# UNITS

The FE exam and this handbook use both the metric system of units and the U.S. Customary System (USCS). In the USCS system of units, both force and mass are called pounds. Therefore, one must distinguish the pound-force (lbf) from the pound-mass (lbm). The pound-force is that force which accelerates one pound-mass at 32.174 ft/sec2. Thus, 1 lbf = 32.174 lbm-ft/sec2. The expression 32.174 lbm-ft/(lbf-sec2) is designated as gc and is used to resolve expressions involving both mass and force expressed as pounds. For instance, in writing Newton’s second law, the equation would be written as F = ma/gc, where F is in lbf, m in lbm, and a is in ft/sec2. Similar expressions exist for other quantities. Kinetic Energy, KE = mv2/2gc, with KE in (ft-lbf); Potential Energy, PE = mgh/gc, with PE in (ft-lbf); Fluid Pressure, p = ρgh/gc, with p in (lbf/ft2); Specific Weight, SW = ρg/gc, in (lbf/ft3); Shear Stress, τ = (µ/gc)(dv/dy), with shear stress in (lbf/ft2). In all these examples, gc should be regarded as a unit conversion factor. It is frequently not written explicitly in engineering equations. However, its use is required to produce a consistent set of units. Note that the conversion factor gc [lbm-ft/(lbf-sec2)] should not be confused with the local acceleration of gravity g, which has different units (m/s2 or ft/sec2) and may be either its standard value (9.807 m/s2 or 32.174 ft/sec2) or some other local value. If the problem is presented in USCS units, it may be necessary to use the constant gc in the equation to have a consistent set of units.
METRIC PREFIXES Prefix atto femto pico nano micro milli centi deci deka hecto kilo mega giga tera peta exa COMMONLY USED EQUIVALENTS 1 gallon of water weighs 1 cubic foot of water weighs 1 cubic inch of mercury weighs The mass of 1 cubic meter of water is 8.34 lbf 62.4 lbf 0.491 lbf 1,000 kilograms

Multiple 10–18 10–15 10–12 10–9 10–6 10–3 10–2 10–1 101 102 103 106 109 1012 1015 1018

Symbol a f p n µ m c d da h k M G T P E

TEMPERATURE CONVERSIONS ºF = 1.8 (ºC) + 32 ºC = (ºF – 32)/1.8 ºR = ºF + 459.69 K = ºC + 273.15

FUNDAMENTAL CONSTANTS
Quantity electron charge Faraday constant gas constant metric gas constant metric gas constant USCS gravitation - newtonian constant gravitation - newtonian constant gravity acceleration (standard) metric gravity acceleration (standard) USCS molar volume (ideal gas), T = 273.15K, p = 101.3 kPa speed of light in vacuum Stephan-Boltzmann constant Symbol e F R R R R G G g g Vm c σ Value 1.6022 × 10−19 96,485 8,314 8.314 1,545 0.08206 6.673 × 10–11 6.673 × 10–11 9.807 32.174 22,414 299,792,000 5.67 × 10–8 Units C (coulombs) coulombs/(mol) J/(kmol·K) kPa·m3/(kmol·K) ft-lbf/(lb mole-ºR) L-atm/(mole-K) m3/(kg·s2) N·m2/kg2 m/s2 ft/sec2 L/kmol m/s W/(m2·K4)
UNITS

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avdp) lbf lbf-ft lbf/in2 (psi) psi psi psi radian stokes therm ton watt (W) W W weber/m2 (Wb/m2) By 9.055 joule (J) Btu 2. water atm.609 1.600 coulomb (C) ångström (Å) 1 × 10–10 meter (m) atmosphere (atm) 76.281 × 10–2 foot (ft) cm 0.818 × 10–3 horsepower (hp) gallon (US Liq) 3.47104 acres horsepower (hp) 42.145 1.7 watt (W) hp 33. of Hg Pa degree m2/s Btu pounds (lb) Btu/hr horsepower (hp) joule/s (J/s) gauss acre 43.68 × 106 joule (J) hp-hr 0. mercury (Hg) atm.448 1.307 2. std 29.478 × 10 0.968 × 10–3 cal 1.7376 1 9.394 inch (in) centipoise (cP) 0.3453 pounds of water gamma (γ.0361 0.8066 3.216 ft-lbf/sec Btu calorie (g-cal) 3.002458 centimeter (cm) atm in of H2O lbf/in2 (psi) atm 20 CONVERSION FACTORS .928 × 10–4 kilowatt-hr (kWh) Btu 778 ft-lbf Btu/hr 3.000 (ft-lbf)/min hp 550 (ft-lbf)/sec hp-hr 2.000 3.205 × 10–3 pound (lbm) hectare 1 × 104 square meters (m2) hectare 2.646317 million gallons/day (mgd) cubic foot (ft3) 7.454 4.134 ft3 gallons of water 8.281 0.094 1.678 × 10–5 0.7376 1 1 2.560 × 10–6 hp-hr cal 4.481 gallon cubic meters (m3) 1.98 × 106 ft-lbf hp-hr 2.766 × 10–7 kilowatt-hr (kWh) ft-lbf 0.869 × 10–6 1 10 0.930 × 10–4 horsepower (hp) Btu/hr 0.068 2. std 14.413 1.4 Btu/min hp 745.895 180/π 1 × 10–4 1 × 105 2.184 watt (W) centimeter (cm) 3.6 × 106 1.90 ft.CONVERSION FACTORS Multiply By To Obtain 2 Multiply joule (J) J J J/s kilogram (kg) kgf kilometer (km) km/hr kilopascal (kPa) kilowatt (kW) kW kW kW-hour (kWh) kWh kWh kip (K) K liter (L) L L L/second (L/s) L/s meter (m) m metric ton m/second (m/s) mile (statute) mile (statute) mile/hour (mph) mph mm of Hg mm of H2O newton (N) newton (N) N·m N·m pascal (Pa) Pa Pa·sec (Pa·s) pound (lbm. std 33.448 61.602 × 10–19 joule (J) foot (ft) 30.85 3.316 × 10–3 9. std 1.280 1.356 0.609 88.785 liter (L) gallon (US Liq) 0.000 4.0 cm.186 joule (J) cal/sec 4.48 cm ft 0.293 watt (W) Btu/hr 0.621 0.6 3.341 3.324 calorie (g-cal) ft-lbf 1.746 kWh inch (in) in of Hg in of Hg in of H2O in of H2O 2.560 square feet (ft ) ampere-hr (A-hr) 3.341 × 10–3 1 10.0 1.70 lbf/in2 abs (psia) atm.356 joule (J) ft-lbf/sec 1.119 15.001 pascal·sec (Pa·s) centipoise (cP) 1 g/(m·s) centistokes (cSt) 1 × 10–6 m2/sec (m2/s) cubic feet/second (cfs) 0.540 0.02 0.3048 meter (m) ft-pound (ft-lbf) 1.264 10–3 2.285 × 10–3 Btu ft-lbf 3.8 5.413 737.000 Liters electronvolt (eV) 1.000 196.413 1. Γ) 1 × 10–9 tesla (T) gauss 1 × 10–4 T gram (g) 2.036 6. mercury (Hg) atm.341 3.545 Btu hp-hr 1.225 1 0.205 9.013 × 105 pascal (Pa) bar 1 × 105 Pa barrels–oil 42 gallons–oil Btu 1.60 0.92 in.0334 13.281 1.000 –4 To Obtain Btu ft-lbf newton·m (N·m) watt (W) pound (lbm) newton (N) feet (ft) mph lbf/in2 (psi) horsepower (hp) Btu/hr (ft-lbf )/sec Btu hp-hr joule (J) lbf newton (N) in3 gal (US Liq) m3 ft3/min (cfm) gal (US)/min (gpm) feet (ft) yard kilogram (kg) feet/min (ft/min) feet (ft) kilometer (km) ft/min (fpm) km/h atm atm lbf kg·m/s2 ft-lbf joule (J) atmosphere (atm) newton/m2 (N/m2) poise (P) kilogram (kg) N N ·m atm ft of H2O in.