# 19.

1 SOLUTIONS 1485

CHAPTER NINETEEN

Solutions for Section 19.1

Exercises

1. Scalar. Only the

**j -component of the vector ﬁeld contributes to the ﬂux and d
**

A = −

j dA, so

_

S

(3

i + 4

j ) · d

A = −4 · Area of disk = −4 · π5

2

= −100π.

2. (a) The ﬂux is positive, since

F points in direction of positive x-axis, the same direction as the normal vector.

(b) The ﬂux is negative, since below the xy-plane

F points toward negative x-axis, which is opposite the orientation of

the surface.

(c) The ﬂux is zero. Since

F has only an x-component, there is no ﬂow across the surface.

(d) The ﬂux is zero. Since

F has only an x-component, there is no ﬂow across the surface.

(e) The ﬂux is zero. Since

F has only an x-component, there is no ﬂow across the surface.

3. The vector ﬁeld

F = F1

i + F2

j + F3

k = −z

i + x

**k is a ﬁeld parallel to the xz-plane that suggests swirling around
**

the origin from the positive x-axis to the positive z-axis.

(a) The ﬂux going through this surface is negative, because

F · n = (−z

i + x

k ) ·

i = −z, z is positive here.

(b) The ﬂux going through this surface is positive, because

F · n = −z, z is negative here.

(c) The ﬂux through this surface is negative, because

F · n = (−z

i + x

k ) · (−

k ) = −x, x is positive.

(d) The ﬂux through this surface is negative, because

F · n = −x, x is positive.

(e) The ﬂux through this surface is zero, because it is in the xz-plane, which is parallel to the vector ﬁeld.

4. The vector ﬁeld r is a ﬁeld that always points away from the origin.

(a) The ﬂux through this surface is zero, because the plane is parallel to the ﬁeld.

(b) The ﬂux through this surface is zero also, for the same reason.

(c) The ﬂux through this surface is zero also, for the same reason.

(d) The ﬂux through this surface is negative, because the ﬁeld in that quadrant is going up and away from the origin, and

since the orientation is downward, the ﬂux is negative.

(e) The ﬂux through this surface is zero also.

5. On the surface, d

A =

k dA, so only the

**k component of v contributes to the ﬂux:
**

Flux =

_

S

v · d

A =

_

S

(

i −

j + 3

k ) ·

k dA = 3 · Area of disk = 3 · π2

2

= 12π.

6. On the surface, d

A =

i dA, so only the

**i component of v contributes to the ﬂux:
**

Flux =

_

S

v · d

A =

_

S

(

i −

j + 3

k ) ·

i dA = Area of triangle = 4.

7. On the surface, d

A =

i dA, so only the

**i component of v contributes to the ﬂux:
**

Flux =

_

S

v · d

A =

_

S

(

i −

j + 3

k ) ·

i dA = Area of square = 4.

8. The triangle lies in the plane x + y + z = 1, with normal

i +

j +

k . A unit normal is n = (

i +

j +

k )/

√

3, so

Flux =

_

S

v · d

A =

_

S

(

i −

j + 3

k ) ·

i +

j +

k

√

3

dA =

3

√

3

Area of triangle .

The base of the triangle in the xy-plane has length

√

2; the height is

_

3/2, so the area is

√

3/2. Thus

Flux =

3

√

3

·

√

3

2

=

3

2

.

1486 Chapter Nineteen /SOLUTIONS

9. v ·

A = (2

i + 3

j + 5

k ) ·

k = 5.

10. v ·

A = (2

i + 3

j + 5

k ) · 2

i = 4.

11. The rectangle lies in the plane z +2y = 2. So a normal vector is 2

j +

**k and a unit normal vector is
**

1

√

5

(2

j +

k ). Since

this points in the positive z-direction it is indeed an orientation for the rectangle. Since the area of this rectangle is

√

5 we

have

A = 2

j +

k ,

v ·

A = (2

i + 3

j + 5

k ) · (2

j +

k ) = 6 + 5 = 11.

12. The rectangle lies in the plane z + 2x = 2. So 2

i +

**k is a normal vector and
**

1

√

5

(2

i +

**k ) is a unit normal vector. Since
**

this points in both the positive x-direction and the positive z-direction, it is an orientation for this surface. Since the area

of the rectangle is

√

5, we have

A = 2

i +

k and v ·

A = (2

i + 3

j + 5

k ) · (2

i +

k ) = 4 + 5 = 9.

13. The disk has area 25π, so its area vector is 25π

j . Thus

Flux = (2

i + 3

j ) · 25π

j = 75π.

14. Since

F is a constant vector ﬁeld, the ﬂux through a closed surface is zero. (The ﬂux that enters one side, exits the other

side.)

15. The square has area 16, so its area vector is 16

j . Since

F = 5

j on the square,

Flux = 5

j · 16

j = 80.

16. The square has area 9, so its area vector is 9

i . Since

F = −5

i on the square,

Flux = −5

i · 9

i = −45.

17. Since the square, S, is in the plane y = 0 and oriented in the negative y-direction, d

A = −

j dxdz and

_

S

F · d

A =

_

S

(0 + 3)

j · (−

j dxdz) = −3

_

S

dxdz = −3 · Area of square = −3(2

2

) = −12.

18. Since the square, S, is oriented upward, d

A =

k dxdy and

Flux =

_

S

F · d

A =

_

S

x

k ·

k dxdy =

_

3

0

_

3

0

xdxdy =

_

3

0

x

2

2

¸

¸

¸

¸

3

0

dy =

9

2

_

3

0

dy =

27

2

.

19. Since the vector ﬁeld is constant, Flux = 0. The ﬂux through opposite faces of the cube cancel.

20. The only contribution to the ﬂux is from the

k -component, and since the square, S, is oriented upward, we have

Flux =

_

S

(6

i + x

2

j −

k ) · d

A =

_

S

−

k · d

A = −Area of square = −4.

21. The only contribution to the ﬂux is from the

j -component, and since d

A =

**j dxdz on the square, S, we have
**

Flux =

_

S

(6

i + x

2

j −

k ) · d

A =

_

2

−2

_

2

−2

x

2

j ·

j dxdz =

_

2

−2

x

3

3

¸

¸

¸

¸

2

−2

dz =

16

3

· 4 =

64

3

.

22. We have d

A =

i dA, and x = 4, so,

_

S

F · d

A =

_

S

((4 + 3)

i + (y + 5)

j + (z + 7)

k ) ·

i dA =

_

S

7 dA

= 7 · Area of rectangle = 7 · 6 = 42.

19.1 SOLUTIONS 1487

23. On the sphere of radius 3, the vector ﬁeld has ||

**F || = 21 and points outward everywhere. So
**

Flux =

_

S

F · d

A = ||

**F || · Area of sphere = 21 · 4π3
**

2

= 756 π.

24. The vector ﬁeld

F and the area vector on the surface of the sphere are parallel, but in opposite directions. Since

F is

pointing inward and ||

F || = 6 on the surface

Flux =

_

S

F · d

A =

_

S

||

**F || cos π dA = −6 · Area of sphere = −6 · 4π2
**

2

= −96π.

25. We have d

A =

i dA, so

_

S

F · d

A =

_

S

(2z

i + x

j + x

k ) ·

i dA =

_

S

2z dA

=

_

2

0

_

3

0

2z dzdy = 18.

26. Since the vector ﬁeld is constant, if

A is the area vector of the square

Flux =

F ·

A .

An upward normal to the plane is

i +

j +

k , so a unit vector in this direction is (

i +

j +

k )

√

3. The area vector has

magnitude 4, so

A = 4(

i +

j +

k )/

√

3. Thus

Flux = (

i + 2

j ) ·

4(

i +

j +

k )

√

3

=

4(1 + 2)

√

3

= 4

√

3.

27. Since the disk is in the xy-plane and oriented upward, d

A =

k dxdy and

_

Disk

F · d

A =

_

Disk

(x

2

+ y

2

)

k ·

k dxdy =

_

Disk

(x

2

+ y

2

) dxdy.

Using polar coordinates

_

Disk

F · d

A =

_

2π

0

_

3

0

r

2

· r drdθ = 2π

r

4

4

¸

¸

¸

¸

3

0

=

81π

2

.

28. Since the disk is horizontal and oriented upward, d

A =

k dxdy, so

_

Disk

F · d

A =

_

Disk

cos(x

2

+ y

2

)

k ·

k dxdy =

_

Disk

cos(x

2

+ y

2

) dxdy.

Using polar coordinates, since the disk has radius 3, we have

_

Disk

F · d

A =

_

Disk

cos(x

2

+ y

2

)dxdy =

_

2π

0

_

3

0

cos(r

2

)rdrd θ

=

_

2π

0

1

2

sin(r

2

)

¸

¸

¸

¸

3

0

dθ = 2π ·

1

2

sin(r

2

)

¸

¸

¸

¸

3

0

= 2π

_

1

2

sin(3

2

) −

1

2

sin(0

2

)

_

= π sin 9.

29. Since the disk is oriented in the positive x-direction, d

A =

i dydz, so we have

Flux =

_

Disk

F · d

A =

_

Disk

e

y

2

+z

2

i ·

i dydz =

_

Disk

e

y

2

+z

2

dydz.

To calculate this integral, we use polar coordinates with y = r cos θ and z = r sin θ. Then r

2

= y

2

+ z

2

and

_

Disk

F · d

A =

_

2π

0

_

2

0

e

r

2

· rdrdθ = 2π ·

e

r

2

2

¸

¸

¸

¸

2

0

= π(e

4

−1).

1488 Chapter Nineteen /SOLUTIONS

30. See Figure 19.1. Since

F is parallel to the xy plane, there is no ﬂux across the surface, so

_

S

F ·

dA = 0.

x

y

z

n

Figure 19.1

x

y

z

n

r

Figure 19.2

31. See Figure 19.2. The area vector of a small area element ∆

A is the vector pointing in the direction normal to the surface

with magnitude ∆A. The unit vector normal to the surface is

k , so ∆

A =

k ∆A. Thus,

_

S

F ·

dA = lim

∆

A →0

r · ∆

A = lim

∆A→0

r ·

k ∆

A =

_

S

r ·

k dA.

Now r ·

**k = 2 for all the points on S because all such points have z-coordinate equal to 2. Thus, we have
**

_

S

F · d

A =

_

S

r ·

k dA =

_

S

2 dA = 2 · Area of S = 8π.

32. See Figure 19.3. Since the vector ﬁeld is parallel to the x-axis, only the two sides perpendicular to the x-axis contribute to

the ﬂux integral. On the side where x = 0, the vector ﬁeld is 2

**i , and hence the ﬂux through that side is −(2)(3
**

2

) = −18

(negative because the ﬂow is inward and the normal vector is pointing out). The ﬂow out the other side is at x = 3, so

F = −

i , so the ﬂux out that side is (−

i ) · (3

2

**i ) = −9. So the net ﬂux is −18 −9 = −27. So
**

_

S

F ·

dA = −27.

x

y

z

Figure 19.3

33. Since r is perpendicular to S and ||r || = 3 on S, we have

_

S

r · d

**A = 3 · Area of surface = 3 · 4π3
**

2

= 108π.

34. Only the

**i component contributes to the ﬂux. On S, we have d
**

A =

i dA and x = 3π/2, so

_

S

(sin x

i + (y

2

+ z

2

)

j + y

2

k ) · d

**A = sin(3π/2) · Area of disk = −1 · π(π
**

2

) = −π

3

.

19.1 SOLUTIONS 1489

35. Since 5

i + 5

j + 5

k is perpendicular to S and in the same direction as the orientation, and since ||5

i + 5

j + 5

k || =

√

5

2

+ 5

2

+ 5

2

=

√

75 on S, we have

_

S

(5

i + 5

j + 5

k ) · d

A =

√

75 · Area of circle =

√

75 · π3

2

= 9π

√

75.

Problems

36. (a) The net electric ﬂux through this surface is zero, because the surface is placed so that it is always parallel with the

electric ﬁeld, and there is no ﬂow through the surface.

(b) The net ﬂux is zero, because the ﬂow in through one half of the cylinder is canceled by the ﬂow out through the other

half.

37. Since this vector ﬁeld points radially out from the origin, it is everywhere parallel to the vector representing the surface

area, d

A . Thus since

F (r ) = 1/R

2

on the surface, S,

F (r ) · d

A =

1

R

2

dA,

so

_

S

F (r ) · d

A =

1

R

2

· Surface area of sphere =

1

R

2

(4πR

2

) = 4π.

38. Since this vector ﬁeld points radially out from the origin, it is everywhere parallel to the area vector, ∆

A . Thus since

F (r ) = 1/R on the surface, S,

F (r ) · ∆

A =

1

R

∆A

so

_

S

F (r ) · d

A =

1

R

lim

∆A→0

∆A =

1

R

· Surface area of sphere =

1

R

(4πR

2

) = 4πR.

39. (a) The vector ﬁeld is perpendicular to the surface of a sphere centered at the origin. Thus the magnitude of the ﬂux

depends on the magnitude of the vector ﬁeld on the surface. Since for ﬁxed r , the value of ||

F || decreases as p

increases, the maximum ﬂux occurs when p = 0.

(b) For a sphere of radius 2 with p = 0, we have ||

**F || = 2 on the surface. Thus
**

Flux =

_

S

F · d

**A = 2 · Area of surface = 2 · 4π2
**

2

= 32π.

40. The vector normal to S is

**j ; the dot product of
**

F and

**j is positive if b > 0. There are no conditions on a and c.
**

41. By the symmetry of the sphere, the

i and

j components of

F do not contribute to the ﬂux; only the

k component

contributes. The vector normal to S has a negative

k component, so we need c > 0. There are no conditions on a and b.

42. The sphere is oriented outward. Provided a > 0, the vector ﬁeld points outward, giving positive ﬂux.

43. (a) For a ﬂat surface, ﬂux through

A is v ·

A . Therefore, the ﬂux through each face of the cube is equal to (−

i +2

j +

k ) · (

A of the face).

First we shall ﬁnd the ﬂux through the two faces parallel to the xy-plane, beginning with the one with negative

z. The unit vector normal to this face and pointing outward is −

**k . The area of the face equals 4, so
**

A = −4

k . The

ﬂux through the face with negative z equals

(−

i + 2

j +

k ) · (−4

k ) = 0 + 0 −4 = −4

For the face with positive z, the unit normal vector that points outward is

k . Therefore

A = 4

**k . The ﬂux through
**

this face is given by

(−

i + 2

j +

k ) · 4

k = 0 + 0 + 4 = 4

Next, we will ﬁnd the ﬂux through the two faces parallel to the xz-plane, beginning with the one with negative

y. A unit vector normal to this face pointing outward is −

j . Therefore

A = −4

**j . The ﬂux then equals
**

(−

i + 2

j +

k ) · (−4

j ) = 0 −8 + 0 = −8

1490 Chapter Nineteen /SOLUTIONS

For the face with positive y, the unit normal vector pointing outward is

j . Therefore

A = 4

**j . The ﬂux then equals
**

(−

i + 2

j +

k ) · (4

j ) = 0 + 8 + 0 = 8

Next, we will ﬁnd the ﬂux through the two faces parallel to the yz plane, beginning with the one with negative

x. A unit vector normal to this plane pointing outward is −

i . Therefore

A = −4

**i . The ﬂux then equals
**

(−

i + 2

j +

k ) · (−4

i ) = 4 + 0 + 0 = 4

For the face with positive x, the unit normal vector pointing outward is

i . Therefore

A = 4

**i . The ﬂux then equals
**

(−

i + 2

j +

k ) · (4

i ) = −4 + 0 + 0 = −4

Adding up all of these ﬂuxes to get the ﬂux out of the entire cube, we get

Total ﬂux = −4 + 4 −8 + 8 + 4 −4 = 0

(b) For any constant vector ﬁeld v = a

i + b

j + c

**k , we can calculate the ﬂux out of the cube by the same method.
**

First we shall ﬁnd the ﬂux out of the two faces parallel to the xy plane, beginning with the one with negative z.

A unit vector normal to this plane, that points negative (because of the orientation of the face) is −

**k . The area of the
**

face equals 4, therefore

A = −4

**k . The ﬂux through
**

A then equals

(a

i + b

j + c

k ) · (−4

k ) = 0 + 0 −4c = −4c

For the face with positive z, the unit normal vector pointing outward is

k . Therefore

A = 4

**k . The ﬂux then equals
**

(a

i + b

j + c

k ) · (4

k ) = 0 + 0 + 4c = 4c.

Next, we will ﬁnd the ﬂux through the two faces parallel to the xz plane, beginning with the one with negative

y. A unit vector normal to this plane pointing outward is −

j . Therefore

A = −4

**j . The ﬂux then equals
**

(a

i + b

j + c

k ) · (−4

j ) = 0 −4b + 0 = −4b

For the face with positive y, the unit normal vector pointing outward is

j . Therefore

A == 4

**j . The ﬂux then equals
**

(a

i + b

j + c

k ) · (4

j ) = 0 + 4b + 0 = 4b

Next, we will ﬁnd the ﬂux through the two faces parallel to the yz plane, beginning with the one with negative

x. A unit vector normal to this plane pointing outward is −

i . Therefore

A = −4

**i . The ﬂux then equals
**

(a

i + b

j + c

k ) · (−4

i ) = −4a + 0 + 0 = −4a

For the face in the positive x, the unit normal vector pointing outward is

i . Therefore

A = 4

**i . The ﬂux then equals
**

(a

i + b

j + c

k ) · (4

i ) = 4a + 0 + 0 = 4a

Adding up all of these ﬂuxes to get the ﬂux out of the entire cube, we get

Total ﬂux = −4c + 4c −4b + 4b + 4a −4a = 0

(c) The answers in parts (a) and (b) make sense because the vector ﬁeld is constant, and so it does not change as it comes

in the one side of the cube, and exits the other side. Therefore the two ﬂuxes cancel each other out, making the total

ﬂux zero.

44. (a) Let

A be the area vector of any face of the tetrahedron in Figure 19.4. The ﬂux through the face equals v ·

A because

the vector ﬁeld is constant. Therefore, the ﬂux through each face of the tetrahedron is equal to (−

i + 2

j +

k ) ·

A ,

where

A is the area of that face.

First we shall ﬁnd the ﬂux out of the triangle in the xy plane. A unit vector normal to that plane, that points

negative (because of the orientation of the face), is equal to −

**k . The area of the face equals 0.5, therefore
**

A =

−0.5

**k . The ﬂux through
**

A then equals

(−

i + 2

j +

k ) · (−0.5

k ) = 0 + 0 −0.5 = −0.5.

Next, we will ﬁnd the ﬂux out of the triangle in the xz plane. A unit vector normal to that plane, that points

negative, is equal to −

**j . The area of the face equals 0.5, therefore
**

A = −0.5

**j . The ﬂux through
**

A then equals

(−

i + 2

j +

k ) · (−0.5

j ) = 0 −1 + 0 = −1.

19.1 SOLUTIONS 1491

Next, we will ﬁnd the ﬂux out of the triangle in the yz plane. A unit vector normal to that plane, that points

negative, is equal to −

**i . The area of the face equals 0.5, therefore
**

A = −0.5

**i . The ﬂux through
**

A then equals

(−

i + 2

j +

k ) · (−0.5

i ) = 0.5 + 0 + 0 = 0.5.

Last, we will ﬁnd the ﬂux out of the triangle with vertices (1, 0, 0), (0, 1, 0), (0, 0, 1). A unit vector normal to

that plane, that points positive, is equal to

1

√

3

(

i +

j +

**k ). The area of the face equals
**

√

3/2, since it is an equilateral

triangle with side

√

2. Therefore:

A =

1

√

3

(

i +

j +

k )(

√

3/2) = 0.5(

i +

j +

k ).

The ﬂux through

A then equals

(−

i + 2

j +

k ) · (0.5

i + 0.5

j + 0.5

k ) = −0.5 + 1 + 0.5 = 1.

The total ﬂux out of the tetrahedron is −0.5 −1 + 0.5 + 1 = 0. Therefore the ﬂux equals zero.

x

y

z

Figure 19.4

(b) For any constant vector ﬁeld v = a

i + b

j + c

**k , we can ﬁnd the ﬂux out of the tetrahedron.
**

First we shall ﬁnd the ﬂux out of the triangle in the xy plane. A unit vector normal to that plane, that points

negative (because of the orientation of the face), is equal to −

**k . The area of the face equals 0.5, therefore
**

A =

−0.5

**k . The ﬂux through
**

A then equals

(a

i + b

j + c

k ) · (−0.5

k ) = 0 + 0 −0.5 = −0.5c.

Next, we will ﬁnd the ﬂux out of the triangle in the xz plane. A unit vector normal to that plane, that points

negative, is equal to −

**j . The area of the face equals 0.5, therefore:
**

A = −0.5

**j . The ﬂux through
**

A then equals

(a

i + b

j + c

k ) · (−0.5

j ) = 0 −0.5b + 0 = −0.5b.

Next, we will ﬁnd the ﬂux out of the triangle in the yz plane. A unit vector normal to that plane, that points

negative, is equal to (−

**i ). The area of the face equals 0.5, therefore
**

A = −0.5

**i . The ﬂux through
**

A then equals

(a

i + b

j + c

k ) · (−0.5

i ) = −0.5a + 0 + 0 = −0.5a.

Last, we will ﬁnd the ﬂux out of the triangle with vertices (1, 0, 0), (0, 1, 0), (0, 0, 1). A unit vector normal to

that plane, that points positive, is equal to

1

√

3

(

i +

j +

**k ). The area of the face equals
**

√

3/2, therefore:

A =

1

√

3

(

i +

j +

k )(

√

3/2) = 0.5(

i +

j +

k ).

The ﬂux through

A then equals

(a

i + b

j + c

k ) · (0.5

i + 0.5

j + 0.5

k ) = 0.5a + 0.5b + 0.5c.

The total ﬂux out of the tetrahedron is −0.5c − 0.5b − 0.5a + 0.5a + 0.5b + 0.5c = 0. Therefore, the ﬂux is

equal to zero.

(c) The answers in (a) and (b) make sense because the vector ﬁeld is constant, so it does not change as it enters through

one side of the tetrahedron, and exits the other side. Therefore the two cancel each other out,causing the ﬂux to be

equal to zero.

45. The square of side 2 in the plane x = 5, oriented in the positive x-direction, has area vector

A = 4

**i . Since the vector
**

ﬁeld is constant

Flux = (a

i + b

j + c

k ) · 4

i = 4a = 24.

Thus, a = 6 and we cannot say anything about the values of b and c.

1492 Chapter Nineteen /SOLUTIONS

46. (a) In the ﬁrst and third integrals, only the

i component contributes to the ﬂux integral. The orientation is in the positive

**i directions in both cases, the disks are the same size, and the (x
**

2

+4) is larger on the surface S3, so the ﬂux through

S3 is larger than the ﬂux through S1. In the case of S2, only the

**j-component contributes. Since the disks in S2 and
**

S3 are the same size, and S2 oriented in the positive y-direction, the fact that (x

2

+4) is larger on S3 than y is on S2

tells us that the ﬂux through S3 is largest.

(b) On S3, the vector ﬁeld is ((−3)

2

+ 4)

i + y

j = 13

i + y

j and d

A =

i dA, so

_

S

3

((x

2

+ 4)

i + y

j ) · d

A =

_

S

3

(13

i + y

j ) ·

i dA =

_

S

3

13 dA = 13 · Area of disk = 13π.

47. (a) At the north pole, the area vector of the plate is upward (away from the center of the earth), and so is in the opposite

direction to the magnetic ﬁeld. Thus the magnetic ﬂux is negative.

(b) At the south pole, the area vector of the plate is again away from the center of the earth (because that is upward in the

southern hemisphere), and so is in the same direction as the magnetic ﬁeld. Thus, the magnetic ﬂux is positive.

(c) At the equator the magnetic ﬁeld is parallel to the plate, so the ﬂux is zero.

48. (a) Figure 19.5 shows the electric ﬁeld

E . Note that

E points radially outward from the z-axis.

−2 2

−2

2

x

y

Figure 19.5: The electric ﬁeld in the xy-plane due to a line of positive charge uniformly

distributed along the z-axis:

E (x, y, 0) = 2λ

x

i + y

j

x

2

+ y

2

(b) On the cylinder x

2

+ y

2

= R

2

, the electric ﬁeld

E points in the same direction as the outward normal n , and

E =

2λ

R

2

x

i + y

j =

2λ

R

.

So

_

S

E · d

A =

_

S

E · n dA =

_

S

E dA =

_

S

2λ

R

dA

=

2λ

R

_

S

dA =

2λ

R

· Area of S =

2λ

R

· 2πRh = 4πλh,

which is positive, as we expected.

49. (a) (i) The integral

_

W

ρ dV represents the total charge in the volume W.

(ii) The integral

_

S

J · d

**A represents the total current ﬂowing out of the surface S.
**

(b) The total current ﬂowing out of the surface S is the rate at which the total charge inside the surface S (i.e., in the

volume W) is decreasing. In other words,

Rate current ﬂowing out of S = −

∂

∂t

(charge in W),

so

_

S

J · d

A = −

∂

∂t

__

W

ρ dV

_

.

19.2 SOLUTIONS 1493

50. (a) If we examine the equation for v , we see that when r = 0, that is, at the center of the pipe, v (0) becomes u

i . So u is

the speed at the center of the pipe; it is also the maximum speed since u(1 −r

2

/a

2

) reaches its maximum at r = 0.

(b) The ﬂow rate at the wall of the pipe (where r = a) is

v (a) = u(1 −a

2

/a

2

)

i =

0 .

(c) To ﬁnd the ﬂux through a circular cross-sectional area, we use polar coordinates in the plane perpendicular to the

velocity. In these coordinates, an inﬁnitesimal area, d

A becomes r dr dθ

**i . So the ﬂux is given by
**

Flux =

_

S

v · d

A =

_

S

u(1 −r

2

/a

2

)

i · r dr dθ

i =

_

2π

0

_

a

0

u(1 −r

2

/a

2

)r dr dθ

= 2πu

_

a

0

(r −

r

3

a

2

) dr = 2πu

_

a

2

2

−

a

2

4

_

=

πua

2

2

.

51. Since Pressure = Force/Area, we have

Force on a small patch with area ∆

A at point (x, y, z) ≈ P(x, y, z)∆

A.

This force is directed inward and normal to the surface, so the force is P(x, y, z)∆

A (if S is oriented with the inward

normal). For buoyancy, take the upward component of this force, so

Buoyancy force = P(x, y, z)∆

A ·

k .

Then:

Total buoyancy = lim

∆

A →0

s

P(x, y, z)∆

A ·

k

=

_

S

P(x, y, z)

k · d

A

=

_

S

F · d

A

52. (a) From Newton’s law of cooling, we know that the temperature gradient will be proportional to the heat ﬂow. If the

constant of proportionality is k then we have the equation

F = k grad T. Since grad T points in the direction of

increasing T, but heat ﬂows toward lower temperatures, the constant k must be negative.

(b) This form of Newton’s law of cooling is saying that heat will be ﬂowing in the direction in which temperature is de-

creasing most rapidly, in other words, in the direction exactly opposite to grad T. This agrees with our intuition which

tells us that a difference in temperature causes heat to ﬂow from the higher temperature to the lower temperature, and

the rate at which it ﬂows depends on the temperature gradient.

(c) The rate of heat loss from W is given by the ﬂux of the heat ﬂow vector ﬁeld through the surface of the body. Thus,

Rate of heat

loss from W

=

Flux of

F

out of S

=

_

S

F · d

A = k

_

S

(grad T) · d

A

Solutions for Section 19.2

Exercises

1. Only the z-component of the vector ﬁeld contributes to the ﬂux. Since d

A =

k dxdy on the surface, we have

_

S

(3

i + 4

j + xy

k ) · d

A =

_

7

0

_

5

0

xy dxdy =

_

7

0

x

2

y

2

¸

¸

¸

¸

5

0

dy =

_

7

0

25

2

y dy =

25y

2

4

¸

¸

¸

¸

7

0

=

1225

4

.

1494 Chapter Nineteen /SOLUTIONS

2. Since z = 3x −y, we have zx = 3 and zy = −1, so d

A = (−zx

i −zy

j +

k ) dxdy = (−3

i +

j +

k ) dxdy. Thus

_

S

(x

i + y

k ) · d

A =

_

2

0

_

1

0

(x

i + y

k ) · (−3

i +

j +

k ) dxdy

=

_

2

0

_

1

0

(−3x + y) dxdy =

_

2

0

_

−

3x

2

2

+ xy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

1

0

dy

=

_

2

0

−

3

2

+ y dy = −

3

2

y +

y

2

2

¸

¸

¸

¸

2

0

= −1.

3. Since z = x

2

+ y

2

, we have zx = 2x and zy = 2y, so d

A = (−2x

i −2y

j +

k ) dxdy. Thus

_

S

(

i + z

k ) · d

A =

_

1

0

_

1

0

(

i + (x

2

+ y

2

)

k ) · (−2x

i −2y

j +

k ) dxdy

=

_

1

0

_

1

0

(−2x + x

2

+ y

2

) dxdy =

_

1

0

_

−x

2

+

x

3

3

+ xy

2

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

1

0

dy

=

_

1

0

−

2

3

+ y

2

dy = −

2

3

y +

y

3

3

¸

¸

¸

¸

1

0

= −

1

3

.

4. Using z = f(x, y) = x + y, we have d

A = (−

i −

j +

**k ) dxdy. As S is oriented upward, we have
**

_

S

F · d

A =

_

3

0

_

2

0

((x −y)

i + (x + y)

j + 3x

k ) · (−

i −

j +

k ) dxdy

=

_

3

0

_

2

0

(−x + y −x −y + 3x) dxdy =

_

3

0

_

2

0

xdxdy = 6.

5. Writing the surface S as z = f(x, y) = −y + 1, we have

d

A = (−fx

i −fy

j +

k )dxdy.

Thus,

_

S

F · d

A =

_

R

F (x, y, f(x, y)) · (−fx

i −fy

j +

k ) dxdy

=

_

1

0

_

1

0

(2x

j + y

k ) · (

j +

k ) dxdy

=

_

1

0

_

1

0

(2x + y) dxdy =

_

1

0

(x

2

+ xy)

¸

¸

¸

¸

1

0

dy

=

_

1

0

(1 + y) dy = (y +

y

2

2

)

¸

¸

¸

¸

1

0

=

3

2

.

6. Writing the surface S as z = f(x, y) = y

2

+ 5, we have

d

A = (−fx

i +−fy

j +

k )dxdy.

Thus,

_

S

F · d

A =

_

R

F (x, y, f(x, y)) · (−fx

i −fy

j +

k ) dxdy

=

_

R

(−y

j + (y

2

+ 5)

k ) · (−2y

j +

k ) dxdy

19.2 SOLUTIONS 1495

=

_

1

0

_

1

−2

(3y

2

+ 5) dxdy =

_

1

0

(9y

2

+ 15) dy

= (3y

3

+ 15y)

¸

¸

¸

¸

1

0

= 18.

7. One the surface S we have z = −y + 1 and d

A = (−zx

i −zy

j +

k )dxdy = (

j +

**k )dxdy. The ﬂux is
**

_

S

F · d

A =

_

1

0

_

1

0

((ln(x

2

)

i + e

x

j + cos(1 −(−y + 1))

k ) · (

j +

k ) dxdy

=

_

1

0

_

1

0

(e

x

+ cos y) dxdy =

_

1

0

(e

x

+ xcos y)

¸

¸

¸

¸

1

0

dy

=

_

1

0

(e + cos y −1) dy = (ye + sin y −y)

¸

¸

¸

¸

1

0

= e + sin 1 −1.

8. On the curved sides of the cylinder, the

k component of

F does not contribute to the ﬂux. Since the

i and

j components

are constant, these components contribute 0 to the ﬂux on the entire cylinder. Therefore the only nonzero contribution to

the ﬂux results from the

**k component through the top, where z = 2 and d
**

A =

k dA, and from the

k component through

the bottom, where z = −2 and d

A = −

k dA:

Flux =

_

Top

F · d

A +

_

Bottom

F · d

A

=

_

Top

2

k ·

k dA +

_

Bottom

(−2

k ) · (−

k dA)

= 4

_

Top

dA = 4 · Area of top = 4 · π(3

2

) = 36π.

9. On the curved side of the cylinder, only the components x

i + z

k contribute to the ﬂux. Since x

i + z

k is perpendicular

to the curved surface and ||x

i + z

**k || = 2 there (because the cylinder has radius 2), we have
**

Flux through sides = 2 · Area of curved surface = 2 · 2π · 2 · 6 = 48π.

On the ﬂat ends, only y

**j contributes to the ﬂux. On one end, y = 3 and d
**

A =

j dA; on the other end, y = −3 and

d

A = −

j dA. Thus

Flux through ends = Flux through top + Flux through bottom

= 3

j ·

j π(2

2

) + (−3

j ) · (−

j π(2

2

)) = 24π.

So,

Total ﬂux = 48π + 24π = 72π.

10.

y

x

R

1

2

©

y = −2x + 2

Figure 19.6

1496 Chapter Nineteen /SOLUTIONS

Writing the surface S as z = f(x, y) = −2x −4y + 1, we have

d

A = (−fx

i −fy

j +

k )dxdy.

With R as shown in Figure 19.6, we have

_

S

F · d

A =

_

R

F (x, y, f(x, y)) · (−fx

i −fy

j +

k ) dxdy

=

_

R

(3x

i + y

j + (−2x −4y + 1)

k ) · (2

i + 4

j +

k ) dxdy

=

_

R

(4x + 1) dxdy =

_

1

0

_

−2x+2

0

(4x + 1) dydx

=

_

1

0

(4x + 1)(−2x + 2) dx

=

_

1

0

(−8x

2

+ 6x + 2) dx = (−

8x

3

3

+ 3x

2

+ 2x)

¸

¸

¸

¸

1

0

=

7

3

.

11. Writing the surface S as z = f(x, y) = 25 −x

2

−y

2

, we have

d

A = (−fx

i −fy

j +

k )dxdy.

Thus,

_

S

F · d

A =

_

R

F (x, y, f(x, y)) · (−fx

i −fy

j +

k ) dxdy

=

_

R

(x

i + y

j ) · (2x

i + 2y

j +

k ) dxdy

=

_

R

2(x

2

+ y

2

) dxdy =

_

2π

0

_

5

0

2r

2

r drdθ

=

_

2π

0

r

4

2

¸

¸

¸

¸

5

0

dθ =

625

2

(2π) = 625π.

12. Writing the surface S as z = f(x, y) = 25 −x

2

−y

2

, we have

d

A = (−fx

i −fy

j +

k )dxdy = (2x

i + 2y

j +

k )dxdy.

Thus

_

S

F · d

A =

_

R

cos(x

2

+ y

2

)

k · (2x

i + 2y

j +

k ) dxdy

=

_

R

cos(x

2

+ y

2

) dxdy =

_

2π

0

_

5

0

cos r

2

· r drdθ

=

_

2π

0

sin r

2

2

¸

¸

¸

¸

5

0

dθ = π sin 25.

13. Using z = 1 − x − y, the upward pointing area element is d

A = (

i +

j +

k ) dxdy, so the downward one is

d

A = (−

i −

j −

**k ) dxdy. Since S is oriented downward, we have
**

_

S

F · d

A =

_

S

(x

i + y

j + z

k ) · d

A

=

_

3

0

_

2

0

(x

i + y

j + (1 −x −y)

k ) · (−

i −

j −

k ) dxdy

=

_

3

0

_

2

0

(−x −y −1 + x + y) dxdy = −6.

19.2 SOLUTIONS 1497

14. Using z = x

2

+ y

2

, we ﬁnd that the upward pointing area element is d

A = (−2x

i − 2y

j +

k ) dxdy. Since S is

oriented downward, we have d

A = (2x

i + 2y

j −

k ) dxdy, so

_

S

F · d

A =

_

S

(x

i + y

j + z

k ) · d

A

=

_

Disk

(x

i + y

j + (x

2

+ y

2

)

k ) · (2x

i + 2y

j −

k ) dxdy

=

_

Disk

(2x

2

+ 2y

2

−x

2

−y

2

) dxdy =

_

Disk

(x

2

+ y

2

) dxdy

=

_

2π

0

_

1

0

r

2

r dr dθ = 2π ·

r

4

4

¸

¸

¸

¸

1

0

=

π

2

.

15. Here z =

_

9 −x

2

−y

2

, so

zx = −

x

_

9 −x

2

−y

2

zy = −

y

_

9 −x

2

−y

2

.

The ﬂux integral is given by

_

S

F · d

A =

_

S

_

x

_

9 −x

2

−y

2

i + y

k

_

·

_

x

_

9 −x

2

−y

2

i +

y

_

9 −x

2

−y

2

j +

k

_

dxdy

=

_

3

−3

_

√

9−x

2

−

√

9−x

2

(x

2

+ y) dydx

Changing to polar coordinates gives

_

S

F · d

A =

_

2π

0

_

3

0

(r

2

cos

2

θ + r sin θ) rdrdθ

=

_

2π

0

_

81

4

cos

2

θ +

27

3

sin θ

_

dθ =

81

4

π.

16. We have 0 ≤ z ≤ 6 so 0 ≤ x

2

+ y

2

≤ 36. Let R be the disk of radius 6 in the xy-plane centered at the origin. Because

of the cone’s point, the ﬂux integral is improper; however, it does converge. We have

_

S

F · d

A =

_

R

F (x, y, f(x, y)) · (−fx

i −fy

j +

k ) dxdy

=

_

R

(−x

_

x

2

+ y

2

i −y

_

x

2

+ y

2

j + (x

2

+ y

2

)

k )

·

_

−

x

_

x

2

+ y

2

i −

y

_

x

2

+ y

2

j +

k

_

dxdy

=

_

R

2(x

2

+ y

2

) dxdy

= 2

_

6

0

_

2π

0

r

3

dθdr

= 4π

_

6

0

r

3

dr = 1296π.

17. Since y = f(x, z) = x

2

+ z

2

, we have

d

A = (−fx

i +

j −fz

k ) dxdz = (−2x

i +

j −2z

k ) dxdz.

1498 Chapter Nineteen /SOLUTIONS

Thus, substituting y = x

2

+ z

2

into

F , we have

_

S

F · d

A =

_

x

2

+z

2

≤1

((x

2

+ z

2

)

i +

j −xz

k ) · (−2x

i +

j −2z

k ) dxdz

=

_

x

2

+z

2

≤1

(−2x

3

−2xz

2

+ 1 + 2xz

2

) dxdz

=

_

1

−1

_

√

1−z

2

−

√

1−z

2

(1 −2x

3

) dxdz

=

_

1

−1

_

√

1−z

2

−

√

1−z

2

dxdz −

_

1

−1

_

√

1−z

2

−

√

1−z

2

2x

3

dxdz

= Area of disk −

_

1

−1

_

_

x

4

2

¸

¸

¸

¸

√

1−z

2

−

√

1−z

2

_

_

dz = π −0 = π

18. The plane through the points (1, 0, 0), (0, 1, 0), and (0, 0, 1) is given by x + y + z = 1, so S is the part of the graph of

z = f(x, y) = 1 −x −y above the region R in the xy-plane where x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0, and x + y ≤ 1. Thus

_

S

F · d

A =

_

R

F (x, y, f(x, y)) · (−fx

i −fy

j +

k ) dxdy

=

_

R

(x

2

i + y

2

j + (1 −x −y)

2

k ) · (

i +

j +

k ) dxdy

=

_

R

(x

2

+ y

2

+ (1 −x −y)

2

) dxdy

=

_

1

0

_

1−x

0

(1 + 2x

2

+ 2y

2

−2x −2y + 2xy) dy dx

=

_

1

0

[(1 −x) + 2x

2

(1 −x) +

2

3

(1 −x)

3

−2x(1 −x)

−(1 −x)

2

+ x(1 −x)

2

] dx =

1

4

.

19. Since the radius of the cylinder is 1, using cylindrical coordinates we have

d

A = (cos θ

i + sin θ

j )dθdz.

Thus,

_

S

F · d

A =

_

6

0

_

2π

0

(cos θ

i + sin θ

j ) · (cos θ

i + sin θ

j ) dθ dz

=

_

6

0

_

2π

0

1 dθ dz = 12π.

20. Since the radius of the cylinder is 1, using cylindrical coordinates we have d

A = (cos θ

i + sin θ

j )dθdz. Thus,

_

S

F · d

A =

_

6

0

_

2π

0

(z cos θ

i + z sin θ

j + z

3

k ) · (cos θ

i + sin θ

j ) dθ dz

=

_

6

0

_

2π

0

z dθ dz = 2π

_

z

2

2

_¸

¸

¸

¸

6

0

= 36π.

19.2 SOLUTIONS 1499

21. The ﬂux of

F through S is given by

_

S

F · d

A =

_

2π

0

_

π/2

0

(2 cos φ

k ) · (sin φcos θ

i + sin φsin θ

j + cos φ

k )2

2

sin φdφdθ

=

_

2π

θ=0

_

π/2

φ=0

8 sin φcos

2

φdφdθ = 16π(

−cos

3

φ

3

)

¸

¸

¸

¸

π/2

φ=0

=

16π

3

.

22. A parameterization for the surface S is given by z =

_

1 −x

2

−y

2

over R for −

√

1 −x

2

≤ y ≤

√

1 −x

2

, −1 ≤ x ≤

1. Thus

zx = −

x

_

1 −x

2

−y

2

and zy = −

y

_

1 −x

2

−y

2

,

so

_

S

F · d

A =

_

R

(y

i −x

j + z

k ) · (−zx

i −zy

j +

k ) dxdy

=

_

1

−1

_

√

1−x

2

−

√

1−x

2

yx −xy + z

_

1 −x

2

−y

2

dxdy =

_

1

−1

_

√

1−x

2

−

√

1−x

2

_

1 −x

2

−y

2

dy dx

=

_

2π

0

_

1

0

_

1 −r

2

r dr dθ = 2π

_

−

1

2

·

2

3

(1 −r

2

)

3/2

_

1

0

=

2π

3

.

23. Since the radius of the sphere is 5, using spherical coordinates we have

d

A = (sin φcos θ

i + sin φsin θ

j + cos φ

k )25 sin φdθ dφ.

Thus,

_

S

F · d

A =

_ π

2

0

_

2π

0

(25 cos

2

φ

k ) · (sin φcos θ

i + sin φsin θ

j + cos φ

k )25 sin φdθ dφ

= 625

_ π

2

0

_

2π

0

cos

3

φsin φdθdφ

= −1250π

(cos φ)

4

4

¸

¸

¸

¸

π

2

0

=

625

2

π.

24. Since the radius of the sphere is a, using spherical coordinates we have

d

A = (sin φcos θ

i + sin φsin θ

j + cos φ

k )a

2

sin φdφdθ.

Thus,

_

S

F · d

A =

_

2π

0

_

π

0

(a sin φcos θ

i + a sin φsin θ

j + a cos φ

k ) ·

(sin φcos θ

i + sin φsin θ

j + cos φ

k )a

2

sin φdφdθ

= a

3

_

2π

0

_

π

0

sin φdφdθ

= 2πa

3

_

π

0

sin φdφ = (2πa

3

)(2) = 4πa

3

.

1500 Chapter Nineteen /SOLUTIONS

Problems

25. The

k -component of

F does not contribute to the ﬂux as it is perpendicular to the surface. The vector ﬁeld x

i + y

j is

everywhere perpendicular to S and has constant magnitude ||x

2

+ y

2

|| = 1 on the surface S. Thus

_

S

F · d

A =

_

S

(x

i + y

j ) · d

A = 1 · Area of S = 1

π

2

=

π

2

.

Alternatively, the ﬂux can be computed by integrating with respect to x and z, treating y as a function of x and z. A

parameterization of S is given by y =

√

1 −x

2

, 0 ≤ x ≤ 1,0 ≤ y ≤ 1, 0 ≤ z ≤ 1. Thus,

_

S

F · d

A =

_

1

0

_

1

0

(x

i +

_

1 −x

2

j + z

k ) · (−yx

i +

j −yz

k ) dxdz

=

_

1

0

_

1

0

(x

i +

_

1 −x

2

j + z

k ) ·

_

x

√

1 −x

2

i +

j + 0

k

_

dxdz

=

_

1

0

_

1

0

_

x

2

√

1 −x

2

+

_

1 −x

2

_

dxdz

=

_

1

0

_

1

0

1

√

1 −x

2

dxdz

= 1 · arcsin x

¸

¸

¸

¸

1

0

=

π

2

.

26. We integrate with respect the y and z, thinking of x as a function of y and z. Since x = sin y sin z, we have xy =

cos y sin z and xz = sin y cos z. The surface is oriented in the direction of increasing x, so

_

S

F ·

A =

_

π/2

0

_

π/2

0

F · (

i −xy

j −xz

k ) dy dz

=

_

π/2

0

_

π/2

0

(sin y sin z

i +

j +

k ) · (

i −cos y sin z

j −sin y cos z

k ) dy dz

=

_

π/2

0

_

π/2

0

(sin y sin z −cos y sin z −sin y cos z) dy dz

=

_

π/2

0

−cos y sin z −sin y sin z + cos y cos z

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

π/2

0

dz

=

_

π/2

0

(sin z −sin z −cos z) dz = −sin z

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

π/2

0

= −1.

27. We integrate with respect the x and z, treating y as a function of x and z. Since y = x

2

+ z

2

, we have yx = 2x and

yz = 2z. The region of integration in the xz-plane is given by x

2

+ z

2

= 1, x ≥ 0, z ≥ 0. The orientation is toward the

xz-plane, so we have

_

S

F · d

A =

_

1

0

_

√

1−z

2

0

F · (yx

i −

j + yz

k ) dxdz

=

_

1

0

_

√

1−z

2

0

((x + z)

i +

j + z

k ) · (2x

i −

j + 2z

k ) dxdz

=

_

1

0

_

√

1−z

2

0

(2x

2

+ 2xz −1 + 2z

2

) dxdz.

Using polar coordinates with x = r cos θ, z = r sin θ,

_

S

F · d

A =

_

π/2

0

_

1

0

(2r

2

+ 2r

2

cos θ sin θ −1)r dr dθ

19.2 SOLUTIONS 1501

=

_

π/2

0

_

r

4

2

+

r

4

2

cos θ sin θ −

r

2

2

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

1

0

_

dθ

=

_

π/2

0

1

2

cos θ sin θ dθ =

1

2

(sin θ)

2

2

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

π/2

0

=

1

4

1

2

=

1

4

.

28. On the disk, z = 0 and d

A =

k dxdy, so

_

S

F · d

A =

_

x

2

+y

2

≤1

(xze

yz

i + x

j + (5 + x

2

+ y

2

)

k ) ·

k dxdy

=

_

x

2

+y

2

≤1

(5 + x

2

+ y

2

) dxdy =

_

2π

0

_

1

0

(5 + r

2

)r dr dθ

= 2π

_

5r

2

2

+

r

4

4

_¸

¸

¸

¸

1

0

=

11π

2

.

29. The plane is x −z = 0 over region 0 ≤ x ≤

√

2, 0 ≤ y ≤ 2. See Figure 19.7.

x

z

√

2

2

2

y

Figure 19.7

Flux =

_

2

0

_

√

2

0

_

(e

xy

+ 3z + 5)

i + (e

xy

+ 5z + 3)

j + (3z + e

xy

)

k

_

· (

i −

k ) dxdy

=

_

2

0

_

√

2

0

(e

xy

+ 3z + 5 −3z −e

xy

) dxdy = 5(2)(

√

2) = 10

√

2

Alternatively, since a unit normal to the surface is n /

√

2 = (

i −

j )/

√

2, writing dA = ||d

A||, we have

Flux =

_

S

H · d

A =

_

H ·

i −

k

√

2

dA =

_

5

√

2

dA

=

5

√

2

(Area of slanted square) =

5

√

2

4 = 10

√

2.

30. (a) The charge is contained in a sphere of radius a centered at the origin, and uniformly distributed through the region

enclosed by the sphere.

(b) Since e ρ is the unit vector outward normal to the sphere of radius ρ, we have

E = E(ρ)e ρ. Let S be a sphere of

ﬁxed radius ρ, centered at the origin. Then

_

W

δ dV =

_

4

3

πρ

3

δ0 ρ ≤ a

4

3

πa

3

δ0 ρ > a.

1502 Chapter Nineteen /SOLUTIONS

On the other hand, since on the sphere d

A = e ρdA, we have

_

S

E · d

A =

_

S

E(ρ)e ρ · e ρdA = E(ρ)

_

S

dA = E(ρ)4πρ

2

.

Therefore, by Gauss’s Law,

E(ρ)4πρ

2

=

_

k

4

3

πρ

3

δ0 ρ ≤ a

k

4

3

πa

3

δ0 ρ > a.

Since

E = E(ρ)e ρ, simplifying gives

E =

_

_

_

k

δ0

3

ρe ρ ρ ≤ a

k

δ0a

3

3r

3

e ρ ρ > a.

31. (a) The charge is contained in a cylinder of radius a centered at the origin, and uniformly distributed through the region

enclosed by the cylinder.

(b) Since e r is the unit outward pointing normal to the cylinder of radius r, we have

E = E(r)e r. Let S be a cylinder

of ﬁxed radius r, height 1, centered along the z-axis. If r ≤ a,

_

W

δ dV = πr

2

δ0,

and if r > a

_

W

δ dV = πa

2

δ0.

On the other hand, since d

**A = e rdA on S, we can write
**

_

S

E · d

A =

_

S

E(r)(e r · e r)dA = E(r)

_

S

dA = E(r)2πr.

(The ﬂux across the top and bottom of the cylinder is zero.) So, by Gauss’s Law

E(r)2πr =

_

¸

_

¸

_

kπr

2

δ0 if r ≤ a

kπa

2

δ0 if r > a.

Since

E = E(r)e r, simplifying gives

E =

_

_

_

1

2

kδ0re r if r ≤ a

1

2

kδ0

a

2

r

e r if r > a.

Solutions for Section 19.3

Exercises

1. Since S is given by

r (s, t) = (s + t)

i + (s −t)

j + (s

2

+ t

2

)

k ,

we have

∂r

∂s

=

i +

j + 2s

k and

∂r

∂t

=

i −

j + 2t

k ,

19.3 SOLUTIONS 1503

and

∂r

∂s

×

∂r

∂t

=

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

i

j

k

1 1 2s

1 −1 2t

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

= (2s + 2t)

i + (2s −2t)

j −2

k .

Since the

**i component of this vector is positive for 0 < s < 1, 0 < t < 1, it points away from the z-axis, and so has the
**

opposite orientation to the one speciﬁed. Thus, we use

d

A = −

∂r

∂s

×

∂r

∂t

ds dt,

and so we have

_

S

F · d

A = −

_

1

0

_

1

0

(s

2

+ t

2

)

k ·

_

(2s + 2t)

i + (2s −2t)

j −2

k

_

ds dt

= 2

_

1

0

_

1

0

(s

2

+ t

2

) ds dt = 2

_

1

0

_

s

3

3

+ st

2

_¸

¸

¸

¸

s=1

s=0

dt

= 2

_

1

0

(

1

3

+ t

2

) dt = 2(

1

3

t +

t

3

3

)

¸

¸

¸

¸

1

0

= 2(

1

3

+

1

3

) =

4

3

.

2. Since S is parameterized by

r (s, t) = 2s

i + (s + t)

j + (1 + s −t)

k ,

we have

∂r

∂s

= 2

i +

j +

k and

∂r

∂t

=

j −

k ,

so

∂r

∂s

×

∂r

∂t

=

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

i

j

k

2 1 1

0 1 −1

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

= −2

i + 2

j + 2

k ,

which points in the direction opposite to the orientation given. Thus,

_

S

F · d

A = −

_

1

0

_

1

0

(2s

i + (s + t)

j )(−2

i + 2

j + 2

k ) ds dt

= −

_

1

0

_

1

0

(−4s + 2s + 2t) dsdt =

_

1

0

_

1

0

(2s −2t) ds dt

=

_

1

0

_

s

2

−2st

¸

¸

¸

¸

s=1

s=0

_

dt =

_

1

0

(1 −2t) dt = t −t

2

¸

¸

¸

¸

1

0

= 0.

3. The cross-product ∂r /∂s ×∂r /∂t is given by

∂r

∂s

×

∂r

∂t

=

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

i

j

k

e

s

0 6

0 −3 sin(3t) 0

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

= 18 sin(3t)

i −3e

s

sin(3t)

k .

Since the z-component, −3e

s

sin(3t), of ∂r /∂s ×∂r /∂t is always negative for 0 ≤ s ≤ 4 and 0 < t < π/6, the vector

∂r /∂s ×∂r /∂t points downward and so in the direction of the given orientation of S.

Thus,

d

A =

_

∂r

∂s

×

∂r

∂t

_

ds dt

and

_

S

F · d

A =

_

4

0

_

π/6

0

(e

s

i ) · (18 sin(3t)

i −3e

s

sin(3t)

j ) dt ds

1504 Chapter Nineteen /SOLUTIONS

=

_

4

0

_

π/6

0

18e

s

sin(3t) dt ds = −18

_

4

0

e

s

cos(3t)

3

¸

¸

¸

¸

π/6

0

ds

= −6

_

4

0

e

s

(0 −1) ds = 6

_

4

0

e

s

ds = 6(e

4

−1).

4. Since S is parameterized by

r (s, t) = 3 sin s

i + 3 cos s

j + (t + 1)

k ,

we have

∂r

∂s

= 3 cos s

i −3 sin s

j and

∂r

∂t

=

k .

So

∂r

∂s

×

∂r

∂t

=

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

i

j

k

3 cos s −3 sin s 0

0 0 1

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

= −3 sin s

i −3 cos s

j ,

which points toward the z-axis and thus opposite to the orientation we were given. Hence, we use

d

A = −

∂r

∂s

×

∂r

∂t

ds dt,

and so we have

_

S

F · d

A = −

_

1

0

_

π

0

(3 cos s

i + 3 sin s

j ) · (−3 sin s

i −3 cos s

j ) ds dt

= 9

_

1

0

_

π

0

2 sin s cos s ds dt = 9

_

1

0

_

π

0

sin 2s ds dt

= 9

_

1

0

_

−

cos 2s

2

¸

¸

¸

¸

s=π

s=0

_

dt = 0.

5. The cross product ∂r /∂s ×∂r /∂t is given by

∂r

∂s

×

∂r

∂t

=

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

i

j

k

2s 2 0

0 2t 5

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

= 10

i −10s

j + 4st

k .

Since the z-component, 4st, of the vector ∂r /∂s × ∂r /∂t is positive for 0 < s ≤ 1, 1 ≤ t ≤ 3, we see that ∂r /∂s ×

∂r /∂t points upward, in the direction of the orientation of S we were given. Thus, we use

d

A =

_

∂r

∂s

×

∂r

∂t

_

ds dt,

and so we have

_

S

F · d

A =

_

1

0

_

3

1

(5t

i + s

2

j ) · (10

i −10s

j + 4st

k ) dt ds

=

_

1

0

_

3

1

(50t −10s

3

) dt ds =

_

1

0

(25t

2

−10s

3

t)

¸

¸

¸

¸

t=3

t=1

ds

=

_

1

0

(200 −20s

3

) ds = (200s −5s

4

)

¸

¸

¸

¸

1

0

= 200 −5 = 195.

19.3 SOLUTIONS 1505

6. Since

r (a, θ) = a cos θ

i + a sin θ

j + sin a

2

k ,

we have

∂r

∂a

×

∂r

∂θ

=

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

i

j

k

cos θ sin θ 2a cos a

2

−a sin θ a cos θ 0

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

= −2a

2

cos θ cos a

2

i −2a

2

sin θ cos a

2

j + a

k .

The z-component, a, of the vector ∂r /∂a ×∂r /∂θ is positive for 1 ≤ a ≤ 3, 0 ≤ θ ≤ π, so ∂r /∂a ×∂r /∂θ points

upward, in the direction of the orientation of S we were given. Thus, we use d

A = (∂r /∂a ×∂r /∂θ) da dθ, giving

_

S

F · d

A =

_

3

1

_

π

0

_

(−

2

a cos θ

)

i + (

2

a sin θ

)

j

_

·

∂r

∂a

×

∂r

∂θ

dθ da

=

_

3

1

_

π

0

(4a cos a

2

−4a cos a

2

) dθ da = 0.

7. Using cylindrical coordinates, we see that the surface S is parameterized by

r (r, θ) = r cos θ

i + r sin θ

j + r

k .

We have

∂r

∂r

×

∂r

∂θ

=

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

i

j

k

cos θ sin θ 1

−r sin θ r cos θ 0

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

= −r cos θ

i −r sin θ

j + r

k .

Since the vector ∂r /∂r × ∂r /∂θ points upward, in the direction opposite to the speciﬁed orientation, we use d

A =

−(∂r /∂r ×∂r /∂θ) dr dθ. Hence

_

S

F · d

A = −

_

2π

0

_

R

0

(r

5

cos

2

θ sin

2

θ

k ) · (−r cos θ

i −r sin θ

j + r

k ) dr dθ

= −

_

2π

0

_

R

0

r

6

cos

2

θ sin

2

θ dr dθ

= −

R

7

7

_

2π

0

sin

2

θ cos

2

θ dθ

= −

R

7

7

_

2π

0

sin

2

θ(1 −sin

2

θ) dθ

= −

R

7

7

_

2π

0

(sin

2

θ −sin

4

θ) dθ

= −(

R

7

7

)(

π

4

) =

−π

28

R

7

.

The cone is not differentiable at the point (0, 0). However the ﬂux integral, which is improper, converges.

8. Place the cylinder S of radius a and length L so that its central axis is the z axis between z = 0 and z = L. A

parameterization of S is

x = a cos θ, y = a sin θ, z = t, for 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π, 0 ≤ t ≤ L.

We compute

∂r

∂θ

×

∂r

∂t

= (−a sin θ

i + a cos θ

j ) ×

k = a cos θ

i + a sin θ

j

_

_

_

_

∂r

∂θ

×

∂r

∂t

_

_

_

_

= a

Surface area =

_

S

dA =

_

R

_

_

_

_

∂r

∂θ

×

∂r

∂t

_

_

_

_

dA =

_

2π

θ=0

_

L

t=0

adtdθ = 2πaL.

1506 Chapter Nineteen /SOLUTIONS

9. A parameterization of S is

x = s, y = t, z = 3s + 2t, for 0 ≤ s ≤ 10, 0 ≤ t ≤ 20.

We compute

∂r

∂s

×

∂r

∂t

= (

i + 3

k ) ×(

j + 2

k ) = −3

i −2

j +

k

_

_

_

_

∂r

∂θ

×

∂r

∂t

_

_

_

_

=

√

14

Surface area =

_

S

dA =

_

R

_

_

_

_

∂r

∂θ

×

∂r

∂t

_

_

_

_

dA =

_

20

t=0

_

10

s=0

√

14dsdt = 200

√

14.

Problems

10. The surface S is parameterized by

r (x, z) = x

i + (x

2

+ z

2

)

j + z

k .

The surface S, together with its given orientation n , is graphed in Figure 19.8. Using the right-hand rule we see that the

vector r x ×r z points in the direction of n . Thus,

d

A =

_

∂r

∂x

×

∂r

∂z

_

dxdz =

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

i

j

k

1 2x 0

0 2z 1

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

dxdz = (2x

i −

j + 2z

k ) dxdz.

Thus

_

S

F · d

A =

_

S

((x + z)

i +

j + z

k ) · (2x

i −

j + 2z

k ) dxdz

=

_

S

(2x

2

+ 2xz −1 + 2z

2

)dxdz.

Changing to polar coordinates, x = r cos θ, z = r sin θ, where 1/2 ≤ r ≤ 1, 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π, we obtain

_

S

F · d

A =

_

2π

0

_

1

1/2

(2r

2

+ 2r

2

sin θ cos θ −1)r dr dθ

=

_

2π

0

_

r

4

2

+

r

4

2

sin θ cos θ −

r

2

2

_¸

¸

¸

¸

r=1

r=1/2

dθ

=

_

2π

0

_

15

32

sin θ cos θ +

3

32

_

dθ

=

15

64

(sin θ)

2

+

3

32

θ

¸

¸

¸

¸

2π

0

=

3π

16

.

x

y

z

n

rx

rz

S

Figure 19.8

19.3 SOLUTIONS 1507

11. The the curved surface of the circular cylinder is parameterized by

r = x

i + y

j + z

k = cos θ

i + sin θ

j + z

k

where 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π and 1 −cos θ −sin θ ≤ z ≤ 2 −cos θ −sin θ.

The vector ∂r /∂θ ×∂r /∂z points away from the z-axis, so d

A = (∂r /∂θ ×∂r /∂z) dθ dz and

F · d

A =

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

x y z

−sin θ cos θ 0

0 0 1

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

dθ dz = (xcos θ + y sin θ) dθ dz = (cos

2

θ + sin

2

θ) dθ dz = dθ dz.

Hence,

_

S

F · d

A =

_

2π

0

_

2−cos θ−sin θ

1−cos θ−sin θ

dzdθ =

_

2π

0

dθ = 2π.

x

y

z

n

Figure 19.9

12. The plane is parameterized by

r = x

i + y

j + z

k = x

i + y

j + (2 −2x −y)

k ,

where (x, y) is in the disk R lying inside the circle x

2

+ y

2

= 2x. By completing the square, this circle can be rewritten

as (x −1)

2

+ y

2

= 1 and so the disk has area π.

We have dA =

∂r

∂x

×

∂r

∂y

dxdy, where

∂r

∂x

×

∂r

∂y

=

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

i

j

k

1 0 −2

0 1 −1

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

= 2

i +

j +

k

and so

_

_

_

_

∂r

∂x

×

∂r

∂y

_

_

_

_

=

√

6.

Thus, the surface area of the ellipse S is given by

Surface area =

_

S

1 dA =

_

R

√

6 dxdy

=

√

6 ×(Area of disk x

2

+ y

2

= 2x)

=

√

6π.

x

y

z

S

Figure 19.10

1508 Chapter Nineteen /SOLUTIONS

13. The elliptic cylindrical surface is parameterized by

r = x

i + y

j + z

k = a cos θ

i + b sin θ

j + z

k where 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π, −c ≤ z ≤ c.

We have

∂r

∂θ

×

∂r

∂z

=

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

i

j

k

−a sin θ b cos θ 0

0 0 1

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

= b cos θ

i + a sin θ

j .

This vector points away from the z-axis, so we use d

A = (b cos θ

i + a sin θ

j ) dθdz, giving

_

S

F · d

A =

_

c

−c

_

2π

0

(

b

a

(a cos θ)

i +

a

b

(b sin θ

j )) · (b cos θ

i + a sin θ

j ) dθ dz

=

_

c

−c

_

2π

0

(b

2

cos

2

θ + a

2

sin

2

θ) dθdz

= 2πc(a

2

+ b

2

).

14. The surface S is parameterized by

r = x

i + f(x) cos θ

j + f(x) sin θ

k , a ≤ x ≤ b, 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π.

The area element on A is

dA =

_

_

_

_

∂r

∂x

×

∂r

∂θ

_

_

_

_

dxdθ

= (

i + f

(x) cos θ

j + f

(x) sin θ

k ) ×(−f(x) sin θ

j + f(x) cos θ

k ) dxdθ

= f(x)f

(x)

i −f(x) cos θ

j −f(x) sin θ

k dxdθ

= f(x)

_

f

(x)

2

+ cos

2

θ + sin

2

θ dxdθ

= f(x)

_

1 + f

(x)

2

dxdθ.

So

Surface area =

_

S

dA =

_

2π

0

_

b

a

f(x)

_

1 + f

(x)

2

dxdθ = 2π

_

b

a

f(x)

_

1 + f

(x)

2

dx.

15. Let x be the distance d1. Since w is the total width of the channel, we have d2 = w − x. The ﬂux through a rectangle

with dimensions A = w ×h, is given by

Flux =

_

A

v · d

A .

For a thin section of the channel of width dx, we have d

A = (hdx)

j . Thus

Flux =

_

w

0

v · (hdx)

j =

_

w

0

kx(w −x)

j · (h · dx)

j =

_

w

0

khx(w −x) dx

=

_

w

0

kh(wx −x

2

) dx = kh

_

1

2

w

3

−

1

3

w

3

_

=

1

6

khw

3

meter

3

/sec.

16. (a) Building on the parameterization x = cos u, y = sin u, z = 0 of the circular base of the cone, we get

x = (1 −v) cos u + av

y = (1 −v) sin u + bv

z = cv

0 ≤ u ≤ 2π, 0 ≤ v ≤ 1.

Note that v = 0 corresponds to the base of the cone and v = 1 is its vertex.

19.3 SOLUTIONS 1509

(b) Writing r = x

i + y

j + z

k we have

∂r

∂u

= −(1 −v) sin u

i + (1 −v) cos u

j

∂r

∂v

= (a −cos u)

i + (b −sin u)

j + c

k .

Thus

∂r

∂u

×

∂r

∂v

=

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

i

j

k

−(1 −v) sin u (1 −v) cos u 0

a −cos u b −sin u c

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

= c(1 −v) cos u

i + c(1 −v) sin u

j + (1 −v)(1 −a cos u −b sin u)

k

so

_

_

_

_

∂r

∂u

×

∂r

∂v

_

_

_

_

= (1 −v)

_

c

2

+ (1 −a cos u −b sin u)

2

.

Thus

Surface area =

_

2π

0

_

1

0

_

_

_

_

∂r

∂u

×

∂r

∂v

_

_

_

_

dudv =

1

2

_

2π

0

_

c

2

+ (1 −a cos u −b sin u)

2

du.

This is an elliptic integral that can not be evaluated in terms of elementary functions.

(c) We have Surface Area = (1/2)

_

2π

0

_

1 + (1 −2 cos u)

2

du = 5.805.

17. The surface of S is parameterized by

r (θ, φ) = x

i + y

j + z

k ,

where

_

¸

_

¸

_

x = a + d sin φcos θ,

y = b + d sin φsin θ,

z = c + d cos φ,

for 0 ≤ φ ≤ π, 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π.

The vector ∂r /∂φ ×∂r /∂θ points outward by the right-hand rule, so

d

A =

_

∂r

∂φ

×

∂r

∂θ

_

dφdθ.

Thus,

F · d

A =

F ·

_

∂r

∂φ

×

∂r

∂θ

_

dφdθ

=

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

x

2

y

2

z

2

∂x

∂φ

∂y

∂φ

∂z

∂φ

∂x

∂θ

∂y

∂θ

∂z

∂θ

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

dφdθ

=

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

(a + d sin φcos θ)

2

(b + d sin φsin θ)

2

(c + d cos φ)

2

d cos φcos θ d cos φsin θ −d sin φ

−d sin φsin θ d sin φcos θ 0

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

dφdθ.

Hence,

_

S

F · d

A = d

2

_

2π

0

_

π

0

( a

2

sin

2

φcos θ + 2ad sin

3

φcos

2

θ + d

2

sin

4

φcos

3

θ

+ b

2

sin

2

φsin θ + 2bd sin

3

φsin

2

θ + d

2

sin

4

φsin

3

θ

+ c

2

sin φcos φ + 2cd sin φcos

2

φ + d

2

sin φcos

3

φ) dφdθ.

Since

_

2π

0

cos θ dθ =

_

2π

0

sin θ dθ =

_

2π

0

cos

3

θ dθ =

_

2π

0

sin

3

θ dθ = 0,

1510 Chapter Nineteen /SOLUTIONS

and

_

π

0

sin φcos φ dφ =

_

π

0

sin φcos

3

φ dφ = 0,

we have

_

S

F ·

A d

2

_

2π

0

_

π

0

(2ad sin

3

φcos

2

θ + 2bd sin

3

φsin

2

θ + 2cd sin φcos

2

φ) dφdθ

= 2πd

3

_

π

0

(a sin

3

φ + b sin

3

φ + 2c sin φcos

2

φ) dφ

= 4πd

3

_

π/2

0

(a sin

3

φ + b sin

3

φ + 2c sin φcos

2

φ) dφ

=

8

3

πd

3

(a + b + c).

18. If S is the part of the graph of z = f(x, y) lying over a region R in the xy-plane, then S is parameterized by

r (x, y) = x

i + y

j + f(x, y)

k , (x, y) in R.

So

∂r

∂x

×

∂r

∂y

= (

i + fx

k ) ×(

j + fy

k ) = −fx

i −fy

j +

k .

Since the

**k component is positive, this points upward, so if S is oriented upward
**

d

A = (−fx

i −fy

j +

k ) dxdy

and therefore we have the expression for the ﬂux integral obtained on page 980:

_

S

F · d

A =

_

R

F (x, y, f(x, y)) · (−fx

i −fy

k +

k ) dxdy.

19. If S is the part of the cylinder of radius Rcorresponding to the region T in θz-space, then S is parameterized in cylindrical

coordinates by

r (θ, z) = Rcos θ

i + Rsin θ

j + z

k , (θ, z) in T.

So

∂r

∂θ

×

∂r

∂z

= (−Rsin θ

i + Rcos θ

j ) ×

k = Rcos θ

i + Rsin θ

j .

This points outward, so

d

A = (Rcos θ

i + Rsin θ

j ) dθ dz = (cos θ

i + sin θ

j )Rdθ dz

and therefore we obtain the expression for the ﬂux integral in cylindrical coordinates on page 981:

_

S

F · d

A =

_

T

F (Rcos θ, Rsin θ, z) · (cos θ

i + sin θ

j )Rdθ dz.

20. If S is the part of the sphere of radius R corresponding to the region T in θφ-space, then S is parameterized in spherical

coordinates by

r (θ, φ) = Rsin φcos θ

i + Rsin φsin θ

j + Rcos φ

k , (θ, φ) in T.

So

∂r

∂θ

×

∂r

∂φ

=

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

i

j

k

−Rsin φsin θ Rsin φcos θ 0

Rcos φcos θ Rcos φsin θ −Rsin φ

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

= −R

2

sin

2

φcos θ

i −R

2

sin

2

φsin θ

j −R

2

sin φcos φ

k

= −R

2

sin φ(sin φcos θ

i + sin φsin θ

j + cos φ

k ).

SOLUTIONS to Review Problems for Chapter Nineteen 1511

This points inward, so the outward area element is

d

A = (sin φcos θ

i + sin φsin θ

j + cos φ

k )R

2

sin φdθ dφ,

and therefore we obtain the expression for the ﬂux integral in spherical coordinates on page 982:

_

S

F · d

A

=

_

T

F (Rsin φcos θ, Rsin φsin θ, Rcos φ) · (sin φcos θ

i + sin φsin θ

j + cos φ

k )R

2

sin φdθ dφ.

21. In terms of the st-parameterization,

d

A =

∂r

∂s

×

∂r

∂t

ds dt.

By the chain rule, we have

∂r

∂s

=

∂r

∂u

∂u

∂s

+

∂r

∂v

∂v

∂s

∂r

∂t

=

∂r

∂u

∂u

∂t

+

∂r

∂v

∂v

∂t

.

So taking the cross product, we get

∂r

∂s

×

∂r

∂t

=

_

∂r

∂u

∂u

∂s

+

∂r

∂v

∂v

∂s

_

×

_

∂r

∂u

∂u

∂t

+

∂r

∂v

∂v

∂t

_

=

_

∂u

∂s

∂v

∂t

−

∂u

∂t

∂v

∂s

_

∂r

∂u

×

∂r

∂v

.

Now suppose we are going to change variables in a double integral from uv-coordinates to st-coordinates. The

Jacobian is

∂(u, v)

∂(s, t)

=

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

∂u

∂s

∂v

∂s

∂u

∂t

∂v

∂t

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

=

∂u

∂s

∂v

∂t

−

∂u

∂t

∂v

∂s

.

Since the Jacobian is assumed to be positive, converting from a uv-integral to an st-integral gives:

_

T

F ·

∂r

∂u

×

∂r

∂v

dudv =

_

R

F ·

∂r

∂u

×

∂r

∂v

∂(u, v)

∂(s, t)

dsdt

=

_

R

F ·

∂r

∂u

×

∂r

∂v

_

∂u

∂s

∂v

∂t

−

∂u

∂t

∂v

∂s

_

dsdt.

However, we know that this gives us

_

T

F ·

∂r

∂u

×

∂r

∂v

dudv =

_

R

F ·

∂r

∂u

×

∂r

∂v

_

∂u

∂s

∂v

∂t

−

∂u

∂t

∂v

∂s

_

dsdt =

_

R

F ·

∂r

∂s

×

∂r

∂t

dsdt.

Thus, the ﬂux integral in uv-coordinates equals the ﬂux integral in st-coordinates.

Solutions for Chapter 19 Review

Exercises

1. Scalar. Since the surface is closed and the vector ﬁeld is constant, the ﬂux in one side equals the ﬂux out on the other side,

so the net ﬂux through the surface is 0.

2. Scalar. Only the

**j -component of the vector ﬁeld contributes to the ﬂux and d
**

A =

**j dA, and on the disk y = 6, so
**

_

S

(x

i + 6

j ) · d

A = 6 · Area of disk = 6 · π3

2

= 54π.

3. Since the surface is closed, the ﬂux of a constant vector ﬁeld out of it is 0.

1512 Chapter Nineteen /SOLUTIONS

4. The only contribution to the ﬂux is from the face x = 1, since the vector ﬁeld is zero or parallel to the other faces. On this

face,

G =

**i . This face has area 6, so its area vector
**

A = 6

i . Thus

Flux =

i ·

A = 6.

5. The only contribution to the ﬂux is from the face z = 3, since the vector ﬁeld is zero or parallel to the other faces. On this

face,

H = 3x

**k . The vector ﬁeld is everywhere perpendicular to the face z = 3 but varies in magnitude from point to
**

point. On this surface, d

A =

k dxdy. Thus

Flux =

_

2

0

_

1

0

3x

k ·

k dxdy =

_

2

0

_

1

0

3xdxdy =

3x

2

2

¸

¸

¸

¸

1

0

· y

¸

¸

¸

¸

2

0

= 3.

6. Since the surface is closed and the vector ﬁeld is constant, the ﬂux is zero.

7. Since the surface is in the plane x = 2, only the

**i -component contributes to the ﬂux. The area vector of the surface is
**

π1

2

i = π

i . Thus,

_

S

(2

i + 3

j −5

k ) · d

A = 2

i · π

i = 2π.

8. Since the surface is in the plane x + y + x = 1, whose normal vector is

i +

j +

**k , a unit normal in the direction of the
**

orientation is (

i +

j +

k )/

√

3. Thus, the area vector of the surface is π1

2

(

i +

j +

k )/

√

3 = π(

i +

j +

k )/

√

3. The

ﬂux is given by

_

S

(2

i + 3

j + 5

k ) · d

A = (2

i + 3

j + 5

k ) · π

i +

j +

k

√

3

=

π(2 + 3 + 5)

√

3

=

10π

√

3

.

9. Only the

**i -component contributes to the ﬂux, so
**

Flux = 2π · Area of surface = 2π(π3

2

) = 18π

2

.

10. Since

F is perpendicular to the surface, whose unit normal vector is (

i +

j )/

√

2, we have

Flux =

_

S

2π(

i +

j ) ·

(

i +

j )

√

2

dA =

4π

√

2

Area of square = 2

√

2π3

2

= 18

√

2π.

11. Since

F is parallel to the plane in which the disk lies, the ﬂux is 0.

12. Since the vector ﬁeld is constant, the ﬂux in one side of the sphere cancels the ﬂux out of the opposite side of the sphere.

Thus, the total ﬂux is 0.

13. Since the vector ﬁeld is everywhere perpendicular to the surface of the sphere, and ||

**F || = π on the surface, we have
**

_

S

F · d

A = ||

F || · Area of sphere = π · 4π(π)

2

= 4π

4

.

14. Since

F = r = x

i + y

j + z

k , only the

k component contributes to the ﬂux. (The

i and

**j components have a zero
**

dot product with the area vector of the square.) On the square, z = 2. The square has side 3, area 9, and area vector 9

k .

Thus,

_

Square

F · d

A = (x

i + y

j + 2

k ) · Area vector of square = 2

k · 9

k = 18.

15. Since

F = r = x

i +y

j +z

k , only the

i component contributes to the ﬂux. (The

j and

**k components have a zero dot
**

product with the area vector of the disk.) On the disk, x = 5. The disk has radius 3, area 9π, and area vector 9π

i . Thus,

_

S

F · d

A = (5

i + y

j + z

k ) · Area vector of disk = 5

i · 9π

i = 45π.

16. Since

G is constant, the net ﬂux through the sphere is 0, so

_

S

G · d

A = 0.

17. The area vector of the surface is −49

j , so

_

S

G · d

A = (2

j + 3

k ) · (−49

j ) = −98.

SOLUTIONS to Review Problems for Chapter Nineteen 1513

18. The area vector of the surface is π(5

2

)

k = 25π

k , so

_

S

G · d

A = (2

j + 3

k ) · 25π

k = 75π.

19. A normal vector to S is −

j +

k , so a unit normal is n = (−

j +

k )/

√

2.

_

S

G · d

A = (2

j + 3

k ) ·

(−

j +

k )

√

2

· (Area of surface) =

(−2 + 3)

√

2

·

√

2 = 1.

20. Only the

i component of

F contributes to the ﬂux. On the disk, d

A =

i dA, so we have

Flux =

_

F · d

A = 2

i · (

i Area of disk) = 2π(5

2

) = 50π.

21. Only the

**k component contributes to the ﬂux. In the plane z = 4, we have
**

F = 2

i +3

j +4

k . On the square d

A =

k dA,

so we have

Flux =

_

F · d

A = 4

k · (

k Area of square) = 4(5

2

) = 100.

22. Only the

i and

j components of

F contribute to the ﬂux. On the disk, d

**A = n dA where n is the unit normal to the
**

plane in the direction of orientation, n = (

i +

j )/

√

2. Thus d

A = (

i +

j )dA/

√

2, so

Flux =

_

F · d

A = (2

i + 3

j ) ·

_

(

i +

j )

√

2

Area of disk

_

=

5

√

2

π(5

2

) =

125

√

2

π.

23. All the vectors in the vector ﬁeld point horizontally (because their z-component is zero), and the surface is horizontal, so

there is no ﬂow through the surface and the ﬂux is zero.

24. See Figure 19.11. Since the vector ﬁeld is constant and the surface is ﬂat, the ﬂux integral

_

S

F ·

dA

is

F ·

A , where

A is the area vector of the circle. The vector

i +

j +

**k is normal to the plane and points up, so a unit
**

normal is

1

√

3

i +

1

√

3

j +

1

√

3

k . The area of the circle is 4π, so the area vector of the circle is

A =

4π

√

3

(

i +

j +

k )

Thus

_

S

F ·

dA =

F ·

A = 2

i ·

4π

√

3

(

i +

j +

k ) =

8π

√

3

.

x

y

z

n

Figure 19.11

1514 Chapter Nineteen /SOLUTIONS

25. See Figure 19.12. The vector ﬁeld is a vortex going around the z-axis, and the square is centered on the x-axis, so the ﬂux

going across one half of the square is balanced by the ﬂux coming back across the other half. Thus, the net ﬂux is zero, so

_

S

F ·

dA = 0.

x

y

z

n

Figure 19.12

26. Only the

**i -component contributes to the ﬂux, so
**

_

S

F · d

A = 7 · Area of disk = 7 · π2

2

= 28π.

27. In the plane y = 3, we have

F = x

i + 6

j + 3z

k . Only the

**j -component contributes to the ﬂux, so
**

_

S

F · d

A = 6 · Area of square = 6 · 2

2

= 24.

28. Since the vector ﬁeld is constant, the ﬂux is zero.

29. On the sphere of radius 2, the vector ﬁeld has ||

**F || = 10 and points inward everywhere (opposite to the orientation of
**

the surface). So

Flux =

_

S

F · d

A = −||

**F || · Area of sphere = −10 · 4π2
**

2

= −160 π.

30. We have d

A =

k dA, and z = 4, so,

_

S

F · d

A =

_

S

(x

i + y

j + (4

2

+ 3)

k ) ·

k dA =

_

S

19 dA

= 19(Area of rectangle) = 19(6) = 114.

31. We have d

A =

k dA, so

_

S

F · d

A =

_

S

(z

i + y

j + 2x

k ) ·

k dA =

_

S

2xdA

=

_

3

0

_

2

0

2xdxdy = 12.

32. We have d

A =

i dA, so

_

S

F · d

A =

_

S

((2 + cos z)

i + y

j + 2x

k ) ·

i dA =

_

S

(2 + cos z) dA

=

_

4

0

_

3

0

(2 + cos z) dydz = 3(8 + sin 4)

SOLUTIONS to Review Problems for Chapter Nineteen 1515

33. On the surface S, y is constant, y = −1, and d

A = −

j dA, so,

_

S

F · d

A =

_

S

(x

2

i + (x + e

−1

)

j −

k ) · (−

j ) dA = −

_

S

(x + e

−1

) dA

= −

_

4

0

_

2

0

(x + e

−1

) dxdz = −4(2 + 2e

−1

) = −8(1 + e

−1

).

34. Observe that the

j and

k components of

F are parallel to the surface S, so they contribute nothing to the ﬂux integral.

On the surface S, the

i component of

F equals 5

i , because x = 0 on S. Since 5

**i is normal to S and in the direction of
**

the orientation of S,

_

S

F · d

A =

_

S

5

i · d

A = 5

i (Area of S) = 20.

35. There is no ﬂux through the base or top of the cylinder because the vector ﬁeld is parallel to these faces. For the curved

surface, consider a small patch with area ∆

**A . The vector ﬁeld is pointing radially outward from the z-axis and so is
**

parallel to ∆

A . Since

F =

_

x

2

+ y

2

= 2 on the curved surface of the cylinder, we have

F · ∆

A =

F ∆

A =

2∆A. Replacing ∆A with dA, we get

_

S

F · d

A =

_

Curved

surface

2 dA = 2(Area of curved surface) = 2(2π · 2 · 3) = 24π.

36. The vector ﬁeld

F = −y

i + x

j + z

**k is tangent to the curved surface of the cylinder. (The area vector is parallel to the
**

vector pointing radially outward from the z-axis, namely x

i + y

j and (−y

i + x

j + z

k ) · (x

i + y

j ) = 0.) Thus the

only contributions to the ﬂux integral are from the top and the bottom. On the top, z = 1 and d

A = dA

k , so

F · d

A = (−y

i + x

j +

k ) · dA

k = dA.

Thus

_

Top

F · d

A =

_

Top

dA = Area of top = π(1)

2

= π.

Similarly, on the base, z = −1 and d

A = (−dA

k ), so

F · d

A = (−y

i + x

j −

k ) · (−dA

k ) = dA.

_

Base

F · d

A =

_

Base

dA = Area of base = π.

Therefore,

Total ﬂux through cylinder = Flux through top + Flux through base = 2π.

37. First we have

zx =

x

_

x

2

+ y

2

zy =

y

_

x

2

+ y

2

.

Although z is not a smooth function of x and y at (0, 0), the improper integral that we get converges:

_

S

F · d

A =

_

S

(x

2

i + y

2

j +

_

x

2

+ y

2

k ) · (−

x

_

x

2

+ y

2

i −

y

_

x

2

+ y

2

j +

k ) dA

=

_

S

_

−

x

3

+ y

3

_

x

2

+ y

2

+

_

x

2

+ y

2

_

dA

Changing to polar coordinates we have

_

S

F · d

A =

_

π/2

0

_

1

0

(−r

2

cos

3

θ −r

2

sin

3

θ + r)r drdθ

=

_

π/2

0

_

−

r

4

4

(cos

3

θ + sin

3

θ) +

1

3

r

3

¸

¸

¸

¸

r=1

r=0

_

dθ

1516 Chapter Nineteen /SOLUTIONS

=

_

π/2

0

_

−

1

4

(cos

3

θ + sin

3

θ) +

1

3

_

dθ

=

_

π/2

0

_

−

1

4

(cos θ −cos θ sin

2

θ + sin θ −sin θ cos

2

θ) +

1

3

_

dθ

= −

1

4

(sin θ −

1

3

sin

3

θ −cos θ +

1

3

cos

3

θ) +

θ

3

¸

¸

¸

¸

π/2

0

=

π

6

−

1

3

.

38. First suppose the disk is in the region where y is positive. Since S is perpendicular to the y-axis,

F is parallel to the

y-axis. Since the ﬂux is positive,

F = c

j with c > 0. Thus

Flux = ||

F || · Area of S = c · π5

2

= 7

so

c =

7

25π

and

F =

7

25π

j .

If on the other hand the disk is in the region where y < 0, then

F = −

7

25π

j .

39. Since S is parallel to the xy-plane,

F is parallel to the z-axis. The ﬂux is negative, so

F = −c

k , with c > 0. Thus

Flux = −||

F || · Area of S = −c · 3 · 5 = −7

so

c =

7

15

and

F = −

7

15

k .

40. Since

F is parallel to the x-axis and the ﬂux is positive,

F = c

**i with c > 0. A unit vector perpendicular to the plane in
**

the direction of the orientation is

n =

1

√

3

(

i +

j +

k ),

so the area vector of S is

A = (Area of S)n = π5

2

1

√

3

(

i +

j +

k ).

Thus

Flux =

F ·

A = c

i · π5

2

1

√

3

(

i +

j +

k ) = c

π5

2

√

3

= 7,

so

c =

7

√

3

25π

and

F =

7

√

3

25π

i .

Problems

41. (a) We have grad f = (y + yze

xyz

)

i + (x + xze

xyz

)

j + xye

xyz

k .

(b) By the Fundamental Theorem of Line Integrals, we have

_

C

grad f · dr = (xy + e

xyz

)

¸

¸

¸

¸

(2,3,4)

(1,1,1)

= (2 · 3 + e

2·3·4

−(1 · 1 + e

1·1·1

) = 5 + e

24

−e

1

.

(c) Only the k-component of grad f contributes to the ﬂux integral. On the xy-plane, d

A =

k dxdy and z = 0, so

_

S

grad f · d

A =

_

2

0

_

√

4−x

2

0

xye

0

dy dx =

_

2

0

xy

2

2

¸

¸

¸

¸

√

4−x

2

0

=

_

2

0

x

2

(4 −x

2

) dx =

_

x

2

−

x

4

8

_¸

¸

¸

¸

2

0

= 2.

SOLUTIONS to Review Problems for Chapter Nineteen 1517

42. (a) (i) The ﬂux

_

B

x

i · d

A is positive. The vectors x

**i all point out of the box.
**

(ii) The ﬂux

_

B

y

i · d

A is zero. The vector ﬁeld is parallel to the x-axis. For each y-value, the ﬂux entering the box

at one end cancels the ﬂux leaving at the other end.

(iii) The ﬂux

_

S

|x|

i · d

**A is zero. The ﬂux entering the sphere where x < 0 cancels the ﬂux leaving where x > 0.
**

(iv) Since

_

S

(y −x)

i · d

A =

_

y

i · d

A −

_

x

i · d

**A = Zero − Positive , this ﬂux is negative.
**

(b) From the Divergence Theorem,

_

B

x

i · d

A is greater. Since div(x

i ) = 1,

_

S

x

i · d

A =

_

Inside sphere

1 · dV = Volume of sphere =

4

3

π.

_

B

x

i · d

A =

_

Inside box

1 · dV = Volume of box = 8 >

4

3

π.

43.

x

y

z

S

1

(0, 0, 2)

'

'

1

Figure 19.13

z

−x

−y

S

2

(0, 0, 3)

'

'

1

Figure 19.14

x

y

z

S

3

'

'

'

'

√

2

√

2

Figure 19.15

x

y

z

(1, 0, 1)

'

'

√

2

'

'

√

2

Figure 19.16

Flux through S1 =

F ·

A = (−

i −

j +

k ) · (

k ) = 1

Flux through S2 =

F ·

A = (−

i −

j +

k ) · (

k ) = 1

Flux through S3 =

F ·

A = (−

i −

j +

k ) · (−2

j ) = 2

For S4, a normal is −

i +

**k and the area is 2, so
**

A = −

√

2

i +

√

2

k

Flux through S4 =

F ·

A = (−

i −

j +

k ) · (−

√

2

i +

√

2

k ) = 2

√

2.

So,

Flux through S1 = Flux through S2 < Flux through S3 < Flux through S4.

1518 Chapter Nineteen /SOLUTIONS

44. (a) The vector ﬁeld points radially outward from the origin and the vectors increase in length as the distance from the

origin increases.

(b) The vector ﬁeld on the sphere points outward everywhere, so the ﬂux is positive.

(c) On the surface of the sphere, the vector ﬁeld and the normal vector are parallel to each other. Everywhere on the

surface ||

F || = c||r || = 3c, so

Flux =

_

Sphere

F · d

A = 3c · Area of sphere = 3c · 4π(3)

2

= 108cπ.

45. The vector ﬁeld

D has constant magnitude on S, equal to Q/4πR

2

, and points radially outward, so

_

S

D · d

A =

Q

4πR

2

· 4πR

2

= Q.

46. The vector ﬁeld

D has constant magnitude on S, equal to ρ0R/3, and points radially outward, so

_

S

D · d

A =

ρ0R

3

· 4πR

2

=

4

3

πR

3

ρ0.

47. The vector x

i + y

**j points perpendicularly out of the side of the cylinder and has constant magnitude R on the cylinder.
**

So

_

S

E · d

A =

ρ

20

R · Area of S =

ρ

20

R(2πRh) =

ρ

0

πR

2

h.

The ﬂux of

E across the top or bottom of the cylinder is zero, so including the ends would not change the answer.

48. Notice that the speed is 3 cm/sec at the center of the pipe and 0 cm/sec at the sides. Suppose

**i is the unit vector parallel
**

to the direction of ﬂow. Then, at a distance r from the center of the pipe, the velocity is given by

v =

_

3 −

3

4

r

2

_

i cm/sec.

Divide the circular cross-section into concentric rings of width ∆r, so that the velocity is approximately constant on

each one. The area of a typical ring is ∆A ≈ 2πr∆r. Then since v and ∆

A are parallel (see Figure 19.17), we have

Flux through ring ≈ v ∆

A = v ∆

A ≈

_

3 −

3

4

r

2

_

cm

sec

· (2πr∆r) cm

2

.

T

c

4 cm

T

c

T

c

r

'

∆r

∆

A

v

Figure 19.17: Flux through pipe when

velocity varies with distance from the center

Thus, the ﬂux through the circular cross-section of the pipe is given by

Flux = lim

∆

A →0

v · ∆

A

= lim

∆r→0

_

3 −

3

4

r

2

_

2πr∆r

=

_

r=2

r=0

_

3 −

3

4

r

2

_

2πr dr = 6π

_

2

0

_

r −

r

3

4

_

dr = 6π cm

3

/sec.

SOLUTIONS to Review Problems for Chapter Nineteen 1519

49. (a) Consider two opposite faces of the cube, S1 and S2. The corresponding area vectors are

A 1 = 4ı and

A 2 = −4ı

(since the side of the cube has length 2). Since

E is constant, we ﬁnd the ﬂux by taking the dot product, giving

Flux through S1 =

E ·

A 1 = (a

i + b

j + c

k ) · 4

i = 4a.

Flux through S2 =

E ·

A 2 = (a

i + b

j + c

k ) · (−4

i ) = −4a.

Thus the ﬂuxes through S1 and S2 cancel. Arguing similarly, we conclude that, for any pair of opposite faces, the

sum of the ﬂuxes of

E through these faces is zero. Hence, by addition,

_

S

E · d

A = 0.

(b) The basic idea is the same as in part (a), except that we now need to use Riemann sums. First divide S into two

hemispheres H1 and H2 by the equator C located in a plane perpendicular to

E . For a tiny patch S1 in the hemisphere

H1, consider the patch S2 in the opposite hemisphere which is symmetric to S1 with respect to the center O of the

sphere. The area vectors ∆

A 1 and ∆

A 2 satisfy ∆

A 2 = −∆

**A 1, so if we consider S1 and S2 to be approximately
**

ﬂat, then

E · ∆

A 1 = −

E · ∆

**A 2. By decomposing H1 and H2 into small patches as above and using Riemann
**

sums, we get

_

H

1

E · d

A = −

_

H

2

E · d

A , so

_

S

E · d

A = 0.

(c) The reasoning in part (b) can be used to prove that the ﬂux of

E through any surface with a center of symmetry is

zero. For instance, in the case of the cylinder, cut it in half with a plane z = 1 and denote the two halves by H1 and

H2. Just as before, take patches in H1 and H2 with ∆A1 = −∆A2, so that

E · ∆A1 = −

E · ∆

A 2. Thus, we get

_

H

1

E · d

A = −

_

H

2

E · d

A ,

which shows that

_

S

E · d

A = 0.

50. There are two possible methods:

(a) The ﬂux of

E through Sa is given by

_

Sa

E · d

A =

_

Sa

q

r

r

3

·

r

r

dA,

since d

**A = n dA, where n is the outward pointing unit normal vector ﬁeld on S and n = r /r , and dA is the
**

scalar area element. On the sphere Sa, we have r = a and therefore

_

Sa

E · d

A =

_

Sa

q

r

2

dA

=

q

a

2

_

Sa

dA

=

q

a

2

· 4πa

2

= 4πq.

(b) Alternatively, we may compute the ﬂux of

E through Sa by using the deﬁnition of the ﬂux integral as a limit of

Riemann sums. Divide the sphere into approximately ﬂat patches Pi. The vector area ∆

**A i of the patch Pi has the
**

direction of the outward normal vector to the sphere at the point with position vector r i and the magnitude area(Pi).

The outward normal vector at any point of the sphere is proportional to the position vector of the point, hence we

must have

∆

A i = Area(Pi)

r i

r i

.

The Riemann sum corresponding to the above division of the sphere is therefore

i

E (r i) · ∆

A i =

i

q

r i

r i

3

Area(Pi)

r i

r i

=

i

q

Area(Pi)

a

2

since r i = a for any i. But

i

Area(Pi) = Area(Sa) = 4πa

2

, so we get

i

E (r i) · ∆

A i = 4πq.

1520 Chapter Nineteen /SOLUTIONS

The right-hand side is independent of the way the sphere is divided, therefore in the limit, as ∆

A i →0, we get:

_

Sa

E · d

A = lim

∆

A

i

→0

i

E (r i) · ∆

A i = 4πq.

51. (a) The vector ﬁeld

B is sketched in Figure 19.18 for I > 0.

−2 −4 2 4

−2

−4

2

4

x

y

Figure 19.18

(b) The disk S can be parameterized as z = h (viewed as a constant function of x and y), for x, y in the region

{x

2

+ y

2

≤ a

2

}. Hence

_

S

B · d

A =

_

{x

2

+y

2

≤a

2

}

I

2π

·

−yı + x

x

2

+ y

2

·

k dxdy = 0,

sinceı ·

k = 0 and ·

**k = 0. The answer is as we would expect, since the vector ﬁeld
**

B is tangent to the surface

S, hence there is no ﬂux through S.

(c) The ﬂux of

B through S2 is given by

_

S

2

B · d

A . On S2 we have

B (x, y, z) =

I

2π

·

−yı

y

2

= −

I

2πy

ı ,

and

d

A = n dA = −ı dy dz

Hence,

_

S

2

B · d

A =

_

h

0

_

b

a

I

2π

·

(−ı )

y

· (−ı ) dy dz

=

I

2π

_

h

0

_

b

a

1

y

dy dz

=

I

2π

_

h

0

[ln |y|]

b

a

dz

=

I

2π

_

h

0

(ln |b| −ln |a|) dz

=

I

2π

h

_

ln

¸

¸

¸

b

a

¸

¸

¸

_

.

This time we get a non-zero ﬂux since the direction of

B is everywhere parallel to the orientation of S2. For 0 <

a < b the ﬂux is positive since |b/a| > 1 and increases as the area S2 increases. This is as Figure 19.18 would lead

us to expect. For a < b < 0, the ﬂux is negative since |b/a| < 1. If a < 0 < b, the ﬂux can be either positive or

negative.

SOLUTIONS to Review Problems for Chapter Nineteen 1521

52. (a) If r = xı + y + z

k is the position vector of a point on the sphere, then

D (r ) =

3zp

a

5

r −

p

a

3

k .

The second term is a constant vector ﬁeld. Hence, by symmetry,

_

S

_

−

p

a

3

k

_

· d

A = 0.

(See the solution to Problem 49 on page 1519). Let us also apply a symmetry argument to

_

S

(

3zp

a

5

r ) · d

A .

We will show that the ﬂux of

D through the upper hemisphere H1 equals minus the ﬂux of

D through the lower

hemisphere H2. The ﬂux of

D through H1 and H2 will be computed as limits of Riemann sums.

Consider a small patch P1 in H1 and call its reﬂection about the xy-plane P2. The contribution of P1 to the ﬂux

of

D through S is

3z1p

a

5

r · d

A 1 =

3z1p

a

5

r · Area(P1)

r

r

=

3z1p

a

4

· Area(P1),

whereas the contribution from P2 is

3z2p

a

5

r · d

A 1 =

3z2p

a

4

Area(P2).

But Area(P1) = Area(P2) and z2 = −z1, so the contributions from P1 and P2 cancel each other. Dividing H1 and

H2 into symmetric patches as above, and taking the limit as the areas of the patches become smaller and smaller, one

gets

_

H

1

_

3zp

a

5

r

_

· d

A = −

_

H

2

_

3zp

a

5

r

_

· d

A .

i.e.

_

S

_

3zp

a

5

r

_

· d

A = 0.

Since we also know that

_

S

_

−

p

a

3

k

_

· d

A = 0,

we can conclude that

_

S

D · d

A = 0.

(b) By Gauss’s law,

_

S

E · d

A = 4π(q −q) = 0,

which is the same as the ﬂux of

D through S.

CAS Challenge Problems

53. (a) When x > 0, the vector x

**i points in the positive x-direction, and when x < 0 it points in the negative x-direction.
**

Thus it always points from the inside of the ellipsoid to the outside, so we expect the ﬂux integral to be positive. The

upper half of the ellipsoid is the graph of z = f(x, y) =

1

√

2

(1 −x

2

−y

2

), so the ﬂux integral is

_

S

F · d

A =

_

1/2

−1/2

_

1/2

−1/2

x

i · (−fx

i −fy

j +

k ) dxdy

=

_

1/2

−1/2

_

1/2

−1/2

(−xfx) dxdy =

_

1/2

−1/2

_

1/2

−1/2

x

2

_

1 −x

2

−y

2

dxdy

=

−

√

2 + 11 arcsin(

1

√

3

) + 10 arctan(

1

√

2

) −8 arctan(

5

√

2

)

12

= 0.0958.

Different CASs may give the answer in different forms. Note that we could have predicted the integral was positive

without evaluating it, since the integrand is positive everywhere in the region of integration.

1522 Chapter Nineteen /SOLUTIONS

(b) For x > −1, the quantity x + 1 is positive, so the vector ﬁeld (x + 1)

**i always points in the direction of the positive
**

x-axis. It is pointing into the ellipsoid when x < 0 and out of it when x > 0. However, its magnitude is smaller when

−1/2 < x < 0 than it is when 0 < x < 1/2, so the net ﬂux out of the ellipsoid should be positive. The ﬂux integral

is

_

S

F · d

A =

_

1/2

−1/2

_

1/2

−1/2

(x + 1)

i · (−fx

i −fy

j +

k ) dxdy

=

_

1/2

−1/2

_

1/2

−1/2

−(x + 1)fx dxdy =

_

1/2

−1/2

_

1/2

−1/2

x(1 + x)

_

1 −x

2

−y

2

dxdy

=

√

2 −11 arcsin(

1

√

3

) −10 arctan(

1

√

2

) + 8 arctan(

5

√

2

)

12

= 0.0958

The answer is the same as in part (a). This makes sense because the difference between the integrals in parts (a) and

(b) is the integral of

_

1/2

−1/2

_

1/2

−1/2

(x/

_

1 −x

2

−y

2

) dxdy, which is zero because the integrand is odd with respect

to x.

(c) This integral should be positive for the same reason as in part (a). The vector ﬁeld y

**j points in the positive y-direction
**

when y > 0 and in the negative y-direction when y < 0, thus it always points out of the ellipsoid. Evaluating the

integral we get

_

S

F · d

A =

_

1/2

−1/2

_

1/2

−1/2

y

j · (−fx

i −fy

j +

k ) dxdy

=

_

1/2

−1/2

_

1/2

−1/2

(−yfy) dxdy =

_

1/2

−1/2

_

1/2

−1/2

y

2

_

1 −x

2

−y

2

dxdy

=

√

2 −2 arcsin(

1

√

3

) −19 arctan(

1

√

2

) + 8 arctan(

5

√

2

)

12

= 0.0958.

The symbolic answer appears different but has the same numerical value as in parts (a) and (b). In fact the answer is

the same because the integral here is the same as in part (a) except that the roles of x and y have been exchanged.

Different CASs may give different symbolic forms.

54. (a) The surface has a shape of a ﬂower or trumpet opening in the direction of the positive y-axis. See Figure 19.19.

The outer rim is a circle of radius 4, so the surface lies above z = −4. Thus z + 4 > 0 on the surface, so the

vector ﬁeld (z + 4)

**k points in the positive z direction everywhere on the surface. Thus it crosses the surface in the
**

opposite direction as the orientation when it is below the xy-plane, and in the same direction when it is above the

xy-plane. Also, it has smaller magnitude when −2 ≤ z ≤ 2 than it does when 0 ≤ z ≤ 2, so we expect the negative

contribution to the ﬂux integral to be smaller than the positive contribution, so the ﬂux integral should be positive.

−x

y

z

Figure 19.19

(b) The area vector element is

∂r

∂s

×

∂r

∂t

= s

2

cos t

i −(2s

3

cos(t)

2

+ 2s

3

sin

2

t)

j + s

2

sin(t)

k .

CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING 1523

This points in the direction of the negative y-axis, as required for computing the ﬂux integral. The ﬂux integral is

_

S

F · d

A =

_

2π

0

_

2

0

F (r (s, t)) ·

_

∂r

∂s

×

∂r

∂t

_

dsdt

=

_

2π

0

_

2

0

(s

2

sin t + 2)s

2

sin t dsdt =

32π

5

CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING

1. True. By deﬁnition, the ﬂux integral is the limit of a sum of dot products, hence is a scalar.

2. False.

A is perpendicular to the ﬂat surface.

3. False. The ﬂux integral measures the net ﬂow through the surface. There could be as much ﬂow into the sphere as out,

which would give a ﬂux integral of zero. As an example, the constant ﬁeld

F =

**i has zero ﬂux integral over the entire
**

sphere, yet is not the zero vector ﬁeld.

4. True. The ﬂow of this ﬁeld is in the same direction as the orientation of the surface everywhere on the surface, so the ﬂux

is positive.

5. True. The ﬂow of this ﬁeld is in the same direction as the orientation of the surface everywhere on the surface, so the ﬂux

is positive.

6. True. Since the vector ﬁeld is constant, the negative ﬂux into the bottom of the cube is equal in magnitude to the positive

ﬂux out of the top, so these cancel in the sum deﬁning the ﬂux integral. The other four faces of the cube each have zero

ﬂux from the ﬁeld, since the ﬁeld is parallel to each of them.

7. True. Reversing the orientation on S replaces all of the area vectors ∆

A in the sum deﬁning the ﬂux integral with their

negatives, so that the ﬂux integral over −S is the negative of the ﬂux integral over S.

8. False. There is no reason to expect a relationship between the ﬂux integrals over S1 and S2 simply based on their relative

areas. The value of the ﬂux integral over a surface depends both on the shape of the surface and the behavior of the vector

ﬁeld at points on the surface. For example, let S1 be the square 0 ≤ x ≤ 1, 0 ≤ y ≤ 1, z = 0, oriented upward, and let

S2 be the rectangle 0 ≤ y ≤ 1, 0 ≤ z ≤ 2, x = 0 with positive orientation in the

**i direction. The area of S1 = 1 and the
**

area of S2 = 2. Then if

F =

i we have

_

S

1

F · d

A = 0 (since

F is parallel to S1) and

_

S

2

F · d

A = 2. These values

do not satisfy 2

_

S

1

F · d

A =

_

S

2

F · d

A .

9. True. In the sum deﬁning the ﬂux integral for

F , we have terms like

F · ∆

A = (2

G ) · ∆

A = 2(

G · ∆

A ). So each

term in the sum approximating the ﬂux of

F is twice the corresponding term in the sum approximating the ﬂux of

G ,

making the sum for

F twice that of the sum for

G . Thus the ﬂux of

F is twice the ﬂux of

G .

10. False. The ﬂux integral measures the net ﬂow through the surface S. The vector ﬁeld

G could be large in magnitude on

S (larger than ||

**F ||), but be parallel to the surface S, and so contribute nothing to the ﬂux. Put another way, a “small”
**

vector ﬁeld, ﬂowing directly across S, can have greater ﬂux than a much “larger” ﬁeld ﬂowing parallel to S.

For example, take S to be the square 0 ≤ x ≤ 1, 0 ≤ y ≤ 1, z = 0, oriented upward. Then if

F =

k and

G = 5

i ,

the ﬂux integrals have values

_

S

F ·d

A = 1 and

_

S

G ·d

A = 0 (since

G is parallel to S). Thus

_

S

F ·d

A >

_

S

G ·d

A ,

but ||

F || = 1 < 5 = ||

G||.

11. False. The fact that r ·

F = 0 does not necessarily imply that

F · d

A = 0.

12. True. The area vector for the graph of f(x, y), parametrized in the usual way, is given by

A = fx

i + fy

j +

k . The

surface area is then the double integral of the magnitude of

A , namely

_

f

2

x

+ f

2

y

+ 1 over the given rectangle.

13. False. Both surfaces are oriented upward, so

A (x, y) and

B (x, y) both point upward. But they could point in different

directions, since the graph of z = −f(x, y) is the graph of z = f(x, y) turned upside down.

14. False. The total ﬂux can be 0 without the vector ﬁeld always being perpendicular to the surface. For example, if F(x, y, z) =

k , then the ﬂux is zero over the sphere, but F is not perpendicular to the sphere except at the north and south poles.

15. True. The vector 2

i −4

j + 6

**k is the gradient vector for f(x, y, z) = x
**

2

−y

2

+ z

2

at (1, 2, 3) so it is perpendicular to

the surface. Thus it is parallel to the area vector.

16. False. It is true that both d

A and 3

i +4

j +5

**k are perpendicular to the plane at every point, so they are multiples of each
**

other. However, the ratio between them might not be a constant. For example, x = s

3

, y = t

3

, z = (1/5)(7 −3s

3

−4t

3

)

1524 Chapter Nineteen /SOLUTIONS

is a parameterization of the plane, but

d

A = (3s

2

i −(9/5)s

2

k ) ×(3t

2

j −(12/5)t

2

k )dsdt

= ((27/5)s

2

t

2

i + (36/5)s

2

t

2

j + 9s

2

t

2

k )dsdt

= (9/5)s

2

t

2

(3

i + 4

j + 5

k )dsdt.

PROJECTS FOR CHAPTER NINETEEN

1. (a) (i) Since the direction of the electric ﬁeld is perpendicular to the surface of any cylinder with the wire

as an axis, it is parallel to the surfaces of the two washers. Consequently, there is no ﬂux through the

washers.

(ii) Gauss’ Law tells us that the total ﬂux through the surface must be zero, since no charge is contained

within it. (Note that the region within the surface S lies between the cylinders.) Since the ﬂux through

the washers is zero, the ﬂux into the inner surface must equal the ﬂux out of the outer surface in order

for the net ﬂux through the surface to be zero.

(iii) Since the surface area of a cylinder is given by A = 2πRL where R is the radius of the cylinder and

L is its length, and we know that E

a

A

a

= E

b

A

b

(since the ﬂuxes are equal), we have

E

b

(2πbL) = E

a

(2πaL)

E

b

E

a

=

2πaL

2πbL

E

b

E

a

=

a

b

.

(iv) The equations in part (iii) imply that

aE

a

= bE

b

.

Since a, b are arbitrary radii we can say:

rE

r

= Constant

E

r

= Constant

_

1

r

_

,

for any radius r. This statement tells us that the strength of the electric ﬁeld at r is proportional to

1/r.

(b) Since the electric ﬁeld points perpendicular to the sheet, it is parallel to all sides of the box, except for

the two sides parallel to the sheet. Additionally, since there is no charge contained in the box, Gauss Law

tells us the net ﬂux through the surface of the box must be zero. This implies that the ﬂux into the near

face must equal the ﬂux out of the far face. Since the faces have the same area, the ﬁeld must have equal

strengths at the two faces in order for their ﬂuxes to be equal. Since we did not use the values of a or b, we

see that for all points in space on the same side of the sheet, the ﬁeld has the same magnitude.

2. (a) (i) In cylindrical coordinates, the position vector of a point (R, θ, z) on the cylinder is given by

r = Rcos θ

i + Rsin θ

j + z

k .

So r =

√

R

2

+ z

2

. For an area element on the cylinder we have

d

A = (cos θ

i + sinθ

j )Rdz dθ,

so the ﬂux integral is:

_

S

E · d

A =

_

2π

0

_

H

−H

q

r

r

3

· (cos θ

i + sinθ

j )Rdz dθ

= q

_

2π

0

_

H

−H

Rcos

2

θ + Rsin

2

θ

(R

2

+ z

2

)

3/2

Rdz dθ = 2πq

_

H

−H

R

2

dz

(R

2

+ z

2

)

3/2

.

PROJECTS FOR CHAPTER NINETEEN 1525

To compute this one variable integral, we write:

_

H

−H

R

2

dz

(R

2

+ z

2

)

3/2

=

_

H

−H

(R

2

+ z

2

)dz

(R

2

+ z

2

)

3/2

−

_

H

−H

z

2

dz

(R

2

+ z

2

)

3/2

We calculate the integral

_

H

−H

z

2

dz

(R

2

+ z

2

)

3/2

=

_

H

−H

z

zdz

(R

2

+ z

2

)

3/2

using integration by parts:

_

H

−H

z

2

dz

(R

2

+ z

2

)

3/2

=

_

H

−H

dz

(R

2

+ z

2

)

1/2

−

_

_

H

−H

dz

(R

2

+ z

2

)

1/2

−

z

(R

2

+ z

2

)

1/2

¸

¸

¸

¸

H

−H

_

=

2H

√

R

2

+ H

2

.

Note that the integral

_

H

−H

dz

(R

2

+ z

2

)

1/2

has canceled. Therefore we have

_

S

E · d

A = 4πq

H

√

R

2

+ H

2

.

(ii) • Let R be ﬁxed. We have

lim

H→0

_

S

E · d

A = lim

H→0

4πq

H

√

H

2

+ R

2

= 0.

lim

H→∞

_

S

E · d

A = lim

H→∞

4πq

H

√

H

2

+ R

2

= 4πq.

• Now let H be ﬁxed. We have

lim

R→0

_

S

E · d

A = lim

R→0

4πq

H

√

H

2

+ R

2

= 4πq.

lim

R→∞

_

S

E · d

A = lim

R→∞

4πq

H

√

H

2

+ R

2

= 0.

Each of these results is as we would expect from Gauss’ Law.

(b) Let S denote the side of the cylinder. We have

_

T

E · d

A =

_

S

E · d

A +

_

Top

E · d

A +

_

Bottom

E · d

A.

The result of part (a) shows that

_

S

E · d

A = 4πq

H

√

R

2

+ H

2

.

Let’s compute

_

Top

E · d

**A. The normal at any point on the top is n =
**

k and so d

A =

k r drdθ. On the

top, z = H so

r = r cos θ

i + r sinθ

j + H

k .

Therefore r =

√

r

2

+ H

2

and we have

_

Top

E · d

A =

_

2π

0

_

R

0

q

r

r

3

·

k r dr dθ

= q

_

2π

0

_

R

0

(r cos θ

i + r sin θ

j + H

k ) ·

k

(r

2

+ H

2

)

3/2

r dr dθ

= qH

_

2π

0

_

R

0

r dr dθ

(r

2

+ H

2

)

3/2

= −2πqH

1

√

r

2

+ H

2

¸

¸

¸

¸

R

0

= −2πq

H

√

R

2

+ H

2

+ 2πq.

1526 Chapter Nineteen /SOLUTIONS

Similarly, or using a symmetry argument, we ﬁnd that the ﬂux through the bottom is given by

_

Bottom

E · d

A = −2πq

H

√

R

2

+ H

2

+ 2πq.

Thus, the total ﬂux is given by

_

S

E · d

A = 4πq

H

√

R

2

+ H

2

− 2πq

H

√

R

2

+ H

2

+ 2πq − 2πq

H

√

R

2

+ H

2

+ 2πq

= 4πq.