of Supply - State whether a non stop supply is available

Dept.

Size (Length x Breadth)

Number of Reels

Maximum distance of any point of the room from nearest hose reel.

WATER SUPPLY (IES) A. Underground Reservoir -

1. Capacity in litres. 2. Whether lined or not 3. Division if any and interconnections

between them

4. Capacities (in litres) of connected tanks


(elevated or otherwise)

a) b) c) . d) Net effective capacity available for


fire pumps

5. Sources of inflow to the underground


reservoir whether town's mains etc. lakes, rivers, wells,

6. Aggregate inflow in litres per minute (with


nipple position of inflow, overflow and normal water level.

7. In case of inflow from town's mains,

indicate size of inflow pipe and size of meter, and also state whether the supply is continuous of intermittent.

B.

Elevated Sprinkler Tank(s).

1. 2. 3.

Number of tanks. Capacities in litres and height in metre of base from ground level Height in metre of highest Sprinklered building.

C. Pressure Tank(s)

1. 2. 3. 4.

Location of tank. Capacity in litres Quantity of water contained in litres. Air Pressure.

PUMP (S). A. Hydrant Pump(s) (Full Nameplate details) 1. 2. 3. Type(s) Make(s) and year(s) of manufacture. General Specifications: a) Capacity (Lit. /Min.) b) Pressure gauge, reading at delivery stops value (Kg/cm2). c) Sizes of suction and delivery pipes 4. Details of steam pump(s) if applicable a) Diameter of steam and water cylinders and length of stroke. b) No. of strokes per minute. c) Diameter of steam pipe and pressure available at pump end d) No. of steam boilers in the battery and working pressure e) Size of water relief valve on pump delivery and pressure at which it is set. 5. Details of electrically driven pump(s) if applicable a) Diameter of pump impeller. b) Material of which the impeller is made. c) Speed in RPM d) H.P. and Voltage of driving motor, type of enclosure and class of winding insulation, Motor full load current. e) Details of electric supply i) Plan showing locations of pump house and transformer

sub-station and table for control logic of pumps. ii) Circuit diagram of electric supply to the fire pump(s) with incoming cable, automatic circuit breaker, starting switchgear, position of voltage release coil etc.

6.

Details of Petrol, Motor spirit or Compression-ignition Engine Driven Pump(s) if applicable a) Diameter of pump impeller b) Material of which the impeller is made c) Speed and Horse Power of the engine driving pump(s) d) Method of starting the engine. e) Quantity in litres of fuel contained in the tank and that stored in the premises. f) Location and details of batteries, battery charger and diesel engine control panel.

B.

SPRINKLER PUMP (S) 1. 2. 3. Type(s) Make(s) and year(s) of manufacture General Specifications: a) Capacity (Lit./min.) b) Pressure gauge reading at delivery stop valve (Kg.cm2). c) Sizes of suction and delivery pipes. 4. Details of steam pump(s), if applicable a) Diameter of steam and water cylinders and length of stroke. b) No. of strokes per minute.

c) Diameter of steam pipe and pressure available at pump end. d) No. of steam boilers in the battery and working pressure. e) Size of water relief valve on pump delivery and pressure at which it is set 5. Details of electrically driven pump(s), if applicable a) Diameter of pump impeller b) Material of which the impeller is made. c) Speed in R.P.M. d) H.P. and Voltage of driving motor, type of enclosure and class of winding insulation. e) Details of electric supply i) Plan showing locations of direct feeder, pump house and transformer sub-station. Circuit diagram of electric supply to the fire pump(s) with incoming cable, ACB and automatic starting mode.

ii)

6.

Details of Petrol, Motor Spirit or Compression Ignition Engine Driven Pump(s), if applicable a) Diameter of pump impeller. b) Material of which the impeller is made c) Speed and House Power of the engine driving pump(s). d) Method of starting the engine. e) Quantity in litres of fuel contained in the tank and that stored in the premises.

7.

Make and type of automatic regulator.

8.

What is the pressure at the level of the highest sprinkler when the 50mm. waste valve is fully open?

HYDRANT MAINS 1. 2. 3. 4. Type of underground and/or overhead mains with method of jointing. Internal diameter of ring main. Internal diameter of terminal mains. To what pressure have the pipes been tested

HYDRANTS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Type and Make. No. of single-headed hydrants No. of double-headed hydrants. No. of upper floor hydrants. Type and diameter of stand pipes a) Single headed. b) Double headed. 6. Are all the coupling inter-changeable?

HOSE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Material and Diameter. Manufacturer's Name and Guarantee for bursting pressure. No. of lengths of 15 m and 7.5 m respectively. At what pressure the hose has been by the insured. Where is hose kept? No. of branch pipes and nozzles and diameters. their tested

SPRINKLER INSTALLATION 1. No. of installation valves and departments served by each valve.

2. 3.

Total load on each installation valve. Type, make and fusing temperature of the sprinkler heads used.

FIRE FIGHTING PERSONNEL 1. 2. Is the pump man always on duty? Minimum number available at any purposes. of trained personnel time for fire fighting

3.

Are any means employed to ensure night watchman going around the risk at regular intervals? Is there a muster-book for fire drills? How is fire alarm given to fire fighting personnel?

4. 5.

TESTING OF APPLIANCES 1. How often are the following tested and/or examined a) Sprinkler tank and backpressure Valves. b) Sprinkler and/or hydrant pumps and their accessories. c) Sprinkler installation valves. d) Hydrant installation and valves. 1. Is a record of all tests and defects found maintained?

LOCAL FIRE BRIGADE 1. 2. 3. How far is the nearest city fire brigade? How can a communication be sent to city fire brigade? Are the city fire brigade officers familiar with the risk?

Dated .....20. (Form to be signed by the Owner of the Premises).

Signature..........

APPENDIX - IV CERTIFICATE FROM INSURER'S ENGINEER ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________

I hereby confirm that I have verified the portable Fire Extinguishing Appliances installed at the above risk and found them to be in accordance with the enclosed list. I also confirm that the distribution is generally in accordance with the Committee's requirements, and that the appliances are well maintained and are being periodically hydro tested as per IS: 2190.

Yours faithfully,

APPENDIX - V FIRE DRILLS REGISTER Sr. No. ______________ Type of Drill Dry or Wet 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Serial Nos. of Hydrants Operated Duration of Operation of Pumps Remarks/ Defects observed if any Date : ___________ Signature of Fire Marshall Signature of Works Manager

Name and designation of persons attending the drills

NOTE Squad personnel shall be provided with clothing and equipment including helmets confirming to IS: 2745 or IS: 2925, belts and boots preferably gun boots.

APPENDIX - VI TABLE SHOWING PRESSURES OF WATER IN Kg/cm2 FOR EVERY METRE IN HEIGHT UPTO 60 m Height in metres 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Pressure in Kg./cm2 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 Height in meters 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 Pressure in Kg./cm2 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0

NOTE: - In applying this table the height of the Highest Sprinkler above the Pressure Gauge must be ascertained and the pressure to be allowed for such height will be obtained by reference to the table. For example, if the gauge records a pressure of 4.25 Kg./cm2, and the highest sprinkler is 28 m above the gauge, there will be a pressure of, say, 1.45 Kg./cm2 on the highest sprinkler.

Internal Guidelines : For the sake of uniform interpretation of rules and practices the following will b included in the Internal Guidelines which will be prepared separately. 1) Rules 7.4.1.11 & 7.4.1.12 : Pumps are not permitted normally to have partly positive (flooded) suction and partly negative suction. But under special circumstances such arrangement may be permitted with prior approval of the Committee, in case of combined process and fire water reservoirs and exclusive fire water reservoirs where at least 80% of water level would enable positive suction and remaining 20% negative suction. In all such cases priming tank also shall be provided. 2) Rule 7.2 - Classification of Occupancies : Piers, Wharfs and Jetties - to be classified normally under ordinary hazard category unless Category III of list of hazardous materials are handled. 3) Rule 7.4.1.4.1 Table 2 : Ordinary Hazard : In case of new systems where the number of hydrants is expected to be between 100 and 150; and where further extension of the system beyond 150 hydrants is not anticipated, a single pump of 410 m3/hr capacity at 7/8.8 Kgs./cm2 may be permitted. Likewise in case of old installations where the system is extended beyond 100 hydrants but not exceeding 150 hydrants; and where further extension beyond 150 hydrants is not anticipated, an additional pump of 171 M3/hr. at 7 Kgs./Cm2 may be permitted.

4) Rule 7.4.1.4.2 : Where spray system/sprinkler system is provided for the protection of equipment/plant the water demand of such a system should be worked out and compared to the water demand of tanks of 10 M, 20 M and beyond 20 M dia. and he supplementary hose stream protection indicated for the equivalent tank diameter shall be provided. 5) Taking underground pipes in Hume Pipes at road crossings It is recommended to provide semi-circular hume pipes for cast iron pipes at road crossings. No such protection is required for underground MS pipes at road crossings. 6) Item 5 : Hydrant Protection for Cryogenic Storage Tanks and Double Walled Storage Tanks: The M.V. Water Spray Protection (mandatory) for he roof of the cryogenic storage tanks and double walled storage tanks at a rate of 3 LPM/M2 will entitle the risk only to hydrant discount. If additional discount for spray system is also required, then density shall be 10 LPM/M2. 7) are of Cast iron. Mild steel stand post may be accepted even in cases where underground mains

8) In cases where requirements of low water level cannot be complied with orifice plate can be installed at entrance of the suction pipe. 9) Note 2 below rule 7.3 applies to lined reservoirs also. 10) NB2 below rule 7.6.18 Where hydrant/monitors located along one longer side of a storage area are more than 90 m from those along the other longer side, monitors having jets of longer reach may be accepted.

RULES FOR WATER SPRAY SYSTEMS INDEX

0. PREFACE 1. PROCEDURAL REQUIREMENTS REGARDING SUBMISSION OF PLANS, APPLICATION FOR AVAILING DISCOUNTS 2. COMMON REQUIREMENTS TO HIGH VELOCITY WATER SPRAY AND MEDIUM VELOCITY WATER SPRAY SYSTEMS 3. HIGH VELOCITY WATER SPRAY SYSTEMS 4. MEDIUM VELOCITY WATER- SPRAY SYSTEM 5. PRE-COMMISSIONING AND ACCEPTANCE TESTS 6. GENERAL INFORMATION 7. Appendix-I, Application for Fire Extinguishing Appliance(s) Discount. 8. Appendix-II, Guarantee regarding Fire Extinguishing Appliance(s). 9. Details of Automatic Fixed Water Spray Protection System

++++++++ +

RULES FOR WATER SPRAY SYSTEMS


PREFACE 1. Reference is drawn to rule No. 16.6 i.e. Deluge installations of the Committees Rules for Automatic Sprinkler Installations, 2nd Edition 1998. 2. In situations where Oil and Flammable Liquids are stored and/or used in such quantities and in such a manner that the value of the standard sprinklers in the event of fire is open to question, approved Medium and/or High Velocity Sprayers may be employed in lieu of or in conjunction with sprinklers. These rules are intended to provide a guide as to when such systems should be installed, details of their design and performance. 3. For the first time, Tariff Advisory Committee has compiled these Rules. The purpose of these Rules is to provide minimum requirements for fixed water spray systems based upon good engineering practices. While formulating the rules, due consideration has been shown to the International Standards. 4. The term Water Spray refers to the use of water in a form having a predetermined pattern, particle size, velocity and density discharged from specifically designed nozzles or devices. Water Spray systems are usually applied to special fire protection problems since the protection can be specifically designed to provide for effective fire control, extinguishments, prevention or exposure fire protection. These systems may be independent of or supplementary to, other forms of protection. 5. These rules are intended to cover water spray protection from fixed nozzles only. The design of specific systems may vary considerably depending on the nature of the hazard and basic purpose of protection. Because of these variations and other environmental factors, the systems must be competently designed, installed and maintained. The designer must thoroughly understand the capabilities and limitations of the protection. 6. Water spray systems are most commonly used to protect processing blocks, processing equipments, structures, flammable liquid and gas vessel, piping and equipment such as transformers, oil switches and some combustible solids, cable trays, cable rack etc. 7. High Velocity Nozzles can be expected to extinguish fires involving liquids with flash points of 65o C (150o F), or higher and should be installed where such flammable fluids constitute the hazard. For fluids flashing at below 65o C (150o F), extinguishments is always not possible or even desirable and for these, Medium Velocity Water Sprayers need to be installed to provide cooling, controlling the burning and/or exposure protection. 8. There are also limitations to the use of water spray systems such as slop-over or frothing hazard where confined materials at a high temperature or having a wide distillation range are involved. Similarly, water reacting chemicals such as metallic sodium and calcium carbide etc. produce violent reaction or liquefied gases at cryogenic temperature, which boil violently in contact with water.

9. Experiments have proved that the rule for the exposure protection contemplate emergency relieving capacity for vessels based upon a maximum allowable heat input of 16,290 K.cal/hr./Sq.M (6,000 BTU/hour/Sq.ft.). In other words, it is expected that the heat input rate to the contents of an unprotected tank will be reduced from in excess of 54,300 K.cal/hr/sq.M. (20,000 BTU/Hr./Sq.ft.) to something of the order of 16,290 K.cal/hr./sq.M) (6,000 BTU/hr./sq.ft.) for a water sprayed tank. Similarly, the tank shell temperature which shall not preferably exceed 3430 C (6500 F), can be brought down to 1000 C (2120 F) by water spray system. Definitions and terminology relating to the components of the water spray systems are as follows: a) WATER SPRAY SYSTEM A special fixed pipe system connected to a reliable source of fire protection water supply and equipped with water spray nozzles for specific water discharge and distribution over the surface or area to be protected. The piping system is connected to the water supply through an automatically actuated Deluge Valve, which initiates flow of water. Automatic actuation is achieved by operation of automatic detecting equipment installed alongwith water spray nozzles. There are two types of systems namely High Velocity and Medium Velocity systems. b) SPRAY NOZZLE A normally open water discharging device which, when supplied with water under pressure will distribute the water in a special, directional pattern peculiar to the particular device. Nozzles used for High Velocity Water Spray systems are called Projectors and nozzles used for Medium Velocity Water Spray systems are called Sprayers. Both these nozzles are made in a range of orifice sizes with varying discharge angles so that discharge can be controlled for optimum protection. c) DELUGE VALVE A quick opening valve, which admits water automatically to a system of projectors or sprayers and is operated by a system of detectors and/or sprinklers installed in the same areas as nozzles. d) CONTROL OF BURNING Application of water spray to equipment or areas where a fire may occur to control the rate of burning and thereby limit the heat release from a fire until the fuel can be eliminated or extinguishment effected. e) EXPOSURE PROTECTION

Application of water spray to structures or equipment to limit absorption of heat to a level which will minimise damage and prevent failure, whether source of heat is external or internal. f) IMPINGEMENT The striking of a protected surface by water droplets issuing directly from projectors and/or sprayers. g) RUN DOWN The downward travel of water along a surface caused by the momentum of the water or by gravity. h) SLIPPAGE The horizontal component of the travel of water along the surface beyond the point of contact, caused by the momentum of water. i) INSULATED EQUIPMENT Equipment, structures, vessels provided with insulation which for the expected duration of exposure, will protect steel from exceeding a temperature of 4540 C (8500 F) for structural members and 3430 C (6500 F) for vessels. j) DENSITY The unit rate of water application to an area or surface expressed in litres/min/sq.m. k) AUTOMATIC DETECTION EQUIPMENT Equipment which will automatically detect one or more components directly related to combustion such as heat, smoke, flame and other phenomenon and cause automatic actuation of Alarm and protection Equipment. l) FIRE BARRIER A fire barrier is a continuous wall or floor that is designed and constructed to limit the spread of fire. m) RANGE PIPES Pipes on which sprinklers are attached either directly or through short arm pipes, which do not exceed 300mm in length. n) DISTRIBUTION PIPES Pipes, which directly feed the range pipes. +++++ ++

SECTION 1 PROCEDURAL REQUIREMENTS REGARDING SUBMISSION OF PLANS, APPLICATION FOR AVAILING DISCOUNTS 1.1 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 REQUIREMENTS REGARDING SUBMISSION OF PLANS Plans for submission to the Committee shall be drawn up in accordance with the following requirements:Plans shall be clear, contain all required details including scale and point of Compass and shall be dated. Plans of new installations shall show the entire compound; all buildings therein, with their door and window openings, and the boundary walls. Buildings under construction and future extension envisaged shall be indicated by dotted lines. Plans of extension to approved existing installations need not show the rest of the compound but sufficient details shall be given of the existing installations in correlation to the extension, to enable the Committees Inspection Staff to check the plans and offer comments. In case of storeyed buildings, drawings submitted shall include plans of each storey together with sectional elevations. MATERIAL: Plans shall be on White paper or Ammonia paper or Ferro Prussiate paper. Plans shall generally be prepared in accordance with IS: 696, shall not exceed 850 x 1200 mm in size and shall be drawn to a scale of 1:500 or 1:1000. In the case of very large compounds with more than one risk, it is advisable to submit separate plans for each risk with a key plan showing the relative situation of the various risks etc. In the compound. SIGNS Pucca walls to be shown by double lines, doors and windows being clearly marked (Figure 1) Iron or other non-masonry walls to be shown by a thin line and nature of construction indicated (Figure 2). Perfect Party Walls to be indicated by the sign T at each end of the wall, or have the letters P.P.W. alongside or across them at regular intervals and marked in distinctive colour (Figure 3). Fireproof doors and/or Shutters to be marked as follows: Single Fireproof Door and/or Shutter Double Fireproof Doors and/or Shutters SFPD DFPD

1.1.4 1.1.5

1.1.6 1.1.6.1 1.1.6.2 1.1.6.3

1.1.6.4

1.1.6.5 1.1.6.6 1.1.6.7 1.1.6.8

Barrier Walls to be indicated by letters B.W. alongside thereof at regular intervals and marked in distinctive colour. Sky lights to be marked Sky Lights or S.L.. Boiler to be shown by a rectangular figure marked Boiler. Spray System Mains to be shown by a Yellow line; the diameter, and number of pipes being marked alongside and specials and reducers to be clearly indicated (Figure 4). Water Spray System pumps to be clearly marked and the capacity and head to be indicated in each case.

1.1.6.9

1.1.6.10 Pump(s) suction piping to be shown dotted and diameter to be indicated (Figure 5). 1.1.6.11 Surface fire service water tanks and reservoirs to be shown to scale and average depth indicated (Figure 6). 1.1.6.12 Fire alarm gongs to be shown by orange circles and marked F A G. 1.1.6.13 Water Spray protected blocks to be marked W. 1.1.6.14 Oil, solvent, acid and other chemicals tanks to be drawn to scale and suitably marked (Figure 7). 1.1.6.15 Electric cable(s) for the fire Pumps(s) to be shown in green lines 1.2 1.2.1 APPLICATION PROCEDURES FOR AVAILING DISCOUNT The sanction of discounts off insurance premium shall necessarily follow consideration of all details of the risk, of manufacturing processes involved and the protective appliances to be installed, by the Regional Offices of the Committee, in order to ensure that the Standards laid down have been fully observed. To prevent confusion or disappointment, definite Rules for procedure have been laid down as follows: Proposals for the installation of appliances shall be submitted to the concerned Regional Office by the Leading Office on the risk and shall comprise Material specifications of equipment and components of the installation, indicating the name of manufacturers and Indian Standards Specifications, if any. In the case of internal appliances, details of the areas of various compartments, their occupations and the quantities and types of appliances proposed. Fully dimensioned plans in duplicate as called for in Section 1 must be submitted. In addition to the above, the following details would be necessary in the case of SPRAY SYSTEM installations. a) Drawings showing layout of the entire Spray System, incorporating material specifications, different sizes of mains etc. N.B. In the case of storeyed blocks, floor area of each floor showing particulars. b) Layout of pump house showing clearly the suction, delivery and priming (if any) arrangements.

1.2.2

1.2.2.1

1.2.2.2

1.2.2.3 1.2.2.4

c) Details of water storage tanks giving particulars of compartmentation and jackwell, details of inflow and particulars of tappings for other purposes, if any. d) Sub-station location in relation to other blocks if the pump is electrically driven. e) Plans of Sub-station showing thickness of internal walls and equipment layout. Also walls between Transformers if outdoor and located within 6 M or specified distance according to Oil contents as specified in rule 6.1.6 of Committees Electrical Rules. f) Route of cable from Sub-station to fire pump house. g) Schematic circuit line diagram showing electric feed to fire pump. 1.2.3 Discounts will be considered only if all the equipment associated with the system protection such as pumps, engines, motors, valves, projectors/ sprayers, deluge valve, hand appliances and their accessories are of a type and make, approved by the Tariff Advisory Committee. No discounts will be considered for a Spray System unless the same has been hydraulically tested with trenches open atleast twice during the course of installation by the Inspectorate of the Regional Office of the Committee and found in order. N.B. The piping above Deluge Valves need not be hydraulically tested. 1.2.5 The prior submission of proposals to the concerned Regional Office before the work is commenced, is essential to ensure that the installation will conform to the Committees requirements but does not dispense with the procedure laid down here after (1.2.6, 1.2.7 and 1.2.8) for application for the sanction of discounts. Application for discounts shall be submitted on special forms provided for the purpose by the Committee and shall comprise Application by the Leading Office (Appendix I) Guarantee by the Insured (Appendix II) Schedule of Appliances (Signed by Insured) (Appendix III) A In every case, a plan of the premises prepared in accordance with requirements indicated in 1.1.2 to 1.1.6 shall accompany any application for a discount for fire extinguishing appliances and, in the case of Spray System, Installing Engineers detailed As erected working drawings are essential. N.B. A certificate of Completion from the installing Engineers stating the pressure tests to which the installation(s) has been subjected and giving the date(s) from which it was in complete working order shall also be submitted.

1.2.4

1.2.6 1.2.6.1 1.2.6.2 1.2.6.3 1.2.7

1.2.8 1.2.9

In the case of extensions to an existing service, a complete set of forms and plans detailed in 1.2.6 and 1.2.7 above will need to be submitted. No application for discount can be entertained until the relative appliances are complete, in position, ready for use and fully operative. An appropriate discount or allowance will be sanctioned by the concerned Regional Office of the Committee from the date of the completed application, (in accordance with 1.2.6 and 1.2.7 above) subject to the appliances being found in order on inspection by the Inspectorate of the concerned Regional Office of the Committee. In the event of the installation being found incomplete or defective, the discount will be withheld (or withdrawn if already notified until the defects have been rectified to the satisfaction of the concerned Regional Office of the Committee. No allowance shall be made for Fire Extinguishing Appliances until notified by the concerned Regional Office of the Committee either by letter or circular, and then, with effect only from the date specified in such notification. Insurer and the insured are advised not to change block numbers as this naturally affects the Regional Offices records and causes confusion. If block numbers have to be changed, the concerned Regional Office of the Committee shall be notified at once. INSPECTION STAFF The Regional Offices of the Committee undertake, as far as possible, the periodical inspection of all premises in which fire extinguishing appliances, entitling the risk to special discounts or ratings for such appliances, are installed. For this purpose, the Regional Offices Inspectorate shall have the right of access to the premises of the Insured at any time with or without giving any prior notice.

1.2.10

1.2.11

1.3 1.3.1

1.3.2

The primary duty of the Inspecting Engineers is to report the condition and efficiency of the appliances installed as well as to ensure that the Rules are being observed. They will, however, give help and advice in the maintenance of the appliances and on matters pertaining to fire protection and prevention. The attention of the Inspecting Engineers shall be drawn, during their visits, to any changes effected since the previous inspection or to any contemplated extensions and alterations to the existing services. This procedure does not, however, dispense with the necessity of advising the Insurer(s) interested on the risk of any changes, which affect the plan of the risk or the appliances recorded with the Regional Office of the Committee.

1.3.3

SECTION 2 COMMON REQUIREMENTS TO HIGH VELOCITY WATER SPRAY AND MEDIUM VELOCITY WATER SPRAY SYSTEMS 2.1 2.1.1 WATER SUPPLIES Water for the spray system shall be stored in any easily accessible surface or underground lined reservoir or above ground tanks of steel, concrete, or masonry. Common reservoir/tank for all other systems such as sprinkler installation and hydrant system as well as spray systems are acceptable provided: a) All the suction inlets or foot valves are at same level and b) Aggregate capacity of the reservoir is equal to the total requirement of all the systems put together. 2.1.3 Reservoir/tank of and over 225 m3 capacity shall be in two independent but interconnected compartments with a common sump for suction to facilitate cleaning and repairs. The construction/arrangement of the reservoir/tank and the common sump shall be in accordance with the provisions in rule 7.3 of the Fire Protection Manual (12th edition). Water for the system shall be free of particles, suspended matters etc. and as far as possible, filtered water shall be used for the system. Level indicator shall be provided for measuring the quantity of water stored anytime. The indicator shall be graduated to read directly in m3 of water. Water reservoir/tank shall be cleaned at least once in two years or more frequently if necessary to prevent contamination and sedimentation. It is advisable to provide adequate inflow into the reservoir/tank so that the protection can be re-established within a short period. PUMPS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Pumps shall be exclusively used for fire fighting purposes; be of a type approved by the Committee, and shall be:a) Electric Motor driven centrifugal pumps Or b) Compression ignition engine driven centrifugal pumps or c) Vertical turbine submersible pumps. In all the above cases, pumps shall be automatic in action. 2.2.1.2 Pumps shall be direct-coupled, except in the case of engine-driven vertical turbine pumps wherein gear drives shall be used. Belt-driven pumps shall not be accepted.

2.1.2

2.1.4 2.1.5 2.1.6 2.1.7 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.1.1

2.2.1.3 2.2.1.4

Parts of pumps like impeller, shaft sleeve, wearing ring etc. shall be of noncorrosive metal e.g. brass or bronze. The pressure and flow required to supply the most unfavourable and most favourable areas of operation shall be calculated. This calculated flow demand shall be taken on the intercept of the water supply curve with the most favourable demand curve. Characteristics of the pumps selected shall be submitted along with hydraulic pressure loss calculations of the system. In case of electrically driven pumps, it is recommended that a compression ignition engine driven stationary pump of similar capacity be installed as a standby and vice versa. However, where the spray system consists of more than one pump or prime-movers of all pumps shall not be of same type. Notwithstanding the above, if power to motorised fire pumps is obtained from two sources, one of which is a captive generating plant located in a block either 6M away from all surrounding buildings or, where this is not feasible, segregated from adjoining buildings in a manner indicated in rule 2.2.1.12 more than one pump may be of the electrically-driven type.

2.2.1.5

2.2.1.6

In case of Jockey pumps in such systems to take care of minor leakages, the capacity thereof shall not be less than 3% and normally not more than 10% of the installed pumping capacity. Each pump shall be provided with a pressure guage on the delivery side the pump and the non-return value and a plate giving the delivery head, capacity and the number of revolution per minute. Each fire service pump shall be provided with an independent suction pipe without any sluice or cut-off valves therein, unless the pump is situated below the level of the water supply in which case sluice or cut-off valves would be essential. Where the Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) available at site is less than 0.5m in excess of the actual value required at 150% of the duty point as per the manufacturers curves or where the water supply has fibrous or equally objectionable matter in suspension or mud and/or sand liable to cause accumulation in the installation, suction pipe(s) shall be installed in a jack well fed through a culvert from the main water supply. At the supply end of the culvert, a sluice or gate valve shall be provided. The diameter of the suction pipe shall be such that the rate of flow of water through it does not exceed 90m. per minute when the pump is delivering at its rated discharge. If, however, the pump is situated below the level of its water supply, the diameter of the suction pipe/header shall be based upon a rate of flow of 120m. per minute.

2.2.1.7

2.2.1.8

2.2.1.9

2.2.1.10 Centrifugal pumps shall be fixed below the level of the water supply. However, if the priming arrangements are such as to ensure that the suction pipe shall be automatically maintained full of water notwithstanding a serious leakage therefrom (the pump being automatically brought into action to replenish the priming tank should the latter be drawn upon at a greater rate than the rate at which it is fed from any other source), positive suction may not be insisted. In such cases, the capacity of the priming tank

need not exceed 450 ltrs and the diameter of the priming pipe need not exceed 50mm. Note: For the purpose of Rules 2.2.1.8, 2.2.1.9 and 2.2.1.11, a pump shall be considered as having positive suction only if the quantity of water in the reservoir above the level of the top of the pump casing is equivalent to the requirements in Rules 3.2.2 and 4.2 of these Rules. 2.2.1.11 If, at the discretion of the Committee, the pump is allowed to be installed above the level of its water supply in the case of High Velocity Water Spray Systems, there shall be a foot valve and a priming arrangement, the latter consisting of a tank (having a capacity at least three times that of the suction pipe from the pump to the foot valve) connected to the delivery side of the pump by a metal pipe having a diameter of 100 mm in the case of centrifugal pumps with a non-return valve therein of the same size. A dependable independent filling arrangement and a level indicator shall be provided for the priming tank. The provision of a vacuum gauge for the suction pipe is recommended. 2.2.1.12 Pumps shall not be installed in the open. The pump room shall be so located as to be both easily accessible and where any falling masonry and the like from other buildings occasioned by fire or other cause, cannot damage the pump room. Normally, pump rooms shall be located 6m. away from all surrounding buildings and overhead structures. Where this is not feasible, they may be attached to a building provided a perfect party wall complying with the Committees Rules is constructed between the pump room and the attached building, the roof of the pump room is of R.C.C. construction atleast 100mm thick and access to the pump room is from the outside. The pump rooms shall normally have brick/concrete walls and no-combustible roof, with adequate lighting, ventilation and drainage arrangements. Note: The pump room shall be located 30M clear of equipment/vessels handling or storing flammable liquids/solvents and/or gases. 2.2.2 2.2.2.1 ELECTRICALLY DRIVEN PUMPS: The sub-station(s) supplying power to the fire pumps(s) shall be of incombustible construction and shall be located at least 6m away from all surrounding buildings. Where this is not feasible it may be attached to a building provided a perfect party wall complying with the Committees Rules is constructed between the sub-station(s) and the attached buildings, the roof of the sub-station(s) is of R.C.C. construction atleast 100mm thick and access to the sub-station(s) is from the outside. Transformer cubicles inside these sub-stations shall be separated from H.T./L.T. cubicles and from each other by blank brick/stone/concrete walls of 355mm thickness with door openings, if any, therein being protected by single fireproof doors complying with the Committees Rules. Likewise, substation, and generator room shall be separated from each other. Outdoor transformers shall also be separated as above irrespective of their oil contents.

Note: The Sub-station shall be located 30M clear of equipment/vessels handling or storing flammable liquids/solvents and/or gases. For more information attention is drawn to rule 7.4.3 Fire Protection Manual (12th Edition)

2.2.2.2

Overhead feeders to sub-station(s) supplying power to the fire pump(s) are not permitted within a horizontal distance of: a) 15m. of any process building/plant or tanks containing flammable liquids.

or b) 6m. of any other building or tanks containing non-flammable liquids or of storage in open. In case the feed to such sub-station(s) is by means of under-ground cables, the cables shall not pass under any building or permanent structure. 2.2.2.3 2.2.2.4 Sufficient spare power shall always be available to drive pumping set (s) at all times throughout the year. The electric supply to the pumping set (s) shall be entirely independent of all other equipment in the premises i.e. even when the power throughout the entire premises is switched off, the supply to the pump shall continue to be available uninterrupted. This can be achieved by taking the connection for the pump(s) from the incoming side of the main L.T. breaker. However, in cases where two or more transformers and/or sources of supply are connected to a common busbar or where there is provision of a bus coupler between the busbar sections, the connection may be taken through the busbars (Figure 8). The fire pump circuit shall be protected at the origin by an automatic circuit breaker so set as to permit the motor to be overloaded during an emergency to the maximum limit permissible by the manufacturers. Further, the under-voltage release/no volt coil of the circuit breaker shall be removed. Note: Where cable lengths are long enough to warrant back-up protection, the Committee may insist on provision of such a protection. 2.2.2.6 It is recommended that telltale lamps which would continuously glow when power is available to the fire pump(s) circuit be provided and fixed in a prominent position, both in the sub-station and in the pump room. A direct feeder without any tappings shall be laid from the sub-station to the pump house. The feeder shall be laid underground and shall not pass under any building or permanent structure. Under extraneous circumstances, the Committee may permit use of overhead cables, but in no case shall such cables be permitted to contravene the distance indicated in rule 2.2.2.2. Where there is more than one source of power for the operation of pumping set(s) every electrical circuit shall preferably be so designed as to ensure that when necessary, the set(s) continue to operate without the manual operation of an emergency switch. The pumping set(s) shall be securely mounted on a robust bed plate, if of the horizontal type, and shall be free from vibration at all variations of load.

2.2.2.5

2.2.2.7

2.2.2.8

2.2.2.9

2.2.2.10 The rating and design of motors and switchgear shall conform to the relevant Indian Standards Specification. The Motor shall be of continous

rating type and its rating shall be equivalent to the horse power required to drive the pump at 150% of its rated discharge. (see rule 2.2.1.7) 2.2.2.11 The motor shall be of totally enclosed type or drip proof type, the latter having their air inlets and outlets protected with meshed wire panels to exclude rodents, reptiles and insects. 2.2.2.12 The motor(s) shall be wound for class B insulation, preferably for class E and the windings shall be vacuum impregnated with heat and moisture resisting varnish and preferably glass fibre insulated to withstand tropical conditions. 2.2.2.13 Motor(s) wound for high tension supplies shall have a suitable fixed warming resistance to maintain the motor windings in a dry condition at all times and particularly under monsoon conditions. The resistance shall be connected to the lighting or other equivalent circuit. 2.2.2.14 Heating apparatus shall also be provided, when necessary, for medium tension motor where they are located below ground level, in order to maintain the motor windings in a dry condition. Adequate drainage arrangements shall also be provided in the pump house in such cases. 2.2.2.15 The incoming cable to the fire pump room shall terminate in an isolating switch fuse unit incorporating HRC fuses and where necessary provided with a distribution system. 2.2.2.16 The starting switch gear for the fire pumps shall be suitable for direct on line starting but other alternative arrangements are subject to prior approval. It shall also incorporate an ammeter with a clear indication of the motor full load current. Note: Remote controlled starting arrangements are subject to prior approval of the Committee. 2.2.2.17 Cables for motors and switch gears shall be armoured or be enclosed in heavy gauge screwed steel conduit according to conditions. 2.2.2.18 It is recommended that equipment throughout be painted fire red (shade no.536 as per IS:5) and suitably marked for identification. 2.2.2.18 Necessary spare parts including a set of fuses (in a glass fronted box) shall be kept in readiness at all times in the pump house. 2.2.2.19 The wiring in all installations shall be done in accordance with the Rules for the Electrical Equipment of Buildings issued by the Tariff Advisory Committee. 2.2.3 2.2.3.1 COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE DRIVEN PUMPS PUMP ROOM The pump room shall be artificially heated, if necessary, to maintain the temperature of the room above 10o C. Adequate ventilation shall be provided for the air required for aspiration and to limit the temperature rise

in the room to 10o C above the ambient temperature when the engine is on full load. 2.2.3.2 ENGINE

2.2.3.2.1 The engine shall be: a) Of the compression ignition mechanical direct injection type, capable of being started without the use of wicks, cartridges, heater plugs or either, at an engine room temperature of 70 C and shall accept full load within 15 seconds from the receipt of the signal to start. b) Naturally aspirated, supercharged or turbocharged and either air or water cooled. In the case of charged air cooling by means of a beltdriven fan or of a belt driven auxiliary water pump there shall be multiple belts such that should half the belts break, the remaining belts would be capable of driving the fan or pump. c) Capable of operating continuously on full load at the site elevation for a period of six hours. d) Provided with an adjustable governor to control the engine speed within 10% of its rated speed under any condition of load upto the full load rating. The governor shall be set to maintain rated pump speed at maximum pump load. e) Provided with an in-built tachometer to indicate R.P.M. of the engine. f) Provided with a time to taliser (hour counter) 2.2.3.2.2 Any manual device fitted to the engine, which could prevent the engine starting, shall return automatically to the normal position. 2.2.3.2.3 Engines, after correction for altitude and ambient temperature, shall have bare engine horsepower rating equivalent to the higher of the following two valves a) 20% in excess of the maximum brake horsepower required driving the pump at its duty point. b) The brake horsepower required to drive the pump at 150% of its rated discharge. 2.2.3.2.4 The coupling between the engine and the pump shall allow each unit to be removed without disturbing the other. 2.2.3.3 COOLING SYSTEM The following systems are acceptable a) cooling by water from the discharge of fire pump (taken off prior to the pump discharge valve) direct into the engine cylinder jackets via a pressure reducing device to limit the applied pressure to a safe value as specified by the engine manufacturer. The outlet connection from this

system shall terminate atleast 150mm above the engine water outlet pipe and be directed into an open tundish so that the discharge water is visible. b) a heat exchanger, the raw water being supplied from the fire pump discharge (taken off prior to the pump discharge valve) via a pressure reducing device, if necessary, to limit the applied pressure to a safe value as specified by the engine manufacturer. The raw water outlet connection shall be so designed that the discharged water can be readily observed. The water in the closed circuit shall be circulated by means of an auxiliary pump driven from the engine and the capacity of the closed circuits shall not be less than that recommended by the engine manufacturer. If the auxiliary pump is belt driven there shall be multiple belts so that should half the belts break, the remaining belts shall be capable of driving the pump. c) a frame or engine mounted air cooled radiator with a multiple belts driven fan from the engine. When half the belts are broken the remaining belts shall be capable of driving the fan. The water in the closed circuit shall be circulated by means of an auxiliary pump driven by the engine and the capacity of the closed circuit shall be not less than that recommended by the engine manufacturer. d) direct air cooling of the engine by means of multiple belts driven fan. When half the belts are broken the remaining belts shall be capable of driving the fan. NOTE: In case of systems described in (b) (c) and (d) above a failure actuated audio-visual alarm shall be incorporated. 2.2.3.4 AIR FILTRATION The air intake shall be fitted with the filter of adequate size to prevent foreign matter entering the engine. 2.2.3.5 EXHAUST SYSTEM The exhaust shall be fitted with a suitable silencer and the total backpressure shall not exceed the engine makers recommendation. When the exhaust system rises above the engine, means shall be provided to prevent any condensate flowing into the engine. 2.2.3.6 ENGINE SHUT-DOWN MECHANISM This shall be manually operated and return automatically to the starting position after use. 2.2.3.7 FUEL SYSTEM

2.2.3.7.1 Fuel The engine fuel oil shall be of quality and grade specified by engine makers. There shall be kept on hand at all times sufficient fuel to run the

engine on full load for three hours, in addition to that in the engine fuel tank. 2.2.3.7.2 Fuel Tank The fuel tank shall be of welded steel constructed to relevant Indian or foreign standard for Mild Steel Drums. The tank shall be mounted above the engine fuel pump to provide a gravity feed unless otherwise recommended by the manufacturers. The tank shall be fitted with an indicator showing the level of fuel in the tank. The capacity of the tank shall be sufficient to allow the engine to run on full load for 1 hour in case of High Velocity Water Spray Systems and 3 hours in case of Medium Velocity Water Spray Systems. Note: Where there is more than one compression ignition engine driven pump set there shall be a separate fuel tank and fuel feed pipe for each engine. 2.2.3.7.3 Fuel Feed Pipes Any valve in the fuel feed pipe between the fuel tank and the engine shall be placed adjacent to the tank and it shall be locked in the open position. Pipe joints shall not be soldered and plastic tubing shall not be used. 2.2.3.7.4 Auxiliary Equipment The following shall be provided :a) b) c) d) a sludge and sediment trap a fuel level gauge an inspection and cleaning hole a filter between the fuel tank and fuel pump mounted in an accessible position for cleaning. e) means to enable the entire fuel system to be bled of air. Air relief cocks are not allowed; screwed plugs are permitted.

2.2.3.7.8 Starting Mechanism: Provision shall be made for two separate methods of engine starting viz. a) Automatic starting by means of a battery powered electric starter motor incorporating the axial displacement type of pinion, having automatic repeat start facilities initiated by a fall in pressure in the water supply pipe to the spray installation. The battery capacity shall be adequate for ten consecutive starts without recharging with a cold engine under full compression. b) Manual starting by : i) Crank handle, if engine size permits or ii) Electric starter motor.

Note: The starter motor used for automatic starting may also be used for manual starting provided there are separate batteries for manual starting. 2.2.3.8 Battery Charging The means of charging the batteries shall be by a 2-rate trickle charger with manual selection of boost charge and the batteries shall be charged in position. Where separate batteries are provided for automatic and manual starting the charging equipment shall be capable of trickle charging both the batteries simultaneously. Equipment shall be provided to enable the state of charge of the batteries to be determined. 2.2.3.9 Tools A standard kit of tools shall be provided with the engine and kept on hand at all times. 2.2.3.10 Spare Parts The following spare parts shall be supplied with the engine and kept on hand. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) two sets of fuel filters, elements and seals. two sets of lubricating oil filters, elements and seals. two sets of belts (where used) one complete set of engine joints, gaskets and hoses. two injector nozzles one complete set of piston rings for each cylinder one inlet valve and one exhaust valve.

2.2.3.11 Engine Exercising The test shall be for a period of atleast five minutes each day. Where closed circuit cooling systems are used the water level in the primary system shall be checked at the time of carrying out each test and, if necessary, water shall be added during the course of the test procedure. 2.2.3.12 A written declaration shall be given that the following conditions will be strictly complied with: a) to test the engine atleast once a week b) to maintain the temperature of the engine room at not less than 4.50 C at all times. c) to maintain the minimum quantity of fuel oil required as desired in these clauses. d) to use a good grade of fuel oil equivalent in quality to that specified by the engine maker. e) to keep on hand the spare parts required as specified in 2.2.3.11. 2.3 DETECTION SYSTEM

Detection systems are designed to detect one or more of three characteristics of a Fire, i.e. smoke, heat and radiation. No one type of detector is most suitable for all applications and final choice will depend on individual circumstances. In any automatic fire detection system, a detector has to discriminate between a fire and the normal environmental conditions. The overall objective of the system is intended not only to enable a fire to be detected at an early stage of its occurrence but also to extinguish the fire without extensive property damage. In case of water spray systems, detection systems are required for activating the Deluge system for the following applications: a) b) c) d) e) General Area Protection (indoors) Horizontal and Vertical vessels (outdoors) Spherical vessels (outdoors) Transformers (outdoors and indoors) Spot protection such as oil tanks, Turbo-alternator sets, pipe lines etc. (outdoors and indoors).

For most of the above protections, sprinklers are found in extensive application in view of their reliability. Sprinklers are not fast enough for certain applications e.g., General areas like open-sided Bottling plants for LPG and the like, open-sided chemical plants handling low flashing solvents etc..., where a quick detection is required to avoid an inferno or a possible Bleve. For such specialised applications, the Committee is in the process of exploring other types of detection systems. At present, sprinkler is being accepted as a detector for all applications in case of water spray systems. The present rules cover detection by sprinkler only. However, other type of detections e.g. in cable galleries/conveyor by LHS cables, in warehouses by smoke/R.O.R. detectors etc. will be acceptable to the Committee provided full details of such systems with design philosophy are made available to the Committee in advance. The design of detection system by sprinklers varies from risk to risk in case of water spray systems. Hence the different methods have been separately covered under each section. However, there are certain requirements which are common to all types of protection and only such requirements are listed in Rules below. 2.3.1 2.3.1.1 2.3.1.2 2.3.1.3 2.3.1.4 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS The sprinkler piping shall not be less than 25 mm diameter anywhere. The total pipeline volume shall not be less than 10 Litres. (0.01m3) The pressure in the detection system shall, in no case, exceed 3.5 bars. The detection piping shall slope to drain at least 1 in 250 with drain valves provided at the lowest point.

2.3.1.5

For pneumatic separate air compressor shall be provided for the detection system. The air compressor shall be installed in the Fire pump room. Where it is not possible, the air compressor room shall be separated from the occupancies adjoining therewith as per rule 2.2.1.12 above. Wherever possible in case of pneumatic systems stand-by air compressor may be installed or supplies from process and utility compressors may be connected as an alternate supply to the detection system. As far as possible, the detection piping shall be run alongside the underground spray mains but run independently of other pipes, either underground or aboveground. The piping shall be suitably protected against impact damage in the case of the latter. The detection piping shall not travers underneath or through any Working/Storage blocks or Tank farms/Materials stored in open. The temperature rating of the detector sprinkler shall be at least 30o C above the highest ambient temperature at the site of installation.

2.3.1.6

2.3.1.7

2.3.1.8 2.3.1.9

2.3.1.10 The detection piping and equipment installed in corrosive areas shall be applied with protective coatings. 2.3.1.11 The detection piping and equipment shall be supported independently as far as possible. 2.3.1.12 The detection piping/equipment shall be laid away from not sources such as heat exchangers, furnaces, ovens etc. in order to avoid possible false alarms. 2.3.1.13 Sprinkler heads shall be provided with guards in areas where they are susceptible to mechanical damage and care shall be taken to see that the guards do not interfere with the spray pattern in the vicinity. 2.3.1.14 The detection system shall be designed to cause actuation of the Deluge Valve within 20 seconds under expected exposure conditions. 2.3.1.15 It is recommended to provide baffle plates for detectors where situation warrants. 2.4.1 2.4.1.1 PIPING The pipe used in the water spray system (from Pump House upto the deluge valve) shall be laid underground or in masonry culverts with removable covers of incombustible construction and shall be of any one of the following types: a) Cast iron double flanged Class A pipes conforming to the following standards: i) Horizontally Cast Iron Pipes ii) Vertically Cast Iron Pipes iii) Centrifugal Cast (Spun) Iron Pipes IS:7181 IS:1537 IS:1536

Note: In case of vertically cast pipes, where the nominal diameter of the pipes exceeds 300 mm or where the pump delivery pressure exceeds 7 kg/sq.cm., class B pipes would be necessary. b) Centrifugal Cast (Spun) Iron Class A Pipes with Tyton Joints - IS : 1536. c) Wrought or mild steel pipes (galvanised or ungalvanised) or Medium grade conforming to IS:1239 and IS: 1978 or Electric-Resistance-welded steel pipes conforming to IS:3589 having welded joints and coated and wrapped as per IS:10221-code of Practice for Coating and Wrapping of underground mildsteel pipelines. d) Welded and Seamless Steel Pipe - ASTM A53 e) Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe - ASTM A135 f) Black and Hot-Dipped Zinc-Coated (Galvanised) Welded and Seamless Steel Pipe for Fire Protection Use. g) Wrought Steel Pipe - ASTM B36.10 Note: At least 10% of all the welded joints shall be radiographically tested and half of the joints radiographed shall be field joints. 2.4.1.2 Underground pipes shall be laid not less than 1m below ground level. Where soil conditions are unsatisfactory, masonry or equivalent supports shall be provided at regular intervals. Note: In case of poor soil conditions, it may be necessary to provide continuous masonry or equivalent supports. 2.4.1.3 Pipes may be laid above ground with the prior permission of the Committee. Pipes above ground shall be of Medium grade wrought or mild steel (galvanised or ungalvanised) conforming to Is : 1239 or IS : 3589 or as listed in items (d), (e), (f), (g) above with welded, threaded or flanged joints, shall be adequately supported at regular intervals not exceeding 3.5m and shall be run at least 6m away from the face of the buildings or battery limit or open storage areas in case of High Velocity Water Spray Systems and 15m in case of Medium Velocity Water Spray Systems. Pipes shall not be laid under buildings or plant areas or storages areas. As far as possible, pipes shall not be laid under large open storage, railroads and roads carrying heavy traffic. Pipes shall not traverse ground, which is not under the control of the owner of the installation. Pipes shall also not pass through public roadways. The underground piping network shall be capable of withstanding for two hours a pressure equivalent to 150% of the maximum working pressure. All bolt holes in flanges shall be drilled. Drilling of each flange shall be in accordance with the relevant Indian Standards, or ASTM Standards or British Standards. Flanges shall be faced and have jointing of rubber insertions or asbestos compound.

2.4.1.4

2.4.1.5 2.4.1.6 2.4.1.7

2.4.1.8

2.4.1.9

For the system piping network above deluge valve, piping shall be galvanised internally and externally. Note : However, wrought steel or mild steel pipes of heavy grade conforming to IS-1239 may also be used with proper anticorrosive coating or treatment.

2.4.1.10 Welded joints shall not be permitted for pipes of less than 50mm dia. Note: Where joints with odd angles are encountered, reference shall be made to the Committee. 2.4.2 2.4.2.1 FITTINGS Fittings installed underground shall be of cast iron heavy grade conforming to IS : 1538 or BS : 2035, whereas those installed above ground shall be of medium grade wrought steel or mild steel conforming to IS : 1239 (part II) or malleable iron fittings conforming to IS : 1879 (Part I to X). All fittings shall be able to withstand atleast a pressure 150% of the working pressure. For the system-piping network above deluge valve, galvanised fittings shall be used. Note: However, wrought or mild steel fittings of Heavy grade conforming to IS 1239 (Part II) may also be used with proper anticorrosive coating or treatment. 2.4.2.4 Welded fittings in accordance with the laid down welding procedure are permitted. Welded parts shall be galvanised or suitably coated after welding as per the requirement of the areas to be protected by the system (i.e. chemical and electrolytic corrosion). DELUGE VALVES A Deluge system is a fixed fire protection system, which totally floods an area with pressurised water through a system of piping with open nozzles and/or sprinklers. The system piping is empty until the Controlling valve is activated by a pneumatic or other types of release systems. Such controlling valves which are quick opening in nature are called Deluge Valves. The Deluge Valve Assembly consists mainly of the following :a) b) c) d) e) f) g) In line Strainer Isolation Valve Deluge Valve Actuator/Pilot assembly Drain Valve Pressure Gauges (above and below the Deluge Valve) Alarm assembly (Consisting of gong or sounder)

2.4.2.2 2.4.2.3

2.5

Varieties of Deluge Valves with different working principles are available and hence it is necessary that the valves shall have prior approval of Tariff Advisory Committee. PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION The Deluge Valve has an inlet, outlet and priming chamber. The inlet and outlet are separated from the priming chamber by the valve chamber and diaphragm. In the SET position, pressure is applied to the priming chamber through a restricted prime line. The pressure is trapped in the priming chamber and holds the clapper on the seat due to the differential design. In the set position, the clapper separates the inlet from the outlet keeping the system piping dry. When the pressure is relased from priming chamber faster than it is supplied through the restricted priming line, the clapper moves and allows the inlet water supply to flow through the outlet into the system and associated alarm device. The mode of actuation of Deluge Valve can be pneumatic or hydraulic type or a combination of both. Where othe types of valves are proposed, reference shall be made to the Committee in advance with full details for consideration. 2.5.1 REQUIREMENTS OF INSTALLATION a) Deluge Valve shall be installed outside of but adjacent to the protected area as close to the risk as possible but at not less than 6M from the plant and/or equipment to be protected. b) Masonry enclosures shall be provided around the deluge valve in the form of Barrier walls in such a way that the valve is not exposed to any impact due to flying bodies or projectiles from the plant and/or equipment in the vicinity and also for weather protection. c) Isolating valves shall be provided below the Deluge Valves to enable servicing thereof and cleaning strainers at regular intervals. d) Isolating valves shall provided above the Deluge valve in addition, for testing purposes. e) The isolating valves shall be strapped and locked in Open position by leather straps or nylon chains and pad-locks under normal operating condition. f) Emergency Manual override facility shall be provided for actuating the Deluge Valve. g) g) It is permissible to provide a manually operated bypass line with an isolating valve for emergency requirements. Such valves shall always be kept locked in Closed position. h) The load on the Deluge valve shall not exceed the limits mentioned below :VALVE SIZE IN MM 150 mm 100 mm 80 mm LPM 13,500 5,000 1,150

i) Indicators shall be provided to show the open and closed positions. j) Facility shall be provided to prime the space above the deluge valve seat with water. k) It must be ensured that there is no possibility of water leaking back into the instrument air supply in the event of diaphragm failure. l) A suitable, durable, robust and clearly visible instruction plate shall be permanently secured to each assembly and shall detail clearly and concisely the following procedures: Start up (or operation) Test Shut down Drain 2.6 DRAINAGE Adequate provisions shall be made to promptly and effectively dispose of all liquids from the fire area during operation of all systems in the fire area. Such provisions shall be adequate for a) Water discharged from fixed fire protection systems at maximum flow conditions. b) Water likely to be discharged by hose streams. c) Surface water. d) Cooling water normally discharged to the systems. There are four methods generally adopted for disposal and/or containment i.e. Grading, Diking, Trenching, Underground or enclosed drain systems. The method used in drainage shall be governed by a) The extent of the hazard. b) Clear space available. c) The protection required. 2.6.1 Where the hazard is low, the clear space is adequate and the degree of protection required is not great, grading is acceptable. Where these conditions are not present, consideration shall be given to dikes, trenches or underground or enclosed drains. Where grading is employed, a slope of not less than 1% shall be necessary. Concrete surfacing is mostly desirable, however, other hard surfacing are acceptable. Where diking is employed, the drainage arrangements thereof shall conform to Indian Petroleum Rules in all respects. Where trenching, underground or enclosed drains are employed reference shall be made to the Committee with full particulars for approval. ++++++ +

2.6.2

2.6.3 2.6.4

SECTION - 3 HIGH VELOCITY WATER SPRAY SYSTEMS 3.1 INTRODUCTION As already explained in the Preface, High Velocity water spray systems are installed to extinguish fires involving liquids with flash points of 650 C (1500 F) or higher. Three principles of extinguishment are employed in the system emulsification, cooling and smothering. The result of applying these principles is to extinguish the fire within a few seconds. For more details, attention is drawn to Section 6 of the Rules. This section provides Rules and guidelines for the protection of the following. a) Transformers, oil filled equipments of power stations b) Turbo-alternators and other c) Oil fired boiler rooms, oil quenching tanks. 3.2 3.2.1 3.2.1.1 TRANSFORMER PROTECTION GENERAL Transformer protection shall contemplate on essentially complete impingement on all exterior surfaces except the underside, which may be protected by horizontal projection. Transformer present particular design problems for Water spray protection, primarily due to their irregular shape and necessary clearances to be provided for the high voltage equipment. Generally speaking, there is much more interference with the water flow on the sides of the transformer than at their top. Due to this reason the protection usually involves a large number of small capacity projectors than a few bigger ones. Often it will be necessary to put more water on the transformer than required to achieve complete impingement and total envelopment. Hence it is necessary to submit the following informations with detailed drawings to check the design of spray system of a transformer: a) b) c) d) e) f) Length of the Transformer Width of the Transformer Height of the Transformer Location and height of Bushings Size and location of oil conservator tank Location of Switch Boxes, Tap changing gears and other equipment that obstruct and interfere with water distribution. g) Specification such as KVA rating, voltage rating, Oil quantity etc. h) Details showing the direction of incoming and outgoing cabling and ducting. i) Details of flooring on which the transformer is installed and nature of floor around the transformer such as concrete, asphalt, pebble filled etc. j) Elevation of Transformer above the grade.

3.2.1.2

3.2.1.3

k) Size and location of Fire barrier walls. l) Sitting of radiators and cooler banks in relation to the Transformer and the surrounding ground level. m) Protection and Detection piping in different colors. n) Projector characteristics showing the K factor, cone angle, discharge in LPM, and effective reach. The drawings shall clearly show top, sides and bottom of the Transformer and also isometric views showing all the above details shall be submitted. Also, the piping, explosion vents, flanges etc. must be clearly shown. 3.2.1.4 The projection from the surfaces like ribbings, tap changers, cable boxes etc. would roof off the downward flow of water and hence run down cannot be automatically considered. Such roofed off areas will require specific spray coverage with additional projector. ELECTRICAL CLEARANCE All system components shall be so located as to maintain minimum clearances from live parts as shown below in Table 1. Clearance is the air distance between Water Spray Equipment including piping nozzles and detectors and un-insulated live electrical components at other than ground potential. The minimum clearances specified in table 1 are under normal conditions. During the operation of Water Spray system, they are intended for use as safe. The values stated are as per requirements of National Electrical Code published by the Bureau of Indian Standards, India. TABLE - 1
MAXIMUM RMS VALUE OF RATED OPERATION VOLTAGE (KV) 10 20 30 45 60 110 150 220 400 MINIMUM DISTANCE OF INSTALLATION SUBJECT TO OVER VOLTAGES (MM) 150 215 325 520 700 1100 1550 2200 3500 MINIMUM DISTANCE OF INSTALLATIONS PROTECTED AGAINST OVER VOLTAGES OR CONNECTED TO CABLES (MM) 150 160 270 380 520 950 1350 1850 3000

3.2.1.5

Note: If the clearance around the transformer [outdoor and indoor] is likely to be affected by the spray pipe network, specific reference shall be made to the Committee. 3.2.1.6 Pipeline strainers shall be of approved type for use in water supply connections. Strainers must be capable of removing from the water all

solids of sufficient size to obstruct the spray nozzles (normally 3.2 mm perforations are suitable). In addition, the strainer must be capable of continuous operation without serious increase in head loss, for a period estimated to be ample when considering the type of protection provided, the condition of the water and similar local circumstances. In addition, pipeline strainers must incorporate a flush out connection. Individual strainers for spray nozzles where required must be capable of removing from the water all solids of sufficient size to obstruct the spray nozzle they serve. 3.2.2 Water Supplies The effective exclusive capacity of the reservoir/tank (above the level of the foot valve seat by a height equivalent to three times the diameter of the suction pipe in case of negative suction and above the level of suction of the puddle flange or the level of the top of pump casing whichever is higher by a height equivalent to three times the diameter of the suction pipe in case of positive suction) shall not be less than 40 minutes run for the aggregate pumping capacity for the spray system. 3.2.3 3.2.3.1 GENERAL LAYOUT AND DESIGN Transformers shall be protected using rings of nozzles there around with the top of the transformer and subsequently rings for every 3M from top to bottom thereof and beneath each continuous obstruction. The rings shall not be located at more than 1M of the transformer. Projectors shall be employed to spray water horizontally at the bottom if the transformer is at more than 300mm above ground level. In case of transformers surrounded by concrete or asphalted surfaces, projectors must be employed in such a way as to wash off flammable liquids away from transformers. Projectors The projector shall not be less than 6 mm orifice in size. Projectors protecting the top shall be aimed at an angle so that all of the water impinges upon the transformer, the spray pattern targeting either the top of the transformer or partly the top and partly the sides. Projectors protecting the vertical sides and the bottom of the transformer shall point directly on the surfaces to be protected. Projectors protecting irregular areas shall be located for the best coverage. Projectors protecting the space between transformers and radiators and/or space between radiators shall be so located as to spray directly into the open space. Projectors shall cover the oil pipe joints and flanges, if any.

3.2.3.2 3.2.3.3

3.2.3.4 3.2.3.4.1 3.2.3.4.2

3.2.3.4.3 3.2.3.4.4 3.2.3.4.5

3.2.3.4.6

3.2.3.5 3.2.3.5.1

FIRE BARRIER WALLS Fire barrier walls shall be constructed between the Transformers/Equipment and these walls shall be of either 355mm thick brick or 200mm thick RCC and carried atleast 600mm above the highest point of equipment to be protected. Fire barrier wall shall be constructed between the Transformers/Equipment, which are not spaced at distances mentioned in the table below OIL CAPACITY OF INDIVIDUALCLEAR SEPARATING TRANSFORMERS (IN LTS.) Upto 5000 Between 5001 and 10000 Between 10001 and 20000 Between 20001 and 30000 Over 30000

3.2.3.5.2

DISTANCE (IN MTS.) 6.0 M 8.0 M 10.0 M 12.5 M 15.0 M

3.2.3.5.3

In the absence of walls as stated in Rule 3.2.3.5.1 or clear separating distances as stated in Rule 3.2.3.5.2, the pressure and flow demand shall be based on the aggregate requirements for all such Transformers/Equipment and pipe size, pumping capacity and water requirements shall accordingly be designed. System Design Density of Discharge Water shall be applied at a rate of not less than 10.2 LPM/M2 of the surface area of the entire Transformer including the bottom surface, radiators, conservators etc.

3.2.3.6 3.2.3.6.1

3.2.3.6.2

Distribution of Projectors and the Layout of Piping

3.2.3.6.2.1 Projectors on the rings shall be located at not less than 500mm and not more than 800mm from the Transformer/Equipment surface. 3.2.3.6.2.2 The horizontal and vertical distances between the projectors shall be maintained in such a way that their spray patterns intersect on the surface of the Transformer/Equipment. 3.2.3.6.2.3 Obstructed or roofed off portions (see rule 3.2.1.4) of the Transformers Shall be protected by separate projectors. For this purpose, it will be permissible to extend pipes from the nearest ring by means of a nipple. The terminal pipes extended from the ring mains shall need separate supports if they are 600mm or longer.

3.2.3.6.2.4 Where Radiators or Cooler Banks are located at more than 300mm from the surrounding ground level, undersides shall be protected by projectors pointing upwards. 3.2.3.6.2.5 Where Radiator/Cooler Bank are spaced more than 300 mm apart and where the Transformer is separated at a distance of more than 300 mm from the Radiator/Cooler Bank, projectors shall be so arranged to spray into the space. Projector angles shall be so selected that the Cone diameters at the entrance of space is equal to or slightly larger than the space. For unobstructed vertical surface, the maximum vertical distance between projectors shall be 3M. However, for obstructed surface the distance shall be governed by the nature of obstruction. The system shall be hydraulically so designed that the pressure at the hydraulically most remote projectors in the network is not less than 3.5 bars in case of an Outdoor Transformer and 2.8 bars in case of an Indoor Transformer. However, the maximum pressure in any Projector within a network shall not exceed 5 bars. The velocity in the feed pipes shall not exceed 10M/second.

3.2.3.6.2.6

3.2.3.6.2.7

3.2.4

DETECTION SYSTEM FOR TRANSFORMERS Automatic detection equipment shall be so located and adjusted as to operate reliably. The location of detectors shall be based on several factors such as nature of hazard, air velocity, temperature variations, configuration of the hazard, indoor or outdoor, open or closed structures and other variables. For Transformers, the detector sprinklers shall be as close to the shell as possible at all places subject to electrical clearance.

3.2.4.1

Outdoor Transformers

3.2.4.1.1 There shall be a ring of detectors around the top of the transformer and a second ring around the base. Pipework is likely to be affected by stray magnetic fields that can produce inductive heating if there is a continuous metallic ring. Hence continous ring mains shall be avoided. 3.2.4.1.2 3.2.4.1.3 3.2.4.1.4 3.2.4.1.5 The detectors shall be spaced at a maximum of 2.5 M intervals. The detectors shall be close to the transformer as possible and shall in no case, be farther than 300 mm therefrom. Additional detectors shall be required for specific known hazard points such as tap changers, cable boxes, vents, oil piping etc. Coolers and Radiator banks associated with the Transformer shall be provided with detectors at two levels in a manner similar to that called for in rule 3.2.4.1.1 above. The flanges of oil pipes shall be within 300 mm from detectors.

3.2.4.1.6

3.2.4.1.7 3.2.4.1.8

The conservator tanks shall be provided with detectors at 2.5 M spacing. It is sufficient to install detectors under the conservator tanks. Piping shall be individually supported as far as possible. Transformer ribbings may be used to support the piping. In no case, shall the piping be supported on the body of the Transformer. Terminal pipes (other than those for Projectors protecting roofed off portions) longer than 300 mm shall be supported separately. Indoor Transformers. Where the Transformer cubicle is less than 6 meters in height, the detectors shall be positioned in accordance with the Committees Sprinkler Regulations i.e. at a maximum spacing of 4 meters with an area coverage of not more than 12 M2 over the risk. Where the Transformer cubicle is more than 6 meters in height, the detectors shall be positioned as close to the Transformer as possible to the top of the Transformer. Where the Transformer Cubicle is open fronted, the same shall be treated as an Outdoor Transformer with detectors as per clauses under rule 3.2.4.1 above. Miscellaneous protection High velocity water spray systems are also provided for the protection of following areas in Power Stations: a) b) c) d) Burners, Air preheating systems, Lubricating oil systems. Hydrogen cooling and seal oil systems. Inside Turbo - alternator sets. Clean and dirty oil tanks, paraffin tanks.

3.2.4.1.9 3.2.4.2 3.2.4.2.1

3.2.4.2.2

3.2.4.2.3

3.3

The protection is normally localized and hence deemed as spot protections as only equipment are protected and not the whole area where the equipment are installed. The details of the design for protection of the above area shall be submitted to the concerned Regional Office of the Committee in advance showing the lay-out of equipment, their configuration, location of projectors and detectors etc., alongwith detailed drawings for prior approval. +++++++

SECTION - 4 MEDIUM VELOCITY WATER- SPRAY SYSTEM 4.1 4.1.1 INTRODUCTION As already explained in the Preface, Medium Velocity Water Spray Systems are installed to control the burning and to provide cooling and/or exposure protection to such risks where extinguishment is always not possible or even desirable e.g. fires involving flammable fluids having flash points below 650 C (1500 F). These 600 C systems are also used sometimes for power station applications in coal conveyors, cable galleries etc. This section provides Rules and guidelines for the protection of the following areas by Medium Velocity Water Spray system: a) General Area Protection (For example: - working plants like LPG bottling plants, chemical plants where flammable solvents are stored and/or used etc..) b) Horizontal storage vessels (for example LPG Bullets etc.) c) Vertical storage vessels (for example - Benzene, Xylene, Toluene tankage). d) Spherical storage vessels (for example LPG bullets, spheres etc.) e) Spot protection (protection of selective areas/equipments) 4.2 Water Supplies The effective exclusive capacity of the reservoir/tank (above the level of suction of the puddle flange or the level of the top of pump casing whichever is higher by a height equivalent to three times the diameter of the suction pipe) shall be as follows: a) 90 minutes of the installed pumping capacity if the aggregate holdup of flammable fluid/solvent in vessels/tanks at one location is less than 200 MT. b) 150 minutes of the installed pumping capacity if the aggregate holdup of flammable fluid/solvent in the vessels/tanks at one location is more than 200 MT. For the purpose of the above, all storage vessels within 50M of each other shall be considered as one location. 4.2 Pumping Capacity

4.1.2

To determine the actual pumping capacity required for the system, individual demands of various detached blocks within the risk shall be determined based on the design details given in the following sections. The pumping capacity required shall be equivalent to the highest of the demands thus calculated. 4.3 4.4.1 GENERAL AREA PROTECTION DEFINITION A process plant where flammable liquids are contained in vessels and/or pipes forming a large or small complex of the plant either in a room or outdoors or under a roof with open sides would be classified as a General area. A plant wherein more than 1000 litres of flammable liquids/solvents are stored in small containers, would also be classified as a General area. 4.4.2 GENERAL INFORMATION The density of water application shall depend upon the type of flammable liquids handled in the plants and also upon the object of protection and site conditions. The examples include:a) Controlled burning of spilt liquid. b) Exposure protection of plant and its structure. c) Ceiling height of the risk. d) Area of the fire involved and e) Type of containers holding the flammable liquid. 4.4.3 4.4.3.1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Sprayers installed at ceiling level shall provide general area protection for spill fires and of uninsulated structural steel columns/trusses upto 3M from the ceiling sprayers. If the ceilings or roofs are of either A.C. sheet or G.I. sheet and the like or combustible materials, additional open type sprinklers shall be provided exclusively to protect them with a degree of wetting. where the height of ceiling/roof of the plant exceeds 13M from the flooring below, conventional open type sprinklers shall be employed instead of sprayers. Vessels, Drums, Pumps, Valves, Manifolds and flammable liquid pipes inside the plant shall need to be protected by sprayers installed at a lower level. If there are obstructions extending below the ceiling sprayers and they are more than 1 M in width, underneath of such obstructions shall be protected by local sprayers.

4.4.3.2

4.4.3.3

4.4.3.4

4.4.3.5

4.4.3.6 4.4.3.7 4.4.3.8

Structural steel work supporting access platforms, catwalks, ladders etc, may be protected by separate sprayers. As far as possible, the sprayers installed at lower levels (see rule 4.4.3.4, 4.4.3.5 and 4.4.3.6) shall be provided with baffle plates. Full detailed drawings the following shall be submitted alongwith the proposal : i) Plan and sectional views of the risk floor wise showing the dimensions of the block, equipment lay-out, nature of floors/roof, minimum and maximum ceiling height etc., Columns, beams and trusses of the supporting structure. The working details of sprayers, sprinklers, detectors, their piping, their spacing, zone division etc.,

ii) iii)

iv) Location of deluge valves, piping, detector piping, detector piping, their sizes etc., v) Typical mounting arrangements of sprayers, sprinklers, detectors etc.,

vi) Separate drawing showing the various nodes only, for hydraulic calculation., vii) Characteristic curves of sprayers and sprinklers showing their pattern, orifice size, K factor, Spray angle, discharge in LPM etc., viii) Full details of the liquid handled indicating their Quantity, chemical properties etc., ix) Upto-date block plan showing clearly the distances between various blocks, underground tank, mains and their size, detector mains, deluge valves, Pump house, water reservoir etc., A detailed note on the protection scheme elucidating the design philosophy.

x) 4.4.4 4.4.4.1

DESIGN DENSITY The density of water application depends upon the flash point of the liquids handled and also the ceiling height of the risk. The correct rate of density shall be derived from Figure - 9. NOTE: The ceiling height to be used in determining the density shall be the minimum distance between the floor level of the plant and the ceiling.

4.4.4.2

The density obtained as above shall be loaded by the fire area factor {[b(a+b)]/900} + 0.33 where a is the longer side and b is the shorter side of the fire area measured in metres. If the risk is circular in shape a may be treated equal to b and same if it is square. If it is rectangular

and a is more than 3b, it shall be taken as equal to 3b irrespective of the dimensions. NOTE 1: If the factor calculated is less than 1, the same may be taken as 1. NOTE 2: After loading the basic density with the fire area factor, if the density works out to be greater than that of close control needs, the same may be taken as that of the latter. 4.4.5 4.4.5.1 LAYOUT OF PROTECTION NETWORK The discharge cone angles of the sprayers shall be selected from Figure 10, which relates height of the risk with the required angle. Any angle within the shaded area is deemed acceptable. NOTE 1: If the height of the risk exceeds 13 M, conventional sprinklers (open type) shall be installed. NOTE 2: Where heights of less than a metre are encountered, sprayers with discharge cone angles of 1000. shall only be installed. 4.4.5.2 4.4.5.3 4.4.5.4 4.4.5.4.1 There shall be atleast one sprayer to each 9 M2 area of the floor of the risk. The distance adjoining sprayers shall not exceed 3M anywhere. The distance between the last sprayer and the external wall or limits of the area shall not exceed 1.5 M anywhere. The sprayer piping shall be installed along the slope of the roof (in case of sloping roof) but the sprayers shall discharge water on the risk in a vertical pattern. In case of grating floors or perforated floors, the General Area Protection as per curve A shall be provided under the lowest floor. Under the other floors the sprayers shall be provided to discharge on to the floor below equipments, structural steel etc., at a rate of not less than 10.2 LPM/M2. NOTE: In case of R.C.C. floors, each floor shall be protected at the same density as determined in rule 4.4.4.1. 4.4.5.6 Equipment Protection a) If the tops of the vessels are more than 5 M below the ceiling and/or platform, individual local protection shall be provided by sprayers at a density of not less than 10.2 LPM/M2 to cover top and sides thereof. b) Any obstructions below the ceiling sprayers if exceeding 1 M in width, shall be protected underneath by individual sprayers at the same density.

4.4.5.5

c) Similarly, undersurface of vessels and equipment if raised 300 mm above the floor level shall be wetted by individual sprayers at the same density. d) Pumps, valves and manifolds etc.., shall be totally wetted by individual sprayers at the same density.

4.4.6

STRUCTURAL PROTECTION

4.4.6.1 In all cases, the load bearing structural steelwork for the plant and the roof, at levels exceeding 3 M below the sprayer at ceiling level shall be wetted at a rate of not less than 10.2 LPM/M2 over the surface area of the structural members. Note: Un-interrupted Run down upto 4.5 M below the level of sprayers is permissible. 4.4.6.2 Columns and Beams shall be wetted on each side of the steel sections by staggering the sprayers.

4.4.6.3 Any other structural steel work (whether load bearing or not) which can be subjected to flame-impingement shall also be wetted at not less than 10.2 LPM/M2.

4.4.6.4

Roof protection a) To provide wetting for the roof, conventional open type sprinklers shall be installed in such a way that there is at least one sprinkler for every 9 M2 area of the roof.

b) Lay out of such sprinklers shall be in accordance with those for sprayers as stated in Rules 4.4.5.2 and 4.4.5.3 above. c) Sprinklers shall be installed normal to the roof and piping shall be laid along the roof (in case of sloping roof). 4.4.7 4.4.7.1 PIPING AND SUPPORTS Sprayer and sprinkler pipes shall be supported from the building structure which itself shall be capable of supporting the water filled pipe work and shall not impair the performance of sprayers/sprinklers under fire condition. Pipe-work shall not be used to support any other loads except where primary support is designed for the suspension of piped services. Distribution pipes shall not be supported from ceiling or cladding or from any other associated suspension systems. Pipes below obstructions such as duct work shall be either supported from the building structure or from the steel members supporting such obstructions. Such members shall be capable of supporting the weight of water filled pipes too. Hangers shall not be welded or fastened directly to the pipework. The supports on which the pipe work rests shall be secured firmly in position. The thickness of all parts of pipe supports shall not be less than 3 mm. Wherever possible, pipes shall be supported from non-combustible building elements. Pipe work in corrosive areas shall be suitably protected against corrosion. The distance between the pipe supports measured along the line of connected pipes (whether the pipes run vertically, horizontally or at angles) shall not be less than the following: SPACING DIAMETER Upto 65 mm Between 65 mm and 100 mm Between 100 mm and 250 mm 4.4.7.11 Distribution pipes a) The first support on a nominally horizontal distribution pipe shall not be at more than 2 M from the main distribution pipe. 4M 6M 6.5 M

4.4.7.2

4.4.7.3 4.4.7.4

4.4.7.5 4.4.7.6 4.4.7.7 4.4.7.8 4.4.7.9 4.4.7.10

b) c)

The last support on a nominally horizontal distribution pipe shall not be more than 450 mm from the end. Drop or rise pipes shall be secured to the building structure either directly at the adjacent nominally horizontal part of the pipe within 300 mm of the drop or rise.

4.4.7.12

Range pipes a) 1. 2. Atleast one support shall be provided for Each sprayer/sprinkler, and pipe run connecting adjacent

The pipe run connecting the distribution pipe and the first sprayer/sprinkler on the range pipe.

b) Pipe supports shall not be closer than 150 mm to any sprayer/sprinkler axial central line. c) The first support on a range pipe shall not be more than 2 M from the distribution pipe. d) The last support on a range pipe shall not be more than 1.5 M from 1. 2. 3. The range pipe end or Where there is a horizontal arm pipe of 450 mm or longer, the arm pipe end: or Where there is a drop or rise exceeding 600 mm, the drop or rise pipe end.

4.4.7.13 4.4.7.14 4.4.8 4.4.8.1

Welded joints shall not be permitted for pipes and fittings of less than 50 mm dia. Outgoing mains from the deluge valve to the system shall be supported at every 3.5 M of its run. HYDRAULICS For the protection of large areas, it is permissible to divide the risk into several zones of not less than 6 M in width and all zones in plan view of the risk falling within 6 M from any point within a zone shall operate simultaneously. Note: In order to provide protection against exposure hazard from the other detached block(s) in the vicinity, reference shall be made to the Regional Office of the Committee.

4.4.8.2

Each zone shall be controlled by an individual Deluge Valve and flow through the valves shall not be more than the following:
DELUGE VALVE SIZE (mm) DISCHARGE FLOW (LPM)

150 100 80

13,500 5,000 1,150

4.4.8.3

Each zone shall be so designed that the pressure at the hydraulically most un-favourable sprayer/sprinkler is not less than 1.4 bars and that at the most favourable sprayer/sprinkler is not more than 3.5 bars and that the velocity in distribution pipes shall not exceed 5 M/Sec. Detailed hydraulic calculations in support of the above shall be submitted for each zone. Orifice plates, if required, shall be fitted just above the deluge valves to keep pressures within the above limits. The aggregate pumping capacity shall be determined by the largest demand arising out of combination of deluge valves when zones concerned operate simultaneously. Detection System The installation and layout of detection system shall be governed by the layout of the water spray system. The detection network shall be similar to the sprayer network viz. there shall be same number of detectors as there are number of sprayers. The detection piping shall be independently supported as far as possible and care shall be taken not to support other pipes on detection network. PROTECTION OF HORIZONTAL CYLINDRICAL STORAGE VESSELS Proposal for the protection of Horizontal Vessels shall be accompanied by full detailed dimensional working drawings showing the following :a) Plan, elevation and end view b) c) d) e) f) Site plan showing the location of all vessels, their spacing etc. The protuberances such as valves, drains, manholes, flanges, ladders, supporting legs etc. Bund area and product pipes within Protection and detection piping in different colours Sprayers characteristics showing the K factor, cone angle and discharge in LPM.

4.4.8.4

4.4.8.5

4.4.9 4.4.9.1

4.4.9.2 4.5 4.5.1

4.5.2 4.5.2.1

GENERAL The complete exposed area of the horizontal storage vessel shall need to be protected at a uniform density of water application.

4.5.2.2

It is also necessary to protect the supporting legs and the product pipes within the bund area (if provided) by sprayers. Note 1: Supporting steel members need not be protected if they are 300 mm or shorter in height. Note 2: Where Tankage area is not provided with bund walls, product pipes within 15 M of tank shell shall be protected by the sprayers. Note 3: Also other occupancies such as pump house, loading shed, etc. falling within 15m. of the tank shell shall be protected by the sprayers.

4.5.2.3

The protection network shall be fabricated in the form of horizontal rows of sprayers connected by piping, in rings. The number of rows required shall be governed by the diameter of the vessel, in accordance with the Sprayer Application Charts C, D and E (Figures 11, 12 & 13). The sprayers shall not be less than 6 mm in orifice size and shall normally have cone angles between 60oand 125o. Note: Sprayers with cone angles below 60o are permissible for local protections such as supporting legs, protuberances etc.

4.5.2.4

4.5.2.5 4.5.2.6 4.5.2.7

Minimum and maximum pressures in the network shall be 1.4 bars and 3.5 bars respectively. Run Down shall not be considered for horizontal vessels. Sprayers shall be installed normal to the exposed area of the vessel and positioned at distances as per the sprayer application charts 1, 2 and 3. Note: Sprayers need not be installed normal to the surface for protecting the ends of the vessels.

4.5.2.8

Adequate provision shall be made to promptly and effectively dispose off, water discharged for fire fighting, cooling etc, away from the vessels by any suitable means. (See Section 2.6) Vessels shall be spaced at more than 15M from each other. In such cases, the water demand for the largest vessel shall determine the pumping and water requirements. If this is contravened, the aggregate water demand for all such vessels falling within the prescribed distance of each other shall be the determining factor. SYSTEM DESIGN Density of discharge Water shall be applied at a minimum density of 10.2 lpm/M2 of the exposed area of the vessel. The supporting legs and product pipes within the bund shall also receive water at the same density.

4.5.2.9

4.5.3 4.5.3.1

Note 1: Supporting steel members need not be protected if they are 300 mm or shorter in height. Note 2: Where Tankage area is not provided with bund walls, product pipes within 15 M of tank shell shall be protected by the sprayers. Note 3: Where high wind velocity is expected, for example, near seacoasts, the sprayers protecting the tankages shall be necessarily installed at 0.45m from the surface of the vessels.

4.5.3.2 4.5.3.2.1

Distribution of Sprayers Sprayers in horizontal rows shall be spaced at distances as detailed in table according to the angle selected. Note: Also refer Rule 4.5.2.3. LONGITUDINAL SPACING (METRES) OF SPRAYER OF VARIOUS DISCHARGE ANGLES
ANGLE (in deg) 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 DISTANCE FROM TANK (M) 0.65 0.90 1.00 1.05 1.15 1.25 1.35 1.45 1.60 1.70 1.85 2.00 2.20 2.40 2.65 0.55 0.80 0.85 0.90 1.00 1.05 1.15 1.25 1.35 1.45 1.60 1.70 1.90 2.05 2.25 0.45 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.85 0.90 1.00 1.05 1.15 1.20 1.30 1.45 1.55 1.70 1.90

4.5.3.2.2

The sprayer application charts 1, 2 and 3 relate K factors to vessel diameters for differing distances of sprayers to tank surface. Interpolation is permissible, if for some reasons the distances between sprayers and vessel surface cannot be adhered to. Note: For a chosen angle, if a sprayer with a matching K factor is not available, next available higher K factor shall be used.

4.5.3.2.3 4.5.3.3 4.5.3.3.1 4.5.3.3.2

To provide adequate protection to the ends of the vessels, the following method shall be adopted Flat Ended Vessels Upto 5 M dia (Figure 14) The ends shall be adequately covered by half the flow from each end sprayer of all rows.

More than 5 M dia Arrangement as above plus an additional (Figure 15) sprayer shall be located to aim on to the centre of the vessel

4.5.3.4 4.5.3.4.1

Hemispherical ended vessels Upto 3.5 M dia (Figure 16) The ends shall be adequately covered by half the flow from each end sprayer of all rows plus one additional sprayer located to aim on the centre of the vessel.

4.5.3.4.2 4.5.3.5 4.5.3.5.1

More than 3.5 M dia Arrangement as above, plus additional (Figure 17) sprayers to provide correct density Dished ended or Average curved ended Vessels Upto 3.5 M dia (Figure 18) The ends shall be adequately covered by half the flow from each end sprayer of all rows

4.5.3.5.2

Between 3.5 M and dia (Figure 19)

5 M Arrangement as above, plus an additional sprayer shall be located to aim on to the centre of the vessel. Arrangement as in Rule 4.5.3.5.2 above plus additional sprayers to provide correct density

4.5.3.5.3

Above 5 M dia (Figure 20)

4.5.3.6

Separate sprayers shall be installed to provide wetting of all protuberances from the vessel such as manholes, vents, flanges, relief valves, ladders etc. in addition to the sprayers in rows and ends. Un-encased steel supports for the vessels if exceeding 300 mm in height shall be wetted by individual sprayers. Note: Concrete and encased steel supports need not be wetted separately as they are likely to be wetted by the splash of water spray for the vessels.

4.5.3.7

4.5.3.8

Spacing of sprayers for product pipes within the bund shall not exceed 3M and sprayers shall be at a distance of not more than 800 mm from the pipes. Piping layout and supports The main feed pipes from the deluge valve feeding the network shall be supported at every 3.5 M. of its run. Vertical feed pipes shall be provided to establish flow from bottom rings to top rings at intervals not exceeding 3.5 M along the vessels. These pipes may also be used as supporting pipes for the network. To ensure mechanical stability, good appearance and hydraulic gradient, the rings of pipe-work shall be of uniform size throughout each ring.

4.5.4 4.5.4.1 4.5.4.2

4.5.4.3

4.5.4.4

Where it is not possible to independently support the protection pipework, support can be arranged from the protected vessel if plate thickness of the vessel is adequate. In such case, rubber or plastic insertion shall be provided beneath the base of support to accommodate curvature of the vessel and to prevent corrosion. The sprayers in the bottom ring shall point 45o upwards and water in the pipe-work shall never drain through the sprayers. Where vertical feed pipes are used for supporting the network the pipes shall be braced together suitably at mid-heights to prevent buckling. All vertical support pipes shall be fitted with non-ferrous or stainless steel cooling/drain/orifice plugs. The hole in the plug shall not be less than 3 mm dia. Vertical feed pipes when used as supporting pipes shall be flanged at the base and bolted securely to the ground. For vessels longer than 10 M in length, the network piping shall be so arranged that there is one feed pipe into the lower ring from the Deluge Valve for every 10 M and part thereof. It shall be ensured that each such segment serve an equal amount of protection for hydraulic balance. Pipe-work Hydraulics Pre-calculated pipe sizing a) The diameters of pipes in Top and bottom rings shall be as per Tables 2, 3 and 4 below.

4.5.4.6 4.5.4.7 4.5.4.8

4.5.4.9 4.5.4.10

4.5.5 4.5.5.1

TOP RING The size of pipe shall be as indicated in Table - 2, provided the discharge from all sprayers between adjacent vertical feed pipes does not exceed the rates given in the Table. TABLE 2
Nominal diameter of pipe Nominal Flow to largest number of sprayers between adjacent vertical feed pipes mm LPM 25 0 to 100 32 Upto 160 Above 100 40 Upto 250 Above 160

BOTTOM RING The size of pipe shall be as indicated in Table - 3, provided the discharge from all sprayers in one module of not more than 10 M long on top, bottom and through any drain points, does not exceed the rates given in the Table.

TABLE 3
Average Flow Nominal Diameter of pipe (mm) LPM mm 260 25 440 32 680 40 1040 1800 2700 80

50

65

b)

With the above arrangements, it shall be ensured that the running pressure at the points of feed from the deluge valve into the bottom ring is not more than that required to provide 3.5 bars pressure at the most favourable sprayer and not less than 1.4 bars plus an increment of 0.35 bar and static loss upto the most un-favourable sprayer. In other words, the pipe losses from the point of feed at the bottom ring upto the most un-favourable sprayer shall not exceed 0.35 bar apart from the static losses. Note: While calculating the flow and pressure the discharge through cooling/drain plugs shall also be considered. c) The horizontal pipe across the bottom ring and vertical feed pipes connecting bottom and top rings shall produce a velocity of not more than 10 M/sec when sprayers discharge at their nominal rates. In no case, however, shall the vertical feed pipes be of a diameter less than that indicated in Table hereunder. TABLE - 4 VERTICAL FEED PIPE

LENGTH OF VERTICAL FROM GROUND (METERS) Upto 3.0 Above 3.0 and upto 4.5 Above 4.5 and upto 6.0 Above 6.0 and upto 8.0

NOMINAL DIAMETER OF SUPPORT AND FEED PIPE (MM) 40 50 65 80

d) Detailed hydraulic calculations shall be submitted in support of the above. 4.5.5.2 4.5.5.2.1 If pre-calculated system is not followed, the system shall be so designed that the hydraulically most un-favourable sprayer operates at a pressure of not less than 1.4 bars and the most favourable sprayer at a pressure of not more than 3.5 bars. Note: Refer item C above.

4.5.5.2.2 4.5.5.3 4.5.6 4.5.5.2 4.5.6.2 4.5.6.3 4.5.6.4 4.5.6.5 4.5.6.6

Detailed hydraulic calculations shall be submitted in support of the above. Orifice plates shall be provided if required, above the deluge valves to meet the conditions as above. Detection System Detectors shall be installed in horizontal rows along the vessels and there must be same number of rows as for the sprayers. Spacing of detectors on rows shall not exceed 2.5 M. The detectors shall be located at not more than 1 M from the shell. Separate detectors shall be provided for protruberances from the shell like Manholes, Flanges etc., Detectors shall be so positioned that they will not interfere with the spray pattern of the sprayers anywhere. One central row of detectors shall be allowed for two vessels with longitudinal axes parallel provided, Rule 4.5.6.3 above is not contravened. However, the vessels concerned shall be wetted simultaneously during a fire. Protection of Vertical Cylindrical Storage Vessel Proposals for the protection of vertical vessels shall be accompanied by full detailed dimensional working drawings showing the following: a) Plan, elevation and end view b) Site plan showing the location of all vessels, their spacing etc. c) The protuberances such as valves, drains, manholes, flanges, ladders, supporting legs etc.

4.6 4.5.5

4.6.2 4.6.2.1 4.6.2.2

GENERAL The complete exposed area of the vertical storage vessel shall need to be protected at a uniform density of water application. It is also necessary to protect the product the product pipes within the bund area (if provided) by sprayers. Note 1: Where tankage area is not provided with bund walls, product pipes within 15 M of tank shell shall be protected by the sprayers.

Note 2: Also other occupancies such as pump house, loading shed, etc. falling within 15m of the tank shell shall be protected by the sprayers. 4.6.2.3 4.6.2.4 The protection piping network shall fabricated in the form of by horizontal rings at regular intervals and vertical feeder mains. The conical/flat roof shall also be protected by water spray system. For this purpose, sprayers shall be connected through an explosion relief valve assembly, which enables sprayer piping on the top of the vessels to be blown off in the event of an explosion without obstructing the sprayers cooling the vertical sides. Vertical mains shall be solely used as feeder mains only and sprayers shall be installed on the horizontal rings. The sprayers shall not be less than 6 mm in orifice and shall normally have cone angles between 60o and 125o for vertical sides. For the conical roof/flat roof, wider angle sprayers with higher K factor is recommended to reduce the number of sprayers and consequently the weight of piping over the tank. Note: 4.6.2.7 4.6.2.8 Sprayers with cone angles less than 60o are permissible for local protection such as protuberances.

4.6.2.5 4.6.2.6

Minimum and maximum operating pressures in the net work shall be 1.4 bars and 3.5 bars respectively. Run down shall be considered provided there are no obstructions on the sides. For this purpose, sprayers with reduced orifice size shall be acceptable in the lower rings. The overall density of application shall however be maintained. Sprayers shall be installed normal to the exposed area of the vessel and positioned at a distance of not less than 450 mm or not more than 650 mm from the surface. Vessels shall be located in individual dykes and spaced 15M (or the diameter of the largest tank if the same is more than 15M) apart. In such cases, the water requirement of the largest vessel shall determine the pumping and storage requirements. However, if a number of tanks are located in a common dyke, the tanks located in a common dyke which have the largest aggregate shell surface area shall determine the pumping and storage requirements. In case of tanks located in separate dykes, but within a distance of 15M (or diameter of the larger tank is less than 15M) of each other, the shell surface area of all such tanks shall determine the pumping and storage requirements. Note : In case occupancies like pump house, loading sheds, etc. exist within 15m (or the diameter of the largest tank as the case may be) of the vessels, such occupancies shall also be protected by sprayers.

4.6.2.9

4.6.2.10

4.6.3 4.6.3.1

System Design Density of Discharge Water shall be applied at a rate of not less than 10.2 LPM/M2 of the exposed area of the tank shell and the roof. The product pipes within the bund shall also receive water at this density. Note 1: Supporting legs if any, shall also receive water at the same density irrespective of whether they are insulated or not. Note 2: Refer Rule 4.6.2.2.

4.6.3.2

Distribution of Sprayers a) Sprayers shall be spaced at not more than 2.5 M in the rings when measured along the curved surface of the vessels. b) There shall be a ring for every 3.5 M height of the shell. c) Sprayers in each successive ring shall be staggered for better coverage. d) Sprayers protecting the roof must be located in such a way that the extremities of their spray pattern shall atleast meet. e) Separate sprayers shall be installed to provide wetting of all protuberances from the vessels, such as manholes, flanges, ladders, vents etc., f) Spacing of sprayers for product pipes within the bund shall not exceed 3 M and sprayers shall be at a distance of not more than 800 mm from the pipes.

4.6.4 4.6.4.1 4.6.4.2

Piping Layout and Supports The main feed pipes from the deluge valve feeding the network shall be supported at every 3.5 M of its run. The number of vertical feeders for the sprayer network depends upon the size of the vessel and its height. As a good practice, minimum of two such feeders shall be provided. However, for the vessels less than 10 M diameter and height, one feeder shall be accepted. The top ring shall be installed just below the top of the vessel and the bottom ring shall be installed at not more than 2M from the ground level. The rings may be supported on the vessel if plate thickness of the vessel is adequate. The vertical feed mains shall also be used as supporting pipes. These pipes shall be flanged at the base and bolted securely to the ground.

4.6.4.3 4.6.4.4

4.6.4.5

The sprayers at the bottom ring shall point slightly upwards and water in the pipe work shall never drain through the sprayers. All support pipes shall be fitted with non-ferrous or stainless steel cooling/drain orifice plugs. The hole in the plug shall not be less than 3 mm dia. Hydraulics The network shall be hydraulically so designed as to provide a minimum running pressure of 1.4 bars at the hydraulically most un-favourable sprayer and not more than 3.5 bars at the hydraulically most favourable sprayer in the network. The velocity in the feeder pipes shall not exceed 5 M/Sec when sprayers discharge at their nominal rates. Detailed hydraulic calculation shall be submitted supporting the design. Orifice plate shall be provided if required, above the deluge valves to meet the conditions as above. Flow through the cooling/draining pipes shall also be considered for the hydraulic calculation. Detection System Detectors shall be installed in horizontal rows supported on the spray network if necessary and there must be as many detector rings as of spray rings. Spacing of detectors in rings shall not be at more than 3 M when measured along the curved surface of the vessel. For conical roof the detector shall be installed on 9 M2 area basis. The detectors shall be located at not more than 1 M from the shell. Separate detectors shall be provided for protruberances like manholes, flanges etc., Detectors shall be so positioned as not to interfere with the sprayer pattern of the sprayers anywhere. PROTECTION OF SPHERICAL VESSELS General Spherical vessels are almost certain to be pressure vessels. The complete exposed area sphere shall need to be protected at a uniform density of water application.

4.6.4.6

4.6.5 4.6.5.1

4.6.5.2 4.6.5.3 4.6.5.4 4.6.5.5 4.6.6 4.6.6.1

4.6.6.2

4.6.6.3 4.6.6.4 4.6.6.5 4.6.6.6 4.7 4.7.1 4.7.1.1

It is also necessary to protect the supporting legs and the product pipes within the bund area by the water spray system at the same density and where bund is not provided, product pipe lines shall be protected for a distance of 15 M from the surface of the sphere.

4.7.1.2 4.7.1.3

The protection network around such vessels shall be fabricated in the form of horizontal and/or vertical rings at regular intervals. The sprayers shall not be less than 6mm in orifice size and shall normally have cone angles between 600 and 1250 for the spherical surface.

4.7.1.4 4.7.1.5 4.7.1.6

Minimum and maximum pressures in the network shall be 1.4 bars and 3.5 bars respectively. Run Down, shall not be considered. Sprayers shall be normal to the exposed surface of the sphere and shall be installed at not less than 550mm nor more than 650mm from the surface. Spheres shall be spaced at a distance of 15 M from each other. In such cases the water demand for a larger sphere shall determine the pumping and storage requirements. If the spheres are spaced less then 15 M apart, the aggregate water demand of all the spheras falling within the prescribed distance of each other shall be the determining factor. Full detailed dimensional drawings of the spherical vessels shall be submitted showing the following details : a) Plan, elevation b) Site plan showing all the spheres c) The protuberances such as valves, drains, manholes, flanges, ladders, supporting legs etc. d) The protection/detection piping in different colours e) Sprayer characteristic showing K factor, come angle and discharge in LPM.

4.7.1.7

24.7.1.9

4.7.2 4.7.2.1

SYSTEM DESIGN Density of Discharge Water shall be applied at a minimum density of 10.2 lpm/m2 of the exposed area of the sphere. The supporting legs and the product pipes within the bund area shall also receive water at the same density. Where bund is not provided, the product pipelines upto a distance of 15 M from the surface of the sphere, shall receive water at the same density. Note: If the supporting legs are encased with 50mm thick RCC, the water density therefore can be reduced to 5.1 lpm/m2.

4.7.2.2 4.7.2.2.1

Distribution of sprayers and layout of piping No sprayer shall be farther than the distance S indicated in Cases 1 or 2 (Figures 21 or 22), from anyone of the nearest 8 sprayers. The distance between sprayers shall be measured along the arcs between the points of impingement of the sprayers on the tank surface. The spacing S between the sprayers for various diameters of the sphere for different Cone angles of sprayers shall be selected from the Charts F and G (Figures 23 & 24) . Obstructed or "roofed off" portions of the spheres shall be protected with separate sprayers in addition to the requirements under rule 4.7.2.2.2 above at a density of 10.2 lpm/m2.

4.7.2.2.2

4.7.2.2.3

4.7.2.2.4 4.7.2.2.5

Number of horizontal and/or vertical rings shall be governed by the spacing of the sprayers (see rule 4.7.2.2.2 above). The system shall be hydraulically designed in such a way that the pressure at the hydraulically most un-favourable sprayer shall not be less than 1.4 bars while that at the hydraulically most favourable sprayer shall not exceed 3.5 bars. The difference in height between the top and bottom sprayers may be compensated for by reducing sprayer office and/or other means to achieve even distribution of water on the surface. The velocity produced in the feeder pipes shall not exceed 10M/second. Cooling system for protecting the sphere against solar heating shall take the form of minimum two rings of sprayers at the top of the spheres upto 10M diameter and three rings of sprayers at the top of the sphere exceeding 10 m diameter at a density not less than 2 lpm/M2. Note: It is not considered necessary to wet the surface of the sphere below the horizontal centre line when considering solar protection.

4.7.2.2.6

4.7.2.2.7 4.7.3 4.7.3.1

Spacing of sprayers for the Product pipelines shall not exceed 3 M and sprayers shall be at a distance of not more than 800 mm from the pipes. Pipe Support The pipe work on the top of hemisphere of the vessel shall rest on the surface and an adequate number of support points shall be required to distribute the weight uniformly on the surface. The pipe work below the hemisphere shall be supported separately from the ground or the legs supporting the sphere. The legs shall be designed to take care of this load. Where supports rest on the surface of the sphere, a rubber or plastic insertion shall be provided beneath the base of the support and the sphere surface to accommodate the curvature of the sphere as well as to prevent corrosion. Where the vessel is insulated, supports shall have to either penetrate the lagging or provided on the lagging itself. In either case, greater care shall have to be taken to adequately spread the load and efficiently seal the penetrated area of the lagging after supports are installed. Detection System It is not necessary to provide detector sprinklers for the whole surface of the sphere. Detectors at three levels shall suffice as follows: a) A minimum of three under the lower pole adjacent to product piping. b) A ring of detectors at the equator or just below. The detectors shall be installed at not more than 2.5 m of the circumference of sphere.

4.7.3.2

4.7.3.3

4.7.3.4

4.7.4 4.7.4.1

c) A minimum of three detectors at the upper crown of the sphere in the advantageous position near relief valves, vents etc. 4.7.4.2 4.7.4.3 4.7.4.4 The detector shall be suitably supported, if required on sprayer piping. The detector shall, in any case, be installed at not more than 300mm from the surface protected. Detector shall also be installed near the product pipes within the bund area at every 2.5 m and where no bund is provided the detectors shall be installed upto 15 m from the shell surface of the sphere. Cable Galleries and Tunnels General Where cable fires are concerned, the greatest hazard usually arises from the effects of fire on the Power Station plant. However, a feature of practically all cable fires has been that several units, if not the whole station, has been seriously affected by a single fire. A major portion of cable fire incidents stem from external sources such as combustion of uncleaned flammable debris, accumulation of P.V.C. tailing ends, cardboard packages and from uncontrolled spillages and over-spray of fuel and lubricating oils. PVC is not readily flammable but will burn freely in temperature conditions high enough to bring the plasticisers into a volatile state. Burning P.V.C. produces copious quantities of dangerous hydrochloride toxic gases, which are heavier than air and tend to form layers at lower levels. These gases are corrosive and present a major toxic hazard to operating and fire fighting personnel. When P.V.C. is burnt, heavy black smoke, mostly consisting of carbon particles is given off which could affect electrical equipment some distance from the fire and there is some evidence that PVC smoke can de-sensitise smoke detectors of ionisation chamber type. Cables are normally protected such that they do not catch fire if electrical faults develop in them. However, the energy released when a fault occurs in a cable may ignite other combustible materials in the vicinity thereof. 4.8.2 Design density Water shall be applied at a minimum density of 12.2 LPM/M2 of the exposed area of the cable racks. Note: For the purpose of the above, three cable trays of a rack shall be reckoned as a single tray unless the trays are not of the same width in which case the area of the widest tray shall be taken.

4.8 4.8.1

4.8.3

Pressure requirement

In order to achieve a better penetration, a minimum pressure of 2.8 bars shall be achieved at the hydraulically remotest point. 4.8.4 4.8.4.1 Distribution of sprayers and lay-out of piping The sprayers shall be installed in rows at ceiling level in between and at the centre of aisle space along the cable trays and spaced at not more than 3M. The distance between walls and/or limits of the protection shall not exceed 1.5 m. Where the distance between two rows of sprayers above the aisles exceeds 4M, additional row of sprayers shall be provided to between. Where the height of the cable trays (ie distance between topmost and bottom tray) exceeds 2.5 m, sprayers shall be provided at lower level in accordance with the Rules above. Piping and hydraulics Installation of piping shall be carried out in general as detailed in section 4.4.7 of these regulations. It is permissible to divide the protection area into several zones, each of which shall be fed by an individual deluge valve. The flow through the deluge valve shall be limited to the figures in rule 2.5.1(h) of these Rules. The system shall be designed in such a way that at least two zones shall operate simultaneously in the event of fire. Each zone in the system shall be hydraulically so designed that a minimum pressure of 2.8 bars is available at the remotest sprayer and that the velocity produced in the feeder pipes is not more than 10M/second. Detailed hydraulic calculations in support of the above shall be submitted for each zone. Orifice plates, if required, shall arise out of combination of deluge valves when zones concerned operate simultaneously. Pumping capacity and water supplies The aggregate pumping capacity shall be determined by the largest demand arising out of combination of deluge valves when zones concerned operate simultaneously. The effective exclusive capacity of the reservoir/tank (above the level of the foot valve seat in case of negative suction and above the level of the top of the pump casing in case of positive suction) shall not be less than 40 minutes aggregate pumping capacity for the spray system. Detection system

4.8.4.2 4.8.4.3 4.8.4.4

4.8.5 4.8.5.1 4.8.5.2

4.8.5.3

4.8.5.4

4.8.6 4.8.6.1

4.8.6.2

4.8.7

As the cable galleries and tunnels are normally unmanned, it is imperative that a quicker detection is mandatory to ensure extinguishment. Various types of detectors are available for installation in the tunnels. The following methods of detection in the order mentioned are generally accepted a) Linear heat sensing cables b) Smoke detectors c) Sprinkler heads. Full details of the proposal shall be submitted to the Committee in advance alongwith detailed drawings showing the location and lay-out of the detection network. The fire alarm system and panel shall be of approved type. Committee reserves their right in accepting other types of detectors, which is subject to verification of the proposals submitted well in advance. 4.9 4.9.1 CONVEYORS General Fires on conveyors are infrequent but the fire potential is considerable. In incidents, which have occurred, the damage has been severe, particularly where conveyor fires have reached and enveloped the destination e.g. Boiler house coal bunkers as in case of thermal power stations. The design of conveyors is that the wind tunneling or chimney effect is an inherent feature on inclined conveyors and this causes rapid spread of fire through the conveyors. The major risk of fire is, for example, from the ignition of coal dust and deposits in case of Thermal Power stations, on the internal surface, walkways etc., of the conveyors or from the conveyor belt. Fire caused by friction of a defective part such as jammed roller, idlers resulting in subsequent localised overheating of the belt. Thus fires in the conveyors may arise from either of two main causes a) Failure of part of the mechanism, usually on the idler or pulley can lead to localised overheating of the belt and eventually to ignition of the combustible dust or conveyor belt. b) From the ignition of a quantity of split combustible dust either by selfignition or other causes. Should the belt catch fire, it can spread the fire rapidly to other areas. Certain fires generate a large volume of smoke particularly when the fire is in an advanced state, conveyors can be protected by Automatic sprinkler system installation or Medium Velocity Water Spray System with L.H.S. cables, sprinkler bulbs, thermocouples etc., The following section covers rules for Water Spray System only.

4.9.2

Design density Water shall be applied at a minimum density of 10.2 lpm/m2 of the exposed area of the conveyor.

4.9.3

Pressure requirement A minimum pressure of 1.4 bars shall be achieved at the hydraulically remotes sprayer. However, pressure at the hydraulically favourable sprayer shall not exceed 3.5 bars.

4.9.4 4.9.4.1 4.9.4.2 4.9.4.3 4.9.4.4

Distribution of sprayers and lay-out of piping The sprayers shall be installed in rows at the ceiling level above the centre of each conveyor belt and spaced at not more than 4M. The distance between walls and/or limits of the protection shall not exceed 2 m. Where the distance between two rows of sprayers above the centre of belts exceeds 4 m, additional rows shall be provided in between. Sprayers shall be provided for the protection of the bottom side of the conveyors and these shall be spaced at 4 m on either side of the conveyor. Staggering of sprayers is recommended. Piping and hydraulics Installation of piping shall be carried out, in general, as detailed in section 4.4.7. It is permissible to divide the protection area into several zones, each of which shall be fed by an individual deluge valve. The flow through the deluge valve shall be limited to the figures in rule 2.5.1(h). The system shall be designed in such a way that at least two adjacent zones shall operate in the event of fire. Each zone in the system shall be hydraulically so designed that a minimum pressure of 1.4 bars is available at the remotest sprayer and that nowhere in the system exceeds 3.5 bars. The velocity produced shall not exceed 10M/second. Detailed hydraulic calculations in support of the above shall be submitted for each zone. Orifice plates, if required, shall arise out of combination of deluge valves when zones concerned operate simultaneously. Pumping capacity and water supplies The aggregate pumping capacity shall be determined by the largest demand arising out of combination of deluge valves when zones concerned operate simultaneously.

4.9.5 4.9.5.1 4.9.5.2

4.9.5.3

4.9.5.4

4.9.6 4.9.6.1

4.9.6.2

The effective exclusive capacity of the reservoir/tank (above the level of the foot valve seat in case of negative suction and above the level of the top of the pump casing in case of positive suction) shall not be less than 60 minutes aggregate pumping capacity for the spray system. Detection system Detection of conveyor fires poses peculiar problems, as the fires are not always stationary. Detection of moving fires shall be achieved without delay. The detectors upon sensing the fire shall trip the conveyor motor first and thus make the fire stationary. This fire has to be detected and the detectors shall trigger the fire fighting operations. Hence, there are two levels of detection for the conveyor fires. The following methods of detection are generally, acceptable. a) Liner heat sensing cables - for stopping conveyor b) Sprinkler bulbs Full details of the proposal shall be submitted to the Committee in advance alongwith detailed drawings showing the location and layout of the detection network. The fire alarm system and panel shall be of approved type. Committee reserves their right in accepting other types to detectors, which is subject to verification of the proposals to be submitted to the Committee well in advance. ++++++ +

4.9.7

SECTION - 5 5.1 5.1.1 PRE-COMMISSIONING AND ACCEPTANCE TESTS All new system piping upto the deluge valve shall be hydrostatically tested to a pressure equivalent to 150% of the designed head of the fire pump and the system shall be capable of withstanding that pressure for at least 2 hours. Note: 5.1.2 Refer rule 1.2.4.

The coating and wrapping of the underground wrought or mild steel pipes shall be carried out and also subjected to Holiday test as per IS : 10221. The entire system piping shall be flushed thoroughly before commissioning in order to remove foreign materials which might have entered/be present in the system piping during the course of installation or which may have been present in existing piping at maximum flow rate available to the system under fire condition. When planning the flushing operations, consideration shall be given to disposal of the water discharged during flushing. Full discharge test with water shall be made as a means of checking the nozzle layout, discharge pattern, spray coverage and obstructions and determination of relation between design criteria and actual performance and to ensure against clogging of the smaller piping and discharge devices by foreign materials. The maximum number of systems (deluge valves) that may be expected to operate in case of fire shall be in full operation simultaneously in order to check the adequacy and condition of water supply. The detection system shall be designed to cause actuation of special water control valve within 20 seconds under expected exposure conditions. Under test conditions the heat detector systems, when exposed to a standard heat source, shall operate within 40 seconds. Under test conditions the flammable gas detector system, when exposed to a standard test gas concentration, shall operate within 20 seconds. Note: One method of testing heat detectors is to use a radiant heat surface at a temperature of 150o C and a capacity of 350 watts held at a distance of 25 to 30 mm from the nearest part of the detector. This method of testing with a electric test set should not be used in hazardous locations. Other test methods may be employed but results shall be related to those obtained under these conditions.

5.1.3

5.1.4

5.1.5

5.1.6

5.1.7

All operating parts of the system including manual over-ride like emergency pull switch of the deluge valve shall be fully tested to ensure that they are in operating condition.

5.1.8

The discharge pressure at the highest, most remote nozzle and the lowest nozzle close to the deluge valve shall be measured which should be within the designed limits of the system. For this purpose provisions shall be made for test gauges at appropriate places. The proper functions of the alarm gong associated with the deluge valve and its level of audibility shall be checked. An audibility level of 85 db above the background noise level is recommended. PERIODICAL TESTING AND MAINTENANCE General Water spray systems require competent and effective care and maintenance to assure that they will perform their purpose effectively at the time of fire. Systems shall be serviced and tested periodically by personnel trained in this work. An inspection contract with a qualified agency for service, test, and operation at regular intervals is recommended. Operating and maintenance instruction and layouts shall be available or can be posted at control equipment and at the fire station of the plant. Selected plant personnel shall be trained and assigned the task of operating and maintaining the equipment. At weekly, or other frequent, regular scheduled plant inspection, equipment shall be checked visually for obvious defects, such as broken or missing parts, external loading or other evidence of impaired protection. At least once a week the system shall be visually checked and the reading of various pressure gauges of each deluge valve installations shall be recorded. A trained pump man shall be available on all shifts and at all hours to operate the pump or whenever required. Fire Water Reservoirs/tank It shall be ensured that fire water tank reservoirs are always full and free from any foreign materials. The water level shall be recorded weekly. Depending upon quality of water, reservoirs shall be cleaned once in a year or two years and sludge formation shall be prevented. Fire Pumps All the fire pumps shall be run at least 5 minutes everyday. During testing water level of priming tank, delivery pressures of pumps, speed, and also other parameters are to be checked and recorded. All pump glands shall be maintained in good working conditions and checked weekly.

5.1.9

5.2 5.2.1 5.2.1.1

5.2.1.2

5.2.1.3

5.2.1.4

5.2.1.5 5.2.2 5.2.2.1 5.2.2.2 5.2.3 5.2.3.1

5.2.3.2

5.2.3.3 5.2.3.4 5.2.3.5 5.2.3.6

The bearing grease caps shall be checked once every week and refilled with fresh grease, if necessary. Starter contacts shall be cleaned every week. Insulation resistance of pump motors shall be examined once in every six months and record shall be maintained. Starting Mechanism of diesel engine must be checked, the battery charger and also the batteries must be maintained in effective conditions and the engine shall be run at least for 5 minutes every day. Spray System Installations All piping shall be examined at intervals to determine its conditions. Frequency of inspections will be dependent upon local conditions and shall be at intervals of not more than one year. All the deluge valve installations and automatic detection equipment shall be serviced and tested annually by qualified personnel. Full discharge test of sprayers shall be made at least quarterly. After each operation, projectors/nozzles equipped with individual strainer shall be removed and cleaned, unless observations under flow conditions indicate this is not necessary. Manual tripping devices shall be operated at least twice annually. When normally opened valves are closed following the system operation or test, suitable procedures shall be instituted to ensure that they are reopened and that the system is promptly restored to full normal operating condition. All projectors/nozzles shall be inspected for proper positioning or test, external loading and corrosion and cleaned if necessary, based on experience but at least once in three months. The entire system shall be flushed at least once a year. It is important to ensure that the sprinkler bulbs (detectors) are kept free from paint or dust (otherwise it may not function correctly) and that the bulbs are accessible and clearly identified for maintenance purposes. All the equipment pertaining to the spray system shall be painted at least once in two years. Spares to the extent of at least 10% of each type of sprayers/projectors/sprinklers/detectors shall be kept in stock for quick replacement. PERIODICAL TESTING AND MAINTENANCE CHART

5.2.4 5.2.4.1

5.2.4.2 5.2.4.3

5.2.4.4 5.2.4.5

5.2.4.6

5.2.4.7 5.2.4.8

5.2.4.9 5.2.4.10

5.3

SUBJECT 1. Reservoir 2. Pump

ACTIVITIES Level checking Clearing Running test Test flow Lubrication G1and packing Overhaul Running Lubrication Battery Load test Overhaul Fuel tank check

DURATION Weekly Once in two years Daily 5 minutes Annually Quarterly Weekly Once in two years Once in day (5 mins) Quarterly Status weekly Annually Once in two years Daily

3. Engine

4. Motor

Lubrication Weekly Starter contact checking Weekly insulation resistance check Half yearly Flushing Gauge pressure Operation Gland packing Lubrication Operation Alarm check Overhaul Cleaning Cleaning Flow test Performance Once in two years Check daily Monthly Monthly Quarterly Weekly Weekly Annually Quarterly Quarterly Quarterly Six monthly

5. Main piping 6. Sluice valves

7. Deluge valves

8. Sprayers 9. Detectors 10. Spray installation

Quarterly Performance Physical check up of Monthly piping for seeing dislocation of support, wrong orientation, over-loading etc Calibration Painting of entire allation Annually inst- Every two years

11. Pressure gauges 12. Painting

5.4

Hydraulic Calculations - General: a) Summary Sheet The Summary Sheet should contain the following informations :1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Date Location Name of Owner and Occupant Building or Plant Unit Number Description of Hazard Name and Address of Contractor Design Purpose (Type of System) Minimum Rate of Water Application. Total water requirement as calculated including allowance on the Hydrant System where applicable. 10. Water Supply information in detail. 11. Risk wise details showing the total discharge and pressure at the top of deluge valve.

b) Detailed Working Sheet Detailed working sheet or Computer Print-out Sheets should contain the following informations 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Identification of calculation covered. Description and discharge constant (K) for each type of nozzle. Hydraulic design reference points. Flow in LPM Pipe size (mm) Pipe lengths in meter and details of fittings. Equivalent pipe lengths for fittings and devices in Mts. Friction loss in bars/meter. Total friction loss between reference points in bars. Elevation head in bars between reference points. Required pressure in bars at each reference point. Design details of Orifice plates. Velocity pressure and normal pressure if included in calculations. 14. Notes to indicate starting points with reference to other sheets or to clarify data shown. 15. Where extending existing system hydraulic calculations are to be furnished indicating the previous design, flow and pressure at points of connection and adequate additional calculations to indicate the effect on existing system. ++++++ +++++

SECTION - 6 GENERAL INFORMATION 6.1 6.1.1 6.1.1.1 HIGH VELOCITY WATER SPRAY SYSTEM GENERAL INFORMATION The High Velocity Water Spray System has been developed for the extinguishment of oil fines, and it introduces an entirely new principle in fire extinguishment. It is employed to bring about a fundamental change in the nature of the inflammable liquid, which is converted temporarily into an emulsion, which cannot burn. For a full appreciation of the problem of oil fire extinguishment it is desirable to consider why oil fires are more difficult to extinguish with water than fires of ordinary combustibles. When the surface of a solid combustible is heated to a certain temperature a flammable gas is liberated which burns with the oxygen of the atmosphere. If the heat from the flame is sufficient to maintain this temperature at the surface of the material, combustion will continue. A fire of this nature can be extinguished by the use of water in any form if the rate of application is sufficiently high. This result will be achieved because most solid combustibles, e.g. wood, fabrics, etc., have a natural affinity for water and can readily get wet. Thus, when water falls on to the burning substance it is quickly cooled to a temperature below that essential for combustion to continue. When water is applied to an oil fire the conditions are different. All oils are water repellent, and they cannot be wetted. Therefore, the cooling action of water applied in, say, the form of a jet, is negligible. When water is discharged as a low-pressure spray on to an oil fire the cooling effect is small. Actually, the heating effect of the water so that the temperature of the oil continues to increase and the only effect of the water discharge is to accelerate the rate of burning. EXTINGUISHMENT The only satisfactory method so far discovered of extinguishing an oil fire with water is by use of the High Velocity Water Spray system. A special type of nozzle, termed a Projector, is employed; discharging a cone of water in the form of evenly distributed broken streams of high velocity and high momentum. The rapid movement of the broken streams of water is suddenly arrested at the oil surface and the impact causes the oil to be broken up into tiny globules to form an emulsion with the water. In this manner, almost immediately the water from the projector strikes the burning oil-in-water emulsion is formed which cannot burn. In addition, the dispersion of the oil in minute globules in the water gives almost instantaneous cooling and thus, together with the extinguishment of the fire, there is simultaneous cessation of the formation of oil vapour.

6.1.1.2

6.1.1.3

6.1.1.4

6.1.2 6.1.2.1

6.1.2.2

6.1.2.3

When an emulsion formed by the High Velocity Water Spray System is allowed to rest for a considerable period of time, the oil and water will separate. Such an emulsion is said to be unstable. It must be realised, however, that most emulsions formed by the High Velocity Water Spray system, although not stable (or permanent), remain emulsions for a sufficient length of time to prevent recurrence of ignition after the water discharge has ceased. It is important to note that both mineral and vegetable oils behave in the same manner. EMULSIFICATION It should be realised that emulsions of oil and water have long been know and are in widespread every-day use. The most common examples are cod-liver oil and halibut oil emulsions, milk, butter, margarine, liquid paraffin, brilliantine and salad cream. These are all stable emulsions and contain additional substances called stabilizers or dispersators to preserve the condition. An emulsion is a combination of oil and water, one of which is dispersed as globules in the other. The liquid that is in globule form is termed the dispersed phase and the liquid surrounding the globules is known as the dispersing medium or continuous phase. They are sometimes called the internal and external phases respectively. It is , of cours, important that the two liquids are immiscible, or nearly so, i.e. it must not be possible for either of them to dissolve the other as, for example, alcohol and water. There are two types of emulsion. That which is produced with the emulsifier system is always of the non-burning, oil-in-water type. The reverse type of emulsion, the water-in-oil variety, can only be made when an oil soluble dispersator has previously been dissolved in the oil. Such dispersators are not present in commercial oils, so the water-in-oil type of emulsion cannot be formed in the process of fire extinguishment by the High Velocity system. This point is important, because the water-in-oil type emulsion will burn unless, by the use of an ample quantity of a strong distributor, a large volume of water is dispersed in a small volume of oil. With such an abnormal type of water-in-oil emulsion, fitful burning for a brief period may occur, but the fire quickly goes out as a consequence of the overwhelming action of so much water in the presence of so little oil. SCOPE OF APPLICATION The High Velocity Water Spray System is effective against fires of all flammable liquids, which are not miscible with water. The following are the most important in every-day use: a) Liquids which emulsify readily and form fairly stable emulsion: Mineral Oils

6.1.2.4 6.1.3 6.1.3.1

6.1.3.2

6.1.3.3

6.1.4 6.1.4.1

Lubricating oil, transformer oil, switch oil, diesel engine oil, gas oil, and boiler fuel oil. Vegetable Oils Turpentine, cotton seed oil, Soya been oil, linseed oil, castor oil, olive oil, coconut oil. Animal Oils Whale oil, cod-liver oil, and halibut oil. b) The High Velocity Water Spray system has been installed extensively to protect Paint and Varnish Processes, vegetable oil extraction plants, oil refineries and waterproofing factories. c) The greatest scope of application is in Electricity Generating Stations and Distribution Stations, for the protection of oil filled transformers and switchgear and the lubricating system of Turbo Alternators. 6.1.5 6.1.5.1 LIMITATIONS With the High Velocity Water Spray System, fires of all light mineral spirits such as petrol, paraffin, benzene and white spirit can be extinguished, but whereas the emulsions formed with the heavier oils persist for sometime, those formed with the light spirits are transient. For this reason, complete extinguishment of the light mineral spirit cannot be assured unless the whole of the burning surface is brought under simultaneous bombardment from the projectors. It will be appreciated that such a state of affairs is not always possible, for even with the ideal design of protection the fire may be preceded by an explosion causing disarrangement of the plant and some shielding of the burning liquids. On this account the High Velocity Water Spray system can only be put forward in such cases after a full enquiry into all the circumstances. The operating pressures are high in the case of the above system and the pressures vary in the range of 3.5 to 5 bars. MEDIUM VELOCITY WATER SPRAY SYSTEM GENERAL INFORMATION Medium Velocity Water Spray System has been developed and extensively installed for the following applications. a) For fire risks involving the lighter oils, Liquefied Petroleum gases, and other flammable liquids, where it may not be possible or desirable to extinguish the fire completely. b) For the protection of vessels, plant, and structures exposed to heat from adjacent and surrounding fires.

6.1.5.2 6.2 6.2.1. 6.2.1.1

c) For use in conjunction with Sprinklers, as permitted under Rules for sprinklers installation published by the Tariff Advisory Committee. 6.2.2 6.2.1.1 CONTROLLED BURNING Fires involving liquids with flash points below 320 C (see section 1) cannot always be extinguished by water spray. Medium Velocity Water Sprayers giving medium drop size can be successfully employed for flame control in many cases. It is important to use the correct water density rate and drop size, to avoid undue agitation of the burning liquid. Flame height can be controlled within tolerable limits, and personnel can enter the area to drain off the liquid and carry out any other measures necessary to bring the situation under control. Gases liberated from these highly volatile liquids from explosive mixtures with air. They are mostly heavier than air, and dissipation may be very slow. Ignition can take place at considerable distances from a source of leakage, and extensive fires result. Medium Velocity Water Sprayers are positioned to cover valves and joints where leakage may occur, and enable the gas to be burnt safely until the leakage is sealed off. Hazards of this kind are always present where Liquefied Petroleum Gases (commonly termed LPG) are being stored, transported, or used in manufacturing processes. EXPOSURE PROTECTION MVWS System is effective in protecting vessels and adjacent structure exposed to heat from an outbreak of fire. Sprayers direct water over the whole surface, preventing dangerous temperature rise and distortion, resulting in further explosions. Control should be automatic to ensure that the system operates with the minimum delay. Spray directed over a vessel already hot may not achieve complete coverage; hot spots will allow the shell to overheat and increase the danger of rupture and explosion. SCOPE OF APPLICATIONS Applications of the MVWS System may be broadly classified as follows: Fires involving flammable liquids and certain solids and semi-solids, (with flash points between 32o C and 65o C). For such hazards Medium Velocity Water spray provides effective control by cooling, and by extinguishing principles other than emulsification. The fire is prevented from spreading to adjacent plant and buildings, and may, under favourable conditions, be completely extinguished. Few examples are Amyl alcohol Aniline Butyl alcohol Certain fuel oils

6.2.1.1

6.2.2.3

6.2.2 6.2.3.1

6.2.4. 6.2.4.1 6.2.4.1.1

6.2.4.1.2

Glacial acetic acid Heavy naphtha Isobutyl alcohol Isopropyl alcohol Paraffin 6.2.4.1.3

Nitrobenzene Nitro-benzene Pine oil Safety solvents Turpentine

Fires involving flammable liquids, liquefied gases, and certain solids and semi-solids, which cannot be extinguished by any form of water spray, or where it is not desirable to extinguish the fire completely. The objects of these applications are to control the rate of burning, prevent dangerous increase of pressure in vessels exposed to fire, and protect adjacent plot and buildings. These liquids have flash points below 32o C. Few examples are Acetone Benzene Butadiene Butane Carbon disulphide Cyclohexane Ethyl acetate Ethyl alcohol Ethylene oxide Light naphtha Methyl acetate Methyl alcohol Methyl ethyl ketone Naphtha Petroleum ether Petroleum spirit Propane Toluene White spirit Xylene

6.2.4.1.4

6.2.4.1.5

Risks in which the main hazard is the exposure of plant and buildings to heat from a fire in their vicinity. The object in this case is cooling to prevent increase of pressure in vessels, to minimise fire damage and prevent the spread of fire. This application includes all exposure risks. For fires involving oils with flash points above 650 C High Velocity Water Sprayers is recommended, since these fires can be very rapidly extinguished in almost all cases. Medium Velocity Water Spray System has a very wide range of application in the control of flammable liquid fires. LIMITATIONS Instances occasionally occur where the application of any form of water spray might result in effect dangerous to plant and personnel. When these are encountered, either as an individual risk or occurring in a plant under consideration for a Medium Velocity Water Spray installation, advice should be sought from Tariff Advisory Committee. Examples are a) Materials, which react chemically with, water, sometimes violently, to produce substances dangerous to life. b) Flammable liquids in open containers without adequate overflow and drainage facilities. Recommendations must be put forward for bunding and draining to prevent the spread of fire beyond the protected area. c) Flammable liquids in open containers and at temperature higher than the boiling points of water. The consequences of applying water spray must be borne in mind as the penetration of water below the surface of the hot liquid would cause rapid steam generation and possibly violent boil-over with consequent danger to personnel. d) Flammable liquids in sealed plant operating at high surface temperatures, where the effect of cold water application could cause plant failure and serious damage. The plant should be lagged or otherwise safeguarded against such a risk.

6.2.4.1.6

6.2.4.1.7

6.2.4.1.8

The operating pressures are not high in the case of above system and the pressures vary in the range of 1.4 bars to 3.5 bars. +++++++++ ++

RULES FOR WATER SPRAY SYSTEMS APPENDIX I

The Secretary, REGIONAL OFFICE TARIFF ADVISORY COMMITTEE Dear Sir, Application for Fire Extinguishing Appliance(s) Discount. Risk Situation Please sacntion, as from date of receipt of this application, a Discount of _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ % for the following Extinguishing, Appliances , applying to Blcoks/Equipment(The occupation floorwise and block Nos. of each building must be clearly stated). I/We enclose plan of the risk with all details marked thereon. I/We certify that to the best of my/our knowledge and belief the appliances referred to have been installed in strict accordance with the Rules of the Committee and I/We also certify that the plan submitted is drawn in accordance with the Committees Rules and is corect and up-to-date. I/We also certify that a copy of the plan exact in every detail, is avilable for the Regional Offices of the Committees Engineers use at the above premises. I/We enclose full particulars of the appliances togather with letter of Gurantee signed by the Assured. I am (we are), faithfully, Yours

For use of the Regional Offices only Date received :

Date inspected : Discount sanctioned : Reference Number :

RULES FOR WATER SPRAY SYSTEMS

APPENDIX II

19 The Secretary, REGIONAL OFFICE TARIFF ADVISORY COMMITTEE Dear Sir, Gurantee regarding Fire Extinguishing Appliance(s). In consideration of your Regional Office granting a Discount for the Fire Extinguishing Appliances detailed on attached/singed form which we have installed in the

situated at I/We hereby engage ourselves(1) To maintain and upkeep the said appliances in efficient working order and where such appliances and Committees Rules require the upkeep of a trained Fire Brigade, to maintain such Brigade to its full nubers in an efficient state. (2) To advice the concerned Regional Office and first obtain permission should at any time it be necessary to close down supply to pumps or in any way render the appliances out of operation for repairs, overhaul, etc. (3) Not to extend, alter or demolish protected Blocks/Equipment or to erect new Block/Equipment in the compound of the premises without supplying the concerned Regional Office with a revised plan or revising the plan filed with the concerned Regional Office. (4) To keep at the above described premises a copy, exact in every detail of the plan supplied to your Regional Office, same to be available to the Regional Offices Engineer during his visits of inspection. (5) Not to re-number (or re-letter) Blocks, Compartments, etc., as recorded on the plan filed with the Regional Office without advising the Regional Office of such revision.

I am (we are), Yours faithfully, Note : All communication to the Regional Office of the Committee must be through the Leading Office on the risk. Appendix III Available at

Details of Automatic Fixed Water Spray Protection System (Name of Risk) 1. Type of System High Velocity/Medium Velocity 2. Details of the Installation 2.1 Pumps Type (s)-Centrifugal/ vertical turbine. Name Plate details: Name of the Manufacturer. Type/model size of impeller Discharge Head Serial number RPM 2.2 Primemovers Type(s)-Electrical motor/Diesel Engine Name plate details : Name of the manufacturer. Type/Model Horse Power/BHP Serial number Voltage/Current Rated RPM Type of insulation Fuel tank capacity litres 2.3 Make and type of Automatic Pressure regulator. Air Compressor(s) No1 No2 No3 No1 No2 No3

Jockey

Jockey

2.4

Location of air compressor(s) Name of the manufacturer Name plate details Maximum Air Pressure available for the system Capacity of air compressor in M3 Demand of installation(s) i.e. volume of air piping. 3. 3.1 Water Supplies Source of water supplies/Inflow arrangement for fire water Reservoir.

3.2

Water Reservoir Demand in Cubic Metres M3 M3 Actually provided in M3 Resv.No.1 capacity Resv. No.2 capacity M3 Resv. No.3 capacity M3 Remarks

System

Sprinkler Spray Hydrant Foam N.B.1 : Specify whether the reservoirs are underground, surface or overhead. N.B.2 : Specific mention should be made in case H.V. and M.V. Systems are independent of each other. 3.3 4. Whether tanks have independent/Common suction or whether tanks are inter-connected, give details : DETAILS OF FIXED WATER SPRAY INSTALLATIONS Deluge valves Equipments/Blocks Projectors/Sprayers Protected Discharge Detectors

Reqmnt. Sr. Size & Pressure Orifice HV/MV No. Type Make available Plate Systems Nos. Make Nos. Size Factor LPS Details

Names

Type

Make

K.

in

For HV System :Basis of Pump Design Actual Pump Capacity Provided Provided Water Demand-(Discharge x Duration Duration) 5. Pipes Underground/above ground Type and method of jointing Make IS or other equivalent specification Details of Coating/Wrapping, if any To what pressure have the pipes been tested 6. Testing and maintenance of the system :

For MV System :Basis of Pump Design Actual Pump Capacity

Water Demand-(Discharge x

1. Whether the deluge valves/alarm bell provided at the premises tested/examined/operated at least once in 3 months. 2. Frequency of checking/cleaning of spray nozzles strainers. 3. Frequency of pump(s) testing with remarks.

4. Are the records of all tests and defects maintained 5. Whether at least 10% spares such as detectors, sprayers, projectors and allied equipment are kept in stock readily available.

Place : Date : SIGNATURE. (FORM TO BE SIGNED BY THE OWNER OF THE PREMISES).

RULES FOR WATER SPRAY SYSTEMS

Appendix III Details of Automatic Fixed Water Spray Protection System (Name of Risk) 1. Type of System High Velocity/Medium Velocity 2. Details of the Installation 2.1 Pumps Type (s)-Centrifugal/ vertical turbine. Name Plate details: Name of the Manufacturer. Type/model size of impeller Discharge Head Serial number RPM 2.2 Primemovers Type(s)-Electrical motor/Diesel Engine Name plate details : Name of the manufacturer. Type/Model Horse Power/BHP Serial number Voltage/Current Rated RPM Type of insulation Fuel tank capacity litres 2.3 Make and type of Automatic Pressure regulator. Air Compressor(s) Location of air compressor(s) No1 No2 No3 Jockey No1 No2 No3 Jockey Available at

2.4

Name of the manufacturer Name plate details Maximum Air Pressure available for the system Capacity of air compressor in M3 Demand of installation(s) i.e. volume of air piping. 3. 3.1 Water Supplies Source of water supplies/Inflow arrangement for fire water Reservoir.

3.2

Water Reservoir Demand in Cubic Metres M3 M3 Actually provided in M3 Resv.No.1 capacity Resv. No.2 capacity M3 Resv. No.3 capacity M3 Remarks

System

Sprinkler Spray Hydrant Foam N.B.1 : Specify whether the reservoirs are underground, surface or overhead. N.B.2 : Specific mention should be made in case H.V. and M.V. Systems are independent of each other. 3.3 4. Whether tanks have independent/Common suction or whether tanks are inter-connected, give details : DETAILS OF FIXED WATER SPRAY INSTALLATIONS Deluge valves Equipments/Blocks Projectors/Sprayers Protected Discharge Detectors

Reqmnt. Sr. Size & Pressure Orifice HV/MV No. Type Make available Plate Systems Nos. Make Nos. Size Factor LPS Details

Names

Type

Make

K.

in

For HV System :Basis of Pump Design Actual Pump Capacity Provided Provided Water Demand-(Discharge x Duration Duration) 5. Pipes Underground/above ground Type and method of jointing Make IS or other equivalent specification Details of Coating/Wrapping, if any To what pressure have the pipes been tested 6. Testing and maintenance of the system :

For MV System :Basis of Pump Design Actual Pump Capacity

Water Demand-(Discharge x

1. Whether the deluge valves/alarm bell provided at the premises tested/examined/operated at least once in 3 months. 2. Frequency of checking/cleaning of spray nozzles strainers. 3. Frequency of pump(s) testing with remarks.

4. Are the records of all tests and defects maintained 5. Whether at least 10% spares such as detectors, sprayers, projectors and allied equipment are kept in stock readily available.

Place : Date : SIGNATURE. (FORM TO BE SIGNED BY THE OWNER OF THE PREMISES).

SPRINKLER REGULATIONS INDEX


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. FORWORDS 001 Foreword.doc DEFINITIONS 01 Introductiom.doc REQUIREMENTS REGARDING SUBMISSION OF PLANS 03 Plans.doc CLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPANCIES 04 Occupancies.doc PLANNING 05 Planning.doc GRADING OF SPRINKLER INSTALLATIONS 06 Grading.doc WATER SUPPLY 07 Water Supply.doc DESIGN DENSITY AND AMAO FOR FULLY HYDRAULICALLY CALCULATED OR PRE-CALCULATED SPRINKLER SYSTEMS. 08 Design densities.doc PUMPS 09 Pumps.doc PIPING AND SUPPORTS 10 Pipings.doc SPRINKLER SPACING, ARRANGEMENT AND LOCATION 11 Spk Spacing.doc PIPE SIZING AND SPRINKLERS ARRAY DESIGN12 Pipe Sizing.doc MISCELLANEOUS DESIGN PARAMETERS 13 Misc design.doc COMPONENTS OF SPRINKLER SYSTEM14 Components.doc SPRINKLERS - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS15 Spk-Gen.doc SELECTION OF INSTALLATION, TYPE AND THEIR SIZE 16 Selection.doc UPKEEP OF THE SPRINKLER INSTALLATION 17 Upkeep.doc PRE-COMMISSIONING AND ACCEPTANCE TESTS 18 Acceptance.doc FEA DISCOUNT APPLICATION FORM FOR SPRINKLER INSTALLATION 19 FEA Appllication.doc ADDRESSES AND TELEPHONE/FAX NUMBERS OF TAC OFFICES 20 TAC Addresses.doc

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FOREWORD The Worlds first rules for Automatic Sprinkler installation were originally drafted during 1885 by John W. Wormald of the Mutual Fire Insurance Corporation and the same were officially published in London by the Fire offices committee in September 1888. The publication underwent several revisions and the 29th edition was published in 1969 by the Fire Officers Committee. Tariff Advisory Committee had revised the sprinkler regulations based on the 29th edition during the year 1978. During 1985, the responsibility of the revision of the 29th edition of sprinkler regulations U.K. was passed on to the Loss Prevention Council London on its formation. British Standards institution with acknowledgement and reference to the erstwhile FOC rules, published a standard BS:5306: Part 2:1979. The combination of British Standard and the Technical bulletins published by LPC formed the new LPC rules for Automatic Sprinkler installation and the recent publication was released in 1990 (amended in 1995). A number of radical alternatives both in principle and design have been embodied in the LPC rules (1990), the most important of which are the provisions for hazard classification, types of Water Supply & grades etc. Since long, the need for revision of the sprinkler regulations was felt in India and the exercise, which was undertaken in the year 1996. While revising the document, considerable assistance was derived from LPC rules (1990, amended in 1995) with some radical departures on areas suitable to environment in India. The definitions of various components in sprinkler system and also classification at occupancies have been provided in detail, which will be found quite useful. The types of water supply have been radically changed bearing in mind, the rich experience derived in the last two decades. Frequent cross references appearing in the erstwhile regulations have been avoided to the best possible to provide a smooth reading and understanding of the regulations. Variety of sprinklers has been developed in the last decade such as ESFR sprinklers, ELO sprinklers and so on suitable for specific applications. Specifications for the installations of such systems are under development worldwide. Committee will consider installation of such systems for approval when the guidelines are made available. Though an attempt has been made to be very exhaustive, there may be omissions or certain problems may not have been addressed. Upon suitable reference supported with facts, further refinement of rules is possible. ++++++ +++

1.

INTRODUCTION A sprinkler system consists of a water supply (or supplies) and one or more sprinkler installations; each installation consists of a set of installation control valves and a pipe array fitted with sprinkler heads. The sprinkler heads are fitted at specified locations at the roof or ceiling, and where necessary between racks, below shelves, inside ovens or stoves or below obstructions. The main elements of a typical installation are shown in the figure 1. A sprinkler has two functions to perform. It must first detect a fire, and must then provide an adequate distribution of water to control or extinguish it. Each function is performed separately and one is independent of the other except insofar as early detection makes extinction easier because the fire has not grown large. The classic use of the sprinkler is in the hot gas layer which forms beneath the ceiling of an enclosure in which a fire is developing. The sprinklers operate at pre-determined temperatures to discharge water over the affected part of the area below, the flow of water through the alarm valve initiating a fire alarm. The operating temperature is generally selected to suit ambient temperature conditions. Only sprinklers in the vicinity of the fire, i.e. those which become sufficiently heated, operate. It should not be assumed that the provision of sprinkler system entirely obviates the need for other means of fighting fires and it is important to consider the fire precautions in the premises as a whole. Structural fire resistance, escape routes, fire alarm systems, particular hazards needing other fire protection methods, provision of hose reels and fire hydrants and portable fire extinguishers, etc., safe working and good handling methods, management supervision and good housekeeping all need consideration. It is essential that sprinkler systems should be properly maintained to ensure operation when required. This routine is reliable to be overlooked or given insufficient attention by supervisors. It is, however, neglected at peril to the lives of the occupants of the premises at the risk of cripple financial loss. the importance of proper maintenance cannot be too highly emphasized. When sprinkler systems are disabled, extra attention should be paid to fire precautions and the appropriate authorities informed. This has been discussed in detail in sections 18 and 19 of the regulations. The regulations have been divided into 20 sections and each section deals elaborately with various aspects of the sprinkler protection system. The pipe sizing and hydraulic calculations for various hazards are discussed in detail. Figures have been shown for several rules where more clarity is required. The rules are clearer about where the system is not required and where the systems can be excluded.

Grading of the sprinkler system has been revised more realistically. The pumping capacity and the water requirements for the sprinkler system have been clearly defined. The changes made from the 30th edition of the sprinkler rules have not in anyway diluted the protection requirements. The changes have been made to suit the Indian conditions.

2.

DEFINITIONS For the purpose of this part of regulations, the following definitions shall apply: 2.1 Alarm test valve. A valve through which water may be drawn to test the operation of the water motor firm alarm and/or of any associated electric fire alarm. Alarm valve. A check valve, of the wet, dry or composite type, that also initiates the water motor fire alarm when the sprinkler installation operates. Alarm valve, pre-action. installation. Alarm valve, re-cycling. installation. An alarm valve suitable for a pre-action An alarm valve suitable for a recycling

2.2

2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7

Alarm valve, wet. An alarm valve suitable for a wet installation. Arm pipe. A pipe, other than the last section of a range pipe, feeding a single sprinkler. Assumed maximum area of operation, hydraulically most favourable location. The location in a sprinkler array of an AMAO of specified shape at which the water flow is the maximum for a specific pressure. Assumed maximum area of operation, hydraulically most unfavourable location. The location in a sprinkler array of an AMAO of specified shape at which the water supply pressure is the maximum needed to give the specified design density. Cut-off sprinkler. A sprinkler protecting a door or window between two areas only one of which is protected by the sprinkler.

2.8

2.9

2.10 Design density. The minimum density of discharge, in mm/min of water, for which a sprinkler installation is designed, determined from the discharge of a specified group of sprinklers, in L/min, divided by the area covered, in M2. 2.11 Design point. A point on a distribution pipe of a pre- calculated installation, downstream of which pipe work is sized from tables and upstream of which pipework is sized by hydraulic calculation. 2.12 Distribution pipe. A pipe feeding either a range pipe directly or a single sprinkler on a non-terminal range pipe more than 300 mm long. 2.13 Distribution pipe spur. A distribution pipe from a main distribution pipe, to a terminal branched pipe array.

2.14 Drencher. A sprayer used to distribute water over a surface to provide protection against fire exposure. 2.15 Drop. A vertical pipe feeding a distribution or range pipe. 2.16 End-side array. A pipe array with range pipes on one side only of a distribution pipe. (see Figures 2 and 3) 2.17 End-centre array. A pipe with range pipes on both sides of a distribution pipe. (see Figures 4 and 5) 2.18 Fastener. A device for attaching pipe hanger components to a building structure or racking. 2.19 Fire door. A door and frame of specified fire resistance complying with either : Building regulations published by TAC, or BS 476: Part 8: 1972; or BS 476: Part 22: 1987 with respect to integrity. 2.20 Fire resistance. The ability of a component or the construction of a building to satisfy for a stated period of time the appropriate criteria specified in the relevant part of BS 476. 2.21 Fire shutter. A shutter and frame of specified fire resistance complying with either: Building regulations published by TAC, or BS 476: Part 8: 1972; or BS 476: Part 22: 1987 with respect to integrity. 2.22 Fully hydraulically calculated. A term applied to pipework sized as specified in 18. (a) or an installation in which all the pipework downstream of the main installation control valve set is sized as specified in 18.1(a) 2.23 Hanger. An assembly for suspending pipework from the elements of building structure. 2.24 High-rise system. A sprinkler system in which the highest sprinkler is more than 45M above the lowest sprinkler or the sprinkler pumps whichever is the lower. 2.25 Hydraulic alarm, intermittent. Sounding of an hydraulic water motor alarm gong for intervals totalling less than the alarm period. 2.26 Installation sprinkler installation. Part of a sprinkler system comprising a set of installation main control valves, the associated downstream pipes and sprinklers. 2.27 Installation, pre-action. A dry installation in which the alarm valve can be opened by an independent fire detection system in the protected area.

2.28 Installation, re-cycling. A pre-action installation in which the alarm valve can be opened and closed repeatedly by a heat detection system. 2.29 Installation, wet pipe. An installation in which the pipe work is always charged with water. 2.30 Jockey pump. A small pump used to replenish minor water loss to avoid starting an automatic suction or booster pump unnecessarily. 2.31 Low-rise system. A sprinkler system in which the highest sprinkler is not more than 45M above ground level or the sprinkler pumps. 2.32 Main distribution pipe. A pipe feeding a distribution pipe. 2.33 Node. A point in pipe work at which pressure and flow(s) are calculated; each node is a datum point for the purpose of hydraulic calculations in the installation. 2.34 Precalculated. A term applied to pipe work sized as specified in 18,1(b) or an installation in which pipe downstream of the design point are sized as specified in 18.1(b). 2.35 Range pipe. A pipe feeding sprinkler directly or via arm pipes of restricted length. 2.36 Riser. A vertical pipe feeding a distribution or range pipe above. 2.37 Rosette sprinkler rosette. A plate covering the gap between shank or the body of a sprinkler projecting through a suspended ceiling, and the ceiling. 2.38 Section. The part (which may be one or more zones) of an installation on a particular floor fed by a particular riser. 2.39 Sling rod. A rod with a sling eye or screwed ends for supporting pipe clips, rings, band hangers etc., 2.40 Sprinkler, ceiling or flush pattern. A pendent sprinkler for fitting partly above but with the temperature sensitive element below, the lower plane of the ceiling. 2.41 Sprinkler concealed. A recessed sprinkler with a cover plate that disengages when the heat is applied. 2.42 Sprinkler conventional pattern. pattern of water discharge. A sprinkler that gives a spherical

2.43 Sprinkler glass bulb. A sprinkler which opens when a liquid filled glass bulb bursts.

2.44 Sprinkler horizontal. A sprinkler in which the nozzle directs the water horizontally. 2.45 Sprinkler Intermediate. A sprinkler installed below, and additional to the roof or ceiling sprinklers. 2.46 Sprinkler, pendent. downwards. A sprinkler in which the nozzle directs water

2.47 Sprinkler, roof or ceiling. A sprinkler protecting the roof or ceiling. 2.48 Sprinkler sidewall pattern. A sprinkler that gives a downward paraboloid pattern discharge. 2.49 Sprinkler upright. upwards. A sprinkler in which the nozzle directs the water

2.50 Sprinkler system. The entire means of providing sprinkler protection in the premises comprising one or more sprinkler installation, the pipe work to the installations and the water supply /supplies except town mains and bodies of water such as lakes or canals. 2.51 Sprinkler yoke arms. The part of the sprinkler that retains the heat sensitive elements in load bearing contact with the sprinkler head valve. 2.52 Staggered sprinkler lay out. An off-set lay out with the sprinklers displaced one half pitch along the range pipe relative to the next range or ranges. 2.53 Standard sprinkler lay out. A rectilinear lay out with the sprinkler aligned perpendicular to the run of the ranges. 2.54 Suction pump. An automatic pump supplying water to a sprinkler system from a suction tank. 2.55 Suitable for sprinkler use. A term applied to equipment or component accepted by the authorities as far a particular application in a sprinkler system either by a particular system or by compliance with specified general criteria. 2.56 Supply pipe. A pipe connecting a water supply to a trunk main or the installation main control valve set(s); or a pipe supplying water to a private reservoir, suction tank or gravity tank. 2.57 Suspended open cell ceiling. A ceiling of regular open cell construction through which water from sprinkler can be discharged freely. 2.58 Terminal main configuration. A pipe array with only one water supply route to each range pipe.

2.59 Terminal range configuration. A pipe array with only one water supply route from a distribution pipe. 2.60 Toggle support. A swivel device for securing hangers to hollow sections ceiling or roofs, 2.61 Trunk mains. A pipe connection to two or more water supply pipes to the installation main control valve set(s). 2.62 User. The person responsible for or having effective control over the fire safety provision adopted in or appropriate to the premises or the building.

+++++++++ +

REQUIREMENTS REGARDING SUBMISSION OF PLANS 3.1 3.1.1 3.1.2 Plans for submission to the Committee shall be drawn up in accordance with the following requirements; Plans shall be clear, contain all required details including scale and point of Compass and shall be dated. Plans of new installation shall show the entire compound; all buildings therein, with their door and window openings, and the boundary walls. Buildings under construction and future extension envisaged shall be indicated by the dotted lines. Plans of extensions to approved existing installations need not show the rest of the compound but sufficient details shall be given of the existing installations in correlation to the extension, to enable the Committee's Inspection staff to check the plans and offer comments. In case of storeyed buildings, drawings submitted shall include plans of each storey together with sectional elevations. Material: Plans shall be on White paper or ammonia paper or Ferro Prussiate paper. Plans shall generally be prepared in accordance with IS: 696, shall not exceed 850 x 1200 mm in size and shall be drawn to a scale of 1: 500 or 1: 1000. In the case of very large compounds with more than one risk, it is advisable to submit separate plans for each risk with a key plan showing the relative situation of the various risks etc., in the compound. SIGNS: Pucca walls to be shown by double lines, doors and windows being clearly marked. (Figure 6) Iron or other non-masonry walls to be shown by a thin line and nature of construction indicated. (Figure 7) Perfect party walls to be indicated by the sign "T" at each end of the wall, or have the letters PPW alongside or across them at regular intervals and marked in distinctive colours. (Figure 8) Fireproof doors and/or shutters to be marked as follows: Single Fireproof Door and/or Shutter Double Fireproof Door and/or shutter SFD DFD

3.1.3 3.1.4

3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3

3.2.4

3.2.5 3.2.6 3.2.7

Skylights to be marked "Sky Lights" or "SL" Boiler to be shown by a rectangular figure marked "Boiler". Sprinkler mains to be shown by a blue line; the diameter, length and number of pipes being marked alongside and specials and reducers to be clearly indicated as below. - m.m dia, lengths of -metre each (Figure 9)

3.2.8 3.2.9

Sprinkler pumps to be clearly marked and the capacity and head to be indicated in each case. Pump(s) suction piping to be shown dotted and diameter to be indicated. (Figure 10)

3.2.10 Fire service water tanks and reservoirs to be shown to scale. (Figure 11) 3.2.11 Sprinkler trunk mains to be shown by a blue line, the sizes being marked alongside. ____________________________
mm dia Spk main

3.2.12 Fire alarm bells to be shown by a blue line, the sizes being marked "F.A.B." 3.2.13 Sprinklered blocks to be marked "S". 3.2.14 Electric cable(s) for the fire pump(s) to be shown in green line(s). 3.3 PROCEDURE TO BE FOLLOWED IN THE CASE OF APPLICATION FOR DISCOUNTS The sanction of discounts off insurance premiums shall necessarily follow consideration by the Regional offices of TAC of all details of the risk, of manufacturing processes involved and the protective appliances to be installed in order to ensure that the standards laid down have been fully observed. To prevent confusion or disappointment, definite rules for procedure have been laid down as follows: 3.3.1 Proposals for the installation of appliances shall be submitted to the Regional offices of TAC Committee by the Leading Office on the risk and shall comprise-

3.3.1.1 Material specifications of equipment and components of the installation, indicating the name of manufacturers and Indian Standards Specifications, if any 3.3.1.2 In the case of internal appliances, details of the areas of the various compartments, their occupation and the quantities and types of appliances proposed. 3.3.1.3 In the case of sprinkler and hydrant installations, fully dimensioned plans in duplicate as called for in Section.1 shall be submitted. 3.3.1.4 In addition to the above, the following details would be necessary in the case of Sprinkler installation:

a) Drawings showing layout of the entire sprinkler system, incorporating material specifications, different sizes of mains etc.,
Note In case of storeyed blocks, floor area of each floor showing particulars.

b) Layout of pump house showing clearly the suction, delivery and priming (if any) and freeboard arrangements. c) Details of water storage tanks giving particulars of compartmentation and jackwell, details of inflow and particulars of tappings for other purposes, if any. d) Sub-station location in relation to other blocks if the pump is electrically driven. e) Plans of Sub-station showing thickness of internal walls and equipment layout. Also walls between transformers if outdoor and located within 6M or specified distance according to oil contents as specified in rule 6.1.6 of the committee's electrical regulations. f) Route of cable from Sub-station to fire pump house. g) Schematic circuit line diagram showing electric feed to fire pump. h) the number of sprinklers on each installation control valve set; i) j) the height of highest sprinkler on each installation control valve set; the type(s) of installation(s) and the nominal diameter(s) of the main control valves;

k) the number or reference of each installation main control valve set; l) a statement that the system will comply with this specification including details of any deviation(s) from its recommendations with reasons for the deviation(s).

m) a list of the components suitable for sprinkler use, included in the system each identified by manufacturer's name and model/reference number. 3.4 INSTALLATION LAYOUT DRAWINGS

3.4.1

General. The scale shall be not less than 1: 100. Layout drawing shall include the following information: a) north point indication; b) the class or classes of installation according to hazard class including stock category and design storage height; c) constructional details of floors, ceiling, roofs and exterior walls and walls separating sprinklered and non-sprinklered areas; d) sectional elevations of each floor of each building showing the distance of sprinklered from ceiling, structural features, etc., which affect the sprinkler layout or the water distribution from the sprinklers; e) the location and size of concealed roof or ceiling voids, offices and other enclosures sealed at a level lower than the roof of ceiling proper; f) indication of trunking, staging, platforms, machinery, fluorescent light fittings, heaters, suspended open cell ceilings etc., which may adversely affect the sprinkler distribution; g) the sprinkler types(s) and temperature ratings(s); h) the location and type of main control valves and location of alarm motors and gongs; i) the location and details of any water flow and air or water pressure, alarm switches; j) the location and size of any tail-end air valves, subsidiary stop valves and drain valves; k) the drainage slope of the pipework; l) the location and specification of any orifice plate; m) a schedule listing the numbers of sprinklers, medium and highvelocity sprayers etc., and the area of protection; n) a key to the symbols used.

3.4.2

PRE-CALCULATED PIPEWORK. For pre-calculated pipework the following details shall be given on, or with, the drawings; a) identification of the design points of each array on the layout drawing; b) a summary of the pressure losses between the control valve and the design points at the following design rates or flow.
1) In a light-hazard installation 225 L/min, 2) In an ordinary-hazard installation: 1000 L/min and 3) In a high hazard installation the flow corresponding to the appropriate design density. Note For light and ordinary-hazard installations with pre-calculated pipework the pressure needed at the design point is not stated. Instead the friction loss in the pipework between the

control valve and the design points is limited to a predetermined quantity, incorporated in the value specified for pressure at the control valves. Static head is added to this pressure to give the value defining the minimum actual water supply running pressure. A typical summary of pressure losses is shown at the end of this section. (Figure 12)

3.4.3

HYDRAULICALLY CALCULATED PIPEWORK. For hydraulically calculated pipe work, the following shall be given, with detailed calculations, either or purpose designed work sheets or as a computer print-out: a) for each design area of operation: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) the area identification; the hazard class; the specified density of discharge (in mm/min); the assumed area of maximum operation (AMAO) (in m2); the number of sprinklers in the AMAO; the sprinkler nominal orifice size (in mm); the maximum area covered per sprinkler (in m2); detailed and dimensioned working drawings showing the following:
(i) the node or pipe reference scheme used to identify pipes, junctions, sprinkler heads and fittings which need hydraulic consideration; (ii) the position of the hydraulically most favourable AMAO. (iii) the position of the hydraulically most unfavourable AMAO. (iv) the four sprinklers upon which the design density is based. (v) the height above datum of each point of identified pressure value.

b) for each operating sprinkler: i) ii) iii) iv) the sprinkler node or reference number; the sprinkler nominal k factor; the flow through the sprinkler ( in L/min); the inlet pressure to the sprinkler or sprinkler assembly (in bar);

c) for each hydraulically significant pipe; i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) x) xi) the pipe node or other reference; the pipe nominal bore ( in mm); the hazen-williams constant (c or k factor) for the pipe. the flow through pipe ( in L/min); the nominal fluid velocity ( in m/sec); the length of pipe ( in m); the numbers, types and equivalent lengths of fittings; the static head change in pipe (in m); the pressures at inlet and outlet of pipe in bar; the friction loss in pipe ( in bar) the indication of flow direction.
Note: - A line diagram of the pipe layout should be prepared showing the following:

i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi)

the node or pipe reference numbers; the distribution pipes; the range pipes; the sprinkler heads under consideration; the four hydraulically most unfavourably placed heads. the flow through, and pressure at the end of each hydraulically vii) significant pipe.

3.5

WATER SUPPLY DRAWINGS. The drawings shall show water supplies and pipework therefrom up to the installation control valves. The drawings shall be on an indicated scale of not less than 1:100. A key to the symbols shall be included. The position and type of stop and check valves and any pressure reducing valve, water meter, water lock, orifice plate and any connection supplying water for other services shall be indicated.

3.6 3.6.1

HYDRAULIC CALCULATION. Pre-calculated installations. An hydraulic calculation (with relevant flow tests) shall show that each trunk main together with any branch main, from each water supply to a main installation control valve set water supply test and drain valve and control valve 'C' gauge (i.e., including the installation control valves) is capable of providing the required pressure and flow at the installation control valve test and drain valve.

3.6.2

Fully hydraulically calculated installations. Where the pipework is fully hydraulically calculated the following additional details shall be given: a) a modified pressure-flow characteristic graph indicating the usable pressure at any flow up to the maximum installation demand: b) the demand pressure-flow characteristic graph for each installation for the hydraulically most unfavourable (and if required the most favourable) AMAO with pressure taken as at the control valve 'C' pressure gauge.

3.7

Discounts will be considered only if all the equipment associated with the system protection such as pumps, engines, motors, valves, sprinklers, installation valves, hand appliance and their accessories are of a type and make, acceptable to the Tariff Advisory Committee. No discounts will be considered for a sprinkler system unless the same has been hydraulically tested with trenches open (in case of underground mains) at least twice during the course of installation by the Committee's engineers and found in order. The prior submission of proposal to the Committee before the work is commenced, is essential, to ensure that the installation will conform to the Committee's requirements but does not dispense with the procedure laid down hereafter for application for the sanction of discounts. Application for discounts shall be submitted on special forms provided for the purpose by the Committee and shall comprise :

3.8

3.9

3.10

(a) Application by the Leading Office (Appendix I), (b) Guarantee by the Insured (Appendix II) and (c) Schedule of Appliances (Signed by the Insured) (Appendix III) [see section 19] 3.11 In every case, a plan of the premises prepared in accordance with the requirements indicated in rule 3.1 shall accompany any application for a discount for fire extinguishing appliances and, in the case of sprinkler and/or hydrant installations, Installing Engineer's detailed "As Erected" working drawings are essential. NB: A certificate of Completion from the installing Engineers' stating that pressure tests to which the installation(s) has been subjected and giving the date(s) from which it was in complete working order may also be submitted. 3.12 3.13 Even in the case of extensions to an existing service, a complete set of forms and plans detailed above shall be submitted. No applicant for discount can be entertained until the relative appliances are complete, in position, ready for use and fully operative. An appropriate discount or allowance will be sanctioned by the Committee from the date of the completed application, ( in accordance with the rules above) subject to the appliances being found in order on inspection by the Committee's Inspectorate. In the event of the installation being found incomplete or defective, the discount will be withheld (or withdrawn if already notified) until the defects have been rectified to the satisfaction of the Committee. No allowance shall be made for Fire Extinguishing Appliances until notified by the Committee either by letter or circular, and then, with effect only from the date specified in such notification. Insurer and the insured are advised not to change block numbers as this naturally affects the Committee's records and causes confusion. If block numbers have to be changed, the Committee shall be notified at once. COMMITTEES INSPECTION STAFF

3.14

3.15

3.16

3.16.1 The Committee undertakes, as far as possible a periodical inspection of all premises in which fire extinguishing appliances, entitling the risk to special discounts or ratings for such appliances, are installed. 3.16.2 For this purpose, the Committee's inspecting engineers shall have the right of access to the premises of the Insured at any time with or without giving any prior notice.

3.16.3 The primary duty of the engineers is to report to the Committee on the condition and efficiency of the appliances installed as well as ensure the regulations are being observed. They will, however, give help and advice in the maintenance of the appliances and on matters pertaining to fire protection and prevention. 3.16.4 The attention of the engineers shall be drawn, during their visits, to any change effected since the previous inspection or to any contemplated extension and alteration to the existing services. This procedure does not, however, dispense with the necessity of advising the Insurance Company or Companies interested on the risk of any change which affect the plan of the risks or the details of the appliances recorded with the Committee.

10

4.

CLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPANCIES 4.1 As the water supply, pumping capacity and other features of the sprinkler installations depends not only on the size of the risk, but also on its fire growth and spread potentialities, the risks are to be categorized under the following classes for the purpose of design of the installation. Light hazard class, Ordinary hazard class, 4.2 High hazard class. Storage hazards.

The list provided hereunder under each class is not very exhaustive. For categorisation of any risk not listed, reference to the committee with full particulars is essential prior to the design of the installation. Typical occupancies are as shown below:

4.2.1. LIGHT HAZARD CLASS: Non-industrial occupancies where the areas of rooms, corridors, halls etc. are not more than 125 m2 and above are bounded by masonry/or R.C.C. walls raised up to the roof and door openings therein protected by doors. Typical occupancies are as follows:
Hospitals Hotels Institutions Libraries Laundries Museums Nursing homes Office buildings Prisons Schools, Colleges etc.,

Note It any occupancy or block within the Light hazard risk is larger than

125 m2 in area or having an area less than 125 m2 in area but not bound on all sides as stipulated above, the risk shall be classified as 'ordinary' hazard.

4.2.2

ORDINARY HAZARD (Manufacturing occupancies)


12. Carpets 13. Car parking areas within building or basement 14. Cement 15. Ceramics 16. Chemicals 17. Cinematographic and TV Production / broadcasting studios 18. Cloth processors 19. Confectioneries Dairies 20. Dehydrated vegetable factories 21. Departmental stores/Retail shops 22. Electronic equipment and assembly 23. Engineering workshops 24. Fibreboard factories

1. Abattoirs Abrasive wheel and powder 2. Aircraft factories (excluding hangers) 3. Airport terminal buildings 4. Bakeries 5. Biscuit factories, Bookbinders, Publishers 6. Breweries 7. Boot and shoe units 8. Cables 9. Candle 10. Cardboard factories 11. Carpentry and furniture [not involving foam/ foam plastics]

25. Flax, Jute and hemp mills 26. Flour Mills 27. Food and beverages 28. Glass factories 29. Hosiery and garment 30. Jewellery 31. Laboratories 32. Motor garages 33. Paint shops 34. Paper mills 35. Photographic film factories 36. Plywood factories 37. Printing presses Restaurants and cafes 38. Rope factories

39. Rubber and Plastics (other than foam plastics) 40. Soap factories 41. Sugar Mills 42. Synthetic fibres/yarn factories 43. Tanneries 44. Textile mills 45. Timber and woodworking (except saw mills) 46. Theatres 47. Tobacco factories 48. Wood wool 49. Woollen mills 50. Vermicelli 51. Wax factories

4.2.3

HIGH HAZARD (Manufacturing occupancies)


1. Aircraft hangers 2. Bitumen and wax coated paper 3. Celluloid goods Cellulose Nitrate 4. Cigarette Filter 5. Distilleries 6. Duplicating/stencil paper Explosives 7. Fire works 8. Floor cloth and Linoleum 9. Foam plastics and foam rubber 10. Hessian cloth/Tar felt Match factories Oil mills 11. Paint, Colour and Varnish factories 12. Resin, Rosine, Turpentine and lamp black 13. Rubber substitutes making units 14. Saw mills 15. Surgical cotton, Mattress and Pillow makers 16. Tar distillation units 17. Woodwool manufacturers

4.2.4

STORAGE OCCUPANCIES Storage risks (stacked or high-piled) are categorised under four classes as per classifications below: CATEGORY-I Carpets, Non-synthetic/synthetic yarn and fabrics, Mechanical and electrical goods (dominantly metal parts) and hardware items, Glassware and Crockery, Fibreboard, groceries, metal goods, Papers other than those listed under categories 2 and 3 below, Powdered and canned foods, Plastic/glass bottles containing nonflammable liquids etc., CATEGORY-II Batteries, Baled Cotton/synthetic fibres, Books, Baled cork, Baled waste paper, Cartons containing alcohols (in cans/bottles), Cartons of canned lacquers which dry by

solvent evaporation, Chipboard, Cardboardrolls(horizontallystored), Cereals/Grains/Foodstuff/Flour/ Sugar in sacks, Cellulose/Cellulose pulp, Electrical goods other than those stated in Category-I, Flammable liquids in noncombustible containers, Leather goods, Palletised liquor stocks, Plastics (non-foamed, other than cellulose nitrate), Rolled pulp and paper and asphalted paper (Horizontal storage), Veneer sheets, Wooden patterns, Metal/wooden furnitures with plastic seats etc., CATEGORY-III Bitumen/Wax coated paper, Candles, Carbon black, Card board rolls (vertically stored), Charcoal, Coal, cellulose nitrate, Foamed plastic and foam rubber products, Flammable liquids in combustible containers, Linoleum products, Matches, Plastics other than those stated in Category II, Rolled pulp and paper and asphalted paper (vertical storage), Rubber goods including tyres and tubes, Sawn timber, Ventilated wood stacks, Waxed and asphalt coated papers and containers in cartons, Wood wool, wooden pallets and flats(idle), All materials having wrappings or pre-formed containers of foamed plastics etc., CATEGORY-IV Off-cuts and random pieces of foamed plastic or foamed rubber rolls of sheets of foamed plastic or foamed rubber, Foam mattress, Expanded polystyrene packaging, Foam upholstery etc.,

++++ +++++ +

5.

PLANNING 5.1 5.1.1 INITIAL CONSIDERATIONS CONSULTATION Where a sprinkler system or an extension or alteration to a sprinkler system is being considered for new or existing building the committee shall be consulted at an early stage: 5.1.2 OUTLINE DESIGN Consideration should be given to any benefits that might be gained by changes in building design, work procedures etc., when preparing the outline design. In planning site layout and building design, particular consideration should be given to the following: a) the occupancy hazard class and goods category which determine the water discharge density and water supply pressure and flow : b) the siting of any main water supply connection(s); c) the siting of any water supply tank(s) or reservoir; d) the siting of any pump house; e) the maximum quantity of water available from the supply source compared with the system requirements; f) the location of sprinkler installation control valves, together with the access thereto, indication of their position, and the disposal of drainage and water supply test water; g) the source and means of supply of electric power, etc. h) the protection of valve sets, pipework and sprinklers against accidental damage. 5.1.3 It is important to consider building design in the context of fire protection, e.g. choice of materials, support of sprinkler pipework having regard to the load imposed on structure by the weight of sprinkler pipework and the contained water, need for inbuilt drainage (which is strongly advised for computer areas) or raising of base of stacked goods above the floor where water damage may be severe etc., when storage of goods is involved it may be appropriate to consider the height of the building and of material stacks, and the height and type of any storage rack which may have a considerable bearing on fire protection costs. The design of double entry storage racks may be influenced by the need to mount sprinklers therein. Where sprinklers are fitted in racks additional rack structural members may be needed to prevent impact damage to the sprinkler head and pipe work. INTERACTION WITH OTHER FIRE PROTECTION MEASURES. Account shall be taken of possible interaction between sprinkler systems and other fire protection measures. Examples of possible adverse interactions between

5.1.4

sprinkler protection and other fire protection measures are : a) water damage to an inadequately shielded fire alarm control panel in a sprinkler protected area with consequent possible failure of the fire alarm system. b) Operation or failure of smoke detectors in zones adjacent to one in which water discharge is taken place because of the water spray mist travelling to adjacent zones. Such possible interactions need careful considerations. 5.2 5.2.1 EXTENT OF SPRINKLER PROTECTION; BUILDING TO BE SPRINKLER-PROTECTED The sprinkler system shall provide protection to all parts not specified as exceptions (in rule 5.2.2) in one of the following: a) the building under consideration; b) any building communicating directly or indirectly with the building under consideration. Where there are unprotected buildings within 6 M of protected building the exposure hazard can be reduced by using cut-off sprinklers over unsealed openings and drenchers over combustible walls in the protected building. 5.2.2 EXCEPTIONS (BUILDINGS AND PARTS OF BUILDINGS NOT SPRINKLERPROTECTED) Obligatory exceptions, sprinkler protection shall not be provided in the following parts of a building or plant: a) grain silos or grain bins inside buildings forming part of corn mill, distillery, maltings or oil mills; b) Ovens, hovels and kilns in pottery, earthenware, brick, tile and glass works; c) areas, rooms or places where the water discharged from a sprinkler may pose a hazard. Sprinklers should not be fitted over salt baths, metal melt pans or frying ranges, or in positions where water may discharge into them or indirectly drain into them nor should water pipes be fitted in these positions. 5.2.3 OPTIONAL EXCEPTIONS

Generally sprinkler-protection shall be considered for, but need not be provided in, the following parts of a building or plant: a) Stairs, spaces below stair headings (but not rooms above a stair) and lift wells. Any part not provided with sprinkler protection shall be separated by walls (225mm brick or 100mm R.C.C) as per Building regulations. Fire doors not less than 1hr in fire resistance, shall be provided in the openings of such walls. b) Washrooms, toilets and WCs (but not cloakrooms). Any part not provided with sprinkler protection shall be separated by walls (225mm brick or 100mm R.C.C) as per Building regulations. Fire doors not less than 1hr in fire resistance, shall be provided in the openings of such walls. c) Rooms or compartments containing electric power distribution apparatus, such as switchgear and transformers, and used for no other purpose(s). Any part not provided with sprinkler protection shall be separated by walls (225mm brick or 100mm R.C.C) as per Building regulations. Fire doors not less than 1hr in fire resistance, shall be provided in the openings of such walls. d) in papermaking machines, the undersides of screens or of shields erected over the wet and (where there is no other fire hazard); 5.2.4 COMMUNICATING BUILDINGS. Sprinkler protection shall be considered for, but need not be provided in, the following communicating buildings or structures: a) a building or storey segregated from the sprinklered building by walls of not less than 4h fire resistance in which each opening is protected by two (arranged in series) fire doors or fire shutters each of not less than 2h fire resistance; b) canopies of non-combustible construction, not extending beyond 2.3 m from the building wall. Any such canopy not provided with sprinkler protection shall be fitted with cut-off sprinklers under the canopy over each opening between it and the spinklered building. Any opening 2.5m or less in width shall be provided with a cut-off sprinkler, positioned centrally over the opening. Openings exceeding 2.5m in width shall be provided with cut- off sprinklers over the opening, not more than 2.5m apart and with a sprinkler not more than 1.25m, from each side. c) exterior loading docks and platforms either of the noncombustible construction or with the space beneath closed off against accumulation of debris; d) Building used solely as offices and/or private dwelling(s). Any part not provided with sprinkler protection shall be separated by walls (225mm brick or 100mm R.C.C) as per Building regulations. Fire doors not less than 1h in fire resistance, shall be provided in the openings of such walls along with cut-off sprinklers. e) stairs, washrooms and WCs external to the sprinkler- protected building, in which all openings to the sprinkler-protected building

are protected by doors of not less than 1h fire resistance or cutoff sprinklers. f) staircases, washrooms, toilets and WCs external or internal to the sprinkler-protected building which form a means of communication between the sprinklered building and nonsprinklered building. In any such part not provided with sprinkler protection all openings into the communicating area from the sprinklered and from the non-sprinklered building shall be protected by fire doors of not less than 2h fire resistance. 5.3 STORAGE IN OPEN OR OPEN SIDED SHED The distance between combustible materials stored in the open or in an open-sided shed and the sprinklered building shall be no less than 10M or 1.5 times the height of the stored material whichever is greater unless there is a fire wall in between or a suitable drencher system to protect the openings of the protected building facing the open storage. +++ ++++ ++++

6.

GRADING OF SPRINKLER INSTALLATIONS Sprinkler systems are graded according to the type of the installation. There are three grades: GRADE 1 a) Systems protected by two automatic pumps, one of which shall have a compression-ignition engine drive, each capable of providing independently duty conditions as specified in rule 9.1.4 of this manual. (In other words, there shall be primary pump(s) and standby pump(s) of identical capacity(ies) and prime movers of both shall be of different types) Note Where two completely independent electrical power sources are available (neither linked with the other), or where automatic changeover facilities exist between two entirely independent electrical power sources, provision of two electrically driven pumps can be considered. b) The total number of sprinklers in the installation (excluding those in the concealed spaces) of the protected building or range of buildings does not exceed 2000; with not more than 200 sprinklers (excluding those in the concealed spaces) in each separate risk. A separate risk is defined as a detached building or one separated from the other adjoining buildings by perfect party walls as per Committees rules for segregation. GRADE 2 Systems as described in Grade 1 but without any limitation as to the number of sprinklers stated in item "b" above. GRADE 3 Systems protected by pumping capacity(ies) as per rule 9.1.4 of this manual.

+++++++++++

7.

WATER SUPPLY. 7.1 Water for the sprinkler system shall be stored in any easily accessible surface or underground reservoir or above ground tanks of steel, concrete or masonry. The effective capacity of the reservoir (above the level of foot valve seat by a height equivalent to three times the diameter of the suction pipe in case of negative suction and above the level of suction puddle flange or the level of top of the pump casing whichever is higher by a height equivalent to three times the diameter of the suction pipe in case of positive suction) for various classes of occupancies of sprinkler installations shall be as indicated in Table 1 hereunder: TABLE - 1
CLASS OF HAZARD EXCLUSIVE WATER STORAGE

LIGHT HAZARD

Not less than 20 minutes run for the pumping capacity or 35 m3 whichever is greater

Not less than 1 hour run for the aggregate pumping ORDINARY HAZARD capacity or 200 m3 whichever is greater. HIGH HAZARD Not less than 2 hours run for the aggregate pumping capacity

Note A higher capacity of reservoir than that required as per Table 1 may be stipulated by the Committee where considered necessary. 7.2 Water supplies for the sprinkler installations shall be free from suspended, fibrous or other matters, which may accumulate in the system pipework, and it is recommended to use filtered water for the system. The use of salt or brackish water is not normally allowed. In special circumstances where there is no suitable fresh water source available, consideration may be given for the use of salt or brackish water provided the installation is normally charged with fresh water. Combined reservoirs for other fire fighting systems such as Hydrant system, Water spray systems etc., along with the sprinkler system are permissible provided a) All the suction inlets or foot valves are at same level and b) Aggregate capacity of the reservoir is equal to the total requirement of all the systems put together. Reservoirs of and over 225-m3 capacities shall be in two independent but interconnected compartments with a common sump to facilitate cleaning and repairs. The construction and arrangement of the reservoir and the common sump shall be in accordance with the

7.3

7.4

7.5

provisions in rule 7.3 of the Fire Protection Manual (12th edition) published by the Committee. 7.6 Level indicator shall be provided for measuring the quantity of water stored at anytime. The indicator shall preferably be graduated to read directly in M3 of water. Water reservoir shall be cleaned at least once in two years or more frequently if necessary to prevent contamination and sedimentation. It is advisable to provide adequate inflow into the reservoir so that the protection can be re-established within a short period.

7.7 7.8

+++++++ +

8.

DESIGN DENSITY AND AMAO FOR FULLY HYDRAULICALLY CALCULATED OR PRE-CALCULATED SPRINKLER SYSTEMS. 8.1 8.1.1 The design density and the assumed maximum area of operation for various types of risks are as specified below and also see Table 2. LIGHT HAZARD: The density of water discharge shall be at least 2.25 lpm/m2 over an assumed area of operation covering 84 m2 Not more than six sprinklers shall be installed in a room except in either a corridor where there is a single line of sprinklers or a concealed space protected as specified in 12.3.1(a). 8.1.2 8.1.3 ORDINARY HAZARD: The density of water discharge shall be at least 5 lpm/m2 over an assumed area of operation covering 360 m2 HIGH HAZARD: The density of water discharge for process risks shall be at least 10 lpm/m2 over an assumed area of operation covering 260 m2 TABLE - 2 MINIMUM DESIGN DENSITY AND AMAO FOR LIGHT, ORDINARY AND HIGH HAZARD (PROCESS) RISKS AT ROOF/CEILING SPRINKLERS HAZARD DESIGN DENSITY lpm/m2 2.25 5.00 10.00 AMAO m2 84 360 260

Light Ordinary High

8.1.4

STORAGE HAZARDS:

8.1.4.1 Storage hazards are categorised from the nature and type of storage. When the height of storage increases beyond specified limits, fire fighting is rendered more difficult. In worst cases it may not be possible to fight the fire due to difficulties in reaching the seat of fire and also accessibility to the fire fighting staff is impaired due to excessive smoke. In case of the sprinklers also the same difficulties are encountered. Storage risks can be categorised under "ordinary" or "high" depending upon the type and method of storage of goods within the godown/warehouse blocks 8.1.4.2 The storage occupancies can be regarded as "ordinary hazard" risks if the height of storage is within the limits for various categories as shown below.

TABLE - 3

CATEGORY

MAXIMUM STORAGE HEIGHT IN METRES 4.00 3.00 2.00 1.25

DESIGN DENSITY LPM/M2 5 5 5 5

AMAO M2 360 360 360 360

I II III IV

In other words, goods stored not higher than what is stated in Table 3 below for the appropriate category or not higher than the eaves height of the roofs or within 1M of a flat ceiling whichever is the lowest shall be regarded as Ordinary hazard storage. If the above conditions are not met, the risk shall be regarded as high hazard storage. 8.1.4.3 In case of high hazard storage risks, the nature of the hazard is determined by the height of storage, storage aisle width and area of each storage block. In other words, goods stored not higher than what is stated in Table 4 below for the appropriate category or not higher than the eaves height of the roofs or within 1M of a flat ceiling whichever is the lowest shall be regarded as high hazard storage. 8.1.5 REQUIREMENTS COMMON TO ORDINARY AND HIGH HAZARD STORAGE RISKS:

8.1.5.1 Wherever possible, the deflector of the sprinkler fitted in the ceiling shall be at more than 1.5M from the goods stored below. However, in case of Jute godowns, no jute stock shall reach within 2M of the deflectors of the sprinkler heads. 8.1.5.2 In case of storage in racks or shelves, if the height of storage is more than what is specified in Tables 3 and 4, intermediate sprinklers shall be provided for each shelf/rack in addition to the ceiling sprinklers and overall design density and AMAO shall be maintained as per the Table 3 or Table 4.

TABLE - 4 MAXIMUM STORAGE HEIGHT IN METRES DESIGN DENSITY lpm/m2 AMAO m2

CATEGORY

I II III IV

6.5 5.5 4.5 3.5

12.50 15.00 17.50 22.50

260 260 300 300

8.1.5.3 If the top of the storage in the top tiers of the racks or shelves is within 3 M of the roof sprinklers, top tiers need not be protected by the intermediate sprinklers. However, the other tiers shall need to be sprinklered. 8.1.5.4 The aisle width between the storage stacks shall not be less than 2.5 meters and the maximum area of each storage stack shall not be more than 150 m2. If these parameters are exceeded, the design density applicable shall be loaded by 2.5 LPM/M2 . Note For storage heights beyond what is stated in rule 8.1.4.3 above, the basis for design is rendered invalidated and in such cases full details of the risk shall be submitted to the committee in advance for consideration. 8.1.5.5 In case of mixed storage (both ordinary and high hazard storage) in buildings, the parameters will be governed by the most hazardous occupancy. 8.2 8.2.1 PRESSURE AND FLOW REQUIREMENTS. LIGHT HAZARD: For the design density and the AMAO specified the water supply running pressure at the installation valve shall not be less than 2.2 bars plus the static pressure equivalent of the height of the highest sprinkler in the installation above the "C" gauge when a water is being discharged at a flow rate of 225 LPM. Ordinary hazard: For the design density and the AMAO specified, the water supply running pressure at the installation valve shall not be less than 2 bars plus the static pressure equivalent of the height of the highest sprinkler in the installation above the "C" gauge when water is being discharged at a flow rate of 1800 LPM or 1.5 bars plus the static pressure equivalent as stated above when the flow rate is 2100 LPM.

8.2.2

8.2.3

HIGH HAZARD:

8.2.3.1 The design density, flow rate and pressure requirements for different floor areas for this hazard class are as per the Tables 5, 6, 7 and 8 below: TABLE 5
Pressure and Flow requirements for high hazard installations with 15mm (K=80) sprinklers pre-calculated and pipe sizes from Tables 23 and 25. Running pressure at the design point at the level of the highest sprinkler in the high hazard area (bars) Floor area per sprinkler in m2 6 1.8 2.7 3.8 7 2.4 3.7 5.2 8 3.2 4.8 6.8 9 3.9 6.0 10 4.8 7.3 11* 5.8 12* 6.8 Flow rate past installation valve (lpm)

Minimum Design Density (lpm/m2)

10.0 12.5 15.0

2800 4550 4550

*When an Ordinary hazard installation requires to be upgraded to high hazard, these parameters shall be used. TABLE - 6 Pressure and Flow requirements for high hazard installations with 15mm (K=80) sprinklers pre-calculated and pipe sizes from Tables 24 and 26
Minimum Design Density (lpm/m2) Running pressure at the design point at the level of the highest sprinkler in the high hazard area (bars) Floor area per sprinkler in m2 6 1.3 2.0 2.8 7 1.8 2.8 3.9 8 2.4 3.6 5.1 9 3.0 4.6 6.5 10 3.8 5.7 11* 4.6 7.0 12* 5.5 8.4 Flow rate past installation valve (lpm)

10.0 12.5 15.0

2800 4550 4550

*When an Ordinary hazard installation requires to be upgraded to high hazard, these parameters shall be used.

TABLE - 7
Pressure and Flow requirements for high hazard installations with 15mm (K=80) sprinklers pre-calculated and pipe sizes from Tables 24 Running pressure at the design point at the level of the highest sprinkler in the high hazard area (bars) Floor area per sprinkler in m2 6 0.7 1.1 1.6 2.2 2.8 3.5 4.4 5.3 6.2 7 1.0 1.5 2.2 2.9 3.8 4.8 5.9 7.2 8 1.3 2.0 2.8 3.8 5.0 6.3 7.8 9 1.6 2.5 3.6 4.8 6.3 8.0 10 2.0 3.0 4.4 5.9 7.8 11* 2.4 3.7 5.3 7.2 12* 2.8 4.4 6.3 Flow rate past installation valve (lpm)

Minimum Design Density (lpm/m2)

10.0 12.5 15.0 17.5 20.0 22.5 25.0 27.5 30.0

2800 4550 4550 4550 5600 5600 6750 6750 9000

TABLE 8
Pressure and Flow requirements for high hazard installations with 20mm (K=115) sprinklers pre-calculated and pipe sizes from Tables 24 Running pressure at the design point at the level of the highest sprinkler in the high hazard area (bars) Floor area per sprinkler in m2 6 7 0.9 1.3 1.7 2.3 2.9 3.5 4.2 5.0 8 1.2 1.7 2.3 3.0 3.7 4.6 5.5 6.5 9 1.0 1.5 2.1 2.8 3.7 4.7 5.8 6.9 10 1.2 1.8 2.6 3.5 4.6 5.8 7.1 11* 1.4 2.2 3.1 4.2 5.6 7.0 12* 1.7 2.6 3.7 5.0 6.6 Flow rate past installation valve (lpm)

Minimum Design Density (lpm/m2)

10.0 12.5 15.0 17.5 20.0 22.5 25.0 27.5 30.0

2800 4550 4550 4550 5600 5600 6750 6750 9000

1.0 1.3 1.7 2.0 2.6 3.0 3.6

*When an Ordinary hazard installation requires to be upgraded to high hazard, these parameters shall be used.

8.2.3.2 The water supply running pressure at the installation valve "C" gauge shall not be less than either: a) Where the AMAO is not larger than the area protected i.e.

P r + Pf + Ps

or

b) Where the AMAO is larger than the area protected i.e.

Pred + Pf + Ps
Pred = running pressure as specified in tables 5, 6, 7 and 8 as
appropriate at a flow rate equal to a value as indicated below:

Pred = (Area protected/AMAO) X specified flow rate (in bar), Pr = is the running pressure at the design point and flow rate
specified in appropriate tables 5,6, 7, and 8 (in bar).

Pf = is the calculated pipe friction loss between the installation valve "C" gauge and the most hydraulically remote design point, (in bar). Ps = is the static pressure difference between the highest sprinkler
downstream of the design point and the installation valve C gauge, (in bar). 8.2.3.3 WHERE AMAO IS FED BY MORE THAN ONE DISTRIBUTION PIPE: The pipe friction loss shall be calculated on the basis that the flow rates in the distribution pipes are in proportion to the fraction of the design area fed by each distribution pipe as shown in Figure 13. 8.2.3.4 MIXED ORDINARY AND HIGH HAZARD: Where the area of the highhazard protection is less than the AMAO but there is an adjacent area of ordinary hazard in the same room (i.e., an area in which sprinklers are liable to operate simultaneously), the high-hazard area flow rate required shall be reduced by the ratio of the actual area to the AMAO and to this flow rate shall be added the flow rate for the ordinary hazard area taken as 5.0 x the excess of the specified highhazard AMAO over the actual high-hazard area (L/min). (see figure 14) 8.2.3.5 When tested as described in appendix-- the water supply running pressure shall be based on the level of the highest sprinkler in the high-hazard area and shall be not less than that specified in rule 8.2.3.2.(see also rule 8.3 below) 8.2.3.6 The ordinary-hazard portion of the installation shall be supplied as specified in 8.2.2, and the high-hazard distribution pipe feeding both

high and ordinary-hazard sprinklers shall be of bore not less than as specified in the ordinary-hazard pipe tables.

8.3 8.3.1

FULLY HYDRAULICALLY CALCULATED PIPE SIZE INSTALLATIONS: PRESSURE FLOW REQUIREMENTS: When tested as described in rule 18.3, the water supply running pressure at the 'C' gauge shall be not less than the value calculated by the method as narrated in rule 12.5. (4sprinkler method) VELOCITY; The equilibrium water velocity shall not exceed 6 m/sec at any valve or flow monitoring device, or 10 m/sec at any other point in the system for the stabilized flow condition at the demand point involving an AMAO or, where the system includes intermediate sprinklers, the total number of sprinklers assumed to be in simultaneous operation.
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8.3.2

9.

PUMPS 9.1 9.1.1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Pumps shall be exclusively used for the fire fighting purposes, be of a type approved by the committee, and shall be:a) Electric motor driven centrifugal pumps. or b) Compression ignition engine driven centrifugal pumps. or c) Vertical turbine submersible pumps In all the above cases, pumps shall be automatic in action. 9.1.2 Pumps shall be direct-coupled, except in the case of engine-driven vertical turbine pumps wherein gear drives shall be used. Belt-driven pumps shall not be accepted. Parts of pumps like impeller, shaft sleeve, wearing ring etc., shall be of non-corrosive metal preferably of brass or bronze. Where seawater is used or where the quality of the water necessitates the use of special metals and alloys, the use of such metals and alloys shall be insisted upon. 9.1.4 The capacity of the pump(s) would depend on the type of hazard protected and the same shall as per the sizes shown in the Table 9. TABLE 9 PUMP SELECTION PUMP CAPACITY LPS (m3/hr.) 27 (96) 30 (110) 38 (127) 47 (171) 76 (273) 47 (171) 76 (273) 114 (410) DELIVERY PRESSURE (Kg/m2) 5.6 5.6 5.6/7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0/8.8 7.0/8.8

9.1.3

NATURE OF RISK Light

Ordinary

High

9.1.5

Pumps shall be capable of furnishing not less than 150% of rated capacity at a head of not less than 65% of the rated head. The shutoff head shall not exceed 120% of rated head in case of horizontal pumps and 140% in case of vertical pumps. In case of electrically driven pumps, it is recommended that a compression ignition engine driven stationery of similar capacity be installed as a standby and vice versa. However, where the sprinkler system consists of more than one pump, prime movers of all shall not be of same type. Notwithstanding the above, if power to motorized fire pumps is obtained from two sources, one of which is a captive generating plant located in a block either 6M away from all surrounding building or, where this is not feasible, segregated from adjoining buildings in a manner indicated in rule 9.1.13, more than one pump may be of the electrically- driven type.

9.1.6

9.1.7

In case of Jockey pumps in such systems to take care of minor leakages, the capacity thereof shall not be less than 3% and normally not more than 10% of the installed pumping capacity. Each pump shall be provided with a pressure gauge on the delivery side between the pump and the non-return valve and a plate giving the delivery head, capacity and the number of revolutions per minute. Each pump shall be provided with an independent suction pipe without any sluice or cut-off valves therein, unless the pump is situated below the level of the water supply in which case sluice or cut off valves would be essential, where the Net Positive Suction head (NPSH) available at site is less than 0.5 m in excess of the actual value, require at 150% of the duty point as per the manufacturers curves or where the water supply has fibrous or equally objectionable matter in suspension or mud and/or sand liable cause accumulation in the installation, suction pipe(s) shall be installed in a jack well fed through a culvert from the main water supply. At the supply end of the culvert, a sluice or gate valve shall be provided.

9.1.8

9.1.9

9.1.10 The diameter of the suction pipe shall be such that the rate of flow of water through it does not exceed 90 m per minute when the pump is delivering at its rated discharge, If, however, the pump is situated below the level of water supply, the diameter of the suction pipe/header shall be based upon a rate of flow of 120m per minute. 9.1.11 Centrifugal pumps shall be fixed below the level of water supply. However, if the priming arrangements are such as to ensure that the suction pipe shall be automatically maintained full of water notwithstanding a serious leakage therefrom (the pump being automatically brought into action to replenish the priming tank should the later be drawn upon at a greater rate than the rate at which it is fed from any other source) , positive suction may not be

insisted. In such cases, the capacity of priming tank need not exceed 450 litres and the diameter of the priming pipe need not exceed 50 mm. NOTE: For the purpose of rules 9.1.9, 9.1.10 and 9.1.11, a pump shall be considered as having positive suction only if the quantity of water in the reservoir above the level of the top of the pump casing is equivalent to the requirements in rule 7.1 of these regulations. 9.1.12 If at the discretion of the committee, the pump is allowed to be installed above the level of its water supply, there shall be a foot valve and a priming arrangement, the latter consisting of a tank (having a capacity at least three times that of the suction pipe from the pump to the foot valve) connected to the delivery side of the pump by a metal pipe having a minimum internal diameter of 100 mm in the case of centrifugal pumps with a stop valve and a nonreturn valve therein of the same size. A dependable independent filling arrangement and a level indicator shall be provided for the priming tank. The provision of a vacuum gauge for the suction pipe is recommended. 9.1.13 Pumps shall not be installed in the open. The pump room shall be so located as to be both easily accessible and where any falling masonry and the like from other buildings occasioned by fire other cause, cannot damage the pump room,. Normally, pump rooms shall be located 6m away from all surrounding buildings and overhead structures. Where this is not feasible, they may be attached to a building provided a perfect party wall complying with the committees regulations is constructed between the pump room and the attached building, the roof of the pump room is of R.C.C construction at least 100 mm thick and access to the pump room is from the outside. The pump rooms shall normally have brick/concrete walls and non-combustible roof, with adequate lighting, ventilation and drainage arrangements. NOTE: The pump room shall be located 30 m clear of the equipment/vessels handling or storing flammable liquids/solvents and/or gases. 9.2 9.2.1 ELECTRICALLY DRIVEN PUMPS: The sub-station(s) and/or DG House(s) supplying power to the fire pump(s) shall be of incombustible construction and shall be located at least 6m away from all surrounding buildings. Where this is not feasible, all door and window openings of the surrounding buildings within 6M of the substation(s) and/or DG house(s) shall be protected by single fire doors and 6mm thick wired glass in steel framework respectively. Likewise, roof eaves, if any of the surrounding buildings falling within 6M of the substation(s) and/or DG house(s) shall be cut and wall raised as a parapet. The above provision shall also apply when the substation(s) and/or DG House (s) are within 6M of each other.

Where the substation(s) and/or DG House (s) are attached to buildings, perfect party walls complying with Committees rules shall be constructed to segregate the substation(s) and/or DG House (s) from the attached buildings and where the attached building is storied, the roof of the substation(s) and/or DG Houses shall be of RCC construction of at least 100mm thickness. Transformer cubicles inside these sub-stations shall be separated from HT/LT cubicles and from each other by blank brick/stone/concrete walls of 355 mm thickness or of RCC of 200mm with door openings, if any, therein being protected by single fireproof doors complying with the Committee's regulations. The sub-station(s) and DG Houses shall also be separated from each other as above. Transformers installed outdoors which are supplying power to fire pump(s), shall also be located at least 6M away from all the surrounding buildings [(including substation(s) and/or DG House (s)]. Where this is not feasible, all door and window openings of the surrounding buildings [(including substation(s) and/or DG House (s)] within 6M of the of the transformers shall be protected by single fire doors and 6mm thick wired glass in steel framework respectively. Likewise, roof eaves, if any of the surrounding buildings falling within 6M of the transformers shall be cut and wall raised as a parapet. Blast walls of bricks/stone/concrete blocks of 355mm thickness or of RCC of 200mm thickness shall be constructed between two transformers and these walls shall be extended horizontally by 600mm beyond the extremities of the transformers and vertically 600mm above the highest point of the transformers. NOTE: For High Hazard (B) occupancies, substation(s) supplying power to fire pumps shall, in addition to complying with the above provisions, be located 30M clear of all equipment where flammable fluids having a flash point below 65C are handled and/or stored. 9.2.2 Overhead feeders to sub-station(s) supplying power to the fire pump(s) are not permitted within a horizontal distance of : a) 15m of any process building/plant or tanks containing flammable liquids or b) 6m of any other building or tanks containing non-flammable liquids or of storage in open. In case the feed to such sub-station(s) is by means of under ground cables, the cables shall not pass under any building or permanent structure. 9.2.3 9.2.4 Sufficient spare power shall always be available to drive pumping set(s) at all times throughout the year. The electric supply to the pumping set(s) shall be entirely independent of all other equipment in the premises i.e., even when

the power throughout the entire premises is switched off, the supply to the pump shall continue to be available interrupted. This can be achieved by taking the connection for the pump(s) from the incoming side of the main LT breaker. However, in cases where two or more transformers and/or sources of supply are connected to a common bus bar or where there is provision of a bus coupler between the busbar sections, the connection may be taken through the bus bars. (Figure 15). 9.2.5 The fire pump circuit shall be protected at the origin by an automatic circuit breaker so set as to permit the motor to be overloaded during an emergency to the maximum limit permissible by the manufacturers. Further, the under- voltage release/no volt coil of the circuit breaker shall be removed. NOTE: Where cable lengths are long enough to warrant back- up protection, the Committee may insist on provision for such a protection. 9.2.6 It is recommended that telltale lamps which could continuously glow when power is available to the fire pump(s) circuit be provided and fixed in a prominent position, both in the sub-station and in the pump room. A direct feeder without any tappings, shall be laid from the substation to the pump house. The feeder shall be laid underground and shall not pass under any building or permanent structure. Under extraneous circumstances, the Committee may permit use of overhead cables, but in no case shall such cables be permitted to contravene the distance indicated in rule 9.2.2. Where there is more than one source of power for the operation of pumping set(s) every electrical circuit shall preferably be so designed as to ensure that when necessary the set(s) continue to operate without the manual operation of an emergency switch.

9.2.7

9.2.8

9.2.9

The pumping set(s) shall be securely mounted on a robust bedplate, if of the horizontal type, and shall be free from vibration at all variations of load.

9.2.10 The rating and design of motors and switchgear shall conform to the relevant Indian Standards Specifications. The Motor shall be of continuous rating type and its ratings shall be equivalent to the horse power required to drive the pump at 150% of its rated discharge. (see rule 9.1.4) 9.2.11 The motor shall be of totally enclosed type or drip proof type, the latter having their air inlets and outlets protected with meshed wire panels to exclude rodents, reptiles and insects. 9.2.12 The motor(s) shall be wound for class B insulation preferably for class E - and the windings shall be vacuum impregnated with heat and moisture resisting varnish and preferably glass fibre insulated to withstand tropical conditions. 9.2.13 Motor(s) wound for high tension supplies shall have a suitable fixed warming resistance to maintain the motor windings in a dry condition at all times and particularly under monsoon conditions. The resistance shall be connected to the lighting or other equivalent circuit. 9.2.14 Heating apparatus shall also be provided, when necessary, for medium tension motor where they are located below ground level, in order to maintain the motor windings in a dry condition. Adequate drainage arrangements shall also be provided in the pump house in such cases. 9.2.15 The incoming cable to the fire pump room shall terminate in an isolating switch fuse unit incorporating the HRC fuses and where necessary provided with a distribution system. 9.2.16 The starting switch gear for the fire pumps shall be suitable for direct on line starting but other alternative arrangements are subject to prior approval. It shall also incorporate an ammeter with a clear indication of the motor full load current. NOTE: Remote controlled starting arrangements are subject to prior approval of the committee. 9.2.17 Cables for motors and switchgears shall be armoured or enclosed in heavy gauge screwed steel conduit according to conditions. 9.2.18 It is recommended that the equipment throughout be painted fire red (shade no 536 as per IS:5) and suitably marked for identification

9.2.19 Necessary spare parts including a set of fuses ( in a glass fronted box) shall be kept in readiness at all times in the pump house. 9.2.20 The wiring in all installations shall be done in accordance with the regulations for the electrical equipment of building issued by the Tariff Advisory Committee. 9.3 9.3.1 COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE DRIVEN PUMPS PUMP ROOM: The pump room shall be artificially heated, if necessary, to maintain the temperature of the room above 10C. Adequate ventilation shall be provided for the air required for aspiration and to limit the temperature rise in the room to 10C above the ambient temperature when the engine is on full load. ENGINE:

9.3.2

9.3.2.1 The engine shall be: a) Of the compression ignition mechanical direct injection type, capable of being started without the use of wicks, cartridges, heater plugs or ether, at an engine room temperature of 7C and shall accept full load within 15 seconds from the receipt of the signal to start. b) Naturally aspirated, supercharged or turbocharged and either air or water cooled. In the case of charged air cooling by means of a belt driven fan or of a belt driven auxiliary water pump there shall be multiple belts such that should half the belts break, the remaining belts would be capable of driving the fan or pump. c) Capable of operating continuously on full load at the site elevation for a period of six hours. d) Provided with an adjustable governor to control the engine speed within 10% of its rated speed under any conditions of load up to the full load rating. The governor shall be set to maintain the rated pump speed at maximum pump load. e) provided with an in-built tachometer to indicate the RPM of the engine. f) provided with a time totaliser (Hour counter) 9.3.2.2 Any manual device fitted to the engine which could prevent the engine starting shall return automatically to the normal position.

9.3.2.3 Engines, after correction for altitude and ambient temp. shall have bare engine horsepower rating equivalent to the higher of the following two valves. a) 20% in excess of the maximum brake horsepower required to drive the pump at its duty point. b) The brake horsepower required to drive the pump at 150% of its rated discharge. 9.3.2.4 The coupling between the engine and the pump shall allow each unit to be removed without disturbing the other. 9.3.3 COOLING SYSTEM: The following systems are acceptable a) Cooling by water from the discharge of fire pump (taken off prior to the pump discharge valve) direct into the engine cylinder jackets via a pressure reducing device to limit the applied pressure to a safe value as specified by the engine manufacturer. The outlet connection from this system shall terminate at least 150 mm above the engine water outlet pipe and be directed into an open tundish so that the discharge water is visible. b) a heat exchanger, the raw water being supplied from the fire pump discharge (taken off prior to the pump discharge valve) via a pressure reducing device, if necessary, to limit the applied pressure to a safe value as specified by the engine manufacturer. The raw water outlet connection shall be so designed that the discharged water can be readily observed. The water in the closed circuits shall not be less than that recommended by the engine manufacturer. If the auxiliary pump is belt driven there shall be multiple belts so that should half the belts break, the remaining belts shall be capable of driving the pump. c) a frame or engine mounted air cooled radiator with a multiple belts driven fan from the engine. When half the belts are broken the remaining belts shall be capable of driving the fan. The water in the closed circuit shall be circulated by means of the auxiliary pump driven by the engine and the capacity of the closed circuit shall be not less than that recommended by the engine manufacturer. d) direct air cooling of the engine by means of multiple belts driven fan. When half the belts are broken the remaining belts shall be capable of driving the fan. NOTE: In case of systems described in b, c, and d, above a failure actuated audio-visual alarm shall be incorporated.

9.3.4 9.3.5

AIR FILTRATION: The air intake shall be fitted with the filter of adequate size to prevent foreign matter entering the engine. EXHAUST SYSTEM: The exhaust shall be fitted with a suitable silencer and the total backpressure shall not exceed the engine maker's recommendation. When the exhaust system rises above the engine, means shall be provided to prevent any condensate flowing into the engine. Engine shutdown mechanism: This shall be manually operated and return automatically to the starting position after use. FUEL SYSTEM

9.3.6 9.3.7

9.3.7.1 FUEL: The engine fuel oil shall be of quality and grade specified by engine makers. There shall be kept on hand at all times sufficient fuel to run the engine on full load for three hours, in addition to that in the fuel tank. 9.3.7.2 FUEL TANK: The fuel tank shall be of welded steel construction relevant to Indian or foreign standard for mild steel drums. The tank shall be mounted above the engine fuel pump; to provide a gravity feed unless otherwise recommended by the manufacturers. The tank shall be fitted with an indicator showing the level of fuel in the tank. The capacity of the tank shall be sufficient to allow the engine to run on full load for Light hazard Ordinary hazard High hazard 1 hour; 2 hours; 3 hours.

NOTE: Where is more than one compression ignition engine driven pump set there shall be separate fuel tank and fuel feed pipe for each engine. 9.3.7.3 Fuel Feed pipes: Any valve in the fuel feed pipe between the fuel tank and the engine shall be placed adjacent to the tank and it shall be locked in the open position. Pipe joints shall not be soldered and plastic tubing shall not be used. 9.3.7.4 AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT: The following shall be provided: a) a sludge and sediment trap, b) a fuel level gauge, c) an inspection and cleaning hole, d) a filter between the fuel tank and fuel pump mounted in an accessible position for cleaning, e) means to enable the entire fuel system to be bled of air. Air relief cocks are not allowed; Screwed Plugs are permitted.

10

9.3.8

STARTING MECHANISM: Provision shall be made for two separate methods of engine starting, viz., a) Automatic starting by means of a battery powered electric starter motor incorporating the axial displacement type of pinion, having automatic repeat start facilities initiated by a fall in pressure in the water supply pipe to the spray installation. The battery capacity shall be adequate for ten consecutive starts without recharging with a cold engine under full compression. b) Manual starting by: i) Crank handle, if engine size permits or ii) Electric starter motor. NOTE: The starter motor used for automatic starting may also be used for manual starting provided there are separate batteries for manual starting.

9.3.9

BATTERY CHARGING: The means of charging the batteries shall be by a 2-rate trickle charger with manual selection of boost charge and the batteries shall be charged in position. Where separate batteries are provided for automatic and manual starting the charging equipment shall be capable of trickle charging both the batteries simultaneously. Equipment shall be provided to enable the state of charge of the batteries to be determined.

9.3.10 TOOLS: A standard kit of tools shall be provided with the engine and kept on hand at all times. 9.3.11 Spare parts: The following spare parts shall be supplied with the engine and kept on hand. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) Two sets of fuel filters, elements and seals, two sets of lubricating oil filters, elements and seals. two sets of belts (wherever used) one complete set of engine joints, gaskets and hoses. two injector nozzles one complete set of piston rings for each cylinder one inlet valve and one exhaust valve.

9.3.12 ENGINE EXERCISING: The test shall be for a period of at least five minutes each day. Where closed circuits cooling systems are used the water level in the primary system shall be checked at the time of carrying out each test and, if necessary, water shall be added during the course of test procedure.

11

9.3.13 A written declaration shall be given that the following conditions will strictly complied with: a) to test the engine at least once a week b) to maintain the temperature of the engine room at not less than 4.5 degree C at all times, c) to maintain the minimum, quantity of fuel oil required as desired in these clauses d) to use a good grade of fuel oil equivalent in quality to that specified by the engine maker e) to keep on hand the spare parts required as specified above.

++++++++++

12

10. PIPING AND SUPPORTS. 10.1 10.1.1 PIPING. The pipe used in the sprinkler system (from the pump house to the installation valves) shall be laid normally laid underground or in masonry culverts with removable covers of incombustible construction and shall be of any one of the following types: a) Cast iron double flanged class "A" pipes conforming to the following standards: i) Horizontally Cast iron pipes ii) Vertically Cast iron pipes iii) Centrifugally Cast (spun) iron pipes IS-7181 IS-1537 IS-1536

NOTE: In case of vertically Cast iron pipes, where the nominal diameter of the pipes exceeds 300 mm or where the pump delivery pressure exceeds 7 Kg/cm, class "B" pipes would be necessary. b) Centrifugally Cast (spun) iron class "A" pipes with Tyton joints conforming to IS-1536. c) Wrought or mild steel pipes (galvanised or not) of heavy grade conforming to IS-1239 and IS-1978 (when installed underground) or Electric resistance welded steel pipes conforming to IS-3589 having welded joints and coated and wrapped as per IS-10221Code of practice for coating and wrapping of underground mild steel pipelines. d) Welded and Seamless pipe as per ASTM-A53. e) Electric resistance welded steel pipes conforming to ASTM-A135. f) Wrought steel pipe conforming to ASTM-B36.10 NOTE: - At least 10% of all the welded joints shall be radiographically tested and half of the joints radiographed shall be field joints. 10.1.2 Pipes may be laid overground on exclusive supports. Pipes shall be of material conforming to any of the descriptions as per rule 10.1.1 c, d, e or f with welded, threaded or flanged joints and supported adequately as per piping manual at regular intervals. The pipes shall run at least at distances from the face of the building(s) and/or open storage area(s) as stipulated below Light hazard 6M Ordinary hazard 6M High hazard 15M

10.1.3

Underground pipes shall be laid not less than 1M below ground level. Where soil conditions are unsatisfactory, masonry or equivalent supports shall be provided at regular intervals. NOTE: In case of poor soil conditions, it may sometimes be necessary to provide continuous masonry or equivalent supports.

10.1.4

Pipes shall not be laid under buildings or plant areas or storage areas. As far as possible, pipes shall not be laid under large open storage, railroads and roads carrying heavy traffic. Pipes shall not traverse on ground, which is not under the control of the owner of the installation. Pipes shall also not pass through public roadways. The installation piping (from the pump house up to the installation valve and also the installation piping with sprinklers) shall be capable of withstanding for two hours a pressure equivalent to 150% of the maximum working pressure. All boltholes in the flanges shall be drilled. Drilling of each flange shall be in accordance with the relevant Indian or ASTM or British standards. Flanges shall be faced and have jointing of rubber insertions or asbestos compound. Welded joints shall not be permitted for pipes having diameter less than 50 mm. NOTE: Where joints with odd angles are encountered, reference shall be made to the Committee in advance.

10.1.5

10.1.6

10.1.7

10.1.8 10.1.9

10.1.10 It is not permissible to run the sprinkler pipes through an un-sprinklered building or occupancy and where it is not practicable the supply pipeline shall be installed at ground level and enclosed in brick trenches covered with removable RCC pre-cast slabs. 10.1.11 All installation pipework above ground shall be installed at a slope not less than 1: 500 for horizontal run of pipes. Normally the pipework should slope through the installation valve. If the pipework is trapped (below the level of the installation valve for example in the basements), arrangements shall be made to provide drain cocks at the bottom of such pipes to drain the trapped water. 10.1.12 Sprinkler pipes shall not be embedded in concrete floors or ceilings of any building.

10.2 10.2.1

FITTINGS. Fittings installed underground shall be of Cast iron heavy grade conforming to IS-1538 or BS-2035/4346 whereas those installed overground shall be of medium grade wrought or mild steel conforming to IS-1239 (part II) or malleable iron fittings conforming to IS-1879 (part I to X). All fittings shall be able to withstand at least a pressure of 150% of the maximum working pressure. Welded fittings according to the laid down welding procedure are permitted. Welded parts shall be galvanised or suitably coated after welding as per the requirement of the areas to be protected by the system i.e. chemical and electrolytic corrosion. Welded joints shall not be permitted for fittings of less than 50 mm diameter. SUPPORTS (PIPES AND FITTINGS ABOVE INSTALLATION VALVE). Sprinkler pipes shall be supported from the building structure which itself shall be capable of supporting the water filled pipework and shall not impair the performance of sprinklers under fire conditions. Pipework shall not be used to support any other loads except where primary support is designed for the suspension of the piped service. Distribution/Range pipes shall not be supported from ceiling sheathing or cladding or from any other associated suspension systems. Pipes below obstructions such as ductwork shall be either supported from the building structure or from the steel members supporting such obstructions. Such members shall be capable of supporting the weight of water filled pipes too. Hangers shall not be welded or fastened directly to the pipework. The supports on which the pipework rests shall be secured firmly in position. The thickness of all parts of pipe supports shall not be less than 3 mm. Wherever possible, pipes shall be supported from non-combustible building elements.

10.2.2 10.2.3

10.2.4 10.3 10.3.1

10.3.2 10.3.3

10.3.4

10.3.5 10.3.6 10.3.7 10.3.8

10.3.9

Pipework in corrosive areas shall be of either stainless steel or suitably protected against corrosion.

10.3.10 The distance between the pipe supports measured along the line of connected pipes (whether the pipes run horizontally, vertically or at angles) shall not be less than the following Table 10. TABLE 10 PIPE DIAMETER Up to 65 mm 65 mm to 100 mm 100 mm to 250 mm 10.3.11 DISTRIBUTION PIPES
a) The first support on a nominally horizontal distribution pipe shall not be at more than 2 M from the main distribution pipe. b) The last support on a nominally horizontal distribution pipe shall not be more than 450 mm from the end. c) Drop or rise pipes shall be secured to the building structure either directly or indirectly at the adjacent nominally horizontal part of the pipe within 300 mm of the drop or rise.

SPACING 4.0M 6.0M 6.5M

10.3.12 RANGE PIPES


a) At least one support shall be provided for i) ii) b) Each pipe run connecting adjacent sprinkler, and The pipe run connecting the distribution pipe and the first sprinkler on the range pipe.

Pipe supports shall not be closer than 150 mm to any sprinkler axial central line. c) The first support on a range pipe shall not be more than 2 M from the distribution pipe d) The last support on a range pipe shall not be at more than 1.5 M from i) ii) The range pipe end or Where there is a horizontal arm pipe of 450 mm or longer, the arm pipe end: or iii) Where there is a drop or rise exceeding 600 mm, the drop or rise pipe end.

10.3.13 Outgoing mains from the Installation valve to the system shall be supported at every 3.5 M of its run. 10.3.14 The thickness of all components used in pipe supports shall not be less than 3 mm anywhere. 10.3.15 Some of the typical supporting arrangements are shown in Figure 15(a).

11. SPRINKLER SPACING, ARRANGEMENT AND LOCATION. 11.1 11.1.1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS. All the measurements between sprinklers or of areas covered by groups of individual sprinklers shall be taken in the horizontal plane. Notwithstanding the above provisions, the hydraulic calculations shall show the dimensions of the true lengths measured along the slope of the pipe. 11.1.2 Sprinklers shall be installed upright or pendent as required under the circumstances, with the deflector parallel to the slope of the roof, ceiling or pitch line of stairs. Where the slope of the roof is greater than 1 in 3, a line of sprinklers shall be fitted at the apex unless there is a row of sprinklers at not more than 750 mm distant radially therefrom. COVERAGE AND SPACING OF SPRINKLERS LIGHT HAZARD CLASS

11.1.3

11.2 11.2.1

11.2.1.1 Maximum area coverage per sprinkler: i) Sidewall sprinklers ii) Other types of sprinklers 17 m 21m

11.2.1.2 Maximum distance between sprinklers on range pipes and between adjacent rows of sprinklers: iii) Sidewall sprinklers iv) Other types of sprinklers 4.5 m* 4.5m

*For rooms exceeding 3.7M but within 7.4 m in width, one row of sprinklers shall be provided on each wall at the above spacing and if the length of the room exceeds 9.2 m, the sprinklers in the opposite walls shall be staggered.[Figure 16(a)] 11.2.1.3 Minimum spacing between sprinklers: Sprinklers shall not be spaced at less than 2M except in locations where the heat sensitive elements of the sprinklers can be protected from wetting of the operation of the adjoining sprinkler by suitable baffles with the prior approval of the Committee. (Figure 17)

11.2.1.4 DISTANCE BETWEEN SPRINKLERS AND THE BOUNDARY: (Figure 17) a) The distance between the boundary and sprinklers when measured along the range pipe shall not be more than 0.5 times the spacing between the sprinklers and when measured perpendicular to the range pipe shall not be more than 0.5 times the spacing between the range pipes. b) However, where the external walls are combustible or built with asbestos and Metal or open sided and also in case of open joisted ceilings or where the roof has the rafters exposed, the distance between the boundary and the sprinklers shall not exceed 1.5M. c) Sidewall sprinklers shall be located with the deflector vertical centre line not less than 50 mm and not more than 150 mm from the wall face against which they are mounted. 11.2.2 ORDINARY HAZARD CLASS

11.2.2.1 MAXIMUM AREA COVERAGE PER SPRINKLER: i) Sidewall sprinklers ii) Other types of sprinklers 9 m2 12 m2

11.2.2.2 MAXIMUM DISTANCE BETWEEN SPRINKLERS ON RANGE PIPES AND BETWEEN ADJACENT ROWS OF SPRINKLERS: i) Sidewall sprinklers ii) Other types of sprinklers -a) With standard spacing 3.4 m*

4.0 m b) With staggered spacing sprinklers on ranges 4.6 m c) Adjacent rows 4.0 m

*For rooms exceeding 3.7M but within 7.4M in width, one row of sprinklers shall be provided on each wall at the above spacing and the sprinklers in the opposite walls shall be staggered as shown in the Figure 16(a). If the width of the room exceeds 7.4M, it is necessary to sprinkler the central portion by conventional ceiling sprinklers and the distance between the above and the sidewall sprinklers shall not be less than 3.7M. [Figure 16(b)]

11.2.2.3 MINIMUM SPACING BETWEEN SPRINKLERS: Sprinklers shall not be spaced at less than 2M except in locations where the heat sensitive elements of the sprinklers can be protected from wetting of the operation of the adjoining sprinkler by suitable baffles with the prior approval of the Committee. (Figure 17) 11.2.2.4 DISTANCE BETWEEN SPRINKLERS AND THE BOUNDARY: (Figure 17) a) The distance between the boundary and sprinklers when measured along the range pipe shall not be more than 0.5 times the spacing between the sprinklers and when measured perpendicular to the range pipe shall not be more than 0.5 times the spacing between the range pipes. b) However when the lay out is staggered, the distance between the boundary and the sprinklers when measured on range perpendicular to the boundary shall not be more than 0.5 times and 0.25 times the spacing between the sprinklers on alternate range lines. c) However, where the external walls are combustible or built with asbestos and Metal or open sided and also in case of open joisted ceilings or where the roof has the rafters exposed, the distance between the boundary and the sprinklers shall not exceed 1.5M. d) Side wall sprinklers shall be located with the deflector vertical centre line not less than 50 mm and not more than 150 mm from the wall face against they are mounted. 11.2.3 HIGH HAZARD CLASS

11.2.3.1 MAXIMUM AREA COVERAGE PER SPRINKLER: i) In general ii) In storage racks (intermediate) a) With a single row of sprinklers b) With a double row of sprinklers 9 m 10 m 7.5 m

11.2.3.2 MAXIMUM DISTANCE BETWEEN SPRINKLERS ON RANGE PIPES AND BETWEEN ADJACENT ROWS OF SPRINKLERS: i) In general ii) Within storage racks (intermediate) 3.7 m* 2.5 m

11.2.3.3 MINIMUM SPACING BETWEEN SPRINKLERS: Sprinklers shall not be spaced at less than 2M except in locations where the heat sensitive elements of the sprinklers can be protected from wetting of the operation of the adjoining sprinkler by suitable baffles with the prior approval of the Committee. (Figure 17) 11.2.3.4 DISTANCE BETWEEN SPRINKLERS AND THE BOUNDARY: (Figure 17) a) The distance between the boundary and sprinklers when measured along the range pipe shall not be more than 0.5 times the spacing between the sprinklers and when measured perpendicular to the range pipe shall not be more than 0.5 times the spacing between the range pipes. b) However, where the external walls are combustible or built with asbestos and Metal or open sided and also in case of open joisted ceilings or where the roof has the rafters exposed, the distance between the boundary and the sprinklers shall not exceed 1.5M. 11.2.3.5 Sidewall sprinklers and staggered layout for the installation are not permitted in high hazard risks. 11.3 SPACING BELOW SPRINKLER HEADS: A clear space of 0.5M shall be maintained below the deflector of the sprinkler heads in all cases except high piled combustible storage areas/Jute storage and above open suspended ceilings where the clear space required as above shall be 1M. 11.4 11.4.1 LOCATION OF SPRINKLERS IN RELATION TO BUILDING STRUCTURE AND PLANT: ROOFS AND CEILINGS

11.4.1.1 ROOFS AND CEILINGS, WITHOUT BEAMS OR BAYS: a) For conventional and spray type of sprinklers, the sprinklers shall be installed in such a way that the deflectors are at distances as shown in Table 11. b) For sidewall sprinklers, the deflector of the sprinklers shall be not less than 100 mm and not more than 150 mm below the ceiling.

TABLE - 11

Type of ceiling

Distance in Millemetres Minimum Maximum 300 Preferred 150

1. Combustible, Asbestos Cement sheets, Wired glass and other types of frangible elements 2. Combustible with exposed rafters and/ or open joists 3. Non combustible -- either or arched or sloping plane

75

75 75

150 150

--150

TABLE - 12 SPRINKLER LOCATION IN RELATION TO BEAMS AND JOISTS


Maximum height of sprinkler deflector above (+) or below (-) bottom of beam (b) or joist (in mm)
(Also see Figure 18)

Minimum horizontal distance from sprinkler vertical axis to the side of beam or joist (in mm) (a)
(Also see Figure 18)

Conventional sprinkler Installed upright - 20 0 + 30 + 60 +100 +140 +190 +260 +390 Installed pendent - 200 -170 -120 - 30 +170

Spray sprinkler Installed upright 0 + 20 + 30 + 50 +100 +130 +160 +180 Installed pendent 0 + 60 + 120 + 200 + 280 + 360 + 470 + 670

200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800

*These types are not used at these horizontal distances 11.4.1.2 Roofs and ceilings, with beams but without bays:a) In case of conventional and spray type of sprinklers where a beam or joist is so deep that a sprinkler can not be located below the beam or joist as specified in the table under rule 11.4.1.1 above, they shall be located above the base of the beam or joist at a distance below the ceiling and at a distance horizontal from the beam/joist as specified in Table 12 (depth of beam/joist less than 300/450mm) (Figure 18)

b) In case of sidewall sprinklers any beam or other obstruction below the ceiling within the rectangle centered on the sprinkler, of dimension A X 2B shall not exceed the depth as in the table 13. TABLE - 13 SIDEWALL SPRINKLER LOCATION IN RELATION TO BEAMS
Depth of beam (mm) More than 0 100 125 150 175 Less than 100 125 150 175 200 Minimum horizontal distance between sprinkler/wall to beam (in M) Perpendicular to wall dimension A 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.7 3.0 Parallel to wall either side of sprinkler dimension B 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8

NOTE: Any obstruction below the plane of the ceiling within a rectangle either side of the sprinkler by 1.8M shall be regarded as a boundary. 11.4.1.3 ROOFS AND CEILINGS, WITH BAYS AND/OR DEEP BEAMS: a) Where the depth of a beam or joist exceeds 300 mm or 450 mm for combustible and non-combustible ceilings respectively or other similar obstructions form ceiling bays so that requirements under rule 11.4.1.1 cannot be met, then the beam or joist or any other such obstructions shall be regarded as a boundary. b) Where the distance between centre to centre of beams or joists is 1.8M or less, the above parameters do not hold good and reference shall be made to the Committee with full particulars.

11.4.1.4 For roofs of construction other than the types specified in rules in this section and Table 11, the Committee shall be approached in advance with full particulars as these rules do not cater to protection for such types. 11.5 COLUMNS As far as possible, the sprinklers shall be located away from the columns. Where a roof or ceiling sprinkler is less than 0.6M from the face of a column, another sprinkler shall be located not more than 2M from the opposite side of the column 11.6 GIRDERS a) Where the top flange of a girder is not more than 200 mm in width, sprinklers shall be either positioned either not less than 1.2M from the side of the girder or directly above the girder with the deflector not less than 150 mm from the top face of the girder. b) Where the top flange of the girder is more than 200 mm in width, sprinklers shall be positioned not less than 1.2M from the side of the girder. 11.7 ROOF TRUSSES a) Where the roof truss members are not more than 100 mm wide, sprinkler shall be positioned either not less than 0.3M from the side of the truss or equidistant from each side of the truss with the deflector not less than 150 mm above any truss member. b) Where the truss members more than 100 mm but less than 200 mm wide, sprinkler shall be positioned either not less than 0.6M from the side of the truss or equidistant from each side of the truss with the deflector not less than 150 mm above any truss member.

c) Where the truss members are more than 200 mm wide, sprinklers shall be positioned not less than 0.6M from the sides of the truss. 11.8 11.8.1 CONCEALED SPACES ROOF SPACES: Spaces between roofs and ceilings (including those at the apexes and sides of buildings) more than 0.8M deep measured between the highest point under the roof and the top of the ceiling shall be sprinkler protected. INTERMEDIATE FLOOR SPACES: Concealed spaces between floors and ceilings shall be sprinklered where they are as follows: a) More than 0.8M deep; or b) Not wholly of non-combustible construction; or c) Containing combustible materials. 11.8.3 SPACE UNDER LOWEST FLOOR: Sprinklers shall be installed in all spaces below the lowest floors in a building where the floor is combustible and: a) the space is accessible for storage purpose and/or entrance of unauthorized persons and/or accumulation of waste and debris and/or is not sealed against liquid spillage; and b) the space contains utility piping and installation such as air, steam, wiring, shafting, conveyors etc., c) flammable liquids are stored in the floor above. 11.8.4 BINS AND SILOS: Where the area of the Bins and Silos exceed 9M2 and where the same are detached, sprinklers shall be provided inside the Bins and Silos containing sawdust, wood flour, pulverized coal and similar ignitable materials. Care should be exercised to ensure that for materials, which tend to swell under water and burst, reference shall be made to the Committee in advance with full particulars. CORN, RICE, PROVENDER AND OIL MILLS: a) A sprinkler shall be fitted at the head of each dust trunk. Sprinklers shall be installed at not more than 3M apart in all dust trunks which are constructed of combustible materials and which are installed at more than 30o from the vertical. b) Tiers of cyclones (centrifuges), or similar plant, separated by less than 1M shall be protected by sprinklers in the interspace as shown in the Figure 19. 11.8.6 ELEVATORS, ROPE OR STRAP RACES, GEARING BOXES AND DUST RECEIVERS:

11.8.2

11.8.5

10

a) Elevators, other than pneumatic elevators or slow moving endless chain, ring, loop or fork elevators capable of operating only when the elevator is full, shall be fitted with a sprinkler. The sprinkler shall be in the box at the top, located to discharge over the head and both legs or shafts of the elevator. b) Rope or strap races, gearing boxes and enclosed shaft machine drives of combustible construction or communicating between floors, shall be fitted with internal sprinklers. c) Dust cyclones and dust collection chambers and boxes either inside the protected building or outside and directly above any protected building with a combustible roof, shall be fitted with internal sprinklers. d) The trunkings connecting the dust collection chambers to the protected building within 10M shall be protected with sprinklers. 11.8.7 ESCALATORS: Sprinklers shall be installed in the following areas: a) In the passenger carrying space; b) Below the ceiling below the escalator; c) Between the ceiling below the escalator and the passenger carrying space; d) In the escalator boot; e) In the motor areas. 11.8.8 HOISTS, LIFT WELLS AND ENCLOSED CHUTES THROUGH THE FLOORS: The above areas, if not segregated from the main buildings in which they are located, shall be sprinklered. MACHINERY PITS AND PRODUCTION LINES: Machinery pits in which combustible wastes may accumulate and the undersides of the production lines shall be sprinklered.

11.8.9

11.8.10 ENCLOSED PAINT LINES, DRYING OVENS AND DRYING ENCLOSURES: The above areas shall be sprinklered on the inside and sidewall sprinklers may be considered for these areas. 11.9 11.9.1 OBSTRUCTION BELOW SPRINKLERS Sprinklers shall be fitted under the following types of obstructions which are either a) more than 0.8M wide and less than 150mm from the adjacent walls or partitions or b) more than 1M wide. Internal overhead platforms, Heating panels, Galleries, Walkways, Stagings other than in film or television studios and Stairs and stairways unless specifically excepted. 11.9.2 DUCTS: Sprinklers shall be fitted below the ducts under the following circumstances: a) rectangular and more than 0.8M wide and less than 150mm from the adjacent walls or partitions; b) circular and more than 1M in diameter and less than 150mm from the adjacent walls or partitions;

11

c) rectangular and more than 1M in width; d) circular and more than 1M in diameter. 11.9.3 HOODS OVER PAPER MAKING MACHINES: Sprinklers shall be fitted under the hoods or shields over the dry ends of above machines. If there is an enclosures, side wall sprinklers are recommended. STORAGE RACKS: Sprinklers shall be fitted to protect the storage in racks. WORKTABLES: Sprinklers shall be fitted under the worktables where there is a power source or where combustible process waste may accumulate. SUSPENDED CEILINGS: For protecting the suspended imperforate or open ceilings with sprinklers, Committee shall be approached well in advance for suitable advice as the protection needs special considerations due to several factors like combustibility of the roof material, behaviour under fire conditions, structural integrity etc., CANOPIES: Canopies that are non-combustible and less than 2M from the wall of the building need not be protected with sprinklers provided cut-off sprinklers are fitted at the door openings leading to the canopies. However, under other circumstances, the underside of the canopies shall be fitted with sprinklers. EXTERIOR DOCKS AND PLATFORMS: Sprinklers shall be fitted under the exterior docks and platforms of combustible construction unless such spaces are sealed against accumulation of debris and waste. SPRINKLER PROTECTION FOR SPECIFIC HAZARDS

11.9.4 11.9.5

11.9.6

11.10

11.11

11.12

11.12.1 FILM AND TELEVISION PRODUCTION STUDIOS: Sprinklers shall be fitted under solid or slated platforms [except those used for temporary platforms etc. for sets but including those for lighting and other equipment] if these are more than 0.8M wide and also for walkways, connecting stairs including those used for lighting and other equipment. Sprinklers shall also be fitted in concealed spaces or cavities more than 100mm deep between combustible linings and walls/roofs. 11.12.2 THEATRES AND SIMILAR PREMISES: In addition to the sprinklers in the roof or ceiling, sprinklers shall be fitted under the grid, the flies, the stage and any other obstruction to the discharge from the roof or ceiling sprinklers. Care shall be exercised in siting the sprinklers and associated pipework in case where moving sets are involved and also where personnel have to work in the close proximity of the sprinklers. 11.12.3 COMPUTER AND SIMILAR EDP AREAS: Pre-action sprinkler installation is recommended for above type of risks keeping in mind the effect of water discharge on such risks

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11.12.4 PLASTIC ROOF LIGHTS: Sprinklers shall not be installed directly below roof lights of PVC or plastics of similar thermal behaviour and shall only be installed where a) the area of rooflight does not exceed 5M2,b) the distance between the individual rooflights is not less than 1.8M and c) the total area of rooflights in any building or in those communicating therewith does not exceed 15% of the plan area of such building(s). 11.12.5 COLD STORAGE WAREHOUSE: As the nature of protection shall differ from risk to risk, Committee shall be approached with full details in advance for designing sprinkler protection for cold storage areas. 11.13 INTERMEDIATE LEVEL SPRINKLERS: For high hazard storage in racks, shelves etc., protection by rows of intermediate sprinklers is mandatory, if storage heights are beyond the limits specified in rules 8.1.5.2 and 8.1.5.3 (Tables 3 and 4). The requirements for the above provisions are as under:

11.13.1 The location of sprinklers shall be such that they are not obstructed by racks or structural steel work and as far as possible, they are in the path of longitudinal flue space. The discharge of water shall be able to penetrate the goods stored in the racks. The clearance between the sprinkler deflectors and the stored goods shall not be less than 150 mm anywhere. The numbers of rows are determined by the height of the racks and/or shelves. 11.13.2 The horizontal spacing (longitudinal) between sprinklers shall not exceed 3.5M for Category I/II goods and 1.8M for Category III/IV goods. Laterally for every 3M width of the racks (including two racks when stored back to back), there shall be one sprinkler. 11.13.3 The vertical spacing between sprinklers shall not exceed 3M. If the top tier of the racks is within 3M of the roof sprinklers, top tier need not be protected with intermediate sprinklers. 11.13.4 The location of intermediate sprinklers shall be such that the product of the horizontal and vertical spacing between sprinklers is not more than 9M2 for Category I/II storage goods and 5M2 for Category III/IV storage goods. NOTE: Attention is also invited to rule 12.6 for the installation and piping requirements for intermediate sprinklers. ++++ +++++

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12. PIPE SIZING AND SPRINKLERS ARRAY DESIGN 12.1 12.1.1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS SUPPLY MAINS: The nominal size of supply trunk mains and branch mains shall be not less than the size of any installation main distribution pipe, at its main installation control valve, supplied by the trunk main. INSTALLATION PIPEWORK: Individual sprinklers shall not be connected directly to distribution and main distribution pipes, except in the case of light-hazard installations where sprinkler may be connected directly to pipes not exceeding 50mm nominal bore. In ordinary or high-hazard installations arm pipes or drop pipes not exceeding 32 mm nominal bore shall be used to connect individual sprinklers where these are fed from pipes larger than 65mm nominal bore, Where upright or pendent conventional or spray sprinklers are fitted within 400 mm of the pipe axis alongside a pipe of nominal size greater than 65mm, the deflector shall be not more than the appropriate distance given in Table 14 above the lower edge of the pipe. ORIFICE PLATES: An orifice plate used to hydraulically balance an installation, or to accommodate pump characteristic, shall: a) have an orifice diameter not less than one-half of the internal diameter of the pipe into which it is fitted; b) be fitted only in pipes of 50 mm nominal bore or greater; c) be of brass or stainless steel with a plain central hole without burrs, and of a thickness complying with Table 15; d) have an identification tag, projecting beyond any flanges between which it is clamped, on which is clearly stamped the nominal pipe diameter and the orifice "K" factor. (also see rule 13.6) 12.2.2 12.2.3 The orifice plate shall be fitted not less than two pipe internal diameters downstream of the outlet from any elbow or bend. The relationship between orifice size, flow rate and the pressure loss shall be calculated using the data given in Tables 31 and 32.

12.1.2

12.1.3

12.1.4

12.2 12.2.1

TABLE 14
Location of sprinklers alongside feed pipes larger than 65 mm nominal size Maximum height of sprinkler deflector above lower edge of pipe (mm) Conventional sprinkler installed upright 00 17 34 Spray sprinkler upright/ pendent and conventional sprinkler pendent 17 40 100 Minimum horizontal distance from pipe centre line to the sprinkler centre line 100 200 400 Over -80 150

NOTE: Dimensions may be interpolated. TABLE 15


Orifice Plate thickness according to pipe nominal bore Pipe nominal bore Pipe nominal bore (mm) Not greater than 80 150 200 3 6 9 Orifice plate thickness (mm)

12.3 12.3.1

CONCEALED SPACES PROTECTION IN CONCEALED SPACES: Where there are concealed spaces above ceilings or below floors, and where the space below the ceiling or above the floor is classified as ordinary or high-hazard for which protection is specified in rule 11.8, the concealed spaces shall be protected as follows: a) if the concealed space contains only water pipes, electric wiring or air-conditioning trunking of non- combustible material

by 10 mm sprinklers with a maximum area of coverage 21 M2 per sprinkler and a design density discharged of 5mm / min; or b) otherwise as specified for ordinary hazard. The maximum area of sprinkler coverage and pipework design shall be as given in Table 16. TABLE 16
SPRINKLER PROTECTION OF CONCEALED SPACES Class of protection in room Pipework design method Hazard class Concealed space pipework design Nominal size as for hazard class listed Light Ordinary Ordinary Ordinary Ordinary AMAO as for hazard class listed ------Light Ordinary Ordinary Ordinary Ordinary Concealed space maximum area per sprinkler, or treat as hazard class listed (in m2) Light 21 Ordinary 21 Ordinary Light 21 Ordinary 21 Ordinary

Light Precalculated Ordinary High Light Fully calculated Ordinary High

12.3.2

The feed pipe to the sprinklers in the concealed space shall be arranged and sized as follows:

12.3.2.1 LIGHT HAZARD: The concealed space above or below shall be protected by a separate pipe from the installation valve. 12.3.2.2 ORDINARY HAZARD: If the concealed space above a precalculated installation are fed individually from the pipework below, the range and distribution pipes in the installation shall be sized by taking the room and concealed space sprinklers cumulatively. Alternatively if two feed pipes are used, one for the concealed space and one for the room sprinklers, the common feed pipe shall have a nominal bore of not less than 65 mm. The concealed space below a pre-calculated installation shall be fed by two feed pipes, one for the concealed space and one for

the room sprinklers, the common feed pipe shall have a nominal bore of not less than 65 mm. 12.3.2.3 HIGH HAZARD: If the concealed space above or below a precalculated installation shall be fed by a separate feed pipe from that feeding the sprinklers in the room. The concealed sprinkler feed pipe shall be connected outside the room between the installation valve set and any 48-sprinkler design point for a high hazard sprinkler array outside the room concerned. 12.3.2.4 FULLY HYDRAULICALLY CALCULATED INSTALLATION: The pressure and flow characteristics of the installation shall be satisfactory under each of the following operating conditions: i) When the appropriate density and AMAO are needed wholly in the room. ii) When the appropriate density and the AMAO given in Table 16 are needed wholly in the concealed space. 12.4 12.4.1 PRE-CALCULATED SPRINKLER ARRAYS: GENERAL:

12.4.1.1 The size of distribution feed pipes, including in light-hazard installations any which are partly range pipes because of the three sprinkler limitation, shall be as specified in the tables from the terminal point(s) up to the design point(s). 12.4.1.2 The feed pipe between the installation main control valves and the design point shall be hydraulically calculated on the basis of a maximum flow loss (specified in the appropriate sub-clause), corrected for static head gain for design points not at the highest level, at a particular flow rate. 12.4.1.3 Where the number of sprinklers in an array in a room, or in an area protected by a distinct group of sprinklers having its own distribution pipe spur, is less than or equal to the number of sprinklers for which the distribution pipes are hydraulically designed, the design point shall be positioned at the point of connection to the distribution pipe of the range of the array which is hydraulically nearest to the installation control valves. 12.4.1.4 Where the number of sprinklers in an array in a room on a distribution pipe terminal spur exceeds the number for which the distribution pipes are hydraulically designed, the design point shall be positioned at the point of connection to the range or ranges immediately upstream of the group of ranges containing not more

than the maximum specified number of sprinklers beyond the design point. 12.4.1.5 Risers or drops, connecting ranges to distribution pipes and pipes longer than 300 mm connecting single sprinklers to distribution pipes, shall be considered to be distribution pipes and sized accordingly. The design point shall be positioned at the point of connection of the riser, drop or single sprinkler pipe to the horizontal distribution pipe run when designing the hydraulically determined length of feed pipe. 12.4.1.6 Pipe diameters shall not increase in the direction of flow of water to any sprinkler. 12.4.2 LIGHT HAZARD:

12.4.2.1 RANGE AND TERMINAL SPUR DISTRIBUTION PIPES: The nominal size of range pipe and terminal distribution pipes, i.e. distribution pipes downstream of the design point, shall be as given in table 17. NOTE: It is possible only under light hazard risks that sprinklers can be fed directly from the distribution pipes. 12.4.2.2 DISTRIBUTION PIPES (OTHER THAN TERMINAL SPURS): All pipework between the installation main control valves and the design point at each extremity of an installation array at the highest level shall be sized by hydraulic calculation using the values of the tables 18 and 19. 12.4.2.3 DESIGN POINT: Normally it shall be two-sprinkler point. However, under the following circumstances, it shall be three sprinkler point. (see figure 20)
a) If the range pipe caters to 4 or more sprinklers; and b) When the range pipe runs along the apex of the ridge roof; or c) When the range pipe is the only line along a narrow room or corridor.

12.4.2.4 Maximum number of sprinklers that can be fed from a range pipe shall not be more than six. 12.4.2.5 The pressure loss between the design point and the entry point from the distribution pipe to the range (where more than two sprinklers are provided in the range) shall be calculated as per the table 19 (column A). 12.4.2.6 The pressure loss from the entry point as said above at the extremity of the installation and the installation valve shall be calculated as per the table 19 (column B).

12.4.2.7 In case of sprinklers in different levels in the same risk, allowance can be given to the static pressure gain in the successive levels below the top most level. The nominal size of the distribution pipe shall however not be less than the minimum size specified in table 17 for the range pipe fed from the design point. 12.4.2.8 The layout of the sprinkler installation shall, by and large, conform to the method shown in the Figure 20. TABLE 17
Light hazard range and terminal distribution pipe sizes Pipe Steel Size (mm) Maximum length (in m) Maximum number of

20
25

8
N.A

1
3

*The limit of 3 sprinklers does not preclude the use of 25 mm pipe between the 2/3 sprinkler design point and the installation valve if hydraulic calculation shows it is possible nor does it follow that 25 mm pipe may be used between the 3rd and 4th sprinklers where the two sprinkler point is the design point. TABLE - 18
MAXIMUM PIPE FLOW LOSS BETWEEN EACH DESIGN POINT AND THE INSTALLATION CONTROL VALVE IN LIGHT HAZARD INSTALLATION
DISTRIBUTION AND RANGE PIPE LOSS MAXIMUM FRICTION LOSS INCLUDING CHANGES OF DIRECTION (BARS)

DESIGN POINT

Two sprinkler point Three sprinkler point Two sprinkler point in a narrow room or range at roof apex each with a single line of three sprinklers

0.9 0.7

See Column A and B of table 19 See Column B of table 19 See Column B of table 19

0.7

TABLE 19
Pressure loss per unit length for design flow rates in light hazard installation

Pipe Material

Nominal size (mm)

Pressure loss per unit length (in m bar/m) Column A Column B 200.0 51.0 25.0 7.8 2.2

25 32 40 50 63

44.0 12.0 5.5 1.7 0.5

NOTE-1 The equivalent length of an elbow, bend or tee where the water is turned through an angle shall be taken as 2M in using the data or in using Table 29 or Table 30. NOTE-2 Where heavy grade steel as per IS-1239 is used, flow rate shall be taken as 100 LPM for column B.

Steel (IS-1239)

12.4.3

ORDINARY HAZARD.

12.4.3.1 RANGE PIPE AND TERMINAL DISTRIBUTION PIPE SIZES: The size of the nominal bores shall be as shown in the table 20 below.

TABLE - 20 RANGE PIPE NOMINAL SIZES FOR VARIOUS PIPE LAY OUTS IN ORDINARY HAZARD INSTALLATIONS
Pipe nominal bore (mm) Maximum number of sprinklers to be fed by pipe of size listed

Range pipe layout

a) Ranges at remote end of each distribution pipe spur 1. Last two ranges in two end-side layout 2. Last three ranges in three end-side layout 3. Last range in all other layouts 25 32 25 32 25 32 40 50 25 32 40 50 1 2 2 3 2 3 4 9 3 4 6 9

b) All other ranges

12.4.3.2 A single sprinkler shall be fed by pipe of not less than 25 mm nominal bore. 12.4.3.3 There shall be not more than six sprinklers on any range, including apex range where the ranges run under a roof longitudinally, sloping at an angle that is greater than 6o . 12.4.3.4 Distribution pipe (except terminal pipe) : The main distribution and distribution pipes (including all risers and drops) between the highest design point and the installation valve shall be sized by hydraulic calculation based on table 21. The maximum friction loss shall not exceed 0.5 bars at a flow rate of 1000 LPM. The distribution pipes downstream the design point shall comply with sizes stated in table 22. The layout of the installation shall, by and large, be in the same fashion as shown in Figure 21 (particularly for large installations) to enable hydraulic balance.

TABLE - 21

PRESSURE LOSS PER UNIT LENGTH FOR DESIGN FLOW RATES IN ORDINARY HAZARD INSTALLATION
Pipe nominal bore (IS-1239, Medium) (mm) 65 80 100 150 200 Pressure loss per unit length (m-bar/m)

35 16 4.4 0.65 0.16

Note 1: The equivalent length of an elbow, bend or tee where the water is turned through an angle shall be taken as 3 M when using the data or in using Table 29 or 30. Note 2: Where heavy grade steel as per IS-1239 is used, flow rate shall be taken as 1000 LPM. Pre- calculated distribution pipe nominal bores downstream of the design point shall comply with Table 22. TABLE - 22
DISTRIBUTION PIPE NOMINAL SIZES IN ORDINARY HAZARD INSTALLATIONS AND MAXIMUM NUMBER OF SPRINKLERS DOWNSTREAM OF DESIGN POINT Pipe layout Distribution pipe nominal size (mm) 32 40 50 65 32 40 50 65 Maximum number of sprinklers to be fed by pipe listed below 2 4 8 16 3 6 9 18*

a) Two end -side

b) All other types

*This does not preclude the use of 65 mm nominal bore pipe between the 16/18 sprinkler point and the installation valves if hydraulically found in order.

10

12.4.3.5 The feed pipe for all the other design points (except the highest design point) shall be similarly sized by hydraulic calculation. In case of friction loss in any part of the feed pipe not common with that feeding the highest design point, allowance can be given to the static pressure gain in the successive levels below the top most level. The nominal size of the distribution pipe shall however not be less than the minimum size specified in table 22 for the range pipe fed from the design point.

11

12.4.3.6 DESIGN POINT: The design point shall be 16-sprinkler point for two end-side sprinkler range pipe and the 18-sprinkler point for all other layouts. (Figure 21) 12.4.4 HIGH HAZARD

12.4.4.1 Range pipe and terminal distribution pipe sizes: Range pipes and nominal bores shall be as given in the table 23 or 24 depending on the sprinkler nominal size and the table in which the water supplypressure flow characteristic is specified ( i.e. tables 5, 6, 7 or 8). TABLE - 23
RANGE PIPE NOMINAL SIZES FOR VARIOUS PIPE LAYOUTS FOR HIGH HAZARD INSTALLATIONS WITH SPRINKLERS OF 15MM NOMINAL BORE AND PRESSURE FLOW CHARACTERISTICS AS GIVEN IN TABLES 5 OR 6. Pipe nominal size (mm) Maximum number of sprinklers to be fed by pipe listed below

Range pipe lay out

a) Ranges at remote end of each distribution pipe spur 1. Last two ranges in two end-side layout 2. Last three ranges in two end- side layout 3. Last range directions b) All other ranges in all other 25 32 25 32 25 32 40 25 32 1 2 2 3 2 3 4 3 4

12

TABLE - 24
RANGE PIPE NOMINAL SIZES FOR VARIOUS PIPES LAYOUTS FOR HIGH HAZARD INSTALLATIONS WITH SPRINKLERS OF 15 MM NOMINAL BORE AND PRESSURE FLOW CHARACTERISTICS AS GIVEN IN TABLE 7 OR OF 20 MM NOMINAL SIZE AND PRESSURE FLOW CHARACTERISTICS AS GIVEN IN TABLE 8 Pipe nominal size (mm) Maximum number of sprinklers to be fed by pipe listed

Range pipe layout

a) End-side arrangements 1. Last three ranges 40 50 65 32 40 50 65 1 3 6 1 2 4 6

2. Other ranges

b) End-center arrangements 1. Two end center layout i) ii) Last three ranges Other ranges 32 40 32 32 40 50 1 2 2* 1 2 4

2. Three and four end center layouts, all ranges

*32 mm feed to each

12.4.4.2 No range pipe shall be connected to a distribution pipe exceeding 150 mm nominal bore. 12.4.4.3 Pre-calculated distribution pipe nominal bores downstream of the design point shall be as given in table 25 or 26 depending upon the sprinkler head nominal size and the table in which the water supply pressure flow characteristic is specified (ie tables 5, 6, 7 or 8) 12.4.4.4 DISTRIBUTION PIPE UPSTREAM OF THE DESIGN POINT: The main distribution and distribution pipes between each sprinkler design point and the installation valve shall be sized by hydraulic calculation using the pipe friction loss per unit length given in the table 27 for the flow specified in rule 8.2.3.2.

13

TABLE - 25 DISTRIBUTION PIPE NOMINAL SIZES FOR VARIOUS NUMBERS OF SPRINKLERS DOWNSTREAM OF THE DESIGN POINT IN HIGH HAZARD INSTALLATIONS WITH SPRINKLERS OF 15 MM NOMINAL BORE AND PRESSURE FLOW CHARACTERISTICS AS GIVEN IN TABLE 5. Distribution pipe nominal size listed (mm) 32 40 50 65 80 100 Maximum number of sprinklers to be fed by the pipe of size 2 4 8 12 18 48*

*This does not preclude the use of 100 mm nominal size pipe between the design point and the installation valve if it is possible by hydraulic calculation requirements.( 12.4.4.4) TABLE - 26
DISTRIBUTION PIPE NOMINAL SIZES FOR FEEDING VARIOUS NUMBERS OF SPRINKLERS DOWNSTREAM OF THE DESIGN POINT IN THE HIGH HAZARD INSTALLATIONS WITH SPRINKLERS OF 15 MM NOMINAL SIZE AND PRESSURE FLOW CHARACTERISTICS AS GIVEN IN TABLE 6 OR 7 OR SPRINKLERS OF 20 MM NOMINAL SIZE AND PRESSURE FLOW CHARACTERISTICS AS GIVEN IN TABLE - 8. Distribution pipe nominal size (mm) 65 50 65 80 100 150 Maximum number of sprinklers to be fed by pipe listed 8 4 8 12 16 48*

Range pipe layout

Four end side layout All other layouts

14

*This does not preclude the use of 100 mm nominal size pipe between the design point and the installation valve if it is possible by hydraulic calculation requirements. TABLE - 27
PRESSURE LOSS PER UNIT LENGTH OF PIPE FOR DESIGN FLOW RATES IN HIGH HAZARD INSTALLATIONS. Pressure loss per unit length (m bar/m) Flow rate LPM 2800 4550 5600 6750 9000 100 mm nominal size medium grade pipe (IS-1239) 34 72 115 160 250 150 mm nominal size medium grade pipe (IS-1239) 5.1 11.0 16.0 23.0 36.0 200 mm nominal size medium graded pipe (IS-1239) 1.3 2.7 4.1 5.8 9.1 250 mm nominal size medium grade pipe (IS-1239) 0.43 0.90 1.40 1.85 3.00

NOTE-1 Where other grades of pipes are used, pressure loss data shall accordingly change. NOTE-2 The equivalent length of an elbow, bend or tee where the water is turned through an angle shall be taken as 3 M when using the data or in using Tables 29 or 30.

12.4.4.5 DESIGN POINT: The design point shall be the 48-sprinkler point or if appropriate as specified in rules 8.2.3.2, 8.2.3.3 or 12.4.1.3 (Figures 22, 23, 24) 12.4.4.6 The highest sprinkler shall be either downstream of a sprinkler design point or in an array with its own terminating distribution spur. 12.4.4.7 The layout of the sprinkler installation shall, by and large, conform to the methods shown in the Fig. 22,23,24. 12.4.4.8 The pressure loss in the distribution pipe to any particular section of the installation valve shall be adjusted to that needed to match the water supply characteristic by either: a) suitably sizing the distribution pipe spur feeding the particular section when the distribution pipe nominal size shall not be less than that of the first length, sized by the pipe tables, of

15

distribution pipe downstream of the design point to which it is connected, or b) fitting an orifice plate complying with rule 12.2 in the particular distribution pipe.( see figures 22, 23, 24).

16

17

12.5 12.5.1

FULLY HYDRAULICALLY CALCULATED PIPE ARRAYS GENERAL The requirements of this clause apply to pipe arrays sized by full hydraulic calculation.

12.5.2

MINIMUM PIPE SIZES: The nominal bore of main and other distribution pipes, and range pipes shall be not less than as follows:
a) in a light-hazard installation b) in an ordinary or high- hazard installation as given in table 54 for single sprinklers. 25mm

18

12.5.3

MAXIMUM RANGE PIPE SIZE: The nominal bore of range pipes shall be not more than 65mm, except where individual sprinklers are connected to pipes exceeding 65mm nominal bore when the arrangement shall comply with 12.1. DENSITY OF DISCHARGE - The minimum density of discharge from each AMAO, or the entire protected area, whichever is the smaller, containing the relevant group of four sprinklers with each water supply or supply combination available shall be not less than the design density specified in Tables 2, 3 and 4. Where possible the density of discharge shall be taken as the total flow from a group of four sprinklers which are most closely adjacent (in standard layout four sprinklers lying on the corners of a matrix cell square or rectangle, or in a staggered layout four sprinklers on the corners of a notional parallelogram), in L/min divided by four times the area (in M2) of the notional square, rectangle or parallelogram on the corners of which the sprinklers lie. Where fewer than four sprinklers are in open communication, the minimum density shall be taken as the lowest value of the flow from any sprinkler divided by the area covered by the sprinkler. The area covered shall be taken as that defined by the centre lines drawn midway between adjacent sprinklers at right angles to the line joining the sprinklers and by the boundary of the area covered (see figure 25).

12.5.4

12.5.5

MINIMUM SPRINKLER FLOW PRESSURE. The calculated discharge pressure at roof or ceiling sprinkler, or an intermediate sprinkler, other than a rack or shelf sprinkler, when all the sprinklers in an AMAO plus the required number of any intermediate sprinklers are discharging simultaneously, and the predicted pressure at the 'C' gauge is available from the supply, shall be not less than as given in Table 28. NUMBER OF SPRINKLERS IN AMAO The AMAO shall be either: a) as specified for each layout in section 8; or b) the area in open communication (i.e. where sprinklers may be expected to operate during the same fire incident) of the hazard class concerned; (whichever is the smaller)

12.5.6

19

Where different hazard classes are in adjacent areas and in open communication the AMAO of the highest class shall apply and any excess area specified in clause 8.2.3.4 shall be assumed to be in operation in the hydraulically least favourable position in an adjacent part of the lesser hazard area. Where the total area in open communication is less than the AMAO specified in section 8, the whole area shall be assumed to be in simultaneous operation. 12.5.7 NUMBER OF SPRINKLERS IN AMAO. The number of sprinklers in simultaneous operation shall be integral and not less than N, given by the equation: N = (A/a) + R where

A is the roof or ceiling sprinkler AMAO (in m2); a is the mean floor area covered by each roof or ceiling sprinkler in the AMAO under consideration (in m2); R is the number of sprinklers located under obstructions in the area of operation.

20

12.5.8

AREA COVERED BY INDIVIDUAL SPRINKLER. In a square or rectangular matrix array the area covered by an individual sprinkler not on the boundary of the array shall be the floor area contained by the notional square or rectangle formed by the two centre lines between the sprinkler and the two adjacent sprinklers on the range, and the two centre lines between the range pipe carrying sprinkler and the two adjacent range pipes {see figure 26(a)}.

21

In a staggered array the area covered by an individual sprinkler shall be that of the floor area contained by a notional parallelogram formed by the centre lines between the range pipe carrying the sprinkler and the two adjacent range pipes and the lines joining points on the range pipe sections midway between the sprinkler and each of the two adjacent sprinklers on the range and

22

the corresponding positions on the two adjacent ranges {see figure 26(b)}. 12.5.9 LOCATIONS OF AMAO a) HYDRAULICALLY MOST UN-FAVOURABLE LOCATION: Changes in sprinkler spacing, array design, elevation, range centres, sprinkler nominal orifice size and pipe sizes, as well as all possible locations, whether on the distribution pipes or between distribution pipes where these are connected by range pipes, shall be considered when determining the hydraulically most un-favourable location of the AMAO. b) HYDRAULICALLY MOST FAVOURABLE LOCATION: All possible locations, whether on the distribution pipes, or between distribution pipes where these are connected by ranges, shall be considered for the hydraulically most favourable location of the AMAO. 12.5.10 SHAPE OF AMAO a) HYDRAULICALLY MOST UN-FAVOURABLE LOCATION. The following shall be considered. Terminal spur and looped distribution pipe installations with spur ranges in the hydraulically most un-favourable location the shape of the maximum AMAO shall be as near as possible rectangular. One side shall be defined by the range, or range pair where there is an endcentre arrangement. Sprinklers not constituting a full range or pair shall be grouped as close as possible distribution pipe on the next upstream row to the rectangular area {see figures 27(b) and 27(c)}. b) HYDRAULICALLY MOST FAVOURABLE LOCATION: The following shall be considered. TERMINAL SPUR AND LOOPED DISTRIBUTION PIPE INSTALLATIONS WITH SPUR RANGES: In the hydraulically most favourable location the shape of the AMAO shall be as near as possible range to the range 27(a),

23

square, and shall where possible comprise sprinklers on one distribution pipe only. The number of sprinklers calculated to be operating on ranges, or range pairs in end-centre installations, shall be located on each range or range pair at the hydraulically most favourable location. Sprinklers not constituting a full range or range pair shall be located on the next range row at the hydraulically closest locations {see figures 27(b) and 27(c)}.

24

25

26

27

12.6 12.6.1

INTERMEDIATE LEVEL IN-RACK SPRINKLERS Where more than 50 intermediate level sprinklers are installed in the racks, roof and/or ceiling sprinklers in the concerned area along with the intermediate level sprinklers shall be installed with a separate installation control valve set. For hydraulic calculation purpose, it shall be assumed that minimum of three sprinklers are operating simultaneously on each level up to a maximum of three levels at the hydraulically remote position. The minimum operating pressure in any sprinkler shall not be less than 2 bars. In-rack sprinklers in association with the ceiling sprinklers shall always be fully calculated for the purpose of hydraulics.

12.6.2

12.6.3

++++++++++ +

28

13. 13.1 13.1.1

MISCELLANEOUS DESIGN PARAMETERS HYDRAULIC CALCULATION AND PIPE SIZING: Pipe size and layout shall be based on either : a) Full Hydraulic Calculation in which case the basic hydraulic performance shall be as specified in section 8 i.e. under "Design density and AMAO". Notwithstanding the density requirements as stated in this section, no roof or ceiling sprinklers in a fully hydraulically designed system shall discharge at a pressure less than the required as shown in table 28 as below: TABLE 28 MINIMUM SPRINKLER DISCHARGE PRESSURE AT ANY SPRINKLER IN FULLY HYDRAULICALLY CALCULATED INSTALLATIONS Minimum pressure at any discharging sprinkler (bar) 0.70 0.35 0.50 2.00

Hazard class Light Ordinary High In rack sprinklers

b) Pre-Calculated Installation (not including intermediate sprinklers), the pipe sizing tables with hydraulic calculation of portions of the feed pipe work as specified in rule 12.4.2 or 12.4.3 or 12.4.4 according to the class of hazard. c) Any extension to a pre-calculated installation shall not be fully hydraulically calculated. 13.2 13.2.1 CALCULATION OF PIPEWORK LOSSES The static pressure difference between two interconnecting points in a system shall be calculated from: Static pressure difference () = 0.1h (bar), where h = vertical distance between the points in meters 13.2.2 PIPE FRICTION LOSS: Frictional pressure loss in pipes shall be calculated from the Hazen-Williams formula as under: p= 6.05 X 105 C1.85 X d4.87 X L X Q1.85

where p = loss of pressure per meter length of pipe (bar) Q = flow rate through the pipe (in LPM) d = mean bore of the pipe (in M) C = a constant for the type and condition of pipe L = equivalent length of pipe and fittings (in M) The following values shall be used for C in sprinkler installations for calculation purpose: cast iron mild steel galvanized steel 13.2.3 = 100 = 120 = 120

Fittings and valve frictional losses: Frictional losses in valves and fittings where the direction of water flow is changed through 45 or more shall be calculated by the formula stated in rule 13.2.2 above using the appropriate equivalent length given in table 29 as below: The effect of velocity head can be ignored for the purpose of hydraulic calculation. The size of range pipe shall not be less than 25 mm and also the minimum pressure shall not be lower than those specified in rule 13.1.1 above. MAXIMUM FLOW DEMAND CALCULATION HYDRAULICALLY CALCULATED INSTALLATION FOR A FULLY

13.2.4 13.2.5

13.3 13.3.1 13.3.2

The datum point for pressures and heights shall not be downstream from the control valve "C" gauge. At any pressure (P), the flow demand (Q) of the installation shall, be regarded as the sum of: a) the flow to the ceiling or roof sprinklers with the AMAO in the hydraulically most favourable location; plus b) the flow to any non-rack intermediate sprinklers associated with (a); plus c) c) the simultaneous hydraulically balanced flow to any rack or shelf sprinklers in their specified number and hydraulically most favourable location.

TABLE - 29 EQUIVALENT LENGTH OF FITTINGS AND VALVES


Equivalent length of medium grade steel pipe (in m) according to IS 1239 (C = 120) for diameter in mm equal to 50 Screwed elbow 90 Welded elbow 90 Screwed elbow 45 All other fittings Gate valve Alarm valve/N.R valve Alarm valve/N.R valve (Mush room) Fittings& valves 1.46 0.69 0.76 2.91 0.38 65 1.89 0.88 1.02 3.81 0.51 80 2.37 1.10 1.27 4.75 0.63 3.94 119.71 100 3.04 1.43 1.61 6.10 0.81 5.07 5.36 150 4.30 2.00 2.30 8.61 1.13 7.17 35.88 200 5.67 2.64 3.05 11.34 1.50 9.40 47.27 250 7.42 3.35 3.89 13.85 1.97 12.30 61.85

Fittings& valves

Equivalent length of medium grade steel pipe (in M) according to IS 1239 (C = 120) for diameter in mm equal to: 2.19 6.43 2.86 21.64 3.55 126.80 4.56 34.48 6.38 48.79 8.62 64.29 9.90 84.11

Butterfly valve Globe valve

The equivalent lengths can be converted as necessary for pipes of cast iron by multiplying the above values by 0.714. The equivalent length for sizes smaller than 50 mm are provided in the following table 30.

TABLE 30 EQUIVALENT LENGTH OF FITTINGS AND VALVES


Equivalent length (in m) of medium grade steel pipe (in m) according to IS 1239(C = 120) for diameter in mm equal to: 25 Screwed elbow 90 Welded elbow 90 Screwed elbow 45 All other fittings 0.77 * 0.36 * 0.40* 1.54 32 1.04 0.49 0.55 2.13 40 1.22 0.56 0.66 2.44

Fittings

*It is recommended to avoid, as far as possible, 25 mm sized elbows in the installation.

13.3.3

The pressure-flow demand characteristics of the installation shall be determined either: a) by calculation (as stated in rule 13.3.2 above) of sufficient values of Q to determine the intercept of the installation characteristics of the curve with the water supply characteristic curve; or b) by calculation (as stated in rule 13.3.2 above) of a single value of Q from the equation: P = P0 + 0.1(h) (Q/Q0)2 -- 0.1(h), where P Po = pressure at flow Q measured at the datum point in bar. = pressure corresponding to the calculated installation flow

demand measured at the datum point in bar. Q = flow demand at pressure P in LPM. Qo = Calculated installation flow demand in LPM for pressure Po. h = height of the highest sprinkler in the AMAO under consideration above the datum point in M. By extrapolating the pressure flow demand graph to intersect the water supply pressure flow characteristic, Qmax can be determined. 13.3.4 The maximum flow demand (Qmax) shall be regarded as the point of intersection of the pressure flow demand characteristic of the installation and the characteristic of the pump either at low water level or when the reservoir is full whichever is higher. (Figure no 28) At the maximum flow demand, the pressure at the datum point shall not be less than Po i.e. pressure corresponding to the calculated installation flow demand measured at the datum point in bar.
13.4 MAXIMUM PRESSURE DEMAND CALCULATION FOR A FULLY HYDRAULICALLY CALCULATED INSTALLATION.

13.3.5

The calculation shall be as follows: - Pressure flow calculation shall be made for the minimum allowable density from the most remote group of four sprinklers in the AMAO hydraulically most remote from the installation valves (rules 8.1, 8.2, 8.3 and 12.5.4). Where there are both roof or ceiling sprinklers and intermediate sprinklers, the true hydraulically most un-favourable locations of each installation shall be taken together, irrespective of their actual locations in the building, the result can be extrapolated on to the water supply

pressure flow characteristics curve of the pump as stated in rule 13.3.4 above. The water supply pressure at the point of intersection of the curves shall not be less than that given by the minimum density calculation.

13.5 13.5.1

HYDRAULIC BALANCE CALCULATIONS Balancing across junctions: Hydraulic calculations for each pipe junction where flows join or separate for each position of the AMAO or for each group of intermediate sprinklers assumed to be in operation shall be sufficiently accurate that: a) the calculated flow rate(s) into the junction are within 2LPM of the calculated flow rate(s) out of the junction; b) all values of the pressure calculated for the junction are within 0.005 bar of the mean value.

13.5.2

Overall balancing of the installation: For each position of the AMAO the sum of the calculated sprinkler discharge values of all sprinklers discharging simultaneously (using the calculated nozzle pressure in each case to establish the outlet flow) shall be within 1% of the hydraulically calculated total flow into the installation.

13.6 13.6.1

DESIGN OF ORIFICE PLATES The tables appearing in the next sheets can be used to design the size of the orifice plate according to the system requirement for achieving hydraulic balance. The tables provides the orifice diameter for medium grade pipes conforming to IS 1239 of sizes 50 mm to 200 mm for discrete values of net pressure loss Pro for a standard flow rate of 500 LPM in table no 33 and 5000 LPM in table 34. To select an orifice plate which will produce a net pressure loss of Prx bar with a rate of Qx in LPM, the value of Pro can be calculated from the formula as below: Pro = Px (500/Qx)2 when using table 31 Pro = Px (5000/Qx)2 when using table 32 as appropriate, and refer to the appropriate column for the correct orifice diameter, interpolating as necessary.

13.6.2

13.6.3

Table 31 Orifice plates for medium grade pipes as per IS 1239 for sizes 50 mm and 65 mm
Pressure loss Pr0 (bar) Diameter of orifice Orifice Pipe sizes 50 mm 2.50 2.25 2.00 1.75 1.50 1.25 1.00 0.90 0.80 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.05 25.90 26.50 27.10 27.90 28.80 29.60 30.90 31.50 32.20 32.80 33.70 34.70 35.90 37.50 39.70 42.70 34.50 35.30 36.30 37.60 39.30 41.20 44.20 49.10 53.60 65 mm 316 333 354 378 408 447 500 527 559 598 645 707 791 913 1118 1581 2236 K factor

Table 32 Orifice plates for medium grade pipes as per IS 1239 for pipe sizes 80 mm, 100 mm,, 150 mm, 200 mm
Pressure loss Pr0 (bar) 35.00 30.00 25.00 20.00 15.00 10.00 9.00 8.00 7.00 6.00 5.00 4.00 3.00 2.00 1.00 0.90 0.80 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 80 41.90 43.00 44.80 46.40 48.90 52.30 53.20 54.10 55.30 56.60 58.20 59.80 62.00 65.00 56.20 57.60 59.00 60.40 62.00 63.90 66.50 69.70 74.20 81.10 82.20 83.30 84.40 85.70 87.00 82.30 95.80 97.10 99.30 101.70 104.00 106.80 110.10 115.10 120.60 105.70 108.10 111.10 113.90 117.70 122.20 129.10 137.70 152.60 Diameter of orifice in millimeters Pipe sizes 100 150 200 845 913 1000 1118 1291 1581 1667 1768 1890 2041 2236 2500 2887 3536 5000 5270 5590 5976 6455 7071 7906 9129 11180 15810 Orifice K factor

The pressure loss produced by the orifice plate is the net loss across the orifice, not the pressure difference of the flange. The K factor shall be marked on the plate.

14. 14.1 14.1.1

COMPONENTS OF SPRINKLER SYSTEM GENERAL The various types of valves used in the installation are as under :
a) b) c) d) Stop valves Test valves Drain valves Flushing valves. e) f) g) h) Check valves Installation valves Pre-action valves Subsidiary valves

14.1.2

All valves in the sprinkler installation shall be right-handed (i.e. the hand wheel or key shall be rotated clockwise to close the valve); the direction of opening and closing shall be marked and an open/shut indicator fitted. Butterfly valves, if used, shall be of the gear- operated type for sizes more than 150 mm. Valves, which interlock when closed, shall be positioned in a conspicuous place where the key is obtrusive when the valve is closed. MAIN STOP VALVES One, and only one, main stop valve shall be fitted immediately downstream of the main alarm valve of a standard sprinkler installation. The main stop valve(s) shall be at a fire brigade access level and readily accessible when responding to a fire alarm. Where the working pressure of the installation is more than 7 Kg/cm, Cast iron valves with PN 1.6 rating shall be provided. However, Cast steel valves of class 150 shall suffice for installation under all pressure conditions. TEST VALVES AND COCKS Alarm and pump start test valves: Test valves (15mm nominal size) shall be provided, as appropriate, to test:
a) the hydraulic alarm or any electric alarm pressure switch if provided, by drawing water from the downstream side of a wet alarm valve, and any downstream main stop valve(s). b) Any water flow alarm switch installed downstream of the main installation valve set. The test valve shall be connected downstream of the water flow alarm; c) An automatic starting device on a pump. d) Any pump house sprinkler alarm flow switch installed upstream of the installation control valve.

14.1.3 14.1.4

14.2 14.2.1

14.2.2 14.2.3

14.3 14.3.1

The test valve shall be installed close to the alarm valve, flow switch or pump starter as appropriate. 14.3.2 TEST COCKS A test cock shall be fitted as follows:
a) on suction pump supplies, upstream of the pump outlet stop valve and the check valve; b) Immediately upstream of the check valve on a water supply feed pipe or trunk subject to any requirements of the inflow water authority.

14.4

DRAIN VALVES Drain valves sized as below shall be fitted to allow drainage from:
a) Immediately downstream of the installation alarm valve or, if fitted, its downstream stop valve; and b) Immediately downstream of any subsidiary stop valve; and c) Any pipe other than drop pipes to single sprinklers in a wet installation, which cannot be drained through another drain valve.

The valves shall be fitted at the lower end of permanent pipework. The outlet shall be not more than 3 m above the floor and shall be fitted with a brass plug. Light hazard Ordinary hazard High hazard 14.5 FLUSHING VALVES Where a sprinkler pump draws water from a non-potable source such as a canal, river, lake etc., (with prior permission of the Committee) flushing valves shall be fitted at the spur ends of the installation distribution pipes. The valves and any associated drain pipework shall be of the same nominal size as the distribution pipe to which they are attached. Each valve outlet shall be fitted with a brass plug cap. 14.6 14.6.1 CHECK VALVES Check valves shall be provided where more than one water supply is available and the same fitted on each water supply pipe to trunk main. 40 mm 50 mm 50 mm

14.6.2

A test cock shall be fitted upstream of the check valve and downstream of the water supply main stop valve, except in the case of a pump supply where it shall be upstream of the pump delivery check valve and of the outlet stop valve. SUBSIDIARY STOP VALVES Subsidiary stop valves, which shall be of the same nominal size as the pipe in which they are fitted, shall be provided only to control the water supply to the following: a) Any sprinklers supplied from upstream of an installation main control valve set. b) Sprinklers under hoods over the dry ends of paper making machines where it is necessary to turn off the sprinklers to enable machine cylinders to be changed. The valve shall be secured open. c) Sprinklers protecting a computer area. The stop valve shall be electrically monitored or of the type, which interlocks when, closed, and in alternate installations shall be a screw-down diaphragm valve.

14.7

14.8 14.8.1

INSTALLATION AND ALARM VALVES A sprinkler installation shall be fitted with a suitable main installation valve to control the water supply to the installation. The valve set comprise of
a) a main stop valve b) an alarm valve c) a water motor alarm and gong. (Figure 29)

14.8.2 14.8.3

The main installation alarm valve(s) shall be fitted immediately downstream of the main stop valve. An alarm valve controlling the water supply to either a hightemperature area or to an area where freezing temperatures may occur either shall be of a type without a water seal or positioned at such a distance from the protected area that the water seal is not affected by the high temperature or freezing. The main stop valve shall be placed in the vicinity of the main entrance of the risk protected at an easily accessible place. The valve shall be secured open by a pad- locked or rivetted strap and protected against impact damage. A plan of the risk with the position of main stop valves shall be placed in a conspicuous location. A location plate shall be fixed near the valves bearing the following words in raised letters: SPRINKLER

14.8.4

14.8.5

STOP VALVE

Figure 29 - Sprinkler Installation Valve assembly 14.8.6 ALARM VALVE

14.8.6.1 Alarm valves shall be fitted on the main supply pipe immediately above the main control valve and before any connection is taken off to supply any part of the installation. 14.8.6.2 In buildings containing more than one installation, each alarm valve must have a number indicated thereon and the relevant alarm gong shall bear the same number in bold figures. 14.8.6.3 As far as possible, one risk shall be protected by one alarm valve only. Where the risk is quite large and has to be fed by more than one valve, the areas fed by the alarm valves shall be planned and suitably demarcated. Details of the division of the sprinkler load with the demarcated areas shall be exhibited near the alarm valves. 14.8.6.4 The provision of one alarm valve for different blocks in one compound is not normally permissible. The Committee shall be approached in advance with full particulars for acceptance under extraneous circumstances.

14.9

MULTIPLE CONTROLS Multiple controls installed to control open sprinklers or open drenchers or to operate a pressure switch shall be acceptable in specific cases upon reference to the Committee with full particulars in advance.

14.10

ALARMS AND ALARM DEVICES

14.10.1 Each installation main control valve set shall be provided with a water motor alarm suitable for sprinkler service located as close as possible to the alarm valve. 14.10.2 The water motor shall be installed with its gong on the outside of an exterior wall and with its centre line not higher than 6 m above the point of connection to the alarm valve. A strainer, readily accessible for cleaning, shall be fitted between the motor nozzle and the alarm valve connection. The water outlet shall be positioned so that any flow of water can be seen. 14.10.3 The pipework to the water motor shall be galvanized, medium grade complying with IS 1239. The equivalent length of pipe between the alarm valve and the water motor shall be not more than 25 m assuming an equivalent length of 3 m for each change of direction. The nominal size shall be not less than: a) 14 mm for equivalent lengths less than or equal to 6 m; and b) 20 mm for equivalent lengths greater than 6 m. 14.10.4 The pipe shall be fitted with a stop valve located within the premises and shall be provided with a permanent drain through an orifice not larger than 3 mm diameter. The orifice place may be integral with the pipefitting, and shall be of either stainless steel or a non-ferrous material. 14.10.5 Any device to reduce the frequency of false or intermittent alarms fitted to the installation shall be suitable for sprinkler service. 14.11 PRESSURE GAUGES

14.11.1 GENERAL AND SPECIFICATION


a) Pressure gauges fitted in the installations shall comply with relevant IS standards. b) The scale subdivision shall not exceed: i) ii) 0.2 bar for a maximum scale value up to and including 10 bar; 0.5 bar for a maximum scale value of more than 10 bar, up to and including 16 bar; iii) 1.0 bar for a maximum scale value more than 16 bar.

14.11.2 APPLICATION OF PRESSURE GAUGES. 14.11.2.1 INSTALLATION CONTROL VALVES MAIN CONTROL VALVE SETS: A pressure gauge shall be fitted at each of the following points:
a) Immediately downstream of the alarm valve (designated the `C` gauge); and b) Immediately upstream of the main control stop valve (designated the `B` gauge).

14.11.2.2 WATER SUPPLY CONNECTIONS PUMP SUPPLY: Each pump supply shall be fitted with a damped pressure gauge on the supply pipe immediately downstream of the outlet check valve and upstream of any outlet stop valve. 14.11.2.3 REMOVAL Means shall be provided to enable each pressure gauge to be removed readily without interruption of the water or air supply to the installation. 14.12 Any other provisions like fire brigade signaling from the alarm valves, Advance warning etc. proposed to be incorporated in the installation shall have prior approval of the Committee.

+++ +++++ +

15. 15.1 15.1.1 15.1.2

SPRINKLERS - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS GENERAL Sprinklers and Multiple controls installed in the Sprinkler systems shall be suitable for the fire protection service. Sprinklers shall not be reconditioned or repaired. Used and/or defective sprinklers shall be replaced by new ones. However, the multiple control systems may be repaired or reconditioned but pressure testing shall be carried out before commissioning such installations. Sprinklers and multiple controls shall not be painted except for the identification purposes. They shall not be altered in any respect nor have any type of ornamentation or coating. SPRINKLER TYPES AND APPLICATIONS Sprinklers shall be of the following types:
a) b) c) d) e) Conventional Pattern; Spray Pattern; Ceiling or flush pattern; Concealed pattern; Side wall pattern.

15.1.3

15.2 15.2.1

Note: - Pl. refer to the section Definitions for the details on the above. The selection of sprinklers shall conform to the Table 33 below. TABLE 33 SPRINKLER TYPES AND SIZES FOR VARIOUS HAZARD CLASSES
Hazard class Light hazard Pattern of sprinkler Spray, Ceiling or flush and/or side wall types Any type from the above Conventional or spray pattern only Sprinkler size nominal Orifice less than 10 mm

Ordinary hazard High hazard

15 mm 15 or 20mm as the case may be

15.2.2

CONVENTIONAL TYPE OF SPRINKLERS are designed to produce a spherical type of discharge with a proportion of water being thrown upwards the ceiling. These are usually built with a universal type deflector enabling the sprinklers to be installed either upright or

pendent. It is also possible to designate them for upright or pendent for certain applications. These sprinklers can almost be used for any type of application. (Figure 30) 15.2.3 SPRAY PATTERN TYPE SPRINKLERS are designed to produce a hemispherical discharge and no water is directed towards the ceiling. These are built both ways i.e. upright or pendent. These shall not be used in high hazard, high piled storage risks and also in case of ordinary/high hazard class risks where there is exposed structural steel work or where the roof or ceiling or its supporting structure is of combustible material. (Figure 30) CEILING OR FLUSH AND CONCEALED TYPE OF SPRINKLERS are designed for use with the concealed pipework and are installed pendent with plate or base flush to the ceiling with the heat sensitive element below the ceiling line. These shall be installed only in light or ordinary hazard risks and not for the high hazard class. Common applications are Hotels, boardrooms, offices retail stores etc., where the aesthetic appearance is of value. The deflectors are normally fixed and if retracted type of deflectors are used, prior approval of the Committee is essential. SIDE WALL TYPE SPRINKLERS are designed to produce a downward paraboloidal discharge and the special deflector fitted to the sprinkler causes most of the water to be discharged on the opposing wall and floor with a little of water discharging on the wall behind the sprinkler. These shall not be installed in high hazard applications or above suspended ceilings. These are not substitutes for standard sprinklers but may be used only in offices, hotels, halls, lobbies, corridors, Conveyor housings etc.(see figure 30) MULTIPLE CONTROLS SYSTEM consists of heat sensitive sealed valve controlled outlets using sprinklers or any other heat detecting device as sensing elements. Multiple control is used when a group of open sprinklers or sprayers have to operate simultaneously on a single detection according to the desired circumstances. SPRINKLER SIZE AND K FACTOR: Sprinklers shall have a nominal orifice sizes of 10 mm, 15 mm or 20 mm as shown in the Table 34. K factor of the sprinkler shall be as per the following equation. K = Q /(P)0.5 Where K = K Factor, Q = Flow through the sprinkler orifice in LPM and P = pressure at the entry point of the sprinkler (bar) The desired "K" factors for the sprinklers are shown in the Table 34. TABLE 34

15.2.4

15.2.5

15.2.6

15.3

SPRINKLERS NOMINAL THREADS, ORIFICE SIZES AND K FACTORS


Nominal orifice size (mm) Nominal thread size (mm) Mean value of K factor Limiting values of K factors Dry sprinklers Min 10 15 20 10 15 20 57 80 115 52 74 106 Max 62 86 124 Min 54 76 109 Others Max 60 84 121

15.4

TEMPERATURE RATING AND COLOUR CODING: Sprinklers shall have one of the temperature ratings given in Tables 35 or table 36 and shall be correspondingly colour coded. TABLE - 35
Fusible link type Temperature rating oC 68/74 93/100 141 182 227 Colour of yoke arms Natural White Blue Yellow Red

TABLE 36
Glass Bulb type Temperature rating o C 57 68 79 93 141 182 204/260 Colour of bulb liquid Orange Red Yellow Green Blue Mauve Black

15.5 15.5.1

SELECTION OF TEMPERATURE RATING: GENERAL.

15.5.1.1 The temperature rating of a sprinkler shall not be less than 30o C greater than the highest anticipated temperature of the location of the installation. Note: - If the process conditions in a risk calls for continuous air conditioning round the clock throughout the year, relaxation may be considered upon reference to the Committee with full particulars. 15.5.1.2 In high hazard installations protecting high piled storage with intermediate sprinklers, the roof or ceiling sprinklers shall have a temperature rating of 141o C. Note: - The sprinklers at the top of the racks shall be governed as per the previous rule 15.5.1.1 15.5.1.3 Under glazed roof or where there are roof sheets of PVC or similar plastic material, the sprinkler rating shall be either 79o C to 100o C, or 141o C for high piled storage.

15.5.1.4 The temperature rating of the roof or ceiling sprinklers within 3 M of the plan area of the boundary of either an oven or a hot process ventillating hood, fitted with sprinklers shall be the same as the oven or hood sprinklers, or 141o C, whichever is lower. 15.6 15.6.1 PROTECTION TO THE SPRINKLERS: Any sprinkler, other than ceiling or flush sprinkler. installed in a position at risk of accidental damage shall be fitted with a metal guard suitable for sprinkler service. It is particularly important for intermediate sprinklers in storage racks. Sprinklers installed in a rack or under a perforated shelf, platform and the like, where water from higher sprinklers including roof/ceiling sprinklers may cause wetting in close proximity to the bulb or fusible element shall be fitted with metal water shields of nominal diameter 80 mm. The shield shall not be directly attached to an upright sprinkler deflector or yoke assembly. Such shield shall form little or no obstructions the sprinkler spray pattern. Sprinkler rosettes shall be provided for the concealed sprinklers, which shall be of metal or thermoplastic plastics and shall be suitable for the sprinkler service. No part of the rosette shall be used to support ceilings or other structures and shall project from the ceiling below the top of the visible portion of the heat sensitive element. Sprinklers and multiple controls installed in areas where corrosive vapours are prevalent shall have corrosion resistant coatings suitable to sprinkler service. Frequent coating with good quality petroleum jelly is recommended. The coating shall however not be applied on the fusible links or the body of the glass bulb. SPARE SPRINKLERS TO BE KEPT IN STOCK: A stock of spare sprinklers shall be maintained in the premises so that prompt replacement is possible after the operation/damage of sprinkler heads. The spares shall be kept in an easily accessible location under conditions where the temperature does not exceed 38o C. The following guidelines shall be followed in respect of stocking spare sprinkler heads:

15.6.2

15.6.3

15.6.4

15.7 15.7.1

15.7.2

Hazard Class

In all state capitals and within 100Km thereof 6 sprinklers of each type 24 sprinklers of each type 36 sprinklers of each type

Other places

Light Hazard Ordinary Hazard High Hazard

25 50 100

When there is more than one installation within a risk, the above quantity shall also be increased in proportion. Each type of sprinkler used in the installation such as conventional or spray or ceiling/flush or sidewall sprinklers and appropriate temperatures shall be stocked as per the above requirements. 15.7.3 15.7.4 Spanners for the sprinklers shall also be kept along with the spare sprinklers in readiness. DRAINAGE ARRANGEMENT It shall be possible to drain the water from the entire installation through the installation control valve by opening the drain cock. Normally, it is not permissible to provide separate arrangements for draining the water from different areas or pockets. However, in case of sprinklers below the false ceilings, below the obstructions like ducts and also for intermediate sprinklers, it shall be possible to drain the water from time to time through separate arrangements. In case of areas, where sprinklers are installed below the level of the installation control valve, it is necessary to provide drain cocks for all such sprinklers as deemed necessary.

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16. 16.1

SELECTION OF INSTALLATION, TYPE AND THEIR SIZE A sprinkler installation shall be based on anyone of the following types:
a) Wet pipe installation, b) Pre-action type installation, c) Recycling installation and d) Deluge installation.

Note: - Where circumstances warrant, Committee may allow other types of installations like alternate wet and dry pipe or dry pipe. The Committee shall be approached in advance with full details for consideration. 16.2 16.2.1 WET PIPE INSTALLATION A wet pipe system is a standard type sprinkler system permanently charged with water under pressure both above and below the installation alarm valve. The above system shall be only installed where there is no danger at any time of the water in the pipes freezing. SIZE OF THE INSTALLATION: The number of sprinklers in an installation but not including the sprinklers in the concealed spaces and inside machines etc. shall not exceed the following:
a) Light hazard b) Ordinary hazard c) High hazard 500 per installation 1000 per installation 1000 per installation

16.2.2

16.3

PRE-ACTION INSTALLATION A pre-action system is a sprinkler system installed only to prevent a premature discharge of water from pipework or sprinklers that have suffered mechanical damage. The pipework shall normally be charged with air under pressure and monitored to give a warning indication on reduction of the air pressure. Complete loss of air results in the opening of pre-action valve and thus allowing water into the pipework. The system at this stage becomes a wet pipe installation valve. The system provides a pre-action time for the users to save their valuable equipment like EDP and computer installation, antiques, museums etc. where water damage due to the sprinkler operation is colossal. These systems need additional detection installations for triggering the pre-action valves.

16.4

RECYCLING INSTALLATION Recycling installations shall be used only where there are necessary for the following reasons:
a) To restrict water damage after extinguishment; b) To avoid closure of the main installation valve if modifications are made to the pipework or if sprinkler heads are to be replaced; c) To prevent accidental water damage due to breakage of pipe work /sprinklers

These are similar to the pre action type installations except for the additional built in features for automatic control of the water by timers. 16.5 SIZE OF THE INSTALLATION: The number of sprinklers in an installation (Pre action and recycling) but not including the sprinklers in the concealed spaces and inside machines etc., shall not exceed the following:
a) Light hazard b) Ordinary hazard c) High hazard 500 per installation 1000 per installation 1000 per installation

16.6

DELUGE INSTALLATIONS Deluge installations shall be installed where it is necessary to apply water over an entire area in which a fire may originate. For detailed rules and regulations on the deluge systems, reference shall be made to the rules for water spray system published by the Committee

16.7

MULTI-JET SPRINKLER SYSTEM Under extraneous circumstances, the above type of systems can be considered for approval upon reference to the Committee with full particulars in advance. For example, the above system may be considered for installation within ducts, which pass through the perfect party walls if provision of dampers on both sides of the perfect party wall is impracticable. The above system shall consist of main sprinkler that shall operate a group of open sprinklers inside the duct on both sides of the wall. The main sprinkler shall be installed preferably in the centre of the wall within the duct. The open sprinklers are expected to provide water curtains within the ducts on both sides to prevent propagation of the fire through the ducts in the absence of dampers.

16.8

DETECTOR SPRINKLERS In locations where electrical installations are to be protected, sprinklers in such locations may act only as detectors and sound the installation alarm without discharge of water. The water from the sprinkler pipes may be suitably arranged to be by-passed outside the risk upon operation of sprinklers. The Committee shall be approached in advance with full particulars in such cases.

16.9

OTHER TYPE OF SPRINKLERS Where other types of sprinklers are used for special applications such as Fast response sprinklers, Early response quick suppression sprinklers, large orifice sprinklers, Recycling sprinklers etc., are proposed to be used in the system, Committee shall be approached in advance with full particulars for consideration. ++++++++

17. 17.1

UPKEEP OF THE SPRINKLER INSTALLATION GENERAL ARRANGEMENTS The user shall carry out a programme of inspection and checks, arrange a test, service and maintenance schedule and keep appropriate records including a logbook, which shall be produced on demand.

17.2 17.2.1

PRECAUTIONS AND PROCEDURES WHEN SYSTEM IS NOT OPERATIONAL. Maintenance, alterations and repair of systems not fully operational shall be carried out in a way that will minimize the time and extent of non-operability. When an installation is rendered inoperative, the user should implement compensatory measures. These measures includeshutting of fire doors and shutters, alertness of the security and safety staff, reinforcement of first aid appliances etc., As much as possible of the installation shall be retained in an operative condition by blanking off pipework feeding the inoperative part or parts where work is taking place. In case of manufacturing risks, where the repairs and alterations are extensive, or it is necessary to disconnect a pipe exceeding 40mm nominal diameter, or to overhaul or to remove a main stop valve, alarm valve or check valve, every effort shall be made to carry out the work when the machinery is stopped. Any pump out of commission shall be isolated by means of the valves provided. PLANNED SHUT DOWN Authorities from the Insurance companies and Tariff advisory Committee shall be kept informed in addition to the other authorities before shutting of the installation for any reason whatsoever. A round through the risk shall be undertaken before a part or total shut down to ensure that there is no indication of fire. The heads of all the departments or blocks shall be notified in writing that the installation shall remain inoperative and they should exercise abundant caution during the period.

17.2.2

17.2.3

17.2.4

17.2.5 17.3 17.3.1

17.3.2 17.3.3

17.4

UNPLANNED SHUT DOWN When the installation is rendered inoperative as a matter of urgency or by accident, the measures stated above for planned shut down shall be implemented with least possible delay.

17.5 17.5.1

ACTION FOLLOWING SPRINKLER OPERATION. Following the operation of sprinkler(s), the operated heads shall be removed and replaced with appropriate sprinkler heads and water supply shall be restored. The sprinklers in the vicinity of the operated sprinklers shall be checked for damage by heat or any other cause and replaced if necessary. The sprinkler pump shall not be shut off until the extinguishment of the fire. The starting of the pump shall be automatic and the stopping of the pump after an extinguishment shall be manual. PERIODICAL TESTING AND MAINTENANCE GENERAL

17.5.2

17.5.3

17.6 17.6.1

17.6.1.1 Sprinkler systems require competent and effective care and maintenance to assure that they will perform their purpose effectively at the time of fire. Systems shall be serviced and tested periodically by personnel trained in this work. An inspection contract with a qualified agency for service, test, and operation at regular intervals is recommended. 17.6.1.2 Operating and maintenance instructions and layout shall be available or can be posted at control room and/or at the fire station of the plant. Selected plant personnel shall be trained and assigned the task of operating and maintaining the equipment. 17.6.1.3 At weekly, or other frequent, regular scheduled plant inspection, equipment shall be checked visually for obvious defects such as broken or missing parts, external loading or other evidence of impaired protection. 17.6.1.4 At least once a week the system shall be visually checked and the reading of various pressure gauges of each Installation valve shall be recorded. 17.6.1.5 A trained pump man shall be available on all shifts and at all hours to operate the pump or whenever required.

17.6.2

FIRE WATER RESERVOIRS/TANK

17.6.2.1 It shall be ensured that firewater tank reservoirs are always full and free from any foreign materials. The water level shall be recorded weekly. 17.6.2.2 Depending upon quality of water, reservoirs shall be cleaned once in a year or two years and sludge formation shall be prevented. 17.6.3 FIRE PUMPS

17.6.3.1 All the fire pumps shall be run at least 5 minutes everyday. During testing water level of priming tank, delivery pressures of pumps. speed. and also other parameters are to be checked and recorded. 17.6.3.2 All pump glands shall be maintained in good working conditions and checked weekly. 17.6.3.3 The bearing grease caps shall be checked once every week and refilled with fresh grease. if necessary. 17.6.3.4 Starter contacts shall be cleaned every week. 17.6.3.5 Insulation resistance of pump motors shall be examined once in every six months and record shall be maintained. 17.6.3.6 Starting Mechanism of diesel engine must be checked, the battery charger and also the batteries must be maintained in effective conditions and the engine shall be run at least for 5 minutes every day. 17.6.4 SPRINKLER SYSTEM INSTALLATION

17.6.4.1 All piping shall be examined at intervals to determine its conditions. Frequency of inspections will be dependent upon local conditions and shall be examined once in a year. 17.6.4.2 All the Installation valves and sprinkler installation and associated equipment shall be serviced and tested annually by qualified personnel. 17.6.4.3 Discharge test of sprinklers shall be carried out at least once in six months. After each operation, sprinklers shall be removed and cleaned, unless observations under flow conditions indicate this is not necessary. 17.6.4.4 Manual checking devices shall be operated at least twice annually.

17.6.4.5 When normally opened valves are closed following the system operation or test, suitable procedures shall be instituted to ensure that they are reopened and that the system is promptly restored to full normal operating condition. 17.6.4.6 All sprinklers shall be inspected for proper positioning or test, external loading and corrosion and cleaned if necessary, based on experience but at least once in six months. 17.6.4.7 The entire system shall be flushed at least once a year. 17.6.4.8 It is important to ensure that the sprinkler bulbs are kept free from paint or dust (otherwise it may not function correctly) and that the bulbs are accessible and clearly identified for maintenance purposes. 17.6.4.9 All the equipment pertaining to the sprinkler system shall be painted at least once in two years. 17.6.5 INSTALLATION VALVE AND ALARM GONG ASSEMBLY

17.6.5.1 The pressure gauge readings above and below the valves shall be monitored everyday at commencement of the first shift. 17.6.5.2 The time taken for the operation of alarm gong after opening the drain valves shall be monitored every week and corrective actions taken in case of malfunction of alarm gong. 17.6.5.3 The alarm gong assembly shall be checked thoroughly once in three months. Ready-made maintenance chart and summary sheets for the hydraulic calculation are shown below: PERIODICAL TESTING AND MAINTENANCE CHART
SUBJECT 1. Reservoir ACTIVITIES Level checking Cleaning Running test Test flow Lubrication Gland Packing Overhaul Running Lubrication Battery Load test Overhaul Fuel tank check DURATION Weekly once In two years Daily 5 minutes Annually Quarterly Weekly Once in two years 5mins all days Quarterly Status weekly Annually Once in 2 years Daily

2.

Pump

3.

Engine

4.

Motor

Lubrication Starter checking resistance

contact Insulation

Weekly Weekly Half yearly

5.

Main piping

Flushing Gauge pressure Operation Gland packing Lubrication Operation Alarm check Overhaul Cleaning Cleaning Flow test Performance Performance Physical check up of piping for seeing dislocation of support, wrong orientation over loading etc. Calibration

Once in 2 years Check daily Monthly Monthly Quarterly Weekly Weekly Annually Quarterly Quarterly Quarterly Six monthly Quarterly Monthly

6.

Sluice valves

7.

Installation valves

8.

Sprinklers

9. 10.

Detector element Sprinkler installation

11. 12.

Pressure gauges Painting of installation

Annually Every two years

HYDRAULIC CALCULATIONS - GENERAL: SUMMARY SHEET The Summary Sheet should contain the following informations:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Date Location Name of Owner and Occupant Building or Plant Unit Number Description of Hazard Name and Address of Contractor Design Purpose (Type of System) Minimum Rate of Water Application Total water requirement as calculated including Hydrant System where applicable Water Supply information in detail.

11.

Risk wise details showing the total discharge and pressure at the top of Installation valve. DETAILED WORKING SHEET Detailed working sheet or Computer Print-out Sheets should contain the following informations

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Identification of calculation covered. Description and discharge constant (K) for the type of sprinkler used. Hydraulic design reference points Flow in LPM Pipe size (mm) Pipe lengths in meter and details of fittings. Equivalent pipe lengths for fittings and devices in Mts. Friction loss in bars/meter. Total friction loss between reference points in bars. Elevation head in bars between reference points. Required pressure in bars at each reference point Design details of Orifice plates Velocity pressure and normal pressure if included in calculations. Notes to indicate starting points with reference to other sheets or to clarify data shown Where extending existing system hydraulic calculations are to be furnished indicating the previous design, flow and pressure at points of connection and adequate additional calculations to indicate the effect on existing system.

+++++++++

18. 18.1 18.1.1

PRE-COMMISSIONING AND ACCEPTANCE TESTS INSTALLATION PIPEWORK. All installation pipework shall be pressure tested in accordance with rule 10.1.6 which reads as under: "The installation piping (from the pump house up to the installation valve and also the installation piping with sprinklers) shall be capable of withstanding for two hours a pressure equivalent to 150% of the maximum working pressure." Note: - In water sensitive areas, it is advisable to test the pipes pneumatically before carrying out any hydraulic testing.

18.1.2

The coating and wrapping of the underground wrought or mild steel pipes shall be carried out and also subjected to "Haliday" tests as per IS-10221. INITIAL TESTING TO REGULAR TESTING PROCEDURES. The system shall be tested as specified in rules 17.6.2, 17.6.3 and 17.6.4 i.e. making the initial tests which shall become routine tests later as a part of upkeep of the system.

18.2

18.3 18.3.1

WATER SUPPLIES The entire piping system shall be thoroughly flushed before commissioning in order to remove foreign materials which might have entered or be present in the system piping during the course of installation or which may have been present in existing piping at maximum flow rate available to the system consideration shall be given to the disposal of water discharged during the flushing. In case of large installations [where the number of sprinklers in a single building and those in the buildings communicating therewith exceed 500], it is necessary to ascertain the hydraulic balance to check the performance of the pump when working at most favourable and un-favourable locations. Pressure at the outlets of the orifice plates shall be measured at all locations to check the correctness of the size of orifice plates selected. Each installation valve shall be tested separately. The pump shall start automatically and the supply pressure at the appropriate flow rate shall not be less than the appropriate value specified in rules 8.2 and 8.3 for all types of hazards. The drain valves fitted above the installation valve shall be opened and the time taken for the alarm gong to operate be noted. There shall not be a significant variation in the timing between the 15mm and 50mm drain valves fitted above the installation valve to drain the water from the installation.

18.3.2

18.3.3

18.3.4

18.4

PUMP OUTPUT A running pressure test shall be carried out at the delivery of the pump at full load conditions (Qmax). The pressure obtained in the test can be used to correct the pressure available at the "C" gauge of the installation valve.

18.5

AUTO START OF DIESEL PUMPS When commissioning the installation the automatic starting system of the diesel engine driven pump set shall be activated with the fuel supply isolated for six cycles each of not less than 15 seconds cranking and at not more than 15 seconds rest. After completion of six starting cycles "the fail to start alarm" shall operate. The fuel supply shall then be restored and the pump set shall start when the manual start button is operated.

18.6 18.6.1

INSTALLATION VALVES All the valves shall be physically checked for proper installation and leakage if any. The reading of the pressure gauges shall be checked to see whether they match after a few drain tests. The proper functions of the alarm gong associated with the installation valve and its level of audibility shall be checked. An audibility level of 85 db above the background noise level is required.

18.6.2

++++++ ++

19.

FEA DISCOUNT APPLICATION FORM FOR SPRINKLER INSTALLATION APPENDIX I Date:

The Asst. General Manager, TARIFF ADVISORY COMMITTEE __________REGIONAL OFFICE. Dear Sir, APPLICATION FOR FIRE EXTINGUISHING APPLIANCE(S) DISCOUNT Risk (Name of the Factory)___________________________ Location ______________________________ As the above Insured have installed sprinkler system in the following blocks, kindly sanction as from the date of receipt of this application a discount of _________%. (The Occupation floorwise and Block No. must be stated) 1. ____________________________________________________ 2. ____________________________________________________ 3. ____________________________________________________ I/We enclose plan of the risk with all details marked thereon. I/We certify that to the best of my/our knowledge and belief the appliances referred to have been installed in strict accordance with the Rules of the Committee and I/We also certify that the plan submitted is drawn in accordance with the Committee`s Rules and is correct and upto-date. I/We also certify that a copy of the plan exact in every detail, is available at the above premises for the use of Committee`s Engineer. I/We enclose full particulars of the appliances together with letter of Guarantee signed by the Assured. Yours faithfully

(Branch Mgr./Divl.Mgr.) For use of the TAC`s Regional Office only Date received: Date inspected:

Discount sanctioned:

Reference Number:

APPENDIX II Date: ____________ The Asst. General Manager, TARIFF ADVISORY COMMITTEE, ___________REGIONAL OFFICE. Dear Sir, GUARANTEE REGARDING FIRE EXTINGUISHING APPLIANCE(S) In consideration of your Regional Office granting a Discount for the Fire Extinguishing Appliances detailed on attached/signed form which we have installed in the (name of factory)____________________________________ situated at _________________________________________________ We hereby engage ourselves: 1. To maintain and upkeep the said appliances in efficient working order and where such appliances and Committees Rules require the upkeep of a trained Fire Fighting Personnel to maintain such personnel in an efficient state. 2. To advise the concerned Regional Office and first obtain permission should at any time it be necessary to close down supply to pumps or in any way render the appliances out of operation for repairs, overhaul etc. 3. Not to extend, alter or demolish protected Blocks/Equipment or to erect new Block/Equipment in the compound of the premises without supplying the concerned Regional Office with a revised plan or revising the plan filed with the concerned Regional Office. 4. To keep at the above described premises a copy exact in every detail of the plan supplied to your Regional Office, same to be available to the Regional Office`s Engineer during his visits of inspection. 5. Not to re-number (or re-letter) Blocks, Compartments, etc. as recorded on the plan filed with the Regional Office without advising the Regional Office of such revision. Yours faithfully,

(AUTHORISED SIGNATORY OF THE INSURED ) Note: All communication to the Regional Office of the Committee must be through the Leading Office on the risk. APPENDIX III

Details of Automatic Sprinkler Protection System available at(Name of factory)________________________________________

1. DETAILS OF THE INSTALLATION: 1.1 Pump(s) Type(s) - centrifugal or vertical turbine etc. Name plate details Makers name Type/model Impeller size Discharge Head Serial number R.P.M 1.2 Prime mover(s) Type(s)- electrical motor/engine driven Name plate details Makers name Type/model Horse power/BHP/KW Serial number Voltage/current R.P.M Type of insulation Fuel tank capacity (L) 1.3 Make and type of automatic regulator 2. Water supplies 2.1 Source of water supplies/ inflow arrangement for fire water reservoir 2.2 Water reservoir System Demand m3 Resv.1 Resv.2 Resv. 3 Remarks No.1 No.2 No.3 No.4 Jockey

Actual provision Fire protection requirements Sprinkler Spray Hydrant Foam

Note 1: Specify whether the reservoirs are underground, surface or overhead. Note 2: Give details on whether the tanks have independent/common suction or whether the tanks are interconnected 3. DETAILS OF SPRINKLER INSTALLATION
Installation control valves Sl. No Size & type Make Pressure available & Above Below Orifice plate details Sprinklers Make Type Nos

Blocks protected

4. PIPES
Underground/above ground Type and method of joining Make IS or other equivalent specification Details of Coating/ wrapping, if any To what pressure have the pipes been tested

5. TESTING AND MAINTENANCE OF THE SYSTEM: i) ii) Whether the Installation Control valves/alarm bell provided at the premises tested/examined/operated at least once in 3 months. Frequency of checking/cleaning of valve seat.

iii) Frequency of pump(s) testing with remarks. iv) Are the records of all tests and defects maintained. v) Number of Sprinkler Heads : readily available at stock.

Place: Date: SIGNATURE.

(FORM TO BE SIGNED BY THE OWNER OF THE PREMISES).

+++++ ++++

20. ADDRESSES AND TELEPHONE/FAX NUMBERS OF TAC OFFICES We are only a phone call away! If you have any query contact our nearest Regional/Divisional Office.
AHMEDABAD REGIONAL OFFICE B.D. Patel House, Ist Floor, AHMEDABAD- 380 013. Phone: 7412028, 7412491, Fax: (079) 7412301. BOMBAY REGIONAL OFFICE Gurudwara Complex, Ist Floor, (Opp. Chitra Cinema), Dr. Ambedkar Road, Dadar, BOMBAY 400 014. Phone: (022) 4137047, 4145862, 4133803. Fax: (022) 4160672 DELHI REGIONAL OFFICE Universal Insurance Bldg., 4th floor, 2/2A, Asaf Ali Road, NEW DELHI - 110 002. Phone: 3231843-65, 3230849 Fax: (011) 323 4974. BANGALORE DIVISIONAL OFFICE 35/1, Ist Floor, Complex, Alappat Building, Cunningham Road, BANGALORE - 560 062 Phone: (080) 226 2027. (080) 228 1230

CALCUTTA REGIONAL OFFICE India Exchange, 6th floor, 4, India Exchange Place, CALCUTTA - 700 001. Phone: 220 8116, 2208117 Fax: (033) 220 7036 MADRAS REGIONAL OFFICE Murugesa Naicker Office 111, Greams Road, Block A, 2nd Floor, MADRAS-600 006. Phone: 827 9766-5983 Fax: (044) 827 5238

LUCKNOW DIVISIONAL OFFICE 40, Chanderlok, Aliganj, LUCKNOW - 226 020. Phone/Fax : (0522) 384819 TARIFF ADVISORY COMMITTEE Head Office Ador House, Ist Floor, 6, K. Dubhash Marg BOMBAY-400 023. Phone No.282 9545-47, 284 3965-21 Fax No. (022) 285 4560