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# Physics B

## AP Review: Waves, Optics, and Nuclear

Name:________________

Naming optical images Nature of image real (converging rays) virtual (diverging rays) Orientation of image Upright inverted Size of image True enlarged reduced Law of Reflection Angle of incidence equals angle of reflection. i = r Plane Mirror Produces only virtual, upright, and true sized images. Example: plane mirror and the law of reflection An object appears in front of a plane mirror. The law of reflection can be used to locate the image. The reflected rays always diverge, so they are extended behind the mirror. Where they intersect, the image is produced. + side of mirror - side of mirror

Spherical Concave Mirror Also called converging mirror f=R Image is real when object is outside focus Image is virtual when object is inside focus Parts of spherical concave mirror.

- side

shiny side

dark side

## Problem: Plane Mirror (1993 #31)

Ray tracing: concave mirror Construction of image using two of the three principle rays: p-ray: parallel axis ray. f-ray: focus ray. c-ray: center ray. Real image: Principle rays converge and image is constructed where they intersect such that the tip of the image arrow appears at the intersection. The foot of the image arrow is on the principle axis. Virtual image: Principle rays diverge and image is constructed where the extension of the reflected rays intersect such that the tip of the image arrow appears at the intersection and the foot of the image arrow is on the principle axis. Sample Ray Tracing: concave mirror with real image (note: while three principle rays are shown, only two are necessary) Sample Ray Tracing: concave mirror with virtual image

c p

object

## Virtual Upright Enlarged image

image

1 . An object is placed near a plane mirror, as shown above. Which of the labeled points is the position of the image? (A) A (B) B (C) C (D) D (E) E Explain your reasoning: (should include ray tracing) Problem: Plane Mirror (1998 #50)

Mirror and lens equation #1 1/si + 1/so = 1/f si: image distance + for real, - for virtual so: object distance + always f: focal length + for converging, - for diverging Mirror and lens equation #2 M = -si/so = hi/ho si: image distance + for real, - for virtual so: object distance + always hi: image height - for inverted, + for upright ho: object height + always M: magnification >1 for enlarged, <1 for reduced, 1 for true-sized Spherical Convex Mirror Also called diverging mirror f=R Image is always virtual, upright, and reduced Parts of spherical convex mirror.

c 2. An object, slanted at an angle of 45, is placed in front of a vertical plane mirror, shown above. Which of the following shows the apparent position and orientation of the object's image? as
object

image

## Shiny side Principle axis

+ side Focus - side

Center of Curvatur e

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## Problem: Concave mirror (1984 #37)

Index of Refraction n = speed of light in vacuum / speed of light in medium n = c/v Snells Law n1sin(1) = n2sin(2)

Problem: Refraction (1988 #55) 3. An object is placed as shown in the figure above. The center of curvature C and the focal point F of the reflecting surface are marked. As compared with the object, the image formed by the reflecting surface is (A) erect and larger (B) erect and the same size (C) erect and smaller (D) inverted and larger (E) inverted and smaller Explain your reasoning by doing a ray tracing on the figure above!

4. Light leaves a source at X and travels to Y along the path shown above. Which of the following statements is correct?
(A) The index of refraction is the same for the two media. (B) Light travels faster in medium 2 than in medium 1. (C) Snell's law breaks down at the interface. (D) Light would arrive at Y in less time by taking a straight line path from X to Y than it does taking the path shown above. (E) Light leaving a source at Y and traveling to X would follow the same path shown above, but in reverse.

Ray tracing: convex mirror Construction of image is best done using these two: p-ray: parallel axis ray. c-ray: center ray. Problem: Virtual image: Principle rays diverge and image is constructed where the extension of the reflected rays intersect such that the tip of the image arrow appears at the intersection and the foot of the image arrow is on the principle axis. c p Virtual Upright Reduced image

## Explain your reasoning: Refraction (1998 #31)

Refraction Light moves from one medium into another. Light changes speed when it refracts, and may also bend. Light bends toward the normal when the first medium has a lower refractive index than the second medium. Light bends away from the normal when the first medium has a lower refractive index than the second medium. Light doesnt bend when refractive indices are equal.

5. A light ray passes through substances 1, 2, and 3, as shown above. The indices of refraction for these three substances are n1, n2, and n3, respectively. Ray segments in 1 and in 3 are parallel. From the directions of the ray, one can conclude that (A) n3 must be the same as n1 (B) n2 must be less than n1 (C) n2 must be less than n3 (D) n1 must be equal to 1.00 (E) all three indices must be the same Explain your reasoning:

n1
1 2

n2

n1 < n2

n1
1 2

n2 n1

n1 > n2

## Bending away from the normal

6. A beam of white light is incident on a triangular glass prism with an index of refraction of about 1.5 for visible light, producing a spectrum. Initially, the prism is in a glass aquarium filled with air, as shown above. If the aquarium is filled with water with an index of refraction of 1.3, which of the following is true?
(A) No spectrum is produced. (B) A spectrum is produced, but the deviation of the beam is opposite to that in air. (C) The positions of red and violet are reversed in the spectrum. (D) The spectrum produced has greater separation between red and violet than that produced in air. (E) The spectrum produced has less separation between red and violet than that produced in air.

## No bending; comes in on normal

n2
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(E) located at a distance more than by from the lens Total internal reflection Can occur when light is trying to leave a medium into one with a smaller refractive index. The light bends away from the normal so much it cant get out of the material, and reflects inside the material instead. Critical Angle of Incidence The smallest angle at which total internal reflection can occur. n1sin(1) = n2sin(2) n1sin(90o) = n2sin(2) n1 = n2sin(c) Converging Lens Thicker in the middle than on the edges f (focal length) is a positive number Image is real when object is outside focus Image is virtual, enlarged and upright when object is inside focus Parts of a converging lens. - side Principle axis + side c f

Show your work:(try using the lens equations) Problem: Converging Lens (1998#30)

9. An object is placed at a distance of 1.5 from a converging lens of focal length , as shown above. What type of image is formed and what is its size relative to the object? Type Size
(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Virtual Virtual Virtual Real Real Larger Same size Smaller Larger Smaller

2f

2f

Show your work: a) Do ray diagram on figure above b) Do calculation below Problem: Converging Lens (1988 #33) 10. A postage stamp is placed 30 centimeters to the left of a converging lens of focal length 60 centimeters. Where is the image of the stamp located? (A) 60 cm to the left of the lens (B) 20 cm to the left of the lens (C) 20 cm to the right of the lens (D) 30 cm to the right of the lens (E) 60 cm to the right of the lens Show your work:
Diverging Lens Thinner in the middle than on the edges f (focal length) is a negative number Image is always virtual, upright, reduced Parts of a converging lens.

Ray tracing with converging lens Construction of image using two of the three principle rays: p-ray: parallel axis ray. f-ray: focus ray. c-ray: center ray. Real image: Principle rays converge and image is constructed where they intersect such that the tip of the image arrow appears at the intersection. The foot of the image arrow is on the principle axis. Virtual image: Principle rays diverge and image is constructed where the extension of the reflected rays intersect such that the tip of the image arrow appears at the intersection and the foot of the image arrow is on the principle axis. Sample ray tracing with converging lens (real image)

image object

f
p

Sample ray tracing with converging lens (virtual image) Virtual Upright Enlarged

## - side Principle axis

+ side c f

2f

2f

image

object

c Problem: Converging Lens (1993 #26) 7. Which three of the glass lenses above, when placed in air, will cause parallel rays of light to converge? (A) I, II, and III (B) I, III, and V (C) l, IV, and V (D) II, III, and IV (E) II, IV, and V Explain your reasoning: Problem: Converging Lens (1993# 69) 8. If the object distance for a converging thin lens is more than twice the focal length of the lens, the image is
(A) virtual and erect (B) larger than the object (C) located inside the focal point (D) located at a distance between f and 2f from the lens 6/10/2013

Ray tracing with diverging lens Construction of image is best done using these two principle rays: p-ray: parallel axis ray. c-ray: center ray. Virtual image construction: Principle rays always diverge for this lens, and image is constructed where the extension of the reflected rays intersect such that the tip of the image arrow appears at the intersection and the foot of the image arrow is on the principle axis. Sample ray tracing with diverging lens p object Virtual Upright

image

## Reduced image always produced

c

Problem: Diverging lens (1984 #69) 11. An illuminated object is placed 0.30 meter from a lens whose focal length is -0.15. meter. The image is (A) inverted, real, and 0,30 meter from the lens on the opposite side from the
object (A) upright, virtual, and 0.30 meter from the lens on the opposite side, from the object (B) upright, real, and 0110 meter from the lens on the same side as the object (C) upright, virtual, and 0. 10 meter from the lens on the same side as the object (D) inverted, real, and 0. 10 meter from the lens on the same side as the object

1 eV = 1.60210-19 J Photoelectric Effect experiment Ephoton = Kmax + Wo Ephoton = hf (Plancks equation) Kmax: maximum kinetic energy of electrons (equal to stopping potential times charge of electron) Wo: binding energy or work function hf = Kmax + Wo Kmax = hf - Wo (this is the equation usually graphed)

Show your work: Problem: General Lenses (1984 #38) 12. When one uses a magnifying glass to read fine print, one uses a (A) converging lens to produce a virtual image of the print (B) converging lens to produce a real image of the print (C) mirror to produce a virtual image of the print (D) diverging lens to produce a real image of the print (E) diverging lens to produce a virtual image of the print Explain your reasoning: Problem: General Optics (1988 #31) 13. The image of the arrow is larger than the arrow itself in which of the following cases?

Problem: Photoelectric Effect (1998 #55) 15. In an experiment, light of a particular wavelength is incident on a metal surface, and electrons are emitted from the surface as a result, To produce more electrons per unit time but with less kinetic energy per electron, the experimenter should do which of the following?
(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Increase the intensity and decrease the wavelength of the light. Increase the intensity and the wavelength of the light. Decrease the intensity and the wavelength of the light. Decrease the intensity and increase the wavelength of the light. None of the above would produce the desired result.

## Explain your reasoning or show work:

Absorption Spectrum Photon is absorbed and excites atom to higher energy state. Absorption indicated by upward arrows on energy-level diagrams. Creates dark bands, since the light disappears and goes into the atom. Emission Spectrum Photon is emitted and atom drops to lower energy state. Emission indicated by downward arrows on energy-level diagrams. Creates bright bands of color, since the light is emitted and goes into the atom. Energy Level diagram Horizontal lines indicate allowed atomic energies. Atom cannot exist at in between energies. Upward arrow are absorptions Downward arrows are emissions Photon energies are calculated by examining the diagram Photon frequencies are calculated from Plancks equation Ionization band 0 ev -0.5 ev

(A) I only (B) II only (C) I and III only (D) II and III only (E) I, II, and III Show your work or explain your reasoning
Light is a wave: c = f Light is a particle : particle of light is called a photon This is a quantum of light energy (quantum means smallest indivisible quantity) Energy of a photon E = hf

4.5 eV emission

-2.5 ev -4.3 ev -5 ev

7.5 eV absorption

Problem: Photon Energy (1998 #37) 14. If photons of light of frequency have momentum p, photons of light of frequency 2 will have a momentum of
(A)

ground state

-10 ev

2p
p 2

(B)

2p

(C)

## Problems: Atomic Spectra (1993 #34 & 35)

1 p 2

(D)

(E)

The electron-volt (eV) An energy unit useful on the atomic level. If a moving electron or proton is stopped by 1 Volt of electric potential, we say it has 1 electron-volt (or 1 eV) of kinetic energy!
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## A hypothetical atom has four energy states as shown above.

16. Which of the following photon energies could NOT be found in the emission spectra of this atom after it has been excited to the n = 4 state? (A) l eV (B) 2 eV (C) 3 eV (D) 4 eV (E) 5 eV Show your work or explain your reasoning 17. Which of the following transitions will produce the photon with the longest wavelength? (A) n = 2 to n = l (B) n = 3 to n = l (C) n = 3 to n = 2 (D) n = 4 to n = l (E) n = 4 to n = 3 Show your work or explain your reasoning
Nuclear Reactions Energy released an element changes from one to another. Lots of energy is released due to mass being destroyed. E = mc2 Mass + energy is conserved. Charge is conserved. Nucleons Proton: Charge: +e Neutron: Charge: 0 Nuclear reactions Nuclear Decay Alpha decay He2+ released from heavy nucleus Beta decay Beta Minus e- released from nucleus Positron e+ released from nucleus Fission A heavy nucleus splits into two lighter ones. Fusion Two small nuclei combine to form a bigger one.

than that in

235 U+ 92

1 n. 0
(B) Ill only (D) I and lll only

## (A) lI only (C) I and ll only (E) l,ll, and lll

Problem: Nuclear Reactions (1998#12) 22. Quantities that are conserved in all nuclear reactions include which of the following? I. Electric charge II. Number of nuclei III. Number of protons (A) I only (B) II only (C)I and III only (B) II and III only (D) I, II, and III Explain your reasoning:

Problem: Nuclear Reactions (1988 #45) 18. A proton collides with a nucleus of 14 7 N. If this collision produces a nucleus of 11 6 C and one other particle, that particle is (A) a proton (B) a neutron (C) a deuteron (D) an particle (E) a particle Explain your reasoning or show your work: Problem: Nuclear Reactions (1988 #34) 19. The nuc1ear reaction X Y + Z occurs spontaneously. If Mx, My, and Mz are the masses of the three particles, which of the following relationships is true? (A) Mx < My - Mz (B) Mx < My + Mz (C) Mx > My + Mz (D) Mx - My < Mz (E) Mx - Mz < My Explain your reasoning: Problems: Nuclear Reactions (1993#32&33) Questions 32-33 deal with nuclear fission for which the following reaction is a good example.
235 U+ 92

Problem: Nuclear Reactions (1998#33) 23. A negative beta particle and a gamma ray are emitted during the radioactive decay of a nucleus of 214 82 Pb . Which of the following is the resulting nucleus? (A)
214 80

Hg

(B)

214 81

Tl

(C)

213 83

Bi

(D)

214 83

Bi

(E)

218 84

Po

Wave-Particle Duality Waves are particles and particles are waves Energy Particle: E=K+U Photon: E = hf Momentum Particle: p = mv Photon: p = h/ Wavelength Photon: = c/f Particle: = h/p (deBroglie wavelength)

## Problem: Wave-particle duality (1998#34)

24. If the momentum of an electron doubles, its de Broglie wavelength is multiplied by a factor of (A) 1
4
1 2

## 1 95 138 n Ba + Kr + neutrons + released energy 56 0 36

(C) 1

(D) 2

(E) 4

(B)

released energy 20. The total number of free neutrons in the products of this reaction is (A) 2 (B) 3 (C) 4 (D) 5 (E) 6 Show your work: 21. Which of the following statements is always true for neutron-induced fission reactions involving II. The rest mass of end products is less than
235 U? 92 235 235 U+ n. 92 92

Show your work: Problem: Wave-particle duality (1993#37) 25. Of the following phenomena, which provides the best evidence that light can have particle properties? (A) Interference of light in thin films (B) Electromagnetic radiation (C) Photoelectric effect (D) Electron diffraction (E) X-ray diffraction Explain your reasoning:

I. The end products always include Ba and Kr. III The total number of nucleons (protons plus neutrons) in the end products is less
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## Problem: Wave-particle duality (1993#38)

26. Of the following phenomena, which provides the best evidence that particles can have wave properties?
(A) The absorption of photons by electrons in an atom (B) The a-decay of radioactive nuclei (C) The interference pattern produced by neutrons incident on a crystal (D) The production of x-rays by electrons striking a metal target (E) The scattering of photons by electrons at rest

Davisson-Germer electron-diffraction experiment J. J. Thomson's measurement of the charge-to-mass ratio of electrons (A) I only (B)II only (C) I and III only (D) II and III only (E) I, II, and III Explain your reasoning:

II. III.

Explain your reasoning: Problem: Classic Experiments (1998#35) 29. Quantum concepts are critical in explaining all of the following EXCEPT (A) Rutherford's scattering experiments (B) Bohr's theory of the hydrogen atom (C) Compton scattering (D) the blackbody spectrum (E) the photoelectric effect Explain your reasoning: Problem: Classic Experiments (1988#46) 30. The scattering of alpha particles by a thin gold foil was measured by Geiger and Marsden. The Rutherford model of the atom was proposed in order to explain why
(A) more particles were scattered through angles greater than 90 than were scattered through angles less than 90 (B) the fraction of particles scattered through large angles was too large to be explained by previous models of the atom (C) no particles passed through the foil undeflected (D) the most common scattering angle was about 90 (E) the most common scattering angle was about l80

Problem: Wave-particle duality (1988#35) 27. Which of the following graphs best represents the de Broglie wavelength of a particle as a function of the linear momentum p of the particle?

Summary of Classic Experiments Compton Scattering Proof of the momentum of photons. High-energy photons collided with electrons. Conservation of momentum. Scattered photons examined to determine loss of momentum. Davisson-Germer Experiement Verified that electrons have wave properties by proving that they diffract. Shone electrons onto a metal strip; they diffracted like light to form a diffraction pattern. Rutherford Scattering Collided alpha particles onto a gold foil strip. Unexpectedly large back-scattering indicated elastic collision of the alpha particles with nuclei in the atoms. Evidence of a nuclear atom with a dense positive nucleus. J J Thomson Experiment Deflected electrons from discharge tubes by magnetic and electric fields. Proved that the charge to mass ratio was very large. Showed that the electron was much much less massive than the atom. Generally given credit for discovering the electron. Milliken Oil Drop Experiment Suspended slightly charged oil drops in electric field. Proved that the charge on an electron was the smallest possible charge (or quantum of charge). Photoelectric effect Showed that the energy of photons depended upon the frequency of incident light, and not on its intensity. Showed that Plancks equation E = hf was correct. Evidence of the particle nature of light. Won Einstein his Nobel Prize.

Explain your reasoning: Problem: Wave Particle Duality (1988#64) 31. Which of the following statements is true of a beta particle?
(A) Its speed in a vacuum is 3 x 108 m/s. [B) It has a charge equal and opposite to that of an alpha particle. (C) It is more penetrating than a gamma ray of the same energy. (D) It has a mass of about 1,840 times that of a proton. (E) It can exhibit wave properties.

Mechanical Wave A disturbance that propagates through a medium with little or no net displacement of the particles of the medium. Parts of a Wave Crest: high point Trough: low point Equilibrium: mid point Amplitude: distance from equilibrium to crest or trough Wavelength: distance between adjacent crests Speed of a wave The speed of a wave is the distance traveled by a given point on the wave (such as a crest) in a given interval of time. v = d/t v = Period of a wave T = 1/ Wave types A transverse wave is a wave in which particles of the medium move in a direction perpendicular to the direction the wave moves. Example: waves on a string A longitudinal wave (also called a compression wave) is a wave in which particles of the medium move in a direction parallel to the direction the wave moves. Example: sound Light Light is also a wave, but it is an electromagnetic wave that requires no medium through which to travel. It is transverse in its geometry.

Problem: Classic Experiments (1998#11) 28. Which of the following experiments provided evidence that electrons exhibit wave properties? I. Millikan oil-drop experiment
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## Problem: Wavelength and frequency (1993#52)

32. A radar operates at a wavelength of 3 centimeters. The frequency of these waves is (A) 10-10 Hz (B) 106 Hz (C) 108 Hz (D) 3 x 108 Hz (E) 1010 Hz Show your work:
Reflection of waves Occurs when a wave strikes a medium boundary and bounces back into original medium. Completely reflected waves have the same energy and speed as original wave. Fixed-end reflection: wave reflects with inverted phase. This occurs when reflecting medium has greater density. Open-end reflection: wave reflects with same phase. This occurs when reflecting medium has lesser density.

Types of interference. If the waves are in phase, that is crests and troughs are aligned, the amplitude is increased. This is called constructive interference. If the waves are out of phase, that is crests and troughs are completely misaligned, the amplitude is decreased and can even be zero. This is called destructive interference. Sounds in the Real World Because of superposition and interference, real world waveforms may not appear to be pure sine or cosine functions. That is because most real world sounds are composed of multiple frequencies. Standing Wave A standing wave is a wave that is reflected back and forth between fixed ends (of a string or pipe, for example). Reflection may be fixed or open-ended. Superposition of the wave upon itself results in constructive interference and an enhanced wave.

## Problem: Reflection of Waves (1998#29)

35. Two wave pulses, each of wavelength , are traveling toward each other along a rope as shown above. When both pulses are in the region between points X and Y. which are a distance apart, the shape of the rope will be which of the following? 33. One end of a horizontal string is fixed to a wall. A transverse wave pulse is generated at the other end, moves toward the wall as shown above, and is reflected at the wall. Properties of the reflected pulse include which of the following?
I. II. III. It has a greater speed than that of the incident pulse. It has a greater amplitude than that of the incident pulse. It is on the opposite side of the string from the incident pulse.

## Problem: Superposition (1993#59)

(A) I only (B) III only (C) I and II only (D) II and III only (E) I, II, and III Explain your reasoning:
Refraction of waves Transmission of wave from one medium to another. Refracted waves may change speed and wavelength. Refracted waves do not change frequency.

36. The figure above shows two wave pulses that are approaching each other. Which of the following best shows the shape of the resultant pulse when the centers of the pulses, points P and Q. coincide? Explain your reasoning:

Problem: Refraction of Waves (1998#27) 34. When light passes from air into water, the frequency of the light remains the same. What happens to the speed and the wavelength of light as it crosses the boundary in going from air into water? Speed Wavelength (A) Increases Remains the same (B) Remains the same Decreases (C) Remains the same Remains the same (D) Decreases Increases (E) Decreases Decreases Explain your reasoning:
Principle of Superposition When two or more waves pass a particular point in a medium simultaneously, the resulting displacement at that point in the medium is the sum of the displacements due to each individual wave. The waves interfere with each other. 6/10/2013 7

## Problem: Wave on a string (1993#27)

A standing wave of frequency 5 hertz is set up on a string 2 meters long with nodes at both ends and in the center, as shown above.

37. The speed at which waves propagate on the string is (A) 0.4 m/s (B) 2.5 m/s (C) 5 m/s (D) 10 m/s (E) 20 m/s Show your work: Problem: Standing wave (1993#28) 38. The fundamental frequency of vibration of the string is (A) I Hz (B) 2.5 Hz (C) 5 Hz

## (D) 7.5 Hz (E) 10 Hz Show your work:

Beats
The characteristic loud-soft pattern that characterizes two nearly (but not exactly) matched frequencies.

41. A small vibrating object on the surface of a ripple tank is the source of waves of frequency 20 Hz and speed 60 cm/s. If the source S is moving to the right, as shown above, with speed 20 cm/s, at which of the labeled points will the frequency measured by a stationary observer be greatest? (A) A (B) B (C) C (D) D (E) It will be the same at all four points. Explain your reasoning:
Diffraction The bending of a wave around a barrier. Diffraction of light combined with interference of diffracted waves causes diffraction patterns. Double-slit or multi-slit diffraction n = d sin n: number of bright spot (the center one is n=0) : wavelength (m) d: spacing between slits (m) : angle defined by bright spot n, the diffraction grating, and the central bright spot Note: Although it is most commonly applied to light, the diffraction equation also works for sound or other mechanical waves.

## Problem: Interference (1988#32)

39. Two sinusoidal functions of time are combined to obtain the result shown in the figure above. Which of the following can best be explained by using this figure? (A) Beats (B) Doppler effect (C) Diffraction (D) Polarization (E) Simple harmonic motion Explain your reasoning:
Resonance Occurs when a vibration from one oscillator occurs at a natural frequency for another oscillator. The first oscillator will cause the second to vibrate. Doppler Effect The Doppler Effect is the raising or lowering of the perceived pitch of a sound based on the relative motion of the observer and the source of the sound. When an ambulance is racing toward you, the sound of its siren appears to be higher in pitch. When the ambulance is racing away from you, the sound of its siren appears to be lower in pitch.

## Problem: Diffraction (1998#51)

Problem: Doppler Effect (1993#58) 40. In the Doppler effect for sound waves, factors that affect the frequency that the observer hears include which of the following? I. The speed of the source II. The speed of the observer III. The loudness of the sound (A) I only (B) III only (C) I and II only (D) II and III only (E) I, II, and III Explain your reasoning: Problem: Doppler Effect (1998#49)

42. Plane sound waves of wavelength 0.12 m are incident on two narrow slits in a box with nonreflecting walls, as shown above. At a distance of 5.0 m from the center of the slits, a first-order maximum occurs at point P, which is 3.0 m from the central maximum. The distance between the slits is most nearly (A) 0.07 m (B) 0.09 m (C) 0.16 m (D) 0.20 m (E) 0.24 m Show your work:
Single-slit diffraction These are much less well defined patterns Large central bright spot surrounded by dark bands n = s sin n: number of dark band (the central bright spot is n=0; all other ns are dark bands) : wavelength (m) s: width of slit (m) : angle defined by dark band n, the slit, and the central bright spot

Problem: Single-slit diffraction (1988#27) 43. Which of the following is true of a single-slit diffraction pattern?
(A) It has equally spaced fringes of equal intensity. (B) It has a relatively strong central maximum. (C) It can be produced only if the slit width is less than one wavelength. (D) It can be produced only if the slit width is exactly one wavelength. (E) It can be produced only if the slit width is an integral number of wavelengths.