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Project Supervisor: Miss R.Dwarika
but impressive developments in medicine have allowed humanity to triumph over diseases caused by the smallest. Technologies to generate and transmit electrical power. we are reminded how vulnerable we are against these microscopic disease causing organisms many of which have the ability to mutate sometimes in a more virulent form. great discoveries are made piece by piece over a period of time and involve the contributions of several people. to use computers to communicate and calculate. This has allowed us to live longer. most ubiquitous life forms on Earth. with the outbreak of the avian flu. experiments and communications satellites into space are certainly a big part of our modern world.THEME CHOSEN: “INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES IN SCIENCE” Science gives us a way to investigate and understand the natural world. Most recently. a methodology that can lead to wonderful discoveries. Vaccine has been one such discovery that impacted on our lives. healthier lives – the better to enjoy all the other fruits of scientific discovery and technological development. Yet there are some scientific discoveries that have contributed so significantly to the wonders of our modern world that they rank particularly high on the long list of great scientific discoveries. and to launch people. we forget about the history behind what we are learning in science classes hence we opted for this particular theme. Often. . Very often.
millions of lives have been saved and microbes stopped in their tracks before they could have a chance to wreak havoc due to vaccination. Understand in a fun way how our immune system works to protect us 2. swine flu. the historic origins of immunization are often forgotten. Objectives of project: 1. the iron lungs and braces designed for children paralyzed by polio. the vaccine represents the single greatest promise of biomedicine: disease prevention With the rapid pace of vaccine development in recent decades. our project aims at having an insight about one of the greatest discoveries in science: vaccination. The last decade has also seen the emergence of new diseases such as SARS.TITLE VACCINES: A HISTORICAL EXPEDITION The gasping breath and distinctive sounds of whooping cough. Understand the importance of vaccines . In short. avian flu amongst others. and the devastating birth defects caused by rubella: these infectious scourges simultaneously inspire dread and represent obscure maladies of years past. However. Understand how Edward Jenner successfully immunised people against smallpox 3. Thus.
or toxic granules.INTRODUCTION For many centuries. Lymphocytes attack antigens by creating antibodies. 4. and play an important roll in allowing wounds to heal. Immune cells circulate around your body. looking for the "bad guys". material. etc FUNCTION OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM: THE BODY’S SUPERHEROES AGAINST THE VILLAINS 1. In modern times we do not have to worry about it thanks to the remarkable work of Edward Jenner and later developments from his endeavors. . and even pollen. Immunology is the branch of biomedical science that deals with the response of an organism to antigenic challenge and its recognition of what is self and what is not. It deals with the defense mechanisms including all physical. When an invader is found by your immune cells their response depends both on the invader and on the particular immune cell. 3. Edward Jenner is well known around the world for his innovative contribution to immunization and the ultimate eradication of smallpox. or eat pathogens. 2. smallpox devastated mankind. Phagocytes (a type of white blood cell) actually engulf. Phagocytes also consume "dead cells" in our body. chemical and biological properties of the organism that help it to combat its susceptibility to foreign organisms. foreign bodies. bacteria. absorb. or antigens which can appear in the form of viruses. Jenner's work is widely regarded as the foundation of immunology.
This memory effect of immune cells led to the idea of a vaccine: weakened antigens which could be injected into your body. and sometimes fatal infectious disease caused by a virus called the variola virus . Lymphocytes also destroy cells which have been infected by a virus. a member of the orthopoxvirus family. The Pioneer of Vaccination: Edward Jenner (1749 – 1823). contagious. 8. After defeating a particular invader lymphocytes will keep a profile and remember the disease throughout your life. and tag antigens to be attacked later. Your immune system can then "practice" on this weakened form of a disease. which also includes smallpox and vaccinia virus is believed to be acquired by direct contact with an infected animal.5. He is known to many as “the father of immunology”. most often a cat in the case of humans. His unique legacy is the formal discovery and promotion of vaccination. 6. immunisation against smallpox through infection with cow pox Jenner's work represented the first scientific attempt to control an infectious disease by the deliberate use of vaccination Jenner’s Experiment: The main diseases involved Cowpox: • • caused by the cowpox or catpox virus. 7. The next time a disease enters your body. with lesions occurring where the virus gains access through broken skin Smallpox: • serious. Should it appear again. they will quickly eliminate it. your immune system draws upon its memory to quickly defeat it. 9.
after hearing a Bristol milkmaid boast. who had fresh cowpox lesions on her hands and arms On May 14. James Phipps Subsequently. The Scientific Method The scientific method is a disciplined. TEST: Infect a person with cowpox. Sarah Nelms. systematic way of asking and answering questions about the physical world. using matter from Nelms' lesions.• disease gets its name from the Latin word for spotted and refers to the small pusfilled blisters that appear on the face and body of an infected person. but on the next day he was much better . Edward Jenner found a young dairymaid. there is no single model of the scientific method that can be applied in all situations. I shall never have an ugly pockmarked face.” HYPOTHESIS: If a person has been intentionally infected with cowpox. The following are the steps carried out by Jenner: OBSERVATION: People who have had cowpox do not become ill with smallpox He experienced the proverbial “Eureka”-like moment sometime during the 1770s. in fact. then that person will be protected from becoming ill after a purposeful exposure to smallpox. JENNER’S PROCEDURE: In May 1796. Then try to infect the person with smallpox. the boy developed mild fever and discomfort in the axillae Nine days after the procedure he felt cold and had lost his appetite. “I shall never have smallpox for I have had cowpox. Though it can be useful to think of the scientific method as a simple series of steps. he inoculated an 8-year-old boy. 1796.
this time with matter from a fresh smallpox lesion CONCLUSION: No disease developed. Vaccine development timeline Following the work of Jenner. Other scientists did likewise and got the same results. In July 1796. . Jenner repeated his experiment several times and got the same results. and Jenner concluded that protection was complete. many vaccines were developed for other types of diseases as shown by the chart below. Jenner inoculated the boy again.
One of the most frustrating quests has been for a malaria vaccine. Conclusion Our struggle with germs is endless and can be neither completely halted nor assuaged by vaccines. Coordinated efforts rid the world of a disease that once killed up to 35% of its victims and left others scarred or blind. To date only one infectious disease that affects humans has been eradicated. it’s considered eradicated. Sadly. the World Health Assembly endorsed statement declaring smallpox eradicated. Although spectacular vaccines have been produced since that time. The most common parasites responsible for malaria have demonstrated an impressive ability to circumvent eradication efforts by becoming drug resistant. after decades of efforts by the World Health Organization. vaccines for many diseases remain elusive. yellow fever. no matter how great their immunological power. Elusive vaccines It took more than 80 years after Jenner’s discovery for scientists to develop new vaccines. polio. In 1980. Most attempts to develop an HIV vaccine have ended in failure. tetanus. In all vaccines have brought seven major human diseases under some degree of control namely smallpox. changing the course of human history. effective vaccines for . No discussion of vaccines is complete without assessing the potential for an HIV vaccine in the twenty-first century. whooping cough and measles.ERADICATION OF DISEASE BY VACCINATION If a particular disease is eliminated worldwide. diphtheria.
nor can an expert epidemiologist always explain why certain diseases rise and burn out at particular rates. .two of the world’s leading killers. Furthermore. even the most knowledgeable scientist cannot precisely predict the strain of next year’s influenza. remain in the research stage. HIV and malaria.