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, CO2, O
, CO, H2S
Special Stack Gas Sensors
Model 108 Portable Analyzer
The Model 108 Analyzers are reliable,
flexible and versatile instruments based on
electrochemical & infrared gas sensors
for the measurement of hydrogen sulfide
(H2S),carbon monoxide (CO), methane
(CH4) &carbon dioxide (CO2).These
products are available in a portabe
configuration with a rechargeable battery
Other Continuous Analyzers include the
Model 201-B PID or FID Analyzer for total
VOCs, a thermal conductivity detector
(TCD),Model 204 and a Model 210
Oxygen Analyzer. The addition of these
new Analyzers greatly improves the
capability and range of process analyzers
from PID.
Principle of Operation
Electrochemical (EC)
Amperometric techniques can use two or
three electrode systems for detection. A
membrane is used to separate the phase
being measured (air containing a toxic gas)
from the electrolyte where the measurement
takes place. The oxygen electrode was first
described by Clarke in 1956 and is perhaps
the best known of this type. Here, a fixed
potential is applied to one electrode and the
current generated by oxygen being
consumed according to:
0 +2e
] +2OH
is measured.
Various organic and inorganic compounds
can be sensed at an electrode interface by
applying a voltage that is equivalent to the
oxidation or reduction potential. As the
appropriate compounds diffuse to the
electrode, they will be oxidized or reduced
and will produce a current (proportional to
concentration). This signal is amplified and
displayed on the digital meter. The calibration
value for each sensor is stored in the
processor memory for later retrieval.
The O
sensor has a long lifetime acidic
electrolyte in the sensor.
Infrared (IR)-CH4 & CO2- %
Two infrared sensors with interference
filters one at the absorbance max the
other at the min. Each is in a leg of a
Wheatstone Bridge circuit. If the sample ,
is irradiated by an IR source and CH4 is
present it will increase the temperature
of the CH
or CO
IR sensors and change
the resistance. The change
in resistance is proportional to the
concentration. The readout is %,
Vent monitoring CH4 & CO2%
Combustion efficiency-Combustibles &
Stack gas monitoring- CO,O2- Sampling
systems available
Scrubbler outlets- efficiency of
CO2, H2S removal
Wide operating range with no range
changing necessary- 16 Bit ADC
Push button calibration- automatically
adjusts response
RS232 digital output- can print to a
serial printer, continuously print to a PC
or store up to 7,000 data points for
downloading to a PC via Windows
Multiple Analytical Modules can be
setup with different interchangeable
Stored calibration values
Audible alarm- internal
Datalogging (programmable) for 7,000
points- Graphing software for logged
Easy to calibrate; Turn on/off functions
via simple keypad
Interchangeable electrochemical
Battery operation or runs continously
off the battery charger
, CH
, O
, H
Electrochemical Sensors optimized for
stack gas operation are available (see
back Page Table I).
Available in two configurations:
Single component or Multiple
Stack Gas sensor for methane & CO
plus O
and 1 electrochemical sensor
Measurement mode: Continuous
Response time- 20-50 sec. to 90%
Zero drift- Automatic
compensation; <1-2% per month
Span drift- less than 2%
every month
Single alarm- customer
Wide range of response- from ppm
to 100 %
Readout- 5
digit LCD smart
panel meter with backlighting
Standard output: RS232; 0-1 VDC
Enclosure:-General Purpose
Dimensions: 8" H x3"W x 2.25"D;
Weight: 7.5 pounds
Power requirements- 100-
240VAC, battery charger
The IR sensor for methane has a range of 0-
100%. A second IR sensor is availabel for
measuring CO
. Other sensors are designed
to be used for measuring stack gases. . A
special oxygen sensor with an acidic
electrolyte is available for measuring oxygen
in stack gases where the acid gases such
as CO
would interfere with operation.
Sensors-Combination of sensors
from single IR for methane (VOCs) and/
or O
, plus CH
or 1 or 2 EC sensors.
Multiple analytical modules can be used
with a single readout In short term
sampling cases, a coalescing filter that
removes liquid water and particulate is
for sampling.
Sampling Systems
One of the most difficult challenges is
to deliver a sample stream saturated
with water at an elevated temperature
to the analyzer without any change in
the composition of the compounds to
be measured. A photo of one of our
sample conditioning system is shown
below. The system used for stack gases
involves dilution with ambient air to cool
the temperature of the as and to remove
the water from the gas and prevent
condensation. The dilution gas is
passed through a filter to remove any
interfering gases (SO
, NO....).
Calibration gas is introduced at the inlet
to correct for any losses and/or dilution
in the system.
For additional information, please
contact PID Analyzers.
Low Cost Portable Gas Analyzers,
25 Walpole Park South Dr. Walpole, MA 02081
Tel. 1-508-660-5001 USA or Canada 1-800-724-5600 Fax. 1-508-660-5040 Web: E-mail:
HNU Nordion, Ltd, OY, Atomitie 5 B 6, PL 1, Helsinki, Finland Tel. +358-9-565 7240 Fax +350-9-562 6801
Web: E-mail:
Sensor Specs
Table I
Sensor Specifications
Sensor Range ppm Det. Limit Resp.Time (s) Interferences
Carbon Monoxide- 0-1,000 1 15 H
, C
Carrbon Monoxide-SG 0-10,000 10 15 H
, C
Hydrogen SulfideSG 0-1,000 1 15 with filter
Oxygen-SG** 0-30 % 0.1% 8 no CO
Carbon Dioxide 0-100% 1 % 30
Methane 0-100% 1% 30
SG=Stack Gas Sensor
** Uses acidic electrolyte to prevent interference from acid gases
Land fill Gas Composition Biogas Composition
Spotlight on Technology
Monitoring Soil Gas at Landfills
PID's New Analyzer
By Dr. Jack Driscoll
Modem landfills are monitored to ensure
compliance with federal regulations under 40
CFR Parts 60, 61, and 63 (Federal Regis
terNo!. 65, No. 20lffuesday, October 17,
2000 !Rules and Regulations). PID Analyzers
( has introduced its Model 108 Ana
.,........--.--- - Iyzer for measuring
landfill gases. The
analyzer is used for
soil gas monitoring,
and measuring the
near swface gases
at a landfill site.
Clearly, one on the
biggest concems at
a landfill site is
the methane (ClL)
which has a lower
explosive limit of
about five percent.
Areas outside the
I and fi II can be
checked to ensure
that the CtL is not
migrating from the
landfill to nearby
homes. Since PID's
Model 108 is a four
gas analyzer, the
customer can choose either an electrochemi
cal hydrogen sulfide (H,S) sensor or an atmos
phelic pressure sensor as an option. The
analyzer can compensate for water in the sam
ple up to 95 percent, but it is possible the sam
ple can be satw'ated, so PID has added a water
removal system to prevent liquid water from
getting into the analyzer.
The Model 108 's infrared sensors have two
interference filters and two temperature
sensors: one at the absorbance maximum
(3 microns for ClL), the other at the mini
mum. Each is in a leg of a Wheatstone Bridge
circuit. If the sample is irradiated by an TR
(infrared) source and CtL is present, it will
increase the temperature of the CH. IR sensor
PID Model 108 Analyzer
The analyzer is powered by a nickel metal hydride rechargeable
battery. With the ability to run about eight hours continuously,
the analyzer can be recharged in about three hours using the
smart charger.
Wavelength !lIm]
CO2 2:
(magnified 20 xl . .J

'" I ) J
I .
l.5 f 1
: 1
(magrifted 50 xl / \ . /

Figure 1 Source. PID Analyzers
and change the resistance. The change in
resistance is proportional to the concentra
tion. The carbon dioxide (CO,) works in a
similar fashion but has an absorbance maxi
mum at 4.3 microns. Figure 1 is an IR spec
trum of CO, where M is the measurement
wavelength and R is the reference wave
length. Note that water absorbs strongly in
the infrared and in Figure 1, the M and R
wavelengths for CO2 are in a region where
water does not absorb strongly.
The Model 108 has two dual beam (mea
suring and reference wavelengths) infrared
analyzers for measuring 0-100 percent CO,
and ClL and an electrochemical sensor for
oxygen (0-30%). The electrolyte for the 0 ,
sensor is acidic to keep the CO, from build
ing up in the electrolyte and destroying the
sensor in a short period of time (months).
The gas composition of the landfill gas is
shown in Figure 2.
The analyzer is powered by a nickel metal
hydride rechargeable battery. With the ability
to run about eight hours continuously, the
analyzer can be recharged in about three
hours using the smart charger. This analyzer
also has a number of outputs, including a
0-1 VDC analog, an RS232 digital signal,
Compound Concentration %
co, 40-60
CH, 45-60
0 , 0.1-1
H,S 0-3
H, 0-1
Figure 2 Source: PID Analyzers
and an optional Bluetooth, and has Windows
PC software that will provide instantaneous
graphical data or hourly data. A comma
delimited ASCII file (with real time stamp) is
also provided that can be imported directly
into EXCEL.
Emerging Applications
On many closed landfills, municipalities are
installing solar cells to generate power for the
cities or towns. For sites like this it is impor
tant to monitor the sites more closely to pro
tect the investment in solar power. On Cape
Cod in Massachusetts, many of the 13 towns
have worked together with a private contrac
tor to install solar cells on landfills to gener
ate electlicilY for the towns at a considerably
lower cost than conventional power. Of the
50+ landfills in MA, 38 are cWTently generat
ing power by burning methane.
Jack Driscoll is President of PID Analyz
ers, which is based in Sandwich, MA. For
more information on PID Analyzers call
774-413-5281, email or
April 2013 - CryoGas International