Engineering Workshop

PROCEDURES TO BE FOLLOWED IN WORKSHOP  In the first engineering workshop class, students need to be taken for a walk around the workshop to let them know about the various divisions of the workshop (Such as Machine shop, Welding Shop, Fitting Shop and Sheet metal shop) and to know the location of the fire safety devices, important operating controls, first aid box , emergency exits etc.,  In the same class, students need to be given the appropriate overalls and safety shoes, after getting the signatures for the receipt of the same. At the same time they need to be informed about the safe handling and maintenance of those items as it will not be given again during their study in the college, irrespective of the level unless the situation warrants in the opinion of the HoS or HoD.  Then Instructions need to be given to the students by the lecturer regarding the Health and Safety Practices in the workshop and the proper code of conduct inside the workshop which are given below  Students and staff should wear the overalls and safety shoes when they are in the workshop without which the entry is prohibited.  Tools need to be obtained from the stores, only through the window provided for that purpose.  Student’s entry is prohibited inside the stores.  While working, all the safety items (Such as goggles, gloves etc.,) required for the work should be used.  Incase of an accident, the people involved should be given the first aid and the medical attention immediately. Then an accident report need to be prepared by the workshop in charge and submitted to the higher authorities.  All near miss incidents need to be recorded and reported  After the work, students should clean their workplace and have to return all the tools and safety items that were borrowed, before they leave. Proper follow up is the responsibility of the lecturer and technician of that class.  It is the technician’s duty to make sure that all the tools and equipment’s that are required to handle the class is ready, before the starting of the class.  Littering inside the workshop is an offense.
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 Students should concentrate in their work when they are inside the workshop. Playing, shouting, Joking and not obeying the instructions will invite punishments.  After the work, the machines and the equipment’s need to be switched off.  Malfunctioning of the equipment’s and the breakage of the tools need to be immediately reported by the students to the technicians they in turn should record the report and should take measures to correct the failure.  Eating and drinking inside the workshop is strictly prohibited  All malfunctions of the equipment’s and the misbehaviors of people need to be immediately brought to the notice of the workshop in charge in turn to the HoS and HoD.  Following are the various maintenance activities which are to be carried out in the workshops by the technicians in charge of that workshop  Routine and periodic checking and inspections.  Ensuring proper functioning of different Parts and elements in the equipment’s.  Cleaning and lubrication of contacts and bearings.  Corrective actions against failures and malfunctioning  Maintaining the stock register, equipment maintenance register and the accident report file is the responsibility of the technician in charge of the workshop.

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Duties of the lecturers who are handling the workshop classes are as follows:  Lecturers should prepare the required teaching materials.  Lecturers should teach the students about the concepts, theory and procedures related to the job before they start the work.  Students shall be taught to understand the drawings, required list of tools /instruments and materials etc.  Detailed description of the procedural steps of the skill /practice shall be given to the students before they start working on the machines.  Special precautions to be taken while doing a particular job shall be stated with stress and emphasis.  The quality of the work done by the students shall be checked in real time when they work.  They must ensure that the machines/work tables are cleaned neatly by the students.  Overall performance of the students and reports of the skill/ practice presented by the students along with the results shall be evaluated and respective grades/mark shall be entered in the assessment record.  Scheduling, conducting the examinations and assessment is the responsibility of the lecturers.  Maintenance of attendance records and reporting the absentees when they cross 10%, 20% and 30% limits is also the responsibility of the lecturers.  At the end of the day/week, the technician in charge should lock all the doors after ensuring the equipment shutdown.

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Chapter 1 Safety in Workshop (i) Introduction to Safety Personal Safety  Always wear overalls in the workshop  Always protect the eyes by wearing goggleswhen using machinery.  Always wear safety boots in the workshop  Wear a suitable respiration when dust and fumes are present  Keep hair shorts or wear a cap.  Don’t wear rings or watches when working on a machine  Gloves should always be worn when handling sharp components.  Never wear gloves when operating machine tools.  Use hand cream to remove oil or grease from the hands.

Safety Precautions in Machines  Don’t start a machine without receiving operating instructions.  You have to know how to stop the machine before start it.  Make sure that all guards are in position.  Isolate the machine before starting repair work on it.  Do not lean on a machine whilst it is working.
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Thesymbol must be white.Safety Clothing Overalls Ear protection Caps Goggles Gloves Boots and shoes Respirators Proper Clothing’s in Workshop Mandatory signs You can recognize these signs as they have a blue background colour. These signs must be obeyed.These signs indicate things that you must doand precautions that you must take. you have no College of Ship Technology Page 5 . Figure shows five typical mandatory signs.

Long hair Long hair is liable to be caught in moving machinery such as drillingmachines and lathes. you would be puttingyourself at considerable risk.Long hair is also a health hazard. again. This can result in the hair and scalp being tornaway which is extremely dangerous and painful.To disregard them is an offence in law as. Sharp tools Sharp tools protruding from the breast pocket can cause severe woundsto the wrist. Such wounds can result in paralysis of the hand and fingers. to be completely effective certain precautions must be taken. Permanent disfigurementwill result and brain damage can also occur. However. as it is almost impossible to keepclean and free from infection in a workshop environment. College of Ship Technology Page 6 .Loose cuffs are also liable to be caught up like any other loose clothing.option in the matter. Appearance Clothing For general workshop purposes a boiler suit is the most practical and safestform of clothing.They may also prevent you from snatching your hand away from adangerous situation. Either adoptsa short and more manageable head style or some sort of head covering that will keep your hair out of harm’s way. Buttons missing and loose cuffs Since the overalls cannot be fastened properly. it becomes as dangerous asany other loose clothing and is liable to be caught in moving machinery.

or in a heavy engineering erection shop involvingthe use of overhead cranes. all persons should wear a safety helmetcomplying with BS 2826. rough. the operatorcan be scalped.If it becomes entangled in a machine. sharp. If you wish to retain a long hairstyle in the interests offashion. they are constantly atrisk handling dirty. Hand protection Your hands are in constant use and. Gloves and ‘palms’ of a variety of styles and typesof materials are available to protect your hands whatever the nature ofthe work. This alsohelps to keep your hair and scalp clean and healthy. College of Ship Technology Page 7 .Hole in pocket Tools placed in a torn pocket can fall through onto the feet of the wearer. greasy. then your hair must be contained in a close fitting cap.Although this may not seem potentially dangerous. oily. it could cause anaccident by distracting your attention at a crucial moment. because of this. Head and eye protection As has already been stated. hot and possibly corrosiveand toxic materials. Even small objects such as nuts and bolts cancause serious head injuries when dropped from a height. Lightweight shoes The possible injuries associated with lightweight and unsuitable shoes are:  puncture wounds caused by treading on sharp objects. Overalls too long These can cause you to trip and fall. long hair is a serious hazard in a workshop.  crushed toes caused by falling objects. particularly when negotiating stairways.When working on site.

To reduce the risk of shock.The hazard of long hair (ii) Causes of Electrical shock An electric shock from a 240 volt single-phase supply (lightingand office equipment) or a 415 volt three-phase supply (most factorymachines) can easily kill you. all electrical equipment shouldbe earthed or double insulated. it can still cause serious injury. Even if the shock is not sufficiently severeto cause death. College of Ship Technology Page 8 . The sudden convulsioncaused by the shock can throw you from a ladder or against movingmachinery.

College of Ship Technology Page 9 . To reduce the spread of smoke and fire.keep fire doors closed at all times but never locked. (iii) Fire Fighting Fire fighting is a highly skilled operation and most medium and largefirms have properly trained teams who can contain the fire locally untilthe professional brigade arrives. The power tool must besuitable for operating at such a voltage. be protectedby a residual current detector (RCD). It spreads quickly through a building. The transformer itself should beprotected by a circuit breaker containing a residual current detector. Therefore it is best to leave the building as quickly as possibleand leave the fire fighting to the professionals who have breathingapparatus. Itcauses choking and even death by asphyxiation. Saving human life is more important than saving property. Such a small current applied for such a short time isnot dangerous. portable power tools should befed from a low-voltage transformer at 110 volts.It requires only one person to panic and run in the wrong direction to causea disaster. Fire extinguishers The normally available fire extinguishers and the types of fire they canbe used for are as follows. The sensitivity ofresidual current detectors is such that a difference of only a few mill amperesis sufficient to cut off the supply and the time delay is only afew microseconds.The fuses and circuit breakers designed to protect the supply circuitryto the transformer react too slowly to protect the user from electric shock.Further. The electrical supply to a portable power tool should. Such a device compares themagnitudes of the current flowing in the live and neutral conductors supplyingthe tool.reducing visibility and increasing the risk of falls down stairways. both how to give the alarm and how to leave the building. therefore. Smoke is less dense nearthe floor: as a last resort crawl. The plastic materialsused in the finishes and furnishings of modern buildings give off highlytoxic fumes. The best way you can help is to learn thecorrect fire drill. Any leakage to earth through the body of the user or byany other route will upset the balance between these two currents. Thisresults in the supply being immediately disconnected. Smoke is the main cause of panic.

for various technical reasons. do not usethem on fires associated with electrical equipment or the person wieldingthe hose or the extinguisher will be electrocuted.A typical hose point and a typicalpressurized water extinguisher are shown in this figure. Note: Since both water and foam are electrically conductive. The foam smothersthe flames and prevents the oxygen in the air from reaching the burningmaterials at the seat of the fire. paper and some plastics. water should be used only on burning solidssuch as wood. The steam generated also helps to smother the flames as it displacesthe air and therefore the oxygen essential to the burning process. (a). Water alone cannot be used because oilfloats on the water and this spreads the area of the fire. A typical foamextinguisher is shown in Fig. They can also be used foroil and chemical fires in confined places. Carbon dioxide (CO2) extinguishers These are used on burning gases and vapours. Foam extinguishers These are used for fighting oil and chemical fires.Water Used in large quantities water reduces the temperature and puts out thefire. The carbon dioxide gas replacesthe air and smothers the College of Ship Technology Page 10 . However.

itcan be easily removed by vacuum cleaning and there is no residual mess. Any vapour that will smotherthe fire will also smother all living creatures which must be evacuatedbefore using such extinguishers. (c). this is a very efficientway of producing the blanketing vapour. never advance into it. A typical example of a vaporizingliquid extinguisher is shown in Fig. Note: If the fire cannot breathe neither can you. gas. Vaporizing liquidextinguishers are suitable for oil. College of Ship Technology Page 11 . A typical example of a drypowder extinguisher is shown in Fig. do not advance towards it. CBM and BCF extinguishers. It can be used only in confined places. so care must be takento evacuate all living creatures from the vicinity before operating theextinguisher. The heat from the firecauses rapid vaporization of the liquid sprayed from the extinguisher andthis vapour displaces the air and smothers the fire.The active ingredient is powdered sodium bicarbonate (baking powder)which gives off carbon dioxide when heated.fire. vapour and chemical fires. Vaporizing liquid extinguishers These include CTC. As with CO2 extinguishers always backaway from the bubble of vapour. Since a small amountof liquid produces a very large amount of vapour. LikeCO2 extinguishers. Back away from the bubble of CO 2 gas as you operate theextinguisher. (d). Figure (b) shows a typicalCO2 extinguisher. They are also useful for fires in electricalequipment. vaporizing liquid extinguishers are safe to use on firesassociated with electrical equipment. offices and kitchens since the powder is not only non-toxic. whereit cannot be displaced by draughts. Dry powder extinguishers These are suitable for small fires involving flammable liquids and smallquantities of solids such as paper.

Various Types of Fire Extinguishers a) Foam type b) Co2 type c) Vaporizing liquid d) Dry powder College of Ship Technology Page 12 .

Check the hammer each time before it is used. It consists if a cast iron body andcast iron jaws. Start a new blade in another place when a blade breaks during a cut. The jaws are opened up to required length. College of Ship Technology Page 13 . Position the jaws as close to the work as possible to prevent slipping. tight handle. Select the type.  Apply force only on the forward (cutting) stroke. (ii) Tools used in Fitting Shop Bench vice The wise is common tools used for holding jobs. Jaw plates are made up of high carbonsteel and are wear resistant.  Position the work piece area such that the cut to be making is close to the vice. Two jaws plates are fitted on both the jaws. job is placed in the two is fully tightened withhandle.One jaw is fixed to the body and the second slides on a square threaded screw with the help of thehandle. This prevents binding and blade breakages.Chapter 2 FITTING SHOP (i) Safety precautions in fitting shop      Use a file with a properly fitted. The handle must be securely welded. relieve the force on return stroke. shape and size of wrench opening most suitable for the application.

The base is made up of cost iron steel. They are specified by the height of the leg up to thehinge point. College of Ship Technology Page 14 . It consists of a blade made up ofsteel which is attached to base at 90 degree. Jenny Caliper or Odd Leg Caliper This is used for marking parallel lines a finished edgeand also for locating the center of round bars. Try square is also usedfor marking right angles and measuring straightness of surface.Try square It is used for checking squareness of surface.

Centre punch It is like a dot punch except the angle of punching end is 90°. It consists of a handle with a sharp point.Scriber This is the basic marking out tool. The pointed end is made from hardened steel so that it will stay sharp in use. It is used tomark the center of the hole before drilling. College of Ship Technology Page 15 .

Chisels There are used for chipping away the material from the work piece. The top is flattened and sharp cutting edge is madeon the bottom side. These are madeup of high carbon steel. The number of teethper 25 mm of the blade length or teeth inch (TPI) is selected on the basis of the work material and thickness being cut.cross cut. Chisels are classified on the bottom side. Commonly used forms of chisels are flat. It consists of frame whichholds a thin blade. Flat chisel is used for general College of Ship Technology Page 16 . The blade has a number of cutting teeth. firmly in the position.Hacksaw The hacksaw is used for cutting metal by handle. Generally 6” to 8” long. half round and diamond point chisels.

chipping hammer etc.The different types of hammer are Ball peen hammer. cross cut chisel and half round chisels are used for grooving anddiamond point chisel is for precision work. Hammer Hammer are named depending on their shape and material and specified by theirweight. College of Ship Technology Page 17 . Cross peen hammer. They weight from 200gm to 1.. Steel rule It is made up of stainless steel and marked with graduation of scales.5kg.work. A ball peen hammer has a flat which is used for riveting.

It is used for filing internal angles. A large amount of metal can be removed with this file. On the faces the teeth are usually diagonal to the edge.The hand file is parallel in which in width and tapering slightly in thickness towards thetop. It is provided with cut teeth on the face. Types of files Files are classified according to their shape. and they don’t produce smooth surfaces. It is used for enlarging holes. Flat File It has double cut on both sides and single on both edges.Files A file is hardened steel tool. slots. One end of the file is shaped to fitinto wooden handle. Triangular file Its section is triangularand faces are double cut and edges are single cut. cutting teeth and pitch or grade of the teeth. single cut on one edge and no teeth on the other edge. having slant parallel rows of cutting edges or teeth on itssurfaces.which is known as safe edge. and concave. It’s each side on 60 degrees. Round file It is also a double cut file. It is mostly used for general work and filing flat surfaces. College of Ship Technology Page 18 . shoulders or corners and for sharpening wood working saws. Square file It is double cut file on all sides. and used for enlarging square holes and filing of slot and keys.

Half round file It has one side flat and other side is half round. Different Types of Files used for different profiles College of Ship Technology Page 19 . The flat side is double cut and curved side is single cut. It is used for filing curved surfaces.

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Tools Required Bench vice Try square Steel rule Prick punch Hacksaw Files Surface plate Surface gauge Ball peen hammer Procedure 1) The original dimensions of the work piece are checked using the steel rule. 6) Filing is continued until the required dimension and smooth surface of the work piece is obtained.Ex: No: 1 Aim SQUARE FITTING To make a square fitting from the given two mild steel pieces. 5) Now the remaining two faces are filed. 4) Punch marks are put on the line marked using prick punch. 3) The given dimension are marked using the surface plate and surface gauge by referring the two sides as bases. 2) Then the work piece is clamped properly in the bench vice and using a flat file any two sides of the work piece are filed. Check whether the two sides are right angles using the try square. Result Thus the square fitting with required dimension is obtained College of Ship Technology Page 21 .

All Dimensions are in “mm” College of Ship Technology Page 22 .

3) The given dimension are marked using the surface plate and surface gauge by referring the two sides as bases. 6) Cut and remove the excess materials using the hacksaw.Ex: No: 2 Aim VEE FITTING To make a Vee fitting from the given metal piece. 2) Then the work piece is clamped properly in the bench vice and using a flat file any two sides of the work piece are filed. 4) Punch marks are put on the line marked using prick punch. 5) Now the remaining two faces are filed. 7) Filing is continued until the required dimension and smooth surface of the work piece is obtained. College of Ship Technology Page 23 . Tools Required Bench vice Try square Steel rule Prick punch Hacksaws Files Surface plate Surface gauge Ball peen hammer Procedure 1) The original dimensions of the work piece are checked using the steel rule. Check whether the two sides are right angles using the try square. Result Thus the Vee fitting with required dimension is obtained. Filling is continuity until the required size and smooth surface of the work piece is obtained this is repeated for the other work piece also.

Consequently. block iron is used in tanks. The useful variety of aluminum alloy which is rolled into sheet form carries additions of suitable amount of silicon. Its common applications are aero plane bodies. etc. domestic heating appliance. trunks. manganese copper and iron. However. e. Galvanized Iron Zinc coated iron is called 'Galvanized iron'. pans. improves the appearance of the metal and permits it to be soldered with greater ease.g. it is probably the cheapest of all types of sheets used in sheet metal work. stove pipes. It offers very high resistance to corrosion and abrasion. kitchen ware. etc. are made of galvanized iron sheets Copper Sheets These sheets are relatively costlier but having specific advantages in being good corrosion resistant and good in appearance. Being uncoated. but welding is not so easy as zinc gives toxic fumes and residues. is highly ductile and malleable and therefore can be easily worked. trunks. It is whitish in color and light in weight. which is vastly used in sheet metal work. e. The zinc coating resist rust. etc.g. it is prone to corrosion. articles like cabinets. etc. Because of zinc it can with stand contact with water and exposure to weather. Aluminum Sheets On account of its inherited weakness it is not used in its pure form. buckers. They are reddish in color and their cold rolled variety. its use is confined mostly to the manufacture of such items which are to be painted before shipment. pans. College of Ship Technology Page 24 . This soft steel sheet is popularly known as GI sheet. Some representative examples are automobiles. various applications in chemical plants.Chapter 3 SHEET METAL WORKING (i) Sheet metal materials Black Iron It is also known as uncoated sheet since it carries no artificial coating on its surfaces.

College of Ship Technology Page 25 . They are also used to mark a desired distance between points and to divide lines into equal.5 mm. It is a long wire of steel with its one end sharply pointed and hardened to scratch lines on sheet metal in laying out patterns. It can be measure with accuracy of 0. Scriber This is sometimes called the metal workers pencil.(ii) Tools used in Sheet metal shop: Steel Rule It is useful in measuring and laying out small work. Dividers Dividers are used for drawing circles or arcs on sheet metal.

Two types of punches are generally used: Prink Punch: It is used to make small marks on layout lines in order to mark theprick punch marks longer. lead or mostly of wood.5 mm to 10 mm. used to strike a soft and light blow on the metal. hard rubber.These are used for making small holes from 2. College of Ship Technology Page 26 . etc.Punches A Punch is used in sheet metal work for marking out work. copper brass. Mallet These are soft hammers and made of saw hide. Solid and hollow punches are very similar the other two puncher the inner and outer faces of the punch meetingat an angle of 40. in a more permanent manner. locating centers. Center Punch: It is used only to make the prick punch marks larger at the centers of holes that are to be drilled.

ring shear and circular shear used for particular requirements as the name indicates. Stakes Stakes are the sheet metal workers evils used for bending. They actually work as supporting tools as well as forming tools. They are made in different shape and sizes to suit the requirements of the work. soft metal. College of Ship Technology Page 27 . These are also double cutting shear. squaring shear. The heavier classes are known as bench shears and block shears where one handle may be held in vice bench plate while the other handle is moved up anddown to do the cutting. It should be used only to cut 20 gauge or thinner metal. There are several types of snips available for making straight or circular cuts. the most common being straight snip have straight blade for straight line cutting while curved or bent snips have curved blades for making circular cuts. using a hammer or mallet. also called a hand shear is used like a pair of scissors to cut thin. They also help in bending operation. seaming or forming.Snips of Shears A snip. Both these snips are very light and can be easily handled by one hand.

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4. 3.l Dimensions are in “mm” Ex: no: 1 Rectangular Tray Aim To make a rectangulartray from the given sheet metal. Then the sheet is leveled on the leveling plate using a mallet. Result Thus desired rectangular tray is made from the given sheet metal. 2. 5. The sheet is cut as per the marked dimensions by straight snips. Then a single hemming is made on the four sides of the tray as shown in figure. Material Required G. The size of the given sheet is checked for its dimension using steel rule. College of Ship Technology Page 29 . The four sides of the tray bent to 90° by using the stakes anvil. 6. 7. The development procedure is followed the same as the square taper tray.I Sheet Tools required • Steel rule • Mallet • Scriber • Divider • Protractor • Snips • Stakes • Ball peen hammer Procedure 1. The dimensions are marked as shown in figure.

Material Required G.I Sheet Tools required • Steel rule College of Ship Technology Page 30 .Ex: No: 2 Aim Sheet Metal Scoop To make a scoop from the given sheet metal.

2. 6. 4. Then a single hemming is made on the three sides of the scoop as shown in figure. The size of the given sheet is checked for its dimension using steel rule. The sheet is cut as per the marked dimensions by straight snips. The three sides of the scoop bent to 90° by using the stakes anvil. Result Thus desired scoop is made from the given sheet metal. 7. 3.• • • • • • • Procedure Mallet Scriber Divider Protractor Snips Stakes Ball peen hammer 1. Then the sheet is leveled on the leveling plate using a mallet. The development procedure is followed the same as the square taper tray. with or without the use of filler metal. The dimensions are marked as shown in figure. Chapter 4 WELDING (i) Introduction Welding is a metal joining process wherein localized coalescence is produced either byheating the metal to a suitable temperature. 5. with College of Ship Technology Page 31 .

Itis used to transmit full current from electrode holder to the front end of the electrode coating. The electrode serves as the filler rod andarc melts the surfaces so that the metals to be joined are fused together. Electrode Holder College of Ship Technology Page 32 .orwithout application of pressure. The temperature of the arc is of the order of 3600ºC. (ii) Electric Arc welding In the arc welding process. Welding may be carried out in air or in an inert atm. The electricmotor generator or transformer sets are used to supply high electric current and theelectrodes are used to produce the necessary arc. Filler material may ormay not be used. the source of heat is electricity. Principle of operation The heat required for joining the metals is obtained from an electric arc. The Electrodes are made ofmetallic wire called core wire.The filler material has similar composition and melting point temperature as that of thebase metal. Electrodes Filler rods are used in arc welding are called as electrodes. It is uniformly with a protective coating called flux while fluxingan electrode about 20 mm of length is left bare at one end for holding it using electrode holder.coalescence is produced by heating the work piece with an electric arc struck between electrodeand the work piece. In arc welding process. It is used to fill gap between the joint surfaces.

Wire Brush A wire brush made up of stiff steel wire. Welding Cables Two cables are needed for welding purpose. Welding Bead cleaning accessories Chipping hammer A chipping hammer is chisel-shaped one and it is used to remove the slag from the weldbead. removes small particles ofslag from the weld bead after the chipping hammer is used.Jaws are made to hold the bare end of the electrode in either at vertical or at an angular position. to minimize fatigue incurred by the welder. One is used to connect the powersource to electrode. College of Ship Technology Page 33 .It is a device used for mechanically holing the electrode and conducting current to it.The cables are well isolated with rubber. Electrode holder should be light. embedded in wood. another cable is connected to ground.

Helmet It is used for shielding and protecting the face and neck of the welder and it is fitted witha suitable fitter lens. Goggles Goggles are used to protect the eyes while chipping the slag. They are fitted whilea plain glass to see the area to be cleaned. Tongs Tongs are used to handle the hot metal-welding job while cleaning. College of Ship Technology Page 34 . arc radiation and hotspatters. A hand shield is held in the hand of thewelder and it is fitted with a suitable fitter lens. Hand Gloves Hand gloves are used to protect the hands from electrical shock.Hand Screen It is a protective device used in arc welding. they are also used tohold the metal for hammering.

 This process finds innumerable applications.Usually the mixture of oxygen and acetylene is used for welding purpose. the weld is to be progressed with thenext electrode. (iii) Gas welding Gas welding is a process in which the required heat to melt the surfaces is supplied by ahigh temperature flame obtained by a mixture of two gases. Oxy-acetylene welding College of Ship Technology Page 35 .  It cannot be used to weld metal thickness less than 1.Advantages of arc welding  Flux shielded manual metal arc welding is the simplest of all the arc welding process.6 mm. a defect may occur at the place where welding isrestarted with the new electrode. as one electrode finishes. Unless properly cared. because of the availability of a wide variety of electrodes.  The equipment can be portable and the cost is fairly low.  In welding long joints. mechanization is difficult. Disadvantages of arc welding  Because of the limited length of each electrode and brittle flux coating on it.

The flame resulting at the tip of the torch is sufficient enough to melt andthe parent material . Oxygen is mainly used for supporting the combustion intensity.The filler metal rod is generallyadded to the molten metal pool to build up the seam for greater strength.ignition is takes place.The flame temperature is about 3200ºC. Each cylinder is connected to the blowpipe by flexible hoses.In oxy-acetylene welding oxygen and acetylene are the two gases used for producingflame. College of Ship Technology Page 36 .The oxygen and acetylene under high pressure in cylinders which are fitted with pressureregulator. The oxygen cylinders arepainted block and acetylene cylinders are painted maroon.When acetylene is mixed with oxygen in correct proportions in the welding torch.

All Dimensions are in “mm” Ex: No: 1 LAP JOINT Aim To join the given two work pieces as a lap joint by arc welding. Material used Mild Steel plates Tools required          Welding power supply Flat file Welding rod Chipping hammer Electrode holder Wire brush Gloves and apron Earthing clamps Shield and goggles Procedure College of Ship Technology Page 37 .

switch off the current supply and allow thework piece to cool. College of Ship Technology Page 38 . 3. 2. Then the welding is carried out throughout the length. 4.1. the work pieces must be thoroughly cleaned to remove rust. When current is passed. arc is produced between the electrode and work pieces. welded portions are cleaned. As soon as the welding process is finished. First of all. 8. 9. Result Thus the given two work pieces are joined as a lap joint by arc welding. Then the given work pieces are placed on the table in such a way that one work pieceis placed on the other work piece like the LAP joint is formed. Appropriate power supply should be given to the electrode and the work pieces. 6. 7. Slag is removed by chipping process with the help of chipping hammer. 5. scale and otherforeign materials. Now the welding current output may be adjusted. Finally using wire brush.

All Dimensions are in “mm” Ex: No: 2 College of Ship Technology TEE JOINT Page 39 .

Finally using wire brush. Now set the two work pieces in correct position like T joint and tag at both ends of thework pieces as shown in figure. Slag is removed by chipping process with the help of chipping hammer. Result College of Ship Technology Page 40 . Appropriate power supply should be given to the electrode and the work pieces.Aim To join the given two work pieces as a ‘T’ joint by arc welding. As soon as the welding process is finished. the work pieces must be thoroughly cleaned to remove rust. 11. 6. When current is passed. 9. Now the welding current output may be adjusted. 3. Now the work pieces are placed on the table in such a way that two work pieces areabroad close to each other T shapes are formed as shown in figure. The joint is placed on a welding table in a flat position by keeping the tag side down. First of all. Material used Mild Steel plates Tools required          Welding power supply Flat file Welding rod Chipping hammer Electrode holder Wire brush Gloves and apron Earthing clamps Shield and goggles Procedure 1. 4. 7. 8. switch off the current supply and allow thework piece to cool. 5. 2. scale and otherforeign materials. 10. arc is produced between the electrode and work pieces. Then the welding is carried out throughout the work piece. welded portions are cleaned.

College of Ship Technology Page 41 .Thus the required ‘T-joint’ is made by arc welding process.

College of Ship Technology Page 42 .

alloyed withnickel. The headstock has two types of drivingmechanism. The bed is made up of cast iron. When the chuck rotated the work piece alsorotated. Various operations such as straight turning. The guide ways of the bed may be flatter inverted ‘V’ shape. Single point cutting tool is mounted in tool post. thread cutting. taper turning arecarried out. (ii) Working principle of lathe In a lathe. The tool moves parallel to the axis of rotation of work piece to produce a cylindricalsurface. When the operations above set are done automatically. So.Chapter 5 STUDY OF LATHE (i) Introduction Lathe is called the father of machine tools. The main function of lathe is to removemetals from work piece to give a required shape and size. (iii) Parts of the lathe Bed Bed is the base of the lathe. the work piece is held in chuck and rotates about its axis by means of power. The tool is moved at an angle 90_ to the axis. The spindle nose is threaded. (i) Back geared mechanism (ii) Belt College of Ship Technology Page 43 . Headstock It is mounted on the left end of the bed. Thetool moves at an angle to the axis of work piece to produce a turn surface. The live center can beattached in the spindle. chromium. The headstock is mounted on the left end. knurling. grooving. then the lathe is calledautomatic lathe. It carries a hollow spindle.taper turning. facing. the carriage is inthe middle and the tailstock at the right end of bed. The headstock may be back threaded type. In chuck faceplates can be attached to thespindle. In the lathe the work piece is held in achuck. The bed is made up of cast iron to observe shock and vibration created duringmachining. and chamfering.there quire size and shape of the work is obtained. The material is removed in the form of chip from the work piece by giving proper feed and depth of cut. whereas the tool moves perpendicular to the work piece to produce a flat surface.

Cross slide It is attached to the upper side of saddle and carries compound slide and tool post. reaming and such other operations. Saddle It is a H shaped casting fitted on the bed and moves along the guide ways. It is used during the taper turning opening operations to set thetool for angular cuts. The crossslide can be moved cross wise by hand or power. reamer tools for drilling. A split nut is attached for engaging and disengaging. It has gears. with an accuracy of 0. The carriage isattached with the saddle. Compound Rest It is attached over the cross slide. clutchesformoving the carriage automatically.05mm. Lead Screw College of Ship Technology Page 44 . Carriage Carriage is used for giving various feed to the tool by hand or by power. It is used for supports right end of work and also forholding drills. Thecarriage from the lead screw is used in thread cutting work. Apron Apron is attached to the saddle and hangs in front of the bed. Tool post The tool is clamped over the tool post. compound rest and a tool post.Tailstock It is located on the bed at the right end. It is fixed over the compound rest. levers. It carries the crossslide. The tailstock can bemoved along the bed and clamped at any position. to support the different length work. Here the micrometer dial is mounted to show the depth of cut. The micrometer dial is mounted on the crossslide hand wheel.

conical. or grooved work pieces Facing – produces a flat surface at the end of the part Boring – to enlarge a hole Drilling . (iv) Various lathe operations • • • • • • • Turning – produces straight. Feed rod The feed rod is the long shaft used for the movement of carriage along the axis of bed.It is a longer screw with standard ACME square threads and used for transmitting powerfor automatic feed for thread cutting operation.to produce a hole Cutting off – to cut off a work piece Threading – to produce threads Knurling – produces a regularly shaped roughness (v) Work holding devices College of Ship Technology Page 45 . It is usedfor operations like facing. curved. turning and boring.

the long work pieces can be held between two centers( Live and Dead centers) for accurate machining. which are adjusted individually on the chuck face by means of adjusting screws College of Ship Technology Page 46 . Three Jaw chuck: It usually has three jaws. the jaws are moved simultaneously within the chuck Four Jaw chuck: This is independent chuck generally has four jaws.Work piece mounted between centers In this method.

Face plates: The face plate is used for irregularly shaped work pieces that cannot be successfully held by chucks or mounted between centers Mandrels: College of Ship Technology Page 47 .

Collet chuck: Collet chuck is used to hold small work pieces.A work piece which cannot be held between centers because its axis has been drilled or bored and which is not suitable for holding in a chuck or against a faceplate is usually machined on mandrel. College of Ship Technology Page 48 .

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