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PROCEDURES TO BE FOLLOWED IN WORKSHOP In the first engineering workshop class, students need to be taken for a walk around the workshop to let them know about the various divisions of the workshop (Such as Machine shop, Welding Shop, Fitting Shop and Sheet metal shop) and to know the location of the fire safety devices, important operating controls, first aid box , emergency exits etc., In the same class, students need to be given the appropriate overalls and safety shoes, after getting the signatures for the receipt of the same. At the same time they need to be informed about the safe handling and maintenance of those items as it will not be given again during their study in the college, irrespective of the level unless the situation warrants in the opinion of the HoS or HoD. Then Instructions need to be given to the students by the lecturer regarding the Health and Safety Practices in the workshop and the proper code of conduct inside the workshop which are given below Students and staff should wear the overalls and safety shoes when they are in the workshop without which the entry is prohibited. Tools need to be obtained from the stores, only through the window provided for that purpose. Student’s entry is prohibited inside the stores. While working, all the safety items (Such as goggles, gloves etc.,) required for the work should be used. Incase of an accident, the people involved should be given the first aid and the medical attention immediately. Then an accident report need to be prepared by the workshop in charge and submitted to the higher authorities. All near miss incidents need to be recorded and reported After the work, students should clean their workplace and have to return all the tools and safety items that were borrowed, before they leave. Proper follow up is the responsibility of the lecturer and technician of that class. It is the technician’s duty to make sure that all the tools and equipment’s that are required to handle the class is ready, before the starting of the class. Littering inside the workshop is an offense.
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Students should concentrate in their work when they are inside the workshop. Playing, shouting, Joking and not obeying the instructions will invite punishments. After the work, the machines and the equipment’s need to be switched off. Malfunctioning of the equipment’s and the breakage of the tools need to be immediately reported by the students to the technicians they in turn should record the report and should take measures to correct the failure. Eating and drinking inside the workshop is strictly prohibited All malfunctions of the equipment’s and the misbehaviors of people need to be immediately brought to the notice of the workshop in charge in turn to the HoS and HoD. Following are the various maintenance activities which are to be carried out in the workshops by the technicians in charge of that workshop Routine and periodic checking and inspections. Ensuring proper functioning of different Parts and elements in the equipment’s. Cleaning and lubrication of contacts and bearings. Corrective actions against failures and malfunctioning Maintaining the stock register, equipment maintenance register and the accident report file is the responsibility of the technician in charge of the workshop.
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Duties of the lecturers who are handling the workshop classes are as follows: Lecturers should prepare the required teaching materials. Lecturers should teach the students about the concepts, theory and procedures related to the job before they start the work. Students shall be taught to understand the drawings, required list of tools /instruments and materials etc. Detailed description of the procedural steps of the skill /practice shall be given to the students before they start working on the machines. Special precautions to be taken while doing a particular job shall be stated with stress and emphasis. The quality of the work done by the students shall be checked in real time when they work. They must ensure that the machines/work tables are cleaned neatly by the students. Overall performance of the students and reports of the skill/ practice presented by the students along with the results shall be evaluated and respective grades/mark shall be entered in the assessment record. Scheduling, conducting the examinations and assessment is the responsibility of the lecturers. Maintenance of attendance records and reporting the absentees when they cross 10%, 20% and 30% limits is also the responsibility of the lecturers. At the end of the day/week, the technician in charge should lock all the doors after ensuring the equipment shutdown.
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Chapter 1 Safety in Workshop (i) Introduction to Safety Personal Safety Always wear overalls in the workshop Always protect the eyes by wearing goggleswhen using machinery. Always wear safety boots in the workshop Wear a suitable respiration when dust and fumes are present Keep hair shorts or wear a cap. Don’t wear rings or watches when working on a machine Gloves should always be worn when handling sharp components. Never wear gloves when operating machine tools. Use hand cream to remove oil or grease from the hands.
Safety Precautions in Machines Don’t start a machine without receiving operating instructions. You have to know how to stop the machine before start it. Make sure that all guards are in position. Isolate the machine before starting repair work on it. Do not lean on a machine whilst it is working.
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These signs indicate things that you must doand precautions that you must take. These signs must be obeyed.Safety Clothing Overalls Ear protection Caps Goggles Gloves Boots and shoes Respirators Proper Clothing’s in Workshop Mandatory signs You can recognize these signs as they have a blue background colour. you have no College of Ship Technology Page 5 . Figure shows five typical mandatory signs. Thesymbol must be white.
Such wounds can result in paralysis of the hand and fingers.They may also prevent you from snatching your hand away from adangerous situation.Long hair is also a health hazard.Loose cuffs are also liable to be caught up like any other loose clothing. again. Buttons missing and loose cuffs Since the overalls cannot be fastened properly. Permanent disfigurementwill result and brain damage can also occur. However. as it is almost impossible to keepclean and free from infection in a workshop environment. Either adoptsa short and more manageable head style or some sort of head covering that will keep your hair out of harm’s way. College of Ship Technology Page 6 . to be completely effective certain precautions must be taken.option in the matter. Appearance Clothing For general workshop purposes a boiler suit is the most practical and safestform of clothing. This can result in the hair and scalp being tornaway which is extremely dangerous and painful. you would be puttingyourself at considerable risk.To disregard them is an offence in law as. Long hair Long hair is liable to be caught in moving machinery such as drillingmachines and lathes. it becomes as dangerous asany other loose clothing and is liable to be caught in moving machinery. Sharp tools Sharp tools protruding from the breast pocket can cause severe woundsto the wrist.
rough.If it becomes entangled in a machine. crushed toes caused by falling objects.When working on site. Hand protection Your hands are in constant use and. they are constantly atrisk handling dirty. particularly when negotiating stairways. Lightweight shoes The possible injuries associated with lightweight and unsuitable shoes are: puncture wounds caused by treading on sharp objects. all persons should wear a safety helmetcomplying with BS 2826. Even small objects such as nuts and bolts cancause serious head injuries when dropped from a height. or in a heavy engineering erection shop involvingthe use of overhead cranes.Hole in pocket Tools placed in a torn pocket can fall through onto the feet of the wearer. oily. Head and eye protection As has already been stated. hot and possibly corrosiveand toxic materials. because of this. Overalls too long These can cause you to trip and fall. College of Ship Technology Page 7 . then your hair must be contained in a close fitting cap. Gloves and ‘palms’ of a variety of styles and typesof materials are available to protect your hands whatever the nature ofthe work. the operatorcan be scalped. long hair is a serious hazard in a workshop. If you wish to retain a long hairstyle in the interests offashion. sharp. This alsohelps to keep your hair and scalp clean and healthy. greasy.Although this may not seem potentially dangerous. it could cause anaccident by distracting your attention at a crucial moment.
it can still cause serious injury. Even if the shock is not sufficiently severeto cause death. The sudden convulsioncaused by the shock can throw you from a ladder or against movingmachinery. To reduce the risk of shock. all electrical equipment shouldbe earthed or double insulated. College of Ship Technology Page 8 .The hazard of long hair (ii) Causes of Electrical shock An electric shock from a 240 volt single-phase supply (lightingand office equipment) or a 415 volt three-phase supply (most factorymachines) can easily kill you.
therefore. College of Ship Technology Page 9 .It requires only one person to panic and run in the wrong direction to causea disaster. The power tool must besuitable for operating at such a voltage. It spreads quickly through a building. Any leakage to earth through the body of the user or byany other route will upset the balance between these two currents. Smoke is less dense nearthe floor: as a last resort crawl. (iii) Fire Fighting Fire fighting is a highly skilled operation and most medium and largefirms have properly trained teams who can contain the fire locally untilthe professional brigade arrives.Further. To reduce the spread of smoke and fire. portable power tools should befed from a low-voltage transformer at 110 volts. The best way you can help is to learn thecorrect fire drill. both how to give the alarm and how to leave the building. Therefore it is best to leave the building as quickly as possibleand leave the fire fighting to the professionals who have breathingapparatus. Saving human life is more important than saving property. Such a small current applied for such a short time isnot dangerous. Fire extinguishers The normally available fire extinguishers and the types of fire they canbe used for are as follows. The sensitivity ofresidual current detectors is such that a difference of only a few mill amperesis sufficient to cut off the supply and the time delay is only afew microseconds. Smoke is the main cause of panic. Itcauses choking and even death by asphyxiation. Thisresults in the supply being immediately disconnected. The plastic materialsused in the finishes and furnishings of modern buildings give off highlytoxic fumes. The electrical supply to a portable power tool should. The transformer itself should beprotected by a circuit breaker containing a residual current detector.reducing visibility and increasing the risk of falls down stairways. Such a device compares themagnitudes of the current flowing in the live and neutral conductors supplyingthe tool.keep fire doors closed at all times but never locked.The fuses and circuit breakers designed to protect the supply circuitryto the transformer react too slowly to protect the user from electric shock. be protectedby a residual current detector (RCD).
paper and some plastics.for various technical reasons. However. Carbon dioxide (CO2) extinguishers These are used on burning gases and vapours. do not usethem on fires associated with electrical equipment or the person wieldingthe hose or the extinguisher will be electrocuted. The carbon dioxide gas replacesthe air and smothers the College of Ship Technology Page 10 . Water alone cannot be used because oilfloats on the water and this spreads the area of the fire.Water Used in large quantities water reduces the temperature and puts out thefire. A typical foamextinguisher is shown in Fig. They can also be used foroil and chemical fires in confined places.A typical hose point and a typicalpressurized water extinguisher are shown in this figure. The steam generated also helps to smother the flames as it displacesthe air and therefore the oxygen essential to the burning process. water should be used only on burning solidssuch as wood. Note: Since both water and foam are electrically conductive. (a). Foam extinguishers These are used for fighting oil and chemical fires. The foam smothersthe flames and prevents the oxygen in the air from reaching the burningmaterials at the seat of the fire.
vaporizing liquid extinguishers are safe to use on firesassociated with electrical equipment. whereit cannot be displaced by draughts. Figure (b) shows a typicalCO2 extinguisher. this is a very efficientway of producing the blanketing vapour. They are also useful for fires in electricalequipment. Dry powder extinguishers These are suitable for small fires involving flammable liquids and smallquantities of solids such as paper. College of Ship Technology Page 11 . Vaporizing liquidextinguishers are suitable for oil. Back away from the bubble of CO 2 gas as you operate theextinguisher. Note: If the fire cannot breathe neither can you. vapour and chemical fires. LikeCO2 extinguishers. Any vapour that will smotherthe fire will also smother all living creatures which must be evacuatedbefore using such extinguishers. CBM and BCF extinguishers. (d). Since a small amountof liquid produces a very large amount of vapour. (c). Vaporizing liquid extinguishers These include CTC.fire. A typical example of a drypowder extinguisher is shown in Fig. It can be used only in confined places. The heat from the firecauses rapid vaporization of the liquid sprayed from the extinguisher andthis vapour displaces the air and smothers the fire.The active ingredient is powdered sodium bicarbonate (baking powder)which gives off carbon dioxide when heated. so care must be takento evacuate all living creatures from the vicinity before operating theextinguisher. offices and kitchens since the powder is not only non-toxic. do not advance towards it. As with CO2 extinguishers always backaway from the bubble of vapour. A typical example of a vaporizingliquid extinguisher is shown in Fig. itcan be easily removed by vacuum cleaning and there is no residual mess. gas. never advance into it.
Various Types of Fire Extinguishers a) Foam type b) Co2 type c) Vaporizing liquid d) Dry powder College of Ship Technology Page 12 .
College of Ship Technology Page 13 . It consists if a cast iron body andcast iron jaws. Position the work piece area such that the cut to be making is close to the vice. relieve the force on return stroke. tight handle. Jaw plates are made up of high carbonsteel and are wear resistant. Start a new blade in another place when a blade breaks during a cut. Select the type. job is placed in the two is fully tightened withhandle. shape and size of wrench opening most suitable for the application. Position the jaws as close to the work as possible to prevent slipping. The handle must be securely welded. Two jaws plates are fitted on both the jaws. Check the hammer each time before it is used. This prevents binding and blade breakages.Chapter 2 FITTING SHOP (i) Safety precautions in fitting shop Use a file with a properly fitted.One jaw is fixed to the body and the second slides on a square threaded screw with the help of thehandle. The jaws are opened up to required length. Apply force only on the forward (cutting) stroke. (ii) Tools used in Fitting Shop Bench vice The wise is common tools used for holding jobs.
It consists of a blade made up ofsteel which is attached to base at 90 degree. They are specified by the height of the leg up to thehinge point. Jenny Caliper or Odd Leg Caliper This is used for marking parallel lines a finished edgeand also for locating the center of round bars. The base is made up of cost iron steel.Try square It is used for checking squareness of surface. Try square is also usedfor marking right angles and measuring straightness of surface. College of Ship Technology Page 14 .
It consists of a handle with a sharp point.Scriber This is the basic marking out tool. College of Ship Technology Page 15 . Centre punch It is like a dot punch except the angle of punching end is 90°. The pointed end is made from hardened steel so that it will stay sharp in use. It is used tomark the center of the hole before drilling.
firmly in the position. It consists of frame whichholds a thin blade. These are madeup of high carbon steel. Chisels are classified on the bottom side. half round and diamond point chisels. The blade has a number of cutting teeth. Commonly used forms of chisels are flat.cross cut. Flat chisel is used for general College of Ship Technology Page 16 .Hacksaw The hacksaw is used for cutting metal by handle. The top is flattened and sharp cutting edge is madeon the bottom side. The number of teethper 25 mm of the blade length or teeth inch (TPI) is selected on the basis of the work material and thickness being cut. Chisels There are used for chipping away the material from the work piece. Generally 6” to 8” long.
work. Steel rule It is made up of stainless steel and marked with graduation of scales.The different types of hammer are Ball peen hammer. A ball peen hammer has a flat which is used for riveting. cross cut chisel and half round chisels are used for grooving anddiamond point chisel is for precision work. College of Ship Technology Page 17 . chipping hammer etc.5kg.. They weight from 200gm to 1. Cross peen hammer. Hammer Hammer are named depending on their shape and material and specified by theirweight.
and concave. having slant parallel rows of cutting edges or teeth on itssurfaces. College of Ship Technology Page 18 .Files A file is hardened steel tool. and used for enlarging square holes and filing of slot and keys. Types of files Files are classified according to their shape. Flat File It has double cut on both sides and single on both edges. One end of the file is shaped to fitinto wooden handle. It is used for filing internal angles. single cut on one edge and no teeth on the other edge.The hand file is parallel in which in width and tapering slightly in thickness towards thetop. A large amount of metal can be removed with this file. Triangular file Its section is triangularand faces are double cut and edges are single cut. It is used for enlarging holes. It is mostly used for general work and filing flat surfaces. slots. It’s each side on 60 degrees. It is provided with cut teeth on the face. On the faces the teeth are usually diagonal to the edge. and they don’t produce smooth surfaces. Square file It is double cut file on all sides. cutting teeth and pitch or grade of the teeth. shoulders or corners and for sharpening wood working saws. Round file It is also a double cut file.which is known as safe edge.
Half round file It has one side flat and other side is half round. The flat side is double cut and curved side is single cut. Different Types of Files used for different profiles College of Ship Technology Page 19 . It is used for filing curved surfaces.
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2) Then the work piece is clamped properly in the bench vice and using a flat file any two sides of the work piece are filed. 4) Punch marks are put on the line marked using prick punch. Check whether the two sides are right angles using the try square. Result Thus the square fitting with required dimension is obtained College of Ship Technology Page 21 . 6) Filing is continued until the required dimension and smooth surface of the work piece is obtained.Ex: No: 1 Aim SQUARE FITTING To make a square fitting from the given two mild steel pieces. 5) Now the remaining two faces are filed. 3) The given dimension are marked using the surface plate and surface gauge by referring the two sides as bases. Tools Required Bench vice Try square Steel rule Prick punch Hacksaw Files Surface plate Surface gauge Ball peen hammer Procedure 1) The original dimensions of the work piece are checked using the steel rule.
All Dimensions are in “mm” College of Ship Technology Page 22 .
Result Thus the Vee fitting with required dimension is obtained. 5) Now the remaining two faces are filed. Tools Required Bench vice Try square Steel rule Prick punch Hacksaws Files Surface plate Surface gauge Ball peen hammer Procedure 1) The original dimensions of the work piece are checked using the steel rule.Ex: No: 2 Aim VEE FITTING To make a Vee fitting from the given metal piece. 3) The given dimension are marked using the surface plate and surface gauge by referring the two sides as bases. Filling is continuity until the required size and smooth surface of the work piece is obtained this is repeated for the other work piece also. College of Ship Technology Page 23 . 6) Cut and remove the excess materials using the hacksaw. 2) Then the work piece is clamped properly in the bench vice and using a flat file any two sides of the work piece are filed. 4) Punch marks are put on the line marked using prick punch. 7) Filing is continued until the required dimension and smooth surface of the work piece is obtained. Check whether the two sides are right angles using the try square.
It is whitish in color and light in weight. which is vastly used in sheet metal work. trunks. e. it is probably the cheapest of all types of sheets used in sheet metal work. various applications in chemical plants. it is prone to corrosion. Some representative examples are automobiles. Galvanized Iron Zinc coated iron is called 'Galvanized iron'. Consequently. However. Its common applications are aero plane bodies. Aluminum Sheets On account of its inherited weakness it is not used in its pure form. etc. Being uncoated. etc. kitchen ware. etc. The zinc coating resist rust. domestic heating appliance. articles like cabinets. stove pipes. improves the appearance of the metal and permits it to be soldered with greater ease. This soft steel sheet is popularly known as GI sheet. trunks. The useful variety of aluminum alloy which is rolled into sheet form carries additions of suitable amount of silicon. They are reddish in color and their cold rolled variety. its use is confined mostly to the manufacture of such items which are to be painted before shipment. manganese copper and iron. pans. College of Ship Technology Page 24 .Chapter 3 SHEET METAL WORKING (i) Sheet metal materials Black Iron It is also known as uncoated sheet since it carries no artificial coating on its surfaces. but welding is not so easy as zinc gives toxic fumes and residues. block iron is used in tanks. It offers very high resistance to corrosion and abrasion. buckers. pans.g. e. is highly ductile and malleable and therefore can be easily worked.g. Because of zinc it can with stand contact with water and exposure to weather. are made of galvanized iron sheets Copper Sheets These sheets are relatively costlier but having specific advantages in being good corrosion resistant and good in appearance. etc.
5 mm. They are also used to mark a desired distance between points and to divide lines into equal.(ii) Tools used in Sheet metal shop: Steel Rule It is useful in measuring and laying out small work. College of Ship Technology Page 25 . It is a long wire of steel with its one end sharply pointed and hardened to scratch lines on sheet metal in laying out patterns. Scriber This is sometimes called the metal workers pencil. Dividers Dividers are used for drawing circles or arcs on sheet metal. It can be measure with accuracy of 0.
copper brass. Center Punch: It is used only to make the prick punch marks larger at the centers of holes that are to be drilled. in a more permanent manner. lead or mostly of wood. Mallet These are soft hammers and made of saw hide. Two types of punches are generally used: Prink Punch: It is used to make small marks on layout lines in order to mark theprick punch marks longer. used to strike a soft and light blow on the metal. Solid and hollow punches are very similar the other two puncher the inner and outer faces of the punch meetingat an angle of 40.Punches A Punch is used in sheet metal work for marking out work. hard rubber. locating centers.5 mm to 10 mm. etc.These are used for making small holes from 2. College of Ship Technology Page 26 .
They are made in different shape and sizes to suit the requirements of the work. Stakes Stakes are the sheet metal workers evils used for bending. These are also double cutting shear. It should be used only to cut 20 gauge or thinner metal.Snips of Shears A snip. ring shear and circular shear used for particular requirements as the name indicates. There are several types of snips available for making straight or circular cuts. also called a hand shear is used like a pair of scissors to cut thin. soft metal. They also help in bending operation. They actually work as supporting tools as well as forming tools. using a hammer or mallet. the most common being straight snip have straight blade for straight line cutting while curved or bent snips have curved blades for making circular cuts. College of Ship Technology Page 27 . squaring shear. seaming or forming. Both these snips are very light and can be easily handled by one hand. The heavier classes are known as bench shears and block shears where one handle may be held in vice bench plate while the other handle is moved up anddown to do the cutting.
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5. The dimensions are marked as shown in figure.I Sheet Tools required • Steel rule • Mallet • Scriber • Divider • Protractor • Snips • Stakes • Ball peen hammer Procedure 1. The sheet is cut as per the marked dimensions by straight snips. 3. 6. 2. Then a single hemming is made on the four sides of the tray as shown in figure.l Dimensions are in “mm” Ex: no: 1 Rectangular Tray Aim To make a rectangulartray from the given sheet metal. The four sides of the tray bent to 90° by using the stakes anvil. Result Thus desired rectangular tray is made from the given sheet metal. The size of the given sheet is checked for its dimension using steel rule. The development procedure is followed the same as the square taper tray. Material Required G. 4. 7. College of Ship Technology Page 29 . Then the sheet is leveled on the leveling plate using a mallet.
I Sheet Tools required • Steel rule College of Ship Technology Page 30 .Ex: No: 2 Aim Sheet Metal Scoop To make a scoop from the given sheet metal. Material Required G.
3. 5. The sheet is cut as per the marked dimensions by straight snips. Chapter 4 WELDING (i) Introduction Welding is a metal joining process wherein localized coalescence is produced either byheating the metal to a suitable temperature. The size of the given sheet is checked for its dimension using steel rule. 2. Then a single hemming is made on the three sides of the scoop as shown in figure. The three sides of the scoop bent to 90° by using the stakes anvil. The development procedure is followed the same as the square taper tray. 6. with or without the use of filler metal. Result Thus desired scoop is made from the given sheet metal. 4.• • • • • • • Procedure Mallet Scriber Divider Protractor Snips Stakes Ball peen hammer 1. 7. Then the sheet is leveled on the leveling plate using a mallet. with College of Ship Technology Page 31 . The dimensions are marked as shown in figure.
It is uniformly with a protective coating called flux while fluxingan electrode about 20 mm of length is left bare at one end for holding it using electrode holder. The electrode serves as the filler rod andarc melts the surfaces so that the metals to be joined are fused together. It is used to fill gap between the joint surfaces. Electrodes Filler rods are used in arc welding are called as electrodes. Itis used to transmit full current from electrode holder to the front end of the electrode coating. Welding may be carried out in air or in an inert atm. The temperature of the arc is of the order of 3600ºC. The Electrodes are made ofmetallic wire called core wire.orwithout application of pressure. Filler material may ormay not be used.coalescence is produced by heating the work piece with an electric arc struck between electrodeand the work piece. Principle of operation The heat required for joining the metals is obtained from an electric arc. In arc welding process. the source of heat is electricity. Electrode Holder College of Ship Technology Page 32 . (ii) Electric Arc welding In the arc welding process.The filler material has similar composition and melting point temperature as that of thebase metal. The electricmotor generator or transformer sets are used to supply high electric current and theelectrodes are used to produce the necessary arc.
embedded in wood. Welding Bead cleaning accessories Chipping hammer A chipping hammer is chisel-shaped one and it is used to remove the slag from the weldbead.The cables are well isolated with rubber. to minimize fatigue incurred by the welder. College of Ship Technology Page 33 . removes small particles ofslag from the weld bead after the chipping hammer is used.Jaws are made to hold the bare end of the electrode in either at vertical or at an angular position.It is a device used for mechanically holing the electrode and conducting current to it. Welding Cables Two cables are needed for welding purpose. another cable is connected to ground. Wire Brush A wire brush made up of stiff steel wire. One is used to connect the powersource to electrode. Electrode holder should be light.
They are fitted whilea plain glass to see the area to be cleaned.Hand Screen It is a protective device used in arc welding. Tongs Tongs are used to handle the hot metal-welding job while cleaning. A hand shield is held in the hand of thewelder and it is fitted with a suitable fitter lens. arc radiation and hotspatters. they are also used tohold the metal for hammering. Helmet It is used for shielding and protecting the face and neck of the welder and it is fitted witha suitable fitter lens. Goggles Goggles are used to protect the eyes while chipping the slag. College of Ship Technology Page 34 . Hand Gloves Hand gloves are used to protect the hands from electrical shock.
Usually the mixture of oxygen and acetylene is used for welding purpose. because of the availability of a wide variety of electrodes. the weld is to be progressed with thenext electrode. The equipment can be portable and the cost is fairly low. In welding long joints.6 mm. This process finds innumerable applications. Oxy-acetylene welding College of Ship Technology Page 35 .Advantages of arc welding Flux shielded manual metal arc welding is the simplest of all the arc welding process. It cannot be used to weld metal thickness less than 1. a defect may occur at the place where welding isrestarted with the new electrode. mechanization is difficult. (iii) Gas welding Gas welding is a process in which the required heat to melt the surfaces is supplied by ahigh temperature flame obtained by a mixture of two gases. as one electrode finishes. Disadvantages of arc welding Because of the limited length of each electrode and brittle flux coating on it. Unless properly cared.
Each cylinder is connected to the blowpipe by flexible hoses.The flame temperature is about 3200ºC.When acetylene is mixed with oxygen in correct proportions in the welding torch. The oxygen cylinders arepainted block and acetylene cylinders are painted maroon.The filler metal rod is generallyadded to the molten metal pool to build up the seam for greater strength.ignition is takes place. Oxygen is mainly used for supporting the combustion intensity.In oxy-acetylene welding oxygen and acetylene are the two gases used for producingflame.The oxygen and acetylene under high pressure in cylinders which are fitted with pressureregulator. College of Ship Technology Page 36 . The flame resulting at the tip of the torch is sufficient enough to melt andthe parent material .
All Dimensions are in “mm” Ex: No: 1 LAP JOINT Aim To join the given two work pieces as a lap joint by arc welding. Material used Mild Steel plates Tools required Welding power supply Flat file Welding rod Chipping hammer Electrode holder Wire brush Gloves and apron Earthing clamps Shield and goggles Procedure College of Ship Technology Page 37 .
Result Thus the given two work pieces are joined as a lap joint by arc welding. 8. Finally using wire brush. As soon as the welding process is finished. scale and otherforeign materials. Slag is removed by chipping process with the help of chipping hammer. arc is produced between the electrode and work pieces. Then the given work pieces are placed on the table in such a way that one work pieceis placed on the other work piece like the LAP joint is formed. First of all.1. the work pieces must be thoroughly cleaned to remove rust. 9. 6. switch off the current supply and allow thework piece to cool. Appropriate power supply should be given to the electrode and the work pieces. 4. College of Ship Technology Page 38 . When current is passed. 2. 7. welded portions are cleaned. Then the welding is carried out throughout the length. 5. 3. Now the welding current output may be adjusted.
All Dimensions are in “mm” Ex: No: 2 College of Ship Technology TEE JOINT Page 39 .
First of all. Then the welding is carried out throughout the work piece. As soon as the welding process is finished. 6. 11. 2. Finally using wire brush. switch off the current supply and allow thework piece to cool. 8. 7. arc is produced between the electrode and work pieces. Result College of Ship Technology Page 40 . the work pieces must be thoroughly cleaned to remove rust. Slag is removed by chipping process with the help of chipping hammer. The joint is placed on a welding table in a flat position by keeping the tag side down. 4. 5. Now the work pieces are placed on the table in such a way that two work pieces areabroad close to each other T shapes are formed as shown in figure. 3. 9. Material used Mild Steel plates Tools required Welding power supply Flat file Welding rod Chipping hammer Electrode holder Wire brush Gloves and apron Earthing clamps Shield and goggles Procedure 1. welded portions are cleaned. Now the welding current output may be adjusted. When current is passed. 10.Aim To join the given two work pieces as a ‘T’ joint by arc welding. Appropriate power supply should be given to the electrode and the work pieces. scale and otherforeign materials. Now set the two work pieces in correct position like T joint and tag at both ends of thework pieces as shown in figure.
College of Ship Technology Page 41 .Thus the required ‘T-joint’ is made by arc welding process.
College of Ship Technology Page 42 .
Various operations such as straight turning. Thetool moves at an angle to the axis of work piece to produce a turn surface.there quire size and shape of the work is obtained. In chuck faceplates can be attached to thespindle. thread cutting. and chamfering. When the chuck rotated the work piece alsorotated. The spindle nose is threaded. The main function of lathe is to removemetals from work piece to give a required shape and size. grooving. The live center can beattached in the spindle. alloyed withnickel. (i) Back geared mechanism (ii) Belt College of Ship Technology Page 43 . The material is removed in the form of chip from the work piece by giving proper feed and depth of cut. So. chromium. whereas the tool moves perpendicular to the work piece to produce a flat surface. the carriage is inthe middle and the tailstock at the right end of bed. facing. The headstock may be back threaded type. (iii) Parts of the lathe Bed Bed is the base of the lathe. knurling. taper turning arecarried out. (ii) Working principle of lathe In a lathe. Headstock It is mounted on the left end of the bed. The headstock has two types of drivingmechanism. When the operations above set are done automatically. The bed is made up of cast iron to observe shock and vibration created duringmachining. the work piece is held in chuck and rotates about its axis by means of power. The tool moves parallel to the axis of rotation of work piece to produce a cylindricalsurface. The headstock is mounted on the left end. The guide ways of the bed may be flatter inverted ‘V’ shape. Single point cutting tool is mounted in tool post. It carries a hollow spindle. then the lathe is calledautomatic lathe. The tool is moved at an angle 90_ to the axis.Chapter 5 STUDY OF LATHE (i) Introduction Lathe is called the father of machine tools. In the lathe the work piece is held in achuck. The bed is made up of cast iron.taper turning.
The crossslide can be moved cross wise by hand or power. It is used during the taper turning opening operations to set thetool for angular cuts. Here the micrometer dial is mounted to show the depth of cut. reaming and such other operations.05mm. It has gears. levers. The carriage isattached with the saddle. Tool post The tool is clamped over the tool post. Lead Screw College of Ship Technology Page 44 . It is used for supports right end of work and also forholding drills. It carries the crossslide. It is fixed over the compound rest. The tailstock can bemoved along the bed and clamped at any position. Carriage Carriage is used for giving various feed to the tool by hand or by power. with an accuracy of 0.Tailstock It is located on the bed at the right end. compound rest and a tool post. Thecarriage from the lead screw is used in thread cutting work. Cross slide It is attached to the upper side of saddle and carries compound slide and tool post. A split nut is attached for engaging and disengaging. Apron Apron is attached to the saddle and hangs in front of the bed. to support the different length work. The micrometer dial is mounted on the crossslide hand wheel. reamer tools for drilling. Compound Rest It is attached over the cross slide. Saddle It is a H shaped casting fitted on the bed and moves along the guide ways. clutchesformoving the carriage automatically.
(iv) Various lathe operations • • • • • • • Turning – produces straight.to produce a hole Cutting off – to cut off a work piece Threading – to produce threads Knurling – produces a regularly shaped roughness (v) Work holding devices College of Ship Technology Page 45 . turning and boring. It is usedfor operations like facing. or grooved work pieces Facing – produces a flat surface at the end of the part Boring – to enlarge a hole Drilling . conical. Feed rod The feed rod is the long shaft used for the movement of carriage along the axis of bed.It is a longer screw with standard ACME square threads and used for transmitting powerfor automatic feed for thread cutting operation. curved.
Work piece mounted between centers In this method. the long work pieces can be held between two centers( Live and Dead centers) for accurate machining. which are adjusted individually on the chuck face by means of adjusting screws College of Ship Technology Page 46 . Three Jaw chuck: It usually has three jaws. the jaws are moved simultaneously within the chuck Four Jaw chuck: This is independent chuck generally has four jaws.
Face plates: The face plate is used for irregularly shaped work pieces that cannot be successfully held by chucks or mounted between centers Mandrels: College of Ship Technology Page 47 .
Collet chuck: Collet chuck is used to hold small work pieces. College of Ship Technology Page 48 .A work piece which cannot be held between centers because its axis has been drilled or bored and which is not suitable for holding in a chuck or against a faceplate is usually machined on mandrel.
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