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By: Engr. Boy A. Ramos
SIMPLE DIAGRAM OF A COAL-FIRED STEAM POWER PLANT FLUE GAS HEAT + CO2 + N2O+ CO+ NO2+SO2 OTHER POLLUTANTS
Generator TURBINE 200MWe POWER OUTPUT CONDENSER
(TRANSFORMS STEAM TO LIQUID PHASE)
HEAT INPUT to boiler
(BUKALANAN SA TUBIG)
600MW HEAT FROM THE BURNED COAL
HEAT REJECTED TO THE COOLING WATER
Thermal Pollution to Environment
Greenhouse gases with air pollutants
Solid waste as bottom ash containing toxic pollutants
Solid waste as fly ash containing toxic pollutants
Transport .Mining -.Washing --.Environmental impacts of coalfired power plant: fuel supply .
which rely on diesel fuel. and causing chronic health problems. Dust blowing from coal trains contributes particulate matter to the air. Railroad locomotives. emit nearly 1 million tons of nitrogen oxide (NOx) and 52.4 million tons in a year. . killing and injuring many in accidents. COAL TRANSPORT A typical coal plant requires 40 railroad cars to supply 1.Underground mining is one of the most hazardous of occupations.000 tons of coarse and small particles in the United States.
339 2.05 billion tons of coal burn each year contain 109 7.(Greenpeace) “In the US .810 9.167 750 8.587 tons of tons of tons of tons of tons of tons of tons of MERCURY ARSENIC BERYLLIUM CADMIUM CHROMIUM NICKEL SELENIUM .884 1. the 1.
Mountaintop Coal-Mining .
USA .Coal Mining Site in Iowa.
The Semirara Mining Corporation. In this image.html. with the dark coal seams visible along the southern wall of the mine. Also visible are plumes of sediment emanating from the piles of rock and soil — known as “overburden” — into the Sulu Sea off the island’s northern coast. Accessed: 7/7/2010 . one of the largest coal mines in Asia and one of three coal operations on Semirara Island in the Philippines. which operates the coal field.NASA Image Captures Destruction of Island from Coal Mining A photograph taken by an astronaut on the International Space Station on March 31 captures a rare cloud-free glimpse of the Panian Coalfield. In recent years the mining company has denied allegations that waste from the coal operation has contaminated or damaged the island’s coastal areas. The island is located about 174 miles south of Manila . Source: http://e360. uses open-pit methods in which rock and soil are removed to reach coal seams below.edu/content/images/0410-semirara-mining-nasa. released by NASA. several huge piles of rock and other mining debris can be seen ringing the northern half of the pit.yale.
2.754 tons of NICKEL.Per 1.098 tons of SELENIUM (Greenpeace) . 3.236 tons of ARSENIC. 251 tons of CADMIUM . 189 tons of BERYLLIUM . 1.05 billion tons of coal/year. 13 tons of MERCURY.
Environmental impacts of coalfired power plant: fuel burning .Waste Heat --.Solid wastes .Stack Emissions -.
Situations in the USA .
3 tons of CADMIUM. NO2. . 47 tons of ARSENIC. CO. etc. 8 tons of BERYLLIUM. 184 tons of SELENIUM.Emissions during burning Per 1. SO2. 62 tons of CHROMIUM . 52 tons of MERCURY. H20. and Greenhouse gases such CO2. N2O. 52 tons of NICKEL.05 billion tons of coal.
1. 44 tons of MERCURY. 496 tons of CADMIUM . 6.601 tons of ARSENIC. Greenpeace . 4.533 tons of NICKEL. 970 tons of BERYLLIUM .ESP PER 1.275 tons of CHROMIUM .305 tons of SELENIUM which are trapped with the ashes (Bottom ash and fly ash).05 billion tons of coal. 6.
For the Proposed 200-MWe Coal-Fired Power Plant (Circulating Fluidized Combustion Technology) .
Bituminous Coal has MERCURY content of 12.4 nanogram/g Source: Mercury Analysis of Various Types of Coal By: Jae Young Park. Al. et. Department of Chemical Engineeering Yonsel University. Seoul. South Korea .5 – 52.
37% of MERCURY content of coal.Important! 47.71% of MERCURY content of coal is emitted to the atmosphere during combustion 40. is TRAPPED with the FLY & BOTTOM ASHES which are bound for disposal to the ASH POND . by weight.
35 % ARSENIC and 66. lead.13% CADMIUM in coal are trapped with the fly ash and are bound for disposal to a LANDFILL (7 hectares of unknown depth and without roof) .Proponent had distributed flyers claiming negligible emission of arsenic. 58. and cadmium. But.
11 million gals.4 gals.4m3/day 751. 4) Daily generation 118m3 Annual generation 43070m3 118m3/day Operation Heated Effluents Wastewater 8. 27.784 tons SO2 1.6 tons CO2 315360 kg TSP 3.608.415 tons BA 317915 kg .44M m3 25.14 kg/s BA 871 kg/day 112320 kg FA 12096 kg BA 871 kg 40.01 kg/s TSP 0.368 kg SO2 4.Table 3.790. Emissions from boiler 0.3 kg/s FA 0.577 tons NO2 1. Estimated waste stream Project phase Construction Type of generation Generation of sewage Estimated generation (EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. P.130 tons CO2 Ash Domestic Solid Waste 1.680m3 68.05 kg/s NO2 53.997 tons FA 4.34 kg/s CO2 864 kg TSP 10.320 kg NO2 4.7m3/sec 260.12 kg/s SO2 0.682.
240 kg/yr) & Hg (3. Hg (61.706 kg coal/day Colorless GHG ESP Limestone NOx abatement Optimum @ 300-400oC Bottom ash (4.682.800kg/yr).7% of Hg content of coal SO2 react w/ limestone @ temp > 750oC 1.400MW thermal heat to the environment 50% of Hg emitted from CFPPs can travel up to 600 miles (966 km) from source NO2 (1.81-11. etc. CO2 (1.576. lead.-landfill without roof & unknown depth. 40.415tons/yr) with pollutants Fly ash (40.8-259.91kg /yr).524.77kg/yr) & other toxic matters such as arsenic.2 ppb) .320kg/yr).33-13.412 tons of Ashes are for disposal in a 7 ha. SO2 (3.37 % of Hg content of coal Note: 45. 47.130. etc.784.997 tons/yr) with Hg (2.
7 hectares landfill @ 20 meters deep may be filled with Coal Combustion By-Products in four (4) years. meter of ash would range from 2100 – 3000 kg Therefore.1 cu. .
ON CARBON SINK .
69 tons of CO2 per year .A hectare of rubber trees (415 trees) can absorb 7.
A mango tree absorbs 302 kg CO2/yr .
Coffee/cacao trees absorb approximate 70 tons CO2/yearhectare at 1100 trees per hectare .
1.htmlhttp://www.7.mangoseedling.mangoseedling. Pls.302 kg CO2/(tree)(yr) For Mango.682.70 ton CO2/(ha)(yr)@ http:/www.500 hectares.100 trees per ha.com/advocacies2.agrometeorology.CO2 Absorption of trees: Rubber Tree International Rubber Research & Development . 24. Coffee/cacao (shaded) .org 1.com .700 hectares @ 100 trees/ha.240 kg CO2/yr would need 55.69 Tons of CO2/(ha)(yr) Board @ 415 trees/ha Mango (carabao) http://www.130. take note of this! .030 hectares is necessary to absorb the projected emission Proponent’s forestation is only 7.
NEW BOOK OF POPULAR SCIENCE “THE OCEAN SLIGHTLY ABSORBS MORE THAN IT EMITS” COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS. TRANSPORT.Kept in BALANCE by NATURAL “SINKS” 102 billion tons of CO2 /year INCREASING AMOUNT OF GHG CONSTANTLY DISRUPTED THE BALANCE CAUSING GLOBAL WARMING OCEAN 2006. DEFORESTATION DUE TO MINING .
HEAT WASTE AS THERMAL POLLUTANT .
SIMPLE DIAGRAM OF A COAL-FIRED STEAM POWER PLANT FLUE GAS HEAT + CO2 + N2O+ CO+ NO2+SO2 OTHER POLLUTANTS CHIMNEY (PANGHAW) Generator TURBINE 200MWe POWER OUTPUT CONDENSER (TRANSFORMS STEAM TO LIQUID PHASE) FURNACE (PUGON) HEAT INPUT to boiler BOILER (BUKALANAN SA TUBIG) 600MW HEAT FROM THE BURNED COAL PUMP WORK HEAT REJECTED TO THE COOLING WATER .
000 kJoules per second Hot water being aerated at the cooling tower Water to boiler Cold Air entering the Cooling Tower Waste Water Pond Condenser Cooling Tower Recycled Cooling Water Make-up Cooling Water From Raw Water Source Wastewater treatment Waste water to somewhere w/ temp higher than the receiver .Steam from the turbine Heat emitted to the surrounding air which is the main portion of the 400.
000 kg of woods/hour .Equivalent HEAT released when BURNING 25 kg of woods/sec or 90.
WATER CONSUMPTION .
) .3 barrels (THIS HOURLY CONSUMPTION WOULD BE ENOUGH TO SUPPLY TO 30 HOUSEHOLDS WITH MONTHLY CONSUMTION OF 25 CUBIC METERS.WATER FOR STEAM GENERATION AND CONDENSER COOLING WATER the power plant will need 750 CUBIC METER/HOUR (198.150 GALLONS/HOUR) (Will be drawn from “Siguil River” or DEEP WELLS and to be supplied by a third party) Note: 1 cu m = 264.2 US gallons = 6.
Adverse Impacts of Coal-Fired Plants in the Philippines * Impacts on Health Due to Emitted Substances * Flooding Due to Global Warming .
Substances Emitted by Coal Fired Power Plants • • • • • • • • Mercury Cadmium Chromium Lead Manganese Arsenic Boron Selenium • • • • • • • Molybdenum Uranium Radium 226. 228 Thorium 232 Aluminum Sulfate Beryllium Source: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry US Environmental Protection Agency .
respiratory & heart ailments.Adverse Impacts of CFPPs – Philippine Experience • Increase in respiratory diseases like bronchitis & pneumonia (Brgy Dacanlao near Calaca plant) • Lower forced vital capacity in almost all male children (Brgy Dacanlao) • Increased incidence of skin. & eye irritation (Calaca) .
This Calancan Bay fisherman had his leg amputated due to arsenic poisoning Sproule/Oxfam Australia • Photograph by David .• Wilson Manuba. with his family.
Effects of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) • Potent respiratory irritant • NOx + Hydrocarbons + sunlight = GROUNDLEVEL OZONE Ozone – respiratory irritant burning sensation & difficulty of breathing during exercise --high risk groups: children. people who exercise outdoors . elderly. persons w/ lung diseases.
Effects of Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) • Inflammation of nose & lungs • Triggering of asthma attacks • Triggering of heart attacks in people with heart ailments .
Mouth and throat heart kidneys Reproductive system Muscle weakness .Toxic Effects of Mercury nervous system Eyes. Ears.
Minamata Disease .
• The US EPA has set a limit of 2 parts of mercury per billion parts of drinking water (2 ppb) • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has set a maximum permissible level of 1 part of methylmercury in a million parts of seafood (1 ppm). .
. water (20%) and air (15%). It can enter the human body through uptake of food (65%).LEAD Lead is one out of four metals that have the most damaging effects on human health.
coma and death .• 10ug/dl – impair mental and physical development in children • >80 ug/dl – causes convulsions.
kdheks.gov/ables/images/later.gif .Lead From www.
org .corrosion-doctors.• House painter with wasted muscles and wrist drop affected by chronic lead poisoning Photo credit: www.
dizziness.Specific Effects of LEAD • Toxic effects are noted after chronic • exposure Neurotoxicity – encephalopathy. irritability. convulsions. restlessness. headache. blood. kidneys Causes learning and behavioral problems in children Causes miscarriages • • • . insomnia. lethargy. coma Harms the digestive systems.
kidney. prostate. lungs & skin • Dysfunctions of the digestive system & kidneys • Nervous system involvement w/ impairment in movement & sensation .Specific effects of ARSENIC • Cancers of the bladder. liver.
• Photo credit: arsenic project
Specific Effects of CHROMIUM
• Hexavalent form is among the strongest known causes • • • • • • • •
of lung cancer Nasal cancers Respiratory tract disturbances Liver & kidney damage Stomach ulcers Convulsions Hematologic disturbances – anemia, intravascular hemolysis Ocular disturbances – corneal opacification, keratitis, conjunctivitis increased risk of bone, prostate, lymphomas, Hodgkins, leukemia, stomach, genital, renal and bladder cancer
WITH HSTORY OF FLY ASH EMISSIONS CONTAINING SOME TOXIC POLLUTANTS
EXISTING COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS IN THE PHILIPPINES
The plant has wet limestone FGD scrubbers from Alstom. Site prep started in 1995 and construction started in Feb 1996.000-MW power station at Sual. The 30ha site is on Bangayao Point on Lingayen Gulf.Sual Location: Pangasinan Operator: TeaM Energy Corp Configuration: 2 X 647 MW Operation: 1999 Fuel: coal Boiler supplier: Stein T/G supplier: GEC_Alstom EPC: Alstom. Slipform Quick facts: Development started when Consolidated Electric Power Asia Ltd (a subsidiary of Hopewell Holdings) bid and won a $900mn BOOT tender for a 1. Photograph courtesy of Sound Research Laboratories Ltd Posted 18 Oct 2006 . Arup.
2002 ? Total Hg (.4 =8. Exeter.2kg) . University of Exeter.Sample Number M10202 Description fly ash Power Facility Sual Element (dry wt) mg/kg Arsenic (As) Cadmium (Cd) Chromium (Cr) Lead (Pb) Manganese (Mn) Mercury (Hg) 8.4 ppm <1 6 8 22 1.2 WHO regulatory level is 10 ppb of Arsenic Exceeds regualtory level 0.002 lbs (1 gm) of Hg a year can contaminate a 25 acre (10 ha) lake to the point where schools of fishes are unsafe to eat.0012*50000*6. Source: Department of Biological Sciences. UK.47=388.
Quezon Location: Quezon Operator: Quezon Power Ltd Configuration: 1 X 490 MW Operation: 1999 Fuel: coal Boiler supplier: FW T/G supplier: GE EPC: Bechtel Quick facts: This IPP on a 100ha site in Mauban has electrostatic precipitators. low-NOX burners. lead developer InterGen sold a 26% stake in Mauban to Global Power Investments LP. InterGen retains a 46% stake. with Covanta having a 26% share and PMR holding 2%. The plant has a long-term coal supply contract with Indonesia’s PT Adaro and Kaltim Prima and burns about 1. and International Finance Corp. formed in 1994 by GE Capital. Union Bank of Switzerland agreed to underwrite up to $600mn of bank financing for the $860mn project. Soros Fund Management. In late 1997. Dedicated port and coal handling facilities were built. The project has a 25yr PPA with Meralco. which also includes a 31km transmission line. and an FGD scrubber.65mn tons per year.Mauban. Photograph courtesy of Covanta Posted 28 Sep 2005 .
Exeter.002 lbs (1 gm) of Hg a year can 15 contaminate a 25 acre (10 ha) lake to the point where schools of fishes are 215 unsafe to eat 1.0019*50000*2.8ppm <1 49 0. 2002 ? Total Hg(0. UK.Sample Number M102013 Description fly ash Power Facility Mauban Element (dry wt) mg/kg Arsenic (As) Cadmium (Cd) Chromium (Cr) Lead (Pb) Manganese (Mn) Mercury (Hg) WHO regulatory level is 10 ppb of Arsenic 41.9 Exceeds regualtory level Source: Department of Biological Sciences. University of Exeter.8=41.45=233kg .
7mn. A new 600-MW unit is in planning.Masinloc Location: Zambales Operator: Masinloc Power Partners Co Ltd Configuration: 2 X 300 MW Operation: 1998-1999 Fuel: coal Boiler supplier: MHI T/G supplier: MHI. Commonwealth Engineers. In the event. Photograph courtesy of National Power Corp Re-posted 18 Oct 2006 . PSALM awarded the Masinloc plant to a consortium of YNN Holdings Corp and Great Pacific Financial Group for $561. with the participation of the ADB. This was the largest sale by far to that date and was both double the next highest bid and substantially above the expected bid. the consortium could not consummate the sale and the plant was rebid in Jul 2007 and eventually sold to a consortium led by AES Corp. IFC and a syndicate of commercial banks. Financing closed in mid-April 2008. Melco EPC: Stone & Webster. MHI Quick facts: In Dec 2004.
2002 0.2 WHO regulatory level is 10 ppb of Arsenic Exceeds regulatory level Source: Department of Biological Sciences. University of Exeter.4 <1 18 22 308 1. Exeter.Sample Number Description Power Facility Element (dry wt) Arsenic (As) Cadmium (Cd) Chromium (Cr) Lead (Pb) Manganese (Mn) Mercury (Hg) M02014 fly ash Masinloc mg/kg 10.0012*50000*3=180kg) .002 lbs (1 gm) of Hg a year can contaminate a 25 acre (10 ha) lake to the point where schools of fishes are unsafe to eat Total Hg (0. UK.
Financial close was in Dec 2003 with a group of lenders including JBIC. Nippon Export and Insurance Corp. which burns Indonesian coal. The project dates to 1996 when a 25yr PPA was signed. The lead financing was by Taiwan’s State Investment Trust which has an 11% stake in the project with STEAG taking an 89% stake. Kawasaki was awarded the EPC contract for the plant.Mindanao Location: Misamis Oriental Operator: STEAG State Power Inc Configuration: 2 X 116 MW Operation: 2006 Fuel: bituminous coal Boiler supplier: Kawasaki T/G supplier: Toshiba EPC: Kawasaki. and Dresdner Bank.and Germanys KfW. Construction started in Jan 2004 and the plant cost $305mn. Bayerische Hypo-und Vereinsbank. This was formalized in Oct 2001 and in Apr 2002. Photograph courtesy of STEAG Posted 13 Jan 2007 . Commonwealth Engineers Co Quick Facts: This plant at the Phivdec Industrial Estate near Cagayan de Oro City was approved by NPC and PSALM in Sep 2003.
* No data available yet as to fly ash emissions. Necessary investigation should be done soonest. * Another area for investigation is the temperature rise in sea water. The plant is not using cooling tower and the cooling water is drawn directly from the sea disposed back to the sea. .
STEAM FROM TURBINE TI HEAT ABSORBED BY COOLING WATER HEAT REJECTED BY STEAM CONDENSER = CONDENSATE TO BOILER HEAT REJECTED TO THE ENVIRONMENT (THE SEA WATER) TE .
Power Supply Situation in Mindanao --Will there be a power crisis in 2010 or 2015? .
74 1.102 1.38 1.066 1.643 6.06 Mindanao 1.Table 1 The peak demand for the whole of Mindanao in 2006 & 2007 Grid Luzon Visayas 2007 2006 % change 6.466 2.241 .228 3.
42 477.65 232.25 1681.39 201.94 99.Table 2 MINDANAO POWER SUPPLY CAPACITY AS OF April 2008 Capacity in INSTALLED* MW DEPENDABLE** DIESEL GEOTHERMAL HYDRO COAL THERMAL 594.08 .00 1932.48 997.29 108.50 902.
.03)8 = 1.3 In Year 2018.08/1.681.572MW To determine the year when the power shortage may be experience n= ln(1.Year 2015: Power Demand = 1.241)/ln(1. the peak demand will be approximately equal to the dependable power supply in Mindanao Grid.03) = 10.241X(1. Except if a mining company will be operated sooner.
Precautionary Principle We should not proceed whenever there is no certainty for HEALTH and ENVIRONMENT BETTER BE SAFE THAN SORRY! .
adding that it is a “false choice” to either protect the economy or the environment.Excerpt from the Political Hotsheet 4/22/2009 Posted by Brian Montopoli Robert F. says. he said.” . an environment lawyer. “ There is nothing radical about protecting water and air for our children”. Jr. . “ Our children are going to pay for our JOYRIDE. Kennedy.
“ We are great people.natural geniuses in our love of Mother Earth. After all. we live in the richest and most beautiful country on earth. some of our so-called leaders had distracted our focus to the false expense of the real wealth of life that lies in our land. our waters and in our hearts” Quoted by: ANTONIO OPOSA Oposa Wins Environmental Law Award Philippine Daily Inquirer 15 April 2009 . our air. However.
along the mountains that separate Davao del Sur from southern Cotabato. Sharp Peak and Saddle Peak.Wind Energy The best wind resource areas. and west of Isulan. principally good (utilityscale) to excellent (rural scale). west of Sarangani Bay. Two locations. are classified as having an excellent wind resource Sources: PEDP – Sustainable Energy Development Program USAID & USDOE . in Southern Mindanao are the higher terrain areas east of Davao Gulf. in Davao del Sur.
This beautiful forest will remain “as is” even w/o CO2 supply from Coal-Fired Power Plant .
Thank You For Opposing the Establishment & Operation of a Coal-Fired Power Plant! .
Let us defend NATURE & HUMANITY .
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