Engineering Workshop

PROCEDURES TO BE FOLLOWED IN WORKSHOP  In the first engineering workshop class, students need to be taken for a walk around the workshop to let them know about the various divisions of the workshop (Such as Machine shop, Welding Shop, Fitting Shop and Sheet metal shop) and to know the location of the fire safety devices, important operating controls, first aid box , emergency exits etc.,  In the same class, students need to be given the appropriate overalls and safety shoes, after getting the signatures for the receipt of the same. At the same time they need to be informed about the safe handling and maintenance of those items as it will not be given again during their study in the college, irrespective of the level unless the situation warrants in the opinion of the HoS or HoD.  Then Instructions need to be given to the students by the lecturer regarding the Health and Safety Practices in the workshop and the proper code of conduct inside the workshop which are given below  Students and staff should wear the overalls and safety shoes when they are in the workshop without which the entry is prohibited.  Tools need to be obtained from the stores, only through the window provided for that purpose.  Student’s entry is prohibited inside the stores.  While working, all the safety items (Such as goggles, gloves etc.,) required for the work should be used.  Incase of an accident, the people involved should be given the first aid and the medical attention immediately. Then an accident report need to be prepared by the workshop in charge and submitted to the higher authorities.  All near miss incidents need to be recorded and reported  After the work, students should clean their workplace and have to return all the tools and safety items that were borrowed, before they leave. Proper follow up is the responsibility of the lecturer and technician of that class.  It is the technician’s duty to make sure that all the tools and equipment’s that are required to handle the class is ready, before the starting of the class.  Littering inside the workshop is an offense.
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 Students should concentrate in their work when they are inside the workshop. Playing, shouting, Joking and not obeying the instructions will invite punishments.  After the work, the machines and the equipment’s need to be switched off.  Malfunctioning of the equipment’s and the breakage of the tools need to be immediately reported by the students to the technicians they in turn should record the report and should take measures to correct the failure.  Eating and drinking inside the workshop is strictly prohibited  All malfunctions of the equipment’s and the misbehaviors of people need to be immediately brought to the notice of the workshop in charge in turn to the HoS and HoD.  Following are the various maintenance activities which are to be carried out in the workshops by the technicians in charge of that workshop  Routine and periodic checking and inspections.  Ensuring proper functioning of different Parts and elements in the equipment’s.  Cleaning and lubrication of contacts and bearings.  Corrective actions against failures and malfunctioning  Maintaining the stock register, equipment maintenance register and the accident report file is the responsibility of the technician in charge of the workshop.

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Duties of the lecturers who are handling the workshop classes are as follows:  Lecturers should prepare the required teaching materials.  Lecturers should teach the students about the concepts, theory and procedures related to the job before they start the work.  Students shall be taught to understand the drawings, required list of tools /instruments and materials etc.  Detailed description of the procedural steps of the skill /practice shall be given to the students before they start working on the machines.  Special precautions to be taken while doing a particular job shall be stated with stress and emphasis.  The quality of the work done by the students shall be checked in real time when they work.  They must ensure that the machines/work tables are cleaned neatly by the students.  Overall performance of the students and reports of the skill/ practice presented by the students along with the results shall be evaluated and respective grades/mark shall be entered in the assessment record.  Scheduling, conducting the examinations and assessment is the responsibility of the lecturers.  Maintenance of attendance records and reporting the absentees when they cross 10%, 20% and 30% limits is also the responsibility of the lecturers.  At the end of the day/week, the technician in charge should lock all the doors after ensuring the equipment shutdown.

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Chapter 1 Safety in Workshop (i) Introduction to Safety Personal Safety  Always wear overalls in the workshop  Always protect the eyes by wearing goggleswhen using machinery.  Always wear safety boots in the workshop  Wear a suitable respiration when dust and fumes are present  Keep hair shorts or wear a cap.  Don’t wear rings or watches when working on a machine  Gloves should always be worn when handling sharp components.  Never wear gloves when operating machine tools.  Use hand cream to remove oil or grease from the hands.

Safety Precautions in Machines  Don’t start a machine without receiving operating instructions.  You have to know how to stop the machine before start it.  Make sure that all guards are in position.  Isolate the machine before starting repair work on it.  Do not lean on a machine whilst it is working.
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Thesymbol must be white.These signs indicate things that you must doand precautions that you must take.Safety Clothing Overalls Ear protection Caps Goggles Gloves Boots and shoes Respirators Proper Clothing’s in Workshop Mandatory signs You can recognize these signs as they have a blue background colour. you have no College of Ship Technology Page 5 . Figure shows five typical mandatory signs. These signs must be obeyed.

College of Ship Technology Page 6 . Buttons missing and loose cuffs Since the overalls cannot be fastened properly.Long hair is also a health hazard. This can result in the hair and scalp being tornaway which is extremely dangerous and painful. Either adoptsa short and more manageable head style or some sort of head covering that will keep your hair out of harm’s way. Appearance Clothing For general workshop purposes a boiler suit is the most practical and safestform of clothing. again. However. it becomes as dangerous asany other loose clothing and is liable to be caught in moving machinery. Such wounds can result in paralysis of the hand and fingers.Loose cuffs are also liable to be caught up like any other loose clothing. Long hair Long hair is liable to be caught in moving machinery such as drillingmachines and lathes.To disregard them is an offence in law as. Permanent disfigurementwill result and brain damage can also occur. you would be puttingyourself at considerable risk. as it is almost impossible to keepclean and free from infection in a workshop environment.They may also prevent you from snatching your hand away from adangerous situation. to be completely effective certain precautions must be taken. Sharp tools Sharp tools protruding from the breast pocket can cause severe woundsto the wrist.option in the matter.

greasy. the operatorcan be scalped. it could cause anaccident by distracting your attention at a crucial moment.If it becomes entangled in a machine. Lightweight shoes The possible injuries associated with lightweight and unsuitable shoes are:  puncture wounds caused by treading on sharp objects.Hole in pocket Tools placed in a torn pocket can fall through onto the feet of the wearer. This alsohelps to keep your hair and scalp clean and healthy. Head and eye protection As has already been stated. Gloves and ‘palms’ of a variety of styles and typesof materials are available to protect your hands whatever the nature ofthe work. oily.  crushed toes caused by falling objects. particularly when negotiating stairways. Overalls too long These can cause you to trip and fall. they are constantly atrisk handling dirty.When working on site. rough. or in a heavy engineering erection shop involvingthe use of overhead cranes. then your hair must be contained in a close fitting cap. If you wish to retain a long hairstyle in the interests offashion. sharp.Although this may not seem potentially dangerous. because of this. Hand protection Your hands are in constant use and. hot and possibly corrosiveand toxic materials. all persons should wear a safety helmetcomplying with BS 2826. Even small objects such as nuts and bolts cancause serious head injuries when dropped from a height. long hair is a serious hazard in a workshop. College of Ship Technology Page 7 .

all electrical equipment shouldbe earthed or double insulated. it can still cause serious injury. To reduce the risk of shock.The hazard of long hair (ii) Causes of Electrical shock An electric shock from a 240 volt single-phase supply (lightingand office equipment) or a 415 volt three-phase supply (most factorymachines) can easily kill you. Even if the shock is not sufficiently severeto cause death. The sudden convulsioncaused by the shock can throw you from a ladder or against movingmachinery. College of Ship Technology Page 8 .

The sensitivity ofresidual current detectors is such that a difference of only a few mill amperesis sufficient to cut off the supply and the time delay is only afew microseconds. The power tool must besuitable for operating at such a voltage. therefore. The plastic materialsused in the finishes and furnishings of modern buildings give off highlytoxic fumes. be protectedby a residual current detector (RCD). The transformer itself should beprotected by a circuit breaker containing a residual current detector. Therefore it is best to leave the building as quickly as possibleand leave the fire fighting to the professionals who have breathingapparatus. Thisresults in the supply being immediately disconnected. The electrical supply to a portable power tool should. Such a small current applied for such a short time isnot dangerous. (iii) Fire Fighting Fire fighting is a highly skilled operation and most medium and largefirms have properly trained teams who can contain the fire locally untilthe professional brigade arrives. College of Ship Technology Page 9 . Such a device compares themagnitudes of the current flowing in the live and neutral conductors supplyingthe tool. Any leakage to earth through the body of the user or byany other route will upset the balance between these two currents.It requires only one person to panic and run in the wrong direction to causea disaster. Fire extinguishers The normally available fire extinguishers and the types of fire they canbe used for are as follows.keep fire doors closed at all times but never locked. Saving human life is more important than saving property. Smoke is the main cause of panic.The fuses and circuit breakers designed to protect the supply circuitryto the transformer react too slowly to protect the user from electric shock. To reduce the spread of smoke and fire. Smoke is less dense nearthe floor: as a last resort crawl. both how to give the alarm and how to leave the building. Itcauses choking and even death by asphyxiation. It spreads quickly through a building.reducing visibility and increasing the risk of falls down stairways. portable power tools should befed from a low-voltage transformer at 110 volts. The best way you can help is to learn thecorrect fire drill.Further.

They can also be used foroil and chemical fires in confined places. The foam smothersthe flames and prevents the oxygen in the air from reaching the burningmaterials at the seat of the fire. (a).A typical hose point and a typicalpressurized water extinguisher are shown in this figure. do not usethem on fires associated with electrical equipment or the person wieldingthe hose or the extinguisher will be electrocuted. Carbon dioxide (CO2) extinguishers These are used on burning gases and vapours. However. The carbon dioxide gas replacesthe air and smothers the College of Ship Technology Page 10 . The steam generated also helps to smother the flames as it displacesthe air and therefore the oxygen essential to the burning process.for various technical reasons. Foam extinguishers These are used for fighting oil and chemical fires. Water alone cannot be used because oilfloats on the water and this spreads the area of the fire. A typical foamextinguisher is shown in Fig. Note: Since both water and foam are electrically conductive. water should be used only on burning solidssuch as wood.Water Used in large quantities water reduces the temperature and puts out thefire. paper and some plastics.

vaporizing liquid extinguishers are safe to use on firesassociated with electrical equipment. do not advance towards it. Back away from the bubble of CO 2 gas as you operate theextinguisher. (c). As with CO2 extinguishers always backaway from the bubble of vapour. Vaporizing liquid extinguishers These include CTC. (d). itcan be easily removed by vacuum cleaning and there is no residual mess.fire. LikeCO2 extinguishers. Figure (b) shows a typicalCO2 extinguisher. offices and kitchens since the powder is not only non-toxic. Since a small amountof liquid produces a very large amount of vapour. They are also useful for fires in electricalequipment. gas. CBM and BCF extinguishers. whereit cannot be displaced by draughts. College of Ship Technology Page 11 . Vaporizing liquidextinguishers are suitable for oil.The active ingredient is powdered sodium bicarbonate (baking powder)which gives off carbon dioxide when heated. It can be used only in confined places. A typical example of a drypowder extinguisher is shown in Fig. Dry powder extinguishers These are suitable for small fires involving flammable liquids and smallquantities of solids such as paper. A typical example of a vaporizingliquid extinguisher is shown in Fig. Note: If the fire cannot breathe neither can you. vapour and chemical fires. this is a very efficientway of producing the blanketing vapour. so care must be takento evacuate all living creatures from the vicinity before operating theextinguisher. never advance into it. The heat from the firecauses rapid vaporization of the liquid sprayed from the extinguisher andthis vapour displaces the air and smothers the fire. Any vapour that will smotherthe fire will also smother all living creatures which must be evacuatedbefore using such extinguishers.

Various Types of Fire Extinguishers a) Foam type b) Co2 type c) Vaporizing liquid d) Dry powder College of Ship Technology Page 12 .

Chapter 2 FITTING SHOP (i) Safety precautions in fitting shop      Use a file with a properly fitted.  Position the work piece area such that the cut to be making is close to the vice.One jaw is fixed to the body and the second slides on a square threaded screw with the help of thehandle. relieve the force on return stroke. The jaws are opened up to required length. Start a new blade in another place when a blade breaks during a cut. College of Ship Technology Page 13 . Two jaws plates are fitted on both the jaws. tight handle.  Apply force only on the forward (cutting) stroke. Select the type. Jaw plates are made up of high carbonsteel and are wear resistant. job is placed in the two is fully tightened withhandle. It consists if a cast iron body andcast iron jaws. (ii) Tools used in Fitting Shop Bench vice The wise is common tools used for holding jobs. The handle must be securely welded. Position the jaws as close to the work as possible to prevent slipping. Check the hammer each time before it is used. This prevents binding and blade breakages. shape and size of wrench opening most suitable for the application.

They are specified by the height of the leg up to thehinge point. College of Ship Technology Page 14 . Try square is also usedfor marking right angles and measuring straightness of surface. It consists of a blade made up ofsteel which is attached to base at 90 degree. Jenny Caliper or Odd Leg Caliper This is used for marking parallel lines a finished edgeand also for locating the center of round bars.Try square It is used for checking squareness of surface. The base is made up of cost iron steel.

The pointed end is made from hardened steel so that it will stay sharp in use. Centre punch It is like a dot punch except the angle of punching end is 90°. It consists of a handle with a sharp point.Scriber This is the basic marking out tool. College of Ship Technology Page 15 . It is used tomark the center of the hole before drilling.

Chisels are classified on the bottom side. It consists of frame whichholds a thin blade. The number of teethper 25 mm of the blade length or teeth inch (TPI) is selected on the basis of the work material and thickness being cut. Generally 6” to 8” long. Commonly used forms of chisels are flat. firmly in the position.cross cut. half round and diamond point chisels. The blade has a number of cutting teeth. Chisels There are used for chipping away the material from the work piece.Hacksaw The hacksaw is used for cutting metal by handle. These are madeup of high carbon steel. Flat chisel is used for general College of Ship Technology Page 16 . The top is flattened and sharp cutting edge is madeon the bottom side.

5kg.. They weight from 200gm to 1.The different types of hammer are Ball peen hammer. Steel rule It is made up of stainless steel and marked with graduation of scales. chipping hammer etc. College of Ship Technology Page 17 . Hammer Hammer are named depending on their shape and material and specified by theirweight. A ball peen hammer has a flat which is used for riveting. cross cut chisel and half round chisels are used for grooving anddiamond point chisel is for precision work. Cross peen hammer.work.

cutting teeth and pitch or grade of the teeth. shoulders or corners and for sharpening wood working saws. It is mostly used for general work and filing flat surfaces. College of Ship Technology Page 18 . Types of files Files are classified according to their shape. It is used for filing internal angles. One end of the file is shaped to fitinto wooden handle. single cut on one edge and no teeth on the other edge. and they don’t produce smooth surfaces. It is used for enlarging holes. Round file It is also a double cut file. On the faces the teeth are usually diagonal to the edge. and used for enlarging square holes and filing of slot and keys. It is provided with cut teeth on the face. having slant parallel rows of cutting edges or teeth on itssurfaces.The hand file is parallel in which in width and tapering slightly in thickness towards thetop. slots. It’s each side on 60 degrees. Triangular file Its section is triangularand faces are double cut and edges are single cut. Flat File It has double cut on both sides and single on both edges.which is known as safe edge. A large amount of metal can be removed with this file. Square file It is double cut file on all sides. and concave.Files A file is hardened steel tool.

The flat side is double cut and curved side is single cut. It is used for filing curved surfaces. Different Types of Files used for different profiles College of Ship Technology Page 19 .Half round file It has one side flat and other side is half round.

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3) The given dimension are marked using the surface plate and surface gauge by referring the two sides as bases. 4) Punch marks are put on the line marked using prick punch. 2) Then the work piece is clamped properly in the bench vice and using a flat file any two sides of the work piece are filed. Result Thus the square fitting with required dimension is obtained College of Ship Technology Page 21 .Ex: No: 1 Aim SQUARE FITTING To make a square fitting from the given two mild steel pieces. Check whether the two sides are right angles using the try square. Tools Required Bench vice Try square Steel rule Prick punch Hacksaw Files Surface plate Surface gauge Ball peen hammer Procedure 1) The original dimensions of the work piece are checked using the steel rule. 6) Filing is continued until the required dimension and smooth surface of the work piece is obtained. 5) Now the remaining two faces are filed.

All Dimensions are in “mm” College of Ship Technology Page 22 .

Tools Required Bench vice Try square Steel rule Prick punch Hacksaws Files Surface plate Surface gauge Ball peen hammer Procedure 1) The original dimensions of the work piece are checked using the steel rule.Ex: No: 2 Aim VEE FITTING To make a Vee fitting from the given metal piece. 2) Then the work piece is clamped properly in the bench vice and using a flat file any two sides of the work piece are filed. Check whether the two sides are right angles using the try square. 3) The given dimension are marked using the surface plate and surface gauge by referring the two sides as bases. College of Ship Technology Page 23 . Result Thus the Vee fitting with required dimension is obtained. 7) Filing is continued until the required dimension and smooth surface of the work piece is obtained. 5) Now the remaining two faces are filed. Filling is continuity until the required size and smooth surface of the work piece is obtained this is repeated for the other work piece also. 6) Cut and remove the excess materials using the hacksaw. 4) Punch marks are put on the line marked using prick punch.

manganese copper and iron. improves the appearance of the metal and permits it to be soldered with greater ease. It offers very high resistance to corrosion and abrasion. domestic heating appliance. trunks. It is whitish in color and light in weight. They are reddish in color and their cold rolled variety. The useful variety of aluminum alloy which is rolled into sheet form carries additions of suitable amount of silicon. trunks. but welding is not so easy as zinc gives toxic fumes and residues. stove pipes.g. kitchen ware. which is vastly used in sheet metal work. Because of zinc it can with stand contact with water and exposure to weather. Consequently. The zinc coating resist rust. it is prone to corrosion. its use is confined mostly to the manufacture of such items which are to be painted before shipment. Galvanized Iron Zinc coated iron is called 'Galvanized iron'. College of Ship Technology Page 24 . Some representative examples are automobiles. buckers. pans. etc. However. articles like cabinets. e. is highly ductile and malleable and therefore can be easily worked. various applications in chemical plants.g. Aluminum Sheets On account of its inherited weakness it is not used in its pure form. are made of galvanized iron sheets Copper Sheets These sheets are relatively costlier but having specific advantages in being good corrosion resistant and good in appearance. it is probably the cheapest of all types of sheets used in sheet metal work. pans. etc.Chapter 3 SHEET METAL WORKING (i) Sheet metal materials Black Iron It is also known as uncoated sheet since it carries no artificial coating on its surfaces. Its common applications are aero plane bodies. e. Being uncoated. etc. This soft steel sheet is popularly known as GI sheet. etc. block iron is used in tanks.

Dividers Dividers are used for drawing circles or arcs on sheet metal. It is a long wire of steel with its one end sharply pointed and hardened to scratch lines on sheet metal in laying out patterns. They are also used to mark a desired distance between points and to divide lines into equal.5 mm.(ii) Tools used in Sheet metal shop: Steel Rule It is useful in measuring and laying out small work. It can be measure with accuracy of 0. College of Ship Technology Page 25 . Scriber This is sometimes called the metal workers pencil.

in a more permanent manner.These are used for making small holes from 2. etc.5 mm to 10 mm. lead or mostly of wood. Two types of punches are generally used: Prink Punch: It is used to make small marks on layout lines in order to mark theprick punch marks longer. Solid and hollow punches are very similar the other two puncher the inner and outer faces of the punch meetingat an angle of 40. College of Ship Technology Page 26 .Punches A Punch is used in sheet metal work for marking out work. used to strike a soft and light blow on the metal. locating centers. copper brass. Mallet These are soft hammers and made of saw hide. Center Punch: It is used only to make the prick punch marks larger at the centers of holes that are to be drilled. hard rubber.

Both these snips are very light and can be easily handled by one hand. These are also double cutting shear. Stakes Stakes are the sheet metal workers evils used for bending. They actually work as supporting tools as well as forming tools. It should be used only to cut 20 gauge or thinner metal. soft metal. College of Ship Technology Page 27 . There are several types of snips available for making straight or circular cuts. the most common being straight snip have straight blade for straight line cutting while curved or bent snips have curved blades for making circular cuts. squaring shear. using a hammer or mallet. They are made in different shape and sizes to suit the requirements of the work. seaming or forming.Snips of Shears A snip. The heavier classes are known as bench shears and block shears where one handle may be held in vice bench plate while the other handle is moved up anddown to do the cutting. ring shear and circular shear used for particular requirements as the name indicates. They also help in bending operation. also called a hand shear is used like a pair of scissors to cut thin.

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College of Ship Technology Page 29 . Then the sheet is leveled on the leveling plate using a mallet. The sheet is cut as per the marked dimensions by straight snips. 3. 6. The dimensions are marked as shown in figure. Material Required G. 2.l Dimensions are in “mm” Ex: no: 1 Rectangular Tray Aim To make a rectangulartray from the given sheet metal.I Sheet Tools required • Steel rule • Mallet • Scriber • Divider • Protractor • Snips • Stakes • Ball peen hammer Procedure 1. Then a single hemming is made on the four sides of the tray as shown in figure. 5. 4. The development procedure is followed the same as the square taper tray. 7. The size of the given sheet is checked for its dimension using steel rule. Result Thus desired rectangular tray is made from the given sheet metal. The four sides of the tray bent to 90° by using the stakes anvil.

I Sheet Tools required • Steel rule College of Ship Technology Page 30 . Material Required G.Ex: No: 2 Aim Sheet Metal Scoop To make a scoop from the given sheet metal.

Then the sheet is leveled on the leveling plate using a mallet. The sheet is cut as per the marked dimensions by straight snips. Then a single hemming is made on the three sides of the scoop as shown in figure. 2. The development procedure is followed the same as the square taper tray. The dimensions are marked as shown in figure. with or without the use of filler metal. 5.• • • • • • • Procedure Mallet Scriber Divider Protractor Snips Stakes Ball peen hammer 1. 4. The size of the given sheet is checked for its dimension using steel rule. with College of Ship Technology Page 31 . 7. 3. The three sides of the scoop bent to 90° by using the stakes anvil. Result Thus desired scoop is made from the given sheet metal. Chapter 4 WELDING (i) Introduction Welding is a metal joining process wherein localized coalescence is produced either byheating the metal to a suitable temperature. 6.

Itis used to transmit full current from electrode holder to the front end of the electrode coating. Electrodes Filler rods are used in arc welding are called as electrodes.orwithout application of pressure. The electricmotor generator or transformer sets are used to supply high electric current and theelectrodes are used to produce the necessary arc. It is uniformly with a protective coating called flux while fluxingan electrode about 20 mm of length is left bare at one end for holding it using electrode holder.coalescence is produced by heating the work piece with an electric arc struck between electrodeand the work piece. the source of heat is electricity. In arc welding process. Filler material may ormay not be used. (ii) Electric Arc welding In the arc welding process. The Electrodes are made ofmetallic wire called core wire. Electrode Holder College of Ship Technology Page 32 . Welding may be carried out in air or in an inert atm. The temperature of the arc is of the order of 3600ºC. Principle of operation The heat required for joining the metals is obtained from an electric arc. The electrode serves as the filler rod andarc melts the surfaces so that the metals to be joined are fused together. It is used to fill gap between the joint surfaces.The filler material has similar composition and melting point temperature as that of thebase metal.

The cables are well isolated with rubber. Welding Cables Two cables are needed for welding purpose. Welding Bead cleaning accessories Chipping hammer A chipping hammer is chisel-shaped one and it is used to remove the slag from the weldbead. another cable is connected to ground. Electrode holder should be light. to minimize fatigue incurred by the welder. College of Ship Technology Page 33 . removes small particles ofslag from the weld bead after the chipping hammer is used.Jaws are made to hold the bare end of the electrode in either at vertical or at an angular position. Wire Brush A wire brush made up of stiff steel wire.It is a device used for mechanically holing the electrode and conducting current to it. embedded in wood. One is used to connect the powersource to electrode.

Helmet It is used for shielding and protecting the face and neck of the welder and it is fitted witha suitable fitter lens. They are fitted whilea plain glass to see the area to be cleaned. arc radiation and hotspatters. A hand shield is held in the hand of thewelder and it is fitted with a suitable fitter lens. College of Ship Technology Page 34 .Hand Screen It is a protective device used in arc welding. Goggles Goggles are used to protect the eyes while chipping the slag. they are also used tohold the metal for hammering. Tongs Tongs are used to handle the hot metal-welding job while cleaning. Hand Gloves Hand gloves are used to protect the hands from electrical shock.

mechanization is difficult.Usually the mixture of oxygen and acetylene is used for welding purpose. Disadvantages of arc welding  Because of the limited length of each electrode and brittle flux coating on it.Advantages of arc welding  Flux shielded manual metal arc welding is the simplest of all the arc welding process. the weld is to be progressed with thenext electrode.6 mm.  The equipment can be portable and the cost is fairly low. a defect may occur at the place where welding isrestarted with the new electrode. because of the availability of a wide variety of electrodes. Oxy-acetylene welding College of Ship Technology Page 35 . as one electrode finishes.  In welding long joints. Unless properly cared.  It cannot be used to weld metal thickness less than 1.  This process finds innumerable applications. (iii) Gas welding Gas welding is a process in which the required heat to melt the surfaces is supplied by ahigh temperature flame obtained by a mixture of two gases.

The filler metal rod is generallyadded to the molten metal pool to build up the seam for greater strength. Oxygen is mainly used for supporting the combustion intensity. Each cylinder is connected to the blowpipe by flexible hoses. The flame resulting at the tip of the torch is sufficient enough to melt andthe parent material .ignition is takes place. The oxygen cylinders arepainted block and acetylene cylinders are painted maroon.The oxygen and acetylene under high pressure in cylinders which are fitted with pressureregulator. College of Ship Technology Page 36 .When acetylene is mixed with oxygen in correct proportions in the welding torch.The flame temperature is about 3200ºC.In oxy-acetylene welding oxygen and acetylene are the two gases used for producingflame.

Material used Mild Steel plates Tools required          Welding power supply Flat file Welding rod Chipping hammer Electrode holder Wire brush Gloves and apron Earthing clamps Shield and goggles Procedure College of Ship Technology Page 37 .All Dimensions are in “mm” Ex: No: 1 LAP JOINT Aim To join the given two work pieces as a lap joint by arc welding.

Appropriate power supply should be given to the electrode and the work pieces. Then the welding is carried out throughout the length. 7. arc is produced between the electrode and work pieces. 3. 8. the work pieces must be thoroughly cleaned to remove rust. switch off the current supply and allow thework piece to cool. Then the given work pieces are placed on the table in such a way that one work pieceis placed on the other work piece like the LAP joint is formed. welded portions are cleaned. Result Thus the given two work pieces are joined as a lap joint by arc welding. As soon as the welding process is finished. 5. 4. 9. College of Ship Technology Page 38 . Slag is removed by chipping process with the help of chipping hammer. When current is passed.1. 6. 2. First of all. scale and otherforeign materials. Finally using wire brush. Now the welding current output may be adjusted.

All Dimensions are in “mm” Ex: No: 2 College of Ship Technology TEE JOINT Page 39 .

Aim To join the given two work pieces as a ‘T’ joint by arc welding. When current is passed. Slag is removed by chipping process with the help of chipping hammer. First of all. scale and otherforeign materials. As soon as the welding process is finished. Appropriate power supply should be given to the electrode and the work pieces. Now the welding current output may be adjusted. The joint is placed on a welding table in a flat position by keeping the tag side down. 8. Now the work pieces are placed on the table in such a way that two work pieces areabroad close to each other T shapes are formed as shown in figure. Result College of Ship Technology Page 40 . the work pieces must be thoroughly cleaned to remove rust. 2. 3. 11. welded portions are cleaned. Then the welding is carried out throughout the work piece. 10. arc is produced between the electrode and work pieces. 6. 7. 4. 9. 5. Finally using wire brush. switch off the current supply and allow thework piece to cool. Material used Mild Steel plates Tools required          Welding power supply Flat file Welding rod Chipping hammer Electrode holder Wire brush Gloves and apron Earthing clamps Shield and goggles Procedure 1. Now set the two work pieces in correct position like T joint and tag at both ends of thework pieces as shown in figure.

Thus the required ‘T-joint’ is made by arc welding process. College of Ship Technology Page 41 .

College of Ship Technology Page 42 .

When the chuck rotated the work piece alsorotated. The bed is made up of cast iron to observe shock and vibration created duringmachining. (i) Back geared mechanism (ii) Belt College of Ship Technology Page 43 . The headstock is mounted on the left end. The main function of lathe is to removemetals from work piece to give a required shape and size. whereas the tool moves perpendicular to the work piece to produce a flat surface. and chamfering. Headstock It is mounted on the left end of the bed. In the lathe the work piece is held in achuck. Single point cutting tool is mounted in tool post. then the lathe is calledautomatic lathe.there quire size and shape of the work is obtained. thread cutting. alloyed withnickel. facing. The tool moves parallel to the axis of rotation of work piece to produce a cylindricalsurface. The bed is made up of cast iron. It carries a hollow spindle. grooving. So. Thetool moves at an angle to the axis of work piece to produce a turn surface. (iii) Parts of the lathe Bed Bed is the base of the lathe. the work piece is held in chuck and rotates about its axis by means of power. (ii) Working principle of lathe In a lathe. taper turning arecarried out. In chuck faceplates can be attached to thespindle. the carriage is inthe middle and the tailstock at the right end of bed. The guide ways of the bed may be flatter inverted ‘V’ shape. The spindle nose is threaded. When the operations above set are done automatically. The tool is moved at an angle 90_ to the axis.taper turning.Chapter 5 STUDY OF LATHE (i) Introduction Lathe is called the father of machine tools. Various operations such as straight turning. knurling. chromium. The material is removed in the form of chip from the work piece by giving proper feed and depth of cut. The live center can beattached in the spindle. The headstock has two types of drivingmechanism. The headstock may be back threaded type.

It carries the crossslide. It is fixed over the compound rest. It has gears. Cross slide It is attached to the upper side of saddle and carries compound slide and tool post. Thecarriage from the lead screw is used in thread cutting work. The crossslide can be moved cross wise by hand or power. levers. to support the different length work. Carriage Carriage is used for giving various feed to the tool by hand or by power. It is used during the taper turning opening operations to set thetool for angular cuts. clutchesformoving the carriage automatically. Tool post The tool is clamped over the tool post. The micrometer dial is mounted on the crossslide hand wheel. reamer tools for drilling. reaming and such other operations.Tailstock It is located on the bed at the right end.05mm. Apron Apron is attached to the saddle and hangs in front of the bed. The tailstock can bemoved along the bed and clamped at any position. Lead Screw College of Ship Technology Page 44 . It is used for supports right end of work and also forholding drills. A split nut is attached for engaging and disengaging. The carriage isattached with the saddle. compound rest and a tool post. Saddle It is a H shaped casting fitted on the bed and moves along the guide ways. Here the micrometer dial is mounted to show the depth of cut. with an accuracy of 0. Compound Rest It is attached over the cross slide.

It is usedfor operations like facing. turning and boring. curved. Feed rod The feed rod is the long shaft used for the movement of carriage along the axis of bed. (iv) Various lathe operations • • • • • • • Turning – produces straight. or grooved work pieces Facing – produces a flat surface at the end of the part Boring – to enlarge a hole Drilling .It is a longer screw with standard ACME square threads and used for transmitting powerfor automatic feed for thread cutting operation.to produce a hole Cutting off – to cut off a work piece Threading – to produce threads Knurling – produces a regularly shaped roughness (v) Work holding devices College of Ship Technology Page 45 . conical.

Three Jaw chuck: It usually has three jaws. the jaws are moved simultaneously within the chuck Four Jaw chuck: This is independent chuck generally has four jaws.Work piece mounted between centers In this method. the long work pieces can be held between two centers( Live and Dead centers) for accurate machining. which are adjusted individually on the chuck face by means of adjusting screws College of Ship Technology Page 46 .

Face plates: The face plate is used for irregularly shaped work pieces that cannot be successfully held by chucks or mounted between centers Mandrels: College of Ship Technology Page 47 .

Collet chuck: Collet chuck is used to hold small work pieces. College of Ship Technology Page 48 .A work piece which cannot be held between centers because its axis has been drilled or bored and which is not suitable for holding in a chuck or against a faceplate is usually machined on mandrel.

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