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Feed focus - POULTRY
Grain & Feed Milling Technology is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2013 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1466-3872
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cheap and nutritious food for poultry
by Hossan MD Salim PhD, Upazila livestock officer, DLS, Bangladesh and University of Manitoba, Canada
he world grain price is increasing day by day and the industry is facing several challenges to produce good quality animal products with a reasonable price for consumers. Similarly, the poultry industry in Bangladesh is also fighting with high grain prices to maintain its production with marginal profit. Small and medium poultry farm owners are mainly affected and losing their capital investment in this sector. The increased cost and the limited supply of conventional grains have made it necessary to focus research and extend efforts towards the potential utilization of energy and proteins from several grain by-products which are cheaper with high nutritive values. Corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) can
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play a vital role in this high grain price situation to formulate the least cost diets for poultry. DDGS is a co-product of ethanol production plants that use corn for manufacturing. During the yeast fermentation in ethanol plants, corn is ground, mixed with water, cooked and the liquefied starch from this process is hydrolyzed and fermented to produce ethanol and CO2. As a result, the non-fermentable components of this process which are rich in essential nutrients such as protein, fat, fibre, vitamins and minerals are recovered in a highly concentrated form as distillers dried grains with solubles. Although distillers dried grains have been used by the poultry industry for some time, recently a renaissance in the use of DDGS has been observed in the USA and also around the world. This is due to the rapid escalation in its production as well as its improved quality when derived from the new generation ethanol plants. Therefore, in the light of the large production of corn DDGS entering the USA, and other overseas markets, the aim of this topic is to provide a compendium of information to the people involved with the industry regarding nutritional value of corn DDGS for poultry.
Metabolizable energy content
Several studies provide estimates of the metabolizable energy (ME) content of DDGS for poultry. Lumpkins et al. (2004) reported that the TMEn content of a single DDGS sample was 2,905 kcal/kg. In a later study, the same group determined the TMEn content of 17 different DDGS samples representing products from six different ethanol plants. They determined that the TMEn contents ranged from 2,490 to 3,190 kcal/kg with a mean value of 2,820 kcal/kg and an associated coefficient of variation of 6.4% (Batal and Dale, 2006). Fastinger et al. (2006) concluded that the TMEn content of DDGS averaged 2,871 kcal/ kg and had considerable variation among the samples. Furthermore, a large variation in TMEn values of DDGS were also reported by Parsons et al. (2006), who determined the mean TMEn value of 20 DDGS at 2,863 kcal/kg ± 224 kcal/kg. It was hypothesized that energy in corn DDGS would not vary if samples were derived from ethanol plants using similar production technologies and corn that is grown in a proximate geographical location. Therefore, nutritionists should be cautious of the fiber content and sources of data for DDGS ME values, as well as energy variability when formulating diets for poultry.
Nutrient contents and availability of DDGS for poultry
Corn DDGS contain all the nutrients from grain in a concentrated form except for the majority of the starch, which has been utilized in the fermentation process. Therefore, it can be a rich source of crude protein (CP), amino acids, P and other nutrients in poultry diets. Reliable values for the nutrient content of feed constituents are essential to create more precise diet formulations for poultry.
Amino acid content
Dale and Batal (2005) reported that CP content of corn DDGS can vary from 24 percent to 29 percent. In our laboratory we assessed CP content on 395 corn DDGS samples imported to Korea from the USA, and the average CP content was 27.15% (23.87-30.41) with 3.72% coefficient of variation. Batal and Dale (2006) found that CP
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POULTRY content of DDGS ranged between 23 percent and 32 percent. Spiehs et al. (2002) have evaluated nutrient level of DDGS originating from ten new ethanol plants in Minnesota and South Dakota, and also found that the CP accounted for 30.2%, and lysine and methionine for 0.85% and 0.55%, respectively. The high variability among DDGS sources was found mainly for the two limiting amino acids for poultry, lysine and methionine. Reese and Lewis (1989) showed that corn produced in Nebraska in 1988 varied in CP from 7.8 to 10%, and 0.22 to 0.32% in lysine content. Differences in production technology provide almost as much variation within one source of corn as there is between different plants. Parsons et al. (1983) conducted five trials that aimed to evaluate the protein quality of DDGS and concluded that when DDGS is fed to growing chicks as the sole source of dietary protein, tryptophan closely followed by arginine are the second and third limiting amino acids respectively, after lysine. Although DDGS was limiting in tryptophan and arginine it was found that the overall protein quality of DDGS could be improved greatly by lysine supplementation for growing chicks. concentration of carotene and xanthophylls was 8.58 and 36.72 ppm, respectively. Since the typical corn and soybean-based commercial poultry diet does not supply the necessary amount and type of xanthophylls to produce the deep yellow color in the egg yolk and skin, DDGS can be a good source of these pigments as long as they have not been overheated during the production process.
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DDGS is not only a good source of energy, amino acids and minerals but also, can be a rich source of water soluble vitamins and other nutrients that are present in the corn used for the ethanol production. D’Ercole et al. (1939) reported that DDGS is a good source of riboflavin and thiamine. DDGS also contain some biologically active substances such as nucleotides, mannan oligosacharides, β-1, 3 or 1, 6 glucan, inositol, glutamine and nucleic acids, which have a beneficial effect on immune responses and the health of animals. Therefore, to reduce the feed cost and to make a balanced diet for poultry, DDGS would be a viable alternative energy grain source for the feed industry in Bangladesh.
A laboratory analysis of corn DDGS from the US showed that DDGS can be a good source of P (0.76 %), Zn (57.26 ppm), K (0.91 ppm), and other minerals. Phosphorus content in DDGS has been reported at 0.72% and varies widely from 0.48 to 0.91%. Similarly, Spiehs et al. (2002) reported the P variation in DDGS ranged from 0.59 to 0.95 %. This large difference in P content derives partially from its variation in corn grain and amount of starch residue in DDGS. However, the technological process of ethanol production can also significantly contribute to its content and variation. It has been suggested that the total P content may be even higher than 0.72% in some sources of DDGS if produced in new ethanol plants. Moreover, the rate of addition of solubles to the wet grains prior to drying affects the P content, because the solubles contain more than three times as much P as do the wet grains.
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Corn grain contains about 20 ppm of xanthophylls and it is expected that corn DDGS may by a good source of xanthophylls pigment, due to the concentration of the pigment during the production process. However, the actual xanthophylls content may be lower in DDGS because of heat destruction during drying. Roberson et al. (2005) analysed two DDGS samples and observed 29.75 ppm of xanthophylls in one of the samples, but only 3.48 ppm in another, dark colored sample which was considered to be This article was originally published on heat damaged. By analysing 16 samples of DDGS deriving from US in our laboratory, we showed that the average
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sparing for efficiency and the environment
by Murray Hyden CBiol, MSB director of biosecurity, Anpario plc, United Kingdom
nimals do not have a crude protein requirement, they have a requirement for amino acids and it is the responsibility of the nutritionist to get the ratios correct. Amino acids from feed are the building blocks of proteins and there are twenty-two of them used in the building of animal protein. Although poultry can synthesise some, there are some serious ‘essential’ amino acids that can become limiting. Supplementation with these ‘essential’ amino acids is now common place and incorrect supplementation will result in either a shortfall of one, or a surplus of several. This problem has become more acute since the reduction of animal protein in diets and a reliance on soya and other vegetable protein sources with a poorer match to animal amino acid requirements. While soya is a good source of protein when combined with corn, this combination is limiting in the essential amino acids such as lysine, methionine, threonine and tryptophan. However, there is often a lack of data on the precise amino acid composition of the raw materials being used. It is unrealistic to analyse every batch of raw material. Yet raw material amino acid content is a big issue this year, especially with wheat and soya, due to variations in weather, location, variety and fertiliser use. We can only use the algorithms we have and try to ensure that the amino acid profiles of complete feeds are optimised. Indeed, it is often better to reduce protein levels and increase fibre levels if in doubt. Dr Peter Scott, senior research fellow at the University of Melbourne, Australia, calls for more attention on nutrition and gut health, such as fibre levels in feed. “It’s there in black and white: If you maintain adequate fibre levels in your feed, you’ll achieve better coccidiosis control and by default, better necrotic enteritis control,” he argues. If a correct balance of amino acids is not achieved there will be performance implications. Simply adding more supplementary amino acids can lead to other problems, as surplus amino acids in the gut are a threat to health and the environment.
Non-nutritional problems associated with amino acids
Surplus amino acids can result in two different problems: 1. When energy levels are limiting, bacterial growth in the hindgut by commensal microflora will stop allowing proteolitic pathogens such as Clostridium to flourish. Clostridia exist in all chickens. The growth of Clostridia is however only a problem following coccidial or bacterial infection where blood and damaged tissue prevail in the intestine. The faster growth rates in modern poultry may exaccerbate the problem further because the rate of proteolyis in the stomach may be insufficient to release all the amino acids from the proteins resulting in more protein in the hindgut. 2. If proteins are not deaminated in the gut then they are excreted and will contribute to the ‘greenhouse gas’ load associated with livestock production. The problem of hindgut deamination is the release of ammonia or nitrous oxide (N2O) in the faeces with the the FAO stating that atmospheric emissions of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) associated with animal waste are a worldwide problem and may contribute to a detrimental impact on the environment. High
Adding one tonne of lysine allows a reduction in soya and slightly increase in maize without affecting the nutritional balance.
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POULTRY than adults. Males utilise amino acids more efficiently than females and extraneous dietary factors such as fibre and phytase induce digestive stress, hampering protein utilisation.
The effect of weather
When all these points are taken into consideration there are other factors that impact on performance. Adverse weather conditions both pre and post-harvest result in higher than normal levels of mycotoxins. Mould activity during storage depletes amino acids in both raw materials and finished feeds. In artificially moistened feeds between 1-3 percent lysine and 19-26 percent methionine could be lost to fungal activity alone (Dr Olayinka Akine 2012). Indeed, Kiotechagil Mycostat can effectively stop mould growth in raw materials and feeds. In storage, moulds like Aspergillus produce mycotoxins that alter amino acid utilisation at the intestinal and cellular level, especially the sulphur containing amino acids. Birds fed 2-4 ppm Aflatoxin or Ochratoxin A had a 51-133 percent reduction in protein efficiency but when both toxins were present at 1-4 ppm, protein efficiency was depressed by 79-127 percent. These effects are due to suppression of enzymatic activity, disruption to intestinal transport, attenuation of cellular protein synthesis and modification to gut functionalities. Amino acids, including tryptophan and arginine, are required to feed into the
ammonia levels in poultry housing also directly impacts performance.
Saving the environment
Both these problems could be resolved by careful adjustment of the amino acid balance. Such attention to detail would have considerable cost benefits by reducing land usage requirements. Ajinomoto, the Japanese food and chemical corporation, has determined that correct supplementation of lysine to maize/soya based rations could mean that for every tonne of lysine used there could be a saving of 12 hectares of land that could be rechanneled to alternative production.
Other protein sources are also being used such as rapeseed and rapeseed meal, sunflower meal, cottonseed meal and more exotic ingredients such as palm kernel meal and copra meal. Each of these protein sources has a different amino acid profile, different digestibility and would require different supplementation. Amino acids such as methionine, lysine and threonine are among the most expensive nutrients in the feed ration and wasting them has economic costs and biological consequences. Also remember that young animals metabolise amino acids at higher efficiency
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FEATURE acid production will result in less pepsin activity, leading to protein escape to the hind gut. Clostridia can utilise unused protein in the hind gut in the absence of fermentable carbohydrate by deamination leading to necrotic enteritis. 40 kg/t. - Molecular weight of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) = 100.09 - 1 mole = 100.09 g so 40 kg = 399.64 moles. - If we then use formic acid to neutralise this - Molecular weight of formic acid (HCOOH) = 46.03 - 1 mole = 46.03 g therefore to supply 399.64 moles you would need: - 399.64 x 46.03 = 18395 g or 18.395 kg/t of 100% formic acid It is clear that we must rely on a combination of natural acid secretions in the stomach and a fully supportive feed acidifier, like Kiotechagil Salkil, to boost the bacterial contribution from carbohydrate fermentation in the gut.
Balancing the gut microflora can help
There are several aspects of digestive function to consider that can help resolve the effects of dysbiosis but it is obvious that a multifunctional approach is essential. Direct incorporation of acids in the ration and into the foregut will help overcome the effects of highly Effect of pH on the specific growth rate of B. buffered feeds, but that is fibrisolvens Ce51 at 38.5°C with glucose as the substrate. (O) chemostat culture. (●) batch culture not enough. This will be especially important when the feed is highly buffered, typically with something like calcium carbonate as used in poultry breeder and layer diets. The added calcium carbonate neutralises stomach acid, increasing the risk of pathogens passing through proventriculus. By reducing free acid in the proventriculus the conversion of pepsinogen to pepsin will be reduced. This will result in reduced protein digestion in the stomach and a greater reliance of the proteolytic trypsin found in the duodenum and Lactic acid bacteria colonising the acidified the peptidases. However silica platform in Kiotechagil Salkil pepsin works best at the N-terminal of aromatic immune system and mycotoxins will disturb amino acids such as phenylalanine and tyrotheir metabolism where they help generate sine. It will not cleave at bonds containing cytokines. An increase in cytokine production valine, alanine or glycine. Pepsin digests 10 - 15% of dietary protein before it is inactican unbalance amino acids levels in the gut. The use of an effective and broad spec- vated in the small intestine. Whilst trypsin trum toxin binder like Kiotechagil Neutox predominantly cleaves peptide chains at the to absorb mycotoxins without hindering gut carboxyl side of the amino acids lysine and performance is essential. Mineral binders arginine, except when either is followed with high cation exchange capacities (CEC) by proline. Therefore the loss of activity of will trap cations and disrupt mineral nutri- pepsin cannot be fully compensated for by tion, or reduce phytase activity in formulated other proteolytic enzymes further down feeds. Selection of the correct toxin binder the gut. By adding an acidified carrier matrix it is will benefit amino acid utilisation. possible to overcome some of the buffering power of the feed, however this will require Unbalanced rations Surplus amino acids in the hind gut, espe- free acid and not a salt such as the calcium cially in an energy limited diet, can result in a and sodium salts of organic acids, as they Clostridial infection because this proteolytic have no net acid contribution. Even with pure acids it is not possible to organism, unlike the commensal microflora, is capable of obtaining energy from deamina- provide sufficient acid to directly alter feed pH and you can work this out easily because tion of amino acids, peptides and proteins. The use of highly buffered feed or stress we know that 1 mole calcium carbonate will conditions can lead to a reduced produc- require 1 mole of acid to neutralise it. - Add calcium carbonate (limestone) at tion of acid in the proventriculus. Reduced
30 | may - June 2013
Natural fermentation in the intestine is vital
Gastric bacterial fermentation contributes significantly to maintaining a low gastric pH. This can be supported by the use Salkil to provide suitable ‘platforms’ for bacterial colonisation allowing acidophilic species to predominate in the gut. In older animals lactic acid represents only 50 percent of the total organic acid content in the gut. The remaining acids will be produced by cellulolytic species such as Butyrivibrio and Roseburia that ferment cellulose to acetic and butyric acids provided the environment remains acidic. Butyric acid is a vital component of the hindgut. It is a colonocyte nutrient that will assist in villus development in young animals and will help regrowth after disease. This is especially important after coccidia or enteric pathogens such as Salmonella or Escherichia that damage the gut lining, erode villi and result in bleeding from the intestinal wall. Blood in the intestine from pathogen attack is the perfect nutrient for proteolytic species like Clostridia. For the gut to recover faster it requires a readily available energy source, butyric acid, produced by cellulose digestion in the hindgut. Butyric acid has been reported to increase the density and length of villi, enlarging the adsorption surface of the intestine (Galfi and Bokori 1990). The bacteria responsible for butyric acid production in the gut, Butyrivibrio and Roseburia for example, have narrow ranges of pH tolerance and if their activity decreases, so does the butyric acid production in the gut. Adding a protected butyric acid source is an effective means of helping villus structure to recover, whilst supporting the acidophilic microflora such as the cellulose digesters and members of the Lactobacillaceae family (Galfi 1990).
Feeding the commensals
Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), such as inulin, have a direct effect on the gut microflora. Inulin is a complex sugar. Most
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POULTRY gut bacteria preferentially metabolise simple sugars allowing the inulin to reach the hindgut. Inulin in the hind gut allows bacteria, typically fibre digesters like Butyrivibrio and Roseburia, as well as the bacteriocin producing Bifidobacteria, to grow and exclude Clostridia. The inclusion of a FOS in a ration formulation will therefore have a direct effect on the microbial colonisation of the hind gut. By restricting Clostridial activity with butyric acid and by providing the commensal microflora with a valuable energy source that is unavailable to Clostridia, any surplus amino acids can be incorporated into the microbial biomass in the gut rather wasteful deamination. Products like Kiotechagil Prefect are designed to optimise gut performance to help prevent the effects of amino acid imbalance. Prefect supplies: 1. Organic acids to maintain acidity in the proventriculus thereby maximising protein utilisation in the foregut. 2. Fructo-oligosaccharides (inulin) to inhibit clostridia and other enteropathogens whilst promoting a strong cellulolytic gut microflora to maintain healthy butyric acid levels. 3. Additional butyric acid to provide an instant energy source for villi mucosa to help overcome irritation and necrosis resulting from Clostridial or coccidial attack. 4. A unique carrier that promotes colonisation by lactic acid bacteria to establish the necessary healthy gut microflora to achieve genetic potential.
About the author
Murray Hyden trained at Imperial College London in Food and Dairy Microbiology and Industrial Microbiology. He worked for ICI Plc, Agricultural Division as a Research Microbiologist for 16 years specialising in ruminant nutrition and poultry health. During his time there he worked on the interactions of intestinal microflora in relation to the diet specification. In 1985 he joined Agil Ltd, a privately owned British company manufacturing and distributing feed additive products to several European countries. Murray has been involved in all stages of product development and has overseen the launch of the entire range of feed additives since 1987. His microbiological approach to find alternatives to antibiotics in animal feeding has lead to the launch of a unique range of products that are now used around the world. In 2004 Murray was promoted to managing director of Agil and then Kiotechagil after an acquisition. He has presented his work at international conferences in countries such as Sweden, Mexico, Argentina, Brazil, France, Philippines, Thailand, Japan, China and Australia. He has helped in the development of biosecurity control programmes for poultry and pig breeding companies around the world. Following more recent acquisitions by the company, Murray has returned to his primary interest and is now director of biosecurity for Anpario Group.
The XXIII Worlds Poultry Congress offered new insights for managing necrotic enteritis and coccidiosis. www. thepoultrysite.com Ammonia Emissions from Animal Waste FAO 2012 Lysine and other amino acids for feed: production and contribution to protein utilisation in animal feeding – Yasuhiko Toride in Protein Sources for the animal feed industry FAO document repository. Dr Olayinka Akine All About Feed. net Vol 20 No7 2012 p18 - 20 Galfi P and Bokori J Acta Vet Hung 1990: 38(12):3-17
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